Note: This page contains sample records for the topic yield yield components from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.

Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

Blamey, F.P.C.



Carcase and component yields of rheas.  


1. Three Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) and 5 Lesser Rheas (Pterocnemia pennata) were slaughtered, using the procedures conventional for ostriches in South Africa, in order to determine the expected yield of by-products and saleable lean meat, fat and bone of rheas. 2. Differences (P < 0.05) between species were found in the proportional weight of the wings, feet, skin and liver. The wings, feet and head of rheas form a higher proportion of the carcase than in ostriches, whereas the skin of the former represents a lower percentage of body weight. 3. Lean meat production from rheas (64% on a carcase weight basis) is in the same order as for ostriches, broilers, turkeys and beef. PMID:9347146

Sales, J; Navarro, J L; Bellis, L; Manero, A; Lizurume, M; Martella, M B



Effect of Drought Stress and Methanol on Yield and Yield Components of Soybean Max (L 17)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: In order to evaluate drought stress and methanol on yield and yield components of soybean in field experiments with fac torial experiment inform of a randomized complete block design with three replication in fie ld faculty of agricultural of Islamic Azad Universi ty Karaj, at 2008. First factor were sprayed aqueous s olutions 0 (control), 7, 14.21, 28

Mojtaba Mirakhori; Farzad Paknejad; Foad Moradi; Mohammadreza Ardakani; Hossein Zahedi; Parisa Nazeri



The light yield nonproportionality component of scintillator energy resolution  

SciTech Connect

The scintillator energy resolution component which is due to light yield nonproportionality has been characterized for NaI(Tl) and LSO. Results are based on a discrete convolution of measured electron response data and the electron energy distribution resulting from full-energy absorption events. The behavior of this energy resolution component as a function of energy is observed to be strongly dependent on the shape of the electron response. Furthermore, in some energy regions, the light yield nonproportionality component is observed to be larger than the resolution predicted by assuming Poisson photoelectron statistics. Characterization of this energy resolution component will facilitate deconvolution of other components from the total energy resolution.

Valentine, J.D.; Rooney, B.D.; Li, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)



Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry  

SciTech Connect

The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield responded linearly to B and quadratically to P. At pH 6.5, P interacted with B and Zn. Fruit count per inflorescence was the yield component most strongly associated with yield, followed by individual fruit weight. However, these two yield components responded differently to soil-applied nutrients. Foliar nutrient levels generally did not increase with the amount of applied nutrient, but often an applied nutrient had a strong effect on the level of another nutrient. Leaf nutrient levels were often correlated with fruit levels, but foliar and fruit levels at harvest were not related to reproductive performance. The study identifies some of the problems inherent in using foliar nutrient levels to predict a yield response and demonstrates how plant responses to single nutrients depend on soil chemistry and the presence of other nutrients.

May, G.M.; Pritts, M.P. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)



Path coefficient analysis of the effects of stripe rust and cultivar mixtures on yield and yield components of winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four club wheat cultivars and three two-component cultivar mixtures, planted at five frequencies, were grown in three environments in both the presence and absence of stripe rust. The effect of stripe rust on wheat yield was through the yield components, with weight of individual seed being the component most affected by rust. In some cases, yield component compensation was indicated

S. I. Akanda; C. C. Mundt



[Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].  


The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro



Reduction of soybean yield components by Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).  


ABSTRACT Since its discovery in the United States, the invasive plataspid Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) has infested soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] fields in often alarming numbers in parts of the southeastern United States. Although a known feeder on soybean, reports of its pest status in its native Asian range are conflicting, and little information exists documenting its impact on soybean yields. Our objective was to examine the relationship between M. cribraria density and soybean yield loss. M. cribraria adults and nymphs were confined to small soybean plots by using walk-in field cages from late vegetative stage to harvest in 2011 and 2012. Adults (0, 5, or 25 per plant) were added at late vegetative stages, and their progeny were allowed to complete a full generation within the caged plots. Densities reached as high as 182.5 +/- 23.1 (SEM) nymphs and adults per plant, and soybean yield was reduced by as much as 59.6% at the highest density treatment. The yield components seeds per pod and individual seed weight were reduced as M. cribraria densities increased, but pods per plant and protein and oil content were not affected. Preliminary economic injury level curves for a range of grain prices and management costs were calculated based on 2012 yield loss data combined with population monitoring. M. cribraria is capable of causing severe reductions in soybean yields at densities that are relevant within its invasive U.S. range. PMID:24020281

Seiter, Nicholas J; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F



The light yield nonproportionality component of scintillator energy resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scintillator energy resolution component which is due to light yield nonproportionality has been characterized for NaI(Tl) and LSO. Results are based on a discrete convolution of measured electron response data and the electron energy distribution resulting from full-energy absorption events. The behavior of this energy resolution component as a function of energy is observed to be strongly dependent on

J. D. Valentine; B. D. Rooney; J. Li



The light yield nonproportionality component of scintillator energy resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scintillator energy resolution component which is due to light yield nonproportionality has been characterized for NaI(Tl) and LSO. Results are based on a discrete convolution of measured electron response data and the electron energy distribution resulting from full-energy absorption events. The behavior of this energy resolution component as a function of energy is observed to be strongly dependent on

J. D. Valentine; B. D. Rooney; J. Li



Relationships between seed yield and growth characters, yield components, seed quality of summer-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five genotypes of rapeseed were observed in the field on a single plant and plot basis to evaluate growth characteristics, yield, yield components and seed quality. Observations were made in two years at two locations on three seeding date and three seeding rate treatments. Correlation of seed yield with growth characters demonstrated no consistent trend, indicating that an early maturity

D. F. Degenhart; Z. P. Kondra



Plant spacing and cultivar affect melon growth and yield components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cultivars and in-row spacing on vegetative growth and yield components in melon (Cucumis melo L.). The cultivars ‘Early Dawn’ (ED), ‘Superstar’ (SS) and ‘Medoro’ (ME) were grown in rows 1.5m apart at plant spacing 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 or 1.5m. Cultivars ED and SS were grown in 1998 and 1999,

Dean Ban; Smiljana Goreta; Josip Boroši?




Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen sunflower hybrids were studied during spring 2002 in central Punjab- Pakistan. The results revealed that cross ORI-1 x RL-110 gave maximum heterobeltiosis (284.37%) for seed yield per plant. The cross ORI-43 x RL-10 produced maximum seed yield per plant (56.25 g) and was statistically at par with ORI-1 x RL- 110. The cross combination ORI-2 x V-214 produced taller

Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Anwar Butt; Manzoor Ali Akhter; Muhammad Aslam; Akhter Saeed


Effects of dwarfing genes on yield and yield components under irrigated and rainfed conditions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-isogenic tall (no dwarfing gene), semidwarf (Rht1 or Rht2) and dwarf (Rht1 + Rht2 or Rht3) spring wheat lines were evaluated for yield and yield components under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, the dwarf and the semidwarf lines exhibited a significant yield advantage over the tall lines. Under rainfed conditions, the semidwarf lines outyielded the tall as well

M. Nizam Uddin; D. R. Marshall



Yield and Yield Components of Mungbean as Affected by Various Weed Control Methods under Rain-fed Conditions of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad during two crop years (2003 - 04) to determine the effect of different weed control methods on the yield and yield components of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). In this study different weed control methods (chemical, mechanical, hand-weeding & their integration) were compared for their efficiency to control various



Effect of ‘Mixtalol’ on growth, yield and yield components of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtalol (a mixture of long chain aliphatic alcohols varying in chain length from C24 to C32) applied to Brassica juncea plants as foliar spray caused an increase in secondary and tertiary branching with consequent enhancement in seed yield through increased number of inflorescences and siliquae per plant. The percentage of immature siliquae and shattering of siliquae decreased with this treatment.

R. C. Setia; Richa; Neelam Setia; K. L. Ahuja; C. P. Malik



Yield component analysis of grain sorghum grown under water stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Delayed leaf senescence, or 'stay green', in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench L.) allows continued photosynthesis under drought conditions which can result in normal grain fill and larger yields compared with senescent cultivars. The objective of this study was to compare the yield response of ...


The effects of different sowing depth on grain yield and some grain yield components in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under dryland conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of sowing depths (3, 5, 7, 9 cm) on grain yield and yield components for wheat cultivars during 2004-2006 at one site in Van Province in Eastern Turkey. Grain yield and yield components were found to positively correlate with coleoptile length, with marked declines observed in grain yield and

Mehmet Yagmur; Digdem Kaydan


Grease Yields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is directed to lubricating grease compositions, more particularly to the use of certain agents to improve the yield of calcium base greases. The yields of grease compositions are increased by incorporating therein an oil-soluble polyglycol p...

D. W. Criddle



Genetic association of yield with its component traits in a recombinant inbred line population of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lint yield of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is determined by its component traits, boll number, boll weight, and lint percentage. Selecting high yielding lines is based on the ability to manipulate component traits. In this study, 188 recombinant inbred lines and two parental lines were grown in 1999 and 2000 at Mississippi State University. Lint yield and its three

Jixiang Wu; Johnie N. Jenkins; Jack C. McCarty Jr; Jun Zhu



Genetic analysis of heterosis for yield and yield components in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by quantitative trait locus mapping.  


The main objective in this research was the genetic analysis of heterosis in rapeseed at the QTL level. A linkage map comprising 235 SSR and 144 AFLP markers covering 2045 cM was constructed in a doubled-haploid population from a cross between the cultivar "Express" and the resynthesized line "R53." In field experiments at four locations in Germany 250 doubled-haploid (DH) lines and their corresponding testcrosses with Express were evaluated for grain yield and three yield components. The heterosis ranged from 30% for grain yield to 0.7% for kernel weight. QTL were mapped using three different data sets, allowing the estimation of additive and dominance effects as well as digenic epistatic interactions. In total, 33 QTL were detected, of which 10 showed significant dominance effects. For grain yield, mainly complete dominance or overdominance was observed, whereas the other traits showed mainly partial dominance. A large number of epistatic interactions were detected. It was concluded that epistasis together with all levels of dominance from partial to overdominance is responsible for the expression of heterosis in rapeseed. PMID:18562665

Radoev, Mladen; Becker, Heiko C; Ecke, Wolfgang



Genetic Analysis of Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping  

PubMed Central

The main objective in this research was the genetic analysis of heterosis in rapeseed at the QTL level. A linkage map comprising 235 SSR and 144 AFLP markers covering 2045 cM was constructed in a doubled-haploid population from a cross between the cultivar “Express” and the resynthesized line “R53.” In field experiments at four locations in Germany 250 doubled-haploid (DH) lines and their corresponding testcrosses with Express were evaluated for grain yield and three yield components. The heterosis ranged from 30% for grain yield to 0.7% for kernel weight. QTL were mapped using three different data sets, allowing the estimation of additive and dominance effects as well as digenic epistatic interactions. In total, 33 QTL were detected, of which 10 showed significant dominance effects. For grain yield, mainly complete dominance or overdominance was observed, whereas the other traits showed mainly partial dominance. A large number of epistatic interactions were detected. It was concluded that epistasis together with all levels of dominance from partial to overdominance is responsible for the expression of heterosis in rapeseed.

Radoev, Mladen; Becker, Heiko C.; Ecke, Wolfgang



Genetic association of lint yield with its components in cotton chromosome substitution lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dissection of the genetic relationship between lint yield and its yield components at the chromosome level may provide an additional avenue for yield enhancement in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Based on the conditional additive-dominance (AD) genetic model, we investigated the genetic structures ...


Effect of laser priming on canola yield and its components under salt stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of laser priming at different irradiation times on canola yield and its components under saline conditions were investigated. The results showed that laser priming had a positive effect on yield and its components and caused yield increase under saline conditions. Increase in salt levels had a negative and significant effect on seed yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, pod length and plant height. The results showed that 45-min laser priming had the strongest effect on yield and yield components and reduced significantly the adverse effects of salinity. By contrast, laser radiation applied for 60 and 75 min, resulted in a dramatic decrease in yield and its components. Correlation coefficients between the attributes showed that canola yield had a positive and significant correlation with plant height, number of seeds, pod per main branch and lateral branches, length of pod and number of lateral branches. Effects of laser and salinity were significant on lateral branch pod length but not on main branch pods.

Mohammadi, S. K.; Shekari, F.; Fotovat, R.; Darudi, A.



Effect of between and on row distance of first development, tillering, yield and yield components in wheat cultivars (Triticum sp.).  


This study was carried out at the University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Haymana Research and Application Farm, Haymana County, Ankara, Turkey during 1987/1990 with the aim of to determine the effect of between and on row distances (B(rd) and O(rd), respectively) on the first development, tillering, yield and yield components in wheat cultivars (Triticum sp.). Five wheat cultivars (Bezostaja-I, Gerek 79, Haymana 79; Triticum aestivum L., Cakmak 79 and Kunduru 1149; Triticum durum Desf.) were used and experimental design was arranged in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) in split plots with four replications. The cultivars were allocated to the main plots at three different B(rd) (5, 10 and 17.5 cm) and six various O(rd) (4.7, 2.2, 1.2 cm in commons and 3.8, 1.8, 1.0 cm in durums) values. B(rd) and O(rd) distances were not affected from emergency date; the number of plant m(-2) was varied between 173-326; the number of tillering was m(-2) was determined between 12-86; the number of the first root was changed 3-4; the length of the adventitious root was happened between 89-116 mm; the number of the adventitious root was varied between 2-3 mm; the length of the adventitious root was realized between 42-74 mm; the number of the downy brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) was changed between 7-16; plant height was measured between 45-73 cm; spike length was recorded between 62-81 mm; the number of spikelet was determined between 16-23; the number of grain was found between 19-30; grain weight per plant was calculated between 1-2 g plant(-1); 1000-kernel weight was varied between 18-44 g and grain yield per m2 was fixed between 119-208 g m(-2). Increasing in the B(rd) and O(rd) were negatively effected the adventitious root development so to ensure a long and fertile spike, narrow B(rd) and O(rd) distances should be used. Spikelet and grain number, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield per m2 were increased by narrowing either between nor on row distances. In addition, all the B(rd) parameters were not significantly effected to seedling traits in commons but not in durums. B(rd) = 17.5 cm was found the most beneficial distance in durums. On the other hand, to avoid reducing of the yield components, between row distance should not be increase and in all circimcustances, that value always must be adjusted wide otherwise control of the weeds, diseases and pest could be a great problem during the cultivation. PMID:19093497

Ulukan, Hakan; Kün, Ekrem



The Effects of Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Full Season and Double-Cropped Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to full season soybean cropping systems, seed yield reduction is a major concern in double-cropped soybean production systems. This study was conducted at the Research Farm of Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey, to determine if it is possible to enhance the yield of both full season and double-cropped soybean by narrowing row spacing. Two soybean cultivars, A3935 and S4240,

Mehmet ARSLAN; Mehmet Emin


Yield Components and Nutritive Value of Black Locust and Mimosa in Arkansas.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (b...


Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (...



Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCANTM: (a) to predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and (b) to augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving

R. C. Cannell; J. D. Tatum; K. E. Belk; J. W. Wise; R. P. Clayton; G. C. Smith


Effect of Seed Size and Plant Population Density on Yield and Yield Components of Local Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Major)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of four seed size (large, medium, small, and very small) and five plant populations (12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 150 plants m -2 ) on local faba bean yield and yield components. A split plot design with three replications was used, in which plant populations were assigned to main plots and



Effects of water stress applied at different growth stages to Brassica napus L. var. oleifera on yield, yield components and seed quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pot experiments under controlled conditions we investigated the effects of water stress on oilseed rape. Yield and yield components were mainly affected by water shortage occurring from flowering to the end of seed set. The greatest reduction (48%) was observed when only 37% of full water requirement was supplied to the plant during this stage. The number of seeds

L. Champolivier; A. Merrien



Identifi cation of Quantitative Trait Loci in Rice for Yield, Yield Components, and Agronomic Traits across Years and Locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 164 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) derived from a cross between Milyang23 and Gihobyeo was evaluated for nine phenotypic characters over three years and two regions in Korea. The pop- ulation had been previously mapped using 414 molecular markers. Genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was analyzed for six grain yield- related

Yong-Gu Cho; Hyeon-Jung Kang; Jeom-Sig Lee; Young-Tae Lee; Sang-Jong Lim; Hugh Gauch; Moo-Young Eun; Susan R. McCouch



Effect of Fertilizers on Growth, Yield, Yield Components, Quality and Certain Nutrient Contents in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plastic-house experiment was carried out during winter 2006-2007 to determine of the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield and quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica). Four organic fertilizer doses (0, 40, 60 & 80 t ha - 1 ) and three inorganic fertilizer doses (0, 30 & 60 kg ha-1) were used. Application of 60



Path and Ridge Regression Analysis of Seed Yield and Seed Yield Components of Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2 were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components.

Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, Rene



Sodium and potassium uptake of rice panicles as affected by salinity and season in relation to yield and yield components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is a major yield-reducing stress in many arid and\\/or coastal irrigation systems for rice. Past studies on salt stress\\u000a have mainly addressed the vegetative growth stage of rice, and little is known on salt effects on the reproductive organs.\\u000a Sodium and potassium uptake of panicles was studied for eight rice cultivars in field trials under irrigation with saline\\u000a and

Folkard Asch; Michael Dingkuhn; Christine Wittstock; Karl Doerffling



Dent corn genetic background influences QTL detection for grain yield and yield components in high-oil maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the well-recognized importance of grain yield in high-oil maize (Zea mays L.) breeding and production, few studies have reported the application of QTL mapping of such traits. An inbred line of high-oil\\u000a maize designated ‘GY220’ was crossed with two dent maize inbred lines to generate two connected F2:3 populations with 284 and 265 F2:3 families. Our main objective was

Y. L. Li; X. H. Li; J. Z. Li; J. F. Fu; Y. Z. Wang; M. G. Wei




Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) nutrition greatly affects the number of nodes above the uppermost white flower (NAWF), an indicator of plant growth and development in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). In this study, we examined relationships of NAWF with canopy photosynthesis (CP), specific leaf weight (SLW), and yield components, boll number, and dry weight in cotton under varying N supply. Four pre-plant soil

Bhaskar R. Bondada; Derrick M. Oosterhuis



Epistasis for Three Grain Yield Components in Rice (Oryxa sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic basis for three grain yield components of rice, 1000 kernel weight (KW), grain number per panicle (GN), and grain weight per panicle (GWP), was investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism markers and F4 progeny testing from a cross between rice subspecies japonica (cultivar Lemont from USA) and indica (cv. Teqing from China). Following identification of 19 QTL affecting

Zhikang Li; Shannon R. M. Pinson; Andrew H. Paterson; James W. Stanselt




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eighty-eight crossbred cows were assigned to one of three paddocks of stockpiled fescue for 160 d to determine milk yield and components, and determine performance of cows and calves consuming either corn:soybean meal (CSB; n = 28), soyhulls (SH; n = 28), or no supplement (control; n = 32). Supplem...


Comparative mapping in F 2?3 and F 6?7 generations of quantitative trait loci for grain yield and yield components in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to compare maize quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection for grain yield and yield components in F2:3 and F6:7 recombinant inbred (RI) lines from the same population. One hundred and eighty-six F6:7 RIs from a Mo17×H99 population were grown in a replicated field experiment and analyzed at 101 loci detected by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Single-factor

D. F. Austin; M. Lee



Long-Term Tillage, Cover Crop, and Nitrogen Rate Effects on Cotton: Plant Growth and Yield Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield is influenced by tillage, no-till and cover crops are useful for soil moisture con- cover crop, and N fertility, but the plant growth and yield component servation in the southeastern USA. responses related to these yield responses have not been well defined. A field study was conducted from 1991 through 2001 on Gigger silt Undoubtedly,

Donald J. Boquet; Robert L. Hutchinson; Gary A. Breitenbeck


Effect of Foliar Fertilizer as Seed Pretreatment on Yield Components in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of foliar fertilizer as seed pre-treatment at different concentrations and times to the yield components in the ?kizce 96 common wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under field conditions of Central Anatolia in a split-split plot design with four replications during 1998-99 and 1999-2000 at the University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Haymana



Are Crop Yields Normally Distributed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence for nonnormality of crop yields is reassessed. Three methodological problems are identified in typical yield distribution analyses: (i) misspecification of the nonrandom components of yield distributions, (ii) misreporting of statistical significance, and (iii) use of aggregate time-series (ATS) data to represent farm-level yield distributions. One or more of these problems infect virtually all evidence against normality to date.

Quinn Weninger



The dependence of char yield on the amounts of components in precursors for pyrolysed tropical fruit stones and seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermogravimetric results on the thermal degradation of isolated components extracted from shells of tropical fruit stones and seeds allowed us to establish the dependence of the yield of char obtained by high-temperature pyrolysis (600–900 °C) of lignocellulosic raw materials on the content of components in precursors. For char with narrow microporosity development, the following equation for the char yield (Y)

Alex Ouensanga; Lucie Largitte; Marie-Ange Arsene



To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan  

SciTech Connect

Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E. [Department of Agronomy, Plant breeding and genetic, Faculty of Agricutlure, Zabol University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)



Growth parameter and yield component response of field corn to simulated acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yield changes the study examined the effect of simulated acid rain on parameters associated with corn yield. Cultivars B73 x Mo17 and Pioneer 3377 were shielded from ambient rain by two movable rain exclusion shelters. Six simulated rain treatments were applied biweekly within these shelters through the use of a nozzle distribution system. For the most part, growth and yield parameters were unaffected by simulated rain treatment. While the only significant yield reduction was a contrast of pH 3.0 and the average of all other treatments for B73 x Mo17, the reduction appears to be the result both of slightly fewer ears and slightly less successful ear fill.

Banwart, W.L.; Porter, P.M.; Ziegler, E.L.; Hassett, J.J.



QTL consistency and meta-analysis for grain yield components in three generations in maize.  


Grain yield is the most important and complex trait in maize. In this study, a total of 258 F(9) recombinant inbred lines (RIL), derived from a cross between dent corn inbred Dan232 and popcorn inbred N04, were evaluated for eight grain yield components under four environments. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their epistatic interactions were detected for all traits under each environment and in combined analysis. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps and detected QTL across three generations (RIL, F(2:3) and BC(2)F(2)) derived from the same cross. In total, 103 QTL, 42 pairs of epistatic interactions and 16 meta-QTL (mQTL) were detected. Twelve out of 13 QTL with contributions (R(2)) over 15% were consistently detected in 3-4 environments (or in combined analysis) and integrated in mQTL. Only q100GW-7-1 was detected in all four environments and in combined analysis. 100qGW-1-1 had the largest R(2) (19.3-24.6%) in three environments and in combined analysis. In contrast, 35 QTL for 6 grain yield components were detected in the BC(2)F(2) and F(2:3) generations, no common QTL across three generations were located in the same marker intervals. Only 100 grain weight (100GW) QTL on chromosome 5 were located in adjacent marker intervals. Four common QTL were detected across the RIL and F(2:3) generations, and two between the RIL and BC(2)F(2) generations. Each of five important mQTL (mQTL7-1, mQTL10-2, mQTL4-1, mQTL5-1 and mQTL1-3) included 7-12 QTL associated with 2-6 traits. In conclusion, we found evidence of strong influence of genetic structure and environment on QTL detection, high consistency of major QTL across environments and generations, and remarkable QTL co-location for grain yield components. Fine mapping for five major QTL (q100GW-1-1, q100GW-7-1, qGWP-4-1, qERN-4-1 and qKR-4-1) and construction of single chromosome segment lines for genetic regions of five mQTL merit further studies and could be put into use in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:21063866

Li, J Z; Zhang, Z W; Li, Y L; Wang, Q L; Zhou, Y G



Impact 9 of Low Concentration Factor Microfiltration on Milk Component Recovery and Cheddar Cheese Yield1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microfiltration (MF) on the composition of Cheddar cheese, fat, crude protein (CP), calcium, total solids recovery, and Cheddar cheese yield effi- ciency (i.e., composition adjusted yield divided by theo- retical yield) was determined. Raw skim milk was mi- crofiltered twofold using a 0.1-µm ceramic membrane at 50°C. Four vats of cheese were made in one day using

M. Neocleous; D. M. Barbano; M. A. Rudan



QTL and epistatic analyses of heterosis for seed yield and three yield component traits using molecular markers in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).  


Aiming to explore the basis of heterosis in rapeseed, QTLs for yield and three yield component traits were mapped and the digenic interactions were detected in an F2 population derived from a cross between two elite rapeseed lines, SI-1300 and Eagle, in this study. Twenty-eight QTLs were detected for the four yield traits, with only two of them detected simultaneously in the Wuhan and Jingmen environments. Additive, partial dominance, dominance, and overdominance effects were all identified for the investigated traits. Dominance (including partial dominance) was shown by 55% of the QTLs, which suggests that dominance is a major genetic basis ofheterosis in rapeseed. At the P < or = 0.01 level with 1000 random permutations, 108 and 104 significant digenic interactions were detected in Wuhan and Jingmen, respectively, for the four yield-related traits using all possible locus pairs of molecular markers. Digenic interactions, including additive by additive, additive by dominance, and dominance by dominance, were frequent and widespread in this population. In most cases (78.3%), the interactions occurred among marker loci for which significant effects were not detected by single-locus analysis. Some QTLs (57.1%) detected by single-locus analysis were involved in epistatic interactions. It was concluded that epistasis, along with dominance (including partial dominance), is responsible for the expression of heterosis in rapeseed. PMID:23270265

Li, Y; Zhang, X; Ma, C; Shen, J; Chen, Q; Wang, T; Fu, T; Tu, J



Growth Parameter and Yield Component Response of Field Corn to Simulated Acid Rain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yiel...

W. L. Banwart P. M. Porter E. L. Ziegler J. J. Hassett



Evaluation of Grain Yield and Its Components in Durum Wheat under Mediterranean Conditions: An Ontogenic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

the number of spikes per square meter predominantly influenced grain drought stress, with respect to grain yield, is from double production in the warmer environments. The number of kernels per ridge to anthesis due to its negative impact on spikelet spike had a significant contribution to grain yield, especially under number and kernels per spike (Shpiler and Blum, 1991). drought

L. F. Garcia del Moral; Y. Rharrabti; D. Villegas; C. Royo


An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.  


In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. PMID:20128501

Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A



Effects of different water regimes on field-grown determinate and indeterminate faba bean ( Vicia faba L.). II. Yield, yield components and harvest index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faba bean yields are highly sensitive to variations of water availability. For indeterminate faba bean, high levels of water could promote excessive vegetative growth at the expense of pod growth. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objective of comparing the yield and harvest index of determinate and indeterminate faba bean under different water regimes and finding how the

M. D. Dennett; U. Ratnaweera; K. Nyalemegbe



Effect of salt stress on some chemical components and yield of potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain more information about the effect of salt stress on potato production, the effects on emergence, growth and yield, carbohydrate and mineral contents, and nitrate reductase (NR) activity of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) were investigated using two cultivars (May Queen and Dejima). Salt stress was achieved by the application of NaCl (0, 10, 20, and 30 g pot-1

Subhash Chandra Ghosh; Koh-ichiro Asanuma; Akihito Kusutani; Masanori Toyota



Effects of dried citrus pulp on milk yield, milk composition and blood components of dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty multiparous Friesian cows, 80–130 days postpartum, were allotted to two groups of ten cows, according to calving date, lactation number and daily yield, and assigned randomly to one of two diets in a crossover design experiment. The two experimental diets contained either 20% dried citrus pulp and 30% concentrate or 15% dried beet pulp, 8% ground maize and 27%

N. G. Belibasakis; D. Tsirgogianni



Variation of Yield and Associated Components in the USDA Rice Mini-Core Collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice is a staple food crop that feeds over half of the world’s population. Genetic improvement for grain yield is critical for global food security. The USDA rice mini-core collection of 217 entries has proven to well represent the diversity found in the whole NSGC collection of about 20,000 accessi...


Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield components: Weed control and soil moisture interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an alternative cropping option for the Southern Plains region with increasing production and market potential. Producers report that weed competition is the most detrimental factor influencing bean yields and therefore profitability. In addition, depending on th...


Variance Component Analysis of Plant Architectural Traits and Fruit Yield in Melon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant architecture can be manipulated to increase yield in melon (Cucumis melo L.). A cross between a unique highly branched line, U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 846-1 (P1; 7 to 11 lateral branches), and ‘Topmark’ (P2; 2 to 4 lateral branches), a U.S. Western Market type melon, produced F1 ...


Dry bean genotype evaluation for growth, yield components and phosphorus use efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dry beans along with rice are staple food for populations of South America. In this tropical region beans are grown on Oxisols and phosphorus is one of the most yield limiting factors for dry bean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate P use efficiency in 20 promising dry bean...


CELL BIOLOGY & MOLECULAR GENETICS Performance of Backcrosses Involving Transgressant Doubled Haploid Lines in Rice under Contrasting Moisture Regimes: Yield Components and Marker Heterozygosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

tomary statistical analyses are found to be inadequate in discerning the effects of different yield components Improvement of grain yield in the rainfed lowland rice (Oryza on yield (Zobel et al., 1989). Hence, studying grain yield sativa L.) ecosystem is important because that ecosystem covers a under varying moisture conditions and employing more considerable area. The objectives of this study

Mahmoud Toorchi; H. E. Shashidhar; T. M. Gireesha; Shailaja Hittalmani


Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays



Studies of heterosis, combining ability and inheritance of yield and yield components in a diallel cross of bengal gram ( Cicer arietinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5 X 5 diallel cross among well-adapted varieties of gram from different agroclimatic regions was studied for heterosis, combining ability and inheritance of days-to-flowering, primary branches, pods per plant, 100-seed weight and grain yield. A high degree of heterosis over mid-parent and better parent was observed for primary branches, no. of pods and grain yield, whereas very little heterosis

H. S. Dhaliwal; A. S. Gill



A diallel study of yield components and fruit quality in chilli pepper ( Capsicum baccatum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to estimate the general and specific combining ability of peppers by measuring fruit quality and\\u000a yield traits. This experiment was carried out on the garden field from Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Minas Gerais\\u000a State—Brazil. Eight lines of Capsicum baccatum belonging to the UFV Horticultural Germplasm Bank were chosen based on their broad genetic

Elizanilda Ramalho do Rêgo; Mailson Monteiro do Rêgo; Fernando Luiz Finger; Cosme Damião Cruz; Vicente Wagner Dias Casali



Reed canarygrass yield improvement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reed canarygrass is well adapted to the northern USA. Eight cultivars and 72 accessions collected in rural landscapes from Iowa to New Hampshire were evaluated for yield. Accessions produced on average 7% higher biomass yield compared to existing cultivars. Naturalized populations of reed canarygras...


Genetic associations of cotton yield with its component traits in derived primitive accessions crossed by elite Upland cultivars using the conditional ADAA genetic model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Boll number, lint percentage, and boll weight are three component traits for lint yield of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Selecting high yielding lines or hybrids depends on the ability to dissect the genetic relationship of lint yield with these component traits. In this study, 14 day-neutral...


Variation of Morphology, Yield and Essential Oil Components in Common Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert) Cultivars Grown in Southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert) is one of the oldest and most popular medicinal plants, used for its numerous properties. Two diploid and two tetraploid cultivars, sown and transplanted in Southern Italy, were compared to determine the variation in morphology, yield and essential oil components at two harvest times. An analysis of variance was performed, and means were

Laura D Andrea



Credit Headcount Forecast for Fall 1989-90: Component Yield Method Projections. Planning Brief PB90-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In forecasting its fall credit headcounts, the Office of Institutional Research and Analysis at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) utilizes the Component Yield Method (CYM), an enrollment projection model developed by the college's planning analyst in the early 1980's. By disaggregating enrolled students into multiple groups, each with an…

Clagett, Craig A.


Overdominant Epistatic Loci Are the Primary Genetic Basis of Inbreeding Depression and Heterosis in Rice. II. Grain Yield Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic basis underlying inbreeding depression and heterosis for three grain yield components of rice was investigated in five interrelated mapping populations using a complete RFLP linkage map, replicated phenotyping, and the mixed model approach. The populations included 254 F10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Lemont ( japonica) and Teqing (indica), two backcross (BC) and two

L. J. Luo; Z.-K. Li; H. W. Mei; Q. Y. Shu; R. Tabien; D. B. Zhong; C. S. Ying; J. W. Stansel; G. S. Khush; A. H. Paterson


Combining ability analysis for within-boll yield components in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  


Cotton is an important cash crop worldwide, accounting for a large percentage of world agricultural exports; however, yield per acre is still poor in many countries, including Pakistan. Diallel mating system was used to identify parents for improving within-boll yield and fiber quality parameters. Combining ability analysis was employed to obtain suitable parents for this purpose. The parental genotypes CP-15/2, NIAB Krishma, CIM-482, MS-39, and S-12 were crossed in complete diallel mating under green house conditions during 2009. The F? seed of 20 hybrids and five parents were planted in the field in randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010. There were highly significant differences among all F? hybrids and their parents. Specific combining ability (SCA) variance was greater than general combining ability (GCA) variance for bolls per plant (9.987), seeds per boll (0.635), seed density (5.672), lint per seed (4.174), boll size (3.69), seed cotton yield (0.315), and lint percentage (0.470), showing predominance of non-additive genes; while seed volume (3.84) was controlled by additive gene action based on maximum GCA variance. Cultivar MS-39 was found to be the best general combiner for seed volume (0.102), seeds per boll (0.448), and lint per seed (0.038) and its utilization produced valuable hybrids, including MS-39 x NIAB Krishma and MS-39 x S-12. The parental line CIM-482 had high GCA effects for boll size (0.33) and seeds per boll (0.90). It also showed good SCA with S-12 and NIAB Krishma for bolls per plant, with CP- 15/2 for boll size, and with MS-39 for seeds per boll. The hybrids, namely, CP-15/2 x NIAB Krishma, NIAB Krishma x S-12, NIAB Krishma x CIM-482, MS-39 x NIAB Krishma, MS-39 x CP-15/2, and S-12 x MS-39 showed promising results. Correlation analysis revealed that seed cotton yield showed significant positive correlation with bolls per plant, boll size and seeds per boll while it showed negative correlation with lint percentage and lint per seed. Seed volume showed significant negative correlation with seed density. Seeds per boll were positively correlated with boll size and negatively correlated with bolls per plant lint percentage and lint per seed. Similarly, lint per seed exhibited positive correlation with lint percentage and boll size showed significantly negative correlation with bolls per plant. Presence of non-additive genetic effects in traits like bolls per plant, seeds per boll, lint per seed, seed cotton yield, and lint percentage is indicative of later generation selection or heterosis breeding may be adopted. For boll size, seed volume and seed density early generation selection may be followed because of the presence of additive gene action. The parental material used in this study and cross combinations obtained from these parents may be exploited in future breeding endeavors. PMID:23007974

Imran, M; Shakeel, A; Azhar, F M; Farooq, J; Saleem, M F; Saeed, A; Nazeer, W; Riaz, M; Naeem, M; Javaid, A



Identification of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield components in an advanced backcross population derived from the Oryza sativa variety IR64 and the wild relative O. rufipogon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BC 2F 2 population developed from an interspecific cross between Oryza sativa (cv IR64) and O. rufipogon (IRGC 105491) was used in an advanced backcross QTL analysis to identify and introduce agronomically useful genes from this wild relative into the cultivated gene pool. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify putative yield and yield component QTLs that

E. M. Septiningsih; J. Prasetiyono; E. Lubis; T. Tjubaryat; S. Moeljopawiro; S. R. McCouch




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gossypium barbadense L. line 3-79 is lower in yield, has smaller bolls and longer, finer, and stronger fibers than upland cotton G. hirsutum L. Thirteen chromosome substitution (CS-B) lines with individual 3-79 chromosomes or chromosome arms substituted into TM-1, G. hirsutum L., were top crossed w...


Screening and optimization of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees for total andrographolide content, yield and its components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees (Acanthaceae), commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antiacene. Ten accessions of A. paniculata from different sources were screened to assess the yield and its components besides andrographolides on three harvesting dates

M. K. Bhan; A. K. Dhar; S. Khan; S. K. Lattoo; K. K. Gupta; D. K. Choudhary



Biodynamic Preparations Cause Opposite Yield Effects Depending Upon Yield Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop yields of cereals, carrots, beetroots and potatoes from 28 different field plot and pot experiments (on a site near Marburg\\/Germany) were compared to determine the influence of the biodynamic preparations 500 and 501 on yields. Under generally low yields the preparations tended to increase the yields. When the yields reach a medium level this positive effect was smaller. At

Joachim Raupp; Uli Johannes König



Impact of brown stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on corn grain yield components and quality.  


Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), damage on developing corn, Zea mays L., ears was examined in 2005 and 2006 by using eight parameters related to its yield and kernel quality. Stink bug infestations were initiated when the corn plants were at tasseling (VT), mid-silking (R1), and blister (R2) stages by using zero, three, and six in 2005 or zero, one, two, and four bugs per ear in 2006, and maintained for 9 d. The percentage of discolored kernels was affected by stink bug number in both years, but not always affected by plant growth stage. The growth stage effect on the percentage of discolored kernels was significant in 2006, but not in 2005. The percentage of aborted kernels was affected by both stink bug number and plant growth stage in 2005 but not in 2006. Kernel weight was significantly reduced when three E. sercus adults were confined on a corn ear at stage VT or R1 for 9 d in 2005, whereas one or two adults per ear resulted in no kernel weight loss, but four E. servus adults did cause significant kernel weight loss at stage VT in 2006. Stink bug feeding injury at stage R2 did not affect kernel damage, ear weight or grain weight in either year. The infestation duration (9 or 18 d) was positively correlated to the percentage of discolored kernels but did not affect kernel or ear weight. Based on the regression equations between the kernel weight and stink bug number, the gain threshold or economic injury level should be 0.5 bugs per ear for 9 d at stage VT and less for stage R1. This information will be useful in developing management guidelines for stink bugs in field corn during ear formation and early grain filling stages. PMID:21309227

Ni, Xinzhi; Da, Kedong; Buntin, G David; Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn; Olson, Dawn M; Powell, Robert; Lee, R Dewey; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Scully, Brian T



Biotechnology of Forest Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural and genetic manipulation of Douglas fir and loblolly pine plantations have increased their productivity 70 and 300 percent, respectively, over natural forests on the same sites. Yet these intensively managed plantations are achieving less than 50 percent of their potential productivity. Future increases in yield will result from optimization of nutritional treatments, control of noncrop vegetation, and advances in

Peter Farnum; Roger Timmis; J. Laurence Kulp



Genetic Dissection of Yield and Its Component Traits Using High-Density Composite Map of Wheat Chromosome 3A: Bridging Gaps Between QTLs and Underlying Genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield compon...


Fission Yield Predictions with TALYS  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear model code TALYS has been extended to enable the prediction of fission yields. The mass yield curves are extracted from temperature-dependent multi-modal random-neck rupture calculations. Charge yields of the fission fragment are determined using the scission-point model and subsequently folded with the mass yields. We present a comparison of several fission-fragment mass yields and isotopic yields with experimental data.

Duijvestijn, M.C.; Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)



Button/Plate Yielding  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum button and plate were yielded to compare the experimental and calculated button to plate stress ratios. Using the fact that compressive stress is directly proportional to area and load, the calculated button to plate stress ratio is equal to the plate to button area ratio for a constant load. The loads that caused the button and plate to yield were estimated from a load test cell graph obtained from the materials testing facility. The button was simply compressed, but the plate was compressed with a steel cylinder of the same diameter as the aluminum button. The experimental and calculated stress ratios for the button and plate are the same within experimental error. The equation for the plate bearing area is therefore correct.

Wintercorn, S.; /Fermilab



Biotechnology of forest yield  

SciTech Connect

Silvicultural and genetic manipulation of Douglas fir and loblolly pine plantations have increased their productivity 70 and 300 percent, respectively, over natural forests on the same sites. Yet these intensively managed plantations are achieving less than 50 percent of their potential productivity. Future increases in yield will result from optimization of nutritional treatments, control of noncrop vegetation, and advances in tree breeding and tissue culture techniques. (Refs. 90).

Farnum, P.; Timmis, R.; Kulp, J.L.



Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.  


A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (<315nm), UV-A+B (<400nm), transmitted all the UV (280-400nm) or without filters. All the four plant species responded to UV exclusion by a significant increase in plant height, leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. PMID:24041852

Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder



Effect of source/sink ratios on yield components, growth dynamics and structural characteristics of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bunches.  


Source/sink ratios are known to be one of the main determinants of oil palm growth and development. A long-term experiment (9 years) was conducted in Indonesia on mature oil palms subjected to continuous bunch ablation and partial defoliation treatments to artificially modify source/sink ratios. During the experiment, all harvested bunches were dissected and phenological measurements were carried out to analyse the effect of source/sink ratios on yield components explaining variations in bunch number, the number of fruits per bunch and oil dry weight per fruit. An integrative variable (supply/demand ratio) describing the ratio between the assimilate supply from sources and the growing organ demand for carbohydrate was computed for each plant on a daily basis from observations of the number of developing organs and their sink strength, and of climate variables. Defoliation and bunch ablation affected the bunch number and the fruit number per bunch. Variations in bunch number per month were mainly due to variations in the fraction of aborted inflorescence and in the ratio between female and male inflorescences. Under fluctuating trophic conditions, variations in fruit number per bunch resulted both from changes in fruit-set and in the number of branches (rachillae) per inflorescence. For defoliated plants, the decrease in the number of developing reproductive sinks appeared to be sufficient to maintain fruit weight and oil concentration at the control level, without any major decrease in the concentration of non-structural carbohydrate reserves. Computation of the supply/demand ratio revealed that each yield component had a specific phase of sensitivity to supply/demand ratios during inflorescence development. Establishing quantitative relationships between supply/demand ratios, competition and yield components is the first step towards a functional model for oil palm. PMID:23532136

Pallas, Benoît; Mialet-Serra, Isabelle; Rouan, Lauriane; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Dingkuhn, Michael



Breeding behavior of yield components and hollow heart in tetraploid-diploid vs. conventionally derived potato hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A factorial mating design with six 4x cultivars as stylar parents mated to three groups of pollen parents (4x cultivars, 4x high protein selections, and 2x S. phureja) was used to study breeding behavior of yield, tuber set, marketable yield and hollow heart in potatoes. Mean yield for the 4x-2x hybrids was equivalent to that of their cultivar parents although

R. E. Veilleux; F. I. Lauer



Mutant selection of Hahella chejuensis KCTC 2396 and statistical optimization of medium components for prodigiosin yield-up.  


Prodigiosin is a natural red pigment with algicidal activity against Cochlodinium polykrikoides, a major harmful red-tide microalga. To increase the yield of prodigiosin, a mutant of Hahella chejuenesis KCTC 2396, assigned M3349, was developed by an antibiotic mutagenesis using chloramphenicol. When cultured in Sucrose-based Marine Broth medium (SMB), M3349 could produce prodigiosin at 1.628+/-0.06 g/L, while wild type producing at 0.658+/-0.12 g/L under the same conditions. To increase the yield of prodigiosin production by M3349, significant medium components were determined using a two-level Plackett-Burman statistical design technique. Among fourteen components included in SMB medium, NaCl, Na2SiO3, MgCl2, H3BO3, Na2HPO4, Na2SO4, and CaCl2 were determined to be important for prodigiosin production. The medium formulation was finally optimized using a Box-Behnken design as follows: sucrose 10.0, peptone 8.0, yeast extract 2.0, NaCl 10.0, Na2SO4 12.0, CaCl2 1.8, MgCl2 0.7 g/L; and H3BO3 22.0, Na2HPO4 20.0, Na2SiO3 8.0 mg/L. The predicted maximum yield of prodigiosin in the optimized medium was 2.43 g/L by the Box-Behnken design, while the practical production was 2.60+/-0.176 g/L, which was 3.9 times higher than wild type with SMB Medium (0.658 g/L). PMID:18545968

Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Hong Kum; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Yim, Joung Han



Predicting Mab product yields from cultivation media components, using near-infrared and 2D-fluorescence spectroscopies.  


The yield of monoclonal antibody (Mab) production processes depends on media formulation, inocula quality, and process conditions. As in industrial processes tight cultivation conditions are used, and inocula quality and viable cell densities are controlled to reasonable levels, media formulation and raw materials lot-to-lot variability in quality will have, in those circumstances, the highest impact on process performance. In the particular Mab process studied, two different raw materials were used: a complex carbon and nitrogen source made of specific peptones and defined chemical media containing multiple components. Using different spectroscopy techniques for each of the raw material types, it was concluded that for the complex peptone-based ingredient, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was more capable of capturing lot-to-lot variability. For the chemically defined media containing fluorophores, two-dimensional (2D)-fluorescence spectroscopy was more capable of capturing lot-to-lot variability. Because in Mab cultivation processes both types of raw materials are used, combining the NIR and 2D-fluorescence spectra for each of the media components enabled predictive models for yield to be developed that out-performed any other model involving either one raw material alone, or only one type of spectroscopic tool for both raw materials. For each particular raw material, the capability of each spectroscopy to detect lot-to-lot differences was demonstrated after spectra preprocessing and specific wavelength regions selection. The work described and the findings reported here open up several possibilities that could be used to feed-forward control the process. These include, for example, enabling specific actions to be taken regarding media formulation with particular lots, and all types of predictive control actions aimed at increasing batch-to-batch yield and product quality consistency at harvest. PMID:21618724

Jose, Gledson E; Folque, Francisca; Menezes, Jose C; Werz, Silke; Strauss, Ulrike; Hakemeyer, Christian



Improving Target Repeatability Yields Broader Results in Component Fabrication and Overall Build  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Michigan has been fabricating targets for high energy density experiments since 2003. Our experiments study physics relevant to laboratory astrophysics. Machined acrylic structures serve as a backbone supporting all the components on our targets, as well as providing us with a method that eases our build. A most vital component to nearly every target we build, is shielding. Employing techniques to bend gold foils, enables complex geometries and eliminates seams that possibly allow unwanted emission in our diagnostics. Many of our experiments explore the dynamics of a radiative shock launched into xenon or argon gas. Polyimide (PI) tubing confines the gas and is transmissive to the diagnostic x-rays used to probe the experiment. Recent interest in the shock dynamics of non-axisymmetric shocks has lead to the development of PI tubes with non-circular cross sections. We present the techniques we use to produce repeatable targets as well as recent improvements in our techniques.

Klein, Sallee; Gamboa, Eliseo; Gillespie, Robb; Huntington, Channing; Krauland, Christine; Kuranz, Carolyn; di Stefano, Carlos; Susalla, Peter; Lairson, Bruce; Elsner, Fred; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul



Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ranchers need alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. Our objectives were to determine:\\u000a (1) leaf and stem biomass components, (2) nutritive value [in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), total nonstructural\\u000a carbohydrate (TNC), N, and N digestibility] of leaves for animal browse, (3) concentration of the secondary metabolites robinin\\u000a and mimosine, and (4) in vitro leaf and bark toxicity

David M. Burner; Danielle J. Carrier; David P. Belesky; Daniel H. Pote; Adrian Ares; E. C. Clausen



Characterization of the genetic basis for yield and its component traits of rice revealed by doubled haploid population.  


Main-effect QTL, epistatic effects and their interactions with environment are important genetic components of quantitative traits. In this study, we analyzed the QTLs, epistatic effects and QTL by environment interactions (QE) underlying nine traits of yield and yield-component, using a doubled-haploid (DH) population consisted of 190 lines from the cross between an indica parent Zhenshan 97 and a japonica parent WYJ 2, and tested in two-year replicated field trials. A genetic linkage map with 179 SSR (simple sequence repeat) marker loci was constructed. A mixed linear model approach was applied to detect QTLs, digenic interactions and QEs for the nine traits. In total, 57 QTLs of main effects, 41 digenic interactions, eight QEs and seven interactions of epistasis by environment were detected. Each of the main-effect QTLs individually explained 1.3 % to 25.8% of the phenotypic variations. And they collectively explained 11.5% to 66.8% of the phenotypic variations for these traits. Most of the traits (except seed setting) had the QTLs simultaneously detected in two years. Many of the traits shared same QTLs with each other, which is consistent with their significant phenotypic correlations. The pleiotropism or tight linkage of QTLs for different traits might be the important genetic base for trait correlations. The environmental influences on the stability of the trait performance were also discussed. PMID:15468921

Jiang, Gong-Hao; Xu, Cai-Guo; Li, Xiang-Hua; He, Yu-Qing



Effects of feeding yeast and propionibacteria to dairy cows on milk yield and components, and reproduction*.  


To determine the effect of supplemental feeding of Diamond V-XP yeast (XPY) alone or in combination with propionibacteria strain P169 on milk production, milk components, body weight, days to first and second ovulation, plasma insulin, and plasma and milk glucose, 31 primiparous and multiparous (MP) Holstein cows were fed one of three dietary treatments between 2 weeks prepartum to 30 weeks postpartum: (i) control (n = 10), fed a corn silage-based total mixed ration (TMR); (ii) XPY (n = 11), fed control TMR plus XPY (at 56 g/head/day); and (iii) P169+XPY (n = 10), received control TMR plus XPY plus P169 (at 6 x 10(11) cfu/head/day). After parturition, daily milk weights were recorded, and milk samples were collected twice weekly for milk component analyses. Daily uncorrected milk, solids-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk production for MP cows fed P169+XPY was 9-16% greater than control MP cows, but these increases were only evident during mid lactation (9-30 weeks). The percentage of milk fat was 8-18% greater in control than XPY and P169+XPY groups. Milk lactose percentage in MP cows fed P169+XPY was 3-5% greater than in control and XPY MP cows. Primiparous and MP cows fed P169+XPY had 28-32% greater milk glucose levels than control and XPY-fed cows. Diurnal plasma glucose concentration was not affected by diet in MP cows. Plasma insulin levels in MP cows fed P169+XPY were 30-34% greater than in other groups of MP cows. Milk glucose and plasma insulin responses to P169+XPY feeding suggest that P169+XPY might have enhanced gluconeogenesis and increased glucose uptake by the mammary gland in Holstein cows. Thus, a combined feed supplement of P169 and XPY may hold potential as a natural feed alternative to hormones and antibiotics to enhance lactational performance. PMID:18336416

Lehloenya, K V; Stein, D R; Allen, D T; Selk, G E; Jones, D A; Aleman, M M; Rehberger, T G; Mertz, K J; Spicer, L J



Yield response of watermelon to irrigation shortage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study conducted in Turkey in 1998 and 1999, was to ascertain the correct irrigation scheduling of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) under adequate soil water supply during whole growing season, and under limited soil water supply at different seasonal combinations. The yield and the yield components, the sensitive periods to soil water deficits and the yield response

Yesim Erdem; A. Nedim Yuksel



Influence of head blast infection on seed germination and yield components of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head blast caused a significant reduction in grain yield, a result of reduction in spikelet length, grain weight and number of grains per head. The correlations between field infection and yield, and between field infection and percentage seed germination, were both statistically non?significant.

A. Ekwamu



Drilling ban yields verdict  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews a lawsuit which is under appeal by the State of Michigan regarding a takings claim filed over a petroleum exploration site. The dispute arose as a result of a 1987 decision by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources forbidding the property owners from developing the mineral rights leased to Miller Brothers in the Huron/Manistee National Forest. This area is bisected by a trend of Silurian Niagaran reef complexes which has a known production history throughout the State. The dunes area of the national forest has been deemed a wilderness area. As a result of the State's decision, the courts have awarded a sum of 71 million dollars to the developer to cover damages and lost resources. The reserve estimates were taken from adjacent areas which showed that the Niagaran reefs are relatively consistent in their yield.

Nation, L.M.



How to predict coker yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

When planning studies require estimates of product yields from delayed coking, this method will help. It requires the use of two readily obtainable feed properties: API gravity and Conradson carbon. These properties, together with the key process variables of the coking unit, are used with the accompanying graphs to determine the yield structure. The calculated yields are those coming from




Parsimonious Modeling of Yield Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a parametrically parsimonious model for yield curves that has the ability to represent the shapes generally associated with yield curves: monotonic, humped, and S-shaped. The authors find that the model explains 96 percent of the variation in bill yields across maturities during the period 1981-83. The movement of the parameters through time reflects and confirms a change

Charles R. Nelson; Andrew F. Siegel



Genotype X environment interactions over seven years for yield yield components fiber quality and gossypol traits in the regional high quality tests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the 1960s, many changes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar tests have been made. This study partitions the total variation for 26 traits into environments (E), genotype (G) and GE variance components for the 2001 through 2007 Regional High Quality (RHQ) tests with 98 genotypes. It e...


Effects of wet brewers grains on milk yield, milk composition and blood components of dairy cows in hot weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty multiparous Friesian cows, 60–120 days postpartum, were allotted to two groups of ten cows each according to calving date, lactation number and daily yield, and assigned randomly to one of two diets in a crossover design experiment. The control diet was 45% maize silage (dry basis) and contained ground maize, soya bean meal and wheat bran in proportions which

N. G. Belibasakis; D. Tsirgogianni



Effects of whole cottonseeds on milk yield, milk composition, and blood components of dairy cows in hot weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen multiparous Friesian cows, 70–140 days post partum, were allotted to two groups of eight cows, according to calving date, lactation number and daily yield, and assigned randomly to one of two diets in a crossover design experiment. The two experimental diets were concentrate, containing either 20% whole cottonseeds and 13% soya bean meal or 14% cottonseed meal and 18.5%

N. G. Belibasakis; D. Tsirgogianni



Effects of niacin on milk yield, milk composition, and blood components of dairy cows in hot weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty multiparous Friesian cows, 90 ± 30 days postpartum, were allocated to two groups of ten cows according to calving date, lactation number and daily milk yield, and assigned randomly to one of two diets in a cross-over experiment. The experimental diet consisted of concentrate and maize silage in the proportions 1:1 (dry matter basis) containing either 0 or 10

N. G. Belibasakis; D. Tsirgogianni



Improving photosynthesis and yield potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop yield is fundamentally related to the (a) amount of solar radiation absorbed; (b) efficiency of solar energy use in photosynthesis;\\u000a (c) translocation of photosynthate to sinks, especially sinks later harvested; (d) capacity for growth in sinks; (e) efficiency\\u000a of converting photosynthate to new biomass; and (f) metabolic cost of maintenance. Yield potential has been defined as the yield of

Jeffrey S. Amthor


Genetic dissection of yield and its component traits using high-density composite map of wheat chromosome 3A: bridging gaps between QTLs and underlying genes.  


Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield component QTLs, and to map QTLs for biomass-related traits. Many of the previously identified QTLs for yield and its component traits were confirmed and were localized to narrower intervals. Four novel QTLs one each for shoot biomass (Xcfa2262-Xbcd366), total biomass (wPt2740-Xcfa2076), kernels/spike (KPS) (Xwmc664-Xbarc67), and Pseudocercosporella induced lodging (PsIL) were also detected. The major QTLs identified for grain yield (GY), KPS, grain volume weight (GVWT) and spikes per square meter (SPSM) respectively explained 23.2%, 24.2%, 20.5% and 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of the genetic map with the integrated physical map allowed estimation of recombination frequency in the regions of interest and suggested that QTLs for grain yield detected in the marker intervals Xcdo549-Xbarc310 and Xpsp3047-Xbarc356 reside in the high-recombination regions, thus should be amenable to map-based cloning. On the other hand, QTLs for KPS and SPSM flanked by markers Xwmc664 and Xwmc489 mapped in the low-recombination region thus are not suitable for map-based cloning. Comparisons with the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA sequence identified 11 candidate genes (CGs) for yield and yield related QTLs of which chromosomal location of two (CKX2 and GID2-like) was confirmed using wheat aneuploids. This study provides necessary information to perform high-resolution mapping for map-based cloning and for CG-based cloning of yield QTLs. PMID:23894667

Rustgi, Sachin; Shafqat, Mustafa N; Kumar, Neeraj; Baenziger, P Stephen; Ali, M Liakat; Dweikat, Ismail; Campbell, B Todd; Gill, Kulvinder Singh



Fluorescence Yields of Aromatic Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Values of fluorescence yields for eighteen compounds in solution at 23C are reported and are compared to previous literature values. Modifications of the technique of Weber and Teale for measurement of fluorescence yields are described. Fluorescein in 0.1...

W. R. Dawson M. W. Windsor



Dimension Yields from Alder Lumber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Charts are presented for determining yields of dimension from the top three grades of alder lumber. The basic chart for each grade is for random-width material, 1-inch minimum, with an adjustment for determining yields in specific widths greater than 1 in...

D. R. Schumann



The effect of high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium on the yield components of transgenic spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) constitutively expressing the bar gene.  


We present an experiment done on a bar(+) wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium-an effective component of nonselective herbicides-during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose was not enough to inhibit the germination of transgenic plants expressing the bar gene. Extremely high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium caused a bushy phenotype, significantly lower numbers of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weights. Concerning the productivity, we observed that concentrations of glufosinate ammonium 64 times the lethal dose did not lead to yield depression. Our results draw attention to the possibilities implied in the transgenic approaches. PMID:22649303

Áy, Zoltán; Mihály, Róbert; Cserháti, Mátyás; Kótai, Éva; Pauk, János



Toward 100% yield understanding approach in Lucent Technologies Madrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of advantages arise form breaking down the overall yield into yield components that are easier to work and closer to the manufacturing line environment. We present in this paper our strategy to attempt the 100 percent yield explanation on our fab and the process of building a pareto that quantifies the impact of each yield component. The most

Miguel Recio; Miguel A. Merino; Carlos Mata; Victorino Martin Santamaria; Jose A. Ayucar; Julian Moreno; Agustin Godino; Alfonso Lorenzo; Ana Sacedon; R. Fernandez; Carmen Morilla; Jesus Inarrea; Manuel Alvarez; Almudena Fernandez; K. Therryl; Carlos Mateos; Gerardo Gonzalez; Sergio Cruceta; J. Castano



How to predict coker yield  

SciTech Connect

When planning studies require estimates of product yields from delayed coking, this method will help. It requires the use of two readily obtainable feed properties: API gravity and Conradson carbon. These properties, together with the key process variables of the coking unit, are used with the accompanying graphs to determine the yield structure. The calculated yields are those coming from the coke drum. An additional adjustment might be needed to correct for overlaps that might occur during fractionation. The adjustment would estimate the amount of gasoline remaining in the gas oil and the amount of gas oil carried away with the gasoline.

Castiglioni, B.B.



Weather Variation and Crop Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the efiects of rising mean temperatures on agricultural output have been studied extensively, there is limited discussion of the impact of inter-annual weather variation on crop yields. This paper estimates the link between weather and crop yields separating the in?uence of (i) mean weather outcomes (i.e., climate) to which a farmer can adapt from (ii) unpredictable year-to-year weather ?uctuations

Wolfram Schlenker


Corn yield prediction using climatology  

SciTech Connect

A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of ear growth and the beginning of grain fill. The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

Duchon, C.E.



Status of fission yield data  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

England, T.R.; Blachot, J.



Genetic component and combining ability analyses in relation to heterosis for yield and associated traits using three diverse rice-growing ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically designed analyses for gene governance components, combining abilities, heterosis, inbreeding depression and genetic gains were made utilizing a seven-parent half-diallel mating design having several locally adapted, traditional varieties or land races from three diverse rice ecosystems. Both additive and non-additive genes were found to control the expression of yield and its associated traits. The ratio of ??g2\\/??s2 exhibited greater

O. P. Verma; H. K. Srivastava



Climate Change and Crop Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our data are county level yields. Soil quality and climatic conditions can vary significantly within a county and the estimated value at the centroid might be quite different from what farmers experience. To more accurately reflect this reality, we therefore average the soil characteristics over all the farmland area in a county. Farmland area is derived from the 1992 National

Wolfram Schlenker


Photosynthetic maximum quantum yield increases are an essential component of the Southern Ocean phytoplankton response to iron  

PubMed Central

It is well established that an increase in iron supply causes an increase in total oceanic primary production in many regions, but the physiological mechanism driving the observed increases has not been clearly identified. The Southern Ocean iron enrichment experiment, an iron fertilization experiment in the waters closest to Antarctica, resulted in a 9-fold increase in chlorophyll (Chl) concentration and a 5-fold increase in integrated primary production. Upon iron addition, the maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (?m) rapidly doubled, from 0.011 to 0.025 mol C·mol quanta?1. Paradoxically, this increase in light-limited productivity was not accompanied by a significant increase in light-saturated productivity (Pmaxb). Pmaxb, maximum Chl normalized productivity, was 1.34 mg C·mg Chl?1·h?1 outside and 1.49 mg C·mg Chl?1·h?1 inside the iron-enriched patch. The importance of ?m as compared with Pmaxb in controlling the biological response to iron addition has vast implications for understanding the ecological response to iron. We show that an iron-driven increase in ?m is the proximate physiological mechanism affected by iron addition and can account for most of the increases in primary production. The relative importance of ?m over Pmaxb in this iron-fertilized bloom highlights the limitations of often-used primary productivity algorithms that are driven by estimates of Pmaxb but largely ignore variability in ?m and light-limited productivity. To use primary productivity models that include variability in iron supply in prediction or forecasting, the variability of light-limited productivity must be resolved.

Hiscock, Michael R.; Lance, Veronica P.; Apprill, Amy M.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Johnson, Zackary I.; Mitchell, B. Greg; Smith, Walker O.; Barber, Richard T.



Effects of sowing rate, irrigation, and nitrogen on the components of yield of spring-sown semi dwarf and standard New Zealand wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Karamu’, a Mexican semidwarf wheat, out yielded ‘Aotea’ and ‘Arawa’ by an average of 20% when spring sown because of better grain set per spikelet and by the formation of more spikelets per ear. Irrigation raised grain yields in all cultivars by increasing tiller survival. Sowing at twice conventional rates depressed grain yields in all cultivars by reducing grain set.

C. T. Dougherty; W. R. Scott; R. H. M. Langer



Impact of various storage conditions on enzymatic activity, biomass components and conversion to ethanol yields from sorghum biomass used as a bioenergy crop.  


With increased mandates for biofuel production in the US, ethanol production from lignocellulosic substrates is burgeoning, highlighting the need for thorough examination of the biofuel production supply chain. This research focused on the impact storage has on biomass, particularly photoperiod-sensitive sorghum biomass. Biomass quality parameters were monitored and included biomass components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, along with extra-cellular enzymatic activity (EEA) responsible for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation and conversion to ethanol yields. Analyses revealed dramatic decreases in uncovered treatments, specifically reduced dry matter content from 88% to 59.9%, cellulose content from 35.3% to 25%, hemicellulose content from 23.7% to 16.0% and ethanol production of 0.20 to 0.02gL(-1) after 6months storage along with almost double EEA activities. In contrast, biomass components, EEA and ethanol yields remained relatively stable in covered treatments, indicating covering of biomass during storage is essential for optimal substrate retention and ethanol yields. PMID:23411458

Rigdon, Anne R; Jumpponen, Ari; Vadlani, Praveen V; Maier, Dirk E



Yield Analysis and Mixed Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Aconcept of yield analysis, an approach for estimating an observation-specific prediction of the dependent variable, has been developed. A relationship with Hildretch-Houck regression with random,coefficients is established. Two types of estimation are considered: (1) distribution-free that isbased,on variance ,least squares and weighted least squares and (2) maximum,likelihood that uses normal,assumption; ,not ,normally ,distributed regression coefficients are considered as well.

Eugene Demidenko; Igor Mandel


On the importance of the dilatational component of the stress state in the uniaxial yield-like behavior of rate-dependent polymers: C. Bauwens-Crowet revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the dilatational stress component on the yield-like behavior of rate-dependent polymers is examined via the example of PMMA. Starting with uniaxial data published in 1973 by C. Bauwens-Crowet and describing the dependence of yield (maximum) stress in compression and in tension, the then offered reduction or "shift" scheme is reviewed, in particular the fact that tension and compression data lead to different data reductions. Following the argument that mechanically induced dilatation can affect the time dependence of polymeric deformation processes much like temperature affects temporal scaling, the same data is then subjected to an analysis based on volumetric changes accompanying mechanical loading. It is found that such a treatment unifies the compression and tension data into a single master curve to the extent that temperature and loads from the two deformation modes are congruous and exhibit no more data scatter than the presentation of the original data reduction. Moreover, the time-temperature shift properties for this newly reduced yield-like behavior then follows also the same rules and properties as do viscoelastic mechanical properties acquired under small deformations.

Knauss, W. G.



The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays  

SciTech Connect

The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

Achasov, N. N., E-mail: [Russina Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)



Achieving yield gains in wheat.  


Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo



An Influence of the Elastic Properties of Composite Components on the Mechanical Response of Polycrystalline Structures at Yield Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a constitutive model in the case of an uniaxial tension of the polycrystalline materials\\u000a including the inter-granular metallic layers, creating its internal structure. The paper is focused on the discussion of the\\u000a elastic properties of a composite components influence on the overall material response. The effective continuum model was\\u000a applied to get

Tomasz Sadowski; Eligiusz Postek


Automated yield map delay identification using phase correlation methodology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop yield data is a key component of precision agriculture, critical for both development and evaluation of precision management strategies. Ideally, software that generates grain yield maps from raw yield monitor data should automatically correct errors associated with machine and operating charac...


Effects of subsoil compaction on yield and yield attributes of wheat in the sub-humid region of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolonged use of vehicular traffic for farming creates subsoil compaction, which reduces crop yield and deteriorates the physical conditions of the soil. Field experiments were conducted during 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 in Pakistan to study subsoil compaction effects on soil bulk density, total porosity, yield and yield components of wheat. Soil compaction was artificially created at the start of the

F. U. Hassan; M. Ahmad; N. Ahmad; M. Kaleem Abbasi



Limit Analysis and Yield Line Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between limit analysis and yield-line analysis is investigated. Attention is restricted to simply-supported, isotropic slabs subjected to single point loadings. It is found that conventional yield-line analyses quite often give substantia...

A. Sawczuk P. G. Hodge



7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...




Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than



Spread of yield with mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests conducted on mild steel after various heat treatments are reported. Conclusions are drawn on the significance of upper\\u000a yield point and yield-point extension on the shape of yield-zone development. A model is postulated to explain the observations.

R. I. Mair; E. E. Banks



Neutron Yields from Individual Fission Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new methods are used to obtain data on neutron yield nuf as a function of the mass number M of the emitting fission fragment; the results suggest changes in fission theory. The methods involve the combination of data on fission mass yields obtained by radiochemical means with time-of-flight mass data. The more detailed method yields essentially the complete function

James Terrell



Decay pi exp 0 Yields mu E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An upper limit for the branching ratio of the decay pi exp 0 yields mu e is determined from existing experimental data to be lambda( pi exp 0 yields mu e)/lambda( mu exp 0 yields all) < 7 x 10 exp -8 (90 percent C.L.). Phenomenological implications are di...

D. Bryman



Have Biotech Seeds Increased Maize Yields?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn yield is determined by soils, weather, seed used and other technology choices. Global population and per capita income growth trends as well as demand from the energy sector have placed great stress on cropland use. Global cropland acres and\\/or yield per acre will need to increase. Whether new seed technologies have enhanced corn yield is a controversial issue. We

Zheng Xu; David A. Hennessy; GianCarlo Moschini



Static Yield Stress in Magnetorheological Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and a device for measuring a true static yield stress in magnetorheological (MR) fluids are proposed. The data obtained by means of this device are compared with the measured values of the dynamic yield stress for similar compositions as well as with the quantities calculated by the reported models. It is shown that the dynamic yield stress exceeds

W. Kordonski; S. Gorodkin; N. Zhuravski



Yield function development for aluminum alloy sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, yield surfaces were measured for binary aluminum-magnesium sheet samples which were fabricated by different processing paths to obtain different microstructures. The yielding behavior was measured using biaxial compression tests on cubic specimens made from laminated sheet samples. The yield surfaces were also predicted from a polycrystal model using crystallographic texture data as input and from a phenomenological

F. Barlat; Y. Maeda; K. Chung; M. Yanagawa; J. C. Brem; Y. Hayashida; D. J. Lege; K. Matsui; S. J. Murtha; S. Hattori; R. C. Becker; S. Makosey




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed yields are critical in determining the economic success of lesquerella. There have been reports of yield potential based on individual plants and on small-plot estimates. A decade ago attempts were made to produce lesquerella on farmers¿ fields to increase seed to measure seed yields. The objec...


Generalized Yield Lines in Reinforced Concrete Slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield loci for reinforced concrete which are suitable for predicting the stress resultants on a straight yield line with ?n, 2??nt, ?n as nonzero concentrated strain rates have been proposed. These expressions are close approximations to the true yield surface derived in parametric form for a composite slab of two idealized materials. It is found that the expressions give good

P. J. Cookson



Systematics of Fission-Product Yields  

SciTech Connect

Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

A.C. Wahl



Fiber yields in Sansevieria interspecific hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber yields are reported for the interspecific hybrid ‘ Florida H-13’ (Sansevieria trifasciata Prain × S. deserti 2V. E.\\u000a Brown), subjected to various harvesting cycles at three locations in southern Florida. Yields of ‘Florida H-13’ are compared\\u000a with those of other F1F2triploid, and backcross hybrids and the parental species, S. trifasciata. Fiber yields were higher from plants grown on peat

F. D. Wilson; J. F. Joyner; D. W. Fishler



A Cointegration Analysis of Treasury Bill Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that yields to maturity of U.S. Treasury bills are cointegrated and that, during periods when the Federal Reserve specifically targeted short-term interest rates, the spreads between yields of different maturity define the cointegrating vectors. This cointegrating relationship implies that a single nonstationary common factor underlies the time-series behavior of each yield to maturity and that risk premia

Anthony D Hall; Heather M Anderson; Clive W J Granger



Raw Material Convenience Yields and Business Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper extends the methodology of Milonas and Thomadakis (1997) to estimate raw material convenience yields with futures prices during the period 1996 to 2005. We define the business cycle\\u000a of a seasonal commodity with demand\\/supply shocks and find that the convenience yields for crude oil and agricultural commodity\\u000a exhibits seasonal behavior. The convenience yield for crude oil is the

Chang-Wen Duan; William T. Lin


Static Yield Stress in Magnetorheological Fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method and a device for measuring a true static yield stress in magnetorheological (MR) fluids are proposed. The data obtained by means of this device are compared with the measured values of the dynamic yield stress for similar compositions as well as with the quantities calculated by the reported models. It is shown that the dynamic yield stress exceeds the static one. The experimental data better agree with Rosensweig's model.

Kordonski, W.; Gorodkin, S.; Zhuravski, N.


Yield stress of stearically stabilized colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk property, yield stress has been modeled by Larson in the past for spherical colloidal particles with dependence on volume fraction of solids particle diameter and interaction potential (sum of van der Waals potential and electrostatic potential. In our organic pigment dispersions polymer stabilized followed Herschel-Bulkley equation with yield stress which was non-linearly dependent on pigment surface area measured by BET. Stability of dispersions changed with time in terms of particle size and yield stress as well as on the type of deformation, shear applied to the dispersion. The results of yield stress are compared with models in terms of interaction potential, particle size and zeta potential..

Ahuja, Suresh; Bluhm, Terry



Efficient prediction of (p,n) yields  

SciTech Connect

In the continuous deceleration approximation, charged particles decelerate without any spread in energy as they traverse matter. This approximation simplifies the calculation of the yield of nuclear reactions, for which the cross-section depends on the particle energy. We calculated (p,n) yields for a LiF target, using the Bethe-Bloch relation for proton deceleration, and predicted that the maximum yield would be around 0.25% neutrons per incident proton, for an initial proton energy of 70 MeV or higher. Yield-energy relations calculated in this way can readily be used to optimize source and (p,n) converter characteristics.

Swift, D C; McNaney, J M; Higginson, D P; Beg, F



Identification of trait-improving quantitative trait loci for grain yield components from a dent corn inbred line in an advanced backcross BC 2 F 2 population and comparison with its F 2:3 population in popcorn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal maize germplasm could be used to improve the grain yield of popcorn inbreds. Our first objective was to locate genetic\\u000a factors associated with trait variation and make first assessment on the efficiency of advanced backcross quantitative trait\\u000a locus (AB-QTL) analysis for the identification and transfer of favorable QTL alleles for grain yield components from the dent\\u000a corn inbred. A

Y. L. Li; S. Z. Niu; Y. B. Dong; D. Q. Cui; Y. Z. Wang; Y. Y. Liu; M. G. Wei




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two regional projects funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and the United Soybean Board are entitled Mapping of Soil and Field Characteristics to Understand Soybean Yield and Using Remotely Sensed Data to Diagnose Soybean Yield Limiting Factors. These projects were developed in resp...


Suspended sediment yields of rivers in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to quantify the spatial distribution of suspended sediment yields of rivers in Turkey, and to quantify the suspended sediment flux to the sea, to lakes and reservoirs, and out of the country. Sediment yields in Turkey vary in accordance with the erosion potential of the river basins and values range from 12 to 609



Pollinator shortage and global crop yield  

PubMed Central

A pollinator decline caused by environmental degradation might be compromising the production of pollinator-dependent crops. In a recent article, we compared 45 year series (1961–2006) in yield, production and cultivated area of pollinator-dependent and nondependent crop around the world. If pollinator shortage is occurring globally, we expected a lower annual growth rate in yield for pollinator-dependent than nondependent crops, but a higher growth in cultivated area to compensate the lower yield. We have found little evidence for the first “yield” prediction but strong evidence for the second “area” prediction. Here, we present an additional analysis to show that the first and second predictions are both supported for crops that vary in dependency levels from nondependent to moderate dependence (i.e., up to 65% average yield reduction without pollinators). However, those crops for which animal pollination is essential (i.e., 95% average yield reduction without pollinators) showed higher growth in yield and lower expansion in area than expected in a pollination shortage scenario. We propose that pollination management for highly pollinator-dependent crops, such us renting hives or hand pollination, might have compensated for pollinator limitation of yield.

Aizen, Marcelo A; Cunningham, Saul A; Klein, Alexandra M



Multiple item capacitated random yield systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main contributors to the uncertainty of production systems are capacity and random yield; therefore, strategies are needed that incorporate both random yield and the increased effect due to capacity restrictions. This paper utilizes dynamic programming and linear programming transformation to provides a method to specify an optimal decision for a given inventory state. In doing so, it can be

Scott E. Grasman




Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives recommendations to reach high quality, traceable and reproducible yield prognosis for solar thermal power plants. The whole process chain from solar resources to simulation is evaluated to identify main error sources. Three main fields are identified, which have significant impact on accuracy of potential electricity yields: Firstly, much care must be taken to create realistic site-specific meteorological

Richard Meyer; Hans Georg Beyer; Jörg Fanslau; Norbert Geuder; Annette Hammer; Tobias Hirsch; Carsten Hoyer-Klick; Norbert Schmidt; Marko Schwandt


rho(yields)4(pi) decay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decay modes (rho)(sup 0)(yields)2(pi)(sup +)2(pi)(sup -) and (rho)(sup 0)(yields)2(pi)(sup 0)(pi)(sup +)(pi)(sup -) are considered in the framework of the low energy effective chiral Lagrangian. The obtained values of the decay widths (Gamma)((rho)(su...

S. I. Ejdel'man E. Kuraev Z. K. Silagadze




Microsoft Academic Search

The yield stress of asphalt emulsions was investigated as a potential quality control parameter. Viscometric data were determined using concentric cylinder, parallel plate, and cone and plate geometries. The use of a novel slotted-plate technique was investigated to determine the yield stress of asphalt emulsions in a direct way, that is to say, without extrapolation. The Saybolt viscosity was determined

Max Hetzer; Kyle Frederic; Daniel De Kee; Christopher D. Abadie



Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía


Foundations of Yield Improvement in Watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taken as a group, the studies indicate the presence of heterosis in watermelon and the importance of GCA High yield is a major goal for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus(Thunb.) in the choice of parents for hybrid production. Ferreira Matsum. & Nakai) breeders. The objective of this study was to mea- sure yield in a diverse set of watermelon cultivars to identify

Gabriele Gusmini; Todd C. Wehner



Nonuniform sprinkler irrigation and crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nonuniform water application by sprinkler on the variability of soil water content and corn yield was studied on two experimental plots differing in their texture and hydraulic characteristics (Table 2). Variograms, autocorrelations and cross-correlations of soil water contents (?), crop yield of sweet corn (Y), and net water application (Q) were calculated (Fig. 2). The correlograms show

Jack Stern; Eshel Bresler



Yielding behavior of dense microgel glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the yielding behavior of dense suspensions of stimuli-responsive poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel particles studied by performing oscillatory shear measurements. At a volume fraction of ? = 0.6 (labeled as sample S1) the suspension is characterized to be repulsive glass by dynamic light scattering technique and showed one step yielding. Quite interestingly higher volume fraction sample (S2) prepared by osmotically compressing sample S1, showed yielding occurring in two steps. Such one step yielding behavior turning into two step yielding was reported by Pham et al [Europhys. Lett., 75, 624 (2006)] in hard-sphere repulsive colloidal glass when transformed into an attractive glass by inducing depletion attraction. We confirm the repulsive interparticle interaction between PNIPAM microgel particles turning into attractive upon osmotic compression by static light scattering measurements.

Joshi, R. G.; Tata, B. V. R.; Karthickeyan, D.



Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV)], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

Greenland, David




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased availability of hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acquired using...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased availability of airborne hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acqui...


Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini


Long-term evaluation of yield components of young olive trees during the onset of fruit production under different irrigation regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-year study was conducted on young Olea europaea L. trees to investigate the effect of deficit irrigation starting from the onset of fruit production. Subsurface drip irrigation\\u000a was used to supply 100% (FI), 46–52% (DI), or 2–6% (SI) of tree water needs. Tree growth was reduced by deficit irrigation,\\u000a whereas, return bloom was not. Per tree fruit yield of

Giovanni Caruso; Hava F. Rapoport; Riccardo Gucci


Influence of Hybrid and Maturity on the Nutritional Value of Corn Silage for Lactating Dairy Cows 1: Intake, Milk Production and Component Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Iranian corn hybrids, Single Cross 704 (S.C.704) and Three Way Cross 647 (T.W.C.647) TM TM were used to evaluate the effects of hybrid and maturity on intake, milk yield and composition when corn was fed as silage in the diet of Holstein cows. Corn hybrid S.C.704 harvested at one-third milk-line and black layer (BL) while harvesting times for hybrid



Construction of two BAC libraries from cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and identification of clones linked to yield component quantitative trait loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from an inbred line derived from a cultivar of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Intact nuclei were isolated and embedded in agarose plugs, and high-molecular-weight DNA was subsequently partially digested with BamHI or EcoRI. Ligation of double size-selected DNA fragments with the pECBAC1 vector yielded two libraries containing 23,040 BamHI and 18,432 EcoRI

Y.-W. Nam; J.-R. Lee; K.-H. Song; M.-K. Lee; M. D. Robbins; S.-M. Chung; J. E. Staub; H.-B. Zhang



Factors affecting the dynamics of yield premia on shipping seasoned high yield bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates factors that can explain the dynamics of yield premia on seasoned high yield bonds of shipping companies. Our analysis utilises 40 seasoned high yield bonds offered by 32 shipping companies between April 1998 and December 2002 and a set of microeconomic, macroeconomic and, industry related factors. Our model suggests that the dynamics of credit premia of seasoned

Costas Th. Grammenos; Amir H. Alizadeh; Nikos C. Papapostolou




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-area yield prediction early in the growing season is important in agricultural decision-making. The objectives of this study were to derive maize (Zea mays L.) leaf area index (LAI) estimates from spectral data and to use these estimates with a simple LAI-based yield model to forecast yield u...


Yield drag associated with resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in high-yielding cotton germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...


Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of U.S.D.A. Quality and Yield Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef rib and plate.  


Beef nutrition is important to the worldwide beef industry. The objective of this study was to analyze proximate composition of eight beef rib and plate cuts to update the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Furthermore, this study aimed to determine the influence of USDA Quality Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of the examined retail cuts. Carcasses (n=72) representing a composite of Yield Grade, Quality Grade, gender and genetic type were identified from six regions across the U.S. Beef plates and ribs (IMPS #109 and 121C and D) were collected from the selected carcasses and shipped to three university meat laboratories for storage, retail fabrication, cooking, and dissection and analysis of proximate composition. These data provide updated information regarding the nutrient content of beef and emphasize the influence of common classification systems (Yield Grade and Quality Grade) on the separable components, cooking yield, and proximate composition of retail beef cuts. PMID:23793084

Martin, J N; Brooks, J C; Thompson, L D; Savell, J W; Harris, K B; May, L L; Haneklaus, A N; Schutz, J L; Belk, K E; Engle, T; Woerner, D R; Legako, J F; Luna, A M; Douglass, L W; Douglass, S E; Howe, J; Duvall, M; Patterson, K Y; Leheska, J L



Yes, Increased Yields Can Reduce Harvests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increases in stand yields resulting from growth-stimulating or inventory-protecting silvicultural investments may actually reduce the allowable cut calculated by Timber RAM as presently used on National Forests. The case study presented here indicates tha...

E. F. Bell



Minimum Data Set--Maximum Yield.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the minimum data-maxiumum yield concept as a tool leading to greater counselor accountability. Data sets are useful tools for improving services, answering questions, and encouraging meaningful outcome research. (JAC)

Bozarth, Jerold D.; Carpenter, D. Stanley



The Squeeze Flow of Yield Stress Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of squeeze flow (SF) is presented using different concentrations of carbopol with varying yield stresses. A constant volume of sample is placed between two parallel plates and a series of 3 constant force steps applied; each lasting 8 minutes, allowing the sample to achieve a limiting height before the next force is applied. The yield stress of each fluid can be calculated from the limiting height as predicted by SF theory. In this study, the reliability of SF for the determination of the yield stress is analyzed through comparison with precise rheometrical tests. The rheometrical data is combined with SF theory to obtain the predicted dynamic height evolution. The predicted height evolution represents the results of the SF experiments quite nicely. Ultimately, the yield stress values determined from the SF experiments and those of the precise rheometrical tests are in good agreement.

Rabideau, Brooks D.; Lanos, Christophe; Coussot, Philippe




Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... yields have been reported from tests using smoking machines. ... machine's puff duration is too short, too little ... and the amount of time between puffs is ... More results from


Agricultural Impacts: Multi-model yield projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using model ensembles for simulating the responses of future crop yields to climate change offers the prospect of more reliable projections, but requires sustained international collaboration and exchange of high-quality data for model testing.

Carter, Timothy R.



Predictive relationships for sidestream smoke cigarette yields.  


Relationships have been sought for smoking machine generated sidestream smoke yields of cigarettes for particulate matter (water and nicotine free) (PMWNF) and nicotine. Comparisons have been made with the corresponding mainstream smoke yields, other readily measurable factors in machine smoking and with the physical characteristics of cigarettes. The sidestream smoke yields have been found to be related to the puff count during machine smoking multiplied by the cross-sectional area of a cigarette or to the total weight of cigarette tobacco burnt during machine smoking. For the brands retailed in the U.K. these relationships permit calculation of the sidestream smoke contributions of PMWNF and nicotine to environmental tobacco smoke. From the data used to derive these relationships, and based on 31 cigarette brands representing 71% of cigarette sales in the U.K., the sales weighted sidestream PMWNF yield is 27.1 mg/cigarette and that for nicotine is 5.12 mg/cigarette. PMID:1615311

Evans, W H; Sefton, G V



Serrated yielding in Al-Li alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serrated yielding (SY) during tensile testing has been observed in Al-Li alloys, both in the binary and the commercial quaternary alloys, in single crystal as well as polycrystalline materials. Serrated yielding is commonly explained by a dynamic strain aging (DSA) model developed by McCormick and van den Beukel. All the solute elements present in Al-Li alloys, viz., Mg, Cu and

S. Kumar; H. B. McShane



Weak-scintillation light yield determination  

SciTech Connect

The pulse-height distribution produced by weak scintillations is simulated as a Poisson distribution if the mean number of photoelectrons collected at the first dynode is of the order of one. This method enables one to determine the scintillation yield also when the photomultiplier does not show a peak in the single-electron pulses. Scintillation yields have been determined for some aqueous solutions of sodium salicylate and for aromatic solvents (benzene, toluene, and xylene) on internal irradiation by ..cap alpha.. particles.

Mandzhukov, I.G.; Mandzhukova, B.V.



Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to increase H2 yields from fermentative H2 production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although\\u000a heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H2 yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming\\u000a acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low

Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley



Thermodynamics of yield in boron nitride nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the atomistic mechanism of yield to mechanical tension in boron nitride nanotubes. The formation energy of the first emerging defect is computed by accurate ab initio calculations. Its susceptibilities to mechanical tension is further evaluated in an economical fashion, when only load-free clusters need to be considered. The obtained thermodynamic threshold is above that of the homologuous carbon system, whose exceptional resistance to mechanical yield is already recognized.

Dumitric?, Traian; Bettinger, Holger F.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Yakobson, Boris I.



Modeling sediment yields in Italian catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment yield observations, derived from 40 long-term sedimentation records in Italian reservoirs, were used to calibrate and validate the spatially distributed sediment delivery model WaTEM\\/SEDEM using the best data available at national scale. The sediment yield data set includes records from semi-natural catchments in northern Italy as well as agricultural and semi-natural basins in central and southern Italy. The average

Anton Van Rompaey; Paolo Bazzoffi; Robert J. A. Jones; Luca Montanarella




Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Long term sediment yield observations, derived from 40 long term sedimentation records in Italian reservoirs, were used to calibrate and validate the spatially distributed sediment delivery model,WaTEM\\/SEDEM using the best data available at national scale. The sediment yield data set includes records from semi-natural catchments in northern Italy as well and agricultural and semi-natural basins in central and southern

Anton Van Rompaey; Paolo Bazzoffi; Robert J. A Jones; Luca Montanarella



Modulus and yield stress of drawn LDPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modulus and yield stress were investigated in drawn low density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Uniaxially drawn polymeric films usually show high values of modulus and yield stress, however, studies have normally only been conducted to identify the structural features that determine modulus. In this study small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), thermal shrinkage, birefringence, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to examine, directly and indirectly, the structural features that determine both modulus and yield stress, which are often closely related in undrawn materials. Shish-kebab structures are proposed to account for the mechanical properties in drawn LDPE. The validity of this molecular/morphological model was tested using relationships between static mechanical data and structural and physical parameters. In addition, dynamic mechanical results are also in line with static data in supporting the model. In the machine direction (MD), "shish" and taut tie molecules (TTM) anchored in the crystalline phase account for E; whereas crystal lamellae with contributions from "shish" and TTM determine yield stress. In the transverse direction (TD), the crystalline phase plays an important roll in both modulus and yield stress. Modulus is determined by crystal lamellae functioning as platelet reinforcing elements in the amorphous matrix with an additional contributions from TTM and yield stress is determined by the crystal lamellae's resistance to deformation.

Thavarungkul, Nandh


Polarization transfer in {sup 4}He(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}p{sup {yields}}) and {sup 16}O(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}p{sup {yields}}) in a relativistic Glauber model  

SciTech Connect

Polarization-transfer components for {sup 4}He(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}p{sup {yields}}){sup 3}H and {sup 16}O(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}p{sup {yields}}){sup 15}N are computed within the relativistic multiple-scattering Glauber approximation (RMSGA). The RMSGA framework adopts relativistic single-particle wave functions and electron-nucleon couplings. The predictions closely match those of a relativistic plane-wave model indicating the smallness of the final-state interactions for polarization-transfer components. Also short-range correlations play a modest role for the studied observables, as long as small proton missing momenta are probed in quasielastic kinematics. The predictions with free and various parametrizations for the medium-modified electromagnetic form factors are compared to the world data.

Lava, P.; Ryckebusch, J.; Overmeire, B. van; Strauch, S. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)



Monitoring 2005 Corn Belt Yields From Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. corn belt, centered on Illinois, suffered extreme drought conditions during the 2005 growing season (Figure 1). The April-September rainfall ranked 10th lowest of the past 113 years (see Throughout Illinois, counties were declared agricultural disaster areas and corn yields were predicted to be 30 percent less than the record year of 2004, which had the highest corn yields in the last 50 years [Christian Science Monitor, 2005]. However, the Illinois Agricultural Statistics Service estimated the overall corn yield was 145 bushels per acre, or just seven percent below the previous five-year average, with `many farmers. . .surprised by the better than expected yields after the drought conditions' (see and This better-than-expected yield has been attributed to advancements in seed genetics, equipment, and water-management practices [Barrionuevo and Bradsher, 2005].

Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce T.; Myneni, Ranga



Genes that influence yield in tomato  

PubMed Central

Yield is the most important breeding trait of crops. For fruit-bearing plants such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), fruit formation directly affects yield. The final fruit size depends on the number and volume of cell layers in the pericarp of the fruit, which is determined by the degree of cell division and expansion in the fertilized ovaries. Thus, fruit yield in tomato is predominantly determined by the efficiency of fruit set and the final cell number and size of the fruits. Through domestication, tomato fruit yield has been markedly increased as a result of mutations associated with fruit size and genetic studies have identified the genes that influence the cell cycle, carpel number and fruit set. Additionally, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that plant hormones control fruit set and size through the delicate regulation of genes that trigger physiological responses associated with fruit expansion. In this review, we introduce the key genes involved in tomato breeding and describe how they affect the physiological processes that contribute to tomato yield.

Ariizumi, Tohru; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Ezura, Hiroshi



Sediment yields for selected streams in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey began a study to determine sediment yields for selected streams in Texas during the 1966 water year to provide information for areas in which sediment-yield data were meager or lacking. These data will aid in delineating problem areas and planning for water-resources development in the State. This report presents estimates of suspended-sediment loads and yields from 20 drainage basins ranging in area from 26 to 1,410 square miles. These estimates are based on samples collected periodically during water years 1966-74. Sediment loads ranged from 1,500 tons per year at the station North Fork Hubbard Creek near Albany to 278,000 tons per year at the station Wichita River at Wichita Falls. Sediment yields ranged from 15 tons per square mile per year in the drainage area of East Yegua Creek near Dime Box to 500 tons per square mile per year in the drainage area of Denton Creek near Justin. Sediment yields from drainage areas generally decrease from northwest to southeast across the State. (Woodard-USGS)

Welborn, C. T.; Bezant, R. Bryce



Alternative perspective on photosynthetic yield and enhancement  

SciTech Connect

In the traditional Z scheme of photosynthesis the Emerson effects of red drop (decline in yield of photosynthesis in far-red light) and enhancement (of far-red yield by supplementary short-wavelength light) are taken to be evidence for the coupling in series of two photosystems that absorb unsymmetrically in the far-red region of the spectrum. An alternative explanation for red drop and enhancement is proposed here that does not invoke the series-coupling hypothesis. It is suggested that the Emerson effects may be due to the drop in intensity of radiation from sample absorption, which causes a photochemical loss when the reaction shuts off at depth in the medium. The effects of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and temperature on the yield may also be interpreted in terms of this model.

Warner, J.W.; Berry, R.S.



Yield loci for an anisotropic granular assembly.  


Yield loci of a granular material are derived in case of triaxial compression carried out at constant pressure. The theory is based upon a simple micromechanical model in which particles move according to an average, homogeneous deformation. We show how the presence of an inherent anisotropy in the aggregate (typical of laboratory samples due to depositional processes) produces a deviation of the yield loci in the stress space from the expected Mohr-Coulomb prediction. That is, when the compaction pressure in an anisotropic aggregate is increased, irreversibility associated with sliding between particles occurs and this will influence the yield function in the subsequent triaxial test. Numerical simulations support the theoretical result. PMID:23214582

La Ragione, Luigi; Oger, Luc



Fission yield studies at the IGISOL facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy-particle-induced fission is a cost-effective way to produce neutron-rich nuclei for spectroscopic studies. Fission has been utilized at the IGISOL to produce isotopes for decay and nuclear structure studies, collinear laser spectroscopy and precision mass measurements. The ion guide technique is also very suitable for the fission yield measurements, which can be performed very efficiently by using the Penning trap for fission fragment identification and counting. The proton- and neutron-induced fission yield measurements at the IGISOL are reviewed, and the independent isotopic yields of Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd and In in 25MeV deuterium-induced fission are presented for the first time. Moving to a new location next to the high intensity MCC30/15 light-ion cyclotron will allow also the use of the neutron-induced fission to produce the neutron rich nuclei at the IGISOL in the future.

Penttilä, H.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Rubchenya, V.; Saastamoinen, A.; Weber, C.; Äystö, J.



Generalized yield stress equation for electrorheological fluids.  


A new generalized yield stress scaling equation for electrorheological (ER) fluids was developed by introducing the critical electric field (Ec) and material parameter. This equation can be used to describe the dependency of the yield stress on an electric field not only for conventional ER suspensions with a change in slope from 2.0 to 1.5, but also for giant ER fluids with a change in slope from 2.0 to 1.0. The yield stress data obtained from different ER fluid systems with different material parameters was collapsed onto a single curve for the entire range of electric field strengths using the proper scaling method proposed in this study. PMID:23993784

Zhang, Ke; Liu, Ying Dan; Jhon, Myung S; Choi, Hyoung Jin



Analyzing Landscape Effects on Corn and Soybean Yield and Yield Risk from a Large Yield Monitor Dataset  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop yield variability is due to a variety of factors including many manageable variables such as genetics, weeds and pests, drainage, irrigation, and nutrient supply, but many factors cannot be managed and/or they have un-manageable interactions with climate. Therefore climate and it’s interaction...


Modeling sediment yields in Italian catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment yield observations, derived from 40 long-term sedimentation records in Italian reservoirs, were used to calibrate and validate the spatially distributed sediment delivery model WaTEM/SEDEM using the best data available at national scale. The sediment yield data set includes records from semi-natural catchments in northern Italy as well as agricultural and semi-natural basins in central and southern Italy. The average size of the catchments is 150 km2 with mean annual sediment yields ranging from 0.20 to 20 t ha-1 year-1. WaTEM/SEDEM estimates mean annual sediment fluxes to permanent river channels. Depending on the local transport capacity, the sediment flux is detachment-limited or transport-limited. The optimal transport capacity parameters for Italian conditions were derived via automatic calibration procedures. A global model calibration procedure taking into account all catchments in the dataset led to an overestimation of the sediment yield for the mountain catchments and an underestimation for the non-mountain catchments. Sediment yield estimates are more reliable when calibration procedures are applied separately for mountain and non-mountain catchments. The model performance of WaTEM/SEDEM is rather poor in the mountain catchments (R=0.25), which suggests that the model structure is too simplified to come to an adequate description of the sediment fluxes. The model performance for the non-mountain catchments, which are more important from a management point of view, is significantly better (R=0.51). Considering the fact that data layers with a 75×75 m resolution were used, the results are encouraging the further development and application of spatially distributed sediment yield models at regional and national scale levels.

Rompaey, Anton Van; Bazzoffi, Paolo; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca



Air-assisted addition of grignard reagents to olefins. A simple protocol for a three-component coupling process yielding alcohols.  


Silylmethyl, tertiary-alkyl, alkenyl, and aryl Grignard reagents underwent intermolecular addition to olefins, such as styrenes, conjugated dienes, and enynes under an air atmosphere to give homologated alcohols. For example, (trimethylsilyl)methylmagnesium chloride and alpha-methylstyrene in ether at room temperature under dry air directly furnished 2-phenyl-4-(trimethylsilyl)-2-butanol in good yield. As the Grignard addition to olefins under argon with rigorous exclusion of O2 did not proceed at all, the above reaction should involve a radical mechanism: an alkyl radical generated by the aerial oxidation of the Grignard reagent adds to olefin, which is followed by oxygenation. Representative examples of this transformation, where products were obtained in good to excellent diastereo- or regioselectivity, are also disclosed. PMID:16366543

Nobe, Youhei; Arayama, Kyohei; Urabe, Hirokazu



Sampling-based yield prediction for ULSI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a method for estimating critical areas and hence the yield of ULSI devices using survey sampling techniques. The approach does not suffer from the restrictions of previously reported methods of critical area estimation. In particular its practical application is not limited by the size of the device or the nature of the design hierarchy. The method makes possible, for the first time, efficient and accurate yield predictions of the most complex state-of-the-art devices using modest computing resources.

Allan, Gerard A.; Walton, Anthony J.



DMSO Increases Radioiodination Yield of Radiopharmaceuticals  

PubMed Central

A high-yield radioiodination method for various types of molecules is described. The approach employs DMSO as precursor solvent, a reaction ratio of 2–5 precursor molecules per iodine atom, 5–10 ?g oxidant, and a 10–25-?l reaction volume. The solution is vortexed at room temperature for 1–5 min and progress of the reaction is assessed by HPLC. Radioiodinated products are obtained in ?95% yield and meet the requirements for radiotracer imaging, biodistribution studies, and molecular and cellular biology research.

Wang, Ketai; Adelstein, S. James; Kassis, Amin I.



Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield  

SciTech Connect

We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources - the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

Ave, M.; Daumiller, K.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Salamida, F.; Smida, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohacova, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Ridky, J.; Schovanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Di Carlo, P.; Iarlori, M.; Petrera, S.; Rizi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita de l'Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Di Giulio, C.; Verzi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and Sezione INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); San Luis, P. Facal; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)



High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds  

PubMed Central

A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric



Particle mass yield from ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of second-generation products on the particle mass yield of ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis was systematically tested and quantified. The approach was to vary the relative concentrations of first- and second-generation products by adjusting the concentration of ozone while observing changes in particle mass yield. For all wall-loss corrected organic particle mass concentrations Morg of this study (0.5 < Morg < 230 ?g m-3), the data show that the particle-phase organic material was composed for the most part of second-generation products. For 0.5< Morg < 10 ?g m-3, a range which overlaps with atmospheric concentrations, the particle mass yield was 10 to 20% and was not sensitive to ozone exposure, implying that the constituent molecules were rapidly produced at all investigated ozone exposures. In contrast, for Morg > 10 ?g m-3 the particle mass yield increased to as high as 70% for the ultimate yield corresponding to the greatest ozone exposures. These differing dependencies on ozone exposure under different regimes of Morg are explained by a combination of the ozonolysis lifetimes of the first-generation products and the volatility distribution of the resulting second-generation products. First-generation products that have short lifetimes produce low-volatility second-generation products whereas first-generation products that have long lifetimes produce high-volatility second-generation products. The ultimate particle mass yield was defined by mass-based stoichiometric yields ?i of ?0 = 0.17 ± 0.05, ?1 = 0.11 ± 0.17, and ?2 = 1.03 ± 0.30 for corresponding saturation concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ?g m-3. Terms ?0 and ?1 had low sensitivity to the investigated range of ozone exposure whereas term ?2 increased from 0.32 ± 0.13 to 1.03 ± 0.30 as the ozone exposure was increased. These findings potentially allow for simplified yet accurate parameterizations in air quality and climate models that seek to represent the ozonolysis particle mass yields of certain classes of biogenic compounds.

Chen, Q.; Li, Y. L.; McKinney, K. A.; Kuwata, M.; Martin, S. T.



Block Estimating of Spatial Yield Data and its Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-the-go yield monitors have been available for both grain and bulk crops. Most of the yield monitors today provide yield measurement at a fixed time interval. Conversion of these point yield data into raster yield maps for further analysis is necessary. In this study, a data-blocking procedure is proposed to create raster yield maps from point yield data. The blocking

Shufeng Han; Sally M. Schneider; Robert G. Evans; Joan R. Davenport



Effect of puffing intensity on cigarette smoke yields.  


Two US blend style cigarette products, one ventilated, were smoked under 16 smoking regimes. 'Tar', nicotine, carbon monoxide (TNCO) and water smoke yields determined with these regimes, are shown to form part of continuous functions linked with puffing intensity (the product of puff volume and puff frequency) and total puff volume (the product of puff volume and puff number). This allows the prediction of yields for any regime and leads to the conclusion that the characterisation of cigarette products with these analytes is achievable from using a single smoking regime. The rate of increase of TNCO yields decreases as the puffing intensity increases, due to the more rapid burning of the tobacco available for smoking, although (particulate phase) water yield, relative to TNCO, increases considerably with intensity. Total puff volume is linearly related to TNCO machine yields from a range of regimes, to duplicated human yields and to the nicotine and solanesol retained in spent filters. The concentration of these smoke components is essentially independent of the regime used to generate them. This is not the case with water for which the yield in smoke increases exponentially with the total puff volume and its concentration increases rapidly with intensity. PMID:23523712

Purkis, S W; Troude, V; Hill, C A



Predicting collector well yields with MODFLOW.  


Groundwater flow models are commonly used to design new wells and wellfields. As the spatial scale of the problem is large and much local-scale detail is not needed, modelers often utilize two-dimensional (2D) or quasi three-dimensional models based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption. Dupuit models offer a robust set of tools for simulating regional groundwater flow including interactions with surface waters, the potential for well interference, and varying aquifer properties and recharge rates. However, given an assumed operating water level or drawdown at a well screen, Dupuit models systematically overpredict well yields. For design purposes, this discrepancy is unacceptable, and a method for predicting accurate well yields is needed. While published methods exist for vertical wells, little guidance is available for predicting yields in horizontal screens or collector wells. In plan view, a horizontal screen has a linear geometry, and will likely extend over several neighboring cells that may not align with rows or columns in a numerical model. Furthermore, the model must account for the effects of converging three-dimensional (3D) flow to the well screens and hydraulic interference among the well screens; these all depend on the design of a specific well. This paper presents a new method for simulating the yield of angled or horizontal well screens in numerical groundwater flow models, specifically using the USGS code MODFLOW. The new method is compared to a detailed, 3D analytic element model of a collector well in a field of uniform flow. PMID:22339406

Kelson, Vic



Yields of yeast growth on starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A survey was made of 81 starch-assimilating yeasts, representing 59 species and varieties, with respect to their capacity for the direct conversion of starch into SCP. The extent of starch conversion by the native amylases of the strains during exponential growth, expressed as yield on starch (final amount of dry biomass formed per unit mass of starch originally supplied),

I. Spencer-Martins; N. van Uden




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, five raw yield monitor datasets were examined to identify a variety of operational and sensor-related errors. These errors were then removed from the datasets, using both automated and manual filtering techniques. These filtering procedures removed 13 to 27% of the observations from ...


The Joint Yield from Teams of Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This statistical investigation starts with the accepted fact that for a team or battery of tests to yield the maximum prediction there must be as high a correlation as possible between each test and the criterion, with at the same time as low a correlation as possible among the individual tests. Formulae and curves are introduced to show the diminishing

C. L. Hull



Effects of Decreased Watering on Crop Yields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cotton and alfalfa were irrigated for three years at Las Cruces, with a range of water levels using a sprinkler-line source to determine yield and evapotranspiration under deficit irrigation. Alfalfa was grown at five locations and cotton was grown at two...

T. W. Sammis J. A. Guitar



OSSY (On Site Seismic Yield) source characterization  

SciTech Connect

The On Site Seismic Yield (OSSY) experiment was performed during September 1989. It was a collaborative effort between scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the Seismographic Stations at UC Berkeley. It was performed in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The general objective of the OSSY experiment was to investigate techniques for using seismic measurements to estimate the yield of nuclear explosions. The basic idea is to use chemical explosions of known size to calibrate source coupling and wave propagation effects near the site of a nuclear explosion. Once calibrated in this way, seismic measurements, obtained at locations sufficiently far from the source to be in the region of linear elastic response but sufficiently close to provide accurate registration, can be used to estimate the yield of the nuclear explosion. If such a technique can be shown to be sufficiently accurate, it has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, flexible in experimental design, and applicable to either large or small yields. This investigation has proceeded in a two-stage process. The first stage is to develop and test the calibration procedure. The second stage is to apply the method to actual nuclear explosions. Partly because it was considered desirable to preform a complete analysis of the calibration procedure before applying it to a nuclear explosion and partly because no convenient nuclear explosion tests were available at the time, the OSSY experiment was concentrated on the calibration stage of the process. 9 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

Johnson, L.R.; McEvilly, T.V.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cropping practices are changing in Ukraine, with producers considering different rotations and tillage systems. This trend provides an opportunity for producers to improve yield with crop sequencing, a benefit known as the rotation effect. To help producers plan rotations for the most favorable seq...


Erosion of a yield-stress fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bed erosion induced by rapid gravity flows of complex fluids, such as mudflows or avalanches, remains still poorly understood. A specificity of these natural flows is that, mostly, the material forming the static bed has mechanical properties similar to those of the flowing material (mud/mud, snow/snow). In this experimental study, yield-stress fluids are implemented to model both the eroding flow and the eroded bed with an original approach that captures the process of erosion in terms of solid-fluid transition. The hydrodynamics of erosion is studied in an inclined channel configuration, where a yield-stress fluid flows on a thick layer of the same fluid having an equal or a greater yield stress. In this work, we chose to use a micro-gel polymer (Carbopol) because of its elasto-viscoplastic rheology and its transparency, which is exploited for internal visualization techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Our approach aims to investigate the dominant physical mechanisms of erosion by combining an accurate rheological characterization of the yield-stress fluid using a rheometer (Hershel-Bulkley law), with the observation of the morphological evolution of the system substratum / flow and the local measurement of related hydrodynamic parameters. The main goal is to relate the erosion law at the substrate/flow interface with the constitutive law of the complex fluid involved, in order to refine this latter in the vicinity of the transition between the quasi-static and the liquid regimes.

Luu, Li-Hua; Philippe, Pierre; Chambon, Guillaume



Effects of contamination on semiconductor manufacturing yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges associated with controlling particulate and chemical contamination to achieve high semiconductor device yields are demonstrated with data showing the influence of cleanroom air, semiconductor processes and tools, gases, chemicals, and DI water. Because typical film thickness are much smaller than pattern feature sizes, defects that are as small as one hundredth of the lithographic dimension must be controlled.

C. M. Osburn; H. Berger; R. P. Donovan; G. W. Jones



6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...


What drives Provincial - Canada Yield Spreads?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent research has led to a deeper understanding of the factors determining yields on long term Canada bonds, there has been little corresponding work on provincial bonds. This is despite the fact that unlike the US state bond market, provincial debt represents a significant part of the Canadian bond market. Provincial and state debt are examples of sub-national debt

Laurence Booth; George Georgopoulos; Walid Hejazi



What Your Yield Says about You  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The recession has turned Americans into numbers addicts. Seemingly endless supplies of statistics--stock prices, retail sales, and the gross domestic product--offer various views about the health of the nation's economy. Higher education has its own economic indicators. Among the most important is "yield," the percentage of admitted students who…

Hoover, Eric




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Approximately 75% of the total sugarcane area harvested in Brazil is made manually and 25% is mechanized. Precision agriculture is a method of production systems management that considers the spacial variability presence, which promove practical and effective ways of obtaining yield maps to show that variability. The existent maps generation technologies dasent contemplate manually harvested sugarcane yet. By georreferencing



Crop yields in a geoengineered climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop models predict that recent and future climate change may have adverse effects on crop yields. Intentional deflection of sunlight away from the Earth could diminish the amount of climate change in a high-CO2 world. However, it has been suggested that this diminution would come at the cost of threatening the food and water supply for billions of people. Here, we carry out high-CO2, geoengineering and control simulations using two climate models to predict the effects on global crop yields. We find that in our models solar-radiation geoengineering in a high-CO2 climate generally causes crop yields to increase, largely because temperature stresses are diminished while the benefits of CO2 fertilization are retained. Nevertheless, possible yield losses on the local scale as well as known and unknown side effects and risks associated with geoengineering indicate that the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.



Comparing Models for Forecasting the Yield Curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the yields of different maturities is related and can be described by a reduced number of commom latent factors. Multifactor interest rate models of the finance literature, common factor models of the time series literature and others use this property. Each model has advantages and disadvantages, and it is an empirical matter to evaluate the performance of

Marco S. Matsumura; Ajax R. B. Moreira



Enhancing yield management with customer profitability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that in order to sustain the long-term profitability and growth of hotel organizations, yield management decisions must incorporate two critical constraints: the cost implications of the customer mix and guest ancillary spend. Proposes that customer profitability analysis (CPA), which reports revenues, costs and profit by customer group, will give management the ancillary spend and cost information that will enhance

Breffni Noone; Peter Griffin



Nonlinear elasticity and yielding of depletion gels.  


A microscopic activated barrier hopping theory of the viscoelasticity of colloidal glasses and gels has been generalized to treat the nonlinear rheological behavior of particle-polymer suspensions. The quiescent cage constraints and depletion bond strength are quantified using the polymer reference interaction site model theory of structure. External deformation (strain or stress) distorts the confining nonequilibrium free energy and reduces the barrier. The theory is specialized to study a limiting mechanical description of yielding and modulus softening in the absence of thermally induced barrier hopping. The yield stress and strain show a rich functional dependence on colloid volume fraction, polymer concentration, and polymer-colloid size asymmetry ratio. The yield stress collapses onto a master curve as a function of the polymer concentration scaled by its ideal mode-coupling gel boundary value, and sufficiently deep in the gel is of an effective power-law form with a universal exponent. A similar functional and scaling dependence of the yield stress on the volume fraction is found, but the apparent power-law exponent is nonuniversal and linearly correlated with the critical gel volume fraction. Stronger gels are generally, but not always, predicted to be more brittle in the strain mode of deformation. The theoretical calculations appear to be in accord with a broad range of observations. PMID:16268723

Kobelev, Vladimir; Schweizer, Kenneth S



Integrated DFM Framework for Dynamic Yield Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an abstract of the following article. Users may request access to the full article via the website, and a direct link will be emailed to them. We present a new methodology for a balanced yield optimization and a new DFM (design for manufacturability) framework which implements it. Our approach allows designers to dynamically balance multiple factors contributing to yield loss and select optimal combination of DFM enhancements based on the current information about the IC layout, the manufacturing process, and known causes of failures. We bring together the information gained from layout analysis, layout aware circuit analysis, resolution enhancement and optical proximity correction tools, parasitics extraction, timing estimates, and other tools, to suggest the DFM solution which is optimized within the existing constraints on design time and available data. The framework allows us to integrate all available sources of yield information, characterize and compare proposed DFM solutions, quickly adjust them when new data or new analysis tools become available, fine tune DFM optimization for a particular design and process and provide the IC designer with a customized solution which characterizes the manufacturability of the design, identifies and classifies areas with the most opportunities for improvement, and suggests DFM improvements. The proposed methodology replaces the ad hoc approach to DFM which targets one yield loss cause at a time at the expense of other factors with a comprehensive analysis of competing DFM techniques and trade offs between them.



Enormous yield of photoelectrons from small particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports a large enhancement of the yield of photoelectrons per incident photon if ultrafine particles with radii not greater than 50 A are chosen as photoemitters. The results are obtained with Ag and WO3 by the use of an ac bridge technique making it possible to study very small particles suspended in gases.

Schmidt-Ott, A.; Schurtenberger, P.; Siegmann, H. C.



Nutrient mobilization and yield of soybean genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobilization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from leaf and carpel tissue during seed growth was estimated for 18 diverse, field?grown soybean lines and cultivars during two years. The objective was to determine whether lines differed in nutrient mobilization and, if so, whether such differences were related to yielding ability.Lines differed in nutrient concentration and tissue mass and in nutrient content,

Gregory L. Loberg; Richard Shibles; D. E. Green; J. J. Hanway



Effects of geoengineering on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as market shares of agricultural output may change with the different spatial pattern of climate change. More importantly, geoengineering by SRM does not address a range of other detrimental consequences of climate change, such as ocean acidification, which could also affect food security via effects on marine food webs. Finally, SRM poses substantial anticipated and unanticipated risks by interfering with complex, not fully understood systems. Therefore, despite potential positive effects of SRM on crop yields, the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.



Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As hyperspectral imagery is becoming more available, it is necessary to evaluate its potential for crop monitoring and precision agriculture applications. In this study airborne hyperspectral imagery was examined for estimating grain sorghum yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. H...


Yield and Temporal Yield Variability Under Conventional and Alternative Management Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Year to year variation in yield is an inherit risk associated with crop production and many growers rely on intensive mechanical or chemical inputs to secure crop yields in the face of fluctuating environmental conditions. However, as interest in alternative approaches to crop management which are ...


General results for the decays D yields. pi. ell. nu. and B yields. pi. ell. nu  

SciTech Connect

Results are given for the two form factors for D {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} and B {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} at the soft pion limit. The deriviation depends only on pion PCAC and heavy quark spin symmetry. The usefulness of these results is discussed.

Wolfenstein, L. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics)




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As hyperspectral imagery is becoming more available, it is necessary to evaluate its potential for crop monitoring and precision agriculture applications. In this study, airborne hyperspectral imagery was examined for mapping grain sorghum yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyp...


Femtochemistry of the Reaction: IHgI* Yields (IHg...I)* Yields HgI + I,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Femtochemistry of the reaction IHgI yields IHg + I yields HgI+I is reported. We observe femtosecond decays with an oscillatory modulation. These observations are related to the reaction trajectories on the global PES, which involve a symmetric stretch, an...

R. M. Bowman M. Dantus A. H. Zewail




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method to detect and to adjust abnormally low or high milk, fat, and protein yields on test-day (TD) was developed. TD yields are compared to previous and subsequent yields and are restricted to be between a floor and ceiling based on predicted yield. Lactation yields are then calculated from the ...


Estimation of liquid fuel yields from biomass.  


We have estimated sun-to-fuel yields for the cases when dedicated fuel crops are grown and harvested to produce liquid fuel. The stand-alone biomass to liquid fuel processes, that use biomass as the main source of energy, are estimated to produce one-and-one-half to three times less sun-to-fuel yield than the augmented processes. In an augmented process, solar energy from a fraction of the available land area is used to produce other forms of energy such as H(2), heat etc., which are then used to increase biomass carbon recovery in the conversion process. However, even at the highest biomass growth rate of 6.25 kg/m(2).y considered in this study, the much improved augmented processes are estimated to have sun-to-fuel yield of about 2%. We also propose a novel stand-alone H(2)Bioil-B process, where a portion of the biomass is gasified to provide H(2) for the fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation of the remaining biomass. This process is estimated to be able to produce 125-146 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege)/ton of biomass of high energy density oil but needs experimental development. The augmented version of fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation, where H(2) is generated from a nonbiomass energy source, is estimated to provide liquid fuel yields as high as 215 ege/ton of biomass. These estimated yields provide reasonable targets for the development of efficient biomass conversion processes to provide liquid fuel for a sustainable transport sector. PMID:20527758

Singh, Navneet R; Delgass, W Nicholas; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Agrawal, Rakesh



Neutron monitor yield function: New improved computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ground-based neutron monitor (NM) is a standard tool to measure cosmic ray (CR) variability near Earth, and it is crucially important to know its yield function for primary CRs. Although there are several earlier theoretically calculated yield functions, none of them agrees with experimental data of latitude surveys of sea-level NMs, thus suggesting for an inconsistency. A newly computed yield function of the standard sea-level 6NM64 NM is presented here separately for primary CR protons and ?-particles, the latter representing also heavier species of CRs. The computations have been done using the GEANT-4 PLANETOCOSMICS Monte-Carlo tool and a realistic curved atmospheric model. For the first time, an effect of the geometrical correction of the NM effective area, related to the finite lateral expansion of the CR induced atmospheric cascade, is considered, which was neglected in the previous studies. This correction slightly enhances the relative impact of higher-energy CRs (energy above 5-10 GeV/nucleon) in NM count rate. The new computation finally resolves the long-standing problem of disagreement between the theoretically calculated spatial variability of CRs over the globe and experimental latitude surveys. The newly calculated yield function, corrected for this geometrical factor, appears fully consistent with the experimental latitude surveys of NMs performed during three consecutive solar minima in 1976-1977, 1986-1987, and 1996-1997. Thus, we provide a new yield function of the standard sea-level NM 6NM64 that is validated against experimental data.

Mishev, A. L.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.



Energy dependence of air fluorescence yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fluorescence detection of ultra high energy (? 1018 eV) cosmic rays, it is assumed that the number of emitted fluorescence photons is proportional to the energy deposited in air by shower particles. We have performed measurements of the fluorescence yield in atmospheric gases excited by electrons over a wide energy range. AIRFLY has collected data between 1 and 3 MeV at a Van de Graaff electron accelerator, and between 3 and 15 MeV at the AWA LINAC, both located at the Argonne National Laboratory. Fluorescence yield induced by electrons in the range 50 to 500 MeV was studied with an extracted beam at the Beam Test Facility of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati. The large flux of photons from the APS synchrotron radiation source at the Argonne National Laboratory allowed us to explore the fluorescence emission from keV electrons produced by X-ray interaction in air. Results of these measurements are summarised.

Cazon, L.


Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping  

SciTech Connect

In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

W.T. McKean



Viscoelasticity and shear yielding onset in amorphous glassy polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the effect of viscoelasticity on the yield behaviour of a polycarbonate, PC, was studied and the identification of a yield criterion which takes into account the effects of the mechanical history on the onset of plastic strain, was attempted. The attention was focused on the shear yielding plastic deformation process and different loading histories were performed under uniaxial compression: constant strain rate at different rates, stress relaxation at different applied strain levels, creep under different stress levels. Some tests were also carried out under shear loading, in which the hydrostatic stress component is equal to zero and its effect on the yield onset can be considered. For the definition of a yield criterion, different quantities, some already proposed in an analogous work on a styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), were considered and determined at yield onset for each of the applied loading histories. The results obtained in this work show that the relative ratios of the viscoelastic strain over the overall strain and of viscoelastic energy over the deformation work are fairly constant irrespective of both loading history and stress state. The re-elaboration of the data previously obtained on SAN is consistent with these results. Discussing the experimental data, differences between the mechanical behaviour of the two glassy polymers were pointed out and a more difficult activation of the plastic deformation process of PC than SAN was generally observed.

Marano, C.; Rink, M.



Identification of a Rice stripe necrosis virus resistance locus and yield component QTLs using Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima introgression lines  

PubMed Central

Background Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs. Results We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544) in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó). Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM) on chromosome 11. Conclusions Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification of a genetic factor underlying resistance to this virus. This population is a powerful breeding tool. It also helps in overcoming hybrid sterility barriers between species of rice.



Dynamic yielding in lithium fluoride and aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a time immediately after shock loading, a kink (a weak discontinuity or a discontinuity in slope) occurs at a position in an unsteady portion in a smooth plane wave front in a lithium fluoride single crystal (material IIIb) or in 1060-0 aluminum due to the instability of the wave front. After the occurrence of the kink, a zone is produced and broadened with time between a near steady precursor ahead of the kink and a plastic wave behind it in a weak-discontinuity plane wave by the difference in the propagation velocity between them. Stress relaxes in the zone, which is called a follower, and the precursor decay takes place due to the stress relaxation. During the decay process, the large increase in plastic flow occurs in the vicinity of the leading edge of the follower, causes yielding at the leading edge, and stabilizes the weak-discontinuity wave. The stress-strain (?-?) history caused by the follower rotates clockwise with time around the yield point. The rotation yields different ?-V histories behind the point and therefore different types of the dynamic ?-V relation. Dynamic yield phenomena are illustrated by showing the schematic diagrams of three different types of the dynamic ?-V relation, which are caused by weak-discontinuity plane waves composed of a precursor C, a follower (i) C, (ii) I or II, or (iii) R' or Rb, and a plastic wave C behind the follower. Here C is the contraction (compression) wave, I and II are the degenerate contraction waves I and II, R' is the subrarefaction wave, and Rb is the rarefaction wave.

Sano, Yukio; Sano, Tomokazu



Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...


Yield-driven electromagnetic optimization via multilevel multidimensional models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the foundation of a sophisticated hierarchical multidimensional response surface modeling system for efficient yield-driven design. The scheme dynamically integrates models and database updating in real optimization time. The method facilitates a seamless, smart, optimization-ready interface. It has been specially designed to handle circuits containing complex subcircuits or components whose simulation requires significant computational effort. This approach makes

John W. Bandler; R. M. Biernacki; Shao Hua Chen; Piotr A. Grobelny; Shen Ye



Total radical yields from tropospheric ethene ozonolysis.  


The gas-phase reactions of ozone with alkenes can be significant sources of free radicals (OH, HO(2) and RO(2)) in the Earth's atmosphere. In this study the total radical production and degradation products from ethene ozonolysis have been measured, under conditions relevant to the troposphere, during a series of detailed simulation chamber experiments. Experiments were carried out in the European photoreactor EUPHORE (Valencia, Spain), utilising various instrumentation including a chemical-ionisation-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS) measuring volatile organic compounds/oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs/OVOCs), a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system for measuring HO(2) radical products and a peroxy radical chemical amplification (PERCA) instrument measuring HO(2) + ?RO(2). The ethene + ozone reaction system was investigated with and without an OH radical scavenger, in order to suppress side reactions. Radical concentrations were measured under dry and humid conditions and interpreted through detailed chemical chamber box modelling, incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1) degradation scheme for ethene, which was updated to include a more explicit representation of the ethene-ozone reaction mechanism.The rate coefficient for the ethene + ozone reaction was measured to be (1.45 ± 0.25) × 10(-18) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, and a stabilised Criegee intermediate yield of 0.54 ± 0.12 was determined from excess CO scavenger experiments. An OH radical yield of 0.17 ± 0.09 was determined using a cyclohexane scavenger approach, by monitoring the formation of the OH-initiated cyclohexane oxidation products and HO(2). The results highlight the importance of knowing the [HO(2)] (particularly under alkene limited conditions and high [O(3)]) and scavenger chemistry when deriving radical yields. An averaged HO(2) yield of 0.27 ± 0.07 was determined by LIF/model fitting. The observed yields are interpreted in terms of branching ratios for each channel within the postulated ethene ozonolysis mechanism. PMID:21487601

Alam, Mohammed S; Camredon, Marie; Rickard, Andrew R; Carr, Timo; Wyche, Kevin P; Hornsby, Karen E; Monks, Paul S; Bloss, William J



Spatio-temporal evolution of the L {yields} I {yields} H transition  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dynamics of the low(L) {yields} high(H) transition using a time-dependent, one dimensional (in radius) model which self-consistently describes the time evolution of zonal flows (ZFs), mean flows (MFs), poloidal spin-up, and density and pressure profiles. The model represents the physics of ZF and MF competition, turbulence suppression via E Multiplication-Sign B shearing, and poloidal flows driven by turbulence. Numerical solutions of this model show that the L{yields}H transition can occur via an intermediate phase (I-phase) which involves oscillations of profiles due to ZF and MF competition. The I-phase appears as a nonlinear transition wave originating at the edge boundary and propagates inward. Locally, I-phase exhibits the characteristics of a limit-cycle oscillation. All these observations are consistent with recent experimental results. We examine the trigger of the L{yields}H transition, by defining a ratio of the rate of energy transfer from the turbulence to the zonal flow to the rate of energy input into the turbulence. When the ratio exceeds order unity, ZF shear gains energy, and a net decay of the turbulence is possible, thus triggering the L{yields}H transition. Numerical calculations indicate that the L{yields}H transition is triggered by this peak of the normalized ZF shearing. Zonal flows act as 'reservoir,' in which to store increasing fluctuation energy without increasing transport, thus allowing the mean flow shear to increase and lock in the transition. A counterpart of the L {yields} I{yields}H transition, i.e., an L{yields}H transition without I-phase, is obtained in a fast power ramp, for which I-phase is compressed into a single burst of ZF, which triggers the transition. Effects of neutral charge exchange on the L{yields}H transition are studied by varying ZF damping and neoclassical viscosity. Results show that the predicted L{yields}H transition power increases when either ZF damping or viscosity increase, suggesting a link between recycling, ZF damping, and the L{yields}H threshold. Studies of fueling effects on the transition and pedestal structure with an emphasis on the particle pinch are reported.

Miki, K. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Guercan, Oe. D. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS (France); Tynan, G. R. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Estrada, T. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Schmitz, L. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Xu, G. S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)



Yield impacting systematic defects search and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite great effort before design tapeout, there are still some pattern related systematic defects showing up in production, which impact product yield. Through various check points in the production life cycle endeavor is made to detect these defective patterns. It is seen that apart from the known defective patterns, slight variations of polygon sizes and shapes in the known defective patterns also cause yield loss. This complexity is further compounded when interactions among multiple process layers causes the defect. Normally the exact pattern matching techniques cannot detect these variations of the defective patterns. With the currently existing tools in the fab it is a challenge to define the 'sensitive patterns', which are arbitrary variations in the known 'defective patterns'. A design based approach has been successfully experimented on product wafers to detect yield impacting defects that greatly reduces the TAT for hotspot analysis and also provides optimized care area definition to enable high sensitivity wafer inspection. A novel Rule based pattern search technique developed by Anchor Semiconductor has been used to find sensitive patterns in the full chip design. This technique allows GUI based pattern search rule generation like, edge move or edge-to-edge distance range, so that any variations of a particular sensitive pattern can be captured and flagged. Especially the pattern rules involving multiple process layers, like M1-V1-M2, can be defined easily using this technique. Apart from using this novel pattern search technique, design signatures are also extracted around the defect locations in the wafer and used in defect classification. This enhanced defect classification greatly helps in determining most critical defects among the total defect population. The effectiveness of this technique has been established through design to defect correlation and SEM verification. In this paper we will report details of the design based experiments that were successfully run on multiple process layers in production device.

Zhang, Jing; Xu, Qingxiu; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xing; Ning, Jay; Cheng, Guojie; Chen, Shijie; Zhang, Gary; Vikram, Abhishek; Su, Bo



Scintillation Properties of High Light Yield Scintillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scintillation properties of$ LuI_3: Ce^3+$(pure, 0.5%, 2%, and 5%$ Ce^3+$), a new member of the generation of$ Ce^3+$doped lanthanide trihalide scintillators, are presented. This material has a calculated density of 5.6$ g\\/cm^3$and an atomic number$Z_eff$of 60.2. Under optical and X-ray excitation,$ Ce^3+$emission is observed to peak at 472 and 535 nm. A high light yield of 76 000 photons

M. D. Birowosuto; P. Dorenbos; C. W. E. vanEijk; K. W. Kramer; H. U. Gudel



Varactor-diode modulator yields conversion gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that varactor diodes used as modulator elements can make a balanced diode mixer yield conversion gain when employed in an upconverter. Replacing the normal mixer diodes with varactor diodes and inserting the IF and LO voltages at a level that drives the diodes into their nonlinear voltage-capacitance region produces a parametric amplifying effect. This modification results in conversion gain rather than loss, and brings the desired output power up to the 0.1-1.0 W level. The use of this technique in a lower-sideband UHF TV upconverter is considered.

Breitkopf, K.



The Journey from Safe Yield to Sustainability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Safe-yield concepts historically focused attention on the economic and legal aspects of ground water development. Sustainability concerns have brought environmental aspects more to the forefront and have resulted in a more integrated outlook. Water resources sustainability is not a purely scientific concept, but rather a perspective that can frame scientific analysis. The evolving concept of sustainability presents a challenge to hydrologists to translate complex, and sometimes vague, socioeconomic and political questions into technical questions that can be quantified systematically. Hydrologists can contribute to sustainable water resources management by presenting the longer-term implications of ground water development as an integral part of their analyses.

Alley, W. M.; Leake, S. A.



Neutron yield of medical electron accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Shielding calculations for medical electron accelerators above about 10 MeV require some knowledge of the neutron emission from the machine. This knowledge might come from the manufacturer's specifications or from published measurements of the neutron leakage of that particular model and energy of accelerator. In principle, the yield can be calculated if details of the accelerator design are known. These details are often not available because the manufacturer considers them proprietary. A broader knowledge of neutron emission would be useful and it is the purpose of this paper to present such information. 5 refs., 1 tab.

McCall, R.C.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the MARC Beef Carcass Image Analysis System to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commerci...


{upsilon}(1s){yields}{gamma}({eta}',{eta}) decays  

SciTech Connect

Radiative decays {upsilon}(1s){yields}{gamma}({eta}{sup '},{eta}) are studied by an approach which has successfully predicted the ratio ({gamma}(J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sup '})/{gamma}(J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{eta})). Strong dependence on quark mass has been found in the decays (J/{psi},{upsilon}(1s)){yields}{gamma}({eta}{sup '},{eta}). Very small decay rates of {upsilon}(1s){yields}{gamma}({eta}{sup '},{eta}) are predicted.

Li Bingan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)



The crop yield gap between organic and conventional agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

► We analyzed 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields. ► The organic yield gap is 20%, but differs somewhat between crops and regions. ► We found a weak indication of an increasing yield gap as conventional yields increase. ► We hypothesize that when upscaling to farm\\/regional levels the yield gap will be larger. ► In that context, research is needed

Tomek de Ponti; Bert Rijk; Martin K. van Ittersum



New Design Tools for High Fabrication Yield Low Cost Monolithic GaAs Circuits using Passive and Active Components Statistical Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains experimental data concerning passive and active components used in our standard MMIC design. Statistical models are established. Simulated variations of the performances of distributed amplifiers over 2\\

P. Gamand; R. Leblanc; M. Levent-Villegas; P. Rabinzohn



Greenhouse Studies of Soybean Aphid Effects on Plant Growth, Seed Yield, and Composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is little published information available that describes the effects of soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) on soybean [Glycine max (L.) merr] growth, yield, and seed composition. The objective of this research was to measure how soybean growth, yield, and yield components are affected ...


Identification of expressed genes in the mapped QTLs for yield related traits in rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improvement of grain yield is a perpetual goal in rice breeding. Yield and its component traits are quantitatively inherited and controlled by many genes. To identify the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) involved in yield, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 259 progeny was devel...


Cowpea reactions to Striga gesnerioides II. Effect on grain yield and nutrient composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field trials (early planting (EPT) and late planting (LPT)) were conducted in 1994 to determine the effect of Striga gesnerioides on the grain yield, yield components and nutrient composition of 16 cowpea varieties. These included 11 resistant varieties, 2 tolerant varieties and 3 susceptible varieties. The pod number and weight and grain yield of some of the resistant cowpea

S. O. Alonge; S. T. O. Lagoke; C. O. Ajakaiye



Increasing mask yield through repair yield enhancement utilizing the MeRiT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The push toward smaller feature size at 193 nm exposure has been enabled by resolution enhancement techniques (RET) such as phase shifting technologies and optical proximity correction (OPC) which require more costly and time intensive resources to fabricate. This leads to a higher overall cost associated with each mask, making it more important than ever for the mask shop to fully utilize and improve its repair capabilities as the presence of defects on the final product is the major yield reducing factor. An increase in repair capability leads to a direct enhancement in repair yield which translates to an improvement in overall mask yield and a reduction in cycle time. The Carl Zeiss MeRiT® MG 45 provides numerous benefits over other techniques that can lead to an increase in repair yield. This paper focuses on methods utilizing the MeRiT® MG 45 that can be employed in a production environment in order to increase mask repair yield. The capability to perform multiple repairs at a single site without optical degradation enables defects that were not successfully repaired the first time to be corrected on a subsequent attempt. This not only provides operator mistakes and inexperience to be corrected for, but eliminates the need to hold up production in order to start a new mask which can cause a cascading effect down the line. Combining techniques to approach difficult partial height and combination defects that may have previously been classified as non-repairable is presented in an attempt to enable a wider range of defects to be repaired. Finally, these techniques are validated by investigating their impact in a production environment in order to increase overall mask yield and decrease cycle time.

Garetto, Anthony; Oster, Jens; Waiblinger, Markus; Edinger, Klaus



Quantitative trait loci mapping in Brassica rapa revealed the structural and functional conservation of genetic loci governing morphological and yield component traits in the A, B, and C subgenomes of Brassica species.  


Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo



Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species  

PubMed Central

Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species.

Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo



Decay time and light yield measurements for plastic scintillating fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied light production and propagation in three different samplesof plastic scintillating fibers manufactured by Kyowa Gas Co.: SCSF-81, SCSF-38 and SCSF-38 with afquenching additive. The emissio time distribution is described phenomenologically by a fast two-step scintillation process and an additional slow component, the time constants of which are determined. The light yield from the fibers is measured as

C. M. Hawkes; M. Kuhlen; B. Milliken; R. Stroynowski; E. Wicklund; T. Shimizu; O. Shinji



High-Yield Neutron Source for Cargo Container Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-yield neutron source has been designed for the screening of sea-land cargo containers for shielded special nuclear materials (SNM). The accelerator-driven neutron source utilizes the D(d,n)3He reaction to produce a forward directed neutron beam. The key components of the neutron source are a high-current radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator and a high-power neutron production target. A thin entrance window has

Bernhard A. Ludewigt; Darren L. Bleuel; Joe W. Kwan; Derun Li; Alex Ratti; John W. Staples; Steven P. Virostek; Russell P. Wells



Shakedown limits for a general yield condition: implementation and application for a Von Mises yield condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the generalisation of the programming method for the determination of optimal upper bound shakedown limits for an elastic\\/perfectly plastic solid given by Ponter and Carter (1997). The method is based on similar principles to the `Elastic Compensation' method which has been used in design calculations for a number of years. A convergence proof for a general yield

Alan R. S. Ponter; Markus Engelhardt



Comparison of Corn Silage Hybrids for Yield, Nutrient Composition, In Vitro Digestibility, and Milk Yield by Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to compare Novartis N29- F1, a dual-purpose 90-d relative maturity corn hybrid, and Novartis NX3018, a 90-d relative maturity leafy corn silage hybrid for dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro digestibility, plant components, nutrient composition, and lactational performance by Holstein cows. The two corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2- × 351- m plots. Plant population

E. D. Thomas; P. Mandebvu; C. S. Ballard; C. J. Sniffen; M. P. Carter; J. Beck



Single-Equation Yield Surfaces for Monosymmetric and Asymmetric Sections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Single-equation yield surfaces for channel, tee, single and double angle sections under combined axial force and biaxial moments are presented. The equations give very good approximations to the accurate yield surfaces while maintaining smoothness, convex...

S. Kitipornchai K. Zhu Y. Xiang F. G. A. Al-Bermani



Computer Optimization of Cutting Yield from Multiple-Ripped Boards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RIPYLD is a computer program that optimizes the cutting yield from multiple-ripped boards. Decisions are based onautomatically collected defect information, cutting bill requirements, and sawing variables. The yield to clear cuttings from a board is calcu...

A. R. Stern K. A. McDonald



Feature Selection for Wheat Yield Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrying out effective and sustainable agriculture has become an important issue in recent years. Agricultural production has to keep up with an everincreasing population by taking advantage of a field’s heterogeneity. Nowadays, modern technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) and a multitude of developed sensors enable farmers to better measure their fields’ heterogeneities. For this small-scale, precise treatment the term precision agriculture has been coined. However, the large amounts of data that are (literally) harvested during the growing season have to be analysed. In particular, the farmer is interested in knowing whether a newly developed heterogeneity sensor is potentially advantageous or not. Since the sensor data are readily available, this issue should be seen from an artificial intelligence perspective. There it can be treated as a feature selection problem. The additional task of yield prediction can be treated as a multi-dimensional regression problem. This article aims to present an approach towards solving these two practically important problems using artificial intelligence and data mining ideas and methodologies.

Ruß, Georg; Kruse, Rudolf


Microscopic cold fission yields of Cf252  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the sharp maximum corresponding to Mo107 in the fragment distribution of the Cf252 cold fission is actually a Sn-like radioactivity, similar to other decay processes in which magic nuclei are involved, namely ? decay and heavy cluster emission, also called Pb-like radioactivity. It turns out that the mass asymmetry degree of freedom has a key role in connecting initial Sn with the final Mo isotopes along the fission path. We investigate the cold rearrangement of nucleons within the framework of the two-center shell model in order to compute the cold valleys in the charge equilibrated fragmentation potential. The fission yields are estimated by using the semiclassical penetration approach. We consider 5 degrees of freedom, namely the interfragment distance, the shapes of fragments, the neck parameter, and mass asymmetry. We found an isomeric minimum between the internal and external barriers. It turns out that the inner cold valley of the total potential energy is connected to the doubly magic isotope Sn132.

Mirea, M.; Delion, D. S.; S?ndulescu, A.



Boosting investor yields through bond insurance  

SciTech Connect

The market for utility securities generally tends to be fairly static. Innovative financing techniques are rarely used because of the marketability of utility securities stemming from the companies' generally strong financial credit and the monopoly markets most utilities serve. To many people, utility securities are considered the pillars of the financial world, and innovation is not needed. Further, plain vanilla utility issues are easily understood by investors, as well as by regulators and customers. Over the past several years, however, a new utility bond product has crept into the world of utility securities - insured secondary utility bonds. These insured bonds may possibly be used as an alternative financing technique for newly issued debt. Individual investors often tend to rely on insurance as a tool for reducing credit risk and are willing to take the lower yields as a tradeoff. Insured utility bonds are created by brokerage firms through the acqusition of a portion of an outstanding utility bond issue and subsequent solicitation of the insurance companies for bids. The insurance company then agrees to insure that portion of the issue until maturity for a fee, and the brokerage firm sells those bonds to their customers as a AAA-insured bond. Issuers are encouraged to explore the retail market as a financing alternative. They may find a most cost-effective means of raising capital.

Mosbacher, M.L.; Burkhardt, D.A.



Diagnostic Yield of Brain Biopsies in Children Presenting to Neurology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of brain biopsy is well established in patients with neoplastic lesions, with a diagnostic yield approaching 95%. The diagnostic yield of brain biopsy in adults with neurological decline varies from 20% to 43%. Only a few studies have examined the diagnostic yield of brain biopsy in children with idiopathic neurological decline. A retrospective analysis was conducted on all

Sunita Venkateswaran; Cynthia Hawkins; Evangeline Wassmer



Causative factors and variation of sediment yields in Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation, topography, runoff, soils, and land use are the major causative factors of sediment yield in Kentucky. The variability and interaction of these factors directly affects the amount and type of sediment yields. Sediment yield and size data were collected during 1942-1945 and 1951-1981 throughout the five major physiographic regions of Kentucky and at selected stations on the main stem




Modelling the effects of sprinkler irrigation uniformity on crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the development and testing of a model which relates yield to irrigation amount and uniformity. Required input data are the Christiansen uniformity coefficient (CUC) and a parameter describing the sensitivity of crop yield to water deficits obtained from empirical relationships between evapotranspiration and crop yield.The model was used to determine optimum irrigation amounts for corn at Cordoba

E. C. Mantovani; F. J. Villalobos; F. Organ; E. Fereres



Yields of fragments of the spontaneous fission of Cf 252  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the time this work ended, the article [4] was published, in which the yields of fragments of the spontaneous fission of Cf 252 in the region of masses 95-147 were determined relative to the yields of the fragments of fission of U 23s with thermal neutrons. The comparison fragment selected was Ba i4~ the yield of which for the

N. V. Skovorodkin; G. E. Lozhkomoev; K. A. Petrzhak; A. V. Sorokina; B. M. Aleksandrov; A. S. Krivokhatskii



Effect of pressure on coke yield in delayed coking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data on the effect of pressure, in a coking straight-run and secondary resids from West Siberian crudes, on the yield and quality of the coke that is obtained. Increasing the pressure has a very marked effect on the coke yield, increasing the gas yield, and reducing the relative amount of coker gas oil. Pressure also changes the

D. F. Varfolomeev; V. E. Fedotov; A. I. Stekhun



Primary Productivity and Fish Yields in Tropical Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of primary productivity can improve assessment of the fish yields from tropical lakes. In tropical African and Indian lakes commercial fish yields increase logarithmically as primary productivity increases arithmetically. The regression equation describing the relation between fish yields (FY) and gross photosynthesis (PG) for eight African lakes is log FY = 0.113 PG + 0.91. The coefficient of determination

John M. Melack



Influence of Morphophysiological Traits on Sunflower Oil Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of interdependence between sunflower oil yield on the one hand and seed yield and morphophysiological traits on the other makes it possible to better utilize genetic resources in breeding for a high genetic potential for oil yield in this crop. The sunflower genotypes studied differed significantly in the mean values of all the traits concerned. A highly significant positive



The Yield Behaviour of Mild Steel in Dynamic Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of earlier investigations of dynamic yield phenomena are reviewed. Experiments are described in which a mild steel specimen is subjected a to compressive impact load causing yield in 25 to 30 mu s. Stress-time curves are obtained and analyzed in terms of wave propagation, and a dynamic stress-strain relation is derived. Micrographs of specimens after dynamic yielding show that

J. D. Campbell; J. Duby



Characterization of yield stress fluids with concentric cylinder viscometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods normally employed for shear rate calculations from concentric cylinder viscometer data generally are not applicable for fluids with a yield stress. In cylindrical systems with large radius ratios, as usually is the case with suspensions, the yield stress induces two possible flow regimes in the annulus. Unless the yield value is exceeded everywhere in the gap only part

Q. D. Nguyen; D. V. Boger



Observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice is developed based on the characteristic analysis of the stress field within the pack ice. The analysis shows that the slope of the yield curve is associated with the angle between intersecting linear kinematic features; thus by measuring the intersection angles we can inversely estimate the yield curve. Applying

Keguang Wang



Relationships of Australian sugarcane yields to various climatic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the sugarcane yield anomalies in northeastern Australia and various atmospheric and oceanic variables is examined with the help of three different climatological data sets, the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), the Southern Hemisphere Analyses data set (SHANAL) and the Tabulated Data Set (TDS). Correlation coefficients of 10 different climatological variables with the yields are presented for lags up to twelve months prior to the harvest. The results suggest that the sugarcane yields show the strongest positive (negative) response to anomalous sea surface temperature (SSTA) and mean sea level pressure (MSLPA) changes occurring in the central and eastern Pacific during the austral spring 7 to 10 months prior to the sugarcane harvest. These correlations are accompanied by an opposite pattern of anomalies located north of Australia. At the same time, anomalies in the strength of the zonal components of the surface winds can be found over the western tropical Pacific (positive correlations) and the eastern Indian Ocean (negative correlations). These patterns are characteristic of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and support the findings of a previous Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)-oriented study. However, the maximum correlations with the SSTA and MSLPA are substantially higher (around |0.8|) than those reached with the SOI (-0.65). Furthermore, it appears that the large-scale circulation indices are better indicators of sugarcane yields than the regional (Cairns) climatological variables. The maximum correlations between the yields and the climatological variables at Cairns are highly significant (values between |0.5| and |0.6|), but the signal is generally confined to the summer months only.

Kuhnel, I.



Grain yield responses to moisture regimes in a rice population: association among traits and genetic markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is a major constraint to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in rainfed and poorly irrigated environments. Identifying genomic regions influencing the response of yield and its components to water deficits will aid our understanding of the genetic mechanism of drought tolerance (DT) of rice and the development of DT varieties. Grain yield (GY) and its components of a recombinant

G. H. Zou; H. W. Mei; H. Y. Liu; G. L. Liu; S. P. Hu; X. Q. Yu; M. S. Li; J. H. Wu; L. J. Luo



Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}  

SciTech Connect

We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

Rubin, P. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R. [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Besson, D. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Pedlar, T. K. [Luther College, Decorah, Iowa 52101 (United States); Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K. [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] (and others)



PXAMS -- Projectile X ray AMS: X ray yields and applications  

SciTech Connect

Characteristic x rays have recently been explored as a method for the detection and identification of ions in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions stop in an appropriately chosen target and the induced x rays identify the ions by atomic number. For the application of AMS to higher mass isotopes, characteristic x rays allow significantly better discrimination of competing atomic isobars than is possible using energy loss detectors. Characteristic x rays also show promise as a convenient component in hybrid detection systems. Measurements of x ray yields are presented for Si, Fe, Ni, Se, Mo, and Pd ions of 0.5--2 MeV/AMU. The yields rise by more than a factor of 10 over this energy range, and approach 1 x-ray per incident ion at 2 MeV/AMU for the lighter ions. Preliminary work on the application of PXAMS to the detection of {sup 79}Se is described.

McAninch, J.E.; Bench, G.S.; Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Roberts, M.L.; Southon, J.R.; Vogel, J.S.; Proctor, I.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry



High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity  

PubMed Central

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N?ha?1) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m3 ha?1). Although energy inputs (30 GJ?ha?1) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg?ha?1 and 159 GJ?ha?1, respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO2e?Mg?1 of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N2O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals.

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.



An empirical method for prediction of cheese yield.  


Theoretical cheese yield can be estimated from the milk fat and casein or protein content of milk using classical formulae, such as the VanSlyke formula. These equations are reliable predictors of theoretical or actual yield based on accurately measured milk fat and casein content. Many cheese makers desire to base payment for milk to dairy farmers on the yield of cheese. In small factories, however, accurate measurement of fat and casein content of milk by either chemical methods or infrared milk analysis is too time consuming and expensive. Therefore, an empirical test to predict cheese yield was developed which uses simple equipment (i.e., clinical centrifuge, analytical balance, and forced air oven) to carry out a miniature cheese making, followed by a gravimetric measurement of dry weight yield. A linear regression of calculated theoretical versus dry weight yields for milks of known fat and casein content was calculated. A regression equation of y = 1.275x + 1.528, where y is theoretical yield and x is measured dry solids yield (r2 = 0.981), for Cheddar cheese was developed using milks with a range of theoretical yield from 7 to 11.8%. The standard deviation of the difference (SDD) between theoretical cheese yield and dry solids yield was 0.194 and the coefficient of variation (SDD/mean x 100) was 1.95% upon cross validation. For cheeses without a well-established theoretical cheese yield equation, the measured dry weight yields could be directly correlated to the observed yields in the factory; this would more accurately reflect the expected yield performance. Payments for milk based on these measurements would more accurately reflect quality and composition of the milk and the actual average recovery of fat and casein achieved under practical cheese making conditions. PMID:12416825

Melilli, C; Lynch, J M; Carpino, S; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Cappa, A



A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments  

SciTech Connect

The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

Thielemann, N. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, P. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foehlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)



Yield and yield structures of irrigated sunflower cultivars as influenced by tillage and wheat residue management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information is available on heavy surface residue tillage systems on yield of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown following irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as double cropping. A two-year field study was conducted as a split plot arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications to compare the yield and yield structures of three sunflower cultivars (Alzan, Euroflor,

M. J. Bahrani; N. Bamdad; S. A. Kazemeini



Weather-based forecasts of California crop yields  

SciTech Connect

Crop yield forecasts provide useful information to a range of users. Yields for several crops in California are currently forecast based on field surveys and farmer interviews, while for many crops official forecasts do not exist. As broad-scale crop yields are largely dependent on weather, measurements from existing meteorological stations have the potential to provide a reliable, timely, and cost-effective means to anticipate crop yields. We developed weather-based models of state-wide yields for 12 major California crops (wine grapes, lettuce, almonds, strawberries, table grapes, hay, oranges, cotton, tomatoes, walnuts, avocados, and pistachios), and tested their accuracy using cross-validation over the 1980-2003 period. Many crops were forecast with high accuracy, as judged by the percent of yield variation explained by the forecast, the number of yields with correctly predicted direction of yield change, or the number of yields with correctly predicted extreme yields. The most successfully modeled crop was almonds, with 81% of yield variance captured by the forecast. Predictions for most crops relied on weather measurements well before harvest time, allowing for lead times that were longer than existing procedures in many cases.

Lobell, D B; Cahill, K N; Field, C B



Calculation of neutron yield from a dense Z pinch  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of neutron yield from a Z pinch formed from a solid deuterium fiber have been reported recently. The scaling of yield with applied current was a surprising I/sup 10/. Although the neutrons were believed to result from a plasma instability, no explanation for the magnitude or scaling of the yield with current was suggested. A model of a sausage, or m = 0, instability has been generated which gives the observed yield to a multiplicative constant and the scaling of yield with current. It is predicted that the yield can be increased by increasing the applied current, but the model indicates that yields from this mechanism may be limited to 10/sup 12/ unless tritium is added to the pinch.

McCall, G.H.



Model-independent Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC using the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape  

SciTech Connect

We show that combining a direct measurement of the Higgs total width from the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape with Higgs signal rate measurements allows Higgs couplings to be extracted in a model-independent way from CERN LHC data. Using existing experimental studies with 30 fb{sup -1} at one detector of the 14 TeV LHC, we show that the couplings squared of a 190 GeV Higgs to WW, ZZ, and gg can be extracted with statistical precisions of about 10%, and a 95% confidence level upper limit on an unobserved component of the Higgs decay width of about 22% of the standard model Higgs width can be set. The method can also be applied for heavier Higgs masses.

Logan, Heather E. [Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Salvail, Jeff Z. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)



An experimental evaluation of pre-yield and post-yield rheological models of magnetic field dependent smart materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological behavior of field-dependent smart fluids in both the pre-yield and post-yield regimes is investigated. Typical\\u000a viscoelastic and viscoplastic models are employed to model the fluids behavior. Viscoelastic models are used widely in the\\u000a pre-yield regime. Viscoplastic models are also used extensively in both the pre-yield and post-yield regimes. Two smart fluids\\u000a including a ferromagnetic nanoparticle fluid and an

N. Mohammadi; M. J. Mahjoob; B. Kaffashi; S. Malakooti



Galactic disk abundance ratios: constraining SNIa stellar yields  

SciTech Connect

Stellar abundance ratios of very good quality are now available for a large number of stars in the solar vicinity. Moreover, for an increasing number of stars informations on kinematics is also available. The combined information on abundance and kinematics enables one to select objects belonging to the different components of our Galaxy (thin disk, thick disk and halo). In this work we show that a careful comparison of our chemical evolution model for the Milky Way with the available abundance ratio measurements for stars in the solar neighborhood can be used to constrain the stellar yields. In particular, yields of Type Ia SNe are constrained by the abundance pattern of thin disk stars. Our results suggest that the 3-D models for SNIa explosion studied here lead to discrepancies once their predicted stellar yields are used as input in our chemical evolution model. These models produce flat Si/O and Mg/O ratios in disagreement with what is observed in thin disk stars. Moreover, our results indicate that larger quantities of Mg (at least a factor of 10 more than current theoretical predictions of either 1-D or multi-D models) need to be produced in SNIa.

Chiappini, Cristina [Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste - OAT/INAF - Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste 34131 (Italy)



Combining regional forecast and crop yield models for the USDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides the risk of different economic and market conditions, large agricultural interests face the risk of crop losses from a number of weather-related perils including drought and heat, excess moisture, hail, frost and freeze, and wind. In a joint project, AIR Worldwide and Agrilogic are teamed with the RMA(Risk Management Agency) component of the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) in developing InsuranceVision, a tool to support the producer in crop insurance decision-making. The tool will use available climatic, agronomic and econometric models to analyze likely scenarios over the growing season and project probable yields and prices by harvest. The tool will ultimately assist growers in deciding what insurance products will best minimize their market risk. This presentation focuses on the weather/climate related models based on the NCAR-NCEP Global Reanalysis Project data set, the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM 3.6) and the 5th generation NCAR-Penn State University Mesoscale Model (MM5). A method will be discussed that derives crop yield probability distributions from historical detrended yield data, numerical weather model climatologies, climate projections and locally refined forecasts.

Zuba, G.; Gibbas, M.; Lee, M.; Dailey, P.; Keller, J.



Maximizing DNA yield for epidemiologic studies: no more buffy coats?  


Some molecular analyses require microgram quantities of DNA, yet many epidemiologic studies preserve only the buffy coat. In Frederick, Maryland, in 2010, we estimated DNA yields from 5 mL of whole blood and from equivalent amounts of all-cell-pellet (ACP) fraction, buffy coat, and residual blood cells from fresh blood (n = 10 volunteers) and from both fresh and frozen blood (n = 10). We extracted DNA with the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, Maryland) for silica spin column capture and measured double-stranded DNA. Yields from frozen blood fractions were not statistically significantly different from those obtained from fresh fractions. ACP fractions yielded 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 66, 97) of the yield of frozen whole blood and 99.3% (95% confidence interval: 86, 100) of the yield of fresh blood. Frozen buffy coat and residual blood cells each yielded only half as much DNA as frozen ACP, and the yields were more variable. Assuming that DNA yield and quality from frozen ACP are stable, we recommend freezing plasma and ACP. Not only does ACP yield twice as much DNA as buffy coat but it is easier to process, and its yield is less variable from person to person. Long-term stability studies are needed. If one wishes to separate buffy coat before freezing, one should also save the residual blood cell fraction, which contains just as much DNA. PMID:23857774

Gail, Mitchell H; Sheehy, Tim; Cosentino, Mark; Pee, David; Diaz-Mayoral, Norma A; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Caporaso, Neil E; Pitt, Karen; Ziegler, Regina G



Interdecadal patterns of total sediment yield from a montane catchment, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconstruct sediment yield for a mountain watershed of western Canada since the mid-twentieth century from studies of annually laminated lake sediments, delta progradation, and solute transfer. Total yield averaged 320±40Mgkm?2a?1 and comprised ?35% suspended load, 50% bedload, and 15% dissolved load. Ratios between the individual yield components varied approximately threefold at interannual timescales because of significant variability in the

Erik Schiefer; Marwan A. Hassan; Brian Menounos; Channa P. Pelpola; Olav Slaymaker



Nitrogen and Phosphorus Uptake and Yield of Wheat and Maize Intercropped with Poplar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the N and P uptake and yield performances of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) upon intercropping with 1- to 2-year-old poplar (Populus × euramericana cl. “74\\/76”) trees compared to a sole wheat and maize rotation in fertilized and unfertilized subplots. Aboveground biomass, grain yield, yield components, and N and P contents of wheat and maize were

Xiao Qin Dai; Peng Li; Xing Qiang Guo; Peng Sui; Yosef Steinberger; Guang Hui Xie



In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams  


An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ); Kaita, Robert (Englishtown, NJ)



Determination of the yield locus using a Kelvin probing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high sensitivity of the electron work function (EWF) to surface condition has attracted increasing interest from materials scientists. In this study, application of a Kelvin probe, which is used to measure the EWF, for determination of the material's yielding under multiaxial plane stresses was explored. Yielding of copper was investigated using the EWF as an indicator of plastic deformation. It was demonstrated that the yield point of copper determined using this method was consistent with those given respectively by von Mises and Tresca yield criteria. Furthermore, the experimental results indicated that yielding was easier under a tensile stress than under a compressive stress. The Kelvin probing method is promising and could be very suitable for determining yield onset of materials under complex loading conditions.

Li, Wen; Li, D. Y.



Yield surfaces of shape memory alloys and their applications  

SciTech Connect

The yield (transformation start stress in stress induced martensitic transformation) surfaces of shape memory alloys (SMAs) are investigated. It is assumed that the driving energy (or driving force) for phase transformation is approximately a constant. By using the lattice structure and correspondence of a SMA in phase transformation, the yield surfaces of the following polycrystalline SMAs are calculated: NiTi, NiAl, CuZnGa, and CuAlNi. It is also found that all these yield surfaces can be described roughly by a general formula. In this formula, the parameters can be decided by using the yield stresses of a particular SMA in uni-axial tension and compression. The yield surface of NiTi is compared with the experimental results reported in the literature. The possibility of applying such a yield surface in predicting the behavior of a SMA under other stress conditions based on the tensile result is also studied.

Huang, W. (Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering)



Growth yield increase linked to caffeate reduction in Acetobacterium woodii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth yields were determined with Acetobacterium woodii strain NZva 16 on hydrogen and CO2, formate, methanol, vanillate, ferulate and fructose in mineral medium in the absence and presence of 0.05% yeast extract. Yeast extract was not essential for growth but enhanced growth yields by 25–100% depending on the substrate fermented. Comparison of yields on formate or methanol allowed calculation of

Andreas Tschech; Norbert Pfennig



Acid rain and seed yields reductions in corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yields were significantly reduced on corn (Zea mays L.) plants where the silks had been exposed to an episode of simulated acid rain at pH 3.6 as compared with yields on plants with silks exposed to simulated rain of pH 5.6. The reduction in yield appeared related to a decrease in pollen germination and tube elongation associated with acidic

L. E. Craker; P. F. Waldron



Trends in sputter yield data in the film deposition regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the fundamental trends of sputter yield in the sputtering regime used for film deposition is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of sputter deposition, interpreting yield data, and predicting the results of experiments. One source of experimental yield data is the comprehensive compilation [N. Matsunami, Y. Yamamura, Y. Itikawa, N. Itoh, Y. Kazomata, S. Miyagawa, K. Morita, R. Shimizu, and H. Tawara, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 31, 1 (1984)]. They published graphical yield-energy curves based on empirical parameters which were best fits to nearly all the projectile-target combinations available in 1983. We interpret this experimental data using theoretical results from a ``simplified collisional model'' of sputtering. For 1-keV noble gas projectiles, several trends show forth (some old and some new): First, there is a repeating pattern in the dependence of yield on target atomic number, with the period being each row of the Periodic Table. Second, surface binding energy is the single most important target parameter; the yield varies roughly as 1/U1.3sb for the empirical data, but as 1/U0.5sb for the pure linear cascade sputtering mechanism. Third, while the principal mechanism is the linear cascade, the nonlinear cascade makes a detectable contribution to the experimental yield for yield values above ~1. Fourth, for target atomic numbers above ~35, the yield increases monotonically with projectile mass; for lighter targets the yield exhibits a maximum at an intermediate projectile mass. Fifth, the energy dependence of yield for a given projectile-target combination from ~0.5 to 2 keV is, to a good approximation, Y(E)~E0.5. Scatter due to experimental error is evident in the data: Matsunami et al.'s approach of combining the results of different experiments, resulting in their empirical yield curves, is useful for compensating for this.

Mahan, John E.; Vantomme, André



Limits to Achieving Potential Yield of Canola in Southern NSW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canola yielded to its water-limited potential (12 kg\\/ha\\/mm) in field experiments at three sites in southern NSW in 2001 when N nutrition was adequate, Blackleg severity was low and Sclerotinia was controlled using fungicides applied during flowering. Yields in excess of 4 t\\/ha were achieved under these conditions. The results suggest that Sclerotinia is causing significant yield loss (~20%) in

John Kirkegaard; Michael Robertson; Mark Barber; Jim Wright; Peter Hamblin



Roll-your-own smoke yields: theoretical and practical aspects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To identify the key parameters that influence smoke yields from roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes and to compare smoke yields of cigarettes made under laboratory conditions with those made by habitual RYO consumers.?DESIGN AND SETTING—One-way parametric variations in the laboratory-based production of RYO cigarettes complemented by a consumer survey conducted in a busy street at Romford, Essex, United Kingdom.?SUBJECTS—26 habitual RYO consumers.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Cigarette weights, puff numbers, and yields (carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar).?RESULTS—Smoke yields vary for specimen changes in weight of tobacco used, paper porosity, and the incorporation of a filter in the cigarette. Yields of cigarettes produced by 26 RYO smokers ranged from 9.9 to 21.0 mg tar per cigarette and from 0.9 to 1.8 mg nicotine per cigarette, and were generally lower than yields of laboratory-produced RYO cigarettes.?CONCLUSIONS—Laboratory studies can provide useful information concerning the parameters that affect smoke yields of RYO cigarettes such as the incorporation of a filter to reduce yields. However, such studies must be complemented by surveys of cigarettes made by actual current RYO smokers. In one such investigation, it was found that the mean tar yields from cigarettes produced by 57% of the smokers were above the current maximum of 15 mg per cigarette for manufactured cigarettes. Currently 8% of manufactured cigarettes in the UK have a declared nicotine yield of greater than 1.1 mg per cigarette whereas 77% of RYO smokers produced cigarettes with a nicotine yield greater than this value.???Keywords: roll-your-own cigarettes; smoke yield; carbon monoxide; tar; nicotine

Darrall, K.; Figgins, J.



A theoretical evaluation of growth yields of yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth yields ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae andCandida utilis in carbon-limited chemostat cultures were evaluated. The yields on ethanol and acetate were much lower inS. cerevisiae, in line with earlier reports that site I phosphorylation is absent in this yeast. However, during aerobic growth on glucose both organisms had the same cell yield. This can be attributed to two factors:-S. cerevisiae had a

Cornelis Verduyn; Adriaan H. Stouthamer; W. Alexander Scheffers; Johannes P. Dijken



Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ? 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Two companies in Osaka, Japan. Subjects: 130 Japanese male workers selected randomly during their annual regular health check up and 116 Japanese male volunteers taking part in a smoking cessation programme. Main outcome measurements: Subjects answered a questionnaire about smoking habits. Following the interview, each participant was asked to smoke his own cigarette and, after extinguishing it, to blow expired air into an apparatus for measuring carbon monoxide concentration. Urine was also collected for the assays of nicotine metabolites. Results: We found wide variation in urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations at any given nicotine yield. Based on one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations of ultra low yield cigarette smokers were significantly lower compared to smokers of high (p = 0.002) and medium yield cigarettes (p = 0.017). On the other hand, the estimated nicotine intake per ultra low yield cigarette smoked (0.59 mg) was much higher than the 0.1 mg indicated by machine. Conclusions: In this study of Japanese male smokers, actual levels of nicotine intake bore little relation to advertised nicotine yield levels. Our study reinforces the need to warn consumers of inappropriate advertisements of nicotine yields, especially low yield brands.

Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A



Effect of pressure on coke yield in delayed coking  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents data on the effect of pressure, in a coking straight-run and secondary resids from West Siberian crudes, on the yield and quality of the coke that is obtained. Increasing the pressure has a very marked effect on the coke yield, increasing the gas yield, and reducing the relative amount of coker gas oil. Pressure also changes the hydrocarbon composition of the distillates, though it has no effect on the content of sulfur in the coke. In general, by increasing the pressure in delayed coking of various types of feeds, the coke yield can be increased.

Varfolomeev, D.F.; Fedotov, V.E.; Stekhun, A.I.



Secondary organic aerosol yields of 12-carbon alkanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields were measured for cyclododecane, hexylcyclohexane, n-dodecane, and 2-methylundecane under high- and low-NOx conditions, in which alkyl peroxy radicals (RO2) react primarily with NO and HO2, respectively, for multiple initial alkane concentrations. Experiments were run until 95-100% of the initial alkane had reacted. Particle wall loss was evaluated as two limiting cases. SOA yield differed by 2 orders of magnitude between the two limiting cases, but the same trends among alkane precursors were observed for both limiting cases. Vapor-phase wall losses were addressed through a modeling study and increased SOA yield uncertainty by approximately 30%. SOA yields were highest from cyclododecane under both NOx conditions. Under high-NOx conditions, SOA yields increased from 2-methylundecane < dodecane ~ hexylcyclohexane < cyclododecane, consistent with previous studies. Under low-NOx conditions, SOA yields increased from 2-methylundecane ~ dodecane < hexylcyclohexane < cyclododecane. The presence of cyclization in the parent alkane structure increased SOA yields, whereas the presence of branch points decreased SOA yields due to increased vapor-phase fragmentation. Vapor-phase fragmentation was found to be more prevalent under high-NOx conditions than under low-NOx conditions. For different initial concentrations of the same alkane and same NOx conditions, SOA yield did not correlate with SOA mass throughout SOA growth, suggesting kinetically limited SOA growth for these systems.

Loza, C. L.; Craven, J. S.; Yee, L. D.; Coggon, M. M.; Schwantes, R. H.; Shiraiwa, M.; Zhang, X.; Schilling, K. A.; Ng, N. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Ziemann, P. J.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.



Phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) impact on alfalfa yield dynamics and nutrient utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term impact of P and K nutrition on yield and yield components, and taproot physiology and biochemistry of alfalfa. Treatments were the factorial combinations of four P rates (0, 25, 50, and 75 kg P ha?1) and five K rates (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg K ha?1) arranged in

William Kess Berg



Biomass Yield and Biofuel Quality of Switchgrass Harvested in Fall or Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal time of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) harvest affects yield and biofuel quality and balancing these two components may vary depending on conversion system. A field study compared fall and spring harvest measuring biomass yield, element concentration, carbo- hydrate characterization, and total synthetic gas production as indi- cators of biofuel quality for direct combustion, ethanol production, and gasification systems for

Paul R. Adler; Matt A. Sanderson; Akwasi A. Boateng; Paul J. Weimer; Hans-Joachim G. Jung



Decays Z{yields}gg{gamma} and Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma} in the minimal 331 model  

SciTech Connect

The one-loop induced Z{yields}gg{gamma} and Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma} decays are studied within the context of the minimal 331 model, which predicts the existence of new gauge bosons and three exotic quarks. It is found that the Z{yields}gg{gamma} decay is insensitive to the presence of the exotic quarks, as it is essentially governed by the first two families of known quarks. As to the Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma} decay, it is found that the exotic quark contribution dominates and that for a heavy Z{sup '} boson it leads to a {gamma}(Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma}) that is more than 1 order of magnitude larger than that associated with {gamma}(Z{sup '}{yields}ggg). This result may be used to distinguish a new neutral Z{sup '} boson from those models that do not introduce exotic quarks.

Flores-Tlalpa, A.; Montano, J.; Ramirez-Zavaleta, F.; Toscano, J. J. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)



Total and differential sputter yields of boron nitride measured by quartz crystal microbalance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present differential sputter yield measurements of boron nitride due to bombardment by xenon ions. A four-grid ion optics system is used to achieve a collimated ion beam at low energy (<100 eV). A quartz crystal microbalance is used to measure differential sputter yield profiles of condensable components from which total sputter yields can also be determined. We report total and differential sputter yields of three grades of boron nitride due to bombardment by xenon ions for ion energies in the range 60-500 eV and ion incidence angles of 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° from the normal. Comparisons with published values are made where possible.

Rubin, B.; Topper, J. L.; Yalin, A. P.



K? and K? satellite and hypersatellite fluorescence yields of Mg and Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decay schemes of Mg and Si atoms, in all possible vacancy configurations that decay via K X-ray emission, were studied to determine the correspondence (fluorescence yields) of K? and K? photon yields to the initial state production yields. The K shell fluorescence yields and non-radiative decay rates of singly ionized atoms, were taken from literature, while non-radiative decay rates of multiply ionized atoms were determined using the Larkins approach. The correspondence of photon yields to the initial state production yields was written in a matrix form. The matrix was used also to determine relative yields of components contributing to single K? satellites or hypersatellites, and K? photon yields from K? photon yields. These values are crucial to analyze properly the K? hypersatellite region where there is an overlap with the K? satellites. In the K? satellite region, where there is no overlap, the relative yields can be used for the evaluation of the modeled lineshapes. The calculated values were evaluated on measured spectra and were found to be satisfactory.

Kobal, M.



A covariance model for the yield of large memory chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 4-Mb and 16-Mb memory chips show that a new method is required to predict the yield of very large memory chips with redundant word and bit lines. A model developed to do this indicates that gigabit memory chips, with a yield of less than 90%, may be less productive than 256-Mb “cut-down” chips

C. H. Stapper; M. A. Retersdorf; L. G. Rosner



Exact yield hyper-surface for thin pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yield hyper-surface for pipe sections subjected to combinations of normal forces, internal and external pressure, twisting moments, biaxial bending moments and biaxial shearing forces is developed. The formulation is based on the fully plastic capacity of the pipe as determined by the maximum distorsional energy density yield criterion. The solution is obtained by maximizing a lower bound analysis and

Magdi Mohareb



Sediment Yield Variations in the Northern Santa Lucia Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment yields in the northern Santa Lucia Mountains affect channel stability and flood inundation levels along the larger streams, riparian vegetation and aquatic habitat associated with the streams, beach sand supply, and the supply of sand available for transport into the deepsea canyon network just offshore. Sediment yields vary considerably over space and time in this region. Understanding this variability

Barry Hecht


Yield Criterion in Plastic-Damage Models for Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of plastic-damage models for concrete require an unambiguous definition of cohesion in the yield criteria. For this reason, the Lubliner yield criterion has been adopted by many investigators and the commercial FE program Abaqus. As is well known, this criterion has achieved great success especially in plane stress states. In this paper, we are trying to extend it

Ji Zhang; Zhongxian Zhang; Chuanyao Chen



Correlation between potato yield and MODIS?derived vegetation indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of crop growth and forecasting its yield well before harvest is very important for crop and food management. Remote sensing images are capable of identifying crop health, as well as predicting its yield. Vegetation indices (VIs), such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) calculated from remotely sensed

S. K. Bala; A. S. Islam



90nm Games Processor Wafer to Module Power Yield Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

When fabricating a high volume games processor (CPU) for the consumer market, due to the cost of the module package, it is important to optimize the functional yield loss between the wafer die and the finished module package. For a performance CPU in a mature 90 nm technology the primary yield drivers can be power and performance. A functional power

Raymond Mallette; Brad Rawlins



Volume Change during Deformation and Pressure Dependence of Yield Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymers are distinguished from metals by the considerable pressure dependence of their yield stresses, and one might expect this to be associated with a plastic volume change during yielding. We have measured the macroscopic volume changes during uniaxial compression of PMMA and PC, using a mercury-filled dilatometer. For PMMA a plastic volume change cannot be defined unambiguously because the volume-stress

C. A. Pampillo; L. A. Davis



Frontage Road Yield Treatment Analysis Tool (FRYTAT) Database: User Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) sponsored Project 0-4986, An Assessment of Frontage Road Yield Treatments, to assess the effectiveness of a wide variety of frontage roadexit ramp and frontage roadU-turn yield treatments that exist in Texas....

K. Obeng-Boampong L. Ding M. Garcia R. Henk



Enhanced negative ion yields on diamond surfaces at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron-doped polycrystalline diamond (BDD) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces were exposed to low pressure hydrogen plasma. The relative yields of surface-produced H- ions were measured by an energy analyser quadrupole mass spectrometer. The highest H- yield was obtained at 400 °C for a BDD surface and at room temperature for an HOPG surface. At low ion bombardment energy,

P. Kumar; A. Ahmad; C. Pardanaud; M. Carrère; J. M. Layet; G. Cartry; F. Silva; A. Gicquel; RAH Engeln



Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...


Relationship between leaflet nitrogen: Potassium ratio and yield of pecan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examines the relationship between foliar N:K ratio and nutmeat yield of ‘Desirable’ [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch] pecan. Regression analysis of linear and curvilinear relationships between leaflet N:K ratio and in-shell yield identified associations relevant to orchard nutrition...


Chinese germplasm evaluation for yield and disease resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ninety-five accessions of Chinese germplasm reported last year (Dilday et al., 2001) were evaluated for grain yield and disease reactions in field tests. All but 6 of them were indica. The yield test was conducted in the same way as last year, i.e. 4 maturity groups formed by the heading dates col...


Seed Number and Yield Determination in Sulfur Deficient Soybean Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In soybean, seed number and yield is largely determined by the environmental conditions between initial bloom and the beginning of seed filling. Four field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of two sources of sulfur (S) on crop growth during the critical period of seed number determination and yield. Ammonium sulfate and gypsum were applied at a rate of

Flavio H. Gutierrez Boem; Pablo Prystupa; Gustavo Ferraris



Variation of Interferon Yield with Multiplicity of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHIKUNGUNYA virus is one of the best inducers of interferon in chick cells, and many of the conditions which affect the yield of interferon have been elucidated1,2. This communication reports an investigation of the relationship between the amount of Chikungunya virus inoculated into chick cell cultures and the subsequent yield of interferon. Dilutions of Chikungunya virus were prepared and placed

G. E. Gifford



Primary Production and Fish Yields in Chinese Ponds and Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong correlation between fish yields and gross photosynthesis by phytoplankton occurs for the lakes and ponds along the Yangtze River, near Wuhan, China. Gross photosynthesis is calculated as the difference in oxygen concentration between light and dark bottles and incorporates respiration by heterotrophic and autotrophic plankton. Among the eighteen waters included in this analysis, net fish yields (total harvest

Yanling Liang; John M. Melack; Ji Wang



Dislocation Theory of Yielding and Strain Ageing of Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of yielding and strain ageing of iron, based on the segregation of carbon atoms to form atmospheres round dislocations, is developed. The form of an atmosphere is discussed and the force needed to release a dislocation from its atmosphere is roughly estimated and found to be reasonable. The dependence on temperature of the yield point is explained on

A. H. Cottrell; B. A. Bilby



Shear rejuvenation, aging and shear banding in yield stress fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to simulate shear rejuvenation and aging effects in shear thinning yield stress fluids in a typical rotational rheometer and to provide a common framework to describe the behavior of yield stress materials in general. This is particularly important in the determination of material constants under both steady and unsteady conditions. The breakdown and buildup

Andreas N. Alexandrou; Nicholas Constantinou; Georgios Georgiou



Calculation of forming limit diagrams using Hill's 1993 yield criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the analysis proposed by Jones and Gillis (JG), forming limit diagrams (FLDs) are calculated from idealization of sheet deformation into three stages: (I) homogeneous deformation up to maximum load, (II) deformation localization under constant load, and (III) local necking with precipitous drop in load. In the calculation, Hill's 1993 yield criterion is used. Using this yield criterion and

A. Rezaee-Bazzaz; H. Noori; R. Mahmudi



The alfalfa yield gap: A review of the evidence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of feasibly attainable crop yields is needed for many purposes, from field-scale management to national policy decisions. For alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most widely used estimates of yield in the US are whole-farm reports from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, which are b...


Vegetable and Corn Yields in the United States, 1900Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 . The average yield for the 1990s was 7839 kg·ha -1 , 5 times the yield of the 1930s. A number of researchers have studied the basis for this increase by partitioning the contributions of improved genetics from those of improved management. Systematic studies performed by Duvick (1992) on corn hybrids grown from 1930 to 1989 in cen- tral

A. E. Tiefenthaler; I. L. Goldman; W. F. Tracy


Physiology of yeasts in relation to biomass yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometric limit to the biomass yield (maximal assimilation of the carbon source) is determined by the amount of CO2 lost in anabolism and the amount of carbon source required for generation of NADPH. This stoichiometric limit may be reached when yeasts utilize formate as an additional energy source. Factors affecting the biomass yield on single substrates are discussed under

Cornelis Verduyn



Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel

Kent Carlson



Universal formula for the muon-induced neutron yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental data on the yield of muon-induced neutrons for liquid scintillator, iron, and lead accumulated during 60 years of muon interaction underground study have been analyzed. A universal formula connecting the yield with muon energy loss in the matter and neutron production in hadronic and electromagnetic showers is presented.

Agafonova, N. Yu.; Malgin, A. S.



Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...



Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for applying yield management in manufacturing. We demonstrate the existence of close links between airline and manufacturing in- dustries as far as some decision support problems are concerned. The yield management (YM), in- troduced in the airline industry first and is characterized by perishable and limited resources, has counterparts

M. Modarres; J. Nazemi


Double yield points in triblends of LDPE, LLDPE and EPDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that affect to the proposed mechanisms that produce the double yield phenomenon in semicrystalline polymeric materials were studied. The systems under study were ternary blends of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear LDPE (LLDPE) and ethylene propylene diene (EPDM). The influence on the yield mechanisms of the following different factors were analysed: processing conditions, composition, stretching rate, cooling conditions and different




Search for B{yields}K*{nu}{nu} decays  

SciTech Connect

We present a search for the decays B{yields}K*{nu}{nu} using 454x10{sup 6}BB pairs collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory. We first select an event sample where one B is reconstructed in a semileptonic or hadronic mode with one charmed meson. The remaining particles in the event are then examined to search for a B{yields}K*{nu}{nu} decay. The charged K* is reconstructed as K*{sup +}{yields}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} or K*{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}; the neutral K* is identified in K*{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mode. We establish upper limits at 90% confidence level of B(B{sup +}{yields}K*{sup +}{nu}{nu})<8x10{sup -5}, B(B{sup 0}{yields}K*{sup 0}{nu}{nu})<12x10{sup -5}, and B(B{yields}K*{nu}{nu})<8x10{sup -5}.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V. [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules, IN2P3/CNRS et Universite de Savoie, F-74941 Annecy-Le-Vieux (France); Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] (and others)



Year patterns of climate impact on wheat yields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rainfall, temperature, and solar radiation are defining factors for crop production. Due to the close correlation among these factors, it is difficult to evaluate their individual impact on crop yield. We propose to identify year patterns of climate impact on yield on the basis of rain and non-rain ...


The Estimation of Yield Strength from Hardness Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are presented to show that the yield strength of gun steel and AISI 4340 alloy can be estimated from Rockwell hardness measurements. The expression, YS = 4.226(R sub c), where YS is the 0.1% offset yield strength in ksi and (R sub c) is the Rockwell ...

R. S. DeFries



tau polarisation measurement in the tau yields pi nu channel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A measurement of the polarisation of (tau)'s produced by Z(sup 0) yields (tau)(sup +) (tau)(sup -) using the decay mode (tau) yields (pi) (nu) (sub (tau)) is presented. The present experiment was carried out using the ALEPH detector at the LEP collider at...

F. Zomer




Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic analytical methods for building storage-yield curves provide reliable preliminary design condition for new reservoirs and assessment of performances of existing ones. In this framework, the evaluation of storage-yield curves of reservoirs when additional inflows from a diversion channel are available is the subject of this paper. To achieve this result the same deficit analysis of inflows is performed on



Yield stability of determinate and indeterminate dry bean cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield stability of determinate and indeterminate dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was compared using regression of genotypic performance on environmental means. Yields of 28 dry bean cultivars differing in plant growth habit and commercial class designation were obtained from 42 Michigan performance nurseries over the 6 year period 1980 to 1985. The determinate type I large-seeded kidney and cranberry

J. D. Kelly; M. W. Adams; G. V. Varner



Fission fizzles: Estimating the yield of a predetonated nuclear weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undergraduate-level model is developed for estimating the fraction of the design yield that can be realized if a uranium or a plutonium fission bomb suffers an uncontrolled predetonation due to a spontaneous fission of the fissile material. The model is based on the combination of one published earlier for the predetonation probability and a yield model developed by Mark

B. Cameron Reed



Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onfarm field trials carried out with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers

Matin Qaim; David Zilberman



Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...


Evaluating YieldTracker forecast for maize in western Kansas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We seek to predict in-season land productivity to guide irrigation management decisions designed to optimize water utilization in the Ogallala Aquifer region. YieldTracker is a mathematical model that simulates growth and yield of graminoid crops using weather and leaf area index (LAI) as inputs, wh...


The crop yield gap between organic and conventional agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue in the debate on the contribution of organic agriculture to the future of world agriculture is whether organic agriculture can produce sufficient food to feed the world. Comparisons of organic and conventional yields play a central role in this debate. We therefore compiled and analyzed a meta-dataset of 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields. Our results show

Ponti de T; H. C. A. Rijk; Ittersum van M. K



Trellis Tension Monitoring Improves Yield Estimation in Vineyards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The preponderance of yield estimation practices for commercial vineyards is based on longstanding but individually variable industry protocols that rely on hand sampling fruit on one or a small number of dates during the growing season. Limitations associated with the static nature of yield estimati...


The Fluid Mechanics of Bonding with Yield Stress Epoxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important component of most microelectronic packages is the silver filled, thermally conductive epoxy, which forms the bond between the microelectronic chip and the metallic substrate called the lead frame. As microelectronic chips become larger, more epoxy is needed to form this bond. This presents two fundamental heat transfer and fluid mechanics problems. (i) The time necessary to form the bond becomes very long even for modest increases in chip size. (ii) Curing the larger volume of epoxy leads to higher concentrations of epoxy volatiles, which can contaminate sensitive chip surfaces. The flow associated with the formation of the epoxy bond has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Squeezing flow experiments have shown that the epoxy behaves as a yield stress fluid. A variational analysis of the flow reveals that the yield stress nature of the epoxy makes the quick formation of thin bonds difficult. However, further experiments have shown that oscillating the magnitude of the bonding force reduces the apparent yield stress by breaking down the fluid microstructure, and dramatically reduces bonding time. A detailed numerical and experimental analysis of the flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer in an oven used to cure the epoxy is also presented. A control volume numerical analysis shows that condensation and contamination may be best avoided by routing an evacuation flow through the oven so as to maintain the partial pressure of the epoxy vapor below its saturation pressure. The numerical results were validated by a flow visualization study on a 10times upscaled model of a typical curing oven.

Zwick, Kenneth John


Resolution to the B{yields}{pi}K puzzle  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the important next-to-leading-order contributions to the B{yields}{pi}K, {pi}{pi} decays from the vertex corrections, the quark loops, and the magnetic penguins in the perturbative QCD approach. It is found that the latter two reduce the leading-order penguin amplitudes by about 10% and modify only the B{yields}{pi}K branching ratios. The main effect of the vertex corrections is to increase the small color-suppressed tree amplitude by a factor of 3, which then resolves the large difference between the direct CP asymmetries of the B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}K{sup {+-}} and B{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup {+-}} modes. The puzzle from the large B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} branching ratio still remains.

Li Hsiangnan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China) and Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Mishima, Satoshi [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sanda, A.I. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)



Determining yields in high solids enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.  


As technologies for utilizing biomass for fuel and chemical production continue to improve, enzymatic hydrolysis can be run at still higher solids concentrations. For hydrolyses that initially contain little or no free water (10-40% total solids, w/w), the saccharification of insoluble polymers into soluble sugars involves changes of volume, density, and proportion of insoluble solids. This poses a new challenge when determining the degree of hydrolysis (conversion yield). Experiments have shown that calculating the yield from the resulting sugar concentration in the supernatant of the slurry and using the assumed initial volume leads to significant overestimations of the yield. By measuring the proportion of insoluble solids in the slurry as well as the sugar concentration and specific gravity of the aqueous phase, it is possible to precisely calculate the degree of conversion. The discrepancies between the different ways of calculating yields are demonstrated along with a nonlaborious method for approximating yields in high solids hydrolysis. PMID:18836690

Kristensen, Jan B; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning



Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture.  


Numerous reports have emphasized the need for major changes in the global food system: agriculture must meet the twin challenge of feeding a growing population, with rising demand for meat and high-calorie diets, while simultaneously minimizing its global environmental impacts. Organic farming—a system aimed at producing food with minimal harm to ecosystems, animals or humans—is often proposed as a solution. However, critics argue that organic agriculture may have lower yields and would therefore need more land to produce the same amount of food as conventional farms, resulting in more widespread deforestation and biodiversity loss, and thus undermining the environmental benefits of organic practices. Here we use a comprehensive meta-analysis to examine the relative yield performance of organic and conventional farming systems globally. Our analysis of available data shows that, overall, organic yields are typically lower than conventional yields. But these yield differences are highly contextual, depending on system and site characteristics, and range from 5% lower organic yields (rain-fed legumes and perennials on weak-acidic to weak-alkaline soils), 13% lower yields (when best organic practices are used), to 34% lower yields (when the conventional and organic systems are most comparable). Under certain conditions—that is, with good management practices, particular crop types and growing conditions—organic systems can thus nearly match conventional yields, whereas under others it at present cannot. To establish organic agriculture as an important tool in sustainable food production, the factors limiting organic yields need to be more fully understood, alongside assessments of the many social, environmental and economic benefits of organic farming systems. PMID:22535250

Seufert, Verena; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A



Comparison of corn silage hybrids for yield, nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility, and milk yield by dairy cows.  


A study was undertaken to compare Novartis N29-F1, a dual-purpose 90-d relative maturity corn hybrid, and Novartis NX3018, a 90-d relative maturity leafy corn silage hybrid for dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro digestibility, plant components, nutrient composition, and lactational performance by Holstein cows. The two corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2- x 321-m plots. Plant population and DM yield were similar between the two corn hybrids. Novartis NX3018 had higher content of crude protein and ash, a higher proportion of leaves and stalks, and a lower proportion of grain compared with Novartis N29-F1. The cob, grain, and leaves of Novartis NX3018 had higher in vitro true DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearances compared with the respective plant components of Novartis N29-F1. Thirty-eight midlactation multiparous Holstein cows (78 +/- 23.0 days in milk) producing 47.2 +/- 8.9 kg of milk per cow per day were blocked and assigned randomly to one of two total mixed ration (TMR) containing (DM basis) approximately 26% Novartis N29-F1 or Novartis NX3018 corn silage. Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and group fed ad libitum. The lactation study was conducted as a crossover design with two 28-d periods. Samples and data were collected during the final 7 d of each period. The total mixed rations were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy nutrition model. Cows that were fed the total mixed rations containing Novartis NX3018 corn silage produced higher yields of milk 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM), milk crude protein, and milk lactose compared to cows that were fed the TMR containing Novartis N29-F1 corn silage. In conclusion, the Novartis NX3018 corn hybrid was leafier and more digestible in vitro, and when fed to dairy cows as silage, promoted higher milk yield compared with the Novartis N29-F1 corn hybrid. PMID:11699453

Thomas, E D; Mandebvu, P; Ballard, C S; Sniffen, C J; Carter, M P; Beck, J



Spectral reflectance indices as a selection criterion for yield improvement in wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and methods of study. Yield in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a complex trait and influenced by many environmental factors, and yield improvement is a daunting task for wheat breeders. Spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) have been used to study different physiological traits in wheat. SRIs have the potential to differentiate genotypes for grain yield. SRIs strongly associated with grain yield can be used to achieve effective genetic gain in wheat under different environments. Three experiments (15 adapted genotypes, 25 and 36 random sister lines derived from two different crosses) under irrigated conditions, and three experiments (each with 30 advanced genotypes) under water-limited conditions were conducted in three successive years in Northwest Mexico at the CIMMYT (International Maize and wheat Improvement Center) experimental station. SRIs and different agronomic data were collected for three years, and biomass was harvested for two years. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between SRIs and grain yield, between SRIs and biomass, realized and broad sense heritability, direct and correlated selection responses for grain yield, and SRIs were calculated. Findings and conclusion. Seven SRIs were calculated, and three near infrared based indices (WI, NWI-1 and NWI-2) showed higher level of genetic and phenotypic correlations with grain yield, yield components and biomass than other SRIs (PRI, RNDVI, GNDVI, and SR) under both irrigated and water limiting environments. Moderate to high realized and broad sense heritability, and selection response were demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. High efficiency of correlated response for yield estimation was demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. The ratio between the correlated response to grain yield based on the three NIR based indices and direct selection response for grain yield was very close to one. The NIR based indices showed very high accuracy in selecting superior genotypes for grain yield under both well-watered and water-limited conditions. These results demonstrated that effective genetic gain in grain yield improvement can be achieved by making selections with the three NIR based indices.

Babar, Md. Ali


Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields  

SciTech Connect

Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

Lobell, D



Cotton Yield Assessment Using Remotely Sensed Drought Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural drought is a natural hazard having direct impacts to crop yield. One major application of remote sensing to agriculture is crop monitoring and assessment of vegetative stress, whereas satellite derived indices have been extensively used for identifying stress periods in crops. In this paper, two remotely sensed indices are used in order to quantify agricultural drought impact to cotton growth and estimate the final yield. In specific, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) are used to monitor agricultural drought and estimate cotton yield. VCI and TCI characterises the moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation, respectively. VCI has excellent ability to detect drought, whereas TCI can identify thermal stresses that have direct impact in vegetation's health. The two indices are computed for 20 hydrological years, from October 1981 to September 2001, from NOAA/AVHRR ten -day composite images with 8x8 Km spatial resolution. VCI and TCI are correlated with yield data in order to identify the critical ten-day showing the highest correlation coefficient with the final yield. Two approaches are tested for deriving the empirical model for estimating cotton yield. The first uses VCI values and yield for developing the empirical relationship. The second incorporates VCI and TCI values along with yield data in a multiple regression analysis. In order to test the derived models on independent dataset, the period 1981-1996 is used for developing the empirical models, whereas the years 1997-2000 are used for validation. The study area is the Prefecture of Thessaly, the largest lowland formation of Greece and the country's largest agricultural centre, located in Central Greece. The critical ten-days for cotton yield regarding the values of the two indices are the 2nd and 3rd of July for VCI and TCI, respectively, corresponding to blooming to bolls open phenological stage. The two approaches gave similar results denoting the significance of VCI to crop yield estimation and the importance of moisture conditions to the final cotton yield in Greece. In all cases, results present that model's estimating accuracy is above 95%, with a Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) of 2% between the estimated and the real yield values. The results show that an early estimation of the cotton yield is feasible by the use of the VCI, three months prior to harvest.

Tsiros, Emmanouel; Dalezios, Nicolas R.



Ratio GAMMA(B Yields Dl nu )/GAMMA (B Yields D*L nu ) in the Quark Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the non-relativistic quark model and including perturbative QCD corrections to first non-trivial order, it is found that exclusive semileptonic decays of bottom mesons satisfy 0.3 < GAMMA(B yields Dl nu /GAMMA(B yields D*l nu )< 0.5. For charmed mes...

F. E. Close G. J. Gounaris J. E. Paschalis



Status of the analysis of the pp{yields}pp({eta} {yields}3{pi}{sup 0}) reaction  

SciTech Connect

The first production run of WASA-at-COSY carried out in April 2007 was focused on the {eta}{yields}3{pi}{sup 0} decay. The Dalitz plot of the {eta}{yields}3{pi}{sup 0} decay will be reconstructed and the slope parameter {alpha} will be extracted with high statistics. Here preliminary results of the analysis are presented.

Vlasov, Peter [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)



The estimation of cross yield using early generation and parental yields in dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the yield potential of crosses for several generations and the yield of either the parental varieties or early segregating generations was studied. It was found that if plants were grown at crop densities then a high degree of prediction of cross potential was possible independent of year or generation. Prediction was much less efficient however if either

John Hamblin; Alice M. Evans



The decays. eta. yields. pi. e. nu. sub e and. eta. yields. pi. mu. nu. sub. mu  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the available empirical information on the interactions that can contribute to the decays {eta} {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu}{sub ell} ({ell} = e,{mu}), and discuss the implications for the {eta} {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu}{sub ell} branching ratios. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Herczeg, P.



Lepton flavor violating decays {tau}{yields}lll and {mu}{yields}e{gamma} in the Higgs triplet model  

SciTech Connect

Singly and doubly charged Higgs bosons in the Higgs triplet model mediate the lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays {tau}{yields}lll and {mu}{yields}e{gamma}. The lepton flavor violating decay rates are proportional to products of two triplet Yukawa couplings (h{sub ij}) which can be expressed in terms of the parameters of the neutrino mass matrix and an unknown triplet vacuum expectation value. We determine the parameter space of the neutrino mass matrix in which a signal for {tau}{yields}lll and/or {mu}{yields}e{gamma} is possible at ongoing and planned experiments. The conditions for respecting the stringent upper limit for {mu}{yields}eee are studied in detail, with emphasis given to the possibility of |h{sub ee}|{approx_equal}0, which can only be realized if Majorana phases are present.

Akeroyd, A. G. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Aoki, Mayumi [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiroaki [SISSA, via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)



Organic aerosol yields from ?-pinene oxidation: bridging the gap between first-generation yields and aging chemistry.  


Secondary organic aerosol formation from volatile precursors can be thought of as a succession of generations of reaction products. Here, we constrain first-generation SOA formation from the ?-pinene + OH reaction and also study SOA formation from ?-pinene ozonolysis carried out without an OH scavenger. SOA yields from OH oxidation of ?-pinene are significantly higher than SOA yields from ozonolysis including an OH scavenger, and the SOA mass yields for unscavenged ozonolysis generally fall within the range of mass yields for ?-pinene ozonolysis under various conditions. Taken together, first-generation product yields parametrized with a volatility basis set fit provide a starting point for atmospheric models designed to simulate both the production and subsequent aging of SOA from this important terpene. PMID:23088520

Henry, Kaytlin M; Lohaus, Theresa; Donahue, Neil M



Nicotine yield and measures of cigarette smoke exposure in a large population: are lower-yield cigarettes safer?  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship of machine-estimated nicotine yield by cigarette brand with the level of cigarette consumption and two biochemical measures of smoke exposure (expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate) in a large, population-based sample of smokers (N = 713). The lower the nicotine yield of the cigarette, the greater the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Prior to adjusting for number of cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine yield was not related to the actual measures of smoke exposure. Smokers of ultralow-yield cigarettes had laboratory tests of smoke exposure which were not significantly different from those of smokers of higher-yield brands. Only after adjustment for number of cigarettes smoked per day did nicotine yield become significantly related to expired-air carbon monoxide and to plasma thiocyanate. In multivariate analysis, the number of cigarettes smoked per day accounted for 28 per cent and 22 per cent of the variance in observed expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate levels, respectively, whereas nicotine yield accounted for only 1 per cent and 2 per cent of the variance, respectively. The relative lack of an effect of nicotine yield on the biochemical measure appears to be due to the fact that smokers of lower nicotine brands smoked more cigarettes per day, thereby compensating for reduced delivery of smoke products. Our data do not support the concept that ultralow-yield cigarettes are less hazardous than others. Machine estimates suggesting low nicotine yield underrepresent actual human consumption of harmful cigarette constituents.

Maron, D J; Fortmann, S P



Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels  

PubMed Central

Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. It functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. Despite its low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted.

Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T.




SciTech Connect

We present here the initial results of a new study of massive star yields of Fe-peak elements. We have compiled from the literature a database of carefully determined solar neighborhood stellar abundances of seven iron-peak elements, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and then plotted [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] to study the trends as functions of metallicity. Chemical evolution models were then employed to force a fit to the observed trends by adjusting the input massive star metallicity-sensitive yields of Kobayashi et al. Our results suggest that yields of Ti, V, and Co are generally larger as well as anticorrelated with metallicity, in contrast to the Kobayashi et al. predictions. We also find the yields of Cr and Mn to be generally smaller and directly correlated with metallicity compared to the theoretical results. Our results for Ni are consistent with theory, although our model suggests that all Ni yields should be scaled up slightly. The outcome of this exercise is the computation of a set of integrated yields, i.e., stellar yields weighted by a slightly flattened time-independent Salpeter initial mass function and integrated over stellar mass, for each of the above elements at several metallicity points spanned by the broad range of observations. These results are designed to be used as empirical constraints on future iron-peak yield predictions by stellar evolution modelers. Special attention is paid to the interesting behavior of [Cr/Co] with metallicity-these two elements have opposite slopes-as well as the indirect correlation of [Ti/Fe] with [Fe/H]. These particular trends, as well as those exhibited by the inferred integrated yields of all iron-peak elements with metallicity, are discussed in terms of both supernova nucleosynthesis and atomic physics.

Henry, R. B. C.; Cowan, John J. [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer, E-mail: henry@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: jsobeck@uchicago.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)



Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.  


In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. PMID:22932270

Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A



Fission Yield Measurements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Correct prediction of the fission products inventory in irradiated nuclear fuels is essential for accurate estimation of fuel burnup, establishing proper requirements for spent fuel transportation and storage, materials accountability and nuclear forensics. Such prediction is impossible without accurate knowledge of neutron induced fission yields. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the fission yields reported in the ENDF/B-VII.0 library is not uniform across all of the data and much of the improvement is desired for certain isotopes and fission products. We discuss our measurements of cumulative fission yields in nuclear fuels irradiated in thermal and fast reactor spectra using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

Irina Glagolenko; Bruce Hilton; Jeffrey Giglio; Daniel Cummings; Karl Grimm; Richard McKnight



Yielding and Flow in Adhesive and Nonadhesive Concentrated Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear rheological response of soft glassy materials is addressed experimentally by focusing on concentrated emulsions where interdroplet attraction is tuned through varying the surfactant content. Velocity profiles are recorded using ultrasonic velocimetry simultaneously to global rheological data in the Couette geometry. Our data show that nonadhesive and adhesive emulsions have radically different flow behaviors in the vicinity of yielding: while the flow remains homogeneous in the nonadhesive emulsion and the Herschel-Bulkley model for a yield stress fluid describes the data very accurately, the adhesive system displays shear localization and does not follow a simple constitutive equation, suggesting that the mechanisms involved in yielding transitions are not universal.

Bécu, Lydiane; Manneville, Sébastien; Colin, Annie



Yielding and flow in adhesive and nonadhesive concentrated emulsions.  


The nonlinear rheological response of soft glassy materials is addressed experimentally by focusing on concentrated emulsions where interdroplet attraction is tuned through varying the surfactant content. Velocity profiles are recorded using ultrasonic velocimetry simultaneously to global rheological data in the Couette geometry. Our data show that nonadhesive and adhesive emulsions have radically different flow behaviors in the vicinity of yielding: while the flow remains homogeneous in the nonadhesive emulsion and the Herschel-Bulkley model for a yield stress fluid describes the data very accurately, the adhesive system displays shear localization and does not follow a simple constitutive equation, suggesting that the mechanisms involved in yielding transitions are not universal. PMID:16712042

Bécu, Lydiane; Manneville, Sébastien; Colin, Annie



Enhanced negative ion yields on diamond surfaces at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron-doped polycrystalline diamond (BDD) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces were exposed to low pressure hydrogen plasma. The relative yields of surface-produced H- ions were measured by an energy analyser quadrupole mass spectrometer. The highest H- yield was obtained at 400 °C for a BDD surface and at room temperature for an HOPG surface. At low ion bombardment energy, the maximum yield on a BDD surface is about 5 times higher than that on an HOPG surface, which has been the best carbon material so far for surface production of H- ions in caesium-free plasma. Raman measurements revealed surface modifications after plasma exposure.

Kumar, P.; Ahmad, A.; Pardanaud, C.; Carrère, M.; Layet, J. M.; Cartry, G.; Silva, F.; Gicquel, A.; Engeln, R.



Yield enhancement methodologies for 90-nm technology and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to stay competitive in the rapidly advancing international semiconductor industry, a manufacturing company needs to continually focus on several areas including rapid yield learning, manufacturing cost, statistical process control limits, process yield, equipment availability, cycle time, turns per direct labor hour, customer on time delivery and zero customer defects. To hold a competitive position in the semiconductor market, performance to these measurable factors mut be maintained regardless of the technology generation. In this presentation, the methodology applied by Freescale Semiconductor to achieve the fastest yield learning curve in the industry, as cited by Dr. Robert Leachman of UC Berkley in 2003, will be discussed.

Allgair, John; Carey, Todd; Dougan, James; Etnyre, Tony; Langdon, Nate; Murray, Brooke




USGS Publications Warehouse

Precipitation, topography, runoff, soils, and land use are the major causative factors of sediment yield in Kentucky. The variability and interaction of these factors directly affects the amount and type of sediment yields. Sediment yield and size data were collected during 1942-45 and 1951-81 throughout the five major physiographic regions of Kentucky and at selected stations on the main stem of the Ohio River. The highest average annual suspended-sediment discharge, the average percent sand in suspended sediment, and the bedload discharge for selected stations were noted in the article.

Sholar, Clyde, J.



Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of yield for comparison was an effective method of avoiding autocorrelation of data while better representing impacts within a field. Occasional yield increases, ranging from 1 to 5 percent, were recorded following goose grazing. Goose grazing generally resulted in seed yield reductions, ranging up to 20 percent. Later and more intensive grazing tended to increase yield reductions. Newly seeded tall fescue tended to be the most sensitive to grazing. Established perennial ryegrass tended to be more resilient.

Louhaichi, Mounir


Integrated electrical and SEM-based defect characterization for rapid yield ramp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Challenges of the new nanometer processes have complicated the yield enhancement process. The systematic yield loss component is increasing, due to the complexity and density of the new processes and the designs that are developed for them. High product yields can now only be achieved when process failure rates are on the order of a few parts per billion structures. Traditional yield ramping techniques cannot ramp yields to these levels and new methods are required. This paper presents a new systematic approach to yield loss pareto generation. The approach uses a sophisticated Design-of-Experiments (DOE) approach to characterize systematic and random yield loss mechanisms in the Back End Of the Line (BEOL). Sophisticated Characterization Vehicle (CV)TM test chips, fast electrical test and Automatic Defect Localization (ADL) are critical components of the method. Advanced statistical analysis and visualization of the detected and localized electrical defects provides a comprehensive view of the yield loss mechanisms. In situations where the defects are not visible in a SEM of the structure surface, automated FIB and imaging is used to characterize the defect. The combined approach provides the required resolution to appropriately characterize parts per billion failure rates.

Orbon, Jacob; Levin, Lior; Bokobza, Ofer; Shimshi, Rinat; Dutta, Manjari; Zhang, Brian; Ciplickas, Dennis; Pham, Teri; Jensen, Jim



B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} constraints on the top quark anomalous t{yields}c{gamma} coupling  

SciTech Connect

Observation of the top quark flavor changing neutral process t{yields}c+{gamma} at the LHC would be the signal of physics beyond the standard model. If anomalous t{yields}c{gamma} coupling exists, it will affect the precisely measured B(B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma}). In this paper, we study the effects of a dimension 5 anomalous tc{gamma} operator in B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} decay to derive constraints on its possible strength. It is found that, for real anomalous t{yields}c{gamma} coupling {kappa}{sub tcR}{sup {gamma}}, the constraints correspond to the upper bounds B(t{yields}c+{gamma})<6.54x10{sup -5} (for {kappa}{sub tcR}{sup {gamma}}>0) and B(t{yields}c+{gamma})<8.52x10{sup -5} (for {kappa}{sub tcR}{sup {gamma}}<0), respectively, which are about the same order as the 5{sigma} discovery potential of ATLAS (9.4x10{sup -5}) and slightly lower than that of CMS (4.1x10{sup -4}) with 10 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity operating at {radical}(s)=14 TeV.

Yuan Xingbo; Hao Yang [Institute of Particle Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Yang Yadng [Institute of Particle Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics, Ministry of Education, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430079 (China)



Observation of {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}J/{psi}  

SciTech Connect

From e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data acquired with the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we observe the non-DD decay {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1} with a statistical significance of 6.6 standard deviations, using the two-photon cascades to J/{psi} and J/{psi}{yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}. We determine {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{psi}(3770))xB({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})=(18.0{+-}3.3= {+-}2.5) pb and branching fraction B({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})=(2.8{+-}0.5{+-}0.4)x10{sup -3}. We set 90% C.L. upper limits for the transition to {chi}{sub c2} ({chi}{sub c0}): {sigma}xB<5.7 pb (<282 pb) and B<0.9x10{sup -3} (<44x10{sup -3}). We also determine {gamma}({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})/{gamma}({psi}(3770){yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}J/= {psi})=1.5{+-}0.3{+-}0.3 (>1.0 at 90% C.L.), which bears upon the interpretation of X(3872)

Coan, T.E.; Gao, Y.S.; Liu, F. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Boulahouache, C.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nandakumar, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Redjimi, R.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, K. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Csorna, S. E. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] (and others)



Study Of Seed Yield Correlation With Different Traits Of Common Bean Under Stress Condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study seed yield and the most effective traits on seed yield of ten common been cultivars, a split plot in the form of complete block design was conducted at Shahrekord University. Among the characters studied, seed yield had the highest variation and the weight of plants had the lowest variation. the number of pods per plant had the highest correlation with seed yield in both stress and non stress conditions, while the number of seed per plant and 100 seeds weight had the lowest correlation with seed yield in non stress and stress conditions, respectively. Increase in stress intensity caused the increase in correlation between seed yield and the total weight of plant and the number of seed per pod. In principal components analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pods and seed yield had the highest correlation with the first component while 100 seeds weight and number of seeds per plant had the highest correlation with the second component.

Aminian, Roghayeh; Khodambashi, Mahmood; Yadegari, Mehrab



Unused Natural Variation Can Lift Yield Barriers in Plant Breeding  

PubMed Central

Natural biodiversity is an underexploited sustainable resource that can enrich the genetic basis of cultivated plants with novel alleles that improve productivity and adaptation. We evaluated the progress in breeding for increased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) yield using genotypes carrying a pyramid of three independent yield-promoting genomic regions introduced from the drought-tolerant green-fruited wild species Solanum pennellii. Yield of hybrids parented by the pyramided genotypes was more than 50% higher than that of a control market leader variety under both wet and dry field conditions that received 10% of the irrigation water. This demonstration of the breaking of agricultural yield barriers provides the rationale for implementing similar strategies for other agricultural organisms that are important for global food security.



Calculating phases between B{yields}K*{pi} amplitudes  

SciTech Connect

A phase {Delta}{Phi} between amplitudes for B{sup 0{yields}}K*{sup 0{pi}0} and B{sup 0{yields}}K*{sup +{pi}-} plays a crucial role in a method for constraining Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters. We present a general argument for destructive interference between amplitudes for B{sup 0{yields}}K*{sup +{pi}-} and B{sup 0{yields}}K*{sup 0{pi}0} forming together a smaller I(K*{pi})=3/2 amplitude. Applying flavor SU(3) and allowing for conservative theoretical uncertainties, we obtain lower limits on |{Delta}{Phi}| and its charge conjugate. Values of these two phases favored by the BABAR collaboration are in good agreement with our bounds.

Gronau, Michael; Pirjol, Dan; Rosner, Jonathan L. [Physics Department, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Department of Particle Physics, National Institute for Physics and Engineering, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)



Yield of a Choctawhatchee Sand Pine Plantation at Age 28.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A little-known tree, Choctawhatchee sand pine (Pinus clausa (Chapm.) Vasey), seems well adapted to the infertile, droughty soils common to the sandhills of Florida which now produce little value. Published yield data based on plantation-grown Choctawhatch...



Agriculture and Bioactives: Achieving Both Crop Yield and Phytochemicals  

PubMed Central

Plants are fundamental elements of the human diet, either as direct sources of nutrients or indirectly as feed for animals. During the past few years, the main goal of agriculture has been to increase yield in order to provide the food that is needed by a growing world population. As important as yield, but commonly forgotten in conventional agriculture, is to keep and, if it is possible, to increase the phytochemical content due to their health implications. Nowadays, it is necessary to go beyond this, reconciling yield and phytochemicals that, at first glance, might seem in conflict. This can be accomplished through reviewing food requirements, plant consumption with health implications, and farming methods. The aim of this work is to show how both yield and phytochemicals converge into a new vision of agricultural management in a framework of integrated agricultural practices.

Garcia-Mier, Lina; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.; Mondragon-Olguin, Victor M.; Verduzco-Cuellar, Beatriz del Rocio; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo



Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands.  


To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully developed flower bud ready for harvesting. Using eight additional characteristics describing the grow room and cultivation parameters, regression analysis with subset selection was carried out to develop two models for the yield of indoor cannabis cultivation. The median Dutch illicit grow room consists of 259 cannabis plants, has a plant density of 15 plants/m(2), and 510 W of growth lamps per m(2). For the median Dutch grow room, the predicted yield of female flower buds at the harvestable developmental stage (stage 10) was 33.7 g/plant or 505 g/m(2). PMID:17018080

Toonen, Marcel; Ribot, Simon; Thissen, Jac



Yield and ultrasonic modulus of elasticity of red maple veneer  


Special care was taken to ensure that each veneer sheet could be traced back to ... and Eastern States (New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and West Virginia). ... Decreases in the total veneer yield corresponded with decreases in log quality.


Model Development for Broad Area Event Identification and Yield Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Models of laterally varying attenuation and site effects of regional phases are necessary to correct regional phase and coda amplitudes to reveal source effects of importance to identification and yield estimation procedures. We accomplish this using 2-D ...

K. M. Mayeda M. L. Begnaud R. J. Stead W. S. Phillips X. Yang



7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. (a) Production reports must be provided to the crop...



Diagnostics of Shiva Nova Produced High Yield Thermonuclear Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments with the Shiva Nova laser facility which produce yield levels of scientific breakeven and above will result in neutron, x-ray and particle fluxes which will require specific attention to the survivability of diagnostic instrumentation. These y...

H. G. Ahlstrom D. L. Banner M. J. Boyle E. M. Campbell L. W. Coleman



Effect of Weather on Water Economy and Crop Yields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dependence of crop yields on weather and soil factors in south and southwest Finland where water conservation is practiced was investigated. The study is based on meteorological and agricultural statistics and on data collected at several experimental...

J. Hooli



Seismic analysis of pipelines with yielding supports. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Pipelines in structures such as a nuclear reactor can be analysed separately when the structure is subjected to seismic type loading. The pipeline is modelled with various types of supports, such as a rigid support or an elastic support. The pipeline is analysed and designed so that stresses in the pipeline and at the supports are acceptable. If the pipeline is subjected to a larger-intensity earthquake than that designed for, the stresses at some supports may exceed the yield stresses, causing the support to yield. The yielding of a support can influence the response at the other supports in the pipeline, and in some cases cause failure of the supports to occur. The paper examines ways of predicting the changes in the maximum response at supports when one support in a pipeline yields.

Ibell, C.; Mercer, C.D.; Martin, J.B.



Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a ?-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

Singh, Jai



Agriculture and bioactives: achieving both crop yield and phytochemicals.  


Plants are fundamental elements of the human diet, either as direct sources of nutrients or indirectly as feed for animals. During the past few years, the main goal of agriculture has been to increase yield in order to provide the food that is needed by a growing world population. As important as yield, but commonly forgotten in conventional agriculture, is to keep and, if it is possible, to increase the phytochemical content due to their health implications. Nowadays, it is necessary to go beyond this, reconciling yield and phytochemicals that, at first glance, might seem in conflict. This can be accomplished through reviewing food requirements, plant consumption with health implications, and farming methods. The aim of this work is to show how both yield and phytochemicals converge into a new vision of agricultural management in a framework of integrated agricultural practices. PMID:23429238

García-Mier, Lina; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Mondragón-Olguín, Víctor M; Del Rocío Verduzco-Cuellar, Beatriz; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo



Effect of extraction parameters on curcumin yield from turmeric.  


Effect of 4 independent variables - temperature (50-90°C), particle size (0.42-0.85 mm), mixing time (10-50 min) and solvent (ethanol) to meal ratio (10-50) on curcumin yield from turmeric (Curcuma longa L) was studied using central composite rotatable design. The experimental value of curcumin yield ranged between 4.49 and 12.89%. The second order model obtained for curcumin yield revealed a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.78 and standard error of 0.72. The linear, square and interaction terms were significant at p <0.05 while lack of fit was non-significant at p >0.05. Surface graphs were plotted to optimize the curcumin extraction. The maximum curcumin yield was obtained when temperature, particle size, mixing time and solvent to meal ratio were 60°C, 0.42 mm, 30 min and 50, respectively. PMID:23572641

Sogi, D S; Sharma, S; Oberoi, D P S; Wani, I A



An improved extraction method to increase DNA yield from molted ...  


We also compared PCR success across the same five feather types using five ... Although our modified extraction method increased the time required for ... it resulted in significantly higher yields of DNA as compared to the unmodified protocol.


An improved extraction method to increase DNA yield from molted ...  


Jul 21, 2013 ... We also compared PCR success across the same five feather types using five ... Although our modified extraction method increased the time required for ... higher yields of DNA as compared to the unmodified protocol.


Biaxial Yield Surface Investigation of Polymer-Matrix Composites  

PubMed Central

This article presents a numerical technique for computing the biaxial yield surface of polymer-matrix composites with a given microstructure. Generalized Method of Cells in combination with an Improved Bodner-Partom Viscoplastic model is used to compute the inelastic deformation. The validation of presented model is proved by a fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain test system through uniaxial testing under two different strain rate conditions. On this basis, the manufacturing process thermal residual stress and strain rate effect on the biaxial yield surface of composites are considered. The results show that the effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial yield response is closely dependent on loading conditions. Moreover, biaxial yield strength tends to increase with the increasing strain rate.

Ye, Junjie; Qiu, Yuanying; Zhai, Zhi; He, Zhengjia



High yielding methyl esterification catalyzed by indium(III) chloride.  


The carboxylic acids are efficiently converted into the methyl esters in methanol using indium(III) chloride as the catalyst. This method is applicable for aromatic and aliphatic carboxyl moieties as well as amino acids in high yields. PMID:16755072

Mineno, Tomoko; Kansui, Hisao



Effect of Pressure on Radical Yields from Phenylazotriphenylmethane in Methylcyclohexane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the thermal decomposition of phenylazotriphenylmethane (PAT) in methylcyclohexane containing iodine, the efficiency of radical production, as measured by the yield of iodobenzene, is unusually sensitive to pressure. The efficiency of production of phen...

R. C. Lamb J. G. Pacifici



Inhomogeneous electrochemiluminescence. I: Integral encounter theory of kinetics and yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of excited triplet luminophor by recombination of electrochemically injected ions is calculated. The reversibility of triplet production is shown to affect insignificantly the triplet accumulation and their quantum yield. The free energy dependence of the latter is specified and fitted to the available experimental data. The maximal quantum yield of triplet luminescence found experimentally is sometimes less than 1, even when the excitation is the sole result of charge recombination. This phenomenon may be a result of the biexcitonic annihilation of triplets produced in a narrow strip at the border between the space separated anions and cations. The kinetics of this process is calculated and the maximal yield of fluorescence is shown to decrease with excitation life time and increase with triplet diffusion out of the strip. Alternatively, the maximal quantum yield may be reduced due to the trivial triplet quenching by neutral precursors of ions.

Gladkikh, V.; Burshtein, A. I.



Estimating ethanol yield from switchgrass strains using NIRS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields from biomass conversion processes requires expensive, complex fermentation tests and extensive laboratory analyses of the biomass sample with costs exceeding $300 per sample. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-destructive technolo...


Interrelations among plant nutrients application levels on yield of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  These studies were made to determine the effect of applied nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on yields of autumn crops of\\u000a potatoes grown in Panjab. The application of 225 lb of nitrogen per acre resulted in high yields in the double row method\\u000a of planting used. The estimated optimum rate of nitrogen per acre was 270 lb. Response of the crop

P. S. Benepal



Yield losses caused by leaf roll of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The data presented confirm the opinion that the healthy hills adjoined by leaf roll plants on one or on both sides, compensate,\\u000a in part, for the low yield of the leaf roll plants.\\u000a \\u000a The gain in yield of a healthy plant adjoined on both sides by leaf roll plants is approximately double the gain of such plants\\u000a adjoined by a

H. C. Kirkpatrick; F. M. Biodgett



Low-Yield Earth-Penetrating Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some senior members of the U.S. government and leaders of America's nuclear weapons labs have recently advocated that the U.S.A. develop a new generation of low-yield earth-penetrating nuclear weapons (EPWs) capable of destroying hardened and deeply buried targets. Because they are intended to detonate below ground and have substantially lower yields than typical weapons in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, it

Robert W. Nelson



Surface instability of binary compounds caused by sputter yield amplification  

SciTech Connect

It is demonstrated that the flat surface of a binary material that is subjected to normal-incidence ion bombardment can be unstable even if the curvature dependence of the sputter yields is negligibly small. This unforeseen instability is brought about by sputter yield amplification, and it results in the formation of a disordered array of nanodots with the lighter of the two atomic species concentrated at the peaks of the dots.

Mark Bradley, R. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)



Inter-annual Weather Variation and Crop Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the efiects of rising mean temperatures on agricultural output have been studied extensively, there is limited discussion of the impact of inter-annual weather variation on crop yields. This paper estimates the link between weather and crop yields separating the in?uence of (i) mean weather outcomes (i. e., climate) to which a farmer can adapt from (ii) unpredictable year-to-year weather

Wolfram Schlenker


Quantaurus-QY: Absolute photoluminescence quantum yield spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantaurus-QY was developed as a compact, easy-to-use system with a small footprint based on Hamamatsu's established C9920-02/03 systems for measuring absolute photoluminescence quantum yields. Operating this system is simple: load a sample and press the start button to measure the photoluminescence quantum yields, excitation wavelength dependence, photoluminescence excitation spectrum and other properties in a short period of time.

Suzuki, Kengo



Crop yield response to economic, site and climatic variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of climatic and non-climatic factors on the mean and variance of corn, soybean and winter\\u000a wheat yield in southwestern Ontario, Canada over a period of 26 years. Average crop yields increase at a decreasing rate with\\u000a the quantity of inputs used, and decrease with the area planted to the crop. Climate variables have a major impact

Juan Cabas; Alfons Weersink; Edward Olale



Issues in the flow of yield-stress liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield-stress liquids are materials that are solid below a critical applied stress and flow like mobile liquids at higher stresses.\\u000a Classical descriptions of yield-stress liquids, which have been the basis for asymptotic and computational studies for five\\u000a decades, are inadequate to describe many recent experimental observations, and it is clear that the time dependence of microstructure\\u000a must be taken into

Morton M. Denn; Daniel Bonn



Optimization of exopolysaccharide yields in sourdoughs fermented by lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the yields of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced in situ during sourdough fermentations with Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 synthesizing glucan from sucrose were investigated under variation of the fermentation parameters dough yield (DY),\\u000a pH, sucrose content and fermentation substrate. The obtained amounts of EPS after 1 day of fermentation were higher in softer\\u000a (DY 500) than in firmer (DY 220)

Susanne Kaditzky; Rudi F. Vogel



Research note Yield stress for initial firmness determination on yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield stress and apparent residual stress were measured in laboratory-made yogurts containing different gum concentrations and in seven retail yogurts. Yield stress exhibited significant correlation (p < 0.001) with the sensory initial firmness perceived by trained pan- elists in both laboratory-made (r = 0.99) and retail (r > 0.97) yogurts. Apparent residual stress was significantly correlated with sensory viscosity for

F. Harte; S. Clark; G. V. Barbosa-Canovas


Reducing pressure on natural forests through high-yield forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gladstone, W.T. and Ledig, F.T., 1990. Reducing pressure on natural forests through high-yield for- estry. For. Ecol. Manage., 35: 69-78. High-yield forestry can make a valuable contribution to the conservation and sustained use of forest ecosystems. Despite the pressing reasons for conserving forest resources, population growth creates pressures for exploiting them. Unless needs for forest products, export credits, and local

W. T. Gladstone; F THOMASLEDIG



Fast pyrolysis of soybean cake: Product yields and compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an investigation of the role of important parameters influencing pyrolysis yields from soybean cake. Experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 400 to 700°C, for various nitrogen flow rates, heating rates and particle sizes. The maximum liquid yield was 42.83% at a pyrolysis temperature of 550°C with a sweeping gas rate of 200cm3min?1 and heating rate

Basak Burcu Uzun; Ayse Eren Pütün; Ersan Pütün



Breeding for yield in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies employed by dry bean breeders to improve yield include early generation testing, ideotype breeding, selection for\\u000a physiological efficiency, and selection based on genotypic performance and combining ability across gene pools of Phaseolus\\u000a vulgaris. Ideotype breeding has been successfully deployed to improve yield in navy, pinto and great northern seed types.\\u000a The ideotype method is based on an ideal plant

James D. Kelly; Judith M. Kolkman; Kristin Schneider



Maximum energy yield approach for CPV tracker design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foton HC Systems has developed a new CPV tracker model, specially focused on its tracking efficiency and the effect of the tracker control techniques on the final energy yield of the system. This paper presents the theoretical work carried out into determining the energy yield for a CPV system, and illustrates the steps involved in calculating and understanding how energy consumption for tracking is opposed to tracker pointing errors. Additionally, the expressions to compute the optimum parameters are presented and discussed.

Aldaiturriaga, E.; González, O.; Castro, M.



Grain sorghum growth, water use, and yield in contrasting soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil characteristics and the climate in which they occur help control crop growth and yield. We conducted a study to determine the influence of contrasting soils on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) growth, water use, and yield. In 1992 and 1993, grain sorghum (‘DK-46’) was grown in 0.75-m rows with 16 plants m?2 at Bushland, TX in lysimeters containing monolithic

J. A. Tolk; T. A. Howell; J. L. Steiner; S. R. Evett




PubMed Central

Pedestrian safety is a serious concern at busy intersections and pedestrian campuses across the nation. Although crosswalks and signs inform pedestrians where to cross, there is no standard protocol for pedestrians to signal drivers that they wish to use the crosswalks, except to stand in or at the crosswalk. We examined the effects of two pedestrian prompts, a raised hand and extended arm, on motorist yielding at uncontrolled crosswalks. The two prompts were effective at increasing yielding.

Crowley-Koch, Brian J; Van Houten, Ron; Lim, Eunyoung



High ethanol yields using Aspergillus oryzae koji and corn media  

Microsoft Academic Search

High ethanol and stillage solids have been achieved using whole corn mashes. Ethanol yields of 14% (v\\/v) (89.5% of theory) and stillage levels of approximately 23% (w\\/v) were obtained in 74–90 hours using mild acid pretreatment with Aspergillus oryzae wheat bran koji saccharification. High ethanol yields were also obtained with bacterial amylase, instead of the acid treatment, when the sterilization

Jack Ziffer; Mario C. Iosif



Yield displacement-based seismic design of RC wall buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method is presented for the performance-based seismic design of ductile RC wall buildings. The design method is based on an estimate of the roof displacement at yield. The required base shear strength is determined using Yield Point Spectra based on an “equivalent” single-degree-of-freedom (ESDOF) system representation of the wall system. The walls are designed for a single base

Tjen N. Tjhin; Mark A. Aschheim; John W. Wallace



Prediction of lactation milk yield using various milk recording methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various milk recording methods (A4, AT4, A6, AT6) on prediction accuracy of 100, 200 and 305-day milk yield. The data used in this study were 11,430 individual test-day milk yield records collected from November 2004 to November 2006 on 813 cows reared on 15 family farms in Croatia. Milk

Vesna Gantner; S. Jovanovac; N. Raguz; M. Klopcic; D. Solic



Accuracy of predicting milk yield from alternative recording schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of reducing the frequency of official milk recording and the number of recorded samples per test-day on the accuracy of predicting daily yield and cumulative 305-day yield was investigated. A control data set consisting of 58 210 primiparous cows with milk test-day records every 4 weeks was used to investigate the influence of reduced milk recording frequencies. The

D. P. Berry; V. E. Olori; A. R. Cromie; M. Rath; R. F. Veerkamp; P. Dillon



Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement.  


Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Global soybean production and yield per hectare increased steadily over the past century with improved agronomy and development of cultivars suited to a wide range of latitudes. In order to meet the needs of a growing world population without unsustainable expansion of the land area devoted to this crop, yield must increase at a faster rate than at present. Here, the historical basis for the yield gains realized in the past 90 years are examined together with potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Optimization of investment in photosynthetic enzymes, bypassing photorespiratory metabolism, engineering the electron transport chain and engineering a faster recovery from the photoprotected state are different strategies to improve photosynthesis in soybean. These potential improvements in photosynthetic carbon gain will need to be matched by increased carbon and nitrogen transport to developing soybean pods and seeds in order to maximize the benefit. Better understanding of control of carbon and nitrogen transport along with improved knowledge of the regulation of flower initiation and abortion will be needed to optimize sink capacity in soybean. Although few single targets are likely to deliver a quantum leap in yields, biotechnological advances in molecular breeding techniques that allow for alteration of the soybean genome and transcriptome promise significant yield gains. PMID:21689112

Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Yendrek, Craig R; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Long, Stephen P



Petroleum charge yield modelling in a Chinese Lacustrine Basin  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum charge is a critical factor within the framework of Risk, Volume and Value addressed during the evaluation of the hydrocarbon resource of any basin. In the Liaodong Bay Basin, People's Republic of China, a methodology was developed to describe the uncertainty in predicted charge yields from identified source rocks in terms of confidence levels (Risk), quantitation (Volume, Value) and petroleum composition (Value) in a fit-for-purpose manner. The approach taken was to: (1) define equations to calculate the mass of generated and expelled trappable petroleum per Km[sup 2] of source rock within the oil and gas maturity windows, accounting for gas derived from thermal breakdown of kerogen and oil-to-gas cracking in the kitchen, (2) identify value ranges of parameters within the equations from available and analogue data, such as source rock thickness and potential, (3) run spreadsheet-based Monte Carlo simulations of the generation-expulsion equations to calculate yield ranges of oil and gas, and (4) apply yield ranges with their associated confidence levels, to mapped source rock kitchens. The result is a range of maximum trappable, oil and gas yields with associated confidence levels. These must then be modified by the modelled maturity of the source rock kitchen/s - clearly an originally oil-prone source rock in the present day gas window has most likely already realized its maximum oil yield but not necessarily its maximum gas yield.

Cawley, S.J.; Dunn, M.E.



Climate Change: Implications for the Yield of Edible Rice  

PubMed Central

Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980–2009 at IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy.

Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa



Statewide potential crop yield losses from ozone exposure. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Past efforts to model crop losses on a regional scale used plant losses at the county level. The work reported not only employs this traditional approach (important for long-term trend analysis), but also expands the methodological basis of the Crop Loss-Assessment Program by using GIS technology to estimate yield losses at the county level. The work reported not only employs this traditional approach (important for long-term trend analysis), but also expands the methodological basis of the Crop Loss Assessment Program by using GIS technology to estimate the yield loss based on interpolated 1/d(sup 2) ozone exposure indices. Analytical procedures used 7-hour and 12-hour seasonal mean models, and SUM 06 Wiebull functions for estimating the yield losses in several crops. Interpolated yield loss contours are graphically represented and enhanced by color-coded altitudinal ramping. Ozone concentratons on a monthly basis were interpolated within the state air basins using ARB air quality statistics and an imposed 2,000-ft altitudinal barrier to transport. Monthly 7-hour means, a widely used exposure index for plant response functions, were used for the statewide interpolations. The severity of potential yield loss was determined using ARB 1993 air quality data and published yield response functions.

Mutters, R.; Soret, S.



{mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {tau}{yields}l{gamma} decays in the fermion triplet seesaw model  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the seesaw models with triplets of fermions, we evaluate the decay rates of {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {tau}{yields}l{gamma} transitions. We show that although, due to neutrino mass constraints, those rates are in general expected to be well under the present experimental limits, this is not necessarily always the case. Interestingly enough, the observation of one of those decays in planned experiments would nevertheless contradict bounds stemming from present experimental limits on the {mu}{yields}eee and {tau}{yields}3l decay rates, as well as from {mu} to e conversion in atomic nuclei. Such detection of radiative decays would therefore imply that there exist sources of lepton flavor violation not associated to triplet fermions.

Abada, A.; Bonnet, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique UMR 8627, Universite de Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Biggio, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Gavela, M. B. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Hambye, T. [Service de Physique Theorique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)



Predicting Crop Yield from Biophysical and Spectral Variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong stress is being put over the past years on the application and added-value of remotely sensed data. Agricultural monitoring is an important application field of remote sensing tech-nologies associated with plant growth assessment, stress detection and yield forecasting. In-terest is rapidly spreading in the use of hyperspectral data to precision farming. For precision agriculture running, regular and timely information is needed about plant growth in order to assess crop development and predict yield. Entering wider into their opperational stage, re-mote sensing technologies face higher requirements to the accuracy of the information they provide. Because of the raising need for reliability of the information products, ground-based observations are considered one of the pillars of remote sensing being used in land cover stud-ies for the development and validation of data analysis and retrieval algorithms. This paper presents the results of ground-level studies aimed at the empirical modelling of cereals yield using multispectral and multitemporal data. The objective of the study is to develop and test the performance of vegetation indices as predictors of crop production. The approach com-prises the development of yield forecasting models from single and multi-date spectral data and the verification of remote sensing predictions through comparison with estimations from yield relationships with crop agronomical parameters. Statistical relationships between crop spectral reflectance, growth variables and yield have been established. Grain yield has been related to spectral data acquired at different phenological stages of plant development and to spectral data accumulated during the entire growing season. Comparison has been made between the yield prediction results from crop biophysical, multispectral and multitemporal data in order to validate the predictive performance of the spectral models. The algorithm has been realized on winter wheat. In-situ high-resolution visible and near-infrared reflectance data have been acquired throughout the growing season, along with detailed datasets of crop bioparameters. Spectral-biophysical models have been developed relating crop variables and yield to different spectral predictors. The algorithm has been tested using airborne remote sensing data. A good correspondence was found between predicted and actual yield.

Kancheva, Rumiana; Borisova, Denitsa


PIENU experiment at TRIUMF: Measurement of {pi}{yields}e{nu}/{pi}{yields}{mu}{nu} branching ratio  

SciTech Connect

A TRIUMF experiment, PIENU, which aims to measure the branching ratio of pion decays, R {gamma}({pi}{yields}e{nu}+e{nu}{gamma})/{gamma}({pi}{yields}{mu}{nu}+{mu}{nu}{gamma}) to a precision of 0.1% or better is described. Such a measurement provides the best test of electron-muon universality in weak interactions and is sensitive to an effective mass scale of up to 1000 TeV in new physics.

Sher, A.; Doornbos, J.; Doria, L.; Gumplinger, P.; Kurchaninov, L.; Malbrunot, C.; Marshal, G.; Poutissou, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada); Aoki, M.; Ito, N.; Kuno, Y.; Muroi, A.; Yamada, K. [Dep. of Physics, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Blecher, M. [Physics Dep., Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bryman, D. A. [University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Rd, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada); Comfort, J. [Arizona State University, Temple, AZ (United States); Hussein, A. [Northern University of British Columbia, Prince George, B.C. (Canada); Igarashi, Y. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kettell, S.; Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] (and others)



Microstructural origins of yield-strength changes in AISI 316 during fission or fusion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The changes in yield strength of AISI 316 irradiated in breeder reactors have been successfully modeled in terms of concurrent changes in microstructural components. Two new insights involving the strength contributions of voids and Frank loops have been incorporated into the hardening models. Both the radiation-induced microstructure and the yield strength exhibit transients which are then followed by saturation at a level dependent on the irradiation temperature. Extrapolation to anticipated fusion behavior based on microstructural comparisons leads to the conclusion that the primary influence of transmutational differences is only to alter the transient behavior and not the saturation level of yield strength.

Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Panayotou, N.F.; Johnson, G.D.



Microstructural origins of yield strength changes in AISI 316 during fission or fusion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The changes in yield strength of AISI 316 irradiated in breeder reactors have been successfully modeled in terms of concurrent changes in microstructural components. Two new insights involving the strength contributions of voids and Frank loops have been incorporated into the hardening models. Both the radiation-induced microstructure and the yield strength exhibit transients which are then followed by saturation at a level dependent on the irradiation temperature. Extrapolation to anticipated fusion behavior based on microstructural comparisons leads to the conclusion that the primary influence of transmutational differences is only to alter the transient behavior and not the saturation level of yield strength.

Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Panayotou, N.F.; Johnson, G.D.



QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT) based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for days to 50% flowering (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?14.3), panicles per plant (R2?=?19%, LOD?=?9.74), flag leaf length (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?3.05), flag leaf width (R2?=?53%, LOD?=?46.5), spikelets per panicle (R2?=?16%, LOD?=?13.8), filled grains per panicle (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?15.3), percent spikelet sterility (R2?=?18%, LOD?=?14.24), thousand grain weight (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?12.9) and spikelet setting density (R2?=?23%, LOD?=?15) expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2) ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709) on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits were distributed among two subspecies of rice and QTLs were co-localized in different genomic regions. QTL hotspots will be useful for understanding the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits and selection for beneficial allele at these loci will result in a cumulative increase in yield due to the integrative positive effect of various QTLs. The information generated in the present study will be useful to fine map and to identify the genes underlying major robust QTLs and to transfer all favourable QTLs to one genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield for sustained food security.



Seasonal Variation of Essential Oil Yield and Composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) from South Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. collected from Caxias do Sul (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil) were isolated by hydrodistillation with an average oil yield of 0.25%. Twenty-two components were identified by GC and GC\\/MS analysis. Thymol was found to be the most abundant constituent (31.5–52.4%), followed by p-cymene (17.1–34.4%). Thyme possessed a higher oil yield

A. C. Atti-Santos; M. R. Pansera; N. Paroul; L. Atti-Serafini; P. Moyna



Growth Yields in Bacterial Denitrification and Nitrate Ammonification?  

PubMed Central

Denitrification and nitrate ammonification are considered the highest-energy-yielding respiration systems in anoxic environments after oxygen has been consumed. The corresponding free energy changes are 7 and 35% lower than that of aerobic respiration, respectively. Growth yield determinations with pure cultures of Paracoccus denitrificans and Pseudomonas stutzeri revealed that far less energy is converted via ATP into cell mass than expected from the above calculations. Denitrification with formate or hydrogen as electron donor yielded about 2.4 to 3.0 g dry matter per mol formate or hydrogen and 15 to 18 g dry matter per mol acetate. Similar yields with acetate were obtained with Pseudomonas stutzeri. Wolinella succinogenes and Sulfurospirillum deleyianum, which reduce nitrate to ammonia, both exhibited similar yield values with formate or H2 plus nitrate. The results indicate that ATP synthesis in denitrification is far lower than expected from the free energy changes and even lower than in nitrate ammonification. The results are discussed against the background of our present understanding of electron flow in denitrification and with respect to the importance of denitrification and nitrate ammonification in the environment.

Strohm, Tobin O.; Griffin, Ben; Zumft, Walter G.; Schink, Bernhard



Assessing Heterodera glycines-Resistant and Susceptible Cultivar Yield Response  

PubMed Central

The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines (SCN) is of major economic importance and widely distributed throughout soybean production regions of the United States where different maturity groups with the same sources of SCN resistance are grown. The objective of this study was to assess SCN-resistant and -susceptible soybean yield responses in infested soils across the north-central region. In 1994 and 1995, eight SCN-resistant and eight SCN-susceptible public soybean cultivars representing maturity groups (MG) I to IV were planted in 63 fields, either infested or noninfested, in 10 states in the north-central United States. Soil samples were taken to determine initial SCN population density and race, and soil classification. Data were grouped for analysis by adaptation based on MG zones. Soybean yields were 658 to 3,840 kg/ha across the sites. Soybean cyst nematode-resistant cultivars yielded better at SCN-infested sites but lost this superiority to susceptible soybean cultivars at noninfested sites. Interactions were observed among initial SCN population density, cultivar, and location. This study showed that no region-wide predictive equations could be developed for yield loss based on initial nematode populations in the soil and that yield loss due to SCN in our region was greatly confounded by other stress factors, which included temperature and moisture extremes.

Donald, P. A.; Pierson, P. E.; St. Martin, S. K.; Sellers, P. R.; Noel, G. R.; MacGuidwin, A. E.; Faghihi, J.; Ferris, V. R.; Grau, C. R.; Jardine, D. J.; Melakeberhan, H.; Niblack, T. L.; Stienstra, W. C.; Tylka, G. L.; Wheeler, T. A.; Wysong, D. S.



Silicon dioxide etching yield measurements with inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide etching yield has been measured directly with inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasmas. The yields measurement technique of this work can provide useful information for feature profile evolution modeling, which is essential to understand various issues in oxide etching such as reactive ion etching (RIE) lag, inverse RIE lag, etch stop, microtrenching, bowing, etc. Etching and deposition yields per ion were measured using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a function of ion bombardment energy, ion-to-neutral flux ratio, and ion-impinging angle. C2HF5, C2F6, C2H4F2, and C4F8 were used for the oxide etching. Oxide etching mechanism with those gases is complex because etching and deposition are involved at the same time. In highly selective processes fluorocarbon deposition plays important role in determining etching characteristics. Two fluorocarbon deposition mechanisms are identified in this work: neutral deposition and ion-enhanced deposition. The low-energy ions are believed to enhance the deposition rates by creating active sites and fluorocarbon neutrals deposit on the active sites with higher sticking probability. A surface kinetic model is suggested to explain the ion-enhanced mechanism and shows good agreement with experimental data. Angular yield measurement shows that when fluorocarbon deposition is relatively severe, etching yield decreases significantly as the incident angle increases and deposit fluorocarbon at a high incident angle above 60°.

Chae, Heeyeop; Vitale, Steven A.; Sawin, Herbert H.



Yield stress anomaly in B2 FeAl  

SciTech Connect

The studies on yield stress anomaly of B2 FeAl single crystals are reviewed in this paper. A positive temperature dependence of yield stress, so-called yield stress anomaly, is observed in B2 FeAl in which excess vacancies are fully annealed out. Associated with the anomaly, characteristic asymmetry is found between tension and compression. While the strain-rate sensitivity is almost zero in the temperature range of the yield stress anomaly, the stress relaxation becomes significant with increasing temperature, indicating that a recovery process is thermally activated. It is ascertained by the two-surface trace analysis that slip transition from <111> direction at intermediate temperature to <100> at high temperature occurs around the peak temperature. Even at the peak temperature, in addition, operative slip vector for yielding is confirmed to be predominantly <111> by TEM. Also, it is observed that <111>-type superdislocations are frequently climb-dissociated in the temperature range of the anomaly. APB formation on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is energetically favorable, which is in agreement with the Flinn`s calculation for the B2 superlattice that APB energy on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is lower than that on {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane. Such an anisotropy of APB energy would offer specific driving force for the climb dissociation on <111> superdislocations. On the basis of the observed results, the anomalous strengthening behavior of B2 FeAl single crystals is discussed.

Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.



ICF Gamma-Ray Yield Measurements on the NIF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is to provide bang time and burn width information in order to constrain implosion simulation parameters such as shell velocity and confinement time. This is accomplished by measuring DT fusion ?-rays with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV ?-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. For yield determination, absolute uncertainties associated with the d(t,n)?/d(t,?)^5He branching ratio and detector response are removed by cross-calibrating the GRH signal against independent neutron yield measurements of directly-driven DT exploding pushers with negligible neutron downscatter. The GRH signal can then be used to make Total DTn Yield inferences on indirectly-driven, cryogenically-layered DT implosions which achieve high areal density and hence scatter a significant fraction of DTn out of the 14 MeV primary peak. By comparing the Total DTn Yield from ?-ray measurements with the Primary DTn Yield (13-15 MeV) from neutron measurements, the Total Downscatter Fraction (TDSF) can be inferred. Results of recent measurements will be presented.

Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Hoffman, N. M.; Stoeffl, W. S.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Church, J. A.; Liebman, J.; Grafil, E.



From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)



LDEF's map experiment foil perforations yield hypervelocity impact penetration parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space exposure of LDEF for 5.75 years, forming a host target in low earth orbit (LEO) orbit to a wide distribution of hypervelocity particulates of varying dimensions and different impact velocities, has yielded a multiplicity of impact features. Although the projectile parameters are generally unknown and, in fact not identical for any two impacts on a target, the great number of impacts provides statistically meaningful basis for the valid comparison of the response of different targets. Given sufficient impacts for example, a comparison of impact features (even without knowledge of the project parameters) is possible between: (1) differing material types (for the same incident projectile distribution); (2) differing target configurations (e.g., thick and thin targets for the same material projectiles; and (3) different velocities (using LDEF's different faces). A comparison between different materials is presented for infinite targets of aluminum, Teflon, and brass in the same pointing direction; the maximum finite-target penetration (ballistic limit) is also compared to that of the penetration of similar materials comprising of a semi-infinite target. For comparison of impacts on similar materials at different velocities, use is made of the pointing direction relative to LDEF's orbital motion. First, however, care must be exercised to separate the effect of spatial flux anisotropies from those resulting from the spacecraft velocity through a geocentrically referenced dust distribution. Data comprising thick and thin target impacts, impacts on different materials, and in different pointing directions is presented; hypervelocity impact parameters are derived. Results are also shown for flux modeling codes developed to decode the relative fluxes of Earth orbital and unbound interplanetary components intercepting LDEF. Modeling shows the west and space pointing faces are dominated by interplanetary particles and yields a mean velocity of 23.5 km/s at LDEF, corresponding to a V(infinity) Earth approach velocity = 20.9 km/s. Normally resolved average impact velocities on LDEF's cardinal point faces are shown. As 'excess' flux on the east, north, and south faces is observed, compatible with an Earth orbital component below some 5 microns in particle diameter.

McDonnell, J. A. M.



Measurement of the Helicity Difference in {gamma}{sup {yields}p{yields}{yields}p{pi}+{pi}-} with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W {approx_equal} 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a ''complete'' experiment for the reaction {gamma}N{yields}KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

Park, Sungkyun [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306 (United States)



Science Forum 2009. Wageningen 16-17 June 2009 Workshop 4. Beyond the yield curve - exerting the power of genetics, genomics, and synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on recent progress in wheat, rice and maize yields resulting from substantial breeding efforts in favourable environments. Breeding and improved agronomy lift potential yield (PY), namely yield in the absence of manageable abiotic and biotic stresses, and PY progress through new varieties is a key component of farm yield (FY) progress. Current PY and FY progress is

G. O. Edmeades


Drug Yield and Essential Oil of Thymus vulgaris L. as in Influenced by Ecological and Ontogenetical Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug yield and volatile oil content and its components of Thymus vulgaris were investigated during the different growing periods under both lowland and mountainous conditions. The highest drug yields were obtained from lowland conditions during the post flowering stage. Also, it has been determined that environmental conditions have significantly influenced the harvest dates. The 17 components were identified in the



Genetic characterisation of seed yield and fertility traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).  


Seed yield is a trait of major interest for the key grassland species Lolium perenne L. An F2 mapping population of perennial ryegrass (VrnA), recently characterised for vernalisation response, was assessed in a glasshouse for traits related to seed yield based on a lattice design with four replications over 2 years. The traits heading date, plant height, length of panicles, number of panicles per plant, seed yield per panicle, flag leaf length, flag leaf width and seed yield per plant revealed repeatabilities ranging from 41 to 76% and a considerable amount of genetic variation in the VrnA population. Path analysis partitioned the direct and indirect effects of seed yield components on seed yield per plant. Seed yield per panicle showed the highest effect on total seed yield. The adjusted mean values of each trait and a genetic linkage map consisting of 97 anonymous and 85 gene associated DNA markers were used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Of particular interest were two QTL on linkage group (LG) 1 and LG 2, explaining 41 and 18%, respectively, of the observed phenotypic variation for the trait seed yield per panicle. Both QTL co-located with two major QTL for total seed yield per plant possibly representing the S and Z loci of the gametophytic self incompatibility (SI) system of perennial ryegrass. The diversity of SI alleles in mapping parents and the degree of heterozygosity at SI loci in the full sib progeny determines the interference of self incompatibility with seed production. PMID:18575835

Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Hentrup, Stephan; Brazauskas, Gintaras; Kölliker, Roland; Lübberstedt, Thomas



Decreased Coomassie brilliant blue colour yield with glycated proteins.  


Collagen, myosin and albumin were incubated for 7 days at 20 degrees C with fructose, ribose or glyceraldehyde. For thus-formed glycated proteins, quantities were determined by the Conway microdiffusion technique and by the colorimetric method based on Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 colour yield. It was found that when albumin was glycated with increasing amounts of glyceraldehyde, the colour yield was decreased by 7-33%. In collagen, myosin and albumin incubated with 0.5 mol/l fructose, 0.5 mol/l ribose or 0.1 mol/l glyceraldehyde, protein concentration was not changed, as proved by the Conway microdiffusion technique; the Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 colour yield was up to 50% lower, depending on the protein used, and was decreased much less when proteins were incubated with less sugar. PMID:1430793

Syrovy, I



X-1: The challenge of high fusion yield  

SciTech Connect

In the past three years, tremendous strides have been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy and power output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources have great potential to drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. Technical challenges in three key areas are discussed in this paper: (1) the design of a target for high yield, (2) the development of a suitable pulsed power driver, and (3) the design of a target chamber capable of containing the high fusion yield.

Cook, D.L.; Ramirez, J.J.; Raglin, P.S. [and others



Sputtering yield of Pu bombarded by fission Fragments from Cf  

SciTech Connect

We present results on the yield of sputtering of Pu atoms from a Pu foil, bombarded by fission fragments from a {sup 252}Cf source in transmission geometry. We have found the number of Pu atoms/incoming fission fragments ejected to be 63 {+-} 1. In addition, we show measurements of the sputtering yield as a function of distance from the central axis, which can be understood as an angular distribution of the yield. The results are quite surprising in light of the fact that the Pu foil is several times the thickness of the range of fission fragment particles in Pu. This indicates that models like the binary collision model are not sufficient to explain this behavior.

Danagoulian, Areg [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcneil, Wendy V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yuan, Vincent W [Los Alamos National Laboratory



High-yield positron systems for linear colliders  

SciTech Connect

Linear colliders, such as the SLC, are among those accelerators for which a high-yield positron source operating at the repetition rate of the accelerator is desired. The SLC, having electron energies up to 50 GeV, presents the possibility of generating positron bunches with useful charge even exceeding that of the initial electron bunch. The exact positron yield to be obtained depends on the particular capture, transport and damping system employed. Using 31 GeV electrons impinging on a W-type converter phase-space at the target to the acceptance of the capture rf section, the SLC source is capable of producing, for every electron, up to two positrons within the acceptance of the positron damping ring. The design of this source and the performance of the positron system as built are described. Also, future prospects and limitations for high-yield positron systems are discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Clendenin, J.E.



Strategy for continuous improvement in IC manufacturability, yield, and reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continual improvements in yield, reliability and manufacturability measure a fab and ultimately result in Total Customer Satisfaction. A new organizational and technical methodology for continuous defect reduction has been established in a formal feedback loop, which relies on yield and reliability, failed bit map analysis, analytical tools, inline monitoring, cross functional teams and a defect engineering group. The strategy requires the fastest detection, identification and implementation of possible corrective actions. Feedback cycle time is minimized at all points to improve yield and reliability and reduce costs, essential for competitiveness in the memory business. Payoff was a 9.4X reduction in defectivity and a 6.2X improvement in reliability of 256 K fast SRAMs over 20 months.

Dreier, Dean J.; Berry, Mark; Schani, Phil; Phillips, Michael; Steinberg, Joe; Depinto, Gary



Estimation of neutron-induced spallation yields of krypton isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure is outlined for estimating cross sections for neutron-induced spallation products relative to those for proton-induced reactions. When combined with known proton spallation systematics, it is demonstrated that cumulative yields for cosmogenically-important stable 84Kr and 86Kr isotopes are ~1.4 and ~2.8 times greater, respectively, for incident neutrons compared to protons at 0.2<=E<=3.0 GeV for nearby medium mass targets. Yields for lighter kryptons are relatively insensitive to the identity of the incident nucleon. NUCLEAR REACTIONS (n, spallation), 0.2<=En<=3.0 GeV, stable Kr product yield estimates from proton spallation systematics.

Karol, Paul J.; Tobin, Michael J.; Shibata, Seiichi



Enhancement of ultrasonic cavitation yield by multi-frequency sonication.  


The paper reports the enhanced effect of multi-frequency ultrasonic irradiation on cavitation yield. The cavitation yield is characterized by electrical conductivity determination, fluorescence intensity determination and iodine release method. Two-frequency (28 kHz/0.87 MHz) orthogonal continuous ultrasound, two-frequency (28 kHz/0.87 MHz) orthogonal pulse ultrasound and three-frequency (28 kHz/1.0 MHz/1.87 MHz) orthogonal continuous ultrasound have been used. It has been found that the combined irradiation of two or more frequencies of ultrasound can produce a significant increase in cavitation yield compared with single frequency irradiation. The possible mechanisms of the enhanced effect are briefly discussed. PMID:12371198

Feng, Ruo; Zhao, Yiyun; Zhu, Changping; Mason, T J



Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate  

PubMed Central

Agricultural intensification has increased crop yields, but at high economic and environmental cost. Harnessing ecosystem services of naturally occurring organisms is a cheaper but under-appreciated approach, because the functional roles of organisms are not linked to crop yields, especially outside the northern temperate zone. Ecosystem services in soil come from earthworms in these cooler and wetter latitudes; what may fulfill their functional role in agriculture in warmer and drier habitats, where they are absent, is unproven. Here we show in a field experiment that ants and termites increase wheat yield by 36% from increased soil water infiltration due to their tunnels and improved soil nitrogen. Our results suggest that ants and termites have similar functional roles to earthworms, and that they may provide valuable ecosystem services in dryland agriculture, which may become increasingly important for agricultural sustainability in arid climates.

Evans, Theodore A.; Dawes, Tracy Z.; Ward, Philip R.; Lo, Nathan



How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker and Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2011) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Glasstone & Dolan, 1977). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.



How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker & Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2012) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Kinney & Graham, 1985). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.



Climate change: implications for the yield of edible rice.  


Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980-2009 at IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy. PMID:23776635

Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa



Fingering instability of a sheet of yield-stress fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the fingering instability that occurs at the contact line of a thin sheet of a yield-stress fluid flowing down an incline. We derive an expression for the wavelength of the finger pattern as a function of inclination angle for a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. The wavelength is predicted to diverge at a finite angle which is related to the yield stress of the fluid. We also measure the wavelength of the finger pattern with suspensions of bentonite clay in water. Our experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction.

de Bruyn, John R.; Habdas, Piotr; Kim, Stella



Fingering instability of a sheet of yield-stress fluid.  


We study the fingering instability that occurs at the contact line of a thin sheet of a yield-stress fluid flowing down an incline. We derive an expression for the wavelength of the finger pattern as a function of inclination angle for a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. The wavelength is predicted to diverge at a finite angle which is related to the yield stress of the fluid. We also measure the wavelength of the finger pattern with suspensions of bentonite clay in water. Our experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. PMID:12366117

de Bruyn, John R; Habdas, Piotr; Kim, Stella



Stress Enhancement in the Delayed Yielding of Colloidal Gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networks of aggregated colloidal particles are solidlike and can sustain an applied shear stress while exhibiting little or no creep; however, ultimately they will catastrophically fail. We show that the time delay for this yielding decreases in two distinct exponential regimes with applied stress. This behavior is universal and found for a variety of colloidal gel systems. We present a bond-rupture model that quantitatively describes this behavior and highlights the role of mesoscopic structures. Our result gives new insight into the nature of yielding in these soft solid materials.

Sprakel, Joris; Lindström, Stefan B.; Kodger, Thomas E.; Weitz, David A.



County-Level Crop Yield Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early estimates of crop yield, particularly at a fine scale, can inform precision agriculture efforts. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) currently provides estimates of yield on a monthly basis for each state. These estimates are based on phone interviews with farmers and in-situ examination of randomly selected plots. We seek to provide predictions at a much higher spatial resolution, on a more frequent basis, using remote sensing observations. We use publicly available data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft. These observations have a spatial resolution of 250 m and consist of two spectral bands (red and infra-red) with a repeat period of 8 days. As part of the HARVIST (Heterogeneous Agricultural Research Via Interactive, Scalable Technology) project, we have created statistical crop yield models using historical MODIS data combined with the per-county yield reported by the USDA at the end of the growing season. In our approach, we analyze 100 randomly selected historical pixels from each county to generate a yield prediction for the county as a whole. We construct a time series for each pixel that consists of its NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) value observed during each 8-day time period to date. We then cluster all pixels together to identify groups of distinct elements (different crops, bodies of water, urban areas, desert, etc.) and create a regression model for each one. For each crop of interest, the model that best predicts that crop's historical yield is selected. These models can then be applied to data from subsequent years to generate predictions for the future. We applied this approach to data from California and Kansas for corn and wheat. We found that, in general, the yield prediction error decreased as the harvest time approached. In California, distinctly different models were selected to predict corn and wheat, permitting specialization for each crop type. The best models from 2001 predicted yield for 2002 with a 10% (corn) and 23% (wheat) relative error three months before harvest. In Kansas, the 2001 models for corn and wheat were not well distinguished, providing good predictions for wheat (19% error three months before harvest) but poor predictions for corn (55% error three months before harvest). In post-analysis, we found that the 2001 pixel NDVI time series for Kansas are much more homogeneous than those for California, making it difficult to select crop-specific models. We are currently working on incorporating historical data from additional years, which will provide more diversity and potentially better predictions. We are also in the process of applying this technique to additional crops.

Wagstaff, K. L.; Roper, A.; Lane, T.



Yield of fission fragments from the photofission of actinide nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yields of the 101Mo, 135I, and 135 m Cs isotopes from the photofission of the actinide nuclei 232Th 238U, and 237Np are measured. These fission fragments have specific nuclear structure features or are of practical use. The measurements are performed in the bremsstrahlung from the microtron of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) at an electron energy of 22 MeV. The yields of the fragments are measured by the activation method using a ? radiation HPGe detector.

Gangrskii, Yu. P.; Zuzaan, P.; Belov, A. G.; Blaszchak, Z.; Zhemenik, V. I.; Markov, B. N.; Myshinskii, G. V.



Fusion Yield Enhancement in Magnetized Laser-Driven Implosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancement of the ion temperature and fusion yield has been observed in magnetized laser-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA Laser Facility. A spherical CH target with a 10 atm D2 gas fill was imploded in a polar-drive configuration. A magnetic field of 80 kG was embedded in the target and was subsequently trapped and compressed by the imploding conductive plasma. As a result of the hot-spot magnetization, the electron radial heat losses were suppressed and the observed ion temperature and neutron yield were enhanced by 15% and 30%, respectively.

Chang, P. Y.; Fiksel, G.; Hohenberger, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Betti, R.; Marshall, F. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.



Up-conversion yield in glass ceramics containing silver  

SciTech Connect

Small silver particles are known to increase the fluorescence yield in rare-earth-doped glasses. These particles can be grown easily in glass ceramics of general composition (PbF2, GeO2, YbF3, ErF3). The authors have studied the effect of the addition of silver on the up-conversion yield due to sequential energy transfer between YbT and ErT ions. The origin and the information that can be obtained from this effect are discussed.

Malta, O.L.; Santa-Cruz, P.A.; De Sa, G.F.; Auzel, F.



High yield preparation of a soluble polyaniline derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH, temperature, monomer\\/oxidant molar ratio, catalysts and ionic strength on the reaction yield and electrical conductivity of chemically synthesized poly (o-methoxyaniline) was studied. Based on this, poly (o-methoxyaniline) was prepared in the presence of p-toluene-sulfonic, dodecyl-benzene-sulfonic and dodecyl-sulfuric acids. Poly(o-methoxyaniline) was obtained with 90% yield and a conductivity of 0.1 S cm?1 when p-toluene-sulfonic acid was used.

Wilson A. Gazotti; Marco-A. De Paoli



Using Landsat TM data to model corn and soybean yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early research in agriculture used remotely sensed data mostly for the identification of spectral signatures, where crop type/area classification would depend on data acquired from hand-held or truck-mounted instruments. Through time different approaches were taken for crop type/area classification, such as a systematic sampling of inventory ground data that were used later for training and testing using image processing techniques. Later, technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were used for application to precision agriculture. These new tools provided a better meaning to understand and analyze the complex variability of the crop-soil-atmosphere system to estimate crop yields. The present research used data collected in the Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) in 1998 and two Landsat thematic Mapper images (July and August) to analyze the crop variability. Ground truth parameters, such as chlorophyll, leaf area index (LAI), and electricity conductivity, were collected throughout the growing season. In addition, vegetation indexes (VI) such as the Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), simple vegetation index (SVI), soil adjusted ratio vegetation index (SARVI), were computed for the two images. Both ground truth data and VI's were statistically analyzed with yield measurements taken with an on-the-go yield monitor to estimate a best fit yield model for use with soybeans and corn. The correlation analysis within a Landsat pixel reported SVI52 (r = 0.62), SVI53 (r = 0.56), and SVI54 (r = 0.53) as the most significant relationships. The results from the ground truth data vs. on-the-go yields reported total clay (%) (r = 0.90), leaf area (r = 0.76), and tissue plant analysis (r = 0.73) A stepwise regression analysis was performed using the Landsat TM images and the VI's selected. A series of linear models were evaluated taking into account the Landsat TM and yield while varying the scale (1 pixel to 16 30-m pixels). The same stepwise regression analysis were performed but adding the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the Electrical Conductivity (EC) which resulted in the best coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.94, R 2 = 0.98, and R2 = 0.96 for plots 100, 200, and 300, respectively). A stepwise regression analysis was also explored with standardized yields. The resulted models allowed exploring the use of a crop independent model. The corn and soybeans yield models developed with the 1998 data were used in two extra images (1991 and 1992) to test the models

Candanedo Guevara, Martin Edmundo



Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report  

SciTech Connect

To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes



Stress enhancement in the delayed yielding of colloidal gels.  


Networks of aggregated colloidal particles are solidlike and can sustain an applied shear stress while exhibiting little or no creep; however, ultimately they will catastrophically fail. We show that the time delay for this yielding decreases in two distinct exponential regimes with applied stress. This behavior is universal and found for a variety of colloidal gel systems. We present a bond-rupture model that quantitatively describes this behavior and highlights the role of mesoscopic structures. Our result gives new insight into the nature of yielding in these soft solid materials. PMID:21770607

Sprakel, Joris; Lindström, Stefan B; Kodger, Thomas E; Weitz, David A



Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements  

SciTech Connect

A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J



Enhancement of ultrasonic cavitation yield by multi-frequency sonication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the enhanced effect of multi-frequency ultrasonic irradiation on cavitation yield. The cavitation yield is characterized by electrical conductivity determination, fluorescence intensity determination and iodine release method. Two-frequency (28 kHz\\/0.87 MHz) orthogonal continuous ultrasound, two-frequency (28 kHz\\/0.87 MHz) orthogonal pulse ultrasound and three-frequency (28 kHz\\/1.0 MHz\\/1.87 MHz) orthogonal continuous ultrasound have been used. It has been found that

Ruo Feng; Yiyun Zhao; Changping Zhu; T. J Mason



Fission fizzles: Estimating the yield of a predetonated nuclear weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An undergraduate-level model is developed for estimating the fraction of the design yield that can be realized if a uranium or a plutonium fission bomb suffers an uncontrolled predetonation due to a spontaneous fission of the fissile material. The model is based on the combination of one published earlier for the predetonation probability and a yield model developed by Mark et al. [``Explosive properties of reactor-grade plutonium,'' Sci. Global Secur. 17 (2), 170-185 (2009); a reprint of the same paper published in Sci. Global Secur. 4 (1), 111-128 (1993)].

Cameron Reed, B.



Use of vegetation health data for estimation of aus rice yield in bangladesh.  


Rice is a vital staple crop for Bangladesh and surrounding countries, with interannual variation in yields depending on climatic conditions. We compared Bangladesh yield of aus rice, one of the main varieties grown, from official agricultural statistics with Vegetation Health (VH) Indices [Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and Vegetation Health Index (VHI)] computed from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data covering a period of 15 years (1991-2005). A strong correlation was found between aus rice yield and VCI and VHI during the critical period of aus rice development that occurs during March-April (weeks 8-13 of the year), several months in advance of the rice harvest. Stepwise principal component regression (PCR) was used to construct a model to predict yield as a function of critical-period VHI. The model reduced the yield prediction error variance by 62% compared with a prediction of average yield for each year. Remote sensing is a valuable tool for estimating rice yields well in advance of harvest and at a low cost. PMID:22574057

Rahman, Atiqur; Roytman, Leonid; Krakauer, Nir Y; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Goldberg, Mitch



{eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{eta}{gamma}{gamma}: A primer analysis  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic rare decays {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} are analysed for the first time and their predicted branching ratios given. The vector meson exchange dominant contribution is treated using Vector Meson Dominance and the scalar component is estimated by means of the Linear Sigma Model. The agreement between our calculation and the measurement of the related process {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} is a check of the procedure. Scalar meson effects are seen to be irrelevant for {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}, while a significant scalar contribution due to the {sigma}(500) resonance seems to emerge in the case of {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}. Future measurements coming from KLOE-2, Crystal Ball, WASA, and BES-III will elucidate if any of these processes carry an important scalar contribution or they are simply driven by the exchange of vector mesons.

Escribano, Rafel [Grup de Fisica Teorica (Departament de Fisica) and Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies (IFAE), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)



Decays Z{yields}ggg and Z{sup '}{yields}ggg in the minimal 331 model  

SciTech Connect

We perform a complete calculation at the one-loop level for the Zggg and Z{sup '}ggg couplings in the context of the minimal 331 model, which predicts the existence of a new Z{sup '} gauge boson and new exotic quarks. Bose symmetry is exploited to write a compact and manifest SU{sub C}(3)-invariant vertex function for the Vggg (V=Z, Z{sup '}) coupling. Previous results on the Z{yields}ggg decay in the standard model are reproduced. It is found that this decay is insensitive to the effects of the new exotic quarks. This in contrast with the Z{sup '}{yields}ggg decay, which is sensitive to both the standard model and exotic quarks, whose branching ratio is larger than that of the Z{yields}ggg transition by about a factor of 4.

Flores-Tlalpa, A.; Montano, J.; Ramirez-Zavaleta, F.; Toscano, J. J. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)



Zero yield at minimum (ZYAM) method and v{sub 2}: Underestimating jet yields from dihadron azimuth correlations  

SciTech Connect

Dihadron azimuth correlations can provide combinatoric access to jet structure in nuclear collisions. To isolate true jet yields a combinatoric background must be subtracted, including a constant offset and a contribution from 'elliptic flow' (azimuth quadrupole measured by v{sub 2}{sup 2}). The principle of zero yield at minimum (ZYAM) has been introduced to determine the constant offset. Separate measurements determine v{sub 2}{sup 2}. This analysis suggests that the ZYAM offset is usually substantially overestimated, and v{sub 2}{sup 2} is overestimated by conventional analysis methods. Therefore, jet yields may be substantially underestimated in more-central A-A collisions, and the 'away-side' azimuth peak (back-to-back jet correlations) may be distorted leading to questionable inferences of 'Mach shocks'.

Trainor, Thomas A. [CENPA 354290, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)



Analysis of the B{yields}K{sub 2}*({yields}K{pi})l{sup +}l{sup -} decay  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study the angular distribution of the rare B-decay B{yields}K{sub 2}*({yields}K{pi})l{sup +}l{sup -}, which is expected to be observed soon. We use the standard effective Hamiltonian approach, and use the form factors that have already been estimated for the corresponding radiative decay B{yields}K{sub 2}*{gamma}. The additional form factors that come into play for the dileptonic channel are estimated using the large energy effective theory (LEET), which enables one to relate the additional form factors to the form factors for the radiative mode. Our results provide, just like in the case of the K*(892) resonance, an opportunity for a straightforward comparison of the basic theory with experimental results, which may be expected in the near future for this channel.

Choudhury, S. Rai; Cornell, A. S.; Joshi, G. C.; McKellar, B. H. J. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia, New Delhi 110 025 (India); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)



Foliar application of Zn at flowering stage improves plant's performance, yield and yield attributes of black gram.  


Black gram plants subjected to varying levels of Zn supply (0.01 to 10 microM Zn) showed optimum growth and dry matter yield in plants receiving 1 microM Zn. The dry matter yield of plants decreased in plants receiving 0.01 and 0.1 microM Zn (deficient) and excess levels of Zn (2 and 10 microM Zn). The plants grown with Zn deficient supply showed delayed flowering, premature bud abscission, reduced size of anthers, pollen producing capacity, pollen viability and stigma receptivity resulting in poor pod formation and seed yield. Providing Zn as a foliar spray at pre-flowering stage minimized the severity of Zn deficiency on reproductive structure development and enhanced the seed nutritional status by enhancing seed Zn density, seed carbohydrate (sugar and starch content) and storage proteins (albumins, globulins, glutenins, and prolamines). PMID:23898554

Pandey, Nalini; Gupta, Bhavana; Pathak, Girish Chandra



Preparation Methodology and Rheological Properties of Yield Pseudoplastic Transparent Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a preparation methodology for making clear yield pseudoplastic fluids so that repetitive and consistent rheological measurements can be made using two types of Carbopol 980 and Carbopol Ultrez-10. The methodology calls for gentle agitation while dispersing the polymer, leaving it static for 30 minutes for air bubble removal and neutralization while agitating with NaOH followed by 1

Vassilios C. Kelessidis; Vasiliki Hatzistamou



Conditions that Influence Drivers' Yielding Behavior for Uncontrolled Crossings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pedestrians with visual impairments need to cross streets where traffic signals and traffic signage are not present. This study examined the influences of several interventions, including a pedestrian's use of a mobility cane, on the behavior of drivers when they were expected to yield to a pedestrian crossing at an uncontrolled crossing.…

Bourquin, Eugene; Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona



The effect of afforestation on erosion processes and sediment yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of coniferous afforestation on erosion processes and sediment yield in upland areas of the United Kingdom, is being studied in three experimental basins; one is rough pasture and used for sheep grazing, the second has recently been deep ploughed and planted with mixed conifers, while the third is under mature coniferous forest. A proposed model of sediment processes

R. B. Painter; K. Blyth; J. C. Mosedale; M. Kelly


Modelling bedload yield in braided gravel bed rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an approach for estimating the annual bedload yield of a braided channel. This procedure is based on the extension of theory of flow and sediment transport in braided rivers recently presented by Paola (1996). The revised approach accounts explicitly for the relationship between increasing discharge and varying channel hydraulics, and is suitable for use in obtaining bedload

A. P. Nicholas




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tropospheric ozone levels are rising and are predicted to continue to increase. Past research has shown that chronic exposure to high ozone concentrations has detrimental effects on crop growth and yield. Therefore it is of great importance to understand the effects of ozone on photosynthesis, cro...



Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement of the spontaneous fission neutron yield of natural ; uranium was made by the activation of approximately 1500 l. of KMnOâ ; solutton in a sub-critical assembly containing over 5000 lb of natural uranium. ; By filtering a large volume of this solution, suficient manganese activity is ; removed as MnOâ by the Szilard-Chalmers effect to provide an

A. W. Waltner; B. E. Leonard



Crop yield evaluation under controlled drainage in Ohio, United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Drainage water management (NRCS Practice Code 554) is an important agricultural water management practice for reducing nitrate loading to surface water across the Midwest US. There may also be a positive crop yield benefit which could add incentive for adoption of the practice. Results from a three ...


Consistent scenario for B{yields}PS decays  

SciTech Connect

We consider B{yields}PS decays where P stands for pseudoscalar and S for a heavy (1500 MeV) scalar meson. We achieve agreement with available experimental data, which includes two orders of magnitude hierarchy, assuming the scalars mesons are two quark states. The contribution of the dipolar penguin operator O{sub 11} is quantified.

Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Mendoza S, J. A.; Ramirez, Carlos A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Depto. de Fisica-Matematicas, Universidad de Pamplona Pamplona, Norte de Santander (Colombia); Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)



The Impact of Outcrossing on Yields of 'Hass' Avocado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is characterized by excessive flower and fruit abscission, resulting in extremely low fruit set. Low outcrossing rates might be a factor contributing to low yields. It is hypothesized that self-fertilized flowers and resulting fruit abscise at a much higher rate than fruit that are the product of outcrossing. However, significant relationships between outcrossing rates and

Lauren C. Garner; Vanessa E. T. M. Ashworth; Michael T. Clegg; Carol J. Lovatt


A TCAD-based yield and reliability analysis for VCSELs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield enhancement and reliability improvement are main requirements in todays industrial VCSEL manufacturing. This requires a thorough understanding of process tolerances and the effects resulting from design variations. So far, this has been done by statistical analysis of experimental data. In this work, we use a state-of-the art technology computer aided design (TCAD) tool to analyze device reliability and yield for multiple VCSEL designs. The starting point is a physics-based simulation model that is calibrated to temperature-dependent static and dynamic measurements for a set of single- and multi-mode VCSELs lasing at 850 nm. Applying statistical variations that result from design modifications and process fluctuations, yield and reliability data are extracted by means of simulation. The yield will be derived by compliance to selected device specifications (such available single-mode power), and the device reliability is determined from an analysis of the internal device properties. As example, the oxide aperture and metal aperture design will be discussed, and a robust design will be presented.

Odermatt, Stefan; Eitel, Sven; Hövel, Rainer; Letay, Gergoe; Witzigmann, Bernd



Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...


Stress Enhancement in the Delayed Yielding of Colloidal Gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networks of aggregated colloidal particles are solidlike and can sustain an applied shear stress while exhibiting little or no creep; however, ultimately they will catastrophically fail. We show that the time delay for this yielding decreases in two distinct exponential regimes with applied stress. This behavior is universal and found for a variety of colloidal gel systems. We present a

Joris Sprakel; Stefan B. Lindström; Thomas E. Kodger; David A. Weitz



Heterosis for yield and related characters in pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the levels of heterosis in F1 hybrids, four current pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars from southern Australia were used as female parents and crossed with 18 introduced genotypes. The 22 parents, 72 F1 hybrids and, depending on the environment, either 54 or all 72 F2 families were grown in replicated plots in four environments. Grain yield, total dry

P. Sarawat; F. L. Stoddard; D. R. Marshall; S. M. Ali



Mechanisms in the Quantum Yield of Cypridina Bioluminescence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of temperature, pH, salts, and reactant concentrations on the bioluminescent oxidation of Cypridina luciferin catalyzed by Cypridina luciferase indicated a highest quantum yield phi (einsteins per mole of luciferin oxidized) of 0.31 in H2O, ...

O. Shimomura F. H. Johnson



Agents to Improve Yields of Hydroxy Stearate Greases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Greases containing lithium or calcium 12-hydroxy stearate thickeners are obtained in greater yield and with an increase in dropping point by incorporating a minor amount of azelaic or sebacic acid. From 0.5 to 4 percent by weight of the acid is added to m...

D. W. Criddle



Impact of simulated heat waves on soybean physiology and yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With increases in mean global temperatures and associated climate change, extreme temperature events are predicted to increase in both intensity and frequency. Despite the clearly documented negative public health impacts of heat waves, the impact on physiology and yields of key agricultural species...


Top ten models constrained by b yields s(gamma).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiative decay b yields s(gamma) is examined in the Standard Model and in nine classes of models which contain physics beyond the Standard Model. The constraints which may be placed on these models from the recent results of the CLEO Collaboration on...

J. L. Hewett