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Sample records for yield yield components

  1. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  2. Weed competition and dry bean yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

  3. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding. PMID:25911836

  4. Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry

    SciTech Connect

    May, G.M.; Pritts, M.P. . Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-01-01

    The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield responded linearly to B and quadratically to P. At pH 6.5, P interacted with B and Zn. Fruit count per inflorescence was the yield component most strongly associated with yield, followed by individual fruit weight. However, these two yield components responded differently to soil-applied nutrients. Foliar nutrient levels generally did not increase with the amount of applied nutrient, but often an applied nutrient had a strong effect on the level of another nutrient. Leaf nutrient levels were often correlated with fruit levels, but foliar and fruit levels at harvest were not related to reproductive performance. The study identifies some of the problems inherent in using foliar nutrient levels to predict a yield response and demonstrates how plant responses to single nutrients depend on soil chemistry and the presence of other nutrients.

  5. Soybean Aphid Feeding Injury and Soybean Yield, Yield Components, and Seed Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information that describes soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) feeding damage effects on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield and seed composition is needed to develop management practices for this invasive pest. This 2-yr controlled-infestation field study measured aphid populations and th...

  6. Effects of irrigation and plant density on cotton within-boll yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield is integrated through whole-plant and within-boll yield components. Crop management practices such as irrigation and plant density may impact yield. Thus, yield dynamics due to irrigation and plant density may result from changes in the most basic yield comp...

  7. Association mapping of yield and its components in rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To make advances in rice breeding, it is important to understand the relatedness and ancestry of introduced rice accessions, and identify SSR markers associated with agronomically important phenotypic traits like yield. Ninety-two rice germplasm accessions recently introduced from seven geographic ...

  8. Increasing Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize yield improvement in the 20th century represents one of the great success stories of plant breeding and agronomy. Maize grain yield in the United States has increased on average by 0.122 metric tons per hectare per year since 1945 (Figure 1). This is in sharp contrast to essentially zero gain ...

  9. Genetic association of lint yield with its components in cotton chromosome substitution lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissection of the genetic relationship between lint yield and its yield components at the chromosome level may provide an additional avenue for yield enhancement in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Based on the conditional additive-dominance (AD) genetic model, we investigated the genetic structures ...

  10. Cotton Response to 1-Methylcyclopropene Under Different Light Regimes and Growth Stages: Lint Yield and Yield Components 

    E-print Network

    Carden, Charles Warren

    2010-10-12

    Low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) during certain growth periods of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been shown to impact yield, ethylene synthesis, and fiber quality. Previous research with shading has shown ...

  11. Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (...

  12. Yield Components and Nutritive Value of Black Locust and Mimosa in Arkansas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (b...

  13. Path and Ridge Regression Analysis of Seed Yield and Seed Yield Components of Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2 were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components. PMID:21533153

  14. Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes 

    E-print Network

    Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

    1993-01-01

    High yielding cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivars with improved fiber bundle strength are needed for today's spinning technology. This study was initiated to determine the effects of selection for improved fiber quality on within-boll yield...

  15. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-30

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  16. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  17. Genome-Wide Association of Rice Blast Disease Resistance and Yield-Related Components of Rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueyan; Jia, Melissa H; Ghai, Pooja; Lee, Fleet N; Jia, Yulin

    2015-12-01

    Robust disease resistance may require an expenditure of energy that may limit crop yield potential. In the present study, a subset of a United States Department of Agriculture rice core collection consisting of 151 accessions was selected using a major blast resistance (R) gene, Pi-ta, marker and was genotyped with 156 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Disease reactions to Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease, were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions, and heading date, plant height, paddy and brown seed weight in two field environments were analyzed, using an association mapping approach. A total of 21 SSR markers distributed among rice chromosomes 2 to 12 were associated with blast resistance, and 16 SSR markers were associated with seed weight, heading date, and plant height. Most noticeably, shorter plants were significantly correlated with resistance to blast, rice genomes with Pi-ta were associated with lighter seed weights, and the susceptible alleles of RM171 and RM6544 were associated with heavier seed weight. These findings unraveled a complex relationship between disease resistance and yield-related components. PMID:26284908

  18. Ideotype Population Exploration: Growth, Photosynthesis, and Yield Components at Different Planting Densities in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×104, 37.5×104, 48.0×104, 58.5×104, 69.0×104 plants ha–1) during 2010–2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011–2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×104 plants ha–1 in ZS11 and 48.0×104 plants ha–1 in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×104 plants ha–1for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×104 (n m–2) and ?1×104 (n m-2), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m–2) and ?300 (n m–2), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  19. Mendelizing all Components of a Pyramid of Three Yield QTL in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Amit; Zamir, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers allowed breeders to mendelize quantitative trait loci (QTL) providing another demonstration that quantitative traits are governed by the same principles as single qualitative genes. This research extends the QTL analysis to two and three QTL and tests our ability to mendelize an oligogenic trait. In tomato, agricultural yield is determined by the weight of the fruits harvested per unit area and the total soluble solids (% Brix)–sugars and acids. The current study explores the segregation of multiple independent yield-related QTL that were identified and mapped using introgression lines (IL) of Solanum pennellii in cultivated processing tomato (S. lycopersicum). We screened 45 different double and triple IL-QTL combinations for agricultural yield, to identify QTL pyramids that behaved in an additive manner and were suitable substrate for mendelizing an oligogenic trait. A pyramid of three independent QTL that significantly improved Brix?Yield (BXY - the soluble solids output per unit area) compared to M82 was selected. In the progenies of the tri-hybrid we bred using markers a nearly isogenic ‘immortalized F2.’ While the common mode of QTL–QTL interactions across the 45 IL-QTLs combinations was less than additive, the three QTLs in the selected triple-stack performed in an additive manner which made it an exceptional material for breeding. This study demonstrates that using the phenotypic effect of all 27 possible QTL-alleles combinations it is possible to make reliable predictions about the genotypes that will maximize the yield. PMID:26697048

  20. Variation of Yield and Associated Components in the USDA Rice Mini-Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a staple food crop that feeds over half of the world’s population. Genetic improvement for grain yield is critical for global food security. The USDA rice mini-core collection of 217 entries has proven to well represent the diversity found in the whole NSGC collection of about 20,000 accessi...

  1. Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

  2. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  3. Soybean Yield and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed yield is both the most important soybean breeding objective and the most challenging. The increase in the number of breeders and the increasing application of technology has done little to increase the rate of yield improvement over the past 20 years, but current rapid changes in technology and...

  4. Relative ion yields in mammalian cell components using C60 SIMS.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Selda; Piwowar, Alan; Hue, Jonathan; Shen, Kan; Winograd, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to better understand the influence of molecular environment on the relative ion yields of membrane lipid molecules found in high abundance in a model mammalian cell line, RAW264.7. Control lipid mixtures were prepared to simulate lipid-lipid interactions in the inner and outer leaflet of cell membranes. Compared with its pure film, the molecular ion yields of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine are suppressed when mixed with 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. In the mixture, proton competition between 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine led to lower ionization efficiency. The possible mechanism for ion suppression was also investigated with (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The formation of a hydroxyl bond in lipid mixtures confirms the mechanism involving proton exchange with the surrounding environment. Similar effects were observed for lipid mixtures mimicking the composition of the inner leaflet of cell membranes. The secondary molecular ion yield of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine was observed to be enhanced in the presence of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine. PMID:25140069

  5. Effect of GA-sensitivity on wheat early vigor and yield components under deep sowing

    PubMed Central

    Amram, Avishay; Fadida-Myers, Aviya; Golan, Guy; Nashef, Kamal; Ben-David, Roi; Peleg, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of seedlings is a key factor in achievement of uniform field stands and, consequently, stable yields. Under Mediterranean conditions, soil moisture in the upper layer is limited and seedlings may be exposed to frequent dehydration events. The presence of the Reduced height (Rht)-B1b and Rht-D1b semi-dominant dwarfing alleles results in insensitivity to gibberellin (GAI) and, hence, poor emergence from deep sowing. Introduction of alternative dwarfing genes and, thereby, preservation of the gibberellin response (GAR) and coleoptile length, contributes to better emergence from deep sowing. Initially 47 wheat cultivars carrying different Rht alleles were screened for their ability to emerge from deep sowing, and then 17 of them were selected for detailed physiological characterization in the field. The modern wheat lines containing GAI alleles showed significantly lower percentages of emergence from deep sowing than the GAR lines, i.e., 52 and 74%, respectively. Differences in early developmental stages were associated with grain yield, as indicated by a reduction of 37.3% in the modern GAI cultivars. Our results demonstrate the potential of alternative dwarfing genes for improving seedling establishment and grain yields in Mediterranean-like environments. PMID:26217347

  6. Genetic associations of cotton yield with its component traits in derived primitive accessions crossed by elite Upland cultivars using the conditional ADAA genetic model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll number, lint percentage, and boll weight are three component traits for lint yield of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Selecting high yielding lines or hybrids depends on the ability to dissect the genetic relationship of lint yield with these component traits. In this study, 14 day-neutral...

  7. Use of fiber and fuzz mutants to detect QTL for yield components, seed, and fiber traits of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the world’s leading fiber crop and an important source of protein and oil. The purpose of this research was to detect QTL or molecular markers associated with yield components, fiber, and seed traits within multiple fuzzless loci genetic backgrounds. Two F2 populations dev...

  8. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ?1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m(-2)) and ?300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  9. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent. PMID:25902980

  10. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  11. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  12. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  13. A complete genetic linkage map and QTL analyses for bast fibre quality traits, yield and yield components in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).

    PubMed

    Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K

    2013-01-01

    We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute. PMID:23821949

  14. Yield gaps and yield relationships in US soybean production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of yield gaps (YG) (potential yield – farmer yield) provides some indication of the prospects for increasing crop yield to meet the food demands of future populations. Quantile regression analysis was applied to county soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yields (1971 – 2011) from Kentuc...

  15. Influence on Grain Yields and Yield Components of Leaf Rust of Wheat and Crown Rust of Oats as Measured by Isogenic Resistant and Susceptible Lines. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Alcala de Stephano, Maximino; Merkle, O. G.; Kilpatrick, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    seasons by rust epidemics. During the 1962 season, when an estimated 24 percent of the wheat crop in the High Plains area of Texas was winterkilled, it is believed that the heavy infec- tion of leaf rust on this crop greatly influenced survival... in yield and test weight caused by crown rust infection and proved that rust infection could make plants more susceptible to freeze injury. Recently, Fleischmann and McKenzie (7) reported that 30 percent natural infec- tion of oats at flowering caused a...

  16. Impact of brown stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on corn grain yield components and quality.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Da, Kedong; Buntin, G David; Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn; Olson, Dawn M; Powell, Robert; Lee, R Dewey; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Scully, Brian T

    2010-12-01

    Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), damage on developing corn, Zea mays L., ears was examined in 2005 and 2006 by using eight parameters related to its yield and kernel quality. Stink bug infestations were initiated when the corn plants were at tasseling (VT), mid-silking (R1), and blister (R2) stages by using zero, three, and six in 2005 or zero, one, two, and four bugs per ear in 2006, and maintained for 9 d. The percentage of discolored kernels was affected by stink bug number in both years, but not always affected by plant growth stage. The growth stage effect on the percentage of discolored kernels was significant in 2006, but not in 2005. The percentage of aborted kernels was affected by both stink bug number and plant growth stage in 2005 but not in 2006. Kernel weight was significantly reduced when three E. sercus adults were confined on a corn ear at stage VT or R1 for 9 d in 2005, whereas one or two adults per ear resulted in no kernel weight loss, but four E. servus adults did cause significant kernel weight loss at stage VT in 2006. Stink bug feeding injury at stage R2 did not affect kernel damage, ear weight or grain weight in either year. The infestation duration (9 or 18 d) was positively correlated to the percentage of discolored kernels but did not affect kernel or ear weight. Based on the regression equations between the kernel weight and stink bug number, the gain threshold or economic injury level should be 0.5 bugs per ear for 9 d at stage VT and less for stage R1. This information will be useful in developing management guidelines for stink bugs in field corn during ear formation and early grain filling stages. PMID:21309227

  17. Explicit Analysis of Transversely Anisotropic and Axisymmetric Sheet Metal Forming Process Using 6-component Barlat Yield Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Yan; Sun, Ji-Xian; Chen, Jun

    2005-08-01

    In most FEM codes, the isotropic-elastic & transversely anisotropic-elastoplastic model using Hill's yield function has been widely adopted in 3D shell elements (modified to meet the plane-stress condition) and 3D solid elements. However, when the 4-node quadrilateral axisymmetric element is used for 2D sheet metal forming simulation, the above transversely anisotropic model is not available in FEM code LS-DYNA3D. A novel approach for the explicit analysis of transversely anisotropic and axisymmetric sheet metal forming using 6-component Barlat yield function is elaborated in detail in this paper. The related formula and parameters are derived directly. Numerical results obtained using the new model fit well with the Hill solution.

  18. Explicit Analysis of Transversely Anisotropic and Axisymmetric Sheet Metal Forming Process Using 6-component Barlat Yield Function

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jinyan; Sun Jixian; Chen Jun

    2005-08-05

    In most FEM codes, the isotropic-elastic and transversely anisotropic-elastoplastic model using Hill's yield function has been widely adopted in 3D shell elements (modified to meet the plane-stress condition) and 3D solid elements. However, when the 4-node quadrilateral axisymmetric element is used for 2D sheet metal forming simulation, the above transversely anisotropic model is not available in FEM code LS-DYNA3D. A novel approach for the explicit analysis of transversely anisotropic and axisymmetric sheet metal forming using 6-component Barlat yield function is elaborated in detail in this paper. The related formula and parameters are derived directly. Numerical results obtained using the new model fit well with the Hill solution.

  19. Salt sensitivity in chickpea: Growth, photosynthesis, seed yield components and tissue ion regulation in contrasting genotypes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hammad Aziz; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Munir, Rushna; Colmer, Timothy David

    2015-06-15

    Chickpea is a relatively salt sensitive species but shows genotypic variation for salt tolerance, measured as grain yield per plant in mild-to-moderately saline soil. This experiment was designed to evaluate some physiological responses to salinity in three contrasting genotypes. One tolerant (Genesis836), one moderately tolerant (JG11) and one sensitive (Rupali) genotype were grown for 108d in non-saline nutrient solution (controls) and two levels of salinity treatment (30 and 60mM NaCl). No plants survived to maturity in the 60mM NaCl treatment; however, Genesis836 survived longer (87d) than JG11 (67d) while Rupali died after 27d; only Genesis836 flowered, but no pods were filled. At 30mM NaCl, Genesis836 produced a few filled pods, whereas JG11 and Rupali did not. Genotypic differences in plant dry mass at the vegetative stage were evident only at 60mM NaCl, while at maturity differences were evident at 30mM NaCl. Photosynthesis was maintained to different degrees by the three genotypes (e.g. at 30mM NaCl, 35-81% of controls; highest in Genesis836); photosynthesis was restricted predominately due to non-stomatal limitations as the intercellular CO2 concentration was only modestly affected (94-99% of controls). Photosystem II damage was evident in the less tolerant genotypes (e.g. at 30mM NaCl, actual quantum efficiency of photosystem II values were 63-96% of controls). Across treatments, shoot dry mass was negatively correlated with both Na(+) and Cl(-) shoot concentrations. However, the sensitive genotype (Rupali) had equal or lower concentrations of these ions in green leaves, stems or roots compared to tolerant genotypes (JG11 and Genesis836); ion 'exclusion' does not explain variation for salt tolerance among these three chickpea genotypes. The large difference between Rupali (sensitive) and Genesis836 (tolerant) in the salt-induced reduction in net photosynthesis via non-stomatal limitations and the assessed damage to photosystem II, but with similar leaf ion concentrations, provides evidence that variation in 'tissue tolerance' of Na(+) and/or Cl(-) in leaves contributes to the differential salt tolerance of these chickpea genotypes. PMID:26037693

  20. Atmospheric Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric fluorescence from these showers. Accurate knowledge of the conversion from atmospheric fluorescence to energy loss by ionizing particles in the atmosphere is key to this technique. In this paper we discuss a small balloon-borne instrument to make the first in situ measurements versus altitude of the atmospheric fluorescence yield. The instrument can also be used in the lab to investigate the dependence of the fluorescence yield in air on temperature, pressure and the concentrations of other gases that present in the atmosphere. The results can be used to explore environmental effects on and improve the accuracy of cosmic ray energy measurements for existing ground-based experiments and future space-based experiments.

  1. Effect of source/sink ratios on yield components, growth dynamics and structural characteristics of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bunches.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Benoît; Mialet-Serra, Isabelle; Rouan, Lauriane; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Source/sink ratios are known to be one of the main determinants of oil palm growth and development. A long-term experiment (9 years) was conducted in Indonesia on mature oil palms subjected to continuous bunch ablation and partial defoliation treatments to artificially modify source/sink ratios. During the experiment, all harvested bunches were dissected and phenological measurements were carried out to analyse the effect of source/sink ratios on yield components explaining variations in bunch number, the number of fruits per bunch and oil dry weight per fruit. An integrative variable (supply/demand ratio) describing the ratio between the assimilate supply from sources and the growing organ demand for carbohydrate was computed for each plant on a daily basis from observations of the number of developing organs and their sink strength, and of climate variables. Defoliation and bunch ablation affected the bunch number and the fruit number per bunch. Variations in bunch number per month were mainly due to variations in the fraction of aborted inflorescence and in the ratio between female and male inflorescences. Under fluctuating trophic conditions, variations in fruit number per bunch resulted both from changes in fruit-set and in the number of branches (rachillae) per inflorescence. For defoliated plants, the decrease in the number of developing reproductive sinks appeared to be sufficient to maintain fruit weight and oil concentration at the control level, without any major decrease in the concentration of non-structural carbohydrate reserves. Computation of the supply/demand ratio revealed that each yield component had a specific phase of sensitivity to supply/demand ratios during inflorescence development. Establishing quantitative relationships between supply/demand ratios, competition and yield components is the first step towards a functional model for oil palm. PMID:23532136

  2. Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers need alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. Our objectives were to determine: 1) leaf and stem biomass components, 2) nutritive value (in vitro dry matter digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N and N digestibility) of leaves ...

  3. Enhanced expression of OsSPL14 gene and its association with yield components in rice (Oryza sativa) under low nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, B; Subhakara Rao, I; Surekha, K; Subrahmanyam, D; Voleti, S R; Neeraja, C N

    2016-01-15

    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in rice crop is the need of the hour for reduction of nitrous oxide emission resulting from excess nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and also in reduction of cost of cultivation. Ten rice genotypes were grown under low and recommended dose of N application and characterized in terms of parameters related to yield, yield related components and NUE indicators. Wide genetic variability under low N conditions was observed with significant variation for 15 yield related parameters in interactions of genotypes and treatment. Limitation of N has led to the decrease of all yield and yield related parameters, but for grain filling % and 1000 grain weight. Two genotypes, Rasi and Varadhan have shown minimum differences between low and recommended N conditions. Correlation analysis of various yield components showed the importance of the secondary branches for the total grains under low N. Expression analysis of OsSPL14 (LOC_Os08g39890) gene reported to be associated with increased panicle branching and higher grain yield through real time PCR in leaf and three stages of panicle has shown differential temporal expression and its association with yield and yield related components across the genotypes. The expression of OsSPL14 at panicle stage 3, has shown correlation (P<0.05) with N% in grain. Since OsSPL14 is a functional transcription activator, its association of expression in leaf and three panicle stages with yield components as observed in the present study suggests the role of nitrogen metabolism related genes in plant growth and development and its conversion into yield components in rice. PMID:26519999

  4. Modeling of Milling Yield Components and Their Relationship to Grain Quality QTLs in Long Grain japonica Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milling yield, also called "head rice recovery", is defined as the percentage of head rice obtained from rough rice. Milling yield is a critically important trait to the commercialization of rice cultivars because it largely determines the economic value of the farmer's crop. To investigate the inh...

  5. Unattended exposure to components of speech sounds yields same benefits as explicit auditory training.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Aaron R; Protopapas, Athanassios; Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Vlahou, Eleni L; Gori, Simone; Grossberg, Stephen; Watanabe, Takeo

    2010-06-01

    Learning a second language as an adult is particularly effortful when new phonetic representations must be formed. Therefore the processes that allow learning of speech sounds are of great theoretical and practical interest. Here we examined whether perception of single formant transitions, that is, sound components critical in speech perception, can be enhanced through an implicit task-irrelevant learning procedure that has been shown to produce visual perceptual learning. The single-formant sounds were paired at subthreshold levels with the attended targets in an auditory identification task. Results showed that task-irrelevant learning occurred for the unattended stimuli. Surprisingly, the magnitude of this learning effect was similar to that following explicit training on auditory formant transition detection using discriminable stimuli in an adaptive procedure, whereas explicit training on the subthreshold stimuli produced no learning. These results suggest that in adults learning of speech parts can occur at least partially through implicit mechanisms. PMID:20346448

  6. Drilling ban yields verdict

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews a lawsuit which is under appeal by the State of Michigan regarding a takings claim filed over a petroleum exploration site. The dispute arose as a result of a 1987 decision by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources forbidding the property owners from developing the mineral rights leased to Miller Brothers in the Huron/Manistee National Forest. This area is bisected by a trend of Silurian Niagaran reef complexes which has a known production history throughout the State. The dunes area of the national forest has been deemed a wilderness area. As a result of the State's decision, the courts have awarded a sum of 71 million dollars to the developer to cover damages and lost resources. The reserve estimates were taken from adjacent areas which showed that the Niagaran reefs are relatively consistent in their yield.

  7. Random regression test day models to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield and milk components in Philippine dairy buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Flores, E B; van der Werf, J

    2015-08-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations for milk production traits were estimated from first-parity test day records on 1022 Philippine dairy buffalo cows. Traits analysed included milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields, and fat (Fat%) and protein (Prot%) concentrations. Varying orders of Legendre polynomials (Leg(m)) as well as the Wilmink function (Wil) were used in random regression models. These various models were compared based on log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and genetic variance estimates. Six residual variance classes were sufficient for MY, FY, PY and Fat%, while seven residual classes for Prot%. Multivariate analysis gave higher estimates of genetic variance and heritability compared with univariate analysis for all traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.31 and 0.21 to 0.36 for MY, FY and PY, respectively. Wilmink's function was the better fitting function for additive genetic effects for all traits. It was also the preferred function for permanent environment effects for Fat% and Prot%, but for MY, FY and PY, the Legm was the appropriate function. Genetic correlations of MY with FY and PY were high and they were moderately negative with Fat% and Prot%. To prevent deterioration in Fat% and Prot% and improve milk quality, more weight should be applied to milk component traits. PMID:25727642

  8. CROP WATER USE AND YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the various factors that affect dryland crop yields, including water availability, rooting patterns, length of growing season, time of year, and crop type (C3 vs C4, cereals, legumes, oilseeds). Crop yield/water production functions have slopes that range from 582 lb/a/inch for ...

  9. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  10. Origin of apparent viscosity in yield stress fluids below yielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, P. C. F.; Fall, A.; Bonn, D.

    2009-08-01

    For more than 20 years it has been debated if yield stress fluids are solid below the yield stress or actually flow; whether true yield stress fluids exist or not. Advocates of the true yield stress picture have demonstrated that the effective viscosity increases very rapidly as the stress is decreased towards the yield stress. Opponents have shown that this viscosity increase levels off, and that the material behaves as a Newtonian fluid of very high viscosity below the yield stress. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally (on four different materials, using three different rheometers, five different geometries, and two different measurement methods) that the low-stress Newtonian viscosity is an artifact that arises in non-steady-state experiments. For measurements as long as 104 seconds we find that the value of the "Newtonian viscosity" increases indefinitely. This proves that the yield stress exists and marks a sharp transition between flowing states and states where the steady-state viscosity is infinite —a solid!

  11. The impact of supplemental L-threonine in laying hen diets on egg component yield, composition, and functionality 

    E-print Network

    Niemeyer, Paige Reynolds

    2005-11-01

    of the jaw like the GFT (Bourne 1978), extensive research across many food types has yielded similar results to sensory evaluation. Common texture parameters include hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness (Bourne 1978). Chart force...-distance curves for each cake core were measured for hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness as defined by Bourne (1978). Hardness correlates to the ?first bite? or force that is required to deform a food particle (Bourne 1978...

  12. The sense in which a weak measurement'' of a spin- (1/2 particle's spin component yields a value 100

    SciTech Connect

    Duck, I.M.; Stevenson, P.M. ); Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1989-09-15

    We give a critical discussion of a recent Letter of Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman. Although their work contains several flaws, their main point is valid: namely, that there is a sense in which a certain weak measurement'' procedure yields values outside the eigenvalue spectrum. Our analysis requires no approximations and helps to clarify the physics behind the effect. We describe an optical analog of the experiment and discuss the conditions necessary to realize the effect experimentally.

  13. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  14. Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends

    E-print Network

    Huybers, Peter

    Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends Marena Lin and Peter Huybers Department decomposition of wheat yields 5 4.1 U.S. county-level wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2 French departmental wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5

  15. Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L.) RIL population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). Genomic regions were identifi...

  16. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  17. Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping of QTL for Yield Components, Plant Height and Yield-Related Physiological Traits in the Chinese Wheat Cross Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fengmei; Wen, Weie; Liu, Jindong; Rasheed, Awais; Yin, Guihong; Xia, Xianchun; Wu, Xiaoxia; He, Zhonghu

    2015-01-01

    Identification of genes for yield components, plant height (PH), and yield-related physiological traits and tightly linked molecular markers is of great importance in marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding. In the present study, 246 F8 RILs derived from the cross of Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring were genotyped using the high-density Illumina iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. Field trials were conducted at Zhengzhou and Zhoukou of Henan Province, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping season under irrigated conditions, providing data for four environments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of agronomic and physiological traits revealed significant differences (P < 0.01) among RILs, environments, and RILs × environments interactions. Broad-sense heritabilities of all traits including thousand kernel weight (TKW), PH, spike length (SL), kernel number per spike (KNS), spike number/m2 (SN), normalized difference in vegetation index at anthesis (NDVI-A) and at 10 days post-anthesis (NDVI-10), SPAD value of chlorophyll content at anthesis (Chl-A) and at 10 days post-anthesis (Chl-10) ranged between 0.65 and 0.94. A linkage map spanning 3609.4 cM was constructed using 5636 polymorphic SNP markers, with an average chromosome length of 171.9 cM and marker density of 0.64 cM/marker. A total of 866 SNP markers were newly mapped to the hexaploid wheat linkage map. Eighty-six QTL for yield components, PH, and yield-related physiological traits were detected on 18 chromosomes except 1D, 5D, and 6D, explaining 2.3–33.2% of the phenotypic variance. Ten stable QTL were identified across four environments, viz. QTKW.caas-6A.1, QTKW.caas-7AL, QKNS.caas-4AL, QSN.caas-1AL.1, QPH.caas-4BS.2, QPH.caas-4DS.1, QSL.caas-4AS, QSL.caas-4AL.1, QChl-A.caas-5AL, and QChl-10.caas-5BL. Meanwhile, 10 QTL-rich regions were found on chromosome 1BS, 2AL (2), 3AL, 4AL (2), 4BS, 4DS, 5BL, and 7AL exhibiting pleiotropic effects. These QTL or QTL clusters are tightly linked to SNP markers, with genetic distances to the closest SNPs ranging from 0 to 1.5 cM, and could serve as target regions for fine mapping, candidate gene discovery, and MAS in wheat breeding.

  18. Corn yield prediction using climatology

    SciTech Connect

    Duchon, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of ear growth and the beginning of grain fill. The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  19. The Air-Fluorescence Yield

    E-print Network

    F. Arqueros; F. Blanco; D. Garcia-Pinto; M. Ortiz; J. Rosado

    2008-07-30

    Detection of the air-fluorescence radiation induced by the charged particles of extensive air showers is a well-established technique for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Fluorescence telescopes provide a nearly calorimetric measure of the primary energy. Presently the main source of systematic uncertainties comes from our limited accuracy in the fluorescence yield, that is, the number of fluorescence photons emitted per unit of energy deposited in the atmosphere by the shower particles. In this paper the current status of our knowledge on the fluorescence yield both experimental an theoretical will be discussed.

  20. Salt sensitivity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum?L.): ions in reproductive tissues and yield components in contrasting genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kotula, Lukasz; Khan, Hammad A; Quealy, John; Turner, Neil C; Vadez, Vincent; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Clode, Peta L; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    The reproductive phase in chickpea (Cicer arietinum?L.) is affected by salinity, but little is known about the underlying cause. We investigated whether high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the reproductive structures influence reproductive processes. Chickpea genotypes contrasting in tolerance were subjected to 0, 35 or 50?mm NaCl applied to soil in pots. Flower production and abortion, pod number, percentage of empty pods, seed number and size were evaluated. The concentrations of Na(+) , K(+) and Cl(-) were measured in various plant tissues and, using X-ray microanalysis, in specific cells of developing reproductive structures. Genotypic variation in reproductive success measured as seed yield in saline conditions was associated with better maintenance of flower production and higher numbers of filled pods (and thus seed number), whereas seed size decreased in all genotypes. Despite the variation in reproductive success, the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the early reproductive tissues of developing pods did not differ between a tolerant (Genesis836) and a sensitive (Rupali) genotype. Similarly, salinity tolerance was not associated with the accumulation of salt ions in leaves at the time of reproduction or in seeds at maturity. PMID:25615287

  1. Identification of a Rice stripe necrosis virus resistance locus and yield component QTLs using Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima introgression lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs. Results We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544) in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó). Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM) on chromosome 11. Conclusions Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification of a genetic factor underlying resistance to this virus. This population is a powerful breeding tool. It also helps in overcoming hybrid sterility barriers between species of rice. PMID:20064202

  2. Stellar yields - models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Amanda

    2015-08-01

    The chemical evolution of the Universe is governed by the chemical yields from stars, which in turn is determined primarily by the initial stellar mass. Even stars as low as 0.9 solar mass can, at low metallicity, contribute to the chemical evolution of elements. Stars less massive than about 10 solar mass experience recurrent mixing events on the giant branches that can significantly change the surface composition of the envelope, with observed enrichments in carbon, nitrogen, fluorine, and heavy elements synthesised by the slow neutron capture process (the s-process). Low and intermediate mass stars release their nucleosynthesis products through stellar outflows or winds, in contrast to massive stars that explode as core-collapse supernovae.Here I review the stellar yields available for single stars up to about 10 solar mass, which includes stars that go through carbon burning before ascending the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). I discuss the main uncertainties affecting the theoretical calculations and recent observations that can be used to constrain models. I also mention efforts by various groups to address these issues and provide homogeneous yields for low and intermediate-mass stars covering a broad range of metallicities. Finally, I discuss the role that AGB stars play in the broader picture of the chemical evolution of galaxies and stellar systems, noting that observations of low-metallicity stars can provide important insights into nucleosynthesis in the early Universe.

  3. Science Yield Modeling with EXOSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Daniel; Savransky, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Accurately modeling science yield of an exoplanet direct imaging mission to build confidence in the achievement of science goals can be almost as complicated as designing the mission itself. It is challenging to compare science simulation results and systematically test the effects of changing instrument or mission designs. EXOSIMS (Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Mission Simulator) addresses this by generating ensembles of mission simulations for exoplanet direct imaging missions to estimate distributions of science yield. EXOSIMS consists of stand-alone modules written in Python which may be individually modified without requiring modifications to the code elsewhere. This structure allows for user driven systemic exploration of the effects of changing designs on the estimated science yield.The modules of EXOSIMS are classified as either input or simulation modules. Input modules contain specific mission design parameters and functions. These include Planet Population, Star Catalog, Optical System, Zodiacal Light, Planet Physical Model, Observatory, Time Keeping, and Post-Processing. Simulation modules perform tasks requiring input from one or more input modules as well as calling functions from other simulation modules. These include Completeness, Target List, Simulated Universe, Survey Simulation, and Survey Ensemble. The required parameters and functionality of each of these modules is defined in the documentation for EXOSIMS.EXOSIMS is available to the public at https://github.com/dsavransky/EXOSIMS. Included in the documentation is an interface control document which defines the required inputs and outputs to each input and simulation module. Future development of EXOSIMS is intended to be community-driven. Mission planners and instrument designers may quickly write their own modules, following the guidelines in the interface control document, and drop them directly into the code without making additional modifications elsewhere. It is expected that EXOSIMS will be highly useful for designing and planning future exoplanet direct imaging missions.

  4. Electron yields from spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, K.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Photoyields and secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics were determined under UHV conditions for a group of insulating materials used in spacecraft applications. The SEE studies were carried out with a pulsed primary beam while photoyields were obtained with a chopped photon beam from a Kr resonance source with major emission at 123.6 nm. This provides a photon flux close to that of the Lyman alpha in the space environment. Yields per incident photon are obtained relative to those from a freshly evaporated and air oxidized Al surface. Results are presented for Kapton, FEP Teflon, the borosilicate glass covering of a shuttle tile, and spacesuit outer fabric.

  5. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

    2009-01-01

    Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand. PMID:19956624

  6. Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields.

    E-print Network

    Harper, Thomas Lawrence

    1969-01-01

    A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

  7. Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields

    E-print Network

    Harper, Thomas Lawrence

    1969-01-01

    A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

  8. Reservations forecasting in airline yield management

    E-print Network

    Sa, Joao

    1987-01-01

    This report shows the application of Regression Analysis in reservations forecasting in airline yield management. The first three chapters highlight the need for yield management and the automation of seat inventory control. ...

  9. Yield model development project implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambroziak, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

  10. A greedy algorithm for yield surface approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleyer, Jérémy; de Buhan, Patrick

    This Note presents an approximation method for convex yield surfaces in the framework of yield design theory. The proposed algorithm constructs an approximation using a convex hull of ellipsoids such that the approximate criterion can be formulated in terms of second-order conic constraints. The algorithm can treat bounded as well as unbounded yield surfaces. Its efficiency is illustrated on two yield surfaces obtained using up-scaling procedures.

  11. [Effect of strengthening solar ultraviolet B band irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L. ) yield and its components in Qing Tibetan Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Yao; Wang, Kun; Zhao, Yong-Lai; Xin, You-Jun

    2009-08-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion occurs mainly over polar regions during the spring when the solar Ultraviolet B-band (280-315 nm, UV-B) radiation is most intense in a year, but over the Qing Tibetan Plateau region, the highest intensity is from June to September when the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the regions is more than that in the adjacent areas lying in the same latitude by 10%. From June to September is just the time of plant's germination, development, and reproduction in the alpine region. UV-B radiation may alter the reproduction of the forage plant, oat (Avena sativa.), which plays the vital role in developing indigenous herdsman's animal husbandry industry. The responses of oat yield and its components to the enhanced ultraviolet B band irradiation under the field condition were surveyed. The effect shows that the grain yield is decreased significantly by strengthened UV-B irradiation, and at the same time the main consequence is the decrease in both the number of ears per square meter and the number of grains per ear, but the weight of 1 000 grains appears not significantly different. Compared with the same respective location in a spikelet, the grain weight is decreased significantly under the treated condition, mostly because of the decreases in the number of the third and forth floret grain and the grain weight at those respective positions, and the percentage of the first and second floret grain and their weight are evidently approved on the contrary. PMID:19839346

  12. Heterois in Switchgrass: Biomass Yield in Swards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the biomass yield of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) will improve its utility as a dedicated energy crop by increasing energy yield per acre. In a previous space-transplanted study, mid-parent heterosis for biomass yield was reported for population and specific F1 hybrids of the lowland-...

  13. SOME QUESTIONS OF EVALUATION OF YIELD MAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultimate goal for the application of yield maps is to provide profitable crop output in farming systems. Recently, several methods and tools have been developed for the evaluation of yield maps. It is based on crisp and fuzzy modeling. However, the process of evaluation of yield maps is full o...

  14. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Yield-Related Components and Oligogenic Control of the Cap Color of the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Anne; Rousseau, Thierry; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    As in other crops, yield is an important trait to be selected for in edible mushrooms, but its inheritance is poorly understood. Therefore, we have investigated the complex genetic architecture of yield-related traits in Agaricus bisporus through the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), using second-generation hybrid progeny derived from a cross between a wild strain and a commercial cultivar. Yield, average weight per mushroom, number of fruiting bodies per m2, earliness, and cap color were evaluated in two independent experiments. A total of 23 QTL were detected for 7 yield-related traits. These QTL together explained between 21% (two-flushes yield) and 59% (earliness) of the phenotypic variation. Fifteen QTL (65%) were consistent between the two experiments. Four regions underlying significant QTL controlling yield, average weight, and number were detected on linkage groups II, III, IV, and X, suggesting a pleiotropic effect or tight linkage. Up to six QTL were identified for earliness. The PPC1 locus, together with two additional genomic regions, explained up to 90% of the phenotypic variation of the cap color. Alleles from the wild parent showed beneficial effects for some yield traits, suggesting that the wild germ plasm is a valuable source of variation for several agronomic traits. Our results constitute a key step toward marker-assisted selection and provide a solid foundation to go further into the biological mechanisms controlling productive traits in the button mushroom. PMID:22267676

  15. Yield and dynamics of tritrophic food chains.

    PubMed

    De Feo, O; Rinaldi, S

    1997-09-01

    Strong relationships between yield and dynamic behavior of tritrophic food chains are pointed out by analyzing the classical Rosenzweig-MacArthur model. On the one hand, food chains are subdivided into undersupplied and oversupplied categories, the first being those in which a marginal increase of nutrient supply to the bottom produces a marginal increase of mean yield at the top. On the other hand, a detailed bifurcation analysis proves that dynamic complexity first increases with nutrient supply (from stationary to a low-frequency cyclic regime and, finally, to chaos) and then decreases (from chaos to a high-frequency cyclic regime). A careful comparison of the two analyses supports the conclusion that food chains cycling at high frequency are oversupplied, while all others are undersupplied. A straightforward consequence of this result is that maximization of food yield requires a chaotic regime. This regime turns out to be very often on the edge of a potential catastrophic collapse of the top component of the food chain. In other words, optimality implies very complex and dangerous dynamics, as intuitively understood long ago for ditrophic food chains by Rosenzweig in his famous article on the paradox of enrichment. PMID:18811293

  16. Partial-wave analysis of p{sup {yields}}p{sup {yields}}{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0} data

    SciTech Connect

    Deepak, P.N.; Haidenbauer, J.; Hanhart, C.

    2005-08-01

    We present a partial-wave analysis of the polarization data for the reaction p{sup {yields}}p{sup {yields}}{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0}, based solely on the recent measurements at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility for this channel. Methods for an improved analysis are discussed. We compare the extracted values to those from a meson exchange model. The fit leads to a {chi}{sup 2} per degree of freedom of 1.7.

  17. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    E-print Network

    Wahl, A C

    2002-01-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z sub F = 90 thru 98, mass number A sub F = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru approx 200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from approx 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron (approx fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

  18. Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL Versions and Lattices X. Ding Front End, Nov. 23, 2010 parameters of 11 and 13GeV from interpolation) · Take the muon/pion/kaons at z=0 m from MARS output (Field of Running MARS #12;4 Muon Yield from Different Versions of ICOOL with ST2a-BNL Input Deck #12;5 Muon Yield

  19. The yield criterion of laminated media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, P. C.; Mcnamee, B. M.; Chou, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    This study examines the yield criteria for anisotropic laminated media. It will be shown that for laminated media with isotropic layers, the criterion of Tsai and Wu is a direct extension of Von Mises'. Also presented here is a set of equations governing the relative positions of the yield ellipses. Furthermore, a general expression for the yield condition of a laminated medium composed of generally anisotropic layers is obtained.

  20. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

  1. Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

    1991-06-01

    Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Linear unmixing of multidate hyperspectral imagery for crop yield estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we have evaluated an unsupervised unmixing approach, vertex component analysis (VCA), for the application of crop yield estimation. The results show that abundance maps of the vegetation extracted by the approach are strongly correlated to the yield data (the correlation coefficients ...

  3. Nitrogen fertilization reduces yield declines following no-till adoption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) has been promoted as a method of sustainable intensification and climate change mitigation and is being widely practiced and implemented globally. However, notill (NT) practices, a fundamental component of CA, have been shown to reduce yields. In order to maintain yield...

  4. Detecting Temporal Change in Watershed Nutrient Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickham, James D.; Wade, Timothy G.; Riitters, Kurt H.

    2008-08-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act.

  5. Detecting temporal change in watershed nutrient yields.

    PubMed

    Wickham, James D; Wade, Timothy G; Riitters, Kurt H

    2008-08-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act. PMID:18446405

  6. Predicting Great Lakes fish yields: tools and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, C.A.; Schupp, D.H.; Taylor, W.W.; Collins, J.J.; Hatch, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Prediction of yield is a critical component of fisheries management. The development of sound yield prediction methodology and the application of the results of yield prediction are central to the evolution of strategies to achieve stated goals for Great Lakes fisheries and to the measurement of progress toward those goals. Despite general availability of species yield models, yield prediction for many Great Lakes fisheries has been poor due to the instability of the fish communities and the inadequacy of available data. A host of biological, institutional, and societal factors constrain both the development of sound predictions and their application to management. Improved predictive capability requires increased stability of Great Lakes fisheries through rehabilitation of wellintegrated communities, improvement of data collection, data standardization and informationsharing mechanisms, and further development of the methodology for yield prediction. Most important is the creation of a better-informed public that will in turn establish the political will to do what is required.

  7. Design of a high yield position source

    SciTech Connect

    Bulos, F.; DeStaebler, H.; Ecklund, S.; Helm, R.; Hoag, H.; Le Boutet, H.; Lynch, H.L.; Miller, R.; Moffeit, K.C.

    1985-04-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) requires a positron source with a yield large enough to give equal number of positrons and electrons at the interaction point. In addition, the colliding positrons must have an emittance and bunch length similar to the electron beam. This report describes the design of a high yield positron source to give these characteristics.

  8. Secondary electron yields of solar system ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suszcynsky, David M.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Goertz, Christoph K.

    1992-02-01

    The secondary electron yields of H2O, CO2, NH3, and CH3OH ices have been measured as a function of electron beam energy in the 2- to 30-keV energy range. The ices were produced on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cold finger and transferred under vacuum to a SEM where the yield measurements were made. The imaging capabilities of the SEM provide a means of correlating the yield measurements with the morphology of the ices and are also used to monitor charging effects. The yields were determined by measuring the amplified current from a secondary electron detector and calibrating this current signal with the amplified current signal from samples of metals with known secondary electron yields. Each of the measured yields is found to decrease with an increase in energy in the 2- to 30-keV range. Estimates are given for the maximum secondary electron yield Y(max) of each ice and the energy at which this maximum yield occurs. Implications for the charging of solar system ice grains are discussed.

  9. Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

  10. Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

  11. High yielding Indica germplasm from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1996, 213 rice accessions were introduced from China for enriching USDA rice germplasm collection. Evaluation for the Chinese germplasm on yield potential, disease resistances and grain quality was conducted in 2000 and 2001. Fifteen accessions yielded in excess of 10,130 kg/ha rough rice that ...

  12. Yield, Quality, and Sward Differences in Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers frequently pose the question as to which temperate grass has the greatest yield and quality potential, and whether grazing animals will consume it. Results of a study conducted in southcentral and northcentral Wisconsin indicate that greater yield can be expected in northern locations due...

  13. Systematic Optimization of Soybean Yield and Quality

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    from yield loss at lower plant populations #12;Research Methods · Conducted during 2012 and 2013 fertilizer Task Force®2 (4.7 L/ha) @ R1 ­ Antioxidant Bio-Forge® (1.2 L/ha) @ R3 ­ Foliar fungicide, Average±1 Std. Dev., Lowconducted to determine the effects of yield

  14. THE ZONES PROJECTS: UNDERSTANDING SOYBEAN YIELD VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two regional projects funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and the United Soybean Board are entitled Mapping of Soil and Field Characteristics to Understand Soybean Yield and Using Remotely Sensed Data to Diagnose Soybean Yield Limiting Factors. These projects were developed in resp...

  15. Calibrating your forage harvester's yield monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With some attention to the details, you will have a harvester that should be able to produce yield maps that will allow the same precision management that is expected in cereal crops. Forage yield maps, coupled with site-specific technologies in application of soil amendments, fertilizers, and pesti...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adjusted on an administrative county-wide basis for: (i) Yield variations due to different farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices; and (ii... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adjusted on an administrative county-wide basis for: (i) Yield variations due to different farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices; and (ii... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... adjusted on an administrative county-wide basis for: (i) Yield variations due to different farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices; and (ii... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not...

  19. MAPPING COTTON YIELD VARIABILITY USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY AND YIELD MONITOR DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased availability of airborne hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acqui...

  20. Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

    Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

  1. Yield drag associated with resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in high-yielding cotton germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...

  2. MAIZE YIELD POTENTIAL: CRITICAL PROCESSES AND SIMULATION MODELING IN A HIGH-YIELDING ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate parameters describing processes of maize (Zea mays L.) growth and grain yield production in high-yielding, irrigated conditions provide a system for studying grain yield potential in different environments. In this study we measured maize leaf area index (LAI), the light extinction coeffic...

  3. Yield drag associated with resistance to root-knot nematodes in high-yielding cotton germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...

  4. The optical depth of the 158 micrometer (C-12 II) line: Detection of the F=1 yields 0 (C-13 III) hyperfine-structure component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Poglitsch, A.; Madden, S. C.; Jackson, J. M.; Herrmann, F.; Genzel, R.; Geis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The first detection of the F = 1 yields 0 hyperfine component of the 158 micrometer (C-13 II) fine structure line in the interstellar medium is reported. A twelve point intensity map was obtained of the (C-13 II) distribution over the inner 190 inch (right ascension) by 190 inch (declination) regions of the Orion nebula using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. The (C-12 II)/(C-13 II) line intensity ratio varied significantly over the region mapped. It is highest (86 plus or minus 9) in the core of the Orion H II region and significantly lower (62 plus or minus 7) in the outer regions of the map, reflecting higher optical depth in the (C-12 II) line here. It is suggested that this enhanced optical depth is the result of limb brightening of the optically thin (C-13 II) line at the edges of the bowl-shaped H II region blister. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 43, the (C-12 II) line in the inner regions of the Orion nebula, has a low optical depth: tau sub 12 approximately = 0.75 plus or minus 0.25. The optical depth together with the large brightness temperature of the (C-12 II) line (approximately 160 K) requires that the excitation temperature of the P-2 sub 3/2 level be approximately 310 K, in very good agreement with the previous analysis of the physical conditions of the Orion interface region based on fine structure line intensity ratios and photodissociation region models. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 67, the line optical depth is somewhat larger (tau sub 12 approximately = 1.85), and the transition excitation temperature is somewhat smaller (approximately 190 K) than that predicted by these models. The present results therefore support values approximately = 43 for the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in the Orion nebula.

  5. Human plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM antibodies associate with secretory component to yield biologically active secretory-like antibodies.

    PubMed

    Longet, Stéphanie; Miled, Sarah; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia M; Zuercher, Adrian W; Corthésy, Blaise

    2013-02-01

    Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ?15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins. PMID:23250751

  6. Crop yield: challenges from a metabolic perspective.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Magdalena; Bermudez, Luisa; Carrari, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Considering the dual use of plants, as bio-factories for foods and feedstock for bio-refining, along with a rising world population, the plant biotechnology field is currently facing a dramatic challenge to develop crops with higher yield. Furthermore, convergent studies predict that global changes in climate will influence crop productivity by modifying most yield-associated traits. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of plant metabolism directly or indirectly impacting on yield and provide an update of the different pathways proposed as targets for metabolic engineering aiming to optimize source-sink relationships. PMID:26002068

  7. Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of U.S.D.A. Quality and Yield Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef rib and plate.

    PubMed

    Martin, J N; Brooks, J C; Thompson, L D; Savell, J W; Harris, K B; May, L L; Haneklaus, A N; Schutz, J L; Belk, K E; Engle, T; Woerner, D R; Legako, J F; Luna, A M; Douglass, L W; Douglass, S E; Howe, J; Duvall, M; Patterson, K Y; Leheska, J L

    2013-11-01

    Beef nutrition is important to the worldwide beef industry. The objective of this study was to analyze proximate composition of eight beef rib and plate cuts to update the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Furthermore, this study aimed to determine the influence of USDA Quality Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of the examined retail cuts. Carcasses (n=72) representing a composite of Yield Grade, Quality Grade, gender and genetic type were identified from six regions across the U.S. Beef plates and ribs (IMPS #109 and 121C and D) were collected from the selected carcasses and shipped to three university meat laboratories for storage, retail fabrication, cooking, and dissection and analysis of proximate composition. These data provide updated information regarding the nutrient content of beef and emphasize the influence of common classification systems (Yield Grade and Quality Grade) on the separable components, cooking yield, and proximate composition of retail beef cuts. PMID:23793084

  8. Spectral behavior of wheat yield variety trials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Little variation between varieties is seen at jointing, but the variability is found to increase during grain filling and decline again at maturity. No relationship is found between spectral response and yield, and when yields are segregated into various classes the spectral response is the same. Spring and winter nurseries are found to separate during the reproductive stage because of differences in dates of heading and maturity, but they exhibit similar spectral responses. The transformed normalized difference is at a minimum after the maximum grain weight occurs and the leaves begin to brown and fall off. These data of 100% ground cover demonstrate that it is not possible to predict grain yield from only spectral data. This, however, may not apply when reduced yields are caused by less-than-full ground cover

  9. Predicting yields for autotrophic and cometabolic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of bioprocess engineering is to state how the optimum design and control strategy for a bioprocess follow from the metabolism of the particular microorganism. A necessary step toward this goal is to show how the parameters used in quantitative descriptions of a process (e.g., yield and maintenance coefficients) are related to those describing the metabolism [e.g., Y{sub ATP}, (P/O)]. The {open_quotes}yield equation{close_quotes} approach to this problem involves dividing metabolism into the separate pathways for catabolism, anabolism, respiration, and product formation and balancing the production and consumption of reducing equivalents and ATP. The general approach, demonstrated previously for heterotrophic cell growth and products of fermentation, is illustrated by three new examples: the cell yield for chemoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, the cometabolic degradation of chloroform by methanotrophic bacteria, and the theoretical yield of succinic acid from glucose.

  10. User's appraisal of yield model evaluation criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, F. B. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The five major potential USDA users of AgRISTAR crop yield forecast models rated the Yield Model Development (YMD) project Test and Evaluation Criteria by the importance placed on them. These users were agreed that the "TIMELINES" and "RELIABILITY" of the forecast yields would be of major importance in determining if a proposed yield model was worthy of adoption. Although there was considerable difference of opinion as to the relative importance of the other criteria, "COST", "OBJECTIVITY", "ADEQUACY", AND "MEASURES OF ACCURACY" generally were felt to be more important that "SIMPLICITY" and "CONSISTENCY WITH SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE". However, some of the comments which accompanied the ratings did indicate that several of the definitions and descriptions of the criteria were confusing.

  11. Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

  12. LACIE: Wheat yield models for the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative model determining the relationship between weather conditions and wheat yield in the U.S.S.R. was studied to provide early reliable forecasts on the size of the U.S.S.R. wheat harvest. Separate models are developed for spring wheat and for winter. Differences in yield potential and responses to stress conditions and cultural improvements necessitate models for each class.

  13. How Big Was It? Getting at Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M.; Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most coveted pieces of information in the wake of a nuclear test is the explosive yield. Determining the yield from remote observations, however, is not necessarily a trivial thing. For instance, recorded observations of seismic amplitudes, used to estimate the yield, are significantly modified by the intervening media, which varies widely, and needs to be properly accounted for. Even after correcting for propagation effects such as geometrical spreading, attenuation, and station site terms, getting from the resulting source term to a yield depends on the specifics of the explosion source model, including material properties, and depth. Some formulas are based on assumptions of the explosion having a standard depth-of-burial and observed amplitudes can vary if the actual test is either significantly overburied or underburied. We will consider the complications and challenges of making these determinations using a number of standard, more traditional methods and a more recent method that we have developed using regional waveform envelopes. We will do this comparison for recent declared nuclear tests from the DPRK. We will also compare the methods using older explosions at the Nevada Test Site with announced yields, material and depths, so that actual performance can be measured. In all cases, we also strive to quantify realistic uncertainties on the yield estimation.

  14. Association of puroindoline b-2 variants with grain traits, yield components and flag leaf size in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of Yellow and Huai Valley of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 169 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (landraces and cultivars) were used to asses the relationship between Puroindoline D1 alleles and Puroindoline b-B2 variants and grain hardness, other grain traits, grain yield components, and flag leaf size. Results indicated that the average SK...

  15. Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time. PMID:24987398

  16. Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter

    E-print Network

    Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville

    2015-02-18

    We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.

  17. Defect reduction methodologies: pellicle yield improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Susan V.

    1993-03-01

    The pelliclization process at Intel during the first half of 1991 was not in control. Weekly process yield was trending downward, and the range of the weekly yield during that time frame was greater than 40%. A focused effort in process yield improvement, that started in the second half of 1991 and continued through 1992, brought process yield up an average of 20%, and reduced the range of the process yield to 20 - 25%. This paper discusses the continuous process improvement guidelines that are being followed to reduce variations/defects in the pelliclization process. Teamwork tools, such as Pareto charts, fishbone diagrams, and simple experiments, prioritize efforts and help find the root cause of the defects. Best known methods (BKM), monitors, PMs, and excursion control aid in the elimination and prevention of defects. Monitoring progress and repeating the whole procedure are the final two guidelines. The benefits from the use of the continuous process improvement guidelines and tools can be seen in examples of the actions, impacts, and results for the last half of 1991 and the first half of 1992.

  18. The yield surface of textured polycrystals†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canova, G. R.; Kocks, U. F.; Tomé, C. N.; Jonas, J. J.

    T HE PLASTIC anisotropy of a material is characterized in part by its yield surface. It is shown that conventional descriptions, based on extensions of the von Mises hypothesis for isotropic materials, are experimentally and theoretically inadequate in many instances. Symmetry arguments are used to derive the dimensionality and extent of the space necessary for representing the yield surface under various conditions of anisotropy. A useful concept is introduced: "closed" subspaces, in which sections and projections of the yield surface are identical and in which, therefore, normality is complete. Yield surfaces of heavily rolled or sheared sheets are derived from a computer simulation of polycrystal plasticity. It is found that even mild textures give rise to significant departures from "oval" yield surfaces: they develop sharp ridges and extensive flats. The anisotropy coefficients for in-plane tension of rolled sheets have been calculated. For torsion testing under fixed and free end conditions, respectively, the axial force and the length change have been calculated, as well as the change in the ratio of wall thickness to diameter.

  19. Yield and Solidification of Yield-Stress Materials in Rigid Networks and Porous Structures

    E-print Network

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of threshold yield pressure of yield-stress materials in rigid networks of interconnected conduits and porous structures subject to a pressure gradient. We compare the results as obtained dynamically from solving the pressure field to those obtained statically from tracing the path of the minimum sum of threshold yield pressures of the individual conduits by using the threshold path algorithms. We refute criticisms directed recently to our previous findings that the pressure field solution generally produces a higher threshold yield pressure than the one obtained by the threshold path algorithms. Issues related to the solidification of yield stress materials in their transition from fluid phase to solid state have also been investigated and assessed as part of the investigation of the yield point.

  20. Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of USDA quality and yield grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.

    PubMed

    West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

  1. Evaluation of trends in wheat yield models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Trend terms in models for wheat yield in the U.S. Great Plains for the years 1932 to 1976 are evaluated. The subset of meteorological variables yielding the largest adjusted R(2) is selected using the method of leaps and bounds. Latent root regression is used to eliminate multicollinearities, and generalized ridge regression is used to introduce bias to provide stability in the data matrix. The regression model used provides for two trends in each of two models: a dependent model in which the trend line is piece-wise continuous, and an independent model in which the trend line is discontinuous at the year of the slope change. It was found that the trend lines best describing the wheat yields consisted of combinations of increasing, decreasing, and constant trend: four combinations for the dependent model and seven for the independent model.

  2. Stellar yields of rotating first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2014-05-02

    First stars, also called population III stars, are born in the earliest universe without any heavy elements. These stars are the first nuclear reactor in the universe and affect their circumstances emitting synthesized materials. Not only the stellar evolution, but also their chemical yields have many distinctive characteristics. We have modeled evolution of population III stars including effect of stellar rotation. Internal mixing induced by rotation naturally results in primary nitrogen production. Evolution of rotating massive stars is followed until the core collapse phase. The new Pop III yield model will consistently explain the observed abundances of metal-poor systems.

  3. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    PubMed Central

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties. PMID:19451687

  4. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are directly related to year-end yield. During 2012 (a drier-than-normal growing season) corn in parts of the field with shallow groundwater had significantly higher yields than the rest of the field, indicating that groundwater can provide significant yield benefits during drought. In contrast, during 2013 (a wetter-than-normal growing season) areas with the shallowest groundwater experienced total yield losses due to early-season groundwater flooding and oxygen stress. This demonstrates that the optimal DTGW for agricultural production is variable and depends on growing season weather conditions. The presence or absence of shallow groundwater is an important and dynamic feature of many agroecosystems, and should be considered when making both field- and watershed-scale management decisions.

  5. DETECTION AND ADJUSTMENT OF ABNORMAL TEST-DAY YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to detect and to adjust abnormally low or high milk, fat, and protein yields on test-day (TD) was developed. TD yields are compared to previous and subsequent yields and are restricted to be between a floor and ceiling based on predicted yield. Lactation yields are then calculated from the ...

  6. Yield and yield components of winter-type safflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a minor yet widely grown oil seed crop adapted to semi-arid regions. The nascent development of winter adapted safflower, allowing fall planting,could substantially increase seed production over spring planting. In this study four winter type safflower accessi...

  7. Squeeze Flow of Yield Stress Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelot, David; Yarin, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The squeeze flow of yield stress materials are investigated using a non-invasive optical technique. In the experiments, cylindrically-shaped samples of Carbopol solutions and Bentonite dispersions are rapidly compressed between two transparent plates using a constant force and the instantaneous cross-sectional area is recorded as a function of time using a high speed CCD camera. Furthermore, visualization of the boundary reveals that the no-slip condition holds. In addition, shear experiments are conducted using parallel-plate and vane viscometers. The material exhibits first a fast stage of squeezing in which the normal stresses dominate and viscosity plays the main role. Then, the second (slow) stage sets in where the material exhibits a slow deformation dominated by yield stress. At the end, the deformation process is arrested by yield stress. The material response is attributed to the Bingham-like or Herschel-Bulkley-like rheological behavior. Squeeze flow is developed into a convenient and simple tool for studying yield stress materials. This work is supported by the United States Gypsum Corp.

  8. Auger yield calculations for medical radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boon Q.; Kibédi, Tibor; Stuchbery, Andrew E.

    2015-04-01

    Auger yields from the decays of 71Ge, 99mTc, 111In and 123-125I have been calculated using a Monte Carlo model of the Auger cascade that has been developed at the ANU. In addition, progress to improve the input data of the model has been made with the Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method.

  9. Yielding and flow of foamed metakaolin pastes

    E-print Network

    Lucie Ducloué; Olivier Pitois; Laurent Tocquer; Julie Goyon; Guillaume Ovarlez

    2015-10-01

    Metakaolin is a broadly used industrial raw material, with applications in the production of ceramics and geopolymers, and the partial replacement of Portland cement. The early stages of the manufacturing of some of these materials require the preparation and processing of a foamed metakaolin-based slurry. In this study, we propose to investigate the rheology of a foamed metakaolin-based fresh paste by performing well-controlled experiments. We work with a non-reactive metakaolin paste containing surfactant, in which we disperse bubbles of known radius at a chosen volume fraction. We perform rheometry measurements to characterize the minimum stress required for the foamed materials to flow (yield stress), and the dissipation occurring during flow. We show that the yield stress of the foamed samples is equal to the one of the metakaolin paste, and that dissipation during flow increases quadratically with the bubble volume fraction. Comparison with yielding and flow of model foamed yield stress fluids allows us to understand these results in terms of coupling between the bubbles' surface tension and the metakaolin paste's rheology.

  10. External noise yields a What template?

    E-print Network

    Klein, Stanley

    1st+3rd) Rating scale methods for isolating sources of noise A faster classification image methodExternal noise yields a surprise: What template? Stanley Klein, Dennis Levi, Suko Toyofuku Vision Science University of California, Berkeley #12;Overview Detection of patterns in noise Why noise masking

  11. DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

  12. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita on watermelon yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted in 2004 and 2006 in Tifton, GA to document the effect of Meloidogyne incognita infection on watermelon yield. Experiments had 24 replications of two treatments: methyl bromide fumigated and non-fumigated. Each plot consisted of one row of nine plants: the first, fifth, a...

  13. CAN IMPROVEMENT IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS INCREASE CROP YIELDS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yield potential (Yp) of a genotype of a grain crop, is the mass of seed per unit ground area that is obtained under optimum growing conditions in the absence of weeds, pests and diseases. It is determined by the product of the efficiency of light capture, the efficiency with which the captured ...

  14. Yield variability in conventional and conservation tillage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial variability can be quite large for cotton (Gossypium hirsutem L.) yield on coastal plain soils of the Southeast USA. A substantial amount of the variability is caused by differences in soils for water availability. Since tillage management can affect soil available water, our objective was t...

  15. Yielding Elastic Tethers Stabilize Robust Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Matt J.; Luo, Jonathon P.; Thomas, Wendy E.

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding elasticity. Here we address the function of yielding elastic adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether elasticity was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding elasticity is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, strain-hardening and linear elastic tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds. PMID:25473833

  16. OSSY (On Site Seismic Yield) source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1990-09-01

    The On Site Seismic Yield (OSSY) experiment was performed during September 1989. It was a collaborative effort between scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the Seismographic Stations at UC Berkeley. It was performed in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The general objective of the OSSY experiment was to investigate techniques for using seismic measurements to estimate the yield of nuclear explosions. The basic idea is to use chemical explosions of known size to calibrate source coupling and wave propagation effects near the site of a nuclear explosion. Once calibrated in this way, seismic measurements, obtained at locations sufficiently far from the source to be in the region of linear elastic response but sufficiently close to provide accurate registration, can be used to estimate the yield of the nuclear explosion. If such a technique can be shown to be sufficiently accurate, it has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, flexible in experimental design, and applicable to either large or small yields. This investigation has proceeded in a two-stage process. The first stage is to develop and test the calibration procedure. The second stage is to apply the method to actual nuclear explosions. Partly because it was considered desirable to preform a complete analysis of the calibration procedure before applying it to a nuclear explosion and partly because no convenient nuclear explosion tests were available at the time, the OSSY experiment was concentrated on the calibration stage of the process. 9 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of Yield Maps Using Fuzzy Indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of yield maps using fuzzy indicators, which takes into account atypical phenomena and expert opinions regarding the maps. This methodology could allow for improved methods for deciding boundary locations for precision application of production...

  18. Lens solutions which increase manufacturing yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szapiel, Stan; Greenhalgh, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    The classic method of design centering commonly used to increase the yield of electronic circuits is employed to improve manufacturability of complex lens designs. The approach uses the results of Monte Carlo (MC) statistics to iteratively center the nominal design on a new point that shows an improved yield. Rather than just employing the MC lens run for routine as-built performance forecast, the results of the simulation are re-used to find the changes in the nominal design parameters values which will increase the yield. The centers-of-gravity (COG) algorithm is selected as a quick and easy method of shifting the nominal design point in the multidimensional parameter space to the new location. The classic COG algorithm is modified to avoid situations when the position of either "pass" or "fail" center of gravity is difficult to determine. Examples of application, which include a wide-angle IR lens and a plan-apochromat objective for a digital microscope show that such method of lens design centering is promising, and even a single iteration may result in significantly improved yield.

  19. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  20. Quasi-Biennial Corn Yield Cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quasi-biennial cycles are commonly observed in climate studies. The interannual El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are two phenomena containing quasi-periodicities of approximately 2.5 years and 2.2 years. It is known that ENSO affects corn yield; NAO affects su...

  1. MARS Target Yield Studies University of Warwick

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    ), shielding (brown), iron plug (purple). John Back Oxford target meeting 1 May 2008 #12;4 On-axis Bz field z1 MARS Target Yield Studies John Back University of Warwick 1st May 2008 John Back Oxford target.5 cm. Parabolic beam: r=0.15 cm. John Back Oxford target meeting 1 May 2008 #12;3 Target Geometry: (z

  2. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not have... been actively engaged in farming for a share of the production of the eligible crop in...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not have... been actively engaged in farming for a share of the production of the eligible crop in...

  4. The plastic yield and flow behavior in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamburaja, Prakash; Klusemann, Benjamin; Adibi, Sara; Bargmann, Swantje

    2015-02-01

    Metallic glasses have vast potential applications as components in microelectronics- and nanoelectronics-type devices. The design of such components through computer simulations requires the input of a faithful set of continuum-based constitutive equations. However, one long-standing controversial issue in modeling the plastic behavior of metallic glasses at the continuum level is the use of the most appropriate plastic yield criterion and flow rule. Guided by a series of molecular dynamics simulations conducted at low-homologous temperatures under homogeneous deformations, we quantitatively prove that the continuum plastic behavior in metallic glasses is most accurately described by a von Mises-type plastic yield criterion and flow rule.

  5. Yield EnhancementYield Enhancement Sai N. LwinSai N. Lwin

    E-print Network

    Patel, Chintan

    and Defect Budget 2)2) Defect Detection and CharacterizationDefect Detection and Characterization 3)3) Yield Detection and Characterization2) Defect Detection and Characterization Primary RequirementPrimary Requirement ­­ ability to detectability to detect inlineinline--yield limiting defects on specificyield

  6. The Relationship Between Grain Yield and Silage Yield in Field Corn in Northern Illinois INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    1 The Relationship Between Grain Yield and Silage Yield in Field Corn in Northern Illinois INTRODUCTION Corn silage is an important ingredient in dairy and beef rations. Acres of Illinois corn harvested Annual Summary). Determining a fair price for corn silage is difficult due to the many variable factors

  7. Dynamics of mean-variance-skewness of cumulative crop yield impact temporal yield variance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production risk associated with cropping systems influences farmers’ decisions to adopt a new management practice or a production system. Cumulative yield (CY), temporal yield variance (TYV) and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to assess the risk associated with adopting combinations of new m...

  8. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  9. Estimation of liquid fuel yields from biomass.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet R; Delgass, W Nicholas; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    We have estimated sun-to-fuel yields for the cases when dedicated fuel crops are grown and harvested to produce liquid fuel. The stand-alone biomass to liquid fuel processes, that use biomass as the main source of energy, are estimated to produce one-and-one-half to three times less sun-to-fuel yield than the augmented processes. In an augmented process, solar energy from a fraction of the available land area is used to produce other forms of energy such as H(2), heat etc., which are then used to increase biomass carbon recovery in the conversion process. However, even at the highest biomass growth rate of 6.25 kg/m(2).y considered in this study, the much improved augmented processes are estimated to have sun-to-fuel yield of about 2%. We also propose a novel stand-alone H(2)Bioil-B process, where a portion of the biomass is gasified to provide H(2) for the fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation of the remaining biomass. This process is estimated to be able to produce 125-146 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege)/ton of biomass of high energy density oil but needs experimental development. The augmented version of fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation, where H(2) is generated from a nonbiomass energy source, is estimated to provide liquid fuel yields as high as 215 ege/ton of biomass. These estimated yields provide reasonable targets for the development of efficient biomass conversion processes to provide liquid fuel for a sustainable transport sector. PMID:20527758

  10. Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

  11. b{yields}s penguin amplitude in charmless B{yields}PP decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2005-04-01

    The b{yields}s penguin amplitude affects a number of B meson decays to two pseudoscalar (P) mesons in which potential anomalies are being watched carefully, though none has yet reached a statistically compelling level. These include (a) a sum of rates for B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and B{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} enhanced relative to half the sum for B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup +}{yields}K{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} (b) a time-dependent CP asymmetry parameter S for B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} which is low in comparison with the expected value of sin2{beta}{approx_equal}0.73, and (c) a similar deviation in the parameter S for B{sup 0}{yields}{eta}{sup '}K{sub S}. These and related phenomena involving vector mesons in the final state are discussed in a unified way in and beyond the standard model. Future experiments which would conclusively indicate the presence of new physics are identified. Several of these involve decays of the strange B meson B{sub s}. In the standard model we prove an approximate sum rule for CP rate differences in B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, predicting a negative sign for the latter asymmetry.

  12. Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

  13. Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of different silage crops: VFAs formation, methane yield from fiber and non-fiber components and digestate composition.

    PubMed

    Pokój, T; Bu?kowska, K; Gusiatin, Z M; Klimiuk, E; Jankowski, K J

    2015-08-01

    This study presents the results of long-term semi-continuous experiments on anaerobic digestion at an HRT of 45d with ten silages: 2 annual and 4 perennial crops, and 4 mixtures of annual with perennial crops. The composition of substrates and digestates was determined with Van Soest's fractionation method. Removal of non-fiber materials ranged from 49.4% (Miscanthus sacchariflorus) to 89.3% (Zea mays alone and mixed with M. sacchariflorus), that of fiber materials like lignin ranged from 0.005% (Z. mays alone and mixed with grasses at VS ratio of 90:10%) to 46.5% (Sida hermaphrodita). The lowest stability of anaerobic digestion, as confirmed by normalized data concentrations of volatile fatty acids, was reported for both miscanthuses and sugar sorghum. The methane yield coefficients for non-fiber and fiber materials were 0.3666 and 0.2556L/g, respectively. All digestate residues had high fertilizing value, especially those from mixtures of crops. PMID:25958143

  14. Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...

  15. Secondary scintillation yield in pure argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2008-10-01

    The secondary scintillation yield is of great importance for simulating double phase detectors, which are used in several of the ongoing Dark Matter search experiments, as well as in the future large-scale particle detectors proposed in Europe as the next generation underground observatories. The argon secondary scintillation yield is studied, at room temperature, as a function of electric field in the gas scintillation gap. A Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) collects the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas, as well as the 5.9 keV x-rays directly absorbed in the photodiode. The direct x-rays were used as a reference for the determination of the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, so, the number of photons impinging the LAAPD. A value of 81 photons/kV was obtained for the scintillation amplification parameter, defined as the number of photons produced per drifting electron and per kilovolt. The scintillation yields obtained in this work are in agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo calculations and a factor of ?10 higher than those determined by the WARP experiment.

  16. The yielding dynamics of a colloidal gel

    E-print Network

    Thomas Gibaud; Frelat Damien; Sébastien Manneville

    2009-11-06

    Attractive colloidal gels display a solid-to-fluid transition as shear stresses above the yield stress are applied. This shear-induced transition is involved in virtually any application of colloidal gels. It is also crucial for controlling material properties. Still, in spite of its ubiquity, the yielding transition is far from understood, mainly because rheological measurements are spatially averaged over the whole sample. Here, the instrumentation of creep and oscillatory shear experiments with high-frequency ultrasound opens new routes to observing the local dynamics of opaque attractive colloidal gels. The transition proceeds from the cell walls and heterogeneously fluidizes the whole sample with a characteristic time whose variations with applied stress suggest the existence of an energy barrier linked to the gelation process. The present results provide new test grounds for computer simulations and theoretical calculations in the attempt to better understand the yielding transition. The versatility of the technique should also allow extensive mesoscopic studies of rupture mechanisms in soft solids ranging from crystals to glassy materials.

  17. Second Generation Crop Yield Models Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, T. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Second generation yield models, including crop growth simulation models and plant process models, may be suitable for large area crop yield forecasting in the yield model development project. Subjective and objective criteria for model selection are defined and models which might be selected are reviewed. Models may be selected to provide submodels as input to other models; for further development and testing; or for immediate testing as forecasting tools. A plant process model may range in complexity from several dozen submodels simulating (1) energy, carbohydrates, and minerals; (2) change in biomass of various organs; and (3) initiation and development of plant organs, to a few submodels simulating key physiological processes. The most complex models cannot be used directly in large area forecasting but may provide submodels which can be simplified for inclusion into simpler plant process models. Both published and unpublished models which may be used for development or testing are reviewed. Several other models, currently under development, may become available at a later date.

  18. Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

  19. The yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semeliss, M. A.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental and analytical evaluation was made of the yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene, a semi-crystalline thermoplastic. Polyethylene was selected for study because it is very inexpensive and readily available in the form of thin-walled tubes. Thin-walled tubular specimens were subjected to axial loads and internal pressures, such that the specimens were subjected to a known biaxial loading. A constant octahederal shear stress rate was imposed during all tests. The measured yield and post-yield behavior was compared with predictions based on both isotropic and anisotropic models. Of particular interest was whether inelastic behavior was sensitive to the hydrostatic stress level. The major achievements and conclusions reached are discussed.

  20. Spatio-temporal evolution of the L {yields} I {yields} H transition

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, K.; Diamond, P. H.; Guercan, Oe. D.; Tynan, G. R.; Estrada, T.; Schmitz, L.; Xu, G. S.

    2012-09-15

    We investigate the dynamics of the low(L) {yields} high(H) transition using a time-dependent, one dimensional (in radius) model which self-consistently describes the time evolution of zonal flows (ZFs), mean flows (MFs), poloidal spin-up, and density and pressure profiles. The model represents the physics of ZF and MF competition, turbulence suppression via E Multiplication-Sign B shearing, and poloidal flows driven by turbulence. Numerical solutions of this model show that the L{yields}H transition can occur via an intermediate phase (I-phase) which involves oscillations of profiles due to ZF and MF competition. The I-phase appears as a nonlinear transition wave originating at the edge boundary and propagates inward. Locally, I-phase exhibits the characteristics of a limit-cycle oscillation. All these observations are consistent with recent experimental results. We examine the trigger of the L{yields}H transition, by defining a ratio of the rate of energy transfer from the turbulence to the zonal flow to the rate of energy input into the turbulence. When the ratio exceeds order unity, ZF shear gains energy, and a net decay of the turbulence is possible, thus triggering the L{yields}H transition. Numerical calculations indicate that the L{yields}H transition is triggered by this peak of the normalized ZF shearing. Zonal flows act as 'reservoir,' in which to store increasing fluctuation energy without increasing transport, thus allowing the mean flow shear to increase and lock in the transition. A counterpart of the L {yields} I{yields}H transition, i.e., an L{yields}H transition without I-phase, is obtained in a fast power ramp, for which I-phase is compressed into a single burst of ZF, which triggers the transition. Effects of neutral charge exchange on the L{yields}H transition are studied by varying ZF damping and neoclassical viscosity. Results show that the predicted L{yields}H transition power increases when either ZF damping or viscosity increase, suggesting a link between recycling, ZF damping, and the L{yields}H threshold. Studies of fueling effects on the transition and pedestal structure with an emphasis on the particle pinch are reported.

  1. Light propagation and fluorescence quantum yields in liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C.; Gramlich, B.; Wagner, S.

    2015-09-01

    For the simulation of the scintillation and Cherenkov light propagation in large liquid scintillator detectors a detailed knowledge about the absorption and emission spectra of the scintillator molecules is mandatory. Furthermore reemission probabilities and quantum yields of the scintillator components influence the light propagation inside the liquid. Absorption and emission properties are presented for liquid scintillators using 2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 4-bis-(2-Methylstyryl)benzene (bis-MSB) as primary and secondary wavelength shifter. New measurements of the quantum yields for various aromatic molecules are shown.

  2. 7 CFR 868.257 - Milling yield determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.257 Section 868.257... Governing Application of Standards § 868.257 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined... equipment that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall...

  3. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

  4. Searches for K+ {yields} {pi}+{gamma}{gamma}, K+ {yields} {pi}+{gamma}, and {pi}0 {yields} vv(bar sign) in K+ decay at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Peter S.

    2006-07-11

    E949 is a high rate K+ decay at rest experiment with the primary goal of determining Vtd via a measurement of the branching ratio of the ultra-rare charged kaon decay K+ {yields} {pi}+vv-bar. I report here related limits from the decays K+ {yields} {pi}+{gamma}{gamma}, K+ {yields} {pi}+{gamma} and {pi}0 {yields} vv-bar from an analysis of the full E949 dataset.

  5. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

  6. Isotopic Yields and Isoscaling in Fission

    E-print Network

    W. A. Friedman

    2003-11-21

    A simple model is proposed to examine the isotopic yields of the fragments from binary fission. For a given charge partition the peaks and widths in the isotope distributions are studied both with the liquid-drop model and with shell modifications. The basis for isoscaling is also explored. The symmetry energy plays a dominant role in both the distributions and the isoscaling behavior. A systematic increase in the isoscaling parameter, $\\alpha$, with the proton number of the fragment element is predicted in the context of the liquid-drop model. Deviations arising from shell corrections are explored.

  7. The Journey from Safe Yield to Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.; Leake, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Safe-yield concepts historically focused attention on the economic and legal aspects of ground water development. Sustainability concerns have brought environmental aspects more to the forefront and have resulted in a more integrated outlook. Water resources sustainability is not a purely scientific concept, but rather a perspective that can frame scientific analysis. The evolving concept of sustainability presents a challenge to hydrologists to translate complex, and sometimes vague, socioeconomic and political questions into technical questions that can be quantified systematically. Hydrologists can contribute to sustainable water resources management by presenting the longer-term implications of ground water development as an integral part of their analyses.

  8. ON-LINE PREDICTION OF YIELD GRADE, LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE AREA, PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, ADJUSTED PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, AND MARBLING SCORE USING THE MARC BEEF CARCASS IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the MARC Beef Carcass Image Analysis System to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commerci...

  9. Identification of expressed genes in the mapped QTLs for yield related traits in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of grain yield is a perpetual goal in rice breeding. Yield and its component traits are quantitatively inherited and controlled by many genes. To identify the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) involved in yield, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 259 progeny was devel...

  10. Greenhouse Studies of Soybean Aphid Effects on Plant Growth, Seed Yield, and Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little published information available that describes the effects of soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) on soybean [Glycine max (L.) merr] growth, yield, and seed composition. The objective of this research was to measure how soybean growth, yield, and yield components are affected ...

  11. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for i...

  12. Rheopexy and tunable yield stress of carbon black suspensions

    E-print Network

    Guillaume Ovarlez; Laurent Tocquer; François Bertrand; Philippe Coussot

    2012-11-16

    We show that besides simple or thixotropic yield stress fluids there exists a third class of yield stress fluids. This is illustrated through the rheological behavior of a carbon black suspension, which is shown to exhibit a viscosity bifurcation effect around a critical stress along with rheopectic trends, i.e., after a preshear at a given stress the fluid tends to accelerate when it is submitted to a lower stress. Viscosity bifurcation displays here original features: the yield stress and the critical shear rate depend on the previous flow history. The most spectacular property due to these specificities is that the material structure can be adjusted at will through an appropriate flow history. In particular it is possible to tune the material yield stress to arbitrary low values. A simple model assuming that the stress is the sum of one component due to structure deformation and one component due to hydrodynamic interactions predicts all rheological trends observed and appears to well represent quantitatively the data.

  13. Infrasound Propagation Modeling for Explosive Yield Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. E.; Golden, P.; Negraru, P.

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on developing methods of estimating the size or yield of HE surface explosions from local and regional infrasound measurements in the southwestern United States. A munitions disposal facility near Mina, Nevada provides a repeating ground-truth source for this study, with charge weights ranging from 870 - 3800 lbs. Detonation logs and GPS synchronized videos were obtained for a sample of shots representing the full range of weights. These are used to calibrate a relationship between charge weight and spectral level from seismic waveforms recorded at the Nevada Seismic Array (NVAR) at a distance of 36 km. Origin times and yields for the remaining shots are inferred from the seismic recordings at NVAR. Infrasound arrivals from the detonations have been continuously recorded on three four-element, small aperture infrasound arrays since late 2009. NVIAR is collocated with NVAR at a range of approximately 36 km to the northeast. FALN and DNIAR are located at ranges of 154 km to the north, and 293 km to the southeast respectively. Travel times and amplitudes for stratospheric arrivals at DNIAR show strong seasonal variability with the largest amplitudes and celerities occurring during the winter months when the stratospheric winds are favorable. Stratospheric celerities for FNIAR to the north are more consistent as they are not strongly affected by the predominantly meridional stratospheric winds. Tropospheric arrivals at all three arrays show considerable variability that does not appear to be a seasonal effect. Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space (NRL-G2S) Mesoscale models are used to specify the atmosphere along the propagation path for each detonation. Ray-tracing is performed for each source/receiver pair to identify events for which the models closely match the travel-time observations. This subset of events is used to establish preliminary wind correction formulas using wind values from the G2S profile for the entire propagation path. These results are then compared with results for the entire data set to analyze the performance of the formulas. Full-wave hydrodynamic calculations are carried out to investigate the effects of finite-amplitude propagation, attenuation, and wind velocity on the amplitude and spectral content of the observed signals. Relationships are explored between the yields of the explosions and the period and wind corrected amplitudes of the signals recorded at various distances. The atmospheric specifications combined with propagation modeling techniques may allow propagation path effects to be better removed so that source characteristics can be extracted from the signals.

  14. Computed barrier heights for H + CH2O yields CH3O yields CH2OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1993-01-01

    The barrier heights (including zero-point effects) for H + CH2O yields CH3O and CH3O yields CH2OH have been computed using complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF)/gradient calculations to define the stationary point geometries and harmonic frequencies and internally contracted configuration-interaction (CCI) to refine the energetics. The computed barrier heights are 5.6 kcal/mol and 30.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The former barrier height compares favorably to an experimental activation energy of 5.2 kcal/mol.

  15. Avalanche behavior in yield stress fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    We show that above a critical stress, typical yield stress fluids (gels, clay suspensions) and soft glassy materials (the colloidal glass of Laponite) start flowing abruptly and subsequently accelerate, leading to avalanches that are remarkably similar to those of granular materials. Rheometrical tests reveal that this is associated to a bifurcation in rheological behavior: for small stresses, the viscosity increases in time: the material ``ages,'' and eventually stops flowing. For slightly larger stresses the viscosity decreases continuously in time: the flow accelerates and we observe a 1 ``rejuvenation'' of the material by the flow. We show that for the Laponite system, both the aging and the shear rejuvenation can be observed directly using Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy. We propose a simple physical model capable of reproducing the rheological observations. These results may have some implication in geophysics: they shed some light on certain landslides of clayey soils, and the way quicksand works.

  16. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

  17. Secondary scintillation yield in pure xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Coelho, L. C. C.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Giboni, K.; Aprile, E.

    2007-05-01

    The xenon secondary scintillation yield was studied as a function of the electric field in the scintillation region, in a gas proportional scintillation counter operated at room temperature. A large area avalanche photodiode was used for the readout of the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas, together with the 5.9 keV x-rays directly absorbed in the photodiode. The latter was used as a reference for the determination of the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, thus, the number of VUV photons impinging the photodiode. A value of 140 photons/kV was obtained for the scintillation amplification parameter. The attained results are in good agreement with those predicted, for room temperature, by Monte Carlo simulation and Boltzmann calculations, as well as with those obtained for saturated xenon vapour, at cryogenic temperatures, and are about a factor of two higher than former results measured at room temperature.

  18. Semiconductor yield improvements through automatic defect classification

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, S.; Kulkarni, A.

    1995-09-30

    Automatic detection of defects during the fabrication of semiconductor wafers is largely automated, but the classification of those defects is still performed manually by technicians. Projections by semiconductor manufacturers predict that with larger wafer sizes and smaller line width technology the number of defects to be manually classified will increase exponentially. This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) and KLA Instruments developed concepts, algorithms and systems to automate the classification of wafer defects to decrease inspection time, improve the reliability of defect classification, and hence increase process throughput and yield. Image analysis, feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification schemes were developed that are now being used as research tools for future products and are being integrated into the KLA line of wafer inspection hardware. An automatic defect classification software research tool was developed and delivered to the CRADA partner to facilitate continuation of this research beyond the end of the partnership.

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  20. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-08-22

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  1. Validation of yield enhancing QTLs from a low-yielding wild ancestor of rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of introgression lines (ILs) containing chromosomal segments from O. rufipogon (IRGC 105491), a wild relative of O. sativa, in the genetic background of an elite U.S. variety, cv. Jefferson, was developed to confirm the performance of six yield-enhancing quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Fifty B...

  2. Relations for Direct CP asymmetries in B {yields} PP and B {yields} PV decays

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, T. N.

    2006-01-12

    The presence of additional strong phase from power corrections and other chirally enhanced terms makes it more difficult to predict direct CP asymmetries in two-body charmless B decays. In this talk, I would like to report on a recent work on QCD Factorisation and Power Corrections in Charmless B Decays. Using the measured branching ratios for B {yields} PV, it is shown that power corrections in charmless B decays are probably large, at least for penguin dominated PV channels. Since the tree-penguin interference responsible for direct CP asymmetries in two-body charmless B decays are related by CKM factors and SU(3) symmetry, we find that, if power corrections other than the chirally enhanced power corrections and annihilation topology were negligible, QCD Factorisation would predict the direct CP asymmetry of B {yields} {pi}+{pi}- to be about 3 times larger than that of B {yields} {pi}{+-}K{+-}, with opposite sign, in agreement with the latest measurement from Belle. Similar relations are also given for direct CP asymmetries in B {yields} PV.

  3. Framework for the determination of yield limits In pharmaceutical operations

    E-print Network

    Liow, Yuh Han John

    2010-01-01

    The manufacturing production of active pharmaceutical ingredients often involve a series of processing stages in which yield limits are prescribed to ensure that the target yield has been achieved for a batch and that the ...

  4. QUANTUM YIELDS FOR REACTION OF POLLUTANTS IN DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures are reported for determining quantum yields for direct photolysis of pollutants at low concentrations in water. Quantum yields are used to compute half-lives for direct photolysis of aquatic pollutants under sunlight.

  5. Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid

    E-print Network

    Rich, Jason P.

    Field-induced static and dynamic yield stresses are explored for magnetorheological (MR) suspensions in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid composed of an aqueous dispersion of Laponite® clay. Using a custom-built ...

  6. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and Spain in both considered drought events, however slightly less severe for 2012 than for 2005. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor droughts' impacts on crops productions and yields in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno, 2010: A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J. Climate, 23, 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45.

  7. When does this cortical area drop off? Principal component structuring of the EEG spectrum yields yes-or-no criteria of local sleep onset.

    PubMed

    Putilov, Arcady A

    2014-06-22

    The traditional sleep scoring approach has been invented long before the recognition of strictly local nature of the sleep process. It considers sleep as a whole-organism behavior state, and, thus, it cannot be used for identification of sleep onset in a separate brain region. Therefore, this paper was aimed on testing whether the practically useful, simple and reliable yes-or-no criterion of sleep onset in a particular cortical region might be developed through applying principal component analysis to the electroencephalographic (EEG) spectra. The resting EEG was recorded with 2-hour intervals throughout 43-61-hour prolongation of wakefulness, and during 12 20-minute attempts to nap in the course of 24-hour wakefulness (15 and 18 adults, respectively). The EEG power spectra were averaged on 1-min intervals of each resting EEG record and on 1-min intervals of each napping attempt, respectively. Since we earlier demonstrated that scores on the first and second principal components of the EEG spectrum exhibit dramatic changes during the sleep onset period, a zero-crossing buildup of the first score and a zero-crossing decline of the second score were examined as possible yes-or-no markers of regional sleep onsets. The results suggest that, irrespective of electrode location, sleep onset criterion and duration of preceding wakefulness, a highly significant zero-crossing decline of the second principal component score always occurred within 1-minute interval of transition from wakefulness to sleep. Therefore, it was concluded that such zero-crossing decline can serve as a reliable, simple, and practically useful yes-or-no marker of drop off event in a given cortical area. PMID:24878318

  8. LIGHT-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE FLUORESCENCE YIELD OF

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    LIGHT-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE FLUORESCENCE YIELD OF CHLOROPHYLL a IN VIVO I. ANACYSTIS NIDULANS in the fluorescence yield (S -*1M) requires light absorbed in system II while light absorbed in system I is ineffec in the flu- orescence yield of chlorophyll a. Consequently, the fluorescence spectrum of the alga is variable

  9. Raising yield potential in wheat: increasing photosynthesis capacity and efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing wheat yields to help to ensure food security is a major challenge. Meeting this challenge requires a quantum improvement in the yield potential of wheat. Past increases in yield potential have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index not through increased biomass. Further large...

  10. Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid

    E-print Network

    1 Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid Jason P. Rich,a Patrick S. Doyle,a Gareth@mit.edu Abstract Field-induced static and dynamic yield stresses are explored for magnetorheological (MR Magnetorheology, Yield Stress, Aging, Clay, Suspensions Introduction Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are field

  11. Yielding Mechanisms in Associating Telechelic Protein Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, B. D.; Tirrell, D. A.; Kornfield, J. A.; Wang, Z.-G.

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the flow of associating polymer hydrogels is important for the development of injectable biomaterials. We have investigated gels formed by telechelic proteins composed of associating coiled-coil endblocks linked by a polyelectrolyte midblock domain under both large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) and capillary flow. These materials show dramatic yielding behavior that allows them to flow under low shear stress. Upon cessation of shear they almost instantaneously heal to full elastic strength, making them promising as injectable hydrogels. LAOS experiments and flow visualization suggest that these properties occur due to the formation of shear bands at high strain rates. A theoretical treatment of molecular configuration during flow has been developed to understand the molecular origins of the rheological response in telechelic polymer gels. Polymer chains are modeled as dumbbells with a FENE chain potential, and force-activated kinetics of endgroup attachment and detachment that satisfy detailed balance are used to model the transition of chains between looped, bridged, and detached chain configurations.

  12. On Strength at Yield in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Neil K.

    2015-10-01

    This paper concerns the lower of a range of thresholds that control the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient laboratory state to the point at which the bond strength is overcome and warm dense matter is formed. One oft-used term is yield stress and its variation with the rise time of the loading pulse are considered in this first paper. This threshold shows a correlation between the length scale swept by the rise of the pulse and the defect distribution within the target for a range of materials. Strain rate is also a useful term that reflects the evolution of the stress state within a target but must be defined for a particular volume element containing a particular defect distribution to reflect continuum conditions acting within and thus applies to a defined length scale within a target. This overview of behavior suggests concepts borrowed from rate-independent plasticity have served the community well but that to advance it may be necessary to use viscoplastic concepts in constitutive descriptions for the future.

  13. Boosting investor yields through bond insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Mosbacher, M.L.; Burkhardt, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    The market for utility securities generally tends to be fairly static. Innovative financing techniques are rarely used because of the marketability of utility securities stemming from the companies' generally strong financial credit and the monopoly markets most utilities serve. To many people, utility securities are considered the pillars of the financial world, and innovation is not needed. Further, plain vanilla utility issues are easily understood by investors, as well as by regulators and customers. Over the past several years, however, a new utility bond product has crept into the world of utility securities - insured secondary utility bonds. These insured bonds may possibly be used as an alternative financing technique for newly issued debt. Individual investors often tend to rely on insurance as a tool for reducing credit risk and are willing to take the lower yields as a tradeoff. Insured utility bonds are created by brokerage firms through the acqusition of a portion of an outstanding utility bond issue and subsequent solicitation of the insurance companies for bids. The insurance company then agrees to insure that portion of the issue until maturity for a fee, and the brokerage firm sells those bonds to their customers as a AAA-insured bond. Issuers are encouraged to explore the retail market as a financing alternative. They may find a most cost-effective means of raising capital.

  14. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  15. Yield stress transition in gas fluidized sand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, David; Poker, Jennifer; Savrin, Tamara; Rutgers, Maarten

    2000-11-01

    Gas fluidized powders can take on three distinct states. I: Solid like for low gas flow rates. II: At intermediate flow rates, the bed expands and drastically reduces its yield stress, i.e. quicksand which cannot support the weight of solid objects. III: At high flow rates rising gas bubbles churn the sand grains violently. We have measured that the transition from regime I to II does not occur simultaneously for the entire column, but rather as a well defined front which sweeps through the column as a function of gas flow rate. Earlier measurements sensed this front by measuring the depth to which a brass sphere would sink in the liquid phase. We have supplemented this with careful measurements of the vertical gas pressure gradient throughout the column. The pressure profile shows a distinct change in the gradient at a height which correlates well with results from the sinking sphere measurement. From the pressure gradient we calculate the local gas permeability of the sand, which is related to the grain density, which can be measured with an accuracy of better than 1 part in 100. We thank the NSF-REU program for partial support of this research.

  16. Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.

    2009-05-01

    We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

  17. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Faramarzi, Monireh; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Koch, Friedrich J.; Müller, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51-2.10 t ha-1, or 44-52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14-3.30 t ha-1, or 62-63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha-1) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets.

  18. Methane Yield Database: Online infrastructure and bioresource for methane yield data and related metadata.

    PubMed

    Murovec, Boštjan; Kolbl, Sabina; Stres, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a community supported online infrastructure and bioresource for methane yield data and accompanying metadata collected from published literature. In total, 1164 entries described by 15,749 data points were assembled. Analysis of data collection showed little congruence in reporting of methodological approaches. The largest identifiable source of variation in reported methane yields was represented by authorship (i.e. substrate batches within particular substrate class) within which experimental scales (volumes (0.02-5l), incubation temperature (34-40 °C) and % VS of substrate played an important role (p < 0.05, npermutations = 999) as well. The largest fraction of variability, however, remained unaccounted for and thus unexplained (> 63%). This calls for reconsideration of accepted approaches to reporting data in currently published literature to increase capacity to service industrial decision making to a greater extent. PMID:25898082

  19. Anomalous DD and TT yields relative to the DT yield in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Daniel T.

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the D(d,p)T (DD), T(t,2n)4He (TT) and D(t,n)4He (DT) reactions have been conducted using deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In these experiments, which were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility, absolute spectral measurements of the DD protons and TT neutrons were conducted and compared to neutron-time-of-flight measured DT-neutron yields. From these measurements, it is concluded that the DD yield is anomalously low and the TT yield is anomalously high relative to the DT yield, an effect that is enhanced with increasing ion temperature. These results can be explained by an enrichment of tritium in the core of an ICF implosion, which may be present in ignition experiments planned on the National Ignition Facility. In addition, the spectral measurements of the TT-neutron spectrum were conducted for the first time at reactant central-mass energies in the range of 15-30 keV. The results from these measurements indicate that the TT reaction proceeds primarily through the direct three-body reaction channel, producing a continuous TT-neutron spectrum in the range 0 - 9.5 MeV. This work was conducted in collaboration with J. A. Frenje, M. Gatu Johnson, M. J.-E. Manuel, H. G. Rinderknecht, N. Sinenian, F. H. Seguin, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, P. B. Radha, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, D. P. McNabb, P. A. Amendt, R. N. Boyd, J. R. Rygg, H. W. Herrmann, Y. H. Kim, G. P. Grim and A. D. Bacher. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG03-03SF22691), LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974).

  20. High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.

    PubMed

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2012-01-24

    Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

  1. On the effective sputter yield during magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depla, D.

    2014-06-01

    The effective sputter yield during magnetron sputtering of elemental targets was measured by weighing the target before and after sputtering at constant discharge voltage. During the experiment, the pressure and discharge current were logged. The effective sputter yield is compared with a set of published semi-empirical equations to calculate the sputter yield for ion/solid interactions. The differences between both yields are discussed based on different contributions which affect the effective sputter yield such as redeposition, the target roughness and the contribution of high energetic neutrals.

  2. A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Thielemann, N.; Hoffmann, P.; Foehlisch, A.

    2012-09-15

    The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

  3. Weather-based forecasts of California crop yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D B; Cahill, K N; Field, C B

    2005-09-26

    Crop yield forecasts provide useful information to a range of users. Yields for several crops in California are currently forecast based on field surveys and farmer interviews, while for many crops official forecasts do not exist. As broad-scale crop yields are largely dependent on weather, measurements from existing meteorological stations have the potential to provide a reliable, timely, and cost-effective means to anticipate crop yields. We developed weather-based models of state-wide yields for 12 major California crops (wine grapes, lettuce, almonds, strawberries, table grapes, hay, oranges, cotton, tomatoes, walnuts, avocados, and pistachios), and tested their accuracy using cross-validation over the 1980-2003 period. Many crops were forecast with high accuracy, as judged by the percent of yield variation explained by the forecast, the number of yields with correctly predicted direction of yield change, or the number of yields with correctly predicted extreme yields. The most successfully modeled crop was almonds, with 81% of yield variance captured by the forecast. Predictions for most crops relied on weather measurements well before harvest time, allowing for lead times that were longer than existing procedures in many cases.

  4. Relationship between grain yield and quality in rice germplasms grown across different growing areas

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Quan; Chen, Wenfu; Xu, Zhengjin

    2015-01-01

    Rice grain yield and quality are two major foci of rice breeding. In this study, Chinese regional rice test data provide us the unique opportunity to analyze the relationship between yield and quality in rice, because China has an unusually wide range of rice cultivars. We analyzed the relationships between grain yield, yield components, and grain quality of 300 rice germplasms. Japonica was superior in both yield and quality compared with indica. A high setting rate improved the head rice ratio. A higher 1000 grain weight was negatively correlated with quality characteristics but had a positive correlation with yield. A high spikelet density (number of grains per centimeter on the panicle) not only benefits the yield but also the head rice ratio and chalkiness traits. According to our results, global rice production can be increased to at least 8500 kg/ha to meet projected demands in 2025 without sacrificing grain quality. PMID:26175619

  5. Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

    1990-09-01

    Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

  6. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by considering seasonal effects. Typically, sediment concentration is the highest during the warmest months. The infrequent high flows carry a large, disproportionate amount of sediment.

  7. Yield enhancement in micromechanical sensor fabrication using statistical process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Preble, Douglas M.

    1997-09-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) has gained wide acceptance in recent years as an essential tool for yield improvement in the microelectronics industry. In both manufacturing and research and development settings, statistical methods are extremely useful in process control and optimization. Here we describe the recent implementation of SPC in the micromachining fabrication process at Draper. A wide array of micromachined silicon sensors, including gyroscopes, accelerometers, and microphones, are routinely fabricated at Draper, often with rapidly changing designs and processes. In spite of Draper's requirements for rapid turnaround and relatively small, short production runs, SPC has turned out to be a critical component of the product development process. This paper describes the multipronged SPC approach we have developed and tailored to the particular requirements of an R & D micromachining process line. Standard tools such as Pareto charts, histograms, and cause-and-effect diagrams have been deployed to troubleshoot yield and performance problems in the micromachining process, and several examples of their use are described. More rigorous approaches, such as the use of control charts for variables and attributes, have been instituted with considerable success. The software package CornerstoneR was selected to handle the SPC program at Draper. We describe the highly automated process now in place for monitoring key processes, including diffusion, oxidation, photolithography, and etching. In addition to the process monitoring, gauge capability is applied to critical metrology tools on a regular basis. Applying these tools in the process line has resulted in sharply improved yields and shortened process cycles.

  8. HVM die yield improvement as a function of DRSEM ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwary, Sonu; Haas, Terry; McGarvey, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Given the current manufacturing technology roadmap and the competitiveness of the global semiconductor manufacturing environment in conjunction with the semiconductor manufacturing market dynamics, the market place continues to demand a reduced die manufacturing cost. This continuous pressure on lowering die cost in turn drives an aggressive yield learning curve, a key component of which is defect reduction of manufacturing induced anomalies. In order to meet and even exceed line and die yield targets there is a need to revamp defect classification strategies and place a greater emphasize on increasing the accuracy and purity of the Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM) Automated Defect Classification (ADC) results while placing less emphasis on the ADC results of patterned/un-patterned wafer inspection systems. The increased emphasis on DRSEM ADC results allows for a high degree of automation and consistency in the classification data and eliminates variance induced by the manufacturing staff. This paper examines the use of SEM based Auto Defect Classification in a high volume manufacturing environment as a key driver in the reduction of defect limited yields.

  9. The Global Oxygen Yield Budget Followed in Hydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Tumlinson, Jason

    2015-08-01

    State-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations combine a vast range of astrophysics together in a single tool capable of confronting a wide range of observations. These tools track the stellar nucleosynthetic yields from core-collapse & Type Ia supernovae, AGB stars, and supergiant winds on the cosmological scale, allowing us to consider the production of heavy elements in the context of galaxy formation and evolution in a LambdaCDM cosmology. I will present new EAGLE ("Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments", Schaye et al. 2015) zoom simulations of a range of Milky Way-like galaxies that can uniquely reproduce the metallicities of galactic stars, the ISM, and now the circumgalactic medium (CGM) as probed by quasar absorption line surveys. The surprising result is that the average L* galaxy loses more oxygen to the CGM out to hundreds of kpcs from a galaxy than it retains in its stars. These zooms not only follow the nucleosynthetic yields of 11 elements, they follow the non-equilibrium ionization and cooling of 133 ions, which allow direct comparison to observations of the COS-Halos survey of O VI in galactic halos out to 150 kpc (Tumlinson et al. 2011). The result is a new understanding of the galactic nucleosynthetic yield budget in simulations where galaxies are dramatically shaped by supernovae and black hole feedback. We are now closer to reconciling observed stellar, ISM, and now CGM metallicities with the nucleosynthetic production of the stellar component.

  10. Galactic disk abundance ratios: constraining SNIa stellar yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, Cristina

    2005-10-01

    Stellar abundance ratios of very good quality are now available for a large number of stars in the solar vicinity. Moreover, for an increasing number of stars informations on kinematics is also available. The combined information on abundance and kinematics enables one to select objects belonging to the different components of our Galaxy (thin disk, thick disk and halo). In this work we show that a careful comparison of our chemical evolution model for the Milky Way with the available abundance ratio measurements for stars in the solar neighborhood can be used to constrain the stellar yields. In particular, yields of Type Ia SNe are constrained by the abundance pattern of thin disk stars. Our results suggest that the 3-D models for SNIa explosion studied here lead to discrepancies once their predicted stellar yields are used as input in our chemical evolution model. These models produce flat Si/O and Mg/O ratios in disagreement with what is observed in thin disk stars. Moreover, our results indicate that larger quantities of Mg (at least a factor of 10 more than current theoretical predictions of either 1-D or multi-D models) need to be produced in SNIa.

  11. Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Increasing agricultural productivity to ‘close yield gaps’ creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms. PMID:24535392

  12. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuhuai; Li, Jing.; Yang, Zaibin; Zhang, Guiguo

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2) involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM) and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a), potentially degradable (b) and the degradation rate constant (c) of ‘b’ fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP) yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater ‘a’ fraction, ‘b’ fraction, ‘c’ values, and effective degradability (E value) of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn-rye exhibited a greater forage production potential, and could be applied as forage supply source for ruminants. The improved effective degradability of harvest mixture material could be attributed to greater degradable components involving the rapidly degradable fractions (a), potentially degradable (b) fractions, and degradable rate constant (c), than that of corn and rye hay. PMID:26672990

  13. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Yin, Binjie; Xie, Yuhuai; Li, Jing; Yang, Zaibin; Zhang, Guiguo

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2) involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM) and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a), potentially degradable (b) and the degradation rate constant (c) of 'b' fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP) yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater 'a' fraction, 'b' fraction, 'c' values, and effective degradability (E value) of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn-rye exhibited a greater forage production potential, and could be applied as forage supply source for ruminants. The improved effective degradability of harvest mixture material could be attributed to greater degradable components involving the rapidly degradable fractions (a), potentially degradable (b) fractions, and degradable rate constant PMID:26672990

  14. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ); Kaita, Robert (Englishtown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  15. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

  16. Uncertainties in Supernova Yields I: 1D Explosions

    E-print Network

    Patrick A. Young; Chris L. Fryer

    2006-12-22

    Theoretical nucleosynthetic yields from supernovae are sensitive to both the details of the progenitor star and the explosion calculation. We attempt to comprehensively identify the sources of uncertainties in these yields. In this paper we concentrate on the variations in yields from a single progenitor arising from common 1-dimensional methods of approximating a supernova explosion. Subsequent papers will examine 3-dimensional effects in the explosion and the progenitor, and trends in mass and composition. For the 1-dimensional explosions we find that both elemental and isotopic yields for Si and heavier elements are a sensitive function of explosion energy. Also, piston-driven and thermal bomb type explosions have different yields for the same explosion energy. Yields derived from 1-dimensional explosions are non-unique.

  17. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32-39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability.

  18. Impacts of variability in cellulosic biomass yields on energy security.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Matthews, H Scott; Griffin, W Michael; Anex, Robert

    2014-07-01

    The practice of modeling biomass yields on the basis of deterministic point values aggregated over space and time obscures important risks associated with large-scale biofuel use, particularly risks related to drought-induced yield reductions that may become increasingly frequent under a changing climate. Using switchgrass as a case study, this work quantifies the variability in expected yields over time and space through switchgrass growth modeling under historical and simulated future weather. The predicted switchgrass yields across the United States range from about 12 to 19 Mg/ha, and the 80% confidence intervals range from 20 to 60% of the mean. Average yields are predicted to decrease with increased temperatures and weather variability induced by climate change. Feedstock yield variability needs to be a central part of modeling to ensure that policy makers acknowledge risks to energy supplies and develop strategies or contingency plans that mitigate those risks. PMID:24941019

  19. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability.

    PubMed

    Ray, Deepak K; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32-39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

  20. [Fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, B.F.

    1995-05-01

    In keeping with the statement of work, I have examined the fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions. In co-authorship with the UTR (University Technical Representative) Talmadge R. England ``Evaluation and Compilation of Fission Product Yields 1993,`` LA-UR-94-3106(ENDF-349) October, (1994) was published. This is an evaluated set of fission product Yields for use in calculation of decay heat curves with improved accuracy has been prepared. These evaluated yields are based on all known experimental data through 1992. Unmeasured fission product yields are calculated from charge distribution, pairing effects, and isomeric state models developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The current evaluation has been distributed as the ENDF/B-VI fission product yield data set.

  1. Yield QTLome distribution correlates with gene density in maize.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ana Karine; Soriano, Jose Miguel; Tuberosa, Roberto; Koumproglou, Rachil; Jahrmann, Torben; Salvi, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of yield and related traits in maize has been addressed by many quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies, which have produced a wealth of QTL information, also known as QTLome. In this study, we assembled a yield QTLome database and carried out QTL meta-analysis based on 44 published studies, representing 32 independent mapping populations and 49 parental lines. A total of 808 unique QTLs were condensed to 84 meta-QTLs and were projected on the 10 maize chromosomes. Seventy-four percent of QTLs showed a proportion of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) smaller than 10% confirming the high genetic complexity of grain yield. Yield QTLome projection on the genetic map suggested pericentromeric enrichment of QTLs. Conversely, pericentromeric depletion of QTLs was observed when the physical map was considered, suggesting gene density as the main driver of yield QTL distribution on chromosomes. Dominant and overdominant yield QTLs did not distribute differently from additive effect QTLs. PMID:26566847

  2. Yielding and Shear Banding in Soft Glassy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Abdoulaye; Paredes, Jose; Bonn, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Yield stress fluids have proven difficult to characterize, and a reproducible determination of the yield stress is difficult. We study two types of yield stress fluids (YSF) in a single system: simple and thixotropic ones. This allows us to show that simple YSF are simply a special case of thixotropic ones, and to pinpoint the difference between static and dynamic yield stresses, one of the major problems in the field. The thixotropic systems show a strong time dependence of the viscosity due to the existence of an internal percolated structure that confers the yield stress to the material. Using loaded emulsions to control the thixotropy, we show that the transition to flow at the yield stress is discontinuous for thixotropic materials, and continuous for ideal ones. The discontinuity leads to a critical shear rate below which no steady flows can be observed, accounting for the ubiquitous shear banding observed in these materials.

  3. Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding in model cohesive suspensions

    E-print Network

    Richard Buscall; Peter J. Scales; Anthony D. Stickland; Hui-En Teo; Tiara E. Kusuma; Daniel R. Lester

    2015-02-02

    An experimental system has been found recently, a coagulated CaCO3 suspension system, which shows very variable yield behaviour depending upon how it is tested and, specifically, at what rate it is sheared. At P\\'eclet numbers Pe > 1 it behaves as a simple Herschel Bulkley liquid, whereas at Pe cooperative and the yield strain was order-one, whereas as Pe approached unity, the yield strain reduced to that needed to break interparticle bonds, causing the yield stress to be greatly reduced. It is suspected that rate-dependent yield could well be the rule rather than the exception for cohesive suspensions more generally. If so, then the Herschel-Bulkley equation can usefully be generalized to read (in simple shear). The proposition that rate-dependent yield might be general for cohesive suspensions is amenable to critical experimental testing by a range of means and along lines suggested.

  4. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

  5. 2001-2002 UNIFORM WINTER BARLEY YIELD NURSERY REPORT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Winter BarleyYield Nursery was grown at 12 stations in 8 states in 2001-02. There were 23 entries including 10 that were new this year. The average yield over all lines and stations was 76.3 bu/A with line averages ranging from 49.6 to 130.2 bu/A. VA97B-176 was the top yielding experim...

  6. Yield prediction by analysis of multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Suits, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary model describing the growth and grain yield of wheat was developed. The modeled growth characteristics of the wheat crop were used to compute wheat canopy reflectance using a model of vegetation canopy reflectance. The modeled reflectance characteristics were compared with the corresponding growth characteristics and grain yield in order to infer their relationships. It appears that periodic wheat canopy reflectance characteristics potentially derivable from earth satellites will be useful in forecasting wheat grain yield.

  7. Rice yield estimation with multi-temporal Radarsat-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Cheng-Ru

    2015-04-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in Taiwan. Monitoring rice crop yield is thus crucial for agronomic planners to formulate successful strategies to address national food security and rice grain export issues. However, there is a real challenge for this monitoring purpose because the size of rice fields in Taiwan was generally small and fragmented, and the cropping calendar was also different from region to region. Thus, satellite-based estimation of rice crop yield requires the data that have sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. This study aimed to develop models to estimate rice crop yield from multi-temporal Radarsat-2 data (5 m resolution). Data processing were carried out for the first rice cropping season from February to July in 2014 in the western part of Taiwan, consisting of four main steps: (1) constructing time-series backscattering coefficient data, (2) spatiotemporal noise filtering of the time-series data, (3) establishment of crop yield models using the time-series backscattering coefficients and in-situ measured yield data, and (4) model validation using field data and government's yield statistics. The results indicated that backscattering behavior varied from region to region due to changes in cultural practices and cropping calendars. The highest correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.8) was obtained at the ripening period. The robustness of the established models was evaluated by comparisons between the estimated yields and in-situ measured yield data showed satisfactory results, with the root mean squared error (RMSE) smaller than 10%. Such results were reaffirmed by the correlation analysis between the estimated yields and government's rice yield statistics (R2 > 0.8). This study demonstrates advantages of using multi-temporal Radarsat-2 backscattering data for estimating rice crop yields in Taiwan prior to the harvesting period, and thus the methods were proposed for rice yield monitoring in other regions.

  8. Direct laboratory tensile testing of select yielding rock bolt systems

    SciTech Connect

    VandeKraats, J.D.; Watson, S.O.

    1996-12-01

    Yielding rock bolt support systems have been developed to accommodate ground movement in shifting ground such as in coal operations; in creeping ground such as salt, trona, and potash; and in swelling ground associated with some clays. These systems, designed to remain intact despite ground movement, should enhance mine safety and help contain costs in areas where revolting of rigid non-yielding systems is typically required. Four such systems were tested in straight tensile pulls in the laboratory. They include the Slip Nut System from Dywidag Systems International USA, Inc., Ischebeck`s bolt mounted Titan Load Indicator, Rocky Mountain Bolt Company`s Yielding Cable Bolt, and a rock bolt installed variation of the yielding steel post developed by RE/SPEC Inc. The first two systems are currently marketed products and the latter two are prototype systems. Each system responds to load and displacement by yielding in a unique manner. All are designed to yield at predetermined loads. A description of each system and its yield function is provided. Each system was tested over its prescribed yield range in a test machine. At least five tests were performed on each system. Each system yielded and continued to provide support according to its design. Each shows promise for ground control use in shifting or creeping rock. This work helps to illustrate the comparative differences in performance between these specialized systems and the applications where they may be most useful.

  9. Direct laboratory tensile testing of select yielding rock bolt systems

    SciTech Connect

    VandeKraats, J.D.; Watson, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    Yielding rock bolt support systems have been developed to accommodate ground movement in shifting ground such as in coal operations; in creeping ground such as salt, trona, and potash; and in swelling ground associated with some clays. These systems, designed to remain intact despite ground movement, should enhance mine safety and help contain costs in areas where rebolting of rigid non-yielding systems is typically required. Four such systems were tested in straight tensile pulls in the laboratory. They include the Slip Nut System from Dywidag Systems International USA, Inc., Ischebeck`s bolt mounted Titan Load Indicator, Rocky Mountain Bolt Company`s Yielding Cable Bolt, and a rock bolt installed variation of the yielding steel post developed by RE/SPEC Inc. The first two systems are currently marketed products and the latter two are prototype systems. Each system responds to load and displacement by yielding in an unique manner. All are designed to yield at predetermined loads. A description of each system and its yield function is provided. Each system was tested over its prescribed yield range in a test machine. At least five tests were performed on each system. Each system yielded and continued to provide support according to its design. Each shows promise for ground control use in shifting or creeping rock. This work helps to illustrate the comparative differences in performance between these specialized systems and the applications where they may be most useful.

  10. Tensile Yielding of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Srivastava, Deepak; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The tensile yielding of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been studied using Molecular Dynamics simulations and a Transition State Theory based model. We find a strong dependence of the yielding on the strain rate. A critical strain rate has been predicted above/below which yielding strain of a MWCNT is larger/smaller than that of the corresponding single-wall carbon nanotubes. At experimentally feasible strain rate of 1% /hour and T = 300K, the yield strain of a MWCNT is estimated to be about 3-4 % higher than that of an equivalent SWCNT (Single Wall Carbon Nanotube), in good agreement with recent experimental observations.

  11. High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

  12. Galactic chemical evolution: stellar yields and the initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollá, Mercedes; Cavichia, Oscar; Gavilán, Marta; Gibson, Brad K.

    2015-08-01

    We present a set of 144 Galactic chemical evolution models applied to a Milky Way analogue, computed using four sets of low+intermediate star nucleosynthetic yields, six massive star yield compilations, and six functional forms for the initial mass function. A comparison is made between a grid of multiphase chemical evolution models computed with these yield combinations and empirical data drawn from the Milky Way's disc, including the solar neighbourhood. By means of a ?2 methodology, applied to the results of these multiphase models, the best combination of stellar yields and initial mass function capable of reproducing these observations is identified.

  13. MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH A QTL FOR GRAIN YIELD IN WHEAT UNDER DROUGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects wheat production in many regions of the world. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling grain yield and yield components under reduced moisture. A cross between common wheat cultivars ‘Dharwar Dry’ ...

  14. Uncertainty in Simulating Wheat Yields Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J.W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Ruane, Alex; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, Peter; Rotter, R.P.; Cammarano, D.; Brisson, N.; Basso, B.; Martre, P.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, AJ; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grant, Robert; Heng, L.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Mueller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.O.; Olesen, JE; Osborne, T.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Travasso, M.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

    2013-09-01

    Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments1,2. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change has been increasingly described in the literature3,4 while assessments of the uncertainty in crop responses to climate change are very rare. Systematic and objective comparisons across impact studies is difficult, and thus has not been fully realized5. Here we present the largest coordinated and standardized crop model intercomparison for climate change impacts on wheat production to date. We found that several individual crop models are able to reproduce measured grain yields under current diverse environments, particularly if sufficient details are provided to execute them. However, simulated climate change impacts can vary across models due to differences in model structures and algorithms. The crop-model component of uncertainty in climate change impact assessments was considerably larger than the climate-model component from Global Climate Models (GCMs). Model responses to high temperatures and temperature-by-CO2 interactions are identified as major sources of simulated impact uncertainties. Significant reductions in impact uncertainties through model improvements in these areas and improved quantification of uncertainty through multi-model ensembles are urgently needed for a more reliable translation of climate change scenarios into agricultural impacts in order to develop adaptation strategies and aid policymaking.

  15. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

  16. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds.

    PubMed

    Pope, Katherine S; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H; DeJong, Theodore M

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond (Prunus dulcis), pistachio (Pistacia vera), and walnut (Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change. PMID:25119825

  17. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  18. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful post-harvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (...

  19. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  20. Evaluating YieldTracker forecast for maize in western Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We seek to predict in-season land productivity to guide irrigation management decisions designed to optimize water utilization in the Ogallala Aquifer region. YieldTracker is a mathematical model that simulates growth and yield of graminoid crops using weather and leaf area index (LAI) as inputs, wh...

  1. Cover crops can improve potato tuber yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is the need to develop sustainable systems with higher yields and crop quality. We conducted studies with cover crops grown under limited irrigation (< 200 mm) to assess the effects of certain types of cover crops on tuber yield and quality. On a commercial farm operation prior to the 2006 and...

  2. Response of switchgrass yield to future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulbure, Mirela G.; Wimberly, Michael C.; Owens, Vance N.

    2012-12-01

    A climate envelope approach was used to model the response of switchgrass, a model bioenergy species in the United States, to future climate change. The model was built using general additive models (GAMs), and switchgrass yields collected at 45 field trial locations as the response variable. The model incorporated variables previously shown to be the main determinants of switchgrass yield, and utilized current and predicted 1 km climate data from WorldClim. The models were run with current WorldClim data and compared with results of predicted yield obtained using two climate change scenarios across three global change models for three time steps. Results did not predict an increase in maximum switchgrass yield but showed an overall shift in areas of high switchgrass productivity for both cytotypes. For upland cytotypes, the shift in high yields was concentrated in northern and north-eastern areas where there were increases in average growing season temperature, whereas for lowland cultivars the areas where yields were projected to increase were associated with increases in average early growing season precipitation. These results highlight the fact that the influences of climate change on switchgrass yield are spatially heterogeneous and vary depending on cytotype. Knowledge of spatial distribution of suitable areas for switchgrass production under climate change should be incorporated into planning of current and future biofuel production. Understanding how switchgrass yields will be affected by future changes in climate is important for achieving a sustainable biofuels economy.

  3. Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous maize yields are limited by the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous year’s maize residue decomposes. We tested the hypothesis that soil biochar applications could help mitigate maize autotoxicity and the associated yield depression. Eighteen small field plots (23.7 m2) were es...

  4. PUTATIVE ALLELES FOR INCREASED YIELD FROM SOYBEAN PLANT INTRODUCTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving seed yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars is an important goal of breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate two soybean plant introductions (PIs) as sources of alleles for the enhancement of seed yield in North American cultivars. A soybean population ...

  5. Chinese germplasm evaluation for yield and disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-five accessions of Chinese germplasm reported last year (Dilday et al., 2001) were evaluated for grain yield and disease reactions in field tests. All but 6 of them were indica. The yield test was conducted in the same way as last year, i.e. 4 maturity groups formed by the heading dates col...

  6. Rate of yield and quality change in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

  7. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

  8. 50 CFR 600.310 - National Standard 1-Optimum Yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Standard 1-Optimum Yield. 600.310 Section 600.310 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS National Standards § 600.310 National Standard 1—Optimum Yield....

  9. 50 CFR 600.310 - National Standard 1-Optimum Yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Standard 1-Optimum Yield. 600.310 Section 600.310 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS National Standards § 600.310 National Standard 1—Optimum Yield....

  10. 50 CFR 600.310 - National Standard 1-Optimum Yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Standard 1-Optimum Yield. 600.310 Section 600.310 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS National Standards § 600.310 National Standard 1—Optimum Yield....

  11. 50 CFR 600.310 - National Standard 1-Optimum Yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Standard 1-Optimum Yield. 600.310 Section 600.310 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS National Standards § 600.310 National Standard 1—Optimum Yield....

  12. Preparation of specific-yield logs for clastic bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific yield is the principal aquifer characteristic needed to estimate the volume of recoverable ground water in storage in an aquifer. Determination of specific yield can be difficult and costly, particularly in deep, confined aquifers where core drilling and core analyses may be needed to define specific yield. A method has been developed for preparation of specific-yield geophysical logs that could greatly ease the determination of specific yields in such aquifers. Three geophysical logs that were investigated as potential indicators of specific yield were the free fluid index log, the effective-porosity log, and the apparent grain-density log. The free fluid index log did not accurately represent conditions at the test site in central Colorado and may not be suitable for application in other shallow and permeable aquifers. The effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs were each used in least-squares linear regressions to correlate log response to specific yield measured in core samples. The resulting regression equations have coefficients of correlation (R) of 0.84 and 0.90, and were used to successfully prepare specific-yield logs from the effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs.

  13. Yield estimation of sugarcane based on agrometeorological-spectral models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; Batista, Getulio Teixeira

    1990-01-01

    This work has the objective to assess the performance of a yield estimation model for sugarcane (Succharum officinarum). The model uses orbital gathered spectral data along with yield estimated from an agrometeorological model. The test site includes the sugarcane plantations of the Barra Grande Plant located in Lencois Paulista municipality in Sao Paulo State. Production data of four crop years were analyzed. Yield data observed in the first crop year (1983/84) were regressed against spectral and agrometeorological data of that same year. This provided the model to predict the yield for the following crop year i.e., 1984/85. The model to predict the yield of subsequent years (up to 1987/88) were developed similarly, incorporating all previous years data. The yield estimations obtained from these models explained 69, 54, and 50 percent of the yield variation in the 1984/85, 1985/86, and 1986/87 crop years, respectively. The accuracy of yield estimations based on spectral data only (vegetation index model) and on agrometeorological data only (agrometeorological model) were also investigated.

  14. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using no-till practices have observed that crop yields can greatly exceed expectations based on nutrient and water supply. For example, Ralph Holzwarth, who farms near Gettysburg, SD, has averaged 150 bu/ac of corn on his farm for the past 6 years. We were surprised with this yield, as c...

  15. Year patterns of climate impact on wheat yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall, temperature, and solar radiation are defining factors for crop production. Due to the close correlation among these factors, it is difficult to evaluate their individual impact on crop yield. We propose to identify year patterns of climate impact on yield on the basis of rain and non-rain ...

  16. Air Fluorescence Photon Yield In Cosmic Ray Showers

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    as a calorimeter. Fluorescent light is detected by a by an apparatus of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) on clear, dark enough, inaccuracy in the measurement of fluorescence photon yield could show HiRes's spectrum to be tooAir Fluorescence Photon Yield In Cosmic Ray Showers Ryan D. Reece REU student advised by Prof

  17. Relationship between leaflet nitrogen: Potassium ratio and yield of pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the relationship between foliar N:K ratio and nutmeat yield of ‘Desirable’ [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch] pecan. Regression analysis of linear and curvilinear relationships between leaflet N:K ratio and in-shell yield identified associations relevant to orchard nutrition...

  18. CHANGES IN CROP PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY WITH HIGH YIELD PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in crop yield are due to changes in the genetic efficiency in the use of inputs. However, there are constraints on efficient use of resources, e.g., water, nitrogen, solar radiation, that limit consistent high yield response. The interactions of water, nitrogen, and light form a basis fo...

  19. Fact Sheet: Accurately measuring forage yield in pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers have a few options for measuring pasture yield. These include pasture rulers, plate meters, and electronic gauges. Pasture rulers simply measure canopy height and assume that forage yield is directly related to height. Plate meters improve accuracy by measuring compressed height. Electronic ...

  20. Effects of capillarity and microtopography on wetland specific yield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic models aid in describing water flows and levels in wetlands. Frequently, these models use a specific yield conceptualization to relate water flows to water level changes. Traditionally, a simple conceptualization of specific yield is used, composed of two constant values for above- and below-surface water levels and neglecting the effects of soil capillarity and land surface microtopography. The effects of capiltarity and microtopography on specific yield were evaluated at three wetland sites in the Florida Everglades. The effect of capillarity on specific yield was incorporated based on the fillable pore space within a soil moisture profile at hydrostatic equilibrium with the water table. The effect of microtopography was based on areal averaging of topographically varying values of specific yield. The results indicate that a more physically-based conceptualization of specific yield incorporating capillary and microtopographic considerations can be substantially different from the traditional two-part conceptualization, and from simpler conceptualizations incorporating only capillarity or only microtopography. For the sites considered, traditional estimates of specific yield could under- or overestimate the more physically based estimates by a factor of two or more. The results suggest that consideration of both capillarity and microtopography is important to the formulation of specific yield in physically based hydrologic models of wetlands. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  1. BUTTERBEAN SEED YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENT ARE AFFECTED BY PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield and seed protein content of edible beans are important to growers and consumers. We hypothesized that some colors of light reflected to growing bean plants could affect photomorphogenesis enough to result in greater seed yield and protein content. Speckled butterbean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) was...

  2. Unsupervised linear unmixing of hyperspectral image for crop yield estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery are often used for estimating crop yield. This paper describes an unsupervised unmixing scheme of hyperspectral images to estimate crop yield. From the hyperspectral images, the endmembers and their abundance maps are computed by unsupervised unmixing. The abu...

  3. Trellis Tension Monitor for Continuous Growth and Yield Information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 'Trellis Tension Monitor' (TTM) can be used for continuous monitoring of growth and development in trellised crops and for automatically predicting yield. The technology was developed initially for vineyards because juice processors and wineries require yield predictions and an indication of the...

  4. Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments

    E-print Network

    Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments Scott M. Olson, A.M.ASCE,1 and Timothy D. Stark, M.ASCE2 Abstract: A procedure is proposed to evaluate the triggering of liquefaction(yield)/ v0 . Thirty liquefaction flow failures were back analyzed to evaluate shear strengths and strength

  5. Search for B{yields}K*{nu}{nu} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.

    2008-10-01

    We present a search for the decays B{yields}K*{nu}{nu} using 454x10{sup 6}BB pairs collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory. We first select an event sample where one B is reconstructed in a semileptonic or hadronic mode with one charmed meson. The remaining particles in the event are then examined to search for a B{yields}K*{nu}{nu} decay. The charged K* is reconstructed as K*{sup +}{yields}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} or K*{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}; the neutral K* is identified in K*{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mode. We establish upper limits at 90% confidence level of B(B{sup +}{yields}K*{sup +}{nu}{nu})<8x10{sup -5}, B(B{sup 0}{yields}K*{sup 0}{nu}{nu})<12x10{sup -5}, and B(B{yields}K*{nu}{nu})<8x10{sup -5}.

  6. ALFALFA YIELD AND QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN INDIVIDUAL HARVESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within cuttings over the whole growi...

  7. CENTRAL GREAT PLAINS YIELD CALCULATOR, CD VERSION 2.2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Great Plains Yield Calculator is a simple Excel spreadsheet(distributed on CD) that calculates crop yield (for 16 crops: cereal grains, seed legumes, oilseeds, forages) based on user-selected values for available starting soil water at planting and expected growing season precipitation (...

  8. Genetic Diversity and Soybean Yield: Finding the Balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on national production statistics since 1924, average soybean yield in the U.S. has increased at a nearly steady rate of 22 kg ha-1 year-1. It is possible to show some changes in this rate depending on how these past 85 years are divided, but two conclusions seem evident. Soybean yield has not...

  9. Primary radical yields in pulse irradiated alkaline aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielden, E. M.; Hart, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    Primary radical yields of hydrated electrons, H atoms, and OH radicals are determined by measuring hydrated electron formation following a 4 microsecond pulse of X rays. The pH dependence of free radical yields beyond pH 12 is determined by observation of the hydrated electrons.

  10. Topsoil Depth Effects on Crop Yields as Affected by Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott; Cruse, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topsoil (A-horizon) depth is positively correlated with crop productivity; crop roots and available nutrients are concentrated in this layer; topsoil is critical for nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Its loss or reduction can be considered an irreversible impact of soil erosion. Climatic factors such as precipitation and temperature extremes that impose production stress further complicate the relationship between soil erosion and crop productivity. The primary research objective was to determine the effects of soil erosion on corn and soybean yields of loess and till-derived soils in the rain-fed farming region of Iowa. Data collection took place from 2007 to 2012 at seven farm sites located in different major soil regions. Collection consisted of 40 to 50 randomly selected georeferenced soil probe locations across varying erosion classes in well drained landscape positions. Soil probes were done to a minimum depth of 100 cm and soil organic carbon samples were obtained in the top 10 cm. Crop yields were determined utilizing georeferenced harvest maps from yield monitoring devices and cross referenced with georeferenced field data points. Data analysis targeted relationships between crop yields versus soil organic carbon contents (SOC) and crop yields versus topsoil depths (TSD). The variation of yield and growing season rainfall across multiple years were also evaluated to provide an indication of soil resiliency associated with topsoil depth and soil organic carbon levels across varying climatic conditions. Results varied between sites but generally indicated a greater yield potential at thicker TSD's and higher SOC concentrations; an annual variation in yield response as a function of precipitation amount during the growing season; largest yield responses to both TSD and SOC occurred in the driest study year (2012); and little to no significant yield responses to TSD occurred during the wettest study year (2010). These results were not representative for all seven sites. Of the sites sampled, five showed similar yield responses while two sites did not indicate a response, and results varied between corn and soybean crops. The results indicate the potential for crop yield sensitivity and lost production due to thinning topsoil depths and lost soil organic carbon is likely associated with soil erosion. This yield sensitivity appeared to increase during drier years as thinner topsoils typically have lower water retention capacity. Minimal yield response during the wettest year further suggests that topsoil plays a critical role in plant-soil water relations.

  11. Covariance Matrix Evaluations for Independent Mass Fission Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, N.; Serot, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Sumini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent needs for more accurate fission product yields include covariance information to allow improved uncertainty estimations of the parameters used by design codes. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility to generate more reliable and complete uncertainty information on independent mass fission yields. Mass yields covariances are estimated through a convolution between the multi-Gaussian empirical model based on Brosa's fission modes, which describe the pre-neutron mass yields, and the average prompt neutron multiplicity curve. The covariance generation task has been approached using the Bayesian generalized least squared method through the CONRAD code. Preliminary results on mass yields variance-covariance matrix will be presented and discussed from physical grounds in the case of 235U(nth, f) and 239Pu(nth, f) reactions.

  12. Climate change impacts on crop yield: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Taoyuan; Cherry, Todd L; Glomrød, Solveig; Zhang, Tianyi

    2014-11-15

    When estimating climate change impact on crop yield, a typical assumption is constant elasticity of yield with respect to a climate variable even though the elasticity may be inconstant. After estimating both constant and inconstant elasticities with respect to temperature and precipitation based on provincial panel data in China 1980-2008, our results show that during that period, the temperature change contributes positively to total yield growth by 1.3% and 0.4% for wheat and rice, respectively, but negatively by 12% for maize. The impacts of precipitation change are marginal. We also compare our estimates with other studies and highlight the implications of the inconstant elasticities for crop yield, harvest and food security. We conclude that climate change impact on crop yield would not be an issue in China if positive impacts of other socio-economic factors continue in the future. PMID:25181045

  13. Drops of Yield-Stress Liquid Impacting a Solid Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2012-02-01

    We use high-speed video to investigate the drop impact process for yield-stress fluids under different initial conditions. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the impact dynamics of yield-stress liquids are greatly affected by the their viscoelasticity, which can be attributed to either a surface stress or bulk material properties. To explore these two different mechanisms, we perform impact experiments for two model fluids: liquid metals and particle suspensions, which both exhibit significant yield-stress in rheology. By controlling surface oxidation (for liquid metals) and packing density (for suspensions), we quantitatively vary the yield-stress within several orders of magnitude. In this way, we draw a direct comparison between the two fluids at various impact velocities to clarify the role of different sources of yield stress. Also, we build up an approach to bridge impact dynamics with rheological measurements.

  14. THE BIOPHYSICAL BASIS FOR SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND QUALITY IN A COTTON PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canopy microenvironment is dependant on external environmental conditions, and is modified geospatially by soil and crop properties. This study was undertaken to explore the spatial variability of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) yield and quality, and delineate the underlying biophysical components cont...

  15. Calculation of the total electron excitation cross section in the Born approximation using Slater wave functions for the Li (2s yields 2p), Li (2s yields 3p), Na (3s yields 4p), Mg (3p yields 4s), Ca (4s yields 4p) and K (4s yields 4p) excitations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simsic, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.

  16. Predicting paddlefish roe yields using an extension of the Beverton–Holt equilibrium yield-per-recruit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvin, M.E.; Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium yield models predict the total biomass removed from an exploited stock; however, traditional yield models must be modified to simulate roe yields because a linear relationship between age (or length) and mature ovary weight does not typically exist. We extended the traditional Beverton-Holt equilibrium yield model to predict roe yields of Paddlefish Polyodon spathula in Kentucky Lake, Tennessee-Kentucky, as a function of varying conditional fishing mortality rates (10-70%), conditional natural mortality rates (cm; 9% and 18%), and four minimum size limits ranging from 864 to 1,016mm eye-to-fork length. These results were then compared to a biomass-based yield assessment. Analysis of roe yields indicated the potential for growth overfishing at lower exploitation rates and smaller minimum length limits than were suggested by the biomass-based assessment. Patterns of biomass and roe yields in relation to exploitation rates were similar regardless of the simulated value of cm, thus indicating that the results were insensitive to changes in cm. Our results also suggested that higher minimum length limits would increase roe yield and reduce the potential for growth overfishing and recruitment overfishing at the simulated cm values. Biomass-based equilibrium yield assessments are commonly used to assess the effects of harvest on other caviar-based fisheries; however, our analysis demonstrates that such assessments likely underestimate the probability and severity of growth overfishing when roe is targeted. Therefore, equilibrium roe yield-per-recruit models should also be considered to guide the management process for caviar-producing fish species.

  17. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O`Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-07-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) has been developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E-2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E-v measurement.

  18. Infrared scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid argon

    E-print Network

    A. Buzulutskov; A. Bondar; A. Grebenuk

    2011-04-19

    The study of primary and secondary scintillations in noble gases and liquids is of paramount importance to rare-event experiments using noble gas media. In the present work, the scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid Ar has for the first time been measured in the near infrared (NIR) and visible region, both for primary and secondary (proportional) scintillations, using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs) and pulsed X-ray irradiation. The primary scintillation yield of the fast component was measured to be 17000 photon/MeV in gaseous Ar in the NIR, in the range of 690-1000 nm, and 510 photon/MeV in liquid Ar, in the range of 400-1000 nm. Proportional NIR scintillations (electroluminescence) in gaseous Ar have been also observed; their amplification parameter at 163 K was measured to be 13 photons per drifting electron per kV. Possible applications of NIR scintillations in high energy physics experiments are discussed.

  19. Influence of soil properties on crop yield: a multivariate statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhos, Katalin; Szabó, Szilárd; Ladányi, Márta

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the relationship between soil properties and grain yields in an East Hungarian region in regard to weather conditions. Soil pH, EC, carbonate content, soluble and exchangeable Na+, texture, organic carbon, and nutrient contents were analyzed. Yield data (maize, winter wheat, sunflower) from 10 years were standardized using calculated relative yield and yield variability. Weather conditions were characterized by the Pálfai Drought Index. Hydrological and topographical conditions were characterized by the mean altitude of plots. The ranged pedological variables were analyzed using principal component analysis with Varimax rotation. The principal component analysis showed that three principal components with eigenvalues greater than one explained more than 84% of the variability of soil properties. The multiple stepwise principal regression analysis showed that the mean relative yield was linearly correlated with all the three principal component factors (R2 = 0.49, p < 0.01). In droughty years, the sodification, salinization, soil texture, and nutrient contents determined the yields (R2 = 0.30, p < 0.05). In humid years, the lower topographical position, soil organic matter, and nutrient contents were the main limiting factors (R2 = 0.40, p < 0.01). Consequently, the variables can effectively explain the yield variability together with other variables as linear combinations.

  20. The decays. eta. yields. pi. e. nu. sub e and. eta. yields. pi. mu. nu. sub. mu

    SciTech Connect

    Herczeg, P.

    1991-01-01

    We investigate the available empirical information on the interactions that can contribute to the decays {eta} {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu}{sub ell} ({ell} = e,{mu}), and discuss the implications for the {eta} {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu}{sub ell} branching ratios. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Cotton Yield Assessment Using Remotely Sensed Drought Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiros, Emmanouel; Dalezios, Nicolas R.

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural drought is a natural hazard having direct impacts to crop yield. One major application of remote sensing to agriculture is crop monitoring and assessment of vegetative stress, whereas satellite derived indices have been extensively used for identifying stress periods in crops. In this paper, two remotely sensed indices are used in order to quantify agricultural drought impact to cotton growth and estimate the final yield. In specific, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) are used to monitor agricultural drought and estimate cotton yield. VCI and TCI characterises the moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation, respectively. VCI has excellent ability to detect drought, whereas TCI can identify thermal stresses that have direct impact in vegetation's health. The two indices are computed for 20 hydrological years, from October 1981 to September 2001, from NOAA/AVHRR ten -day composite images with 8x8 Km spatial resolution. VCI and TCI are correlated with yield data in order to identify the critical ten-day showing the highest correlation coefficient with the final yield. Two approaches are tested for deriving the empirical model for estimating cotton yield. The first uses VCI values and yield for developing the empirical relationship. The second incorporates VCI and TCI values along with yield data in a multiple regression analysis. In order to test the derived models on independent dataset, the period 1981-1996 is used for developing the empirical models, whereas the years 1997-2000 are used for validation. The study area is the Prefecture of Thessaly, the largest lowland formation of Greece and the country's largest agricultural centre, located in Central Greece. The critical ten-days for cotton yield regarding the values of the two indices are the 2nd and 3rd of July for VCI and TCI, respectively, corresponding to blooming to bolls open phenological stage. The two approaches gave similar results denoting the significance of VCI to crop yield estimation and the importance of moisture conditions to the final cotton yield in Greece. In all cases, results present that model's estimating accuracy is above 95%, with a Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) of 2% between the estimated and the real yield values. The results show that an early estimation of the cotton yield is feasible by the use of the VCI, three months prior to harvest.

  2. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

  3. Ensemble approach to wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, Nataliia; Kolotii, Andrii; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga; Kravchenko, Oleksii

    2014-05-01

    Crop yield forecasting is an extremely important component of the agriculture monitoring domain. In our previous study [1], we assessed relative efficiency and feasibility of using an NDVI-based empirical model for winter wheat yield forecasting at oblast level in Ukraine. Though the NDVI-based model provides minimum data requirements, it has some limitations since NDVI is indirectly related just to biomass but not meteorological conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to assess satellite-derived parameters that incorporate meteorology while maintaining the requirement of minimum data inputs. The objective of the proposed paper is several-fold: (i) to assess efficiency of using biophysical satellite-derived parameters for crop yield forecasting for Ukraine and select the optimal ones based on rigorous feature selection procedure; (ii) to assimilate predictions made by models built on various satellite-derived parameters. Two new parameters are considered in the paper: (i) vegetation health index (VHI) at 4 km spatial resolution derived from a series of NOAA satellites; (ii) Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION at 1 km spatial resolution. VHI data are provided as weekly composites and FAPAR data are provided as decadal composites. The particular advantage of using VHI is that it incorporates moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation canopy, while FAPAR is directly related to the primary productivity of photosynthesis It is required to find a day of the year for which a parameter is taken and used in the empirical model. For this purpose, a Random Forest feature selection procedure is applied. It is found that VHI and FAPAR values taken in April-May provided the minimum error value when comparing to the official statistics, thus enabling forecasts 2-3 months prior to harvest, and this corresponds to results derived from LOOCV procedure. The best timing for making reliable yield forecasts is nearly the same as it was for the NDVI-based approach (±16 days). The most accurate predictions for 2012 were achieved using the FAPAR-based approach with the RMSE value of 0.56 t ha-1 (performance of VHI-based and NDVI-based approaches was 0.7 t ha-1 and 0.68 t ha-1, respectively). Therefore, we can conclude that performance of empirical regression models based on satellite data with biophysical variables (such as VHI and FAPAR) is approximately 20% more accurate (on datasets available at the moment) comparing to the NDVI approach when producing winter wheat yield forecasts at oblast level in Ukraine 2-3 months prior to harvest. [1] F. Kogan, N. Kussul, T. Adamenko, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, O. Kryvobok, A. Shelestov, A. Kolotii, O. Kussul, and A. Lavrenyuk, "Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013.

  4. Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

  5. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  6. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985–2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September?May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  7. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  8. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2015-11-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  9. General lower bounds for b{yields}d penguin processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, Robert; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2005-03-01

    For the exploration of flavor physics, b{yields}d penguin processes are an important aspect, with the prominent example of B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}K{sup 0}. We recently derived lower bounds for the CP-averaged branching ratio of this channel in the standard model; they were found to be very close to the corresponding experimental upper limits, thereby suggesting that B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}K{sup 0} should soon be observed. In fact, the BABAR Collaboration subsequently announced the first signals of this transition. Here we point out that it is also possible to derive lower bounds for B{yields}{rho}{gamma} decays, which are again surprisingly close to the current experimental upper limits. We show that these bounds are realizations of a general bound that holds within the standard model for b{yields}d penguin processes, allowing further applications to decays of the kind B{sup {+-}}{yields}K{sup (}*{sup ){+-}}K{sup (}*{sup )} and B{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}l{sup +}l{sup -}, {rho}{sup {+-}}l{sup +}l{sup -}.

  10. Combining information from B{yields}{pi}{pi} and B{yields}{pi}{rho},{pi}{omega} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, M.; Zenczykowski, P.

    2005-06-01

    We consider the B{yields}{pi}{pi} and B{yields}{pi}{rho},{pi}{omega} decays alongside each other, taking into account the contributions from all individual penguin amplitudes generated by the internal t, c, and u quarks. We argue that three ratios of penguin amplitudes, each for a different internal quark, formed by dividing the individual penguin amplitude in B{yields}{pi}{pi} by the corresponding amplitude in B{yields}{pi}{rho},{pi}{omega}, should be equal. We study the implications of the assumed existence of this connection between B{yields}{pi}{pi} and B{yields}{pi}{rho},{pi}{omega}. First, accepting that in the B{yields}{pi}{pi} decays the ratio C/T of the color-suppressed factorization amplitude C to the tree factorization amplitude T is negligible, we determine the ratio of individual penguin amplitudes. Then, from the B{yields}{pi}{rho},{pi}{omega} data, we extract the effective (i.e. possibly containing some penguin terms) tree and the effective color-suppressed amplitudes relevant for these processes, and the corresponding solutions for the factorization amplitudes. Finally, we argue that the C/T ratio in B{yields}{pi}{pi} should be identical to its counterpart in B{yields}{pi}{rho},{pi}{omega} (relevant for pion emission from the decaying b quark). This constraint permits the determination of C/T and of other amplitude ratios directly from the data. Although the |C/T| ratio extracted from the available data still carries a substantial error, it is consistent with the expected value of 0.25-0.5.

  11. Numerical Modeling for Yield Pillar Design: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenfeng; Bai, Jianbiao; Peng, Syd; Wang, Xiangyu; Xu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Two single-entry gateroad systems employing a yield pillar for bump control in a Chinese coal mine were introduced. The overburden depth of the longwall panels was approximately 390 m. When the width/height (W/H) ratio of the yield pillar was 2.67, coal bumps in the tailgate occurred in front of the longwall retreating face. However, in another panel, the coal bump was eliminated because the W/H ratio was reduced to 1.67. Under this condition, instrumentation results indicated that the roof-to-floor and rib-to-rib convergences reached 1,050 and 790 mm, respectively, during longwall retreat. The numerical model was used to back-analyze the two cases of yield pillar application in the hope to find the principle for yield pillar design. In order to improve the reliability of the numerical model, the strain-hardening gob and strain-softening pillar materials were meticulously calibrated, and the coal/rock interface strength was determined by laboratory direct shear tests. The results of the validated model indicate that if the W/H ratio of the yield pillar equals 1.67, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (37.7 MPa) is much larger than that in the yield pillar (21.1 MPa); however, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (30.87 MPa) is smaller than that in the yield pillar (36 MPa) when the W/H ratio of yield pillar is 2.67. These findings may be helpful to the design of yield pillars for bump control.

  12. Empirical Geographic Modeling of Switchgrass Yields in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Brandt, Craig C; Davis, Ethan; Gunderson, Carla A; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial grass native to the US that has been studied as a sustainable source of biomass fuel. Although many field-scale studies have examined the potential of this grass as a bioenergy crop, these studies have not been integrated. In this study, we present an empirical model for switchgrass yield and use this model to predict yield for the conterminous US. We added environmental covariates to assembled yield data from field trials based on geographic location. We developed empirical models based on these data. The resulting empirical models, which account for spatial autocorrelation in the field data, provide the ability to estimate yield from factors associated with climate, soils, and management for both lowland and upland varieties of switchgrass. Yields of both ecotypes showed quadratic responses to temperature, increased with precipitation and minimum winter temperature, and decreased with stand age. Only the upland ecotype showed a positive response to our index of soil wetness and only the lowland ecotype showed a positive response to fertilizer. We view this empirical modeling effort, not as an alternative to mechanistic plant-growth modeling, but rather as a first step in the process of functional validation that will compare patterns produced by the models with those found in data. For the upland variety, the correlation between measured yields and yields predicted by empirical models was 0.62 for the training subset and 0.58 for the test subset. For the lowland variety, the correlation was 0.46 for the training subset and 0.19 for the test subset. Because considerable variation in yield remains unexplained, it will be important in future to characterize spatial and local sources of uncertainty associated with empirical yield estimates.

  13. The limits of crop productivity: validating theoretical estimates and determining the factors that limit crop yields in optimal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.

    1992-01-01

    Plant scientists have sought to maximize the yield of food crops since the beginning of agriculture. There are numerous reports of record food and biomass yields (per unit area) in all major crop plants, but many of the record yield reports are in error because they exceed the maximal theoretical rates of the component processes. In this article, we review the component processes that govern yield limits and describe how each process can be individually measured. This procedure has helped us validate theoretical estimates and determine what factors limit yields in optimal environments.

  14. High-Yield D-T Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Wells, R.P.; Reijonen, J.

    2006-11-15

    A high-yield D-T neutron generator has been developed for neutron interrogation in homeland security applications such as cargo screening. The generator has been designed as a sealed tube with a performance goal of producing 5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} n/s over a long lifetime. The key generator components developed are a radio-frequency (RF) driven ion source and a beam-loaded neutron production target that can handle a beam power of 10 kW. The ion source can provide a 100 mA D{sup +}/T{sup +} beam current with a high fraction of atomic species and can be pulsed up to frequencies of several kHz for pulsed neutron generator operation. Testing in D-D operation has been started.

  15. Three-dimensional anisotropic yield condition for Green River shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.B.; Cheatham, J.B. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    A three-dimensional, traversely isotropic yield condition is combined with a plane of weakness to describe the initial yield limit for Green River Shale. This theory is compared to experimental results for two different qualities of oil shale, including true three-dimensional tri-axial stress tests. It is interesting to note that a decrease in the anisotropy of the material with increasing mean stress is predicted by the yield condition and is borne out by the experimental results. For large confining stresses, the material ceases to fail preferentially along the plane of weakness.

  16. Yield stress and shear-banding in granular suspensions

    E-print Network

    Abdoulaye Fall; Francois Bertrand; Guillaume Ovarlez; Daniel Bonn

    2009-07-13

    We study the emergence of a yield stress in dense suspensions of non-Brownian particles, by combining local velocity and concentration measurements using Magnetic Resonance Imaging with macroscopic rheometric experiments. We show that the competition between gravity and viscous stresses is at the origin of the development of a yield stress in these systems at relatively low volume fractions. Moreover, it is accompanied by a shear banding phenomenon that is the signature of this competition. However, if the system is carefully density matched, no yield stress is encountered until a volume fraction of 62.7 0.3%.

  17. A nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation - Yield predictions in multiaxial deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, R. M., Jr.; Caruthers, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Yield stress predictions of a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation for amorphous polymer solids have been obtained and are compared with the phenomenological von Mises yield criterion. Linear viscoelasticity theory has been extended to include finite strains and a material timescale that depends on the instantaneous temperature, volume, and pressure. Results are presented for yield and the correct temperature and strain-rate dependence in a variety of multiaxial deformations. The present nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation can be formulated in terms of either a Cauchy or second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, and in terms of either atmospheric or hydrostatic pressure.

  18. Fission Yield Measurements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Irina Glagolenko; Bruce Hilton; Jeffrey Giglio; Daniel Cummings; Karl Grimm; Richard McKnight

    2009-11-01

    Correct prediction of the fission products inventory in irradiated nuclear fuels is essential for accurate estimation of fuel burnup, establishing proper requirements for spent fuel transportation and storage, materials accountability and nuclear forensics. Such prediction is impossible without accurate knowledge of neutron induced fission yields. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the fission yields reported in the ENDF/B-VII.0 library is not uniform across all of the data and much of the improvement is desired for certain isotopes and fission products. We discuss our measurements of cumulative fission yields in nuclear fuels irradiated in thermal and fast reactor spectra using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

  19. Yield Stress and Shear Banding in Granular Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Abdoulaye; Bertrand, François; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Bonn, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    We study the emergence of a yield stress in dense suspensions of non-Brownian particles by combining local velocity and concentration measurements using magnetic resonance imaging with macroscopic rheometric experiments. We show that the competition between gravity and viscous stresses is at the origin of the development of a yield stress in these systems at relatively low volume fractions. Moreover, it is accompanied by a shear-banding phenomenon that is the signature of this competition. However, if the system is carefully density matched, no yield stress is encountered until a volume fraction of 62.7±0.3%.

  20. Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louhaichi, Mounir

    A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of yield for comparison was an effective method of avoiding autocorrelation of data while better representing impacts within a field. Occasional yield increases, ranging from 1 to 5 percent, were recorded following goose grazing. Goose grazing generally resulted in seed yield reductions, ranging up to 20 percent. Later and more intensive grazing tended to increase yield reductions. Newly seeded tall fescue tended to be the most sensitive to grazing. Established perennial ryegrass tended to be more resilient.

  1. Study of B{yields}X(3872)K, with X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.

    2008-06-01

    We present measurements of the decays B{sup +}{yields}X(3872)K{sup +} and B{sup 0}{yields}X(3872)K{sup 0} with X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The data sample used, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric-energy storage ring, corresponds to 455x10{sup 6}BB pairs. Branching fraction measurements of B(B{sup +}{yields}X(3872)K{sup +})xB(X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=(8.4{+-}1.5{+-}0.7)x10{sup -6} and B(B{sup 0}{yields}X(3872)K{sup 0})xB(X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=(3.5{+-}1.9{+-}0.4)x10{sup -6} are obtained. We set an upper limit on the natural width of the X(3872) of {gamma}<3.3 MeV/c{sup 2} at the 90% confidence level.

  2. Closing Yield Gaps: Perils and Possibilities for Biodiversity Conservation

    E-print Network

    Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

    2014-02-17

    [34]. Use of fossil fuels, fertilisers and manures generates greenhouse gas emissions which affect biodiversity through climate change and ocean acidification [35]. Increasing yields has the potential to promote rather than inhibit local conversion...

  3. Agriculture and Bioactives: Achieving Both Crop Yield and Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    García-Mier, Lina; Guevara-González, Ramón G.; Mondragón-Olguín, Víctor M.; Verduzco-Cuellar, Beatriz del Rocío; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo

    2013-01-01

    Plants are fundamental elements of the human diet, either as direct sources of nutrients or indirectly as feed for animals. During the past few years, the main goal of agriculture has been to increase yield in order to provide the food that is needed by a growing world population. As important as yield, but commonly forgotten in conventional agriculture, is to keep and, if it is possible, to increase the phytochemical content due to their health implications. Nowadays, it is necessary to go beyond this, reconciling yield and phytochemicals that, at first glance, might seem in conflict. This can be accomplished through reviewing food requirements, plant consumption with health implications, and farming methods. The aim of this work is to show how both yield and phytochemicals converge into a new vision of agricultural management in a framework of integrated agricultural practices. PMID:23429238

  4. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content. PMID:25794725

  5. The Effect of Sulphur on Yield of Certain Crops. 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

    1930-01-01

    .................................................. Acknowledgments ........................................... ............................................ Literature Cited BULLETIN NO. 40s FEBRUARY, 1930 THE EFFECT OF SULPHUR ON YIELD OF CERTAIN CROPS E. B. REYNOLDS for ox; sul con11 boro: men; Sma...

  6. Elastoplastic transition in the material with sharp yield point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatenko, Vadim; Danilov, Vladimir; Zuev, Lev

    2015-10-01

    A study was made of the processes involved in the nucleation and propagation of Chernov-Luders bands in low carbon steels. It is found that the deformation bands are nucleated in the deforming sample at stress levels that are significantly lower relative to the upper yield limit. A sharp yield point is found to occur on the deformation curve, with its ascending and descending branches corresponding to the band nucleus "ingrowth". Following the sharp yield point, a mobile Chernov-Luders band proper is observed for the yield plateau. The rate of deformation band fronts has been determined for both the band "ingrowth" and the band propagation stage. The occurrence of mobile band front(s) is considered. Thus, the conventional assumption that the deformation front is a boundary separating deformed and non-deformed material regions represents facts only approximately.

  7. Future Yield Growth: What Evidence from Historical Data?

    E-print Network

    Gitiaux, Xavier

    The potential future role of biofuels has become an important topic in energy legislation as it is seen as a potential low carbon alternative to conventional fuels. Hence, future yield growth is an important topic from ...

  8. Educational Software for Illustration of Drainage, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Yield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, A. H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that developed a software package for illustrating drainage, evapotranspiration, and crop yield as influenced by water conditions. The software is a tool for depicting water's influence on crop production in western Kansas. (DDR)

  9. Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Ambavaram, Madana M. R.; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulatory network and identified a transcription factor HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) associated with PCM, which on expression in rice enhances photosynthesis under multiple environmental conditions, determining a morpho-physiological programme leading to higher grain yield under normal, drought and high-temperature stress conditions. We show HYR is a master regulator, directly activating photosynthesis genes, cascades of transcription factors and other downstream genes involved in PCM and yield stability under drought and high-temperature environmental stress conditions. PMID:25358745

  10. Potential yields and properties of oil from the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae with different biochemical content.

    PubMed

    Biller, P; Ross, A B

    2011-01-01

    A range of model biochemical components, microalgae and cyanobacteria with different biochemical contents have been liquefied under hydrothermal conditions at 350 °C, ?200 bar in water, 1M Na(2)CO(3) and 1M formic acid. The model compounds include albumin and a soya protein, starch and glucose, the triglyceride from sunflower oil and two amino acids. Microalgae include Chlorella vulgaris,Nannochloropsis occulata and Porphyridium cruentum and the cyanobacteria Spirulina. The yields and product distribution obtained for each model compound have been used to predict the behaviour of microalgae with different biochemical composition and have been validated using microalgae and cyanobacteria. Broad agreement is reached between predictive yields and actual yields for the microalgae based on their biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude are 5-25 wt.% higher than the lipid content of the algae depending upon biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude follow the trend lipids>proteins>carbohydrates. PMID:20599375

  11. Predicting milk yield in sheep used for dairying in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, A D; Cameron, A W N; Caddy, D J; Tilbrook, A J

    2007-11-01

    It is necessary to identify traits that are simple to measure and correlated with milk yield to select ewes for dairying from existing populations of sheep in Australia. We studied 217 primiparous and 113 multiparous (second parity, n = 51; third parity, n = 40; and fourth parity, n = 22) East Friesian crossbred ewes, for 2 consecutive lactations, that were milked by machine following a period of suckling (24 to 28 d). We measured lamb growth, milk production, milk yield, and residual milk during early lactation (yield. Milk production at weaning, or the amount of residual milk, or both, predict milk yield within lactations. These measures also predict milk yield between lactations. Lambs were weighed at birth and weaning and milk production in ewes was measured using a 4-h milk production test at d 5 of lactation and at weaning. Following weaning, ewes were milked twice daily and milk yield was recorded weekly for 8 wk and once a month thereafter. Milk production (using a 16-h milk production test) and residual milk were measured at weaning, and again 1 wk and 4 wk later. Milk yield to 120 d was correlated (r2 = 0.39) between lactations, and 120-d milk yield (primiparous 82.7 +/- 2.0 L; multiparous 107.1 +/- 4.2 L; second lactation 146 +/- 3.7 L) can be predicted after 4 wk of machine milking using a single measurement of either daily milk yield (primiparous 770 +/- 25 mL/d; multiparous 940 +/- 44 mL/d; second lactation 1,372 +/- 46 mL/d, r2 = 0.60 to 0.65) or daily milk production (primiparous 1,197 +/- 27 mL/d; multiparous 1,396 +/- 62 mL/d; second lactation 1,707 +/- 45 mL/d, r2 = 0.50 to 0.53). Residual milk in primiparous ewes (38%) and multiparous ewes (34%) was high (292 +/- 11 and 321 +/- 20 mL, respectively) in the first lactation, but lower (17%) in the second lactation (238 +/- 17 mL). Residual milk and 120-d milk yield were not correlated in either lactation and we suggest that the transfer of milk from the alveoli to the cistern between each milking may be an important mechanism that maintains milk yield in these ewes. PMID:17954745

  12. The yield behavior of polyethylene tubes subjected to biaxial loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semeliss, M.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M.

    1990-01-01

    High-density polyethylene is subjected to biaxial states of stress to examine the yield behavior of the semicrystalline thermoplastic under constant octahedral shear-stress rates. Combinations of internal pressures and axial loads are applied to thin-walled tubes of polyethylene, and the strain response in the axial and hoop directions are measured. The polyethylene specimens are found to be anisotropic, and the experimental measurements are compared to yield criteria that are applicable to isotropic and anisotropic materials.

  13. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.

    PubMed

    Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-22

    Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions. PMID:25621333

  14. Z{gamma}{gamma}{gamma} {yields} 0 Processes in SANC

    SciTech Connect

    Bardin, D. Yu. Kalinovskaya, L. V. Uglov, E. D.

    2013-11-15

    We describe the analytic and numerical evaluation of the {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}Z process cross section and the Z {yields} {gamma}{gamma}{gamma} decay rate within the SANC system multi-channel approach at the one-loop accuracy level with all masses taken into account. The corresponding package for numeric calculations is presented. For checking of the results' correctness we make a comparison with the other independent calculations.

  15. Yield stress and elasticity influence on surface tension measurements.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Loren; Le Merrer, Marie; Delanoë-Ayari, Hélène; Barentin, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    We have performed surface tension measurements on carbopol gels of different concentrations and yield stresses. Our setup, based on the force exerted by a capillary bridge on two parallel plates, allows us to measure an apparent surface tension of the complex fluid and to investigate the influence of flow history. More precisely the apparent surface tension measured after stretching the bridge is always higher than after compressing it. The difference between the two values is due to the existence of a yield stress in the fluid. The experimental observations are successfully reproduced with a simple elasto-plastic model. The shape of successive stretching-compression cycles can be described by taking into account the yield stress and the elasticity of the gel. We show that the surface tension ?LV of yield stress fluids is the mean of the apparent surface tension values only if the elastic modulus is high compared to the yield stress. This work highlights that measurements of thermodynamic quantities are challenged by the fluid out-of-equilibrium state implied by jamming, even at small scales where the shape of the bridge is driven by surface energy. Therefore setups allowing for deformation in opposite directions are relevant for surface tension measurements on yield stress fluids. PMID:26037476

  16. Evaluation of grain yield in sorghum hybrids under water stress.

    PubMed

    Menezes, C B; Saldanha, D C; Santos, C V; Andrade, L C; Mingote Júlio, M P; Portugal, A F; Tardin, F D

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum grain yield can be significantly affected by climatic changes, especially drought and high temperature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hybrids of grain sorghum grown under normal irrigation conditions or water stress in order to select those likely to be more tolerant of drought. Forty-nine hybrids were grown in a randomized block design experiment, with three replications. The plots consisted of four rows of 5 m length. Grain yield, weight of 1000 grains, harvest index, days to flowering, and plant height were measured. All of these characteristics were affected by water stress; however, grain yield showed the largest relative reduction. Comparison of the various genotypes showed that some hybrids had an acceptable grain yield under water stress, and maintained a high average yield compared to growth without stress. Several hybrids gave better grain yield than commercial check cultivars: 1170090, 1170092, 1170064, 1167026, 1167064, 1170093, 1167008, 1167029, 0009061, 1167092, 1105647, and 1170019 stood out for their acceptable plant height, earliness, and higher productivity. PMID:26505418

  17. Yield stress and elasticity influence on surface tension measurements

    E-print Network

    Loren Jørgensen; Marie Le Merrer; Hélène Delanoë-Ayari; Catherine Barentin

    2015-06-04

    We have performed surface tension measurements on carbopol gels of different concentrations and yield stresses. Our setup, based on the force exerted by a capillary bridge on two parallel plates, allows to measure an effective surface tension of the complex fluid and to investigate the influence of flow history. More precisely the effective surface tension measured after stretching the bridge is always higher than after compressing it. The difference between the two values is due to the existence of a yield stress in the fluid. The experimental observations are successfully reproduced with a simple elasto-plastic model. The shape of successive stretching-compression cycles can be described by taking into account the yield stress and the elasticity of the gel. We show that the surface tension $\\gamma_{LV}$ of yield stress fluids is the mean of the effective surface tension values only if the elastic modulus is high compared to the yield stress. This work highlights that thermodynamical quantities measurements are challenged by the fluid out-of-equilibrium state implied by jamming, even at small scales where the shape of the bridge is driven by surface energy. Therefore setups allowing deformation in opposite directions are relevant for measurements on yield stress fluids.

  18. Disinfection byproduct yields from the chlorination of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Yields for the formation of trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide disinfection byproducts were determined as a function of pH and initial free-chlorine concentration for the chlorination of water from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected at 12 sites on the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, MN, to New Orleans. LA, and on the Missouri and Ohio Rivers 1.6 km above their confluences with the Mississippi during the summer, fall, and spring seasons of the year. Yields varied little with distance along the Mississippi River, although the dissolved organic-carbon concentration decreased considerably with distance downstream. Yields for the Missouri and Ohio were comparable to yields for the Mississippi, despite much higher bromide concentrations for the Missouri and Ohio. Trihalomethane yields increased as the pH and initial free- chlorine concentration increased. Nonpurgeable total organic-halide yields also increased as the initial free-chlorine concentration increased, but decreased as the pH increased.

  19. Calculation of Delayed Neutron Yields for Various Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, T. D.; Jouanne, C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the comparison between the total delayed neutron yields (?dbar) calculated and the recommended values proposed by Tuttle, the experimental data of Waldo and those of Benedetti. These data are given for thermal, fast, and high energy fission ranges. The calculation of total delayed neutron yields is performed either by the NJOY nuclear data processing system or by the summation method. The decay data found in the various evaluations as the delayed neutron branching ratios (Pn) and the cumulative fission yields (CY) can also be validated by delayed neutron yield calculation using the summation method. In the first method, where the treatment is performed by the NJOY system, the general purpose evaluation files (JEFF-3, JEF-2, ENDF/B-VII.0 and ENDF/B-VI.4 were considered. In the summation calculation, the data used are the delayed neutron branching ratios (also called delayed neutron emission probabilities) and the cumulative fission yields that are given for thermal, fast, high energy fission and spontaneous fission. These data are found in the Radioactive Decay Data and Fission Yield Data files (File 8) of nuclear data evaluations. In this study, we also perform a benchmark calculation with various libraries: JEF-2.2, JEFF3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL/FP-2011.

  20. Statewide potential crop yield losses from ozone exposure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.; Soret, S.

    1998-03-01

    Past efforts to model crop losses on a regional scale used plant losses at the county level. The work reported not only employs this traditional approach (important for long-term trend analysis), but also expands the methodological basis of the Crop Loss-Assessment Program by using GIS technology to estimate yield losses at the county level. The work reported not only employs this traditional approach (important for long-term trend analysis), but also expands the methodological basis of the Crop Loss Assessment Program by using GIS technology to estimate the yield loss based on interpolated 1/d(sup 2) ozone exposure indices. Analytical procedures used 7-hour and 12-hour seasonal mean models, and SUM 06 Wiebull functions for estimating the yield losses in several crops. Interpolated yield loss contours are graphically represented and enhanced by color-coded altitudinal ramping. Ozone concentratons on a monthly basis were interpolated within the state air basins using ARB air quality statistics and an imposed 2,000-ft altitudinal barrier to transport. Monthly 7-hour means, a widely used exposure index for plant response functions, were used for the statewide interpolations. The severity of potential yield loss was determined using ARB 1993 air quality data and published yield response functions.

  1. {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {tau}{yields}l{gamma} decays in the fermion triplet seesaw model

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, A.; Bonnet, F.; Biggio, C.; Gavela, M. B.

    2008-08-01

    In the framework of the seesaw models with triplets of fermions, we evaluate the decay rates of {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {tau}{yields}l{gamma} transitions. We show that although, due to neutrino mass constraints, those rates are in general expected to be well under the present experimental limits, this is not necessarily always the case. Interestingly enough, the observation of one of those decays in planned experiments would nevertheless contradict bounds stemming from present experimental limits on the {mu}{yields}eee and {tau}{yields}3l decay rates, as well as from {mu} to e conversion in atomic nuclei. Such detection of radiative decays would therefore imply that there exist sources of lepton flavor violation not associated to triplet fermions.

  2. Estimates of spatial and temporal variation of energy crops biomass yields in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) have been identified for potential use as biomass feedstocks in the US. Current research on perennial grass biomass production has been evaluated on small-scale plots. However, the extent to which this potential can be realized at a landscape-scale will depend on the biophysical potential to grow these grasses with minimum possible amount of land that needs to be diverted from food to fuel production. To assess this potential three questions about the biomass yield for these grasses need to be answered: (1) how the yields for different grasses are varied spatially and temporally across the US; (2) whether the yields are temporally stable or not; and (3) how the spatial and temporal trends in yields of these perennial grasses are controlled by limiting factors, including soil type, water availability, climate, and crop varieties. To answer these questions, the growth processes of the perennial grasses are implemented into a coupled biophysical, physiological and biogeochemical model (ISAM). The model has been applied to quantitatively investigate the spatial and temporal trends in biomass yields for over the period 1980 -2010 in the US. The bioenergy grasses considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock switchgrass and Alamo switchgrass. The effects of climate, soil and topography on the spatial and temporal trends of biomass yields are quantitatively analyzed using principal component analysis and GIS based geographically weighted regression. The spatial temporal trend results are evaluated further to classify each part of the US into four homogeneous potential yield zones: high and stable yield zone (HS), high but unstable yield zone (HU), low and stable yield zone (LS) and low but unstable yield zone (LU). Our preliminary results indicate that the yields for perennial grasses among different zones are strongly related to the different controlling factors. For example, the yield in HS zone is depended on soil and topography factors. However, the yields in HU zone are more controlled by climate factors, leading to a large uncertainty in yield potential of bioenergy grasses under future climate change.

  3. Synthesis of (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan in the Golgi apparatus of maize coleoptiles

    SciTech Connect

    Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C. )

    1993-05-01

    Membranes of the Golgi apparatus from maize (Zea mays L.) were used to synthesize in vitro the (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan (MG) that is unique to the cell wall of the Poaceae. The MG was about 250 kDa and was separated from a much larger (1 [yields] 3)-[beta]-D-glucan (callose) by gel-permeation chromatography. Diagnostic oligosaccharides, released by a sequence-dependent endoglucanase from Bacillus subtilis, were separated by HPLC and GLC. The trisaccharide [beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, the tetrasaccharide [[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)][sub 2]-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, and longer cellodextrin-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc oligosaccharides were synthesized in proportions similar to those found in purified MG. Activated charcoal added during homogenization enhanced synthesis of MG, presumably by removing inhibitory compounds. The Golgi apparatus was determined as the site of synthesis by a combination of downward and flotation centrifugations on sucrose step gradients. The rate of synthesis did not reach saturation at up to 10 mM UDP-Glc. Chelators completely abolished synthesis, but synthase activity was restored by addition of either MgCl[sub 2] or, to a lesser extent, MnCl[sub 2]. Synthesis continued for well over 1 h; addition of KOH to raise the pH from 7.2 to 8.0 during the reaction increased the rate of synthesis, which indicates that a transmembrane pH gradient may facilitate synthesis of MG. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Estimation of corn and soybeans yield using remote sensing and crop yield data in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nari; Lee, Yang-Won

    2014-10-01

    The crop yield estimation is essential for the food security and the economic development of any nation. Particularly, the United States is the world largest grain exporter, and the total amount of corn exported from the U.S. accounted for 49.2% of the world corn trade in 2010 and 2011. Thus, accurate estimation of crop yield in U.S. is very significant for not only the U.S. crop producers but also decision makers of food importing countries. Estimating the crop yield using remote sensing data plays an important role in the Agricultural Sector, and it is actively discussed and studied in many countries. This is because remote sensing can observe the large areas repetitively. Consequently, the use of various techniques based on remote sensing data is steadily increasing to accurately estimate for crop yield. Therefore, the objective of this study is to estimate the accurate yield of corn and soybeans using climate dataset of PRISM climate group and Terra/MODIS products in the United States. We construct the crop yield estimation model for the decade (2001-2010) and perform predictions and validation for 2011 and 2012.

  5. Closing Yield Gaps: How Sustainable Can We Be?

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Prajal; Fischer, Günther; van Velthuizen, Harrij; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2015-01-01

    Global food production needs to be increased by 60–110% between 2005 and 2050 to meet growing food and feed demand. Intensification and/or expansion of agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. Closing yield gaps to attain potential yields may be a viable option to increase the global crop production. Traditional methods of agricultural intensification often have negative externalities. Therefore, there is a need to explore location-specific methods of sustainable agricultural intensification. We identified regions where the achievement of potential crop calorie production on currently cultivated land will meet the present and future food demand based on scenario analyses considering population growth and changes in dietary habits. By closing yield gaps in the current irrigated and rain-fed cultivated land, about 24% and 80% more crop calories can respectively be produced compared to 2000. Most countries will reach food self-sufficiency or improve their current food self-sufficiency levels if potential crop production levels are achieved. As a novel approach, we defined specific input and agricultural management strategies required to achieve the potential production by overcoming biophysical and socioeconomic constraints causing yield gaps. The management strategies include: fertilizers, pesticides, advanced soil management, land improvement, management strategies coping with weather induced yield variability, and improving market accessibility. Finally, we estimated the required fertilizers (N, P2O5, and K2O) to attain the potential yields. Globally, N-fertilizer application needs to increase by 45–73%, P2O5-fertilizer by 22–46%, and K2O-fertilizer by 2–3 times compared to the year 2010 to attain potential crop production. The sustainability of such agricultural intensification largely depends on the way management strategies for closing yield gaps are chosen and implemented. PMID:26083456

  6. Is Yield Increase Sufficient to Achieve Food Security in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  7. The Fingerprint of Climate Trends on European Crop Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Lobell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Europe has experienced a stagnation of some crop yields since the early-1990s as well as statistically-significant warming during the growing-season. While it has been argued that these two are causally connected, no previous studies have formally attributed long-term European yield trends to a changing climate. Here we present two statistical tests based on the distinctive spatial pattern of climate change impacts and adaptation, and explore their power under a range of parameter values. We show that statistical power for the identification of climate change impacts is high in many settings, but that power for identifying adaptation is almost always low. Applying these test to European agriculture, we find evidence that long-term temperature and precipitation trends have reduced continent-wide wheat, maize, and barley yields by 2.7%, 1.1%, and 3.9% respectively, and have increased sugarbeet yields by 1.0%. This can account for approximately 10% of the yield stagnation in Europe, with changes in agricultural and environmental policies likely explaining the remainder.

  8. Sputter yields in diamond bombarded by ultra low energy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán de la Mata, B.; Dowsett, M. G.; Twitchen, D.

    2006-07-01

    Artificial diamond is an ideal material for high power, high voltage electronic devices, and for engineering use in extreme environments. Diamond process development requires parallel development in characterization techniques such as ultra low energy SIMS (uleSIMS), especially in the ability to depth profile for impurities and dopants at high depth resolution. As a contribution to the background knowledge required, we have measured the sputter yields of single crystal high pressure high temperature (HPHT) diamond using O 2+, Cs + and Ar + primary ions in the energy range 300 eV to 2 keV. We compare these with yields for silicon and GaAs. We show that the erosion rates with oxygen are ˜10 times what would be expected from ballistic processes and essentially energy independent in the measured range. This result agrees with the anomalously high sputter yield observed in the ion etching context. Conversely, positive ion yields for elements such as boron are very low in comparison with silicon. This points to a reactive ion etching process liberating CO or CO 2 rather than sputtering as the principal erosion process. This is both problematic and beneficial for SIMS analysis. Oxygen can be used to reach buried structures in diamond efficiently, and the effects of the near-normal incidence beam are planarizing as they are in silicon. Conversely, since positive ion yields are low, alternative probes or strategies must be found for high sensitivity profiling of electropositive elements.

  9. The fingerprint of climate trends on European crop yields

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Frances C.; Lobell, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Europe has experienced a stagnation of some crop yields since the early 1990s as well as statistically significant warming during the growing season. Although it has been argued that these two are causally connected, no previous studies have formally attributed long-term yield trends to a changing climate. Here, we present two statistical tests based on the distinctive spatial pattern of climate change impacts and adaptation, and explore their power under a range of parameter values. We show that statistical power for the identification of climate change impacts is high in many settings, but that power for identifying adaptation is almost always low. Applying these tests to European agriculture, we find evidence that long-term temperature and precipitation trends since 1989 have reduced continent-wide wheat and barley yields by 2.5% and 3.8%, respectively, and have slightly increased maize and sugar beet yields. These averages disguise large heterogeneity across the continent, with regions around the Mediterranean experiencing significant adverse impacts on most crops. This result means that climate trends can account for ?10% of the stagnation in European wheat and barley yields, with likely explanations for the remainder including changes in agriculture and environmental policies. PMID:25691735

  10. Compilation of fission product yields Vallecitos Nuclear Center

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    This document is the ninth in a series of compilations of fission yield data made at Vallecitos Nuclear Center in which fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been utilized to produce a recommended set of yields for the known fission products. The original data with reference sources, as well as the recommended yields are presented in tabular form for the fissionable nuclides U-235, Pu-239, Pu-241, and U-233 at thermal neutron energies; for U-235, U-238, Pu-239, and Th-232 at fission spectrum energies; and U-235 and U-238 at 14 MeV. In addition, U-233, U-236, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Np-237 at fission spectrum energies; U-233, Pu-239, Th-232 at 14 MeV and Cf-252 spontaneous fission are similarly treated. For 1979 U234F, U237F, Pu249H, U234He, U236He, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, and Cm242F yields were evaluated. In 1980, Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242Mt, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, and Es254T are also evaluated.

  11. The fingerprint of climate trends on European crop yields.

    PubMed

    Moore, Frances C; Lobell, David B

    2015-03-01

    Europe has experienced a stagnation of some crop yields since the early 1990s as well as statistically significant warming during the growing season. Although it has been argued that these two are causally connected, no previous studies have formally attributed long-term yield trends to a changing climate. Here, we present two statistical tests based on the distinctive spatial pattern of climate change impacts and adaptation, and explore their power under a range of parameter values. We show that statistical power for the identification of climate change impacts is high in many settings, but that power for identifying adaptation is almost always low. Applying these tests to European agriculture, we find evidence that long-term temperature and precipitation trends since 1989 have reduced continent-wide wheat and barley yields by 2.5% and 3.8%, respectively, and have slightly increased maize and sugar beet yields. These averages disguise large heterogeneity across the continent, with regions around the Mediterranean experiencing significant adverse impacts on most crops. This result means that climate trends can account for ? 10% of the stagnation in European wheat and barley yields, with likely explanations for the remainder including changes in agriculture and environmental policies. PMID:25691735

  12. Metabolism and growth yields in Bacteroides ruminicola strain b14.

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, M R; Mountfort, D O; Turner, K W; Roberton, A M

    1976-01-01

    Metabolism of D-glucose by Bacteroides ruminicola subsp. brevis, strain B14, has been examined. Growth yield studies gave molar growth yields, corrected for storage polysaccharide, of approximately 66 g (dry weight)/mol of glucose fermented. The storage polysaccharide amounted to about 14% of the total dry weight, or 55% of the total cellular carbohydrate, at full growth. After correcting glucose utilization for incorporation into cellular carbohydrate, measurement of product formation showed that 1.1 succinate, 0.8 acetate, and 0.35 formate are produced and 0.5 CO2 net is taken up during the fermentation of 1 glucose under the conditions used. The implication of these results with respect to adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) molar growth yield calculations is discussed. If substrate-level phosphorylation reactions alone are responsible for ATP generation, then the ATP molar growth yield must be about 23 g (dry weight)/mol of ATP. Alternatively, if anaerobic electron transfer-linked phosphorylation also occurs, the ATP molar growth yield will be lower. Images PMID:970946

  13. Yield and quality of forages grown on mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenstler, W.F.; Henry, D.S.

    1980-12-01

    Pasture or hayland is a potential use for much of the reclaimed mined land in Kentucky. To determine the usefulness of several species for forage production, two study areas were established, one in the eastern coal fields, the second in the western coal fields. Eight species were seeded in eight different mixtures at each location. Each plot was harvested twice each year to determine yield, and samples were analyzed to determine percent protein, DMD, and sugar. Analysis of variance of the data show that there are significant differences in yield, stand, percent protein and percent DMD among the different species. There is also a significant difference in the yield of the same species between the two study areas. In eastern Kentucky, two mixtures, switchgrass-Interstate sericea lespedeza and Caucasian bluestem-Appalow sericea lespedeza yielded more hay than tall fescue-Interstate sericea, the standard of comparison. In western Kentucky, all seeding mixtures yielded more than the tall fescue Interstate mixture. There is no difference in stand among the species in eastern Kentucky. In western Kentucky, Caucasian bluestem, tall fescue, and switchgrass have better stands than other species.

  14. LDEF's map experiment foil perforations yield hypervelocity impact penetration parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.

    1992-01-01

    The space exposure of LDEF for 5.75 years, forming a host target in low earth orbit (LEO) orbit to a wide distribution of hypervelocity particulates of varying dimensions and different impact velocities, has yielded a multiplicity of impact features. Although the projectile parameters are generally unknown and, in fact not identical for any two impacts on a target, the great number of impacts provides statistically meaningful basis for the valid comparison of the response of different targets. Given sufficient impacts for example, a comparison of impact features (even without knowledge of the project parameters) is possible between: (1) differing material types (for the same incident projectile distribution); (2) differing target configurations (e.g., thick and thin targets for the same material projectiles; and (3) different velocities (using LDEF's different faces). A comparison between different materials is presented for infinite targets of aluminum, Teflon, and brass in the same pointing direction; the maximum finite-target penetration (ballistic limit) is also compared to that of the penetration of similar materials comprising of a semi-infinite target. For comparison of impacts on similar materials at different velocities, use is made of the pointing direction relative to LDEF's orbital motion. First, however, care must be exercised to separate the effect of spatial flux anisotropies from those resulting from the spacecraft velocity through a geocentrically referenced dust distribution. Data comprising thick and thin target impacts, impacts on different materials, and in different pointing directions is presented; hypervelocity impact parameters are derived. Results are also shown for flux modeling codes developed to decode the relative fluxes of Earth orbital and unbound interplanetary components intercepting LDEF. Modeling shows the west and space pointing faces are dominated by interplanetary particles and yields a mean velocity of 23.5 km/s at LDEF, corresponding to a V(infinity) Earth approach velocity = 20.9 km/s. Normally resolved average impact velocities on LDEF's cardinal point faces are shown. As 'excess' flux on the east, north, and south faces is observed, compatible with an Earth orbital component below some 5 microns in particle diameter.

  15. Aurintricarboxylic acid increases yield of HSV-1 vectors.

    PubMed

    Pechan, Peter; Ardinger, Jeffery; Ketavarapu, Jyothi; Rubin, Hillard; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Scaria, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Production of large quantities of viral vectors is crucial for the success of gene therapy in the clinic. There is a need for higher titers of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) vectors both for therapeutic use as well as in the manufacturing of clinical grade adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. HSV-1 yield increased when primary human fibroblasts were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs like dexamethasone or valproic acid. In our search for compounds that would increase HSV-1 yield, we investigated another anti-inflammatory compound, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA). Although ATA has been previously shown to have antiviral effects, we find that low (micromolar) concentrations of ATA increased HSV-1 vector production yields. Our results showing the use of ATA to increase HSV-1 titers have important implications for the production of certain HSV-1 vectors as well as recombinant AAV vectors. PMID:26015945

  16. X-1: The challenge of high fusion yield

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.L.; Ramirez, J.J.; Raglin, P.S.

    1998-06-01

    In the past three years, tremendous strides have been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy and power output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources have great potential to drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. Technical challenges in three key areas are discussed in this paper: (1) the design of a target for high yield, (2) the development of a suitable pulsed power driver, and (3) the design of a target chamber capable of containing the high fusion yield.

  17. Yield Strength as a Thermodynamic Consequence of Information Erasure

    E-print Network

    Katira, Parag

    2015-01-01

    We observe that the yield strength of a variety of materials, including highly structured and densely packed metals, alloys and semi-crystalline polymers is reasonably approximated by the thermal energy density of the material. This suggests that it is related to the entropic cost of the irreversible work done during plastic deformation rather than the enthalpic cost that depends on the elastic modulus of the material. Here we propose that the entropic cost of material rearrangement in crystalline solids arises from the difference in the uncertainty in building block positions before and after yielding and estimate it using Landauer's principle for information processing. The yield strength thus obtained in given by the thermal energy density of the material multiplied by ln(2) and provides a guidepost in estimating the strength of materials complementary to the "theoretical strength of solids".

  18. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

  19. Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests.

    PubMed

    Clough, Yann; Barkmann, Jan; Juhrbandt, Jana; Kessler, Michael; Wanger, Thomas Cherico; Anshary, Alam; Buchori, Damayanti; Cicuzza, Daniele; Darras, Kevin; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Erasmi, Stefan; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Schmidt, Carsten; Schulze, Christian H; Seidel, Dominik; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stenchly, Kathrin; Vidal, Stefan; Weist, Maria; Wielgoss, Arno Christian; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-05-17

    Local and landscape-scale agricultural intensification is a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Controversially discussed solutions include wildlife-friendly farming or combining high-intensity farming with land-sparing for nature. Here, we integrate biodiversity and crop productivity data for smallholder cacao in Indonesia to exemplify for tropical agroforests that there is little relationship between yield and biodiversity under current management, opening substantial opportunities for wildlife-friendly management. Species richness of trees, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates did not decrease with yield. Moderate shade, adequate labor, and input level can be combined with a complex habitat structure to provide high biodiversity as well as high yields. Although livelihood impacts are held up as a major obstacle for wildlife-friendly farming in the tropics, our results suggest that in some situations, agroforests can be designed to optimize both biodiversity and crop production benefits without adding pressure to convert natural habitat to farmland. PMID:21536873

  20. First fission mass yield measurements using SPIDER at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Devlin, Matt; Bredeweg, Todd; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Shields, Dan; Blakeley, Rick; Hecht, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Robust measurements of fission product properties, including mass yields, are important for advancing our understanding of the complex fission process and as improved inputs to calculation and simulation efforts in nuclear applications. The SPIDER detector, located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), is a recently developed mass spectrometer aimed at measuring fission product mass yields with high resolution as a function of incident neutron energy and product mass, charge, and kinetic energy. The prototype SPIDER detector has been assembled, tested, installed at the Lujan Center at LANSCE, and taken initial thermal neutron induced measurements. The first results of mass yields for spontaneous fission of 252Cf and thermal neutron-induced fission of 235U measured with SPIDER will be presented. Ongoing upgrades and future plans for SPIDER will also be discussed. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR. LA-UR-14-24830.

  1. Critical study of the B{yields}K{pi} puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.S.; Oh, Sechul; Yu, Chaehyun

    2005-10-01

    In the light of new experimental results on B{yields}K{pi} decays, we critically study the decay processes B{yields}K{pi} in a phenomenological way. Using the quark diagram approach and the currently available data, we determine the allowed values of the relevant theoretical parameters, corresponding to the electroweak (EW) penguin, the color-suppressed tree contribution, etc. In order to find the most likely values of the parameters in a statistically reliable way, we use the {chi}{sup 2} minimization technique. Our result shows that the current data for B{yields}K{pi} decays strongly indicate (large) enhancements of both the EW penguin and the color-suppressed tree contributions. In particular, the color-suppressed tree effect needs to be enhanced by about an order of magnitude to fit the present data.

  2. Evaluation and compilation of fission product yields 1993

    SciTech Connect

    England, T.R.; Rider, B.F.

    1995-12-31

    This document is the latest in a series of compilations of fission yield data. Fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been used to produce a recommended set of yields for the fission products. The original data with reference sources, and the recommended yields axe presented in tabular form. These include many nuclides which fission by neutrons at several energies. These energies include thermal energies (T), fission spectrum energies (F), 14 meV High Energy (H or HE), and spontaneous fission (S), in six sets of ten each. Set A includes U235T, U235F, U235HE, U238F, U238HE, Pu239T, Pu239F, Pu241T, U233T, Th232F. Set B includes U233F, U233HE, U236F, Pu239H, Pu240F, Pu241F, Pu242F, Th232H, Np237F, Cf252S. Set C includes U234F, U237F, Pu240H, U234HE, U236HE, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, Cm242F. Set D includes Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242MT, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, Es254T. Set E includes Cf250S, Cm244S, Cm248S, Es253S, Fm254S, Fm255T, Fm256S, Np237H, U232T, U238S. Set F includes Cm243T, Cm246S, Cm243F, Cm244F, Cm246F, Cm248F, Pu242H, Np237T, Pu240T, and Pu242T to complete fission product yield evaluations for 60 fissioning systems in all. This report also serves as the primary documentation for the second evaluation of yields in ENDF/B-VI released in 1993.

  3. Unparticle effects in rare t{yields}cgg decay

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Savci, M.; Bekmezci, A.

    2008-09-01

    In this work the flavor-changing, rare t{yields}cgg decay induced by mediation of scalar and tensor unparticles is studied. Using the standard model result for the branching ratio of the t{yields}cgg decay, the parameter space of d{sub U} and {lambda}{sub U}, where the branching ratio of this decay exceeds the one predicted by the standard model, is obtained. Measurement of the branching ratio larger than 10{sup -9} can give valuable information for establishing unparticle physics.

  4. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    SciTech Connect

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  5. Anomalous softening of yield strength in tantalum at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Qiumin; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Ji-an; Bi, Yan; Liu, Lei; Liu, Shenggang; Zhang, Yi; Geng, Huayun

    2015-02-01

    The pressure dependence of the yield strength of tantalum was investigated experimentally up to 101 GPa at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell. A yield strength softening is observed between 52 and 84 GPa, whereas a normal trend is observed below 52 GPa and above 84 GPa. The onset pressure of the softening is in agreement with previous results obtained by the pressure gradient method and shock wave experiments. This unusual strength softening in tantalum is not related with structural transformation, preferred orientation, or material damage. Our measurements indicate that microscopic deviatoric strain is the major reason for the observed strength softening in tantalum.

  6. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  7. Fission fizzles: Estimating the yield of a predetonated nuclear weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron Reed, B.

    2011-07-01

    An undergraduate-level model is developed for estimating the fraction of the design yield that can be realized if a uranium or a plutonium fission bomb suffers an uncontrolled predetonation due to a spontaneous fission of the fissile material. The model is based on the combination of one published earlier for the predetonation probability and a yield model developed by Mark et al. ["Explosive properties of reactor-grade plutonium," Sci. Global Secur. 17 (2), 170-185 (2009); a reprint of the same paper published in Sci. Global Secur. 4 (1), 111-128 (1993)].

  8. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

  9. Cultivating corn in clumps increases water efficiency, yield 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Cultivating corn in clumps increases water efficiency, yield.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3181 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Cultivating corn in clumps increases water efficiency... is discovering that planting corn in clumps instead of the tradi-tional rows increases water use efficiency and corn yield. Researchers are Dr. B.A. Stewart and graduate student Mohankumar Kapan-igowda of West Texas A&M University in Canyon, and Drs. Terry Howell...

  10. Enhanced Electroweak Penguin Amplitude in B{yields}VV Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Beneke, M.; Rohrer, J.; Yang, D.

    2006-04-14

    We discuss a novel electromagnetic penguin contribution to the transverse helicity amplitudes in B decays to two vector mesons, which is enhanced by two powers of m{sub B}/{lambda} relative to the standard penguin amplitudes. This leads to unique polarization signatures in penguin-dominated decay modes such as B{yields}{rho}K* similar to polarization effects in the radiative decay B{yields}K*{gamma} and offers new opportunities to probe the magnitude and chirality of flavor-changing neutral current couplings to photons.

  11. A meteorologically-driven yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravet, F. W.; Cremins, W. J.; Taylor, T. W.; Ashburn, P.; Smika, D.; Aaronson, A. (principal investigators)

    1983-01-01

    A yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat was developed for large-area crop condition assessment. Reductions are expressed in percentage from a base yield and are calculated on a daily basis. The algorithm contains two integral components: a two-layer soil water budget model and a crop calendar routine. Yield reductions associated with hot, dry winds (Sukhovey) and soil moisture stress are determined. Input variables include evapotranspiration, maximum temperature and precipitation; subsequently crop-stage, available water holding percentage and stress duration are evaluated. No specific base yield is required and may be selected by the user; however, it may be generally characterized as the maximum likely to be produced commercially at a location.

  12. {mu} {yields} e{gamma} decay versus the {mu} {yields} eee bound and lepton flavor violating processes in supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Lychkovskiy, O. V. Vysotsky, M. I.

    2012-03-15

    Even tiny lepton flavor violation (LFV) due to some New Physics is able to alter the conditions inside a collapsing supernova core and probably to facilitate the explosion. LFV emerges naturally in a see-saw type-II model of neutrino mass generation. Experimentally, the LFV beyond the Standard Model is constrained by rare lepton decay searches. In particular, strong bounds are imposed on the {mu} {yields} eee branching ratio and on the {mu}-e conversion in muonic gold. Currently, the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} is under investigation in the MEG experiment that aims at a dramatic increase in sensitivity in the next three years. We seek a see-saw type-II LFV pattern that fits all the experimental constraints, leads to Br({mu} {yields}e{gamma}) Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu}{mu} {yields}eee), and ensures a rate of LFV processes in supernova high enough to modify the supernova physics. These requirements are sufficient to eliminate almost all freedom in the model. In particular, they lead to the prediction 0.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu} {yields} e{gamma}) Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}, which will be testable by MEG in the nearest future. The considered scenario also constrains the neutrino mass-mixing pattern and provides lower and upper bounds on {tau}-lepton LFV decays. We also briefly discuss a model with a single bilepton in which the {mu} {yields} eee decay is absent at the tree level.

  13. Effect of plant density and mixing ratio on crop yield in sweet corn/mungbean intercropping.

    PubMed

    Sarlak, S; Aghaalikhani, M; Zand, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m(-2) for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m(-2) for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p < 0.01). Therefore, the mixing ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it's maximum rate of total sweet corn's biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture. PMID:19266927

  14. Empirical geographic modeling of switchgrass yields in the United States

    E-print Network

    Jager, Henriette I.

    as a sustainable source of biomass fuel. Although many field-scale studies have examined the potential of this grass as a bioenergy crop, these studies have not been integrated. In this study, we present and local sources of uncertainty associated with empirical yield estimates. Keywords: bioenergy, functional

  15. Soil health for increasing sugarcane yield and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil health can be defined as the capacity of the soil to continually produce high yields of sugarcane. Soil organic matter, native fertility, adequate moisture and drainage, soil workability, and high levels of beneficial microorganisms all contribute to soil health. Sugarcane growers in Louisiana ...

  16. Conditions that Influence Drivers' Yielding Behavior for Uncontrolled Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourquin, Eugene; Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrians with visual impairments need to cross streets where traffic signals and traffic signage are not present. This study examined the influences of several interventions, including a pedestrian's use of a mobility cane, on the behavior of drivers when they were expected to yield to a pedestrian crossing at an uncontrolled crossing.…

  17. Soybean Aphid Feeding Injury and Soybean Yield and Seed Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate prediction of the level of yield loss caused by soybean aphid feeding is considered to be the crux of integrated pest management for these pests. Despite the accumulating literature on the soybean aphid, there are currently few published data on the effects of soybean aphid populations on ...

  18. Quasi-biennial corn yield cycles in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quasi-biennial cycles are often reported in climate studies. The interannual El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are two phenomena containing quasi-periodicities of approximately 2.5 and 2.2 years. It is known that ENSO affects corn yield through weather patterns...

  19. SPRINKLER-INDUCED FLOWER LOSSES AND YIELD REDUCTIONS IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton pollen is highly sensitive to water, rupturing within 1-2 minutes of contact. Greenhouse cotton was grown for 120 d under natural light conditions (28 ± 5*C air temperature). Flowers were sprayed with known volumes of water to determine how much was needed to reduce yield. These studies sho...

  20. 7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400.53 Section 400.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  1. Yield Potential of Eastern Gamagrass in Central Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, perennial warm-season grasses have received considerable interest, largely through bioenergy initiatives, but their suitability for limiting caloric intake by developing dairy heifers has not been explored. Our objective was to assess the yield potential of eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dac...

  2. Setting the Record Straight on "High-Yield" Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Widely credited with proposing nine "high-yield" instructional strategies, author Robert J. Marzano sets the record straight about the broader number of strategies identified by the research. He provides a list of 41 strategies and suggests more nuanced ways of using, observing, and evaluating them. (Contains 1 figure.)

  3. A new route to improved glucose yields in cellulose hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2007-08-01

    An unusual inverse temperature-dependent pathway was discovered for cellulose decrystallization in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Cellulose was completely decrystallized by TFA at 0 °C in less than 2 hours, a result not achieved in 48 hours at 25°C in the same medium. The majority of TFA used in cellulose decrystallization was recycled via a vacuum process. The small remaining amount of TFA was diluted with water to make a 0.5% TFA solution and used as a catalyst in dilute acid hydrolysis. After one minute, under batch conditions at 185 °C, the glucose yield reached 63.5% without production of levulinic acid. In comparison, only 15.0% glucose yield was achieved in the hydrolysis of untreated cellulose by 0.5% H2SO4 under the same condition. Further improvement of glucose yield is possible by optimizing reaction conditions. Alternatively, the remaining TFA can be completely removed by water while keeping the regenerated cellulose in a highly amorphous state. This regenerated cellulose is much more reactive than untreated cellulose in hydrolysis reactions, but still less reactive than corn starch. The lower temperatures and shorter reaction times with this activated cellulose makes it possible to reduce operating costs and decrease byproduct yields such as HMF and levulinic acid.

  4. 2005 YIELDS ON THE CULLARS ROTATION (CIRCA 1911)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cullars Rotation is the oldest, continuous soil fertility experiment in the southern United States and the second oldest experiment in the world that includes cotton. It was placed on the National Register of Historical Places in 2003. It continues to document the long-term yield trends of fiv...

  5. Yes we can! Improving rice yield with diverse genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice breeding programs have been successful in using diverse germplasm for enhancement of pest resistance traits in rice, but traditionally have been less successful in using these materials for yield improvement. However, over the last decade Asian germplasm resources have proven to be fundamental ...

  6. Forage yield and quality differences among cool-season grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotationally-stocked, perennial cool-season grasses are often utilized at a vegetative stage of maturity. We compared the yield and forage quality of leaves, stems, and total forage of meadow fescue, orchardgrass, quackgrass, reed canarygrass, smooth bromegrass, EF (endophyte-free) and EI (endophyte...

  7. Increasing the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Politov, Anatoly; Golyazimova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The products of mechanical treatment are surface atoms or molecules, substances with a crystal structure different from their initial one (another polymorph, amorphous), point or linear defects, radicals and new chemical substances. It is often assumed, that to increase the yield of the products of a mechanical treatment, it is necessary to increase the treatment time and the mechanical power input. In view of the low energy yield of many mechanochemical transformations, this leads to high power consumption and contamination of the matter under treatment with the wear products of the material of a mill or reactor, in which the mechanical treatment is carried out. As a result, the technological attractiveness of mechanochemical processes is reduced, so that many mechanochemical transformations that have been discovered recently do not reach the stage of commercialization. In the present paper we describe different examples of increasing successfully the energy yield of mechanochemical processes, by a factor of several times to several orders of magnitude, for inorganic and organic substances. An increase in the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations opens new possibilities for their practical usage. In particular, the methods of preliminary treatment and the modes of conducting enzymatic processes that may find application in the production of second-generation biofuels are discussed using lignocellulose materials as examples. PMID:25406484

  8. Effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the US sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, crop is produced in North Dakota and Minnesota . The objective of this research was to determine the effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality in the absence of disease. Sugar beet was planted at Prosper, North Dakota in 2005, 2006 and...

  9. Biodiversity, yield, and shade coffee certification Ivette Perfectoa,*, John Vandermeerb

    E-print Network

    ANALYSIS Biodiversity, yield, and shade coffee certification Ivette Perfectoa,*, John Vandermeerb; accepted 25 October 2004 Available online 2 February 2005 Abstract The current crisis in the coffee market provides an opportunity to explore alternative markets. In Latin America, coffee is traditionally produced

  10. FPGA as the programmable tool for yield improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Tho L.; Li, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Charles; Wang, M. H.; Huang, Chih-Chung; Chang, Ching-Tsai; Lin, Hornjaan; Tseng, Yming; Tseng, Ian; Wu, You R.; Lo, Shih Chieh; Lin, Sam C. Y.

    2009-10-01

    FPGA programmability is utilized to profile the intra-field process variation through mapping of Tilo propagation delay within a reticle field. ASML DoseMapper patented technology is used to optimize poly photo exposure based on the FPGA intra-field process variation profile. As a result, significant yield and performance improvement is achieved.

  11. Yield Loss in Smut-Infected L 97-128.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in commercial fields of first-stubble L97-128 to determine the effect of smut on the yield of this variety. The amount of smut in 50-foot plots was determined in the spring by counting all healthy and diseased shoots (whips) in each plot and calculating the percent of whi...

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modelling on Soot Yield for Fire

    E-print Network

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modelling on Soot Yield for Fire Engineering Assessment Yong S (CFD) Modelling is now widely used by fire safety engineers throughout the world as a tool of the smoke control design as part of the performance based fire safety design in the current industry

  13. STARTER FERTILIZER EFFECTS ON SOYBEAN GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizing soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is not an entirely new concept; for a number of years, scientists have investigated the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on yield and quality of soybeans. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of starter fertilizer N rates and ...

  14. Influence of polyaspartic acid on growth and yield of cotton 

    E-print Network

    Witten, Ty Kelly

    1999-01-01

    . . Treatments included a control, micronutrient mix, 4.67 L PA ha?¹, 9.35 L PA ha?¹ micronutrient plus 4.67 L PA ha?¹ and micronutrient plus 9.36 L PA ha?¹. The micronutrient mix alone and micronutrients plus 9.36 L PA ha?¹ increased lint yields over all other...

  15. LESS KNOWN EDIBLE FRUIT – YIELDING PLANTS OF NILGIRIS

    PubMed Central

    Nayagam, M. Cyril; Pushparaj, M.S.; Rajan, S.

    1993-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with 27 species belonging to 22 generate and 18 families, which yield wild edible fruits. They are arranged in alphabetical order followed by their local names and habit. An attempt has been also made to indicate the nutritive values of edible portions on the basis of documented literature. Brief illustration is furnished wherever necessary. PMID:22556615

  16. Exoplanet Yield Estimation for Decadal Study Concepts using EXOSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Rhonda; Lowrance, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Garrett, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The anticipated upcoming large mission study concepts for the direct imaging of exo-earths present an exciting opportunity for exoplanet discovery and characterization. While these telescope concepts would also be capable of conducting a broad range of astrophysical investigations, the most difficult technology challenges are driven by the requirements for imaging exo-earths. The exoplanet science yield for these mission concepts will drive design trades and mission concept comparisons.To assist in these trade studies, the Exoplanet Exploration Program Office (ExEP) is developing a yield estimation tool that emphasizes transparency and consistent comparison of various design concepts. The tool will provide a parametric estimate of science yield of various mission concepts using contrast curves from physics-based model codes and Monte Carlo simulations of design reference missions using realistic constraints, such as solar avoidance angles, the observatory orbit, propulsion limitations of star shades, the accessibility of candidate targets, local and background zodiacal light levels, and background confusion by stars and galaxies. The python tool utilizes Dmitry Savransky's EXOSIMS (Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Mission Simulator) design reference mission simulator that is being developed for the WFIRST Preliminary Science program. ExEP is extending and validating the tool for future mission concepts under consideration for the upcoming 2020 decadal review. We present a validation plan and preliminary yield results for a point design.

  17. Hydroxyl radical quantum yields from isopropyl nitrite photolysis in air.

    PubMed

    Raff, Jonathan D; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2010-11-01

    Alkyl nitrites photolyze in air to yield alkoxy radicals and NO which, through secondary reactions, generate OH radicals. This photochemistry is important in the atmosphere and in laboratory studies where nitrites are often used as a source of OH. The overall quantum yield for hydroxyl radical formation from irradiation of isopropyl nitrite (i-C(3)H(7)ONO) between 300 and 425 nm in 1 atm air at 296 ± 2 K is reported for the first time. The OH radical was scavenged by reaction with CF(3)CF?CF(2) and the formation of CF(3)CFO and CF(2)O monitored as a function of time using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The quantum yield was found to be 0.54 ± 0.07 (2?) and is independent of whether or not NO was added (up to 3 × 10(14) molecules cm(-3)) prior to photolysis to increase NO concentrations above those due to the photolysis of the nitrite. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared cross sections of i-C(3)H(7)ONO are also reported. These data on the OH quantum yields as well as the UV-visible and infrared cross sections for isopropyl nitrite are critical for quantitatively interpreting the results of laboratory studies where i-C(3)H(7)ONO is employed as an OH source as well as for assessing the role of alkyl nitrites in the chemistry of the troposphere. PMID:20879762

  18. Corn and Cotton Yield with Two Surface Drip Lateral Spacings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface drip irrigation laterals were spaced next to crop rows (0.91 m) and in alternate row middles (1.83 m) to document crop yield and partial economic returns compared with non-irrigated areas. A surface drip irrigation system was installed at two sites on a Faceville (Site 1) and a Greenville (S...

  19. Yield performance of cacao propagated by somatic embryogenesis and grafting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve cacao (Theobroma cacao) clones propagated by grafting and somatic embryogenesis and grown on an Ultisol soil were evaluated for five years under intensive management at Corozal, Puerto Rico. Preliminary data showed no significant differences between propagation methods for yield of dry beans ...

  20. Soil Variability and Management Effects on Coastal Plain Corn Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management impacts on crop productivity have rarely been assessed on the field-scale, especially for Coastal Plain soils of the Southeast. We evaluated soil management practices effects on corn (Zea mays L.) yield in a 9-ha AL coastal plain field (Typic and Aquic Paleudults) during 2001-2005. ...

  1. 19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.75 Final determination of clean yield. The...consideration of all the tests made in connection with the wool or hair concerned. [T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17470, July 2,...

  2. 19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.75 Final determination of clean yield. The...consideration of all the tests made in connection with the wool or hair concerned. [T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17470, July 2,...

  3. Sugarcane yield and morphological responses to long-term flooding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in south Florida is often subjected to flooding in the summer months or following hurricanes. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adaptation and yield response to l...

  4. Rain-fed fig yield as affected by rainfall distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Ensieh; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza

    2014-08-01

    Variable annual rainfall and its uneven distribution are the major uncontrolled inputs in rain-fed fig production and possibly the main cause of yield fluctuation in Istahban region of Fars Province, I.R. of Iran. This introduces a considerable risk in rain-fed fig production. The objective of this study was to find relationships between seasonal rainfall distribution and rain-fed fig production in Istahban region to determine the critical rainfall periods for rain-fed fig production and supplementary irrigation water application. Further, economic analysis for rain-fed fig production was considered in this region to control the risk of production. It is concluded that the monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall indices are able to show the effects of rainfall and its distribution on the rain-fed fig yield. Fig yield with frequent occurrence of 80 % is 374 kg ha-1. The internal rates of return for interest rate of 4, 8 and 12 % are 21, 58 and 146 %, respectively, that are economically feasible. It is concluded that the rainfall in spring especially in April and in December has negatively affected fig yield due to its interference with the life cycle of Blastophaga bees for pollination. Further, it is concluded that when the rainfall is limited, supplementary irrigation can be scheduled in March.

  5. Non-pungent jalapeno pepper yields and preplant incorporated herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-pungent jalapeno peppers are used for making commercial picante sauces (salsas) and have a potential for outstanding yields in Oklahoma. There is incomplete information on the crop safety of certain herbicides that may not specifically address their use with non-pungent jalapeno peppers. The o...

  6. Tropical Rotation Crops Influence Nematode Densities and Vegetable Yields

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.; de Brito, J. A.; Hochmuth, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The eight summer crop rotation treatments were as follows: 'Hale' castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), sesame (Sesamum indicum), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), weed fallow, 'SX- 17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max), and 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) as a control. Rotations with castor, velvetbean, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass were most effective in maintaining the lowest population densities of Meloidogyne spp. (a mixture of M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria race 1), but Paratrichodorus minor built up in the sorghum-sudangrass rotation. Yield of squash was lower (P ? 0.05) following sorghum-sudangrass than after any of the other treatments except fallow. Yield of eggplant was greater (P ? 0.05) following castor, sesame, or American jointvetch than following okra or fallow. Several of the rotation crops evaluated here may be useful for managing nematodes in the field and for improving yields of subsequent vegetable crops. PMID:19279897

  7. ESTIMATED NET ENERGY YIELDS OF BIOMASS IN A FUELSHED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulosic plant materials are crucial to building sustainable bioeconomies. Local sourcing of low-density cellulosic feedstocks will reduce energy use and expenses in transportation. We developed a GIS-based approach to mapping yield and net energy production of crops in potential fuelsheds. The mo...

  8. Influence of Herbicides on Peanut Yield, Grade, and Seed Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small-plot, irrigated field trials were conducted at 2 locations in 2005 (Tifton, Dawson) to evaluate the influence of imazapic and 2,4-DB on tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection, yield, grade, and seed quality of three peanut varieties (Georgia Green, C-99R, GA-01R). A split-plot design (var...

  9. Remote Sensing and Modeling Methods for Crop Grain Yield Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring crop condition and yields at regional scales using satellite imagery from operational satellites remains a challenge for the developed and developing countries. Imagery from the MODIS sensor onboard NASA’s TERRA and ACQUA satellites offer an excellent opportunity for daily coverage at 25...

  10. Carbon Nanotube Correlation: Promising Opportunity for CNFET Circuit Yield Enhancement

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Carbon Nanotube Correlation: Promising Opportunity for CNFET Circuit Yield Enhancement Jie Zhang1 Mitra1 1 Stanford University, Stanford, CA, U.S.A 2 LSI-EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland Abstract Carbon are very difficult to control. As a result, "small-width" Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors (CNFETs

  11. Photoperiod shift effects on yield characteristics of rice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, G. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Edible yield must be maximized for each crop species selected for inclusion in the Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) proposed by NASA to support long-term manned space missions. In a greenhouse study aimed at increasing biomass partitioning to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain, plants of the high yielding semi-dwarf rice cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao were started in pots under 8-h photoperiods at a density of 212 plants m-2. After different periods of time under 8-h photoperiods, pots were switched to continuous light for the remainder of the cropping cycle. Continuous light did not delay time to first panicle emergence (60 d) or time to harvest (83 d). There was a positive correlation between the length of continuous light treatments and nongrain biomass. Grain yield (1.6 +/- 0.2 g plant-1) did not increase in continuous light. Yield-efficiency rate (grain weight per length of cropping cycle, canopy volume, and weight of nongrain shoot biomass) was used to compare treatments. Small Ai-Nan-Tsao rice canopies grown under 8-h photoperiods were more efficient producers of grain than canopies grown under continuous light for a portion of the rice cropping cycle.

  12. Influence of tillage and fertilizer placement methods on corn yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage and fertilizer application methods could alter plant yield and quality of corn production. Thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Sand Mountain Research Station located in the Appalachian Plateau region of Northeast Alabama on a Hartsells fine sandy loam to evaluate tillage (conventi...

  13. Bounding the Effective Yield Behavior of Mixtures Tamara Olson

    E-print Network

    Olson, Tamara

    of yield to estimates on the elastic properties of mixtures of linearly elastic ``reference materials of elastic/plastic materials is examined through mathematical techniques. A variational principle is derived with nonlinear behavior (as in [7], [8]). In this paper, we give an example of such a variational principle

  14. 7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400.53 Section 400.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  15. 7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400.53 Section 400.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  16. Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jai

    2011-07-15

    Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a {gamma}-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

  17. Short Communication Moraine pebbles and boulders yield indistinguishable 10

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    Short Communication Moraine pebbles and boulders yield indistinguishable 10 Be ages: A case study: Cosmogenic exposure dating Glaciation Moraine Pinedale 10 Be a b s t r a c t Cosmogenic exposure dating of moraines during the last two decades has vastly improved knowledge on the timing of glaciation worldwide

  18. Corn Response to Competition: Growth Alteration vs. Yield Limiting Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding competition mechanisms among adjacent plants can improve site-specific management recommendations. This 2-yr study compared two hypotheses, yield limiting factors vs. behavior modification, to explain plant interactions. Corn was grown under different levels of stress by varying light ...

  19. Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands Peter J. Blank1 *, David W bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from

  20. Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

    1990-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers. PMID:15092277

  1. Improving yield and protein content of forages under flooded condition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding can have catastrophic impacts on the productivity of arable farmland, grassland pastures, as most crops including forages are intolerant to excess water. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of flooding duration and nitrogen (N) fertilization on dry matter yield (DMY) a...

  2. PLANT RESISTANCE Photosynthesis and Yield Reductions From Wheat Stem Sawfly

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    PLANT RESISTANCE Photosynthesis and Yield Reductions From Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Interactions With Wheat Solidness, Water Stress, and Phosphorus Deficiency KEVIN J. DELANEY,1 DAVID K. WEAVER. The current study examined causes of variation in the impact of larval stem mining by the wheat stem sawßy

  3. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into

    E-print Network

    Payseur, Bret

    Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution Rat Genome, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality `draft' covering over 90% of the genome

  4. Enhancing Potato System Sustainability: Project Overview, Plant Growth, and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Consequently, research is needed to quantify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Di...

  5. Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahinsky, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

  6. Admissions-Yield and Persistence Analysis. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramist, Leonard

    Data from the college Board's Admissions Test Program (ATP) Summary Reports are used to analyze the student market attraction for ATP report designations, the application rate, the acceptance rate, the enrollment yield, and the dropout rate for 254 different student groups for 25l colleges. Student groups are defined in terms of their College…

  7. Asphaltenes yield curve measurements on a microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Sieben, Vincent J; Tharanivasan, Asok Kumar; Ratulowski, John; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2015-10-21

    We describe a microfluidic apparatus and method for performing asphaltene yield measurements on crude oil samples. Optical spectroscopy measurements are combined with a microfluidic fluid handling platform to create an automated microfluidic apparatus to measure the asphaltene yield. The microfluidic measurements show good agreement with conventional wet chemistry measurements as well as available models. The initial absorbance of the oil is measured, and asphaltenes are removed from the oil by the gradual addition of n-alkane, which leads to flocculation and subsequent filtration. The absorbance of the de-asphalted oil (maltenes) is then measured and the initial asphaltene content is determined by the change in absorbance. The solubility of asphaltene is evaluated by varying the titrant-to-oil ratio (e.g., n-heptane-oil), which induces no, partial, or full precipitation of asphaltenes depending on the chosen ratio. The absorbance of the filtrate is measured and normalized to the maximum content to determine the fractional precipitation at each ratio. Traditionally, a yield curve comprised of 20 such ratios would require weeks to months to generate, while consuming over 6 L of solvent and more than 100 g of crude oil sample. Using the microfluidic approach described here, the same measurement can be performed in 1 day, with 0.5 L of solvent and 10 g of crude oil sample. The substantial reduction in time and consumables will enable more frequent asphaltene yield measurements and reduce its environmental impact significantly. PMID:26333290

  8. Yield and persistence response of forage chicory to phosphorus fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a productive plant that appears particularly well suited to improving summer yield of pastures in the USA. Poor palatability of some chicory cultivars in locations with low soil phosphorus fertility has been linked to high levels of sesquiterpene lactone, a bit...

  9. Impact of simulated heat waves on soybean physiology and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increases in mean global temperatures and associated climate change, extreme temperature events are predicted to increase in both intensity and frequency. Despite the clearly documented negative public health impacts of heat waves, the impact on physiology and yields of key agricultural species...

  10. CANOPY SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE TO ESTIMATE COTTON GROWTH AND YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2001 to investigate relationships between spectral reflectance (280-2500 nm) and growth and yield in cotton (cv. NuCOTN 33B). Biweekly measurements of canopy reflectance (R), plant height, mainstem nodes, dry weight, and leaf area index were made, and seed cotto...

  11. Does Conspecific Fighting Yield Conditioned Taste Aversion in Rats?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Sadahiko; Kumazawa, Gaku; Ieki, Hayato; Hashimoto, Aya

    2012-01-01

    Running in an activity wheel yields conditioned aversion to a taste solution consumed before the running, but its underlying physiological mechanism is unknown. According to the claim that energy expenditure or general stress caused by physical exercise is a critical factor for this taste-aversion learning, not only running but also other…

  12. Exclusion of deer and yield of dry bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yields of crops can be reduced due to predation by herbivores. Field grown Navy Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is susceptible to damage by deer. Seed of the Navy Bean cv. Aspen were sown in a sandy loam soil in May 2006. When plants reached the first trifoliate leaf stage exclusion cages were set a...

  13. Z{yields}bb and chiral currents in Higgsless models

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Tomohiro; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Christensen, Neil D.; Hsieh, Ken; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Matsuzaki, Shinya

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we compute the flavor-dependent chiral-logarithmic corrections to the decay Z{yields}bb in the three-site Higgsless model. We compute these corrections diagrammatically in the gaugeless limit in which the electroweak couplings vanish. We also compute the chiral-logarithmic corrections to the decay Z{yields}bb using a renormalization group equation analysis in effective field theory, and show that the results agree. In the process of this computation, we compute the form of the chiral current in the gaugeless limit of the three-site model, and consider the generalization to the N-site case. We elucidate the Ward-Takahashi identities which underlie the gaugeless limit calculation in the three-site model, and describe how the result for the Z{yields}bb amplitude is obtained in unitary gauge in the full theory. We find that the phenomenological constraints on the three-site Higgsless model arising from measurements of Z{yields}bb are relatively mild, requiring only that the heavy Dirac fermion be heavier than 1 TeV or so, and are satisfied automatically in the range of parameters allowed by other precision electroweak data.

  14. 19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.75 Final determination of clean yield. The...consideration of all the tests made in connection with the wool or hair concerned. [T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17470, July 2,...

  15. 19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.75 Final determination of clean yield. The...consideration of all the tests made in connection with the wool or hair concerned. [T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17470, July 2,...

  16. 19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.75 Final determination of clean yield. The...consideration of all the tests made in connection with the wool or hair concerned. [T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17470, July 2,...

  17. INFLUENCE OF HERBICIDES ON PEANUT YIELD, GRADE, AND SEED QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small-plot, irrigated field trials were conducted at 2 locations in 2005 (Tifton, Dawson) to evaluate the influence of imazapic and 2,4-DB on tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection, yield, grade, and seed quality of three peanut varieties (Georgia Green, C-99R, GA-01R). A split-plot design (var...

  18. Yield and nutritive value differences among cool-season grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are typically utilized at a vegetative stage of maturity under managed intensive rotational grazing. We compared the yield and nutritive value of the leaf and stem fraction, and total herbage of eight erect-growing, perennial cool-season grasses during 30-day intervals in the spring, summer,...

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE PROFITABILITY OF PRODUCTION BASED ON YIELD MAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitability is the key factor in determining the feasibility of production. It is based on the simple relationship between revenue and cost. To explore this relationship in production agriculture, three years of yield monitor data were obtained from fields in a non-irrigated corn-soybean rotation...

  20. 4 April 2006 Secrets of the Sea Yield

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    in the space between the ice crystals, creating layers and layers of nacre-like material. When the rate4 April 2006 Secrets of the Sea Yield Stronger Artificial Bone When seawater freezes,crystals ice and entrapped in channels between the ice crystals.The result is a layered structure that roughly

  1. Fission Yields and Other Diagnostics for Nuclear Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.

    2014-06-01

    I summarize advances in our understanding of basic nuclear physics cross sections and decay properties that are needed to characterize the magnitude and energy-dependence of a neutron flux, and to determine the amount of fission burnup in plutonium fuel. The number of fissions that have occurred in a neutron environment can be deduced from measurements of the fission products created, providing that the fission product yields are known accurately. I describe how our understanding of plutonium fission product yields has improved in recent years through a meta-analysis of various measured data, and through identification of fission product yield incident-energy dependencies over the 0.2-2 MeV fast energy region. This led to the resolution of a previous discrepancy between the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in their plutonium yield assessments in the fast energy region, although more experimental work is still needed to resolve discrepancies at 14 MeV. Work is also described that has improved our understanding of (n,2n) cross sections that are used as diagnostics of the high-energy neutron spectrum - both on plutonium and americium, and on the radiochemical detectors yttrium, iridium, and thulium. Finally, some observations are made on the importance of continuing to develop our Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) database using physics insights from differential cross section and integral laboratory experiments and from nuclear theory advances.

  2. HIGH TEMPERATURE STRESS ON FLORAL DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because a number of reproductive processes must occur in highly concerted fashion during the progamic phase (from pollination to fertilization) for successful fertilization and seed production to occur, final yield in cotton is exceptionally sensitive to high temperatures during the flowering period...

  3. Diurnal effects on spearmint oil yields and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Native’ spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) is one of the two spearmint species grown commercially in the United States and other countries for essential oil production. The two major constituents of spearmint oil are carvone and limonene. It is not known if the essential oil yield (content) and composit...

  4. Climate and soil effects on resilience of corn grain yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain yields are known to be impacted by environmental and soil conditions. Air temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, evapotranspiration, along with soil temperature, moisture, and residual inorganic N concentration were evaluated in this study across 15 years and a range of N fertility ...

  5. Yield modeling of acoustic charge transport transversal filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, J. S.; May, G. S.; Hunt, W. D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a yield model for acoustic charge transport transversal filters. This model differs from previous IC yield models in that it does not assume that individual failures of the nondestructive sensing taps necessarily cause a device failure. A redundancy in the number of taps included in the design is explained. Poisson statistics are used to describe the tap failures, weighted over a uniform defect density distribution. A representative design example is presented. The minimum number of taps needed to realize the filter is calculated, and tap weights for various numbers of redundant taps are calculated. The critical area for device failure is calculated for each level of redundancy. Yield is predicted for a range of defect densities and redundancies. To verify the model, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed on an equivalent circuit model of the device. The results of the yield model are then compared to the Monte Carlo simulation. Better than 95% agreement was obtained for the Poisson model with redundant taps ranging from 30% to 150% over the minimum.

  6. Selection for biomass yield in upland, lowland, and hybrid switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is a candidate for cellulosic bioenergy feedstock development in many parts of North America. Because production costs are generally considered too high for economic and sustainable production of switchgrass biomass, breeding for increased biomass yield is a viable and desirable research...

  7. 21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of yield. 211.103 Section 211.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process...

  8. 21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of yield. 211.103 Section 211.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process...

  9. Nitrogen Effects on Onion Yield Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently irrigated and fertilized with high N rates to maximize yield. Converting from furrow-irrigated to drip-irrigated onion production may reduce N fertilizer needs, water inputs, and NO3-N leaching poten...

  10. Planting and defoliation timing impacts on cotton yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timing of defoliation and planting can affect both cotton yield and cotton quality, which will impact net returns from cotton production. Typically, previous research has focused on examining these factors separately, which can be further complicated by using a conservation system. An experiment wa...

  11. 2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    © 2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host­6 probably influences the genetic and functional diversity of both. For example, photosynthesis genes period. We also show that the expression of host photosynthesis genes declines over the course

  12. Uncertainty in simulating wheat yields under climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change...

  13. Biomass Yield of Naturalized Populations and Cultivars of Reed Canarygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a widely adapted temperate grass with a circumglobal distribution in the northern hemisphere. Because it has relatively high biomass yields under relatively infrequent harvest systems, this species is receiving increasing attention as a bioenergy feedst...

  14. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  15. Potato growth and yield using nutrient film technique (NFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Hinkle, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Potato plants, cvs Denali and Norland, were grown in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) trays using a continuous flowing nutrient film technique (NFT) to study tuber yield for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Nutrient solution pH was controlled automatically using 0.39M (2.5% (v/v) nitric acid (HNO3), while water and nutrients were replenished manually each day and twice each week, respectively. Plants were spaced either one or two per tray, allotting 0.2 or 0.4 m2 per plant. All plants were harvested after 112 days. Denali plants yielded 2850 and 2800 g tuber fresh weight from the one- and two-plant trays, respectively, while Norland plants yielded 1800 and 2400 g tuber fresh weight from the one- and two-plant trays. Many tubers of both cultivars showed injury to the periderm tissue, possibly caused by salt accumulation from the nutrient solution on the surface. Total system water usage throughout the study for all the plants equaled 709 liters (L), or approximately 2 L m-2 d-1. Total system acid usage throughout the study (for nutrient solution pH control) equaled 6.60 L, or 18.4 ml m-2 d-1 (7.2 mmol m-2 d-1). The results demonstrate that continuous flowing nutrient film technique can be used for tuber production with acceptable yields for the CELSS program.

  16. Consistent scenario for B{yields}PS decays

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Mendoza S, J. A.; Ramirez, Carlos A.

    2008-12-01

    We consider B{yields}PS decays where P stands for pseudoscalar and S for a heavy (1500 MeV) scalar meson. We achieve agreement with available experimental data, which includes two orders of magnitude hierarchy, assuming the scalars mesons are two quark states. The contribution of the dipolar penguin operator O{sub 11} is quantified.

  17. Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries in b {yields} s Penguins

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, H.

    2006-07-11

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}(1020)K{sup 0}, {eta}'K{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, f{sub 0}(980)K{sub S}{sup 0}, {omega}(782)K{sub S}{sup 0} and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays based on a sample of 386 x 106BB(bar sign) pairs collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e+e- collider. These decays are dominated by the b {yields} s gluonic penguin transition and are sensitive to new CP-violating phases from physics beyond the standard model. One neutral meson is fully reconstructed in one of the specified decay channels, and the flavor of the accompanying B meson is identified from its decay products. CP-violation parameters are obtained from the asymmetries in the distributions of the proper-time intervals between the two B decays. We also perform measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{gamma} decay that is dominated by the b {yields} s radiative penguin.

  18. Discovery of the {sup 109}Xe{yields}{sup 105}Te{yields}{sup 101}Sn alpha decay chain

    SciTech Connect

    Liddick, S. N.; Darby, I. G.; Tantawy, M. N.; Grzywacz, R.; Bingham, C. R.; Mazzocchi, C.; Page, R. D.; Joss, D. T.; Thomson, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Gross, C. J.; Batchelder, J. C.; Goodin, C.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hwang, J. K.; Li, K.; Ilyushkin, S.; Korgul, A.; Krolas, W.; Lagergren, K.

    2007-11-30

    The alpha decay chain {sup 109}Xe{yields}{sup 105}Te{yields}{sup 101}Sn was first identified at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Recent developments in digital electronics enabled the detection of both alpha decays despite the short half-life of {sup 105}Te. The development of the software algorithm responsible for extracting the double-alpha events from the experimental data is ongoing. The possibility of using the derivative of the double-alpha pulse to selectively identify double alpha pulses shows promise and is being developed.

  19. Fragment yield corrections in tin-tin collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chun Yuen; HiRA Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    In nuclear collisions that occur at the NSCL and FRIB, many different species of nuclei are produced. Most of these nuclei are stripped of all the electrons but some still have electrons attached. They will be misidentified in a mass spectrometer and the yield of other fragments will be affected. In my research, we compare the yields of fragments produced in the collisions of different Sn isotopes which have same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Such measurements help us to study the differences in the interactions of neutrons and protons, which is important in our understanding of very neutron rich objects such as the neutron stars. The S800 mass spectrograph is used to identify different fragments produced in these Sn reactions at 70 MeV per nucleon. We show that the hydrogen-like fragments contaminate mainly the yields of isotopes with two extra neutrons. Then we use the algorithm GLOBAL to estimates of the contamination fractions of each fragments to obtain correct yields for fragments we want to measure. Contamination fractions depend on the velocity of the particles but most of them are small values. In this poster, I will present how we estimate the effects of contamination fractions on the fragment yield and the physics results we obtain. In nuclear collisions that occur at the NSCL and FRIB, many different species of nuclei are produced. Most of these nuclei are stripped of all the electrons but some still have electrons attached. They will be misidentified in a mass spectrometer and the yield of other fragments will be affected. In my research, we compare the yields of fragments produced in the collisions of different Sn isotopes which have same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Such measurements help us to study the differences in the interactions of neutrons and protons, which is important in our understanding of very neutron rich objects such as the neutron stars. The S800 mass spectrograph is used to identify different fragments produced in these Sn reactions at 70 MeV per nucleon. We show that the hydrogen-like fragments contaminate mainly the yields of isotopes with two extra neutrons. Then we use the algorithm GLOBAL to estimates of the contamination fractions of each fragments to obtain correct yields for fragments we want to measure. Contamination fractions depend on the velocity of the particles but most of them are small values. In this poster, I will present how we estimate the effects of contamination fractions on the fragment yield and the physics results we obtain. This work is supported by the NSF under Grant No. PHY- 1102511, SURE program at CUHK, Professor Charles K. Kao Research Exchange Scholarship and Reaching Out Award of HKSAR.

  20. The Titan haze revisted: Magnetospheric energy sorces quantitative tholin yields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Mcdonald, Gene D.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We present laboratory measurements of the radiation yields of complex organic solids produced from N2/CH4 gas mixtures containing 10 or 0.1% CH4. These tholins are thought to resemble organic aerosols produced in the atmospheres of Titan, Pluto, and Triton. The tholin yields are large compared to the total yield of gaseous products: nominally, 13 (C + N)/100 eV for Titan tholin and 2.1 (C + N)/100 eV for Triton tholin. High-energy magnetospheric electrons responsible for tholin production represents a class distinct from the plasma electrons considered in models of Titan's aiglow. Electrons with E greater than 20 keV provide an energy flux approximately 1 x 10(exp -2) erg/cm/sec, implying from our measured tholin yields a mass flux of 0.5 to 4.0 x 10(exp -14) g/sq cm/sec of tholin. (The corresponding thickness of the tholin sedimentary column accumulated over 4 Gyr on Titan's surface is 4 to 30 m). This figure is in agreement with required mass fluxes computed from recent radiative transfer and sedimentation models. If, however, theses results, derived from experiments at approximately 2 mb, are applied to lower pressure levels toward peak auroral electron energy deposition and scaled with pressure as the gas-phase organic yields, the derived tholin mass flux is at least an order of magnitude less. We attrribute this difference to the fact that tholin synthesis occurs well below the level of maximum electron energy depositon and to possible contributions to tholis from UV-derived C2-hydrocarbons. We conclude that Tita tholin, produced by magnetospheric electrons, is alone sufficient to supply at least a significant fraction of Titan's haze-a result consistent with the fact that the optical properties of Titan tholin, among all proposed material, are best at reproducing Titan's geometric albedo spectrum from near UV to mid-IR in light-scattering models.

  1. The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

    2014-05-01

    Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

  2. Nonfactorizable Contributions to B {yields} {pi}{pi} Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, T.

    2004-09-17

    We investigate to what extent the experimental information on B {yields} {pi}{pi} branching fractions and CP asymmetries can be used to better understand the QCD dynamics in these decays. For this purpose we decompose the independent isospin amplitudes into factorizable and non-factorizable contributions. The former can be estimated within the framework of QCD factorization for exclusive B decays. The latter vanish in the heavy-quark limit, m{sub b} {yields} {infinity}, and are treated as unknown hadronic parameters. We discuss at some length in which way the non-factorizable contributions are treated in different theoretical and phenomenological frameworks. We point out the potential differences between the phenomenological treatment of power-corrections in the ''BBNS approach'', and the appearance of power-suppressed operators in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). On that basis we define a handful of different (but generic) scenarios where the non-factorizable part of isospin amplitudes is parameterized in terms of three or four unknowns, which can be constrained by data. We also give some short discussion on the implications of our analysis for B {yields} {pi}K decays. In particular, since non-factorizable QCD effects in B {yields} {pi}{pi} may be large, we cannot exclude sizeable non-factorizable effects, which violate SU(3){sub F} flavour symmetry, or even isospin symmetry (via long-distance QED effects). This may help to explain certain puzzles in connection with isospin-violating observables in B {yields} {pi}K decays.

  3. Modeling temporal and spatial variability of crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, S.; Manoli, G.; Scudiero, E.; Morari, F.; Putti, M.; Teatini, P.

    2014-12-01

    In a world of increasing food insecurity the development of modeling tools capable of supporting on-farm decision making processes is highly needed to formulate sustainable irrigation practices in order to preserve water resources while maintaining adequate crop yield. The design of these practices starts from the accurate modeling of soil-plant-atmosphere interaction. We present an innovative 3D Soil-Plant model that couples 3D hydrological soil dynamics with a mechanistic description of plant transpiration and photosynthesis, including a crop growth module. Because of its intrinsically three dimensional nature, the model is able to capture spatial and temporal patterns of crop yield over large scales and under various climate and environmental factors. The model is applied to a 25 ha corn field in the Venice coastland, Italy, that has been continuously monitored over the years 2010 and 2012 in terms of both hydrological dynamics and yield mapping. The model results satisfactorily reproduce the large variability observed in maize yield (from 2 to 15 ton/ha). This variability is shown to be connected to the spatial heterogeneities of the farmland, which is characterized by several sandy paleo-channels crossing organic-rich silty soils. Salt contamination of soils and groundwater in a large portion of the area strongly affects the crop yield, especially outside the paleo-channels, where measured salt concentrations are lower than the surroundings. The developed model includes a simplified description of the effects of salt concentration in soil water on transpiration. The results seem to capture accurately the effects of salt concentration and the variability of the climatic conditions occurred during the three years of measurements. This innovative modeling framework paves the way to future large scale simulations of farmland dynamics.

  4. SINGLE ROW YIELD AS A FUNCTION OF PLANT SPACING WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR INCREASING YIELD USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLANTING PATTERNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Terrell County, GA from 1997-99 to determine the impact of plant spacing on pod mass and yield for nonirrigated single row peanuts. Plants within treatments were thinned at random until average plant spacings of 23, 30 38, 48, and 61 cm were attai...

  5. Fig 1. First rotation biomass yield [Mg (oven dry) ha-1 ] of top 5 clones with biomass crop yield trials

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Fig 1. First rotation biomass yield [Mg (oven dry) ha-1 yr-1 ] of top 5 clones with biomass crop ROTATION WOODY CROPS FACTSHEET SERIES # 4 Challenges and Limitations of Using SRWC for Energy1 The use of Short Rotation Woody Crops for energy poses some challenges. The following are some limitations

  6. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

    1983-09-26

    Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

  7. Comments on extracting the resonance strength parameter from yield data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The F(?,n) reaction is the focus of on-going research in part because it is an important source of neutrons in the nuclear fuel cycle which can be exploited to assay nuclear materials, especially uranium in the form of UF6 [1,2]. At the present time there remains some considerable uncertainty (of the order of ±20%) in the thick target integrated over angle (?,n) yield from 19F (100% natural abundance) and its compounds as discussed in [3,4]. An important thin target cross-section measurement is that of Wrean and Kavanagh [5] who explore the region from below threshold (2.36 MeV) to approximately 3.1 MeV with fine energy resolution. Integration of their cross-section data over the slowing down history of a stopping ?-particle allows the thick target yield to be calculated for incident energies up to 3.1 MeV. This trend can then be combined with data from other sources to obtain a thick target yield curve over the wider range of interest to the fuel cycle (roughly threshold to 10 MeV to include all relevant ?-emitters). To estimate the thickness of the CaF2 target they used, Wrean and Kavanagh separately measured the integrated yield of the 6.129 MeV ?-rays from the resonance at 340.5 keV (laboratory ?-particle kinetic energy) in the 19F(p,??) reaction. To interpret the data they adopted a resonance strength parameter of (22.3±0.8) eV based on a determination by Becker et al [6]. The value and its uncertainty directly affects the thickness estimate and the extracted (?,n) cross-section values. In their citation to Becker et al's work, Wrean and Kavanagh comment that they did not make use of an alternative value of (23.7±1.0) eV reported by Croft [7] because they were unable to reproduce the value from the data given in that paper. The value they calculated for the resonance strength from the thick target yield given by Croft was 21.4 eV. The purpose of this communication is to revisit the paper by Croft published in this journal and specifically to explain the origin of the reported resonance strength. Fortunately the original notes spanning the period 12 January 1988 to 16 January 1990 were available to consult. In hindsight there is certainly a case of excessive brevity to rectify. In essence the step requiring explanation is how to compute the resonance strength, ??, from the reported thick target resonance yield Y.

  8. Soil Moisture as an Estimator for Crop Yield in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Michael; Meyer, Volker; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Annual crop yield depends on various factors such as soil properties, management decisions, and meteorological conditions. Unfavorable weather conditions, e.g. droughts, have the potential to drastically diminish crop yield in rain-fed agriculture. For example, the drought in 2003 caused direct losses of 1.5 billion EUR only in Germany. Predicting crop yields allows to mitigate negative effects of weather extremes which are assumed to occur more often in the future due to climate change. A standard approach in economics is to predict the impact of climate change on agriculture as a function of temperature and precipitation. This approach has been developed further using concepts like growing degree days. Other econometric models use nonlinear functions of heat or vapor pressure deficit. However, none of these approaches uses soil moisture to predict crop yield. We hypothesize that soil moisture is a better indicator to explain stress on plant growth than estimations based on precipitation and temperature. This is the case because the latter variables do not explicitly account for the available water content in the root zone, which is the primary source of water supply for plant growth. In this study, a reduced form panel approach is applied to estimate a multivariate econometric production function for the years 1999 to 2010. Annual crop yield data of various crops on the administrative district level serve as depending variables. The explanatory variable of major interest is the Soil Moisture Index (SMI), which quantifies anomalies in root zone soil moisture. The SMI is computed by the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM, www.ufz.de/mhm). The index represents the monthly soil water quantile at a 4 km2 grid resolution covering entire Germany. A reduced model approach is suitable because the SMI is the result of a stochastic weather process and therefore can be considered exogenous. For the ease of interpretation a linear functionality is preferred. Meteorological, phenological, geological, agronomic, and socio-economic variables are also considered to extend the model in order to reveal the proper causal relation. First results show that dry as well as wet extremes of SMI have a negative impact on crop yield for winter wheat. This indicates that soil moisture has at least a limiting affect on crop production.

  9. Use of remote sensing data for estimation of winter wheat yield in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, L.; Kogan, F.; Roytman, L.

    This paper shows how remote sensing data can be used to estimate winter wheat yield in Kansas The algorithm uses the Vegetation Health VH Indices Vegetation Condition Index VCI and Temperature Condition Index TCI computed for each week during a period of 23 years 1982--2004 from Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer AVHRR data The weekly indices were correlated with the end of the season winter wheat WW yield A strong correlation was found between winter wheat yield and VCI characterizing moisture conditions during the critical period of winter wheat development and productivity that occurs during April--May weeks 16--23 Following the results of correlation analysis the principal components regression PCR method was used to construct a model to predict yield as a function of the VCI computed for this period The simulated results were compared with official agricultural statistics showing that the errors of the estimates of winter wheat yield are less than 8 Remote sensing is a valuable tool for estimating crop yields well in advance of harvest and at a low cost

  10. Complex Oscillatory Yielding of Model Hard-Sphere Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumakis, N.; Brady, J. F.; Petekidis, G.

    2013-04-01

    The yielding behavior of hard sphere glasses under large-amplitude oscillatory shear has been studied by probing the interplay of Brownian motion and shear-induced diffusion at varying oscillation frequencies. Stress, structure and dynamics are followed by experimental rheology and Browian dynamics simulations. Brownian-motion-assisted cage escape dominates at low frequencies while escape through shear-induced collisions at high ones, both related with a yielding peak in G''. At intermediate frequencies a novel, for hard sphere glasses, double peak in G'' is revealed reflecting both mechanisms. At high frequencies and strain amplitudes a persistent structural anisotropy causes a stress drop within the cycle after strain reversal, while higher stress harmonics are minimized at certain strain amplitudes indicating an apparent harmonic response.

  11. Complex oscillatory yielding of model hard-sphere glasses.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, N; Brady, J F; Petekidis, G

    2013-04-26

    The yielding behavior of hard sphere glasses under large-amplitude oscillatory shear has been studied by probing the interplay of Brownian motion and shear-induced diffusion at varying oscillation frequencies. Stress, structure and dynamics are followed by experimental rheology and Browian dynamics simulations. Brownian-motion-assisted cage escape dominates at low frequencies while escape through shear-induced collisions at high ones, both related with a yielding peak in G''. At intermediate frequencies a novel, for hard sphere glasses, double peak in G'' is revealed reflecting both mechanisms. At high frequencies and strain amplitudes a persistent structural anisotropy causes a stress drop within the cycle after strain reversal, while higher stress harmonics are minimized at certain strain amplitudes indicating an apparent harmonic response. PMID:23679786

  12. Fluorescence quantum yield of verteporfin is independent of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Tim; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy dosimetery and treatment planning is affected by the concentration of photosensitizer in a given tissue, and these values are often estimated based on measurements of fluorescence in the region to be treated. Some studies with benzoporphyrin derivate monoacid ring a (BPD-MA) showed a significant increase in fluorescence quantum yield with deoxygenation of the solution, indicating a possible oxygen sensitive switch in intersystem crossing or reverse intersystem crossing. The experiments done in this paper show that at oxygenation levels found in vivo the variation in fluorescence quantum yield of liposomal BPD-MA (verteporfin) is negligible for changes in solution oxygenation. The results from all of the experiments show that it is not necessary to measure the oxygenation of tissues when calculating the concentration of verteporfin from fluorescence measurements, so that dosimetry calculations based upon photosensitizer levels would not be affected by the tissue oxygenation. This greatly simplifies the dosimetry process with verteporfin.

  13. Yield stress fluid droplet impact on coated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Brendan; Deetjen, Marc; Ewoldt, Randy

    2013-11-01

    Yield stress fluids, including gels and pastes, are effectively fluid at high stress and solid at low stress. In liquid-solid impacts, these fluids can stick and accumulate where they impact, motivating several applications of these rheologically-complex materials. Here we use high-speed imaging to experimentally study liquid-solid impact of yield stress fluids on dry and precoated surfaces. With a precoating of the same material, we can observe large, long-lifetime ejection sheets with redirected momentum that extend away from the impact location. Under critical splash conditions, sheet breakup occurs and ejected droplets can be nonspherical and threadlike due to the inability of capillary stresses to deform material above a certain lengthscale. By varying the droplet size, impact velocity, surface coating thickness, and rheological material properties, we develop appropriate dimensionless parameters, quantify splash characteristics including height and radial extent of deposition, and present a regime map of impact behaviors.

  14. Formation of oligopeptides in high yield under simple programmable conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Marc; Surman, Andrew J.; Cooper, Geoffrey J.T.; Suárez-Marina, Irene; Hosni, Zied; Lee, Michael P.; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-01-01

    Many high-yielding reactions for forming peptide bonds have been developed but these are complex, requiring activated amino-acid precursors and heterogeneous supports. Herein we demonstrate the programmable one-pot dehydration–hydration condensation of amino acids forming oligopeptide chains in around 50% yield. A digital recursive reactor system was developed to investigate this process, performing these reactions with control over parameters such as temperature, number of cycles, cycle duration, initial monomer concentration and initial pH. Glycine oligopeptides up to 20 amino acids long were formed with very high monomer-to-oligomer conversion, and the majority of these products comprised three amino acid residues or more. Having established the formation of glycine homo-oligopeptides, we then demonstrated the co-condensation of glycine with eight other amino acids (Ala, Asp, Glu, His, Lys, Pro, Thr and Val), incorporating a range of side-chain functionality. PMID:26442968

  15. Comparison of Fission Product Yields and Their Impact

    SciTech Connect

    S. Harrison

    2006-02-01

    This memorandum describes the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) Space Nuclear Power Program (SNPP) interest in determining the expected fission product yields from a Prometheus-type reactor and assessing the impact of these species on materials found in the fuel element and balance of plant. Theoretical yield calculations using ORIGEN-S and RACER computer models are included in graphical and tabular form in Attachment, with focus on the desired fast neutron spectrum data. The known fission product interaction concerns are the corrosive attack of iron- and nickel-based alloys by volatile fission products, such as cesium, tellurium, and iodine, and the radiological transmutation of krypton-85 in the coolant to rubidium-85, a potentially corrosive agent to the coolant system metal piping.

  16. Structure-Enhanced Yield Shear Stress in Electrorheological Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Lan, Y. C.; Xu, X.

    A new technology, compression-assisted aggregation, is developed to enhance the strength of electrorheological (ER) fluids. The yield shear stress of ER fluids depends on the fluid microstructure. The unassisted electric-field induced ER structure mainly consists of single chains, whose weak points are at their ends. This new technology produces a structure consisting of robust thick columns with strong ends. As the weak points of the original ER structure are greatly enforced, the new structure makes ER fluids super-strong: At a moderate electric field and moderate pressure the yield shear stress of ER fluids at 35% volume fraction exceeds 100 kPa, well above any requirement for major industrial applications.

  17. High yields from the Stockholm electron beam ion source CRYSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R.; Björkhage, M.; Carlé, P.; Engström, Å.; Liljeby, L.; Rouleau, G.; Wenander, F.

    1997-06-01

    CRYSIS is an electron beam ion source (EBIS) with a superconducting solenoid. Highly charged ions are delivered to the acceleration and storage ring CRYRING [ K. Abrahamsson et al., Nucl. Instr. Methods B 79 (1993) 269.], SMILETRAP [C. Carlberg et al., Phys. Scr. T 59 (1995) 196.] and to low energy atomic and surface physics experiments. Stable electron beam currents up to 700 mA are obtained, in order to enhance the ion yield out of the EBIS. Measurements of the total charge per pulse at different working conditions and electron beam current density measurements were done. At electron beam currents of 600 mA yields up to 2.5 × 1010 charges per pulse could be measured.

  18. EarthSat spring wheat yield system test 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of an operational test of the EarthSat System during the period 1 June - 30 August 1975 over the spring wheat regions of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota are presented. The errors associated with each sub-element of the system during the operational test and the sensitivity of the complete system and each major functional sub-element of the system to the observed errors were evaluated. Evaluations and recommendations for future operational users of the system include: (1) changes in various system sub-elements, (2) changes in the yield model to affect improved accuracy, (3) changes in the number of geobased cells needed to develop an accurate aggregated yield estimate, (4) changes associated with the implementation of future operational satellites and data processing systems, and (5) detailed system documentation.

  19. Microeconomics of yield learning and process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link yield learning to profitability in semiconductor manufacturing have been rare or non-existent. In this work, we review such a model and provide links to inspection capability and cost. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300mm factories, including the impact of technology transitions to 130nm design rules and below. We show that the dramatic increase in value per wafer at the 300mm transition becomes a driver for increasing metrology and inspection capability and sampling. These analyses correlate well wtih actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential cost savings. We demonstrate this using the example of grating-based overlay metrology for the 65nm node.

  20. Maximize crude unit No. 2 oil yield design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sloley, A.W.

    1997-05-01

    Recent refinery industry trends are to optimize crude unit operation with advanced control technology such as real-time-optimization. One potential crude unit optimization objective could be maximizing diesel product yields and minimizing the quantity of diesel boiling range material in the FCC feed. Appropriately designed advanced process control technology for a crude unit can be used to fully utilize existing equipment performance. The advanced process control scheme (or operator) can adjust the appropriate process variables to optimize the diesel yields against the current unit limitations. Process and equipment design changes may nevertheless be required to fully implement the diesel product optimization, depending on the crude unit equipment limitations. Therefore, crude unit process variable optimization and potential equipment design issues should be carefully addressed. While each refinery crude unit`s design, operation and equipment constraints are different, the fundamental operating variables and the process and equipment design issues are common to all crude units.

  1. A high yield neutron target for cancer therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Steinberg, R.

    1972-01-01

    A rotating target was developed that has the potential for providing an initial yield of 10 to the 13th power neutrons per second by the T(d,n)He-4 reaction, and a useable lifetime in excess of 600 hours. This yield and lifetime are indicated for a 300 Kv and 30 mA deuteron accelerator and a 30 microns thick titanium tritide film formed of the stoichiometric compound TiT2. The potential for extended lifetime is made possible by incorporating a sputtering electrode that permits use of titanium tritide thicknesses much greater than the deuteron range. The electrode is used to remove in situ depleted titanium layers to expose fresh tritide beneath. The utilization of the rotating target as a source of fast neutrons for cancer therapy is discussed.

  2. Effect of seed stimulation on germination and sugar beet yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pro?ba-Bia?czyk, U.; Szajsner, H.; Grzy?, E.; Demczuk, A.; Saca?a, E.; B?k, K.

    2013-03-01

    Germination and sugar beet yield after seed stimulation were investigated. The seeds came from the energ'hill technology and were subject to laser irradiation. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory and field conditions. Lengthening of germinal roots and hypocotyls was observed. A positive effect of the stimulation on the morphological features was observed for the Eh seeds and laser irradiation applied in a three-fold dose. The energ'hill seeds exhibited a significantly higher content of carotenoids in seedlings and an increase in the content of chlorophylls. Laser light irradiation favourably modified the ratio of chlorophyll a to b. The leaves and roots of plants developed from the energ'hill and irradiated seeds were characterized by higher dry matter content thanin non-stimulated seeds. Seed stimulation had a positive influence on yielding and the saccharose content.

  3. Using t{yields}bbc to search for new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kiers, Ken; Knighton, Tal; Russell, Matthew; Webster, Kari; London, David; Szynkman, Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    We consider new-physics (NP) contributions to the decay t{yields}bbc. We parametrize the NP couplings by an effective Lagrangian consisting of 10 Lorentz structures. We show that the presence of NP can be detected through the measurement of the partial width. A partial identification of the NP can be achieved through the measurements of a forward-backward-like asymmetry, a top-quark-spin-dependent asymmetry, the partial-rate asymmetry, and a triple-product asymmetry. These observables, which vanish in the standard model, can all take values in the 10%-20% range in the presence of NP. Since |V{sub tb}V{sub cb}|{approx_equal}|V{sub ts}V{sub cs}|, most of our results also hold, with small changes, for t{yields}ssc.

  4. NRSA (Norwegian Regional Seismic Array) seismic yield estimation primer

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, J.R.; Lee, D.O.; Bame, D.A.

    1987-12-01

    An earthquake or an underground nuclear explosion generates seismic waves that propagate through the earth and thus provide information about the event. An analysis of an event may be accomplished by interpretation of these seismic signals. From this interpretative exercise one can estimate the origin of the event and if an explosion, its yield. There is a need for a primer that will allow the novice to quickly begin making such interpretations. The purpose of this primer is to: (1) provide an introduction to the seismological concepts necessary for the understanding of a seismogram;(2) provide a detailed step by step procedure for the interpretations of seismograms;and (3) provide an understanding of yield estimation.

  5. Analysis of experimental data on the neutron yield from muons

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonova, N. Yu.; Malgin, A. S.

    2013-05-15

    Experimental data accumulated over 60 years of studying the yield of cosmogenic neutrons in a liquid scintillator (Y{sub LS}), iron (Y{sub Fe}), and lead (Y{sub Pb}) were analyzed. This analysis revealed that the main part of the results on the yield Y{sub LS} were overestimated by about 30%. With allowance for this circumstance, all experimental data can be described by the dependence Y(E{sub Micro-Sign }, A) = b{sub n}A{sup {beta}}E{sub Micro-Sign }{sup {alpha}}, where the product b{sub n}E{sub Micro-Sign }{sup {alpha}} stands for the energy spent by a muon on neutron production. The exponents of {alpha} = 0.78 and {beta} = 0.95 are determined by the properties of the medium and by neutron production in showers.

  6. ACTIVIA: Calculation of Isotope Production Cross-sections and Yields

    E-print Network

    J. J. Back; Y. A. Ramachers

    2008-01-15

    We present a C++ computer package, ACTIVIA, that can calculate target-product cross-sections and the production and decay yields of isotopes from cosmic ray activation using data tables and semi-empirical formulae. We describe the structure and user interface of the computer code as well as provide comparisons between the calculations and experimental results. We also outline suggestions on how the code can be improved and extended for other applications.

  7. Estimated winter wheat yield from crop growth predicted by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1977-01-01

    An evapotranspiration and growth model for winter wheat is reported. The inputs are daily solar radiation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation/irrigation and leaf area index. The meteorological data were obtained from National Weather Service while LAI was obtained from LANDSAT multispectral scanner. The output provides daily estimates of potential evapotranspiration, transpiration, evaporation, soil moisture (50 cm depth), percentage depletion, net photosynthesis and dry matter production. Winter wheat yields are correlated with transpiration and dry matter accumulation.

  8. Mechanical design of mussel byssus: material yield enhances attachment strength

    PubMed

    Bell; Gosline

    1996-01-01

    The competitive dominance of mussels in the wave-swept rocky intertidal zone is in part due to their ability to maintain a secure attachment. Mussels are tethered to the substratum by a byssus composed of numerous extracellular, collagenous threads secreted by the foot. Each byssal thread has three serially arranged parts: a corrugated proximal region, a smooth distal region and an adhesive plaque. This study examines the material and structural properties of the byssal threads of three mussel species: Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Tensile tests in general reveal similar material properties among species: the proximal region has a lower initial modulus, a lower ultimate stress and a higher ultimate strain than the distal region. The distal region also yields at a stress well below its ultimate value. In whole thread tests, the proximal region and adhesive plaque are common sites of structural failure and are closely matched in strength, while the distal region appears to be excessively strong. We propose that the high strength of the distal region is the byproduct of a material designed to yield and extend before structural failure occurs. Experimental and theoretical evidence is presented suggesting that thread yield and extensibility provide two important mechanisms for increasing the overall attachment strength of the mussel: (1) the reorientation of threads towards the direction of applied load, and (2) the 'recruitment' of more threads into tension and the consequent distribution of applied load over a larger cross-sectional area, thereby reducing the stress on each thread. This distal region yield behavior is most striking for M. californianus and may be a key to its success in extreme wave-swept environments. PMID:9318809

  9. Lithium: Measurement of Young's Modulus and Yield Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan P Schultz

    2002-11-07

    The Lithium Collection Lens is used for anti-proton collection. In analyzing the structural behavior during operation, various material properties of lithium are often needed. properties such as density, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, specific heat, compressability, etc.; are well known. However, to the authors knowledge there is only one published source for Young's Modulus. This paper reviews the results from the testing of Young's Modulus and the yield strength of lithium at room temperature.

  10. Improving yield through the application of process window OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Krasnoperova, Azalia; Siddiqui, Shahab; Settlemyer, Kenneth; Graur, Ioana; Stobert, Ian; Oberschmidt, James M.

    2009-03-01

    As the industry progresses toward more challenging patterning nodes with tighter error budgets and weaker process windows, it is becoming clear that current single process condition Optical Proximity Corrections (OPC) as well as OPC verification methods such as Optical Rules Checking (ORC) performed at a single process point fail to provide robust solutions through process. Moreover, these techniques can potentially miss catastrophic failures that will negatively impact yield while surely failing to capitalize on every chance to enhance process window. Process-aware OPC and verification algorithms have been developed [1,2] that minimize process variability to enhance yield and assess process robustness, respectively. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of process aware OPC and ORC tools to enable first time right manufacturing solutions, even for technology nodes prior to 45nm such as a 65nm contact level, by identifying critical spots on the layout that became significant yield detractors on the chip but nominal ORC could not catch. Similarly, we will demonstrate the successful application of a process window OPC (PWOPC) algorithm capable of recognizing and correcting for process window systematic variations that threaten the overall RET performance, while maintaining printed contours within the minimum overlay tolerances. Direct comparison of wafer results are presented for two 65nm CA masks, one where conventional nominal OPC was applied and a second one processed with PWOPC. Thorough wafer results will show how our process aware OPC algorithm was able to address and successfully strengthen the lithography performance of those areas in the layout previously identified by PWORC as sensitive to process variations, as well as of isolated and semi-isolated features, for an overall significant yield enhancement.

  11. The Effect of Spacing on the Yield of Cotton. 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

    1926-01-01

    STATION B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 340 MAY, 1926 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY THE EFFECT OF SPACING ON THE YIELD OF COTTON - LGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON. President STATION...!on w!th U. S. ~epartmedf of-Agriculture. ***In ooo~erat~on with the School of Agr~culture. SYNOPSIS In 1914, the Division of Agronomy, Texas Agricultural Ex- periment Station, began the experiments here reported to de- termine the optimum spacing...

  12. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  13. Managing Forests for Water Yield: The Importance of Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, D.D.

    1999-11-13

    Examination of expected change in water yield for a large area where vegetation thinning has been proposed in the Sierra Mountains of California, indicates that the size of the area has an important bearing on annual runoff. Results indicate that average changes in annual runoff per unit area for large areas would typically be less than 0.4%. Such changes can only be quantified by extrapolation of paired watershed studies because direct measurement is not feasible.

  14. Top ten models constrained by b {yields} s{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The radiative decay b {yields} s{gamma} is examined in the Standard Model and in nine classes of models which contain physics beyond the Standard Model. The constraints which may be placed on these models from the recent results of the CLEO Collaboration on both inclusive and exclusive radiative B decays is summarized. Reasonable bounds are found the parameters in some of the models.

  15. Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields

    PubMed Central

    van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2013-01-01

    Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26–72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12–19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

  16. Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields.

    PubMed

    van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2013-12-01

    Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26-72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12-19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

  17. A Simple Method for Determining Specific Yield from Pumping Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsahoye, L.E.; Lang, Solomon Max

    1961-01-01

    A simpler solution which greatly reduces the time necessary to compute the specific yield by the pumping-test method of Remson and Lang (1955) is presented. The method consists of computing the volume of dewatered material in the cone of depression and comparing it with the total volume of discharged water. The original method entails the use of a slowly converging series to compute the volume of dewatered material. The solution given herein is derived directly from Darcy's law.

  18. Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Peter J.; Sample, David W.; Williams, Carol L.; Turner, Monica G.

    2014-01-01

    Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes. PMID:25299593

  19. Optimizing Production of Hydroquinone Achieves Increased Yield and Energy Efficiency 

    E-print Network

    Gross, S.

    2010-01-01

    , build inventory, then take extended shutdowns to control inventory to acceptable levels ? Payoff: Significant energy reduction, yield improvement and optimized operating costs Project definition ? Risk assessment ? In order to move past the cultural... ? Amount of HQ produced in one year ? Year end inventory ? Energy Savings: compared 2009 electricity and steam usage to that of 2008 ? Manufacturing Cost Reporting (SAP) Results ? Energy Savings ? Reduction in steam and electricity usage: ? Steam: 88...

  20. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Species mixing boosts root yield in mangrove trees

    E-print Network

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    -month-old Avicennia marina (A), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (B) and Ceriops tagal (C). A monoculture of each species). The increased productivity of a mixed-species assemblage compared to monocultures of the component species. The former refers to a situation in which a mixture outproduces the highest yielding monoculture

  1. Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield and Quality

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield of fertilizer programs necessary for production of high quality malt barley. Quality, or the ability of the commodity to meet the needs of the grain processor, has long been a component of N fertilizer management

  2. Projecting yield and utilization potential of switchgrass as an energy crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential utilization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a cellulosic energy crop was evaluated as a component of a projected future national network of biorefineries designed to increase national reliance on renewable energy from American farms. Empirical data on current yields of switchg...

  3. Evaluation of landscape and instream modeling to predict watershed nutrient yields

    E-print Network

    Migliaccio, Kati White

    Evaluation of landscape and instream modeling to predict watershed nutrient yields K.W. Migliaccio August 2006 Abstract The project goal was to loosely couple the SWAT model and the QUAL2E model to the ability of the SWAT model with its completely coupled water quality components to predict TP and NO3-N

  4. Evaluating the synchronicity in yield variations of staple crops at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2014-12-01

    Reflecting the recent globalization trend in world commodity market, several major production countries are producing large amount of staple crops, especially, maize and soybean. Thus, simultaneous crop failure (abrupt reduction in crop yield, lean year) due to extreme weather and/or climate change could lead to unstable food supply. This study try to examine the synchronicity in yield variations of staple crops at global scale. We use a gridded crop yields database, which includes the historical year-to-year changes in staple crop yields with a spatial resolution of 1.125 degree in latitude/longitude during a period of 1982-2006 (Iizumi et al. 2013). It has been constructed based on the agriculture statistics issued by local administrative bureaus in each country. For the regions being lack of data, an interpolation was conducted to obtain the values referring to the NPP estimates from satellite data as well as FAO country yield. For each time series of the target crop yield, we firstly applied a local kernel regression to represent the long-term trend component. Next, the deviations of yearly yield from the long-term trend component were defined as ?Y(i, y) in year y at grid i. Then, the correlation of deviation between grids i and j in year y is defined as Cij(y) = ?Y(i, y) ?Y(j, y). In addition, Pij = represents the time-averaged correlation of deviation between grids i and j. Bracket <...> means the time average operation over 25 years (1982-2006). As the results, figures show the time changes in the number of grid pairs, in which both the deviation are negative. It represent the time changes in ratio of the grid pairs where both crop yields synchronically decreased to the total grid pairs. The years denoted by arrows in the figures indicate the case that all the ratios of three country pairs (i.e. China-USA, USA-Brazil and Brazil-China) are relatively larger (>0.6 for soybean and >0.5 for maize). This suggests that the reductions in crop yield occurred synchronically in three countries in these years, which are the simultaneous lean years (as of lower yield compared to that of long-term trend).

  5. Complex oscillatory yielding in model hard sphere glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petekidis, George; Koumakis, Nick

    2012-02-01

    The yielding behaviour of hard sphere glasses under large amplitude oscillatory shear has been studied by experimental rheology and Brownian Dynamics simulations. Here we focus on varying the frequency of oscillation probing the interplay between Brownian motion and shear-induced diffusion. Stress, structure and dynamics are followed by rheology and BD simulations Two frequency regimes are revealed: At low frequencies Brownian motion is dominant, assisting particles to escape their cage during a single step yielding process, identified by a peak of G'' at around the G'=G'' crossover. At high frequencies shear induced particle collisions causes cage breaking with the maximum energy dissipation marked by the G'' peak taking place beyond the G'=G'' crossover. Intermediate frequencies present a complex yielding behaviour influenced by both mechanisms that leads to a double peak in G'' that has not been reported before in HS glasses. The nonlinear response is quantified by the higher harmonics present in the stress signal. While at low frequencies the strength of higher harmonics reaches a constant value at high strains, in the intermediate and high frequency regime a non-monotonic behaviour is detected with characteristic large amplitude strains exhibiting apparent harmonic response.

  6. Yielding to Stress: Recent Developments in Viscoplastic Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmforth, Neil J.; Frigaard, Ian A.; Ovarlez, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The archetypal feature of a viscoplastic fluid is its yield stress: If the material is not sufficiently stressed, it behaves like a solid, but once the yield stress is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. Such behavior characterizes materials common in industries such as petroleum and chemical processing, cosmetics, and food processing and in geophysical fluid dynamics. The most common idealization of a viscoplastic fluid is the Bingham model, which has been widely used to rationalize experimental data, even though it is a crude oversimplification of true rheological behavior. The popularity of the model is in its apparent simplicity. Despite this, the sudden transition between solid-like behavior and flow introduces significant complications into the dynamics, which, as a result, has resisted much analysis. Over recent decades, theoretical developments, both analytical and computational, have provided a better understanding of the effect of the yield stress. Simultaneously, greater insight into the material behavior of real fluids has been afforded by advances in rheometry. These developments have primed us for a better understanding of the various applications in the natural and engineering sciences.

  7. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J.S.; Nidom, Chairul A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A.; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:26334134

  8. Mesobiliverdin IX? Enhances Rat Pancreatic Islet Yield and Function.

    PubMed

    Ito, Taihei; Chen, Dong; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom; Kenmochi, Takashi; Saito, Tomonori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Takemoto, Jon Y

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce mesobiliverdin IX?, an analog of anti-inflammatory biliverdin IX?, and to test its ability to enhance rat pancreatic islet yield for allograft transplantation into diabetic recipients. Mesobiliverdin IX? was synthesized from phycocyanobilin derived from cyanobacteria, and its identity and purity were analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Mesobiliverdin IX? was a substrate for human NADPH biliverdin reductase. Excised Lewis rat pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IX? and biliverdin IX?-HCl (1-100??M) yielded islet equivalents as high as 86.7 and 36.5%, respectively, above those from non-treated controls, and the islets showed a high degree of viability based on dithizone staining. When transplanted into livers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, islets from pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IX? lowered non-fasting blood glucose (BG) levels in 55.6% of the recipients and in 22.2% of control recipients. In intravenous glucose tolerance tests, fasting BG levels of 56 post-operative day recipients with islets from mesobiliverdin IX? infused pancreata were lower than those for controls and showed responses that indicate recovery of insulin-dependent function. In conclusion, mesobiliverdin IX? infusion of pancreata enhanced yields of functional islets capable of reversing insulin dysfunction in diabetic recipients. Since its production is scalable, mesobiliverdin IX? has clinical potential as a protectant of pancreatic islets for allograft transplantation. PMID:23630498

  9. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    PubMed Central

    Passoth, Volkmar; Eriksson, Anna; Sandgren, Mats; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Piens, Kathleen; Schnürer, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry) stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production. PMID:19695089

  10. Oxidation of heterocyclic nitrogen yields to nitroheterocycles. [Nitrofurazans

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    In the process of finding new routes to synthesize nitrofurazans the investigators compared the oxidation of a sulfilimide and a phosphine imine derived from 3-amino-4-(chlorophenyl)furazan (1). The sulfilimine, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-dimethyl-sulfiliminofurazan (2), was prepared by treating 1 with dimethyl sulfide ditriflate. Oxidation of 1 with peroxytrifluoroacetic acid (ptfa) in dichloromethane gave a mixture that was chromatographed to give 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4- nitro-furazan (5) in 11% yield and azoxy(4-chlorophenylfurazan) (6) in 32% yield. Under the same conditions, 2 gave a 96% yield of 5 with no trace of 6. Oxidation of diaminofurazan (7) with ptfa gives 3-amino-4-nitrofurazan (8), which was converted to the sulfilimine. Treatment of the sulfilimine with anhydrous ptfa in dichloromethane gave a solution that contained dimethyl sulfone according to /sup 13/C-NMR analysis, but no nitrocarbon could be detected. However, the /sup 14/N-NMR spectrum contained a very sharp singlet with a width at half-height of 19 Hz and a chemical shift almost identical to that of 5. Thus, it appears that we may have formed dinitrofurazan in solution, but we have not been able to isolate it in pure form as yet. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Planet Diversity Yields with Space-based Direct Imaging Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Hébrard, Eric; Stark, Chris; Robinson, Tyler D.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; McElwain, Michael W.; Clampin, Mark; Meadows, Victoria; Arney, Giada; Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope Science Team, Exoplanet Climate Group

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, we will estimate the yield for a diversity of planets from future space-based flagship telescopes. We first divvy up planets into categories that are based on current observables, and that should impact the spectra we hope to observe in the future. The two main classification parameters we use here are the size of a planet and the energy flux into the planet's atmosphere. These two parameters are measureable or inferable from present-day observations, and should have a strong influence on future spectroscopy observations from JWST, WFIRST (with a coronagraph and/or starshade), and concept flagship missions that would fly some time after WFIRST. This allows us to calculate "?planet" values for each kind of planet. These ? values then allow calculations of the expected yields from direct imaging missions, by leveraging the models and prior work by Stark and colleagues (2014, 2015). That work estimated the yields for potentially Earth-like worlds (i.e. of a size and stellar irradiation consistent with definitions of the habitable zone) for telescopes with a variety of observational parameters. We will do the same thing here, but for a wider variety of planets. This will allow us to discuss the implications of architecture and instrument properties on the diversity of worlds that future direct imaging missions would observe.

  12. Measurement of Fission Product Yields from Fast-Neutron Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Henderson, R.; Kenneally, J.; Macri, R.; McNabb, D.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.

    2014-09-01

    One of the aims of the Stockpile Stewardship Program is a reduction of the uncertainties on fission data used for analyzing nuclear test data [1,2]. Fission products such as 147Nd are convenient for determining fission yields because of their relatively high yield per fission (about 2%) and long half-life (10.98 days). A scientific program for measuring fission product yields from 235U,238U and 239Pu targets as a function of bombarding neutron energy (0.1 to 15 MeV) is currently underway using monoenergetic neutron beams produced at the 10 MV Tandem Accelerator at TUNL. Dual-fission chambers are used to determine the rate of fission in targets during activation. Activated targets are counted in highly shielded HPGe detectors over a period of several weeks to identify decaying fission products. To date, data have been collected at neutron bombarding energies 4.6, 9.0, 14.5 and 14.8 MeV. Experimental methods and data reduction techniques are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  13. Biomass yield as affected by wheat harvest method

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.R.; Hollingsworth, L.D.

    1982-12-01

    Wheat biomass yield and the portions recoverable by different harvesting methods were investigated at Bushland, TX. Where all above-ground dry matter was removed by hand and threshed with a small bundle thresher; the grain, straw and chaff portions averaged about 40, 50, and 10, respectively, of the total biomass. When clipping samples at a simulated combine harvesting height (13-14 inches), the remaining stubble amounts ranged from 1500 to 3000 pounds per acre when grain yield levels averaged 3000 to 6000 pounds per acre. In treatments where the stubble was swathed and baled after conventional combine harvesting, the straw yields ranged from 2000 to 2800 pounds per acre. The bales accounted for 34 to 46 of the ''material other than grain.'' There was about 2000 pounds per acre of stubble remaining below the 3 to 4 inch swather cutting height. In treatments where the combine cutter-bar was operated near ground level (2 to 3 inches) and all straw discharge was caught (whole plant combining), the catchings ranged from 65 to 89 of the ''material other than grain.'' The catching weights ranged from 3900 to 6000 pounds per acre.

  14. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high-yield plantations could be further analyzed by considering whether they help depress global prices, reducing incentives to expand elsewhere (Angelsen and Kaimowitz 2001). The significance of the study goes well beyond the bounds of Ucayli, and highlights risks to Amazonian forests from oil palm expansion (Butler and Laurance 2010). Oil palm is an astoundingly profitable and productive crop, with typical oil yields more than ten times that of soy. Some have even argued that oil palm is innately land sparing because it would take substantially more land for all other oil-bearing crops to provide the same output. However, most production gains from oil palm have occurred through increased area rather than increased yield, and in many cases expansion has been through forest clearing (Koh and Wilcove 2008, Gibbs et al 2010). The findings of Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) are particularly significant considering that the booming palm oil sectors in Indonesia and Malaysia, which currently produce over 80% of the world's product, are facing a host of pressures that constrain future area expansion. Malaysia has little remaining land suited for plantations and Indonesia faces intensifying international scrutiny over the future of their forestlands. Consequently, the Amazon basin is widely considered the new frontier, with more than half of its forest area suitable for palm oil cultivation (Butler and Laurance 2010) and growing incentives from Brazil's Program for the Sustainable Production of Oil Palm, which aims to utilize degraded lands and spur reforestation efforts. Their results also illuminate another key issue, namely the constraints faced by large-scale producers when they seek to expand plantation area. Emerging demand-side conservation efforts, such as the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), assume that already cleared and non-forested lands are freely available. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) hint at the obstacles to using such cleared lands, which is that they are inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these c

  15. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Nidom, Chairul A; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:26334134

  16. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment. PMID:25348886

  17. Statistical modeling of SRAM yield performance and circuit variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qi; Chen, Yijian

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we develop statistical models to investigate SRAM yield performance and circuit variability in the presence of self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) process. It is assumed that SRAM fins are fabricated by a positivetone (spacer is line) self-aligned sextuple patterning (SASP) process which accommodates two types of spacers, while gates are fabricated by a more pitch-relaxed self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) process which only allows one type of spacer. A number of possible inverter and SRAM structures are identified and the related circuit multi-modality is studied using the developed failure-probability and yield models. It is shown that SRAM circuit yield is significantly impacted by the multi-modality of fins' spatial variations in a SRAM cell. The sensitivity of 6-transistor SRAM read/write failure probability to SASP process variations is calculated and the specific circuit type with the highest probability to fail in the reading/writing operation is identified. Our study suggests that the 6-transistor SRAM configuration may not be scalable to 7-nm half pitch and more robust SRAM circuit design needs to be researched.

  18. Micrometeoroid impact charge yield for common spacecraft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, A.; Grün, E.; Malaspina, D.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2014-08-01

    The impact ionization charge yield is experimentally measured from four common materials used in space and specifically on the two STEREO spacecraft (germanium-coated black Kapton, beryllium copper, multilayer insulation, and solar cells). Cosmic dust particle impacts on spacecraft have been detected by electric field and plasma and radio wave instruments. The accurate interpretation of these signals is complicated by many factors, including the details of the spacecraft antenna system, the local spacecraft plasma environment, and our understanding of the physics of the impact process. The most basic quantity, the amount of charge liberated upon impact, is generally considered poorly constrained and is suspected to depend on the target material. Here we show that for common materials used on spacecraft this variability is small for impacts around 10 km/s, and the impact charge yield can be approximated by 80 fC for a 1 pg projectile. At higher speeds (˜50 km/s), variation of up to a factor of 5 is observed. The measured yields in the 10-50 km/s range are compared to measurements and predictions from the literature and are found to be lower than predicted by at least a factor of 12 at 10 km/s and at least a factor of 1.7 at 50 km/s. Impact charge is also found to depend on angle of incidence; the data suggest a maximum at 45°.

  19. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  20. Potato yield enhancement through intensification of sink and source performances.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Akira; Ashida, Hiroki; Kasajima, Ichiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Yokota, Akiho

    2015-03-01

    The combined total annual yield of six major crops (maize, rice, wheat, cassava, soybean, and potato; Solanum tuberosum L.) amounts to 3.1 billion tons. In recent years, staple crops have begun to be used as substitutes for fossil fuel and feedstocks. The diversion of crop products to fuels and industrial feedstocks has become a concern in many countries because of competition for arable lands and increased food prices. These concerns are definitely justified; however, if plant biotechnology succeeds in increasing crop yields to double the current yields, it will be possible to divert the surplus to purposes other than food without detrimental effects. Maize, rice, wheat, and soybean bear their sink organs in the aerial parts of the plant, and potato in the underground parts. Plants with aerial storage organs cannot accumulate products beyond their capacity to support the weight of these organs. In contrast, potato has heavy storage organs that are supported by the soil. In this mini-review, we introduce strategies of intensifying potato productivity and discuss recent advances in this research area. PMID:25931982