Sample records for yield yield components

  1. Weed competition and dry bean yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

  2. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen addition on the yield and yield components of soybeans 

    E-print Network

    Gambaudo, Sebastian Pedro

    1983-01-01

    EFFECT OF INOCULATION AND NITROGEN ADDITION ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEANS A Thesis by SEBASTIAN PEDRO GAMBAUDO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Ma3or Sub3ect: Agronomy EFFECT OF INOCULATION AND NITROGEN ADDITION ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEANS A Thesis Sebastian Pedro Gambaudo Approved as to style and content by: rank M. Hons (Co...

  3. High Temperature Effects on Cotton Yield, Yield Components, and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with all biological processes, an optimum temperature range exists for cotton growth. This research tests the upper threshold of that optimum temperature range by investigating how cotton growth and development, lint yield production, yield components, and fiber quality were affected by higher t...

  4. QTL mapping of forage yield and forage yield component traits in Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y L; Wang, L H; Li, J Q; Zhan, Q W; Zhang, Q; Li, J F; Fan, F F

    2015-01-01

    The sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense) is an important forage crop. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms related to forage yield and the 4 forage yield component traits in this forage crop. In this study, a linkage map was constructed with 124 assigned SSR markers using an F2 mapping population derived from the crossing of sorghum Tx623A and sudangrass Sa. Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for forage yield and the 4 forage yield component traits using inclusive composite interval mapping. Five fresh weight QTLs were identified and contributed >50% of the total phenotypic variance. Of these QTLs, all showed additive and dominant effects, but most exhibited mainly dominant effects. These results will provide useful information for improvements in sorghum-sudangrass hybrid breeding. PMID:25966155

  5. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding. PMID:25911836

  6. Path coefficient analysis of the effects of stripe rust and cultivar mixtures on yield and yield components of winter wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Akanda; C. C. Mundt

    1996-01-01

    Four club wheat cultivars and three two-component cultivar mixtures, planted at five frequencies, were grown in three environments in both the presence and absence of stripe rust. The effect of stripe rust on wheat yield was through the yield components, with weight of individual seed being the component most affected by rust. In some cases, yield component compensation was indicated

  7. The light yield nonproportionality component of scintillator energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.D.; Rooney, B.D.; Li, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The scintillator energy resolution component which is due to light yield nonproportionality has been characterized for NaI(Tl) and LSO. Results are based on a discrete convolution of measured electron response data and the electron energy distribution resulting from full-energy absorption events. The behavior of this energy resolution component as a function of energy is observed to be strongly dependent on the shape of the electron response. Furthermore, in some energy regions, the light yield nonproportionality component is observed to be larger than the resolution predicted by assuming Poisson photoelectron statistics. Characterization of this energy resolution component will facilitate deconvolution of other components from the total energy resolution.

  8. [Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

  9. Effect of Plant Density on Yield, Yield Components and Effective Medicine Ingredients of Blond Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk.) Accessions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. SABAGH NEKONAM; K. H. RAZMJOO

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant density on yield, yield components and effective medicine ingredients of eight blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk.) accessions. Eight accessions were grown in the field at three plant densities (80, 120 & 160 plants m-2). As plant density increased, biological yield increased from 797 to 1430 kg ha-1 and

  10. Molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield components in spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice L. Cuthbert; Daryl J. Somers; Anita L. Brûlé-Babel; P. Douglas Brown; Gary H. Crow

    2008-01-01

    An F1 derived doubled haploid (DH) population of 402 lines from the adapted spring wheat cross Superb (high yielding)\\/BW278 (low\\u000a yielding) was developed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with yield and yield components. A subset of\\u000a the population (186 lines) was evaluated in replicated field trials in 2001 and 2002 at six locations in Manitoba and Saskatchewan,\\u000a Canada.

  11. Effects of Salinity on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Rice at Different Seeding Densities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linghe Zeng; Michael C. Shannon

    2000-01-01

    management options for rice growers. One possible management option in dealing with salinity-induced de- One possible management option for growers in dealing with de- creases in rice production is to compensate yield reduc- creases in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by salinity is to compensate yield reduction by increasing seeding density. Our tion by increasing seeding density. objectives were

  12. Seeding date influence on camelina seed yield, yield components, and oil content in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisol Berti; Rosemarie Wilckens; Susana Fischer; Alejandro Solis; Burton Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) was introduced for the first time in Chile in 2008 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and also as high omega-3-containing seed oil for the salmon feed industry. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum seeding date to maximize camelina seed yield in South Central Chile. The experiment was conducted under dryland conditions

  13. Effect of ‘Mixtalol’ on growth, yield and yield components of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Setia; Richa; Neelam Setia; K. L. Ahuja; C. P. Malik

    1989-01-01

    Mixtalol (a mixture of long chain aliphatic alcohols varying in chain length from C24 to C32) applied to Brassica juncea plants as foliar spray caused an increase in secondary and tertiary branching with consequent enhancement in seed yield through increased number of inflorescences and siliquae per plant. The percentage of immature siliquae and shattering of siliquae decreased with this treatment.

  14. Effects of irrigation and plant density on cotton within-boll yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield is integrated through whole-plant and within-boll yield components. Crop management practices such as irrigation and plant density may impact yield. Thus, yield dynamics due to irrigation and plant density may result from changes in the most basic yield comp...

  15. The effects of leaf rust on yield and yield components of wheat treated with varying dosages of a systemic fungicide

    E-print Network

    Linsley, Dwight Les

    1976-01-01

    for each row was precisely weighed to insure a constant seeding rate. Planting dates were November 14, 1975 at, McGregor and November 15, 1975 at College Station. The Indar treatments were sprayed at College Station on February 23, 10 1976 and at, Mc... severities. The rate of disease development throughout the growing season was recorded. Also, the effects of leaf rust on yield, yield components (spikes/m, seed/spike, and 500-seed 2 weight), volume weight, and height were determined for each cultivar...

  16. Increasing Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize yield improvement in the 20th century represents one of the great success stories of plant breeding and agronomy. Maize grain yield in the United States has increased on average by 0.122 metric tons per hectare per year since 1945 (Figure 1). This is in sharp contrast to essentially zero gain ...

  17. Quantitative trait loci(qtl) analysis of yield components and heat tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) 

    E-print Network

    Do, Jung Hwa

    2009-05-15

    x environment effect on individual yield components in response to reproductive stage high temperature stress. The heritability of the individual yield components was low (0.42 to 25%, 0.1~ 2% for heat tolerance). One hundred two polymorphic SSRs...

  18. Genetic analysis of seed yield, oil content and their components in safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ramachandram; J. V. Goud

    1981-01-01

    The genetic architecture of seed yield, oil content and their components was studied in a diallel cross of F1 and F2: eleven parents, representing an adequate diversity for all considered characters in safflower were used. Combining ability analysis revealed the predominance of gca variance for plant height, total capitula, seed weight, seed number and seed yield in F1 and F2

  19. Yield Components and Nutritive Value of Black Locust and Mimosa in Arkansas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (b...

  20. Cotton Response to 1-Methylcyclopropene Under Different Light Regimes and Growth Stages: Lint Yield and Yield Components 

    E-print Network

    Carden, Charles Warren

    2010-10-12

    Low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) during certain growth periods of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been shown to impact yield, ethylene synthesis, and fiber quality. Previous research with shading has shown ...

  1. Cotton Response to 1-Methylcyclopropene Under Different Light Regimes and Growth Stages: Lint Yield and Yield Components

    E-print Network

    Carden, Charles Warren

    2010-10-12

    imposed at four developmental stages of growth: pinhead square (PHS), first flower (FF), peak flower (PF), and boll development (BD). Data pooled over both years indicated that there were no significant differences in yield for 1-MCP treatments; however...

  2. Association Between Yield, Yield Components, and Fiber Properties Exotic Germplasm Derived from Multiple Crosses Between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadening genetic base is essential for genetic improvement of lint yield and fiber quality in upland cotton. An exotic germplasm population derived from multiple crosses between Gossypium barbadense L. and Acala 1517 types was obtained from USDA-ARS at Las Cruces, NM, USA. This germplasm was desi...

  3. Adaptation of faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) to dryland Mediterranean-type environments I. Seed yield and yield components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Loss; K. H. M. Siddique

    1997-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) was thought unsuitable for commercial dryland production in short-season Mediterranean-type environments because of its susceptibility to moisture and high temperature stresses. Faba bean cv. Fiord was sown at four dates ranging from early May to early July at 7 sites in 1993 and 5 sites in 1994 in south western Australia. In 1993, seed yields

  4. VINE WATER STRESS IN ‘MERLOT’: IMPACT ON YIELD COMPONENTS, BERRY AND WINE COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vine water stress during berry development is thought to impact wine quality through reduction in berry size and/or enhancement of berry quality components. The objective of this research was to determine how the magnitude and timing of vine water stress impacts vine yield components and berry and ...

  5. Path and Ridge Regression Analysis of Seed Yield and Seed Yield Components of Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2 were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components. PMID:21533153

  6. Epistasis for Three Grain Yield Components in Rice (Oryxa sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhikang Li; Shannon R. M. Pinson; Andrew H. Paterson; James W. Stanselt

    1997-01-01

    The genetic basis for three grain yield components of rice, 1000 kernel weight (KW), grain number per panicle (GN), and grain weight per panicle (GWP), was investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism markers and F4 progeny testing from a cross between rice subspecies japonica (cultivar Lemont from USA) and indica (cv. Teqing from China). Following identification of 19 QTL affecting

  7. Quantitative trait loci(qtl) analysis of yield components and heat tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    E-print Network

    Do, Jung Hwa

    2009-05-15

    This study was conducted to identify and map QTLs for yield components and heat tolerance of wheat in response to two kinds of heat treatment (short term-and long term-heat treatment) during seed formation in a set of 62 RILs derived from a cross...

  8. Yield and yield components of two irrigated red bean cultivars and some soil properties as influenced by wheat residues and nitrogen management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Jafar Bahrani; Foroud Salehi; Sayed Abdolreza Kazemeini

    2011-01-01

    Crop residues are beneficial substances affecting crop production and soil properties. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residue rates (0, 25, 50 and 75%) combined with N levels (0, 34.5, 69, 103.5 kg ha) on yield and yield components of two red common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and to monitor chemical

  9. Yield and yield components of two irrigated red bean cultivars and some soil properties as influenced by wheat residues and nitrogen management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Jafar Bahrani; Foroud Salehi; Sayed Abdolreza Kazemeini

    2012-01-01

    Crop residues are beneficial substances affecting crop production and soil properties. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residue rates (0, 25, 50 and 75%) combined with N levels (0, 34.5, 69, 103.5 kg ha) on yield and yield components of two red common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and to monitor chemical

  10. Lucerne growth and components of seed yield as influenced by plant growth regulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Du Wenhua; Wang Gang; Tian Xinhui; Alan Humphries

    2008-01-01

    Effects of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7% chlormequat, 0.15 and 0.35% ethephon, and 0.12 and 0.22% paclobutrazol on lucerne growth and components of seed yield were investigated in Gansu province, China. The paclobutrazol application decreased above? and below?ground biomass by 25–48 and 44% at concentrations of 0.12–0.22%, and increased seed yield by 31–47%. Applications of ethephon and chlormequat did not affect

  11. Long-Term Tillage, Cover Crop, and Nitrogen Rate Effects on Cotton: Plant Growth and Yield Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald J. Boquet; Robert L. Hutchinson; Gary A. Breitenbeck

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield is influenced by tillage, no-till and cover crops are useful for soil moisture con- cover crop, and N fertility, but the plant growth and yield component servation in the southeastern USA. responses related to these yield responses have not been well defined. A field study was conducted from 1991 through 2001 on Gigger silt Undoubtedly,

  12. Influence on Grain Yields and Yield Components of Leaf Rust of Wheat and Crown Rust of Oats as Measured by Isogenic Resistant and Susceptible Lines. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Alcala de Stephano, Maximino; Merkle, O. G.; Kilpatrick, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify and map QTLs for yield components and heat tolerance of wheat in response to two kinds of heat treatment (short term-and long term-heat treatment) during seed formation in a set of 62 ...

  13. Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes 

    E-print Network

    Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

    1993-01-01

    High yielding cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivars with improved fiber bundle strength are needed for today's spinning technology. This study was initiated to determine the effects of selection for improved fiber quality on within-boll yield...

  14. Relationships among Biomass Yield Components within and between Subspecies of Alfalfa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heathcliffe Riday; E. Charles Brummer

    Crosses between Medicago sativa subsp. sativa and subsp. falcata show a heterotic pattern for total biomass yield, with inter-subspecific crosses outperforming intra- subspecific crosses. Little is known about relationships among agronomic traits in sativa-falcata hybrids. The objective of this study was to examine correlations among twenty traits including total biomass yield, total biomass yield heterosis, agronomic traits and forage nutritive

  15. Seed yield and its components of indeterminate and determinate lines in recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shin; Fujii, Kenichiro; Yumoto, Setsuzo; Ishimoto, Masao; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; Sayama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Akio; Nishio, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of indeterminate growth habit in breeding to improve yield potential of Japanese soybean varieties, which exclusively have determinate growth habit. Two populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crosses between determinate Japanese cultivars and indeterminate US cultivars were grown in Akita and Kyoto, and seed weight per plant (SW) and its components were compared between indeterminate and determinate RILs. The difference of SW between the two growth habits in RILs varied depending on maturation time. The SW of early indeterminate lines was significantly higher than that of early determinate ones in Akita, but not in Kyoto. Among yield components, the number of seeds per pod was constantly larger in indeterminate lines than that in determinate ones irrespective of maturation time. The number of seeds per plant and the number of pods per plant of the indeterminate lines were greater than those of the determinate lines in early maturation in Akita. These results suggest that the indeterminate growth habit is an advantageous characteristic in breeding for high yield of early maturing soybean varieties in the Tohoku region.

  16. The influence of morphological differences between sunflower inbred lines on their SCA effects for yield components.

    PubMed

    ?uczkiewicz, Tadeusz; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt

    2004-01-01

    Genetic distances between seven oil sunflower inbred lines expressed in the variability of five morphological traits were analysed in terms of their effect on the specific combining ability (SCA) effects in these lines for yield component traits. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and other related multidimensional methods were used to recognize the differences between genotypes with respect to morphological traits. Canonical analysis was applied for a graphical configuration of parental lines and diallele hybrids in the two-dimensional space. As a measure of the difference between parental lines with respect to the analysed morphological traits jointly, i.e. as a measure of the morphological distance between these forms, Mahalanobis' distance was used. Phenotypic differences between lines were estimated using Mahalanobis' distance for each pair of crossed lines calculated for all the analysed morphological traits. The effect of morphological differences between inbred lines on the mean SCA effect for individual yield components, measured by the linear regression, was significant for oil yield per plant and for the number of seeds per plant. PMID:15131348

  17. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-01

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  18. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  19. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to grain yield and its components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Cui, Fa; Wang, Jinping; Jun, Li; Ding, Anming; Zhao, Chunhua; Li, Xingfeng; Feng, Deshun; Gao, Jurong; Wang, Honggang

    2012-01-01

    Grain protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is generally considered a highly heritable character that is negatively correlated with grain yield and yield-related traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for protein content was mapped using data on protein content and protein content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits to evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between protein content and yield, as well as yield-related traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a recombinant inbred line population with 302 lines derived from a cross between the Chinese cultivar Weimai 8 and Luohan 2. Inclusive composite interval mapping using IciMapping 3.0 was employed for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additives. A strong genetic relationship was found between protein content and grain yield, and yield-related traits. Unconditional QTL mapping analysis detected seven additive QTL for protein content, with additive effects ranging in absolute size from 0.1898% to 0.3407% protein content, jointly accounting for 43.45% of the trait variance. Conditional QTL mapping analysis indicated two QTL independent from yield, which can be used in marker-assisted selection for increasing yield without affecting grain protein content. Three additional QTL with minor effects were identified in the conditional mapping. Of the three QTLs, two were identified when protein content was conditioned on yield, which had pleiotropic effects on those two traits. Conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the individual QTL level for closely correlated traits. Further, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with minor effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping. PMID:23271016

  20. Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

  1. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  2. Relative ion yields in mammalian cell components using C60 SIMS.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Selda; Piwowar, Alan; Hue, Jonathan; Shen, Kan; Winograd, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to better understand the influence of molecular environment on the relative ion yields of membrane lipid molecules found in high abundance in a model mammalian cell line, RAW264.7. Control lipid mixtures were prepared to simulate lipid-lipid interactions in the inner and outer leaflet of cell membranes. Compared with its pure film, the molecular ion yields of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine are suppressed when mixed with 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. In the mixture, proton competition between 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine led to lower ionization efficiency. The possible mechanism for ion suppression was also investigated with (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The formation of a hydroxyl bond in lipid mixtures confirms the mechanism involving proton exchange with the surrounding environment. Similar effects were observed for lipid mixtures mimicking the composition of the inner leaflet of cell membranes. The secondary molecular ion yield of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine was observed to be enhanced in the presence of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine. PMID:25140069

  3. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ?1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m(-2)) and ?300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  4. Identification of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield components in an advanced backcross population derived from the Oryza sativa variety IR64 and the wild relative O. rufipogon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Septiningsih; J. Prasetiyono; E. Lubis; T. Tjubaryat; S. Moeljopawiro; S. R. McCouch

    2003-01-01

    A BC 2F 2 population developed from an interspecific cross between Oryza sativa (cv IR64) and O. rufipogon (IRGC 105491) was used in an advanced backcross QTL analysis to identify and introduce agronomically useful genes from this wild relative into the cultivated gene pool. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify putative yield and yield component QTLs that

  5. The effect of leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) Rob. on grain yield, yield components and quality in two pairs of closely related strains of wheat under Texas conditions

    E-print Network

    Alcala de Stefano, Maximino A

    1964-01-01

    of the grain. Phipps (15) reported that a severe leaf rust infection could reduce kernel weight by 8 percent in a susceptible variety. Caldwell et al (4) reported that leaf rust reduced yield chiefly by reducing the weight of individual kernels. Johnston... portions from 17 to 96 percent. The increase was directly correlated with the relative severity of the rust attack. Phipps (15) made a study on the effect of leaf rust on yield and other characters of wheat in which leaf rust was controlled by spraying...

  6. Combining ability of yield components and agronomic characteristics among selected Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench inbreds

    E-print Network

    Smith, Leslie Kay

    1986-01-01

    significant for kernel weight only. Combining ab'lity for food arrd forage qual y characterist'cs has also been studied. Col''ns and P ckett, (1972j found significant differences in GCA effects for yield, prote'n, and lysine 'n restorer lines and signific... height ? measured as distance from the ground t" the tip of . he par, cle. 3) Panicle length ? d'stance from t'p of panicle to tl'. e base of the panic'e 4& Panicle exsection ? d stance from the flag leaf ligule to the base o the pan cle. 5) Nus...

  7. Estimating Corn Grain Yields 

    E-print Network

    Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne

    2009-06-12

    . Plan and prepare for sample and data collection. 2. Collect field samples and record data. 3. Analyze the data using the interactive grain yield calculator in the Appendix. Plan and prepare for sample and data collection Predetermine sample locations... when calculating the grain yield estimate. Refer to Fig 1 to see examples of small, medium, and large kernels. Collect field samples and record data 1. Sample area. Select a length of row that is similar to the surrounding rows. Position your...

  8. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  9. Response of two okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) varieties to fertilizers: Yield and yield components as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VB Ogunlela; MK Ahmed; JD Olarewaju

    1985-01-01

    The response of two okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) varieties (‘White velvet’ and ‘NHAE 47-4’) to fertilization in northern Nigeria was examined using four rates of nitrogen (0, 25, 50 and 100 kg ha-1) and three rates of phosphorus (0, 13 and 26 kg ha-1). Nitrogen application significantly increased green pod yield, pod diameter, number of fruits per plant, number

  10. A complete genetic linkage map and QTL analyses for bast fibre quality traits, yield and yield components in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).

    PubMed

    Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K

    2013-01-01

    We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute. PMID:23821949

  11. Yield gaps and yield relationships in US soybean production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of yield gaps (YG) (potential yield – farmer yield) provides some indication of the prospects for increasing crop yield to meet the food demands of future populations. Quantile regression analysis was applied to county soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yields (1971 – 2011) from Kentuc...

  12. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    E-print Network

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  13. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961–2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key aspect of global food availability.

  14. Combining Ability of Different Agronomic Traits and Yield Components in Hybrid Barley

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chao; Guo, Baojian; Xu, Rugen

    2015-01-01

    Selection of parents based on their combining ability is an effective approach in hybrid breeding. In this study, eight maintainer lines and nine restorer lines were used to obtain 72 crosses for analyzing the general combining ability (GCA) and special combining ability (SCA) for seven agronomic and yield characters including plant height (PH), spike length excluding awns (SL), inter-node length (IL), spikes per plant (SP), thousand kernel weight (TKW), kernel weight per plant (KWP) and dry matter weight per plant (DWP). The results showed that GCA was significantly different among parents and SCA was also significantly different among crosses. The performance of hybrid was significantly correlated with the sum of female and male GCA (TGCA), SCA and heterosis. Hu1154 A, Mian684 A, 86F098 A, 8036 R and 8041 R were excellent parents with greater general combining ability. Five crosses, Hu1154 A×8032 R, Humai10 A×8040 R, Mian684 A×8037 R, Mian684 A×8041 R and 86F098 A×8037 R, showed superior heterosis for most characters. PMID:26061000

  15. Electronic Process Limited Yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary W. Maier; Shawn Smith

    2000-01-01

    Today's industry is expanding the high performance microprocessor market into the consumer market place. This market requires very low cost, high reliability, stricter SPQL levels, and very high yields. A New Diagnostic Methodology is required to meet these new demands. This paper addresses a broad scope of issues from Product Design and Manufacturing Test, to Diagnostic and Data Analysis Tools.

  16. Biotechnology of Forest Yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Farnum; Roger Timmis; J. Laurence Kulp

    1983-01-01

    Silvicultural and genetic manipulation of Douglas fir and loblolly pine plantations have increased their productivity 70 and 300 percent, respectively, over natural forests on the same sites. Yet these intensively managed plantations are achieving less than 50 percent of their potential productivity. Future increases in yield will result from optimization of nutritional treatments, control of noncrop vegetation, and advances in

  17. USE OF PRIMITIVE ACCESSION OF COTTON AS SOURCES OF GENES FOR IMPROVING YIELD COMPONENTS AND FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breeding of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to improve lint yield and fiber quality is an on going processes. To meet textile mill requirements and producer demands both fiber quality and lint yield must be increased. This study was conducted to compare yield and fiber properties when exotic li...

  18. Effect of fruit load on oil yield components and dynamics of fruit growth and oil accumulation in olive ( Olea europaea L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo R. Trentacoste; Carlos M. Puertas; Víctor O. Sadras

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil yield and its components (fruit number, average fruit weight and fruit oil concentration) depend on crop load and source–sink ratios as affected by environmental conditions, management and the alternate bearing typical of the species. The aims of this work were to: (i) establish quantitative relationships between oil yield and its components as affected by fruit load in a

  19. Salt sensitivity in chickpea: Growth, photosynthesis, seed yield components and tissue ion regulation in contrasting genotypes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hammad Aziz; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Munir, Rushna; Colmer, Timothy David

    2015-06-15

    Chickpea is a relatively salt sensitive species but shows genotypic variation for salt tolerance, measured as grain yield per plant in mild-to-moderately saline soil. This experiment was designed to evaluate some physiological responses to salinity in three contrasting genotypes. One tolerant (Genesis836), one moderately tolerant (JG11) and one sensitive (Rupali) genotype were grown for 108d in non-saline nutrient solution (controls) and two levels of salinity treatment (30 and 60mM NaCl). No plants survived to maturity in the 60mM NaCl treatment; however, Genesis836 survived longer (87d) than JG11 (67d) while Rupali died after 27d; only Genesis836 flowered, but no pods were filled. At 30mM NaCl, Genesis836 produced a few filled pods, whereas JG11 and Rupali did not. Genotypic differences in plant dry mass at the vegetative stage were evident only at 60mM NaCl, while at maturity differences were evident at 30mM NaCl. Photosynthesis was maintained to different degrees by the three genotypes (e.g. at 30mM NaCl, 35-81% of controls; highest in Genesis836); photosynthesis was restricted predominately due to non-stomatal limitations as the intercellular CO2 concentration was only modestly affected (94-99% of controls). Photosystem II damage was evident in the less tolerant genotypes (e.g. at 30mM NaCl, actual quantum efficiency of photosystem II values were 63-96% of controls). Across treatments, shoot dry mass was negatively correlated with both Na(+) and Cl(-) shoot concentrations. However, the sensitive genotype (Rupali) had equal or lower concentrations of these ions in green leaves, stems or roots compared to tolerant genotypes (JG11 and Genesis836); ion 'exclusion' does not explain variation for salt tolerance among these three chickpea genotypes. The large difference between Rupali (sensitive) and Genesis836 (tolerant) in the salt-induced reduction in net photosynthesis via non-stomatal limitations and the assessed damage to photosystem II, but with similar leaf ion concentrations, provides evidence that variation in 'tissue tolerance' of Na(+) and/or Cl(-) in leaves contributes to the differential salt tolerance of these chickpea genotypes. PMID:26037693

  20. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

    2013-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (<315nm), UV-A+B (<400nm), transmitted all the UV (280-400nm) or without filters. All the four plant species responded to UV exclusion by a significant increase in plant height, leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. PMID:24041852

  1. Gluonic components of the pion and the transition form factor {gamma}*{gamma}*{yields}{pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Kochelev, N. I. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Departament de Fisica Teorica and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Vento, V. [Departament de Fisica Teorica and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    We propose an effective Lagrangian for the coupling of the neutral pion with gluons whose strength is determined by a low-energy theorem. We calculate the contribution of the gluonic components arising from this interaction to the pion transition form factor {gamma}*{gamma}*{yields}{pi}{sup 0} using the instanton liquid model to describe the quantum chromodynamics vacuum. We find that this contribution is large and might explain the anomalous behavior of the form factor at large virtuality of one of the photons, a feature which was recently discovered by the BABAR Collaboration.

  2. Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers need alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. Our objectives were to determine: 1) leaf and stem biomass components, 2) nutritive value (in vitro dry matter digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N and N digestibility) of leaves ...

  3. Especially significant new component of N2O quantum yield in the UV photolysis of O3 in air.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sheo S

    2005-10-13

    This paper presents an alternate three-component model for the density ([M]) and temperature (T) dependence of the N2O quantum yields (phi(N2O), in the UV photolysis of O3 in air, from Estupiñán et al.'s (ENLCW's) high-quality experiments that were a breakthrough in the pressure and T coverage. The three components consist of a new [M]-independent component, the ENLCW-discovered [M]1 component, and the [M]2-dependent component found by Kajimoto and Cvetanovic. The [M]1 component is T independent. The weak T dependence of ENLCW's phi(N2O) results from the T dependence of the other two components. The agreement of the three-component model with the observed phi(N2O) is much better than that of ENLCW's one-component (T-dependent linear-in-[M]) model. For example, the percentage residual for a significant two-thirds of all data is better than +/-8% in the three-component model compared to only one-third for the ENLCW model. The improvements due to the three-component model are real in the sense that they are obvious despite the experimental error bars in that pressure-temperature domain where the reality is expected to reveal itself in the ENLCW experiment. Also, the new [M]-independent component is nonzero positive at a very high confidence level of 97.5%, sharply contrasting with the current perception. The [M]-independent component is especially significant despite being small compared to the dominant [M]1 component. It implies N2O formation from excited O3, tentatively O3(3B1), immune from ENLCW and Prasad controversy over the origin of the [M]1 component. In the suggested interpretation, the [M]0 component varies linearly with [O3] in the photolyzed O3/air mixture. Further experiments with [O3] fixed at various amounts, while the air density and temperature are varied, could check the interpretation. Further computational-chemistry studies to better characterize the low-lying triplet states of O3 would also help. PMID:16332009

  4. Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Burner; Danielle J. Carrier; David P. Belesky; Daniel H. Pote; Adrian Ares; E. C. Clausen

    2008-01-01

    Ranchers need alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. Our objectives were to determine:\\u000a (1) leaf and stem biomass components, (2) nutritive value [in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), total nonstructural\\u000a carbohydrate (TNC), N, and N digestibility] of leaves for animal browse, (3) concentration of the secondary metabolites robinin\\u000a and mimosine, and (4) in vitro leaf and bark toxicity

  5. Dual Reward Prediction Components Yield Pavlovian Sign- and Goal-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kaveri, Sivaramakrishnan; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) has become a dominant paradigm for understanding animal behaviors and neural correlates of decision-making, in part because of its ability to explain Pavlovian conditioned behaviors and the role of midbrain dopamine activity as reward prediction error (RPE). However, recent experimental findings indicate that dopamine activity, contrary to the RL hypothesis, may not signal RPE and differs based on the type of Pavlovian response (e.g. sign- and goal-tracking responses). In this study, we address this discrepancy by introducing a new neural correlate for learning reward predictions; the correlate is called “cue-evoked reward”. It refers to a recall of reward evoked by the cue that is learned through simple cue-reward associations. We introduce a temporal difference learning model, in which neural correlates of the cue itself and cue-evoked reward underlie learning of reward predictions. The animal's reward prediction supported by these two correlates is divided into sign and goal components respectively. We relate the sign and goal components to approach responses towards the cue (i.e. sign-tracking) and the food-tray (i.e. goal-tracking) respectively. We found a number of correspondences between simulated models and the experimental findings (i.e. behavior and neural responses). First, the development of modeled responses is consistent with those observed in the experimental task. Second, the model's RPEs were similar to dopamine activity in respective response groups. Finally, goal-tracking, but not sign-tracking, responses rapidly emerged when RPE was restored in the simulated models, similar to experiments with recovery from dopamine-antagonist. These results suggest two complementary neural correlates, corresponding to the cue and its evoked reward, form the basis for learning reward predictions in the sign- and goal-tracking rats. PMID:25310184

  6. Diallel analysis of within-boll seed yield components and fiber properties in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and breeding potential for heat tolerance 

    E-print Network

    Ragsdale, Paul Irwin

    2004-09-30

    A diallel analysis of eight upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes was conducted in the field over two years to determine the potential for improvement in within-boll seed yield components and fiber quality ...

  7. A Novel Role of the Potyviral Helper Component Proteinase Contributes To Enhance the Yield of Viral Particles

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Araíz; Calvo, María; Pérez, José de Jesús

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The helper component proteinase (HCPro) is an indispensable, multifunctional protein of members of the genus Potyvirus and other viruses of the family Potyviridae. This viral factor is directly involved in diverse steps of viral infection, such as aphid transmission, polyprotein processing, and suppression of host antiviral RNA silencing. In this paper, we show that although a chimeric virus based on the potyvirus Plum pox virus lacking HCPro, which was replaced by a heterologous silencing suppressor, caused an efficient infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, its viral progeny had very reduced infectivity. Making use of different approaches, here, we provide direct evidence of a previously unknown function of HCPro in which the viral factor enhances the stability of its cognate capsid protein (CP), positively affecting the yield of virions and consequently improving the infectivity of the viral progeny. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the ability of HCPro to stabilize CP and enhance the yield of infectious viral particles is not linked to any of its previously known activities and helped us to delimit the region of HCPro involved in this function in the central region of the protein. Moreover, the function is highly specific and cannot be fulfilled by the HCPro of a heterologous potyvirus. The importance of this novel requirement in regulating the sorting of the viral genome to be subjected to replication, translation, and encapsidation, thus contributing to the synchronization of these viral processes, is discussed. IMPORTANCE Potyviruses form one of the most numerous groups of plant viruses and are a major cause of crop loss worldwide. It is well known that these pathogens make use of virus-derived multitasking proteins, as well as dedicated host factors, to successfully infect their hosts. Here, we describe a novel requirement for the proper yield and infectivity of potyviral progeny. In this case, such a function is performed by the extensively studied viral factor HCPro, which seems to use an unknown mechanism that is not linked to its previously described activities. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a factor different from capsid protein (CP) has been shown to be directly involved in the yield of potyviral particles. Based on the data presented here, we hypothesize that this capacity of HCPro might be involved in the coordination of mutually exclusive activities of the viral genome by controlling correct assembly of CP in stable virions. PMID:24942578

  8. Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients. PMID:23925855

  9. Short communication: Principal components and factor analytic models for test-day milk yield in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L; Rosa, G J M; Cardoso, V L; Machado, P F; Albuquerque, L G

    2012-04-01

    A total of 46,089 individual monthly test-day (TD) milk yields (10 test-days), from 7,331 complete first lactations of Holstein cattle were analyzed. A standard multivariate analysis (MV), reduced rank analyses fitting the first 2, 3, and 4 genetic principal components (PC2, PC3, PC4), and analyses that fitted a factor analytic structure considering 2, 3, and 4 factors (FAS2, FAS3, FAS4), were carried out. The models included the random animal genetic effect and fixed effects of the contemporary groups (herd-year-month of test-day), age of cow (linear and quadratic effects), and days in milk (linear effect). The residual covariance matrix was assumed to have full rank. Moreover, 2 random regression models were applied. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method. The heritability estimates ranged from 0.11 to 0.24. The genetic correlation estimates between TD obtained with the PC2 model were higher than those obtained with the MV model, especially on adjacent test-days at the end of lactation close to unity. The results indicate that for the data considered in this study, only 2 principal components are required to summarize the bulk of genetic variation among the 10 traits. PMID:22459860

  10. Yield stress of cemented tungsten carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Wanagel, J.

    1975-01-01

    Cemented tungsten carbide yields plastically at room temperature in the presence of a large hydrostatic pressure component. By approximate analysis of the state of stress in supported opposed anvils and by measurement of the pressure at which the anvil tips exhibit a permanent deviation from planarity, we have obtained the yield stress of such materials. Our value for the yield stress of a 3% cobalt cemented tungsten carbide is 86 kbar.

  11. Quantitative trait loci mapping for yield and its components by using two immortalized populations of a heterotic hybrid in Gossypium hirsutum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renzhong Liu; Baohua Wang; Wangzhen Guo; Yongsheng Qin; Liguo Wang; Yuanming Zhang; Tianzhen Zhang

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping provides a powerful tool for unraveling the genetic basis of yield and yield components\\u000a as well as heterosis in upland cotton. In this research, a molecular linkage map of Xiangzamian 2 (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was reconstructed based on increased expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat\\u000a markers. Both the RILs and immortalized F2s

  12. Heritability and predicted selection response of yield components and fibre properties in an inter-specific derived RIL population of cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiming Liu; Danny J. Llewellyn; Warwick N. Stiller; John Jacobs; Jean-Marc Lacape; Greg A. Constable

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting genetic variation through inter-specific breeding has improved cotton yield, fibre properties and adaptability.\\u000a The objectives of this study were to examine heritability and predicted selection response of yield components and fibre properties\\u000a in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from an inter-specific cross between Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) variety Guazuncho 2, and G. barbadense (Gb) line VH8-4602. A population of

  13. Improving photosynthesis and yield potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Amthor

    Crop yield is fundamentally related to the (a) amount of solar radiation absorbed; (b) efficiency of solar energy use in photosynthesis;\\u000a (c) translocation of photosynthate to sinks, especially sinks later harvested; (d) capacity for growth in sinks; (e) efficiency\\u000a of converting photosynthate to new biomass; and (f) metabolic cost of maintenance. Yield potential has been defined as the yield of

  14. Random regression test day models to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield and milk components in Philippine dairy buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Flores, E B; van der Werf, J

    2015-08-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations for milk production traits were estimated from first-parity test day records on 1022 Philippine dairy buffalo cows. Traits analysed included milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields, and fat (Fat%) and protein (Prot%) concentrations. Varying orders of Legendre polynomials (Legm ) as well as the Wilmink function (Wil) were used in random regression models. These various models were compared based on log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and genetic variance estimates. Six residual variance classes were sufficient for MY, FY, PY and Fat%, while seven residual classes for Prot%. Multivariate analysis gave higher estimates of genetic variance and heritability compared with univariate analysis for all traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.31 and 0.21 to 0.36 for MY, FY and PY, respectively. Wilmink's function was the better fitting function for additive genetic effects for all traits. It was also the preferred function for permanent environment effects for Fat% and Prot%, but for MY, FY and PY, the Legm was the appropriate function. Genetic correlations of MY with FY and PY were high and they were moderately negative with Fat% and Prot%. To prevent deterioration in Fat% and Prot% and improve milk quality, more weight should be applied to milk component traits. PMID:25727642

  15. Genetic Dissection of Yield and Its Component Traits Using High-Density Composite Map of Wheat Chromosome 3A: Bridging Gaps between QTLs and Underlying Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rustgi, Sachin; Shafqat, Mustafa N.; Kumar, Neeraj; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Ali, M. Liakat; Dweikat, Ismail; Campbell, B. Todd; Gill, Kulvinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield component QTLs, and to map QTLs for biomass-related traits. Many of the previously identified QTLs for yield and its component traits were confirmed and were localized to narrower intervals. Four novel QTLs one each for shoot biomass (Xcfa2262-Xbcd366), total biomass (wPt2740-Xcfa2076), kernels/spike (KPS) (Xwmc664-Xbarc67), and Pseudocercosporella induced lodging (PsIL) were also detected. The major QTLs identified for grain yield (GY), KPS, grain volume weight (GVWT) and spikes per square meter (SPSM) respectively explained 23.2%, 24.2%, 20.5% and 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of the genetic map with the integrated physical map allowed estimation of recombination frequency in the regions of interest and suggested that QTLs for grain yield detected in the marker intervals Xcdo549-Xbarc310 and Xpsp3047-Xbarc356 reside in the high-recombination regions, thus should be amenable to map-based cloning. On the other hand, QTLs for KPS and SPSM flanked by markers Xwmc664 and Xwmc489 mapped in the low-recombination region thus are not suitable for map-based cloning. Comparisons with the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA sequence identified 11 candidate genes (CGs) for yield and yield related QTLs of which chromosomal location of two (CKX2 and GID2-like) was confirmed using wheat aneuploids. This study provides necessary information to perform high-resolution mapping for map-based cloning and for CG-based cloning of yield QTLs. PMID:23894667

  16. Association of growth dynamics, yield components and seed quality in long-term trials covering rapeseed cultivation history at high latitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio; Lauri Jauhiainen

    2008-01-01

    Brassica oilseed yield trend has declined in Finland by over 20% during the last 15 years. Improved genetic yield potential of turnip rape (B. rapa L.) and oilseed rape (B. napus L.) can be better realised with increased understanding of yield determining processes under northernmost growing conditions. This study aimed at (1) determining the genetic improvements in seed yield, yield

  17. Rx for low cash yields.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Chris

    2003-10-01

    Certain strategies can offer not-for-profit hospitals potentially greater investment yields while maintaining stability and principal safety. Treasury inflation-indexed securities can offer good returns, low volatility, and inflation protection. "Enhanced cash" strategies offer liquidity and help to preserve capital. Stable value "wrappers" allow hospitals to pursue higher-yielding fixed-income securities without an increase in volatility. PMID:14560584

  18. Explicit Analysis of Transversely Anisotropic and Axisymmetric Sheet Metal Forming Process Using 6-component Barlat Yield Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Yan Wang; Ji-Xian Sun; Jun Chen

    2005-01-01

    In most FEM codes, the isotropic-elastic & transversely anisotropic-elastoplastic model using Hill's yield function has been widely adopted in 3D shell elements (modified to meet the plane-stress condition) and 3D solid elements. However, when the 4-node quadrilateral axisymmetric element is used for 2D sheet metal forming simulation, the above transversely anisotropic model is not available in FEM code LS-DYNA3D. A

  19. The impact of supplemental L-threonine in laying hen diets on egg component yield, composition, and functionality 

    E-print Network

    Niemeyer, Paige Reynolds

    2005-11-01

    from eggs. Cake baking yields homogenous samples of a standard shape and size (Breene 1975). Cake functionality, assessed by texture profile analysis (TPA) and rapeseed displacement, relates to protein characteristics as affected by the baking..., 1986). Rapeseed Displacement Rapeseed displacement is a method of determining volume displacement in a cooked product. Butts and Cunningham (1972) fed hens increased levels of dietary crude protein and reported no effect on sponge cake...

  20. The sense in which a weak measurement'' of a spin- (1/2 particle's spin component yields a value 100

    SciTech Connect

    Duck, I.M.; Stevenson, P.M. (T. W. Bonner Nuclear Laboratory, Physics Department, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892 (US)); Sudarshan, E.C.G. (Physics Department, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892, Center for Particle Theory, Physics Department, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Madras 600113, India)

    1989-09-15

    We give a critical discussion of a recent Letter of Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman. Although their work contains several flaws, their main point is valid: namely, that there is a sense in which a certain weak measurement'' procedure yields values outside the eigenvalue spectrum. Our analysis requires no approximations and helps to clarify the physics behind the effect. We describe an optical analog of the experiment and discuss the conditions necessary to realize the effect experimentally.

  1. Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends

    E-print Network

    Huybers, Peter

    Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends Marena Lin and Peter Huybers Department decomposition of wheat yields 5 4.1 U.S. county-level wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2 French departmental wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5

  2. Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L.) RIL population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). Genomic regions were identifi...

  3. UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR YIELD IMPROVEMENT

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    methods (active heating and cooling, directional solidifi- cation) Novel yield improvement techniques are being developed promoting directional solidification through a variety of active heating/cooling schemes CASTING THROUGH DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OFFICE OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES ENERGY EFFICIENCY

  4. Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  5. Genetic analysis to identify good combiners for ToLCV resistance and yield components in tomato using interspecific hybridization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramesh K; Rai, N; Singh, Major; Singh, S N; Srivastava, K

    2014-12-01

    The interspecific hybridization for tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) resistance was carried out among 10 genetically diverse tomato genotypes (diversified by 50 SSR markers). Among the 10 parents, four susceptible cultivars of Solanum lycopersicum were crossed with six resistant wilds, such as S. pimpinellifolium, S. habrochaites, S. chemielewskii, S. ceraseforme, S. peruvianum and S. chilense in a line x tester mating design. All the 24 hybrids and their parents were grown in the field and glasshouse conditions to determine the general-combining abilities (GCA) and specific-combining abilities (SCA). The variances due to SCA and GCA showed both additive and nonadditive gene effects. Based on GCA estimates, EC-520061 and WIR-5032 were good general combiners while based on SCA estimates, PBC x EC-520061 and PBC x EC-521080 were best specific combiners for coefficient of infection and fruit yield per plant in both the environments. These lines could be selected and utilized in ToLCV resistance and high yield breeding programme for improving the traits. PMID:25572221

  6. Identification of associated SSR markers for yield component and fiber quality traits based on frame map and Upland cotton collections.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1-2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  7. HDS + cracking ups capacity, yields

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, J.B.; Steed, P.V.

    1984-05-28

    Operation of atmospheric residual desulfurization units for catalytic cracker feed treatment at two Phillips Petroleum Co. refineries has resulted in benefits to both refinery operations. At Phillips' Sweeny and Borger, Tex., facilities, the new operations have resulted in greater flexibility in the choice of crude charge to refineries. Additionally, these facilities have provided a significant increase gasoline and distillate yields, decrease in the yield of residual fuel oil despite an increase in the amount of heavy crude charged. This article presents operating data from each of these refineries in the form of operation comparisons before and after installation of the new facilities to show the benefits from the hydrotreating-catalytic cracking scheme.

  8. hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Frederick J.

    hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield The FINANCE menu Bond Yield Practice solving for the yield of a bond #12;hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Bond Yield The FINANCE menu as Beg if chosen. To exit from this data entry screen, press the $ key. Figure 2 The HP 50g Financial

  9. Yield potential of Asparagus officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Moon

    1976-01-01

    Yield of individual plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. ‘Mary Washington 500W’ grown from seed is very variable. Yield can be improved by selection on plant sex, specific vegetative characters, or yield itself. A study of yield variation among plants in an experimental population showed that an all-male population would yield 35% more than a population with about equal numbers

  10. Compounded Perturbations Yield Ecological Surprises

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Edward A.

    Compounded Perturbations Yield Ecological Surprises Robert T. Paine,1* Mia J. Tegner,2 and Edward A or age to first reproduction of the species of interest seem to be the important metrics for scaling/infrequent catastrophes, to be central to much traditional ecology; such directional or cyclical changes stimulated

  11. Salt sensitivity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum?L.): ions in reproductive tissues and yield components in contrasting genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kotula, Lukasz; Khan, Hammad A; Quealy, John; Turner, Neil C; Vadez, Vincent; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Clode, Peta L; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    The reproductive phase in chickpea (Cicer arietinum?L.) is affected by salinity, but little is known about the underlying cause. We investigated whether high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the reproductive structures influence reproductive processes. Chickpea genotypes contrasting in tolerance were subjected to 0, 35 or 50?mm NaCl applied to soil in pots. Flower production and abortion, pod number, percentage of empty pods, seed number and size were evaluated. The concentrations of Na(+) , K(+) and Cl(-) were measured in various plant tissues and, using X-ray microanalysis, in specific cells of developing reproductive structures. Genotypic variation in reproductive success measured as seed yield in saline conditions was associated with better maintenance of flower production and higher numbers of filled pods (and thus seed number), whereas seed size decreased in all genotypes. Despite the variation in reproductive success, the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the early reproductive tissues of developing pods did not differ between a tolerant (Genesis836) and a sensitive (Rupali) genotype. Similarly, salinity tolerance was not associated with the accumulation of salt ions in leaves at the time of reproduction or in seeds at maturity. PMID:25615287

  12. Effects of irrigation regime, organic and inorganic mineral source on growth and yield components of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in upland and lowland conditions in Sokoto, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, A A; Aliero, B L; Aliero, A A; Zuru, A A

    2013-01-15

    The effects of organic, inorganic fertilizer and irrigation regime on yield parameters of P. virgatum in upland and lowland areas in Sokoto geoecological region of Nigeria were assessed. Four levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg N ha(-1)), three rates of farmyard manure (0, 5 and 10 t ha(-1)) and three irrigation regimes (w2, w4 and w6) were set up as a split -plots design. Farmyard manure and irrigation regimes were combined and allocated as the main plots, while nitrogen rates were assigned to the sub-plots and each replicated three times. Results revealed that raising nitrogen rate from 50 to 75 kg N ha(-1), farmyard manure rate from 5-10 t ha(-1) or irrigation intervals from 2 to 4 days did not show a significant (p > 0.05) increase in yield components evaluated. Dry matter accumulation was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by irrigation regime in both seasons and locations and 2 day interval irrigation had the highest dry matter yield. A significant interaction between nitrogen and manure application was observed only at upland in 2008/2009 and a combination of 75 kg N ha(-1) and 10 t ha(-1) manure produced the highest values in all the parameters evaluated. The study suggest that 50 kg N ha(-1) with 5 t ha(-1) of farmyard manure and 2 day irrigation interval gave the highest yield. A combination of 50 kg N ha(-1), with 5 t ha(-1) of farmyard manure and 2 day irrigation interval were found to be optimum for growth and yield of Switchgrass under both lowland and upland conditions in Sokoto geoecological zone of Nigeria. PMID:24199487

  13. High char yield epoxy curing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Vanucci, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Class of imide-amine curing agents preserves structural integrity, prevents fiber release, and is fully compatible with conventional epoxy resins; agents do not detract from composite properties while greatly reducing char yield. Materials utilizing curing are used in aerospace, automotive, and other structural components where deterioration must be minimized and fiber release avoided in event of fire.

  14. Identification of a Rice stripe necrosis virus resistance locus and yield component QTLs using Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima introgression lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs. Results We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544) in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó). Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM) on chromosome 11. Conclusions Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification of a genetic factor underlying resistance to this virus. This population is a powerful breeding tool. It also helps in overcoming hybrid sterility barriers between species of rice. PMID:20064202

  15. Sputter yield of curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbassek, Herbert M.; Bradley, R. Mark; Nietiadi, Maureen L.; Möller, Wolfhard

    2015-04-01

    The mean sputter yield produced by the impact of a single ion depends on the radii of curvature of the target surface at the point of impact. Using the Sigmund model of ion sputtering, we develop analytical formulas for this dependence for the case in which the radii of curvature are large compared to the size of the ion-induced collision cascade; both locally perpendicular and oblique ion impact are considered. The sputter yield is increased for impact on convex surfaces. The influence of surface curvature along the incident-ion azimuth and perpendicular to it are discussed separately. Our analytical results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations for the specific case of 20 keV Ar ion impact on a cylindrical nanowire consisting of amorphous silicon. We also extend the results for this case to small radii of curvature using both Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. Yield issues with local interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henis, Neil B.; Bolton, Scott; Montez, Ruben; Legg, James; Kim, Sung; Vuong, Quong

    1998-08-01

    We report here on process integration issues in the interconnect module of advanced microprocessor. We show how stresses in certain layers can affect yield and result in novel failure mechanisms in other layers. The paper will follow the history of a yield crash from beginning to end. We show how the problem was isolated, how yields were raised once the issues were fixed, and how an understanding of the issues involved can allow us to construct a more robust process from the beginning, therefore minimizing the possibility of such problems occurring in the first pace. The particular work here involves interactions of TiN with TEOS layers, and shows how local interconnect shorting can be caused by interactions between all of these layers. Stress effects in the as deposited TEOS films, although not obvious, can play a large role in determining whether or not problems occur. We also will examine how supposedly identical tools, or even two chambers within one tool can produce dramatically different end results in terms of film properties.

  17. The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays

    SciTech Connect

    Achasov, N. N., E-mail: achasov@math.nsc.ru [Russina Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

  18. Practical Strategies for Achieving High Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High yields are considered to be any level of yields significantly higher than the maximum county level yields. Producers often use the county level yields as their metric to determine their status among the rest of the producers in the county and to normalize for any potential local weather variat...

  19. Yield learning model for integrated circuit package

    E-print Network

    Balasubramaniam, Gaurishankar

    1996-01-01

    from chronic yield loss. . 5 Yield due to chronic yield loss. . 6 Time series model. . 7 Estimation of regression coefficients. . . 14 . 16 . 17 . 18 8 Impact of excursions. . . . 19 9 Effect of volume in line. . . . . . 20 10 Impact... of experience level. 11 Final spreadsheet model. . 12 Values for factors. . 21 . . . . 22 . . . . . 23 13 Final yield. . . . . . 24 14 Predicted yield - chronic and excursions. . . 25 15 Percentage rating for PQFP - absolute metric model. . . . . 16...

  20. Electron yields from spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, K.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Photoyields and secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics were determined under UHV conditions for a group of insulating materials used in spacecraft applications. The SEE studies were carried out with a pulsed primary beam while photoyields were obtained with a chopped photon beam from a Kr resonance source with major emission at 123.6 nm. This provides a photon flux close to that of the Lyman alpha in the space environment. Yields per incident photon are obtained relative to those from a freshly evaporated and air oxidized Al surface. Results are presented for Kapton, FEP Teflon, the borosilicate glass covering of a shuttle tile, and spacesuit outer fabric.

  1. Energy yield of black locust biomass fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.W.; Carpenter, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    Detailed analysis of 2 to 10-year-old black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L). biomass components provided an accurate energy content and energy yield determinationa as well as an index defining a relative ceiling on the delivered cost for black locust biomass in comparison with other fuels such as coal and forest residues. Total energy content of individual biomass components ranged from 20.97 X 10/sup 6/ J/kg for leaf tissue to 19.23 X 10/sup 6/ J/kg for current years' growth. Annual total energy yields ranged from 33.75 to 76.79 X 10/sup 9/ J/ha/yr for 3 and 9-year-old stands, respectively. Nine-year-old stands also exhibited the highest annual net whole-tree and woody biomass (whole-tree less foliage) energy yields of 32.71 and 30.73 X 10/sup 9/ J/ha/yr. The net annual energy yield were consistently greater for whole-tree biomass compared with woody biomass due to foliage included in the whole-tree biomass. The relative cost indices maintained a high degree of variability between comparison fuels. Bituminous coal and forest residues were lowest with an overall mean cost index for woody biomass of $13.28/mt and $13.72/mt, respectively. Woody biomass maintained a greater relative index than whole-tree biomass over all age classes due to its inherently higher conversion efficiency. 18 references.

  2. Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

    2012-04-01

    Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not well defined in the suspension rheology we tested three types of measurement in determination of yield stress. Two methods utilized cone-plate geometry performing creep test (stress controlled) and variable shear rate test and one utilized narrow-gap concentric cylinder geometry with variable shear rate. Herschel-Bulckley model can be successfully applied to variable shear-rate tests to determine yield stress. Creep test and H-B model give almost identical yield stress, for instance 45±5Pa at 2.5wt%. At the gel volume fraction of 50% yield stress emerges and it increases with the increase of the concentration of gel powder. This critical value roughly corresponds to the random loose packing fraction while the viscosity begins to increase at lower fraction.

  3. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

    2009-01-01

    Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand. PMID:19956624

  4. Yield model development project implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambroziak, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

  5. Wheat yield forecasts using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Leaf area index and percentage of vegetative cover, two indices of crop yield developed from Landsat multispectral scanning data, are discussed. Studies demonstrate that the Landsat indicators may be as highly correlated with winter wheat yield as estimates based on traditional field sampling methods; in addition, the Landsat indicators may account for variations in individual field yield which are not explainable by meteorological data. A simple technique employing early-season Landsat data to make wheat yield predictions is also considered.

  6. Corn residue removal effects on subsequent yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn residue is used for forage and feed, but residue removal effects on soil properties and yield is a concern. Residue removal effects on corn yields and soil organic carbon is site specific. Removing 50% of the residue from rainfed sites reduced corn yield by 1.9 bu/acre, whereas removing 40% of ...

  7. Three essays on weather and crop yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian Yu

    2011-01-01

    The general theme of this dissertation is the study of impacts of weather variability on crop yields, with each chapter addressing a specific topic related to this theme. Chapter 2 tests the hypothesis that corn and soybeans have become more drought tolerant by regressing county yields on a drought index and time. Results indicate that corn yield losses from drought

  8. Yield function development for aluminum alloy sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Barlat; Y. Maeda; K. Chung; M. Yanagawa; J. C. Brem; Y. Hayashida; D. J. Lege; K. Matsui; S. J. Murtha; S. Hattori; R. C. Becker; S. Makosey

    1997-01-01

    In this work, yield surfaces were measured for binary aluminum-magnesium sheet samples which were fabricated by different processing paths to obtain different microstructures. The yielding behavior was measured using biaxial compression tests on cubic specimens made from laminated sheet samples. The yield surfaces were also predicted from a polycrystal model using crystallographic texture data as input and from a phenomenological

  9. Possible future directions in crop yield forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines present and future possible applications of remote sensing to crop yield forecasting. It is concluded that there are ways in which Landsat data could be used to assist in crop yield forecasting using present technology. A framework for global crop yield forecasting which uses remote sensing, meteorological, field and ancillary data, as available, is proposed for the future.

  10. Yield: Mainstream Delimited Continuations Roshan P. James

    E-print Network

    Sabry, Amr

    Yield: Mainstream Delimited Continuations Roshan P. James Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana@indiana.edu Abstract Many mainstream languages have operators named yield that share common semantic roots but differ significantly in their details. We present the first known formal study of these mainstream yield operators

  11. Yield and dynamics of tritrophic food chains.

    PubMed

    De Feo, O; Rinaldi, S

    1997-09-01

    Strong relationships between yield and dynamic behavior of tritrophic food chains are pointed out by analyzing the classical Rosenzweig-MacArthur model. On the one hand, food chains are subdivided into undersupplied and oversupplied categories, the first being those in which a marginal increase of nutrient supply to the bottom produces a marginal increase of mean yield at the top. On the other hand, a detailed bifurcation analysis proves that dynamic complexity first increases with nutrient supply (from stationary to a low-frequency cyclic regime and, finally, to chaos) and then decreases (from chaos to a high-frequency cyclic regime). A careful comparison of the two analyses supports the conclusion that food chains cycling at high frequency are oversupplied, while all others are undersupplied. A straightforward consequence of this result is that maximization of food yield requires a chaotic regime. This regime turns out to be very often on the edge of a potential catastrophic collapse of the top component of the food chain. In other words, optimality implies very complex and dangerous dynamics, as intuitively understood long ago for ditrophic food chains by Rosenzweig in his famous article on the paradox of enrichment. PMID:18811293

  12. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    SciTech Connect

    A.C. Wahl

    2002-05-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

  13. Original article Effect of dexamethasone on milk yield

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effect of dexamethasone on milk yield and composition in dairy cows Avi SHAMAY is the reduction in the secretion of the osmotic components. milk yield / dairy cows / stress / corticosteroids reported to negatively affect milk secretion in dairy cows [2­4, 20]. The decrease in milk secretion

  14. Compatibility requirements for yield-line mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Denton

    2001-01-01

    Yield-line analysis proves a powerful and convenient method for establishing the peak load capacity of reinforced concrete slabs. Its application requires compatible mechanisms to be postulated, comprising rigid regions intersecting at yield-lines where relative rotations may occur. A systematic procedure is described for checking the compatibility of postulated yield-line mechanisms. The similarity between this method and equilibrium requirements in a

  15. Climate Effects on Corn Yield in Missouri(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qi; Buyanovsky, Gregory

    2003-11-01

    Understanding climate effects on crop yield has been a continuous endeavor aiming at improving farming technology and management strategy, minimizing negative climate effects, and maximizing positive climate effects on yield. Many studies have examined climate effects on corn yield in different regions of the United States. However, most of those studies used yield and climate records that were shorter than 10 years and were for different years and localities. Although results of those studies showed various influences of climate on corn yield, they could be time specific and have been difficult to use for deriving a comprehensive understanding of climate effects on corn yield. In this study, climate effects on corn yield in central Missouri are examined using unique long-term (1895 1998) datasets of both corn yield and climate. Major results show that the climate effects on corn yield can only be explained by within-season variations in rainfall and temperature and cannot be distinguished by average growing-season conditions. Moreover, the growing-season distributions of rainfall and temperature for high-yield years are characterized by less rainfall and warmer temperature in the planting period, a rapid increase in rainfall, and more rainfall and warmer temperatures during germination and emergence. More rainfall and cooler-than-average temperatures are key features in the anthesis and kernel-filling periods from June through August, followed by less rainfall and warmer temperatures during the September and early October ripening time. Opposite variations in rainfall and temperature in the growing season correspond to low yield. Potential applications of these results in understanding how climate change may affect corn yield in the region also are discussed.

  16. Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL Versions and Lattices X. Ding Front End, Nov. 23, 2010 parameters of 11 and 13GeV from interpolation) · Take the muon/pion/kaons at z=0 m from MARS output (Field of Running MARS #12;4 Muon Yield from Different Versions of ICOOL with ST2a-BNL Input Deck #12;5 Muon Yield

  17. PROCESS YIELD AND CAPABILITY INDICES DANIEL GRAU

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . An application on high-tech paint is also presented. KEYWORDS Asymmetric tolerances, Process capability indices, Process centering, Process yield 1. INTRODUCTION Process capability indices are widely used

  18. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

  19. Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

    1991-06-01

    Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Identification and mapping of yield and yield related QTLs from an Indian accession of Oryza rufipogon

    PubMed Central

    Marri, Pradeep Reddy; N, Sarla; Reddy, Laxminarayana V; Siddiq, EA

    2005-01-01

    Background Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is endowed with a rich genetic variability. In spite of such a great diversity, the modern rice cultivars have narrow genetic base for most of the agronomically important traits. To sustain the demand of an ever increasing population, new avenues have to be explored to increase the yield of rice. Wild progenitor species present potential donor sources for complex traits such as yield and would help to realize the dream of sustained food security. Results Advanced backcross method was used to introgress and map new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) relating to yield and its components from an Indian accession of Oryza rufipogon. An interspecific BC2 testcross progeny (IR58025A/O. rufipogon//IR580325B///IR58025B////KMR3) was evaluated for 13 agronomic traits pertaining to yield and its components. Transgressive segregants were obtained for all the traits. Thirty nine QTLs were identified using interval mapping and composite interval mapping. In spite of it's inferiority for most of the traits studied, O. rufipogon alleles contributed positively to 74% of the QTLs. Thirty QTLs had corresponding occurrences with the QTLs reported earlier, indicating that these QTLs are stable across genetic backgrounds. Nine QTLs are novel and reported for the first time. Conclusion The study confirms that the progenitor species constitute a prominent source of still unfolded variability for traits of complex inheritance like yield. With the availability of the complete genome sequence of rice and the developments in the field of genomics, it is now possible to identify the genes underlying the QTLs. The identification of the genes constituting QTLs would help us to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the action of QTLs. PMID:15949048

  1. Supervised learning methods in sort yield modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Hu

    2009-01-01

    Supervised learning consists of a large variety of methods that explore data relationships. The techniques described in this paper cover those methods that are robust and relevant to semiconductor data, sufficiently simple for use by non-statisticians, and proven effective in yield modeling. We first apply the classification and regression tree (CART) technique to detect the source of yield variations from

  2. Improved Yield Estimation by Trellis Tension Monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most yield estimation practices for commercial vineyards rely on hand-sampling fruit on one or a small number of dates during the growing season. Limitations associated with the static yield estimates may be overcome with Trellis Tension Monitors (TTMs), systems that measure dynamically changes in t...

  3. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle reduces production expenses and could increase profitability if yields are not adversely affected. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both ...

  4. Porphyrins XIII: Fluorescence spectra and quantum yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Seybold; Martin Gouterman

    1969-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra, quantum yields, natural radiative lifetimes, and absorption oscillator strengths are reported for a number of porphyrins in benzene solution. Emission yields for free base, Mg-, and Zn-phthalocyanine in 1-chloronaphthalene solution are also reported. The phthalocyanines are considerably more fluorescent than the porphyrins, and this is attributed mainly to their shorter radiative lifetimes. The heavy atom effect on fluorescence

  5. THE ZONES PROJECTS: UNDERSTANDING SOYBEAN YIELD VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two regional projects funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and the United Soybean Board are entitled Mapping of Soil and Field Characteristics to Understand Soybean Yield and Using Remotely Sensed Data to Diagnose Soybean Yield Limiting Factors. These projects were developed in resp...

  6. ROOTSTOCK INFLUENCE ON YIELD OF 'HASS' AVOCADO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme Thomas

    The orchard yield of avocados in Australia has remained static for many years. With the lowering of returns, relative to the late 1970s, we, as an industry, need to address the reduced economic viability of production in Australia. As a part of my management, I have individual yield records of all of my trees. The data clearly shows that some

  7. Secondary electron yields of solar system ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszcynsky, David M.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Goertz, Christoph K.

    1992-01-01

    The secondary electron yields of H2O, CO2, NH3, and CH3OH ices have been measured as a function of electron beam energy in the 2- to 30-keV energy range. The ices were produced on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cold finger and transferred under vacuum to a SEM where the yield measurements were made. The imaging capabilities of the SEM provide a means of correlating the yield measurements with the morphology of the ices and are also used to monitor charging effects. The yields were determined by measuring the amplified current from a secondary electron detector and calibrating this current signal with the amplified current signal from samples of metals with known secondary electron yields. Each of the measured yields is found to decrease with an increase in energy in the 2- to 30-keV range. Estimates are given for the maximum secondary electron yield Y(max) of each ice and the energy at which this maximum yield occurs. Implications for the charging of solar system ice grains are discussed.

  8. Yield prediction by sampling IC layout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard A. Allan

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports a survey sampling-based methodology for critical area and other property estimates of IC layout. A software implementation of the method, Edinburgh yield estimator sampling (EYES) is presented. The EYES tool implements the survey sampling-based methodology for critical area estimation enabling the yield prediction of ULSI chips. The method requires an analysis of only a small fraction of

  9. Multiple criterion optimization with yield maximization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL R. LIGHTNER; STEPHEN W. DIRECTOR

    1981-01-01

    A number of recent papers have described circuit optimization methods in which maximizing yield was the sole design criterion. However, in actual practice there are many competing design criteria such as minimizing power and area, maximizing speed, etc., as well as maximizing yield. In this paper the techniques of Multiple Criterion Optimization (MCO) are used to provide a framework within

  10. Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

  11. MAPPING COTTON YIELD VARIABILITY USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY AND YIELD MONITOR DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased availability of airborne hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acqui...

  12. Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

    Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

  13. Carbon monoxide yields of cigarettes and their relation to nicotine yield and type of filter.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Cole, P V; Idle, M S; Adams, L

    1975-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) yields of 11 popular brands of British cigarette, two types of cigarette containing tobacco-substitute, and one brand of cigar were measured under standardized conditions. Yields of the conventional cigarettes ranged from 5.0 to 20.2 mg per cigarette (1.3 to 4.7% by volume). The cigar yielded 81.7 mg (10.0%) CO and the two semi-synthetic cigarettes 17.2 (4.2%) and 28.2 mg (6.2%) CO. Puff-by-puff analysis showed an increase in CO concentration as a cigarette is smoked. In brands with nicotine yields over 1.0 mg no relationship was apparent between nicotine yield and CO yield, and the filters of cigarettes in this category did not appear to reduce the CO yield. In the low nicotine cigarettes with ventilated filters there appeared to be some correlation between nicotine yield and CO yield, and these filters were highly effective in reducing CO yield, owing mainly to the ventilation. We suggest that official publication of CO yields might motivate manufacturers to produce cigarettes with lower yields. PMID:1139234

  14. MAIZE YIELD POTENTIAL: CRITICAL PROCESSES AND SIMULATION MODELING IN A HIGH-YIELDING ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate parameters describing processes of maize (Zea mays L.) growth and grain yield production in high-yielding, irrigated conditions provide a system for studying grain yield potential in different environments. In this study we measured maize leaf area index (LAI), the light extinction coeffic...

  15. Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery and Yield Monitor Data for Mapping Cotton Yield Variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenghai Yang; James H. Everitt; Joe M. Bradford; Dale Murden

    2004-01-01

    Increased availability of hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acquired using an airborne imaging system from two cotton fields during the 2001 growing season, and yield data were collected from the

  16. The optical depth of the 158 micrometer (C-12 II) line: Detection of the F=1 yields 0 (C-13 III) hyperfine-structure component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Poglitsch, A.; Madden, S. C.; Jackson, J. M.; Herrmann, F.; Genzel, R.; Geis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The first detection of the F = 1 yields 0 hyperfine component of the 158 micrometer (C-13 II) fine structure line in the interstellar medium is reported. A twelve point intensity map was obtained of the (C-13 II) distribution over the inner 190 inch (right ascension) by 190 inch (declination) regions of the Orion nebula using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. The (C-12 II)/(C-13 II) line intensity ratio varied significantly over the region mapped. It is highest (86 plus or minus 9) in the core of the Orion H II region and significantly lower (62 plus or minus 7) in the outer regions of the map, reflecting higher optical depth in the (C-12 II) line here. It is suggested that this enhanced optical depth is the result of limb brightening of the optically thin (C-13 II) line at the edges of the bowl-shaped H II region blister. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 43, the (C-12 II) line in the inner regions of the Orion nebula, has a low optical depth: tau sub 12 approximately = 0.75 plus or minus 0.25. The optical depth together with the large brightness temperature of the (C-12 II) line (approximately 160 K) requires that the excitation temperature of the P-2 sub 3/2 level be approximately 310 K, in very good agreement with the previous analysis of the physical conditions of the Orion interface region based on fine structure line intensity ratios and photodissociation region models. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 67, the line optical depth is somewhat larger (tau sub 12 approximately = 1.85), and the transition excitation temperature is somewhat smaller (approximately 190 K) than that predicted by these models. The present results therefore support values approximately = 43 for the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in the Orion nebula.

  17. Construction of two BAC libraries from cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and identification of clones linked to yield component quantitative trait loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-W. Nam; J.-R. Lee; K.-H. Song; M.-K. Lee; M. D. Robbins; S.-M. Chung; J. E. Staub; H.-B. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from an inbred line derived from a cultivar of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Intact nuclei were isolated and embedded in agarose plugs, and high-molecular-weight DNA was subsequently partially digested with BamHI or EcoRI. Ligation of double size-selected DNA fragments with the pECBAC1 vector yielded two libraries containing 23,040 BamHI and 18,432 EcoRI

  18. The Squeeze Flow of Yield Stress Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabideau, Brooks D.; Lanos, Christophe; Coussot, Philippe

    2008-07-01

    A systematic study of squeeze flow (SF) is presented using different concentrations of carbopol with varying yield stresses. A constant volume of sample is placed between two parallel plates and a series of 3 constant force steps applied; each lasting 8 minutes, allowing the sample to achieve a limiting height before the next force is applied. The yield stress of each fluid can be calculated from the limiting height as predicted by SF theory. In this study, the reliability of SF for the determination of the yield stress is analyzed through comparison with precise rheometrical tests. The rheometrical data is combined with SF theory to obtain the predicted dynamic height evolution. The predicted height evolution represents the results of the SF experiments quite nicely. Ultimately, the yield stress values determined from the SF experiments and those of the precise rheometrical tests are in good agreement.

  19. A World Average of Fluorescence Yield Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, R.

    2011-09-01

    Twelve measurements of air fluoescence yield made by six different groups are put into a common format then averaged. The methods used to convert them are described. The results obtained by Rosado et al. are also averaged.

  20. Revenue impacts of airline yield management

    E-print Network

    Mak, Chung Yu

    1992-01-01

    In the highly competitive airline industry today, Yield or Revenue Management is extremely important to the survival of any carrier. Since fares are generally matched by all carriers to be competitive, the ability of an ...

  1. Cyclic fatty acid yields from linseed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Eisenhauer; R. E. Beal; E. L. Griffin

    1963-01-01

    Increased yields of saturated cyclic fatty acids which are fluid at ?50C have been obtained from linseed oil. Depending on\\u000a reaction conditions, yields varied from 20–42 g of cyclic acids per 100 g of linseed oil. Solvent ratios of 6, 3, and 1.5?1;\\u000a catalyst concentrations of 10, 30, 60, and 100%; and reaction temps of 225, 275, 295, and 325C

  2. Barley yield increases with undersown Lepidium campestre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnulf Merker; Dennis Eriksson; Nils-Ove Bertholdsson

    2010-01-01

    The potential new oil crop Lepidium campestre (field cress) was undersown with long and short row distances in spring barley in three-year trials with eight replications. Plots with no undersowing were used as controls. The purpose was to assess the effect on barley-grain yield of the oil crop and its seed-yield potential. In the plots without undersowing, with long and

  3. LACIE: Wheat yield models for the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative model determining the relationship between weather conditions and wheat yield in the U.S.S.R. was studied to provide early reliable forecasts on the size of the U.S.S.R. wheat harvest. Separate models are developed for spring wheat and for winter. Differences in yield potential and responses to stress conditions and cultural improvements necessitate models for each class.

  4. How Big Was It? Getting at Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M.; Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most coveted pieces of information in the wake of a nuclear test is the explosive yield. Determining the yield from remote observations, however, is not necessarily a trivial thing. For instance, recorded observations of seismic amplitudes, used to estimate the yield, are significantly modified by the intervening media, which varies widely, and needs to be properly accounted for. Even after correcting for propagation effects such as geometrical spreading, attenuation, and station site terms, getting from the resulting source term to a yield depends on the specifics of the explosion source model, including material properties, and depth. Some formulas are based on assumptions of the explosion having a standard depth-of-burial and observed amplitudes can vary if the actual test is either significantly overburied or underburied. We will consider the complications and challenges of making these determinations using a number of standard, more traditional methods and a more recent method that we have developed using regional waveform envelopes. We will do this comparison for recent declared nuclear tests from the DPRK. We will also compare the methods using older explosions at the Nevada Test Site with announced yields, material and depths, so that actual performance can be measured. In all cases, we also strive to quantify realistic uncertainties on the yield estimation.

  5. Polarization transfer in {sup 4}He(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}p{sup {yields}}) and {sup 16}O(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}p{sup {yields}}) in a relativistic Glauber model

    SciTech Connect

    Lava, P.; Ryckebusch, J.; Overmeire, B. van; Strauch, S. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Polarization-transfer components for {sup 4}He(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}p{sup {yields}}){sup 3}H and {sup 16}O(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}p{sup {yields}}){sup 15}N are computed within the relativistic multiple-scattering Glauber approximation (RMSGA). The RMSGA framework adopts relativistic single-particle wave functions and electron-nucleon couplings. The predictions closely match those of a relativistic plane-wave model indicating the smallness of the final-state interactions for polarization-transfer components. Also short-range correlations play a modest role for the studied observables, as long as small proton missing momenta are probed in quasielastic kinematics. The predictions with free and various parametrizations for the medium-modified electromagnetic form factors are compared to the world data.

  6. Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, Lindsey J.; Jackson, Timothy W. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)] [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Mume, Eskender [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia) [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Lee, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-05-27

    We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

  7. Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignell, Lindsey J.; Mume, Eskender; Jackson, Timothy W.; Lee, George P.

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

  8. Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time. PMID:24987398

  9. Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of USDA quality and yield grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.

    PubMed

    West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

  10. Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter

    E-print Network

    Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville

    2015-02-18

    We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.

  11. Lithography yield check for IC design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Lynn; Chen, Ting

    2005-05-01

    As the semiconductor industry goes into the 65nm generation, designs become more complex, mask cost increases exponentially, and the industry is pushing very hard on the lithography process. It is more and more challenging to achieve and maintain acceptable yield. Yield is not only a problem for the Fabs but also an issue that has to be considered by the chip designers. In order to save turn around time, save mask and process development cost and improve the yield, the lithography problems need to be resolved at the design stage. The designers need to be aware of the lithography behavior of their design and be able to modify the design if it causes yield problems in the lithography process. In this paper, we discuss a new tool, a Litho Yield Checker, which can be run stand-alone but is also fully integrated with a Layout Editor, that provides its user with an easy way to visualize how the layouts are to be printed on wafer, and see the common process window (CPW) for the most important locations in the design.

  12. Analyzing Landscape Effects on Corn and Soybean Yield and Yield Risk from a Large Yield Monitor Dataset

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yield variability is due to a variety of factors including many manageable variables such as genetics, weeds and pests, drainage, irrigation, and nutrient supply, but many factors cannot be managed and/or they have un-manageable interactions with climate. Therefore climate and it’s interaction...

  13. Stellar yields of rotating first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    First stars, also called population III stars, are born in the earliest universe without any heavy elements. These stars are the first nuclear reactor in the universe and affect their circumstances emitting synthesized materials. Not only the stellar evolution, but also their chemical yields have many distinctive characteristics. We have modeled evolution of population III stars including effect of stellar rotation. Internal mixing induced by rotation naturally results in primary nitrogen production. Evolution of rotating massive stars is followed until the core collapse phase. The new Pop III yield model will consistently explain the observed abundances of metal-poor systems.

  14. Operation of the yield estimation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccrary, D. G.; Rogers, J. L.; Hill, J. D. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    The organization and products of the yield estimation subsystem (YES) are described with particular emphasis on meteorological data acquisition, yield estimation, crop calendars, weekly weather summaries, and project reports. During the three phases of LACIE, YES demonstrated that it is possible to use the flow of global meteorological data and provide valuable information regarding global wheat production. It was able to establish a capability to collect, in a timely manner, detailed weather data from all regions of the world, and to evaluate and convert that data into information appropriate to the project's needs.

  15. Advances in Yield Calibration of Scintillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan T. M. de Haas; Pieter Dorenbos

    2008-01-01

    By means of a photomultiplier tube, a Si-photodiode, and a Si-avalanche photodiode, the absolute scintillation yield of recently developed LaBr3:Ce, LaCl3:Ce, and (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce scintillators and traditional Lu2SiO5:Ce, Bi4Ge3O12, NaI:Tl, CsI:Tl, and CsI:Na scintillators were determined. These are all well known scintillators that cover emission wavelengths from 250 nm to 750 nm. By comparing the scintillation yield independently measured with the

  16. Statistical Modelling and Deconvolution of Yield Meter Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frede Aakmann Tøgersen; Rasmus Waagepetersen

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of mapping spatial variation of yield in a field using data from a yield monitoring system on a combine harvester. The unobserved yield is assumed to be a Gaussian random field and the yield monitoring system data is modelled as a convolution of the yield and an impulse response function. This results in an unusual

  17. Anthocyanin yields of clonal wild carrot cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Dougall; D. L. Vogelien

    1990-01-01

    The anthocyanin yields in clonal populations of wild carrot suspension cultures were measured after four patterns of cloning and selection. These patterns were:1.serial selection of high yielding clones,2 and 3.one selection of a low yielding clone followed by serial selection of high yielding clones,4.serial selection of low yielding clones.

  18. Wafer yield prediction by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Asada

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of yield from the production lines is concentrated at a high-yield area and tapers down to the lower-yield area. Production management would find it useful if the yield of individual wafers could be forecast. The yield is determined by the variability of electrical characteristics and dust. In this study, only the variability of electrical characteristics was discussed. One

  19. The plastic yield and flow behavior in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamburaja, Prakash; Klusemann, Benjamin; Adibi, Sara; Bargmann, Swantje

    2015-02-01

    Metallic glasses have vast potential applications as components in microelectronics- and nanoelectronics-type devices. The design of such components through computer simulations requires the input of a faithful set of continuum-based constitutive equations. However, one long-standing controversial issue in modeling the plastic behavior of metallic glasses at the continuum level is the use of the most appropriate plastic yield criterion and flow rule. Guided by a series of molecular dynamics simulations conducted at low-homologous temperatures under homogeneous deformations, we quantitatively prove that the continuum plastic behavior in metallic glasses is most accurately described by a von Mises-type plastic yield criterion and flow rule.

  20. Yield and Temporal Yield Variability Under Conventional and Alternative Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year to year variation in yield is an inherit risk associated with crop production and many growers rely on intensive mechanical or chemical inputs to secure crop yields in the face of fluctuating environmental conditions. However, as interest in alternative approaches to crop management which are ...

  1. Stochastic Volatilities and Correlations of Bond Yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BING HAN; Mark Grinblatt; Jean Helwege; Jason Hsu; Jingzhi Huang; Andrew Karolyi; Monika Piazzesi; Pedro Santa-Clara; Kenneth Singleton

    2007-01-01

    I develop an interest rate model with separate factors driving innovations in bond yields and their covariances. It features a flexible and tractable affine structure for bond covariances. Maximum likelihood estimation of the model with panel data on swaptions and discount bonds implies pricing errors for swaptions that are almost always lower than half of the bid-ask spread. Furthermore, market

  2. Squeeze Flow of Yield Stress Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelot, David; Yarin, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The squeeze flow of yield stress materials are investigated using a non-invasive optical technique. In the experiments, cylindrically-shaped samples of Carbopol solutions and Bentonite dispersions are rapidly compressed between two transparent plates using a constant force and the instantaneous cross-sectional area is recorded as a function of time using a high speed CCD camera. Furthermore, visualization of the boundary reveals that the no-slip condition holds. In addition, shear experiments are conducted using parallel-plate and vane viscometers. The material exhibits first a fast stage of squeezing in which the normal stresses dominate and viscosity plays the main role. Then, the second (slow) stage sets in where the material exhibits a slow deformation dominated by yield stress. At the end, the deformation process is arrested by yield stress. The material response is attributed to the Bingham-like or Herschel-Bulkley-like rheological behavior. Squeeze flow is developed into a convenient and simple tool for studying yield stress materials. This work is supported by the United States Gypsum Corp.

  3. NUTRIENTS AND HIGH YIELDS: NEED FOR CONCERN?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands for grain production for use as food will increase as the world population increases. At the same time there is a decrease in the amount of cultivated land for grain production. This dictates an increase in yield per unit area and more inputs into crop production, i.e., fertiliz...

  4. Auger yield calculations for medical radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boon Q.; Kibédi, Tibor; Stuchbery, Andrew E.

    2015-04-01

    Auger yields from the decays of 71Ge, 99mTc, 111In and 123-125I have been calculated using a Monte Carlo model of the Auger cascade that has been developed at the ANU. In addition, progress to improve the input data of the model has been made with the Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method.

  5. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  6. Do symmetry constraints yield exact solutions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Xiu Ma; Min Chen

    2007-01-01

    Two classes of natural symmetry constraints are introduced and analyzed for the Sharma–Tasso–Olver equation. Through those symmetry constraints, the phenomenon is exhibited that symmetry constraints do not always yield exact solutions. It is also explained why such phenomenon can happen in the symmetry theory.

  7. DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

  8. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  9. Yield advances in peanut - weed control effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in weed management are a contributing factor to advancements in peanut yield. Widespread use of vacuum planters and increased acceptance of narrow row patterns enhance weed control by lessening bareground caused by skips and promoting quick canopy closure. Cultivation was traditionall...

  10. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle may potentially reduce production expenses for Louisiana sugarcane growers. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both on an annual basis and ...

  11. SEQUENCING CROPS TO IMPROVE GRAIN YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping practices are changing in Ukraine, with producers considering different rotations and tillage systems. This trend provides an opportunity for producers to improve yield with crop sequencing, a benefit known as the rotation effect. To help producers plan rotations for the most favorable seq...

  12. YIELD IMPROVEMENT CASE STUDY: STACKED SPRING CAPS

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Engineering, UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, Iowa City, IA 2 Vice President - Technology, STEEL FOUNDER'S SOCIETY the findings of a yield improvement study performed for a 3" spring cap cast from WCB steel. The original mold through the riser. Caps produced from this design were similar to the original caps in terms of welding

  13. Neutron Yields from Americium-Beryllium Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. C. Runnalls; R. R. Boucher

    1955-01-01

    THE neutron yields from two americium - beryllium alloys have been measured. The alloys were prepared by the reduction of americium trifluoride with powdered beryllium metal in vacuum, according to the reaction: The beryllium fluoride readily distilled, leaving a fluoride-free alloy.

  14. Quasi-Biennial Corn Yield Cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quasi-biennial cycles are commonly observed in climate studies. The interannual El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are two phenomena containing quasi-periodicities of approximately 2.5 years and 2.2 years. It is known that ENSO affects corn yield; NAO affects su...

  15. Integrated DFM framework for dynamic yield optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikus, Fedor G.

    2006-10-01

    We present a new methodology for a balanced yield-optimization and a new DFM framework which implements it. Our approach allows designers to dynamically balance multiple factors contributing to yield loss and select optimal combination of DFM enhancements based on the current information about the IC layout, the manufacturing process, and known causes of failures. We bring together the information gained from layout analysis, layout-aware circuit analysis, resolution enhancement and optical proximity correction tools, parasitics extraction, timing estimates, and other tools, to suggest the DFM solution which is optimized within the existing constraints on design time and available data. The framework allows us to integrate all available sources of yield information, characterize and compare proposed DFM solutions, quickly adjust them when new data or new analysis tools become available, fine-tune DFM optimization for a particular design and process and provide the IC designer with a customized solution which characterizes the manufacturability of the design, identifies and classifies areas with the most opportunities for improvement, and suggests DFM improvements. The proposed methodology replaces the ad-hoc approach to DFM which targets one yield loss cause at the expense of other factors with a comprehensive analysis of competing DFM techniques and trade-offs between them.

  16. Predicting collector well yields with MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Kelson, Vic

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater flow models are commonly used to design new wells and wellfields. As the spatial scale of the problem is large and much local-scale detail is not needed, modelers often utilize two-dimensional (2D) or quasi three-dimensional models based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption. Dupuit models offer a robust set of tools for simulating regional groundwater flow including interactions with surface waters, the potential for well interference, and varying aquifer properties and recharge rates. However, given an assumed operating water level or drawdown at a well screen, Dupuit models systematically overpredict well yields. For design purposes, this discrepancy is unacceptable, and a method for predicting accurate well yields is needed. While published methods exist for vertical wells, little guidance is available for predicting yields in horizontal screens or collector wells. In plan view, a horizontal screen has a linear geometry, and will likely extend over several neighboring cells that may not align with rows or columns in a numerical model. Furthermore, the model must account for the effects of converging three-dimensional (3D) flow to the well screens and hydraulic interference among the well screens; these all depend on the design of a specific well. This paper presents a new method for simulating the yield of angled or horizontal well screens in numerical groundwater flow models, specifically using the USGS code MODFLOW. The new method is compared to a detailed, 3D analytic element model of a collector well in a field of uniform flow. PMID:22339406

  17. Effects of geoengineering on crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2011-12-01

    The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as market shares of agricultural output may change with the different spatial pattern of climate change. More importantly, geoengineering by SRM does not address a range of other detrimental consequences of climate change, such as ocean acidification, which could also affect food security via effects on marine food webs. Finally, SRM poses substantial anticipated and unanticipated risks by interfering with complex, not fully understood systems. Therefore, despite potential positive effects of SRM on crop yields, the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

  18. Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

  19. Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups.

    PubMed

    Dar, Manzoor H; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

  20. Yield and yield components of winter-type safflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a minor yet widely grown oil seed crop adapted to semi-arid regions. The nascent development of winter adapted safflower, allowing fall planting,could substantially increase seed production over spring planting. In this study four winter type safflower accessi...

  1. 7 CFR 760.811 - Rates and yields; calculating payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...that show there is a significant difference in yield or value based on a distinct and separate end use of the crop. Despite potential differences in yield or values, separate rates or yields will not be established for crops with...

  2. Viscoelasticity and shear yielding onset in amorphous glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, C.; Rink, M.

    2006-09-01

    In the present work, the effect of viscoelasticity on the yield behaviour of a polycarbonate, PC, was studied and the identification of a yield criterion which takes into account the effects of the mechanical history on the onset of plastic strain, was attempted. The attention was focused on the shear yielding plastic deformation process and different loading histories were performed under uniaxial compression: constant strain rate at different rates, stress relaxation at different applied strain levels, creep under different stress levels. Some tests were also carried out under shear loading, in which the hydrostatic stress component is equal to zero and its effect on the yield onset can be considered. For the definition of a yield criterion, different quantities, some already proposed in an analogous work on a styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), were considered and determined at yield onset for each of the applied loading histories. The results obtained in this work show that the relative ratios of the viscoelastic strain over the overall strain and of viscoelastic energy over the deformation work are fairly constant irrespective of both loading history and stress state. The re-elaboration of the data previously obtained on SAN is consistent with these results. Discussing the experimental data, differences between the mechanical behaviour of the two glassy polymers were pointed out and a more difficult activation of the plastic deformation process of PC than SAN was generally observed.

  3. Stress and yielding studies using critical refracted longitudinal wave

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, W.; Bray, D.E. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents some of the recent work on stress evaluation using the L{sub CR} ultrasonic technique. A sample of 4140 steel, typically used for turbine components, was tested. The acoustoelastic phenomenon was evaluated using probe sets of three different frequencies, 1MHz, 2.25MHz and 5MHz. Slightly different acoustoelastic constants for each frequency were obtained in the elastic region, at up to 80% yield strength. Data obtained past yield on the same specimen using 5 MHz probe set provided some very interesting results. For all of the tests with loading below the yield point, the return to no-load L{sub CR} travel time variations were within {+-}2 ns, (0.026%). When the load passed the yield point, the return to no-load L{sub CR} travel-time showed a distinct change. A 12.8% residual strain resulted in a 15 ns (0.198%) change in the no-load travel time. These results indicate that the L{sub CR} ultrasonic technique can not only provide the applied and residual stress information, but also may be capable of predicting the prior yield situation in the components.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Yield Trials by AMMI and GGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh G. Gauch

    2006-01-01

    The Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model, Genotype main effects and Genotype 3 Environment inter- action (GGE) model, and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are singular value decomposition (SVD) based statistical analyses often applied to yield-trial data. This paper presents a systematic compar- ison, using both statistical theory and empirical investigations, while considering both current practices and best practices.

  5. Genetic composition of yield heterosis in an elite rice hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gang; Chen, Ying; Yao, Wen; Zhang, Chengjun; Xie, Weibo; Hua, Jinping; Xing, Yongzhong; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2012-01-01

    Heterosis refers to the superior performance of hybrids relative to the parents. Utilization of heterosis has contributed tremendously to the increased productivity in many crops for decades. Although there have been a range of studies on various aspects of heterosis, the key to understanding the biological mechanisms of heterotic performance in crop hybrids is the genetic basis, much of which is still uncharacterized. In this study, we dissected the genetic composition of yield and yield component traits using data of replicated field trials of an “immortalized F2” population derived from an elite rice hybrid. On the basis of an ultrahigh-density SNP bin map constructed with population sequencing, we calculated single-locus and epistatic genetic effects in the whole genome and identified components pertaining to heterosis of the hybrid. The results showed that the relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits. Overdominance/pseudo-overdominance is the most important contributor to heterosis of yield, number of grains per panicle, and grain weight. Dominance × dominance interaction is important for heterosis of tillers per plant and grain weight and has roles in yield and grain number. Single-locus dominance has relatively small contributions in all of the traits. The results suggest that cumulative effects of these components may adequately explain the genetic basis of heterosis in the hybrid. PMID:23019369

  6. Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of different silage crops: VFAs formation, methane yield from fiber and non-fiber components and digestate composition.

    PubMed

    Pokój, T; Bu?kowska, K; Gusiatin, Z M; Klimiuk, E; Jankowski, K J

    2015-08-01

    This study presents the results of long-term semi-continuous experiments on anaerobic digestion at an HRT of 45d with ten silages: 2 annual and 4 perennial crops, and 4 mixtures of annual with perennial crops. The composition of substrates and digestates was determined with Van Soest's fractionation method. Removal of non-fiber materials ranged from 49.4% (Miscanthus sacchariflorus) to 89.3% (Zea mays alone and mixed with M. sacchariflorus), that of fiber materials like lignin ranged from 0.005% (Z. mays alone and mixed with grasses at VS ratio of 90:10%) to 46.5% (Sida hermaphrodita). The lowest stability of anaerobic digestion, as confirmed by normalized data concentrations of volatile fatty acids, was reported for both miscanthuses and sugar sorghum. The methane yield coefficients for non-fiber and fiber materials were 0.3666 and 0.2556L/g, respectively. All digestate residues had high fertilizing value, especially those from mixtures of crops. PMID:25958143

  7. Primary quantum yields of NO2 photodissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Edward P.; Sperry, Paul D.; Calvert, Jack G.

    1987-01-01

    The quantum yields of formation of NO, O2, and NO2 loss are measured for NO2 vapor at low pressures (0.13-0.30 torr) irradiated at 334-405 nm wavelengths and temperature in the range 273-370 K in order to study the primary quantum efficiencies of NO2 photodecomposition. The temperature and wavelength dependences of the primary quantum efficiencies are examined. It is observed that the primary quantum efficiencies increase rapidly from near zero at 424 nm to near unity for excitation at wavelengths less than 394 nm. The theory of Pitts et al. (1964) that the energy deficiency for photodissociation of NO2 excited at wavelengths greater than 397.9 nm is due to the rotational and vibrational energy of the NO2 molecules is confirmed by the data. Values for the primary quantum yields of NO2 photodecomposition as a function of wavelength are presented.

  8. Photoionization quantum yields of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochims, H. W.; Baumgaertel, H.; Leach, S.

    1996-10-01

    The gas-phase photoionization yield curves were measured for 6 PAHs: benzene, naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, phenanthrene and benz[a]anthracene, over the photon energy range 5-25eV, and the corresponding photoionization quantum yields ?(?) were derived as a function of wavelength. The results are used to propose "rules of thumb" for determining the value of ?(?) of PAHs at any photon energy above the ionization threshold. Effects of molecular size on ?(?) and on the ease of photoelectron ejection are discussed in the context of determination of ?(?) for the full range of PAHs expected in the ISM. These data are required for modelling PAH destruction and ionization rates in circumstellar and interstellar media and also for understanding the energy budget of the diffuse interstellar medium.

  9. Riparian vegetation and water yield: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemi, Luiz Felippe; Groppo, Juliano Daniel; Trevisan, Rodrigo; Marcos de Moraes, Jorge; de Paula Lima, Walter; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-08-01

    SummaryForested riparian zones perform numerous ecosystem functions, including the following: storing and fixing carbon; serving as wildlife habitats and ecological corridors; stabilizing streambanks; providing shade, organic matter, and food for streams and their biota; retaining sediments and filtering chemicals applied on cultivated/agricultural sites on upslope regions of the catchments. In this paper, we report a synthesis of a different feature of this type of vegetation, which is its effect on water yield. By synthesizing results from studies that used (i) the nested catchment and (ii) the paired catchment approaches, we show that riparian forests decrease water yield on a daily to annual basis. In terms of the treated area increases on average were 1.32 ± 0.85 mm day-1 and 483 ± 309 mm yr-1, respectively; n = 9. Similarly, riparian forest plantation or regeneration promoted reduced water yield (on average 1.25 ± 0.34 mm day-1 and 456 ± 125 mm yr-1 on daily and annual basis, respectively, when prorated to the catchment area subjected to treatment; n = 5). Although there are substantially fewer paired catchment studies assessing the effect of this vegetation type compared to classical paired catchment studies that manipulate the entire vegetation of small catchments, our results indicate the same trend. Despite the occurrence of many current restoration programs, measurements of the effect on water yield under natural forest restoration conditions are still lacking. We hope that presenting these gaps will encourage the scientific community to enhance the number of observations in these situations as well as produce more data from tropical regions.

  10. Method for improving xanthan yield. [Xanthomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Weisrock, W.P.

    1981-11-17

    A process is provided for producing heteropolysaccharides by culturing a microorganism of genus Xanthomonas in a nutrient medium and recovering the heteropolysaccharide containing product. The method covers culturing the microorganism in the presence of a sufficient amount of an additive compound selected from a group consisting of deoxycholic acid, cholic acid, salts thereof, and mixtures thereof, whereby the yield of the heteropolysaccharide produced is increased. 11 claims.

  11. Method for improving Xanthan yield. [Xanthomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Weisrock, W.P.

    1981-11-17

    A process is provided for producing heteropolysaccharides by culturing a microorganism of genus Xanthomonas in a nutrient medium and recovering the heteropolysaccharide containing product. The method covers culturing the microorganism in the presence of a sufficient amount of an additive compound selected from a group consisting of deoxycholic acid, cholic acid, salts thereof, and mixtures thereof, whereby the yield of the heteropolysaccharide produced is increased. 11 claims.

  12. Deep enteroscopy - indications, diagnostic yield and complications

    PubMed Central

    Moeschler, Oliver; Mueller, Michael Karl

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in 2001 capsule endoscopy opened up the small bowel for diagnostic approaches followed by double balloon enteroscopy which enabled the endoscopic community to perform therapeutic interventions in the whole small intestine. In this review the scientific developments related to indications, diagnostic yield and complications of the last years between the competing devices double ballon enteroscopy, single balloon enteroscopy and spiral enteroscopy are illustrated. PMID:25663758

  13. EVIDENCE FOR K+ YIELDS P+ VV-.

    SciTech Connect

    KETTELL,S.

    1998-12-18

    The first observation of the decay K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{ovr {nu}} has been reported. The E787 experiment presented evidence for the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{ovr {nu}} decay, based on the observation of a single clean event from data collected during the 1995 run of the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The branching ratio indicated by this observation, B(K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{ovr {nu}}) = 4.2{sub -3.5}{sup +9.7} x 10{sup -10}, is consistent with the Standard Model expectation although the central experimental value is four times larger. The final E7878 data sample, from the 1995-98 runs, should reach a sensitivity of about five times that of the 1995 run alone. A new experiment, E949, has been given scientific approval and should start data collected in 2001. It is expected to achieve a sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude below the prediction of the Standard Model.

  14. Secondary scintillation yield in pure argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2008-10-01

    The secondary scintillation yield is of great importance for simulating double phase detectors, which are used in several of the ongoing Dark Matter search experiments, as well as in the future large-scale particle detectors proposed in Europe as the next generation underground observatories. The argon secondary scintillation yield is studied, at room temperature, as a function of electric field in the gas scintillation gap. A Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) collects the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas, as well as the 5.9 keV x-rays directly absorbed in the photodiode. The direct x-rays were used as a reference for the determination of the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, so, the number of photons impinging the LAAPD. A value of 81 photons/kV was obtained for the scintillation amplification parameter, defined as the number of photons produced per drifting electron and per kilovolt. The scintillation yields obtained in this work are in agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo calculations and a factor of ?10 higher than those determined by the WARP experiment.

  15. Scattered ion yields from bimetallic crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taglauer, E.; Steltenpohl, A.; Beikler, R.; Houssiau, L.

    For a number of bimetallic single crystal surfaces and ordered epilayers we investigated scattered ion yields. He + and Ne + ions in the energy range of 1-4.5 keV were used to study the sytems CuAu, PdRu, AuRu, NiAl and FeAl. Choosing appropriate scattering conditions the contributions from the topmost first and second atomic layers can be separated. Comparison of the measured ion yields for different elements or with numerical simulations that do not include neutralization effects provides the possibility to identify relative ion survival probabilities for scattering from different layers of these surfaces. The results show large differences for the various elements and emphasize the importance of the chemical nature of first layer species for ion yields from second layer scattering. Au and Cu in the first layer cause a much higher neutralization rate than Al or Ru. Besides the relevance for neutralization processes these results are also important for quantitative anlysis of alloy surface layers by low-energy ion scattering (LEIS).

  16. Sputter Yield Measurement of Ferrous Metals & Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denieffe, Kieran; Mahony, C. M. O.; Maguire, P. D.; Baby, A.

    2009-10-01

    Sputter yield measurements for bulk Co, Fe & Ni are published [1]; however no values are available for ferrous metal alloys. Here we present the results of a study of the sputter yields of thin film ferromagnetic alloys CoFe & NiFe. We also investigate the sputtering of polyamide, used for masking in microelectronics, but with no published sputter yields to our knowledge. We used a 13.56 MHz plasma ion source to bombard biased samples with 50 eV to 1k eV Ar^+ ions. The ion flux was measured by a Faraday cup & the etch rate with a sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) modified for rf use, allowing multiple real-time measurements without breaking vacuum. The QCM was calibrated via profilometry & weight loss measurements; flux values were validated using a retarding field analyzer. A mass/energy analyser was used to measure ion energy distributions, showed the FWHM spread of beam energy to be 4eV. Measurements show that although Y values & threshold energies of the thin film alloys differ to those published for bulk ferrous metals, they do exhibit similar Y v ion energy trends.[4pt] [1] Laegreid N, Wehner G. 1961 J Appl Phys 32 p365

  17. Second Generation Crop Yield Models Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, T. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Second generation yield models, including crop growth simulation models and plant process models, may be suitable for large area crop yield forecasting in the yield model development project. Subjective and objective criteria for model selection are defined and models which might be selected are reviewed. Models may be selected to provide submodels as input to other models; for further development and testing; or for immediate testing as forecasting tools. A plant process model may range in complexity from several dozen submodels simulating (1) energy, carbohydrates, and minerals; (2) change in biomass of various organs; and (3) initiation and development of plant organs, to a few submodels simulating key physiological processes. The most complex models cannot be used directly in large area forecasting but may provide submodels which can be simplified for inclusion into simpler plant process models. Both published and unpublished models which may be used for development or testing are reviewed. Several other models, currently under development, may become available at a later date.

  18. The yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semeliss, M. A.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental and analytical evaluation was made of the yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene, a semi-crystalline thermoplastic. Polyethylene was selected for study because it is very inexpensive and readily available in the form of thin-walled tubes. Thin-walled tubular specimens were subjected to axial loads and internal pressures, such that the specimens were subjected to a known biaxial loading. A constant octahederal shear stress rate was imposed during all tests. The measured yield and post-yield behavior was compared with predictions based on both isotropic and anisotropic models. Of particular interest was whether inelastic behavior was sensitive to the hydrostatic stress level. The major achievements and conclusions reached are discussed.

  19. Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

  20. Spatio-temporal evolution of the L {yields} I {yields} H transition

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, K. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Guercan, Oe. D. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS (France); Tynan, G. R. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Estrada, T. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Schmitz, L. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Xu, G. S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)

    2012-09-15

    We investigate the dynamics of the low(L) {yields} high(H) transition using a time-dependent, one dimensional (in radius) model which self-consistently describes the time evolution of zonal flows (ZFs), mean flows (MFs), poloidal spin-up, and density and pressure profiles. The model represents the physics of ZF and MF competition, turbulence suppression via E Multiplication-Sign B shearing, and poloidal flows driven by turbulence. Numerical solutions of this model show that the L{yields}H transition can occur via an intermediate phase (I-phase) which involves oscillations of profiles due to ZF and MF competition. The I-phase appears as a nonlinear transition wave originating at the edge boundary and propagates inward. Locally, I-phase exhibits the characteristics of a limit-cycle oscillation. All these observations are consistent with recent experimental results. We examine the trigger of the L{yields}H transition, by defining a ratio of the rate of energy transfer from the turbulence to the zonal flow to the rate of energy input into the turbulence. When the ratio exceeds order unity, ZF shear gains energy, and a net decay of the turbulence is possible, thus triggering the L{yields}H transition. Numerical calculations indicate that the L{yields}H transition is triggered by this peak of the normalized ZF shearing. Zonal flows act as 'reservoir,' in which to store increasing fluctuation energy without increasing transport, thus allowing the mean flow shear to increase and lock in the transition. A counterpart of the L {yields} I{yields}H transition, i.e., an L{yields}H transition without I-phase, is obtained in a fast power ramp, for which I-phase is compressed into a single burst of ZF, which triggers the transition. Effects of neutral charge exchange on the L{yields}H transition are studied by varying ZF damping and neoclassical viscosity. Results show that the predicted L{yields}H transition power increases when either ZF damping or viscosity increase, suggesting a link between recycling, ZF damping, and the L{yields}H threshold. Studies of fueling effects on the transition and pedestal structure with an emphasis on the particle pinch are reported.

  1. Yields of hawthorn Crataegus monogyna berries under different hedgerow management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H Sparks; T Martin

    1999-01-01

    Yields of hawthorn berries under different hedgerow management treatments were examined in experimental hedgerows at Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire, UK. Statistically significant differences existed between the management treatments with yields per unit area of hedgerows unmanaged for more than a decade out-yielding managed hedgerows by an order of magnitude. These differences were further inflated if yields were considered per unit length

  2. Multiple limit cycles in the chemostat with variable yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei S. Pilyugin; Paul Waltman

    2003-01-01

    The global asymptotic behavior of solutions of the variable yield model is determined. The model generalizes the classical Monod model and it assumes that the yield is an increasing function of the nutrient concentration. In contrast to the Monod model, it is demonstrated that the variable yield model exhibits sustained oscillations. Moreover, it is shown that the variable yield model

  3. Average L-shell fluorescence, Auger, and electron yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Krause

    1980-01-01

    The dependence of the average L-shell fluorescence and Auger yields on the initial vacancy distribution is shown to be small. By contrast, the average electron yield pertaining to both Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions is shown to display a strong dependence. Numerical examples are given on the basis of Krause's evaluation of subshell radiative and radiationless yields. Average yields are calculated

  4. The impact of data integration on yield enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Smith; C. Gondran

    1996-01-01

    Yield enhancement engineering usually focuses on three areas of interest: investigation of low yielding lots (or lots with abnormal fail signatures), elimination of in-line defect process excursions and improvement of baseline product yield. These tasks require that engineers digest the data necessary to lead them to what needs to be done to find root cause for a given yield issue.

  5. New methods for automatic delay time compensation in grain yield maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yield data is a key component of precision agriculture, critical for both development and evaluation of precision management strategies. Ideally, software that generates grain yield maps from raw yield monitor data should automatically correct common errors associated with machine and operating...

  6. Identification of expressed genes in the mapped QTLs for yield related traits in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of grain yield is a perpetual goal in rice breeding. Yield and its component traits are quantitatively inherited and controlled by many genes. To identify the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) involved in yield, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 259 progeny was devel...

  7. Greenhouse Studies of Soybean Aphid Effects on Plant Growth, Seed Yield, and Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little published information available that describes the effects of soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) on soybean [Glycine max (L.) merr] growth, yield, and seed composition. The objective of this research was to measure how soybean growth, yield, and yield components are affected ...

  8. Yield and flow properties of aluminum alloy AA 8001

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.S.; Johnson, H.W.; Han, E.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-03-15

    Aluminum alloy AA 8001 is being used at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for nuclear reactor fuel and target components. The objective of this research was to determine parameters for predictive models of the compressive flow properties of AA 8001. Seventy-five true strain-rate, hot compression tests were performed. New, quantitative information about the yield and flow behavior of aluminum alloy AA 8001 was determined. Parameters were determined to use in a hyperbolic sine constitutive law so that the yield stress, the peak stress, and the peak strain can be predicted from the temperature-compensated strain-rate, Z. It was found that the onset of strain softening was more strongly dependent on Z than the onset of yielding was.

  9. Statistical circuit design for yield improvement in CMOS circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, H. J.; Purviance, J. E.; Whitaker, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical design of CMOS integrated circuits for improved parametric yield. The work uses the Monte Carlo technique of circuit simulation to obtain an unbiased estimation of the yield. A simple graphical analysis tool, the yield factor histogram, is presented. The yield factor histograms are generated by a new computer program called SPICENTER. Using the yield factor histograms, the most sensitive circuit parameters are noted, and their nominal values are changed to improve the yield. Two basic CMOS example circuits, one analog and one digital, are chosen and their designs are 'centered' to illustrate the use of the yield factor histograms for statistical circuit design.

  10. Yield impacting systematic defects search and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Qingxiu; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xing; Ning, Jay; Cheng, Guojie; Chen, Shijie; Zhang, Gary; Vikram, Abhishek; Su, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Despite great effort before design tapeout, there are still some pattern related systematic defects showing up in production, which impact product yield. Through various check points in the production life cycle endeavor is made to detect these defective patterns. It is seen that apart from the known defective patterns, slight variations of polygon sizes and shapes in the known defective patterns also cause yield loss. This complexity is further compounded when interactions among multiple process layers causes the defect. Normally the exact pattern matching techniques cannot detect these variations of the defective patterns. With the currently existing tools in the fab it is a challenge to define the 'sensitive patterns', which are arbitrary variations in the known 'defective patterns'. A design based approach has been successfully experimented on product wafers to detect yield impacting defects that greatly reduces the TAT for hotspot analysis and also provides optimized care area definition to enable high sensitivity wafer inspection. A novel Rule based pattern search technique developed by Anchor Semiconductor has been used to find sensitive patterns in the full chip design. This technique allows GUI based pattern search rule generation like, edge move or edge-to-edge distance range, so that any variations of a particular sensitive pattern can be captured and flagged. Especially the pattern rules involving multiple process layers, like M1-V1-M2, can be defined easily using this technique. Apart from using this novel pattern search technique, design signatures are also extracted around the defect locations in the wafer and used in defect classification. This enhanced defect classification greatly helps in determining most critical defects among the total defect population. The effectiveness of this technique has been established through design to defect correlation and SEM verification. In this paper we will report details of the design based experiments that were successfully run on multiple process layers in production device.

  11. Increased upconversion quantum yield in plasmonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhalawany, A.; Hayenga, W. E.; He, S.; Lantigua, C.; Johnson, N. J. J.; Almutairi, A.; Khajavikhan, M.

    2014-09-01

    Upconversion processes have found widespread applications in drug delivery, bio-imaging and solar-cells. In this paper we present a theoretical model that analyzes the impact of a plasmonic shield structure on the quantum yield of upconversion nanoparticles. We use this model to assess the efficiency of NaYF4: Tm3+ Yb3+/NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles when embedded in a polymer matrix and covered by a metallic can-like structure. We find that as a result of this specific plasmonic structure, the upconversion luminescence from NIR to UV can be increased by a factor of 30.

  12. 31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in this...Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings...yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in...

  13. An investigation of yield potentials in superplastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Khraisheh, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Recent results have indicated that superplastic materials exhibit a strong degree of anisotropy and that the plastic flow cannot be described by the isotropic von Mises flow rules. In this study, the yield potential for the model Pb-Sn superplastic alloy is constructed experimentally for different effective strain rates using combined tension/torsion tests. A generalized anisotropic dynamic yield function is also proposed to represent the experimentally constructed yield potentials. The anisotropic function is not only capable of describing the initial anisotropic state of the yield potential, it can also describe its evolution through the evolution of unit vectors defining the direction of anisotropy. The anisotropic yield function includes a set of material constants which determine the degree of deviation of the yield potential from the isotropic von Mises yield surface. It is shown that the anisotropic yield function successfully represents the experimental yield potentials, especially in the superplastic region.

  14. Electron-induced electron yields of uncharged insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Ryan Carl

    Presented here are electron-induced electron yield measurements from high-resistivity, high-yield materials to support a model for the yield of uncharged insulators. These measurements are made using a low-fluence, pulsed electron beam and charge neutralization to minimize charge accumulation. They show charging induced changes in the total yield, as much as 75%, even for incident electron fluences of <3 fC/mm2, when compared to an uncharged yield. The evolution of the yield as charge accumulates in the material is described in terms of electron recapture, based on the extended Chung and Everhart model of the electron emission spectrum and the dual dynamic layer model for internal charge distribution. This model is used to explain charge-induced total yield modification measured in high-yield ceramics, and to provide a method for determining electron yield of uncharged, highly insulating, high-yield materials. A sequence of materials with progressively greater charge susceptibility is presented. This series starts with low-yield Kapton derivative called CP1, then considers a moderate-yield material, Kapton HN, and ends with a high-yield ceramic, polycrystalline aluminum oxide. Applicability of conductivity (both radiation induced conductivity (RIC) and dark current conductivity) to the yield is addressed. Relevance of these results to spacecraft charging is also discussed.

  15. Computed barrier heights for H + CH2O yields CH3O yields CH2OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1993-01-01

    The barrier heights (including zero-point effects) for H + CH2O yields CH3O and CH3O yields CH2OH have been computed using complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF)/gradient calculations to define the stationary point geometries and harmonic frequencies and internally contracted configuration-interaction (CCI) to refine the energetics. The computed barrier heights are 5.6 kcal/mol and 30.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The former barrier height compares favorably to an experimental activation energy of 5.2 kcal/mol.

  16. Infrasound Propagation Modeling for Explosive Yield Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. E.; Golden, P.; Negraru, P.

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on developing methods of estimating the size or yield of HE surface explosions from local and regional infrasound measurements in the southwestern United States. A munitions disposal facility near Mina, Nevada provides a repeating ground-truth source for this study, with charge weights ranging from 870 - 3800 lbs. Detonation logs and GPS synchronized videos were obtained for a sample of shots representing the full range of weights. These are used to calibrate a relationship between charge weight and spectral level from seismic waveforms recorded at the Nevada Seismic Array (NVAR) at a distance of 36 km. Origin times and yields for the remaining shots are inferred from the seismic recordings at NVAR. Infrasound arrivals from the detonations have been continuously recorded on three four-element, small aperture infrasound arrays since late 2009. NVIAR is collocated with NVAR at a range of approximately 36 km to the northeast. FALN and DNIAR are located at ranges of 154 km to the north, and 293 km to the southeast respectively. Travel times and amplitudes for stratospheric arrivals at DNIAR show strong seasonal variability with the largest amplitudes and celerities occurring during the winter months when the stratospheric winds are favorable. Stratospheric celerities for FNIAR to the north are more consistent as they are not strongly affected by the predominantly meridional stratospheric winds. Tropospheric arrivals at all three arrays show considerable variability that does not appear to be a seasonal effect. Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space (NRL-G2S) Mesoscale models are used to specify the atmosphere along the propagation path for each detonation. Ray-tracing is performed for each source/receiver pair to identify events for which the models closely match the travel-time observations. This subset of events is used to establish preliminary wind correction formulas using wind values from the G2S profile for the entire propagation path. These results are then compared with results for the entire data set to analyze the performance of the formulas. Full-wave hydrodynamic calculations are carried out to investigate the effects of finite-amplitude propagation, attenuation, and wind velocity on the amplitude and spectral content of the observed signals. Relationships are explored between the yields of the explosions and the period and wind corrected amplitudes of the signals recorded at various distances. The atmospheric specifications combined with propagation modeling techniques may allow propagation path effects to be better removed so that source characteristics can be extracted from the signals.

  17. Yield strain in shear banding amorphous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Ratul; Hentschel, H. George E.; Procaccia, Itamar

    2013-02-01

    In recent research it was found that the fundamental shear-localizing instability of amorphous solids under external strain, which eventually results in a shear band and failure, consists of a highly correlated array of Eshelby quadrupoles all having the same orientation and some density ?. In this paper we calculate analytically the energy E(?,?) associated with such highly correlated structures as a function of the density ? and the external strain ?. We show that for strains smaller than a characteristic strain ?Y the total strain energy initially increases as the quadrupole density increases, but that for strains larger than ?Y the energy monotonically decreases with quadrupole density. We identify ?Y as the yield strain. Its value, derived from values of the qudrupole strength based on the atomistic model, agrees with that from the computed stress-strain curves and broadly with experimental results.

  18. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

  19. Secondary scintillation yield in pure xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Coelho, L. C. C.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Giboni, K.; Aprile, E.

    2007-05-01

    The xenon secondary scintillation yield was studied as a function of the electric field in the scintillation region, in a gas proportional scintillation counter operated at room temperature. A large area avalanche photodiode was used for the readout of the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas, together with the 5.9 keV x-rays directly absorbed in the photodiode. The latter was used as a reference for the determination of the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, thus, the number of VUV photons impinging the photodiode. A value of 140 photons/kV was obtained for the scintillation amplification parameter. The attained results are in good agreement with those predicted, for room temperature, by Monte Carlo simulation and Boltzmann calculations, as well as with those obtained for saturated xenon vapour, at cryogenic temperatures, and are about a factor of two higher than former results measured at room temperature.

  20. Wheat growth and yield under different depth film-bottomed cultivation in sandy land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Tao; Jun Ren

    2004-01-01

    The crop cultivation with film-bottomed tillage may benefit more, but little is known about the yield and the relationships among the last yield components under different depth film-bottomed tillage. We conducted a field study on sandy land to quantify response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and its components under 60, 70 and 90cm depth film-bottomed tillage. Morphological measurements included

  1. The effects of climate change on United States rice yields and California wheat yields

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, T.A.; Geng, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The USA produces 7.9 million tons of rice (Oryza sativa L.), 28% of which is exported to developing countries. Rice is one of the most important grain crops both in the USA and the world. Therefore it is important to understand the impact of weather and climate change on rice yields and production. In the USA rice is produced in California and the Gulf Coast states. It is anticipated that global climate change will have a major influence on agricultural practices and crop selection in these states. This study uses simulation techniques to quantify the potential magnitude of this influence. In addition, the impact of climate change on fall planted dryland spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in California is evaluated. Results indicate that rice yields decrease by between 14 and 24% in the Gulf Coast states and between 11 and 21% in California. In both regions the decrease in rice yields were due primarily to the large increase in summer temperatures. On the other hand, dryland fall planted spring wheat yields in California increase by 62 and 125%. This is because of the increased rainfall and temperatures during the winter months in California.

  2. Comparison of Corn Silage Hybrids for Yield, Nutrient Composition, In Vitro Digestibility, and Milk Yield by Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Thomas; P. Mandebvu; C. S. Ballard; C. J. Sniffen; M. P. Carter; J. Beck

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to compare Novartis N29- F1, a dual-purpose 90-d relative maturity corn hybrid, and Novartis NX3018, a 90-d relative maturity leafy corn silage hybrid for dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro digestibility, plant components, nutrient composition, and lactational performance by Holstein cows. The two corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2- × 351- m plots. Plant population

  3. Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid

    E-print Network

    Rich, Jason P.

    Field-induced static and dynamic yield stresses are explored for magnetorheological (MR) suspensions in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid composed of an aqueous dispersion of Laponite® clay. Using a custom-built ...

  4. Pollination thoroughness and maternal yield regulation in wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Stanton; J. K. Bereczky; H. D. Hasbrouck

    1987-01-01

    Under conditions where resources are limited, there are often negative correlations between components of maternal yield, or between fruit and flower production. Pollination, in turn, may vary among individuals and influence total maternal expenditure. We examined the impact of variation in pollination thoroughness upon yield components and overall plant growth in wild radish (R. raphanistrum) plants grown in the greenhouse.

  5. Genetic combining ability estimates in the F 1 and F 2 generations for yield, its component traits and alkaloid content in opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Yadav; Sudhir Shukla; S. P. Singh

    2009-01-01

    The F\\u000a 1 and F\\u000a 2 generations of a twenty parent fractional diallel cross of opium poppy (P. somniferum L.) were analyzed for combining ability for ten quantitative and five quality (alkaloids) traits. The results indicated significant\\u000a differences among the parents for combining ability for all the traits. The GCA and SCA components of variances were significant\\u000a for all the

  6. Tensile yielding of multiwall carbon nanotubes Chenyu Weia)

    E-print Network

    Wei, Chenyu

    predicted above/below which yielding strain of a MWCNT is larger/smaller than that of the corresponding, the yield strain of a MWCNT is estimated to be about 3%­4% higher than that of an equivalent single-wall CNT, and will be shown to play an important role in the yielding of MWCNT as well. The dynamics and yielding of MWCNTs

  7. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and Spain in both considered drought events, however slightly less severe for 2012 than for 2005. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor droughts' impacts on crops productions and yields in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno, 2010: A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J. Climate, 23, 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45.

  8. Walking and running on yielding and fluidizing Feifei Qian1

    E-print Network

    Fearing, Ron

    Walking and running on yielding and fluidizing ground Feifei Qian1 , Tingnan Zhang1 , Chen Li1. At low frequencies, the robot used a quasi-static "rotary walking" mode, in which the granular material]. Forced granular media remain solid below the yield stress but flow like a fluid when the yield stress

  9. 7 CFR 760.638 - Determination of SURE yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Determination of SURE yield. 760.638 Section 760.638...760.638 Determination of SURE yield. (a) Except for value loss crops as specified in § 760.634, a SURE yield will be determined for each...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production...Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the...by 50 percent of the approved yield per acre for the commodity for...and (6) Multiplying the value of salvage and secondary...

  11. Post-Process Filtering Techniques to Improve Yield Map Accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy D. Beck; Jody P. Roades; Stephen W. Searcy; Sheraton Toronto

    Summary Yield maps often contain data points that are not correct estimates of the yield in a given area. Often these erroneous points result from the manner in which the harvester is operated. Incorrect yield estimates are a factor of the number of combines used in a field, the shape of the field, and the type of crops being harvested.

  12. CAESIUM FLOODING ON METAL SURFACES AND SPUTTERED NEGATIVE ION YIELDS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-325 CAESIUM FLOODING ON METAL SURFACES AND SPUTTERED NEGATIVE ION YIELDS M. BERNHEIM and G métaux nobles. Abstract. 2014 Energy distributions and yields of secondary negative ions were measured authors have shown that the yield of negative ions may be strongly increased by using caesium primary ions

  13. STUDYING THE INHERITANCE OF HIGH MILLING YIELD IN CYPRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milling yield, also called ‘head rice yield’, is the percentage of whole grain obtained from rough rice (paddy rice) after milling. Milling yield is a critically important trait in rice because it is a major factor determining the price farmers are paid for their crop. Developing genetic markers t...

  14. Observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keguang Wang

    2007-01-01

    A method for observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice is developed based on the characteristic analysis of the stress field within the pack ice. The analysis shows that the slope of the yield curve is associated with the angle between intersecting linear kinematic features; thus by measuring the intersection angles we can inversely estimate the yield curve. Applying

  15. The yield strength of subliquidus basalts — experimental results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R Hoover; K. V Cashman; M Manga

    2001-01-01

    Yield strength is an important property of particle–fluid suspensions. In basaltic lavas that crystallize during flow emplacement, the onset of yield strength may result in threshold transitions in flow behavior and flow surface morphology. However, yield strength–crystallinity relations are poorly known, particularly in geologic suspensions, where difficulties of experimental and field measurements have limited data acquisition in the subliquidus temperature

  16. Yield Mapping to Document Goose Grazing Impacts on Winter Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Borman; Mounir Louhaichi; Douglas E. Johnson; William C. Krueger; Russell S. Karow; David R. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    on yield-mapping-system data, goose grazing resulted in grain yield differences ranging from a 16% increase on part of one field to a 25% provide new opportunities to more accurately measure decrease on an area of a field heavily grazed in April, just before geese crop yield and damage caused by wildlife or other fac- migrated north. Comparisons of exclosures (nongrazed

  17. Rheological behaviour of suspensions of bubbles in yield stress fluids

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rheological behaviour of suspensions of bubbles in yield stress fluids Lucie Duclou´e, Olivier in yield stress fluids are investigated through experiments on model systems made of monodisperse bubbles and the rheological properties of the suspending yield stress fluid are varied over a wide range. We show

  18. Defect Tolerance in VLSI Circuits: Techniques and Yield Analysis

    E-print Network

    Koren, Israel

    incorporating redundancy into the design, modifying the circuit floorplan, and modifying its layout. Successful tolerance, faults, floor- plan, layout, redundancy, yield, yield model. I. INTRODUCTION AND PRELIMINARIES The profitability of integrated circuits (IC's) manufac- turing depends heavily on the fabrication yield, defined

  19. Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R. [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Besson, D. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Pedlar, T. K. [Luther College, Decorah, Iowa 52101 (United States); Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K. [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] (and others)

    2009-05-01

    We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

  20. On Strength at Yield in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Neil K.

    2014-10-01

    This paper concerns the lower of a range of thresholds that control the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient laboratory state to the point at which the bond strength is overcome and warm dense matter is formed. One oft-used term is yield stress and its variation with the rise time of the loading pulse are considered in this first paper. This threshold shows a correlation between the length scale swept by the rise of the pulse and the defect distribution within the target for a range of materials. Strain rate is also a useful term that reflects the evolution of the stress state within a target but must be defined for a particular volume element containing a particular defect distribution to reflect continuum conditions acting within and thus applies to a defined length scale within a target. This overview of behavior suggests concepts borrowed from rate-independent plasticity have served the community well but that to advance it may be necessary to use viscoplastic concepts in constitutive descriptions for the future.

  1. Runge Kutta integrators yield optimal regularization schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Andreas

    2005-04-01

    Asymptotic regularization (also called Showalter's method) is a theoretically appealing regularization scheme for an ill-posed problem Tx = y, T acting between Hilbert spaces. Here, Tx = y is stably solved by evaluating the solution of the evolution equation u'(t) = T*(y - Tu(t)), u(0) = 0, at a properly chosen finite time. For a numerical realization, however, we have to apply an integrator to the ODE. Fortunately all properties of asymptotic regularization carry over to its numerical realization: Runge-Kutta integrators yield optimal regularization schemes when stopped by the discrepancy principle. In this way a common analysis is obtained for such different regularization schemes as, for instance, the Landweber iteration and the iterated Tikhonov-Phillips method which are generated by the explicit and implicit Euler integrators, respectively. Furthermore it turns out that inconsistent Runge-Kutta schemes, which are useless for solving ODEs, lead to optimal regularizations as well which can even be more efficient than regularizations from consistent Runge-Kutta integrators. The presented computational examples illustrate the theoretical findings and demonstrate that implicit schemes outperform the explicit ones.

  2. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  3. The Two-Component Regulators GacS and GacA Positively Regulate a Nonfluorescent Siderophore through the Gac/Rsm Signaling Cascade in High-Siderophore-Yielding Pseudomonas sp. Strain HYS

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinyan; Chen, Min; Jiang, Zhen; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Siderophores, which are produced to overcome iron deficiency, are believed to be closely related to the adaptability of bacteria. The high-siderophore-yielding Pseudomonas sp. strain HYS simultaneously secretes the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdine and another nonfluorescent siderophore that is a major contributor to the high siderophore yield. Transposon mutagenesis revealed siderophore-related genes, including the two-component regulators GacS/GacA and a special cluster containing four open reading frames (the nfs cluster). Deletion mutations of these genes abolished nonfluorescent-siderophore production, and expression of the nfs cluster depended on gacA, indicating that gacS-gacA may control the nonfluorescent siderophore through regulation of the nfs cluster. Furthermore, regulation of the nonfluorescent siderophore by GacS/GacA involved the Gac/Rsm pathway. In contrast, inactivation of GacS/GacA led to upregulation of the fluorescent pyoverdine. The two siderophores were secreted under different iron conditions, probably because of differential effects of GacS/GacA. The global GacS/GacA regulatory system may control iron uptake by modulating siderophore production and may enable bacteria to adapt to changing iron environments. PMID:24982309

  4. Energy yield of black locust biomass fuel. [Robinia pseudoacacia L

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.W.; Carpenter, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    Detailed analysis of 2- and 10-year-old black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) biomass components provided an accurate energy content and energy yield determination as well as an index defining relative ceiling on the delivered cost for black locust biomass in comparison with other fuels such as coal and forest residues. Total energy content of individual biomass components ranged from 20.97 x J kg/sup -1/ for leaf tissue to 19.23 x 10/sup 6/ J kg/sup -1/ for current years' growth. Annual total energy yields ranged from 33.75 to 76.79 x 10/sup 9/ J ha/sup -1/ for 3- and 9-year-old stands, respectively. Nine-year-old stands also exhibited the highest annual net whole-tree and woody biomass (whole-tree less foliage) energy yields of 32.71 and 30.73 x 10/sup 9/ J ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/. The net annual energy yields were consistently greater for whole-tree biomass compared with woody biomass due to the foliage included in the whole-tree biomass. The relative cost indices maintained a high degree of variability between comparison fuels. Bituminous coal and forest residues were lowest with an overall mean cost index for woody biomass of $13.28 mt/sup -1/ and $13.72 mt/sup -1/, respectively. Woody biomass maintained a greater relative index than whole-tree biomass over all age classes due to its inherently higher conversion efficiency.

  5. Fertilization of yellow beardgrass, Andropogon Ischaemum L., with special reference to forage yield, seed yield, and seed quality

    E-print Network

    Bates, Richard P

    1950-01-01

    in the rate of nitrogen applied increased ths seed yields up to a certain point. There vers i. ncreassd yields with 20, 30, 5$, and V6 pounds of nitrogen psr acre, Podsivalov and Podsivalova (33) reported . that ths seed yields of' Festuca ~m~t~, ~Da ~s ~~a...

  6. Methane Yield Database: Online infrastructure and bioresource for methane yield data and related metadata.

    PubMed

    Murovec, Boštjan; Kolbl, Sabina; Stres, Blaž

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a community supported online infrastructure and bioresource for methane yield data and accompanying metadata collected from published literature. In total, 1164 entries described by 15,749 data points were assembled. Analysis of data collection showed little congruence in reporting of methodological approaches. The largest identifiable source of variation in reported methane yields was represented by authorship (i.e. substrate batches within particular substrate class) within which experimental scales (volumes (0.02-5l), incubation temperature (34-40°C) and % VS of substrate played an important role (p<0.05, npermutations=999) as well. The largest fraction of variability, however, remained unaccounted for and thus unexplained (>63%). This calls for reconsideration of accepted approaches to reporting data in currently published literature to increase capacity to service industrial decision making to a greater extent. PMID:25898082

  7. Optimum crop densities for potential yield and harvestable yield of grain amaranth are conflicting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Gimplinger; G. Schulte auf’m Erley; G. Dobos; H.-P. Kaul

    2008-01-01

    Grain amaranth is a C4 crop with potentially increasing cultivation area. Yet, no standards exist for optimum plant density. The aim of the study was to determine how crop density affects amaranth morphology, biological grain production and combine yield. A field experiment was conducted under semiarid conditions (9.8°C, 546mm) in Eastern Austria during 2002, 2004 and 2005. Two adapted genotypes

  8. Anomalous DD and TT yields relative to the DT yield in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Daniel T.

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the D(d,p)T (DD), T(t,2n)4He (TT) and D(t,n)4He (DT) reactions have been conducted using deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In these experiments, which were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility, absolute spectral measurements of the DD protons and TT neutrons were conducted and compared to neutron-time-of-flight measured DT-neutron yields. From these measurements, it is concluded that the DD yield is anomalously low and the TT yield is anomalously high relative to the DT yield, an effect that is enhanced with increasing ion temperature. These results can be explained by an enrichment of tritium in the core of an ICF implosion, which may be present in ignition experiments planned on the National Ignition Facility. In addition, the spectral measurements of the TT-neutron spectrum were conducted for the first time at reactant central-mass energies in the range of 15-30 keV. The results from these measurements indicate that the TT reaction proceeds primarily through the direct three-body reaction channel, producing a continuous TT-neutron spectrum in the range 0 - 9.5 MeV. This work was conducted in collaboration with J. A. Frenje, M. Gatu Johnson, M. J.-E. Manuel, H. G. Rinderknecht, N. Sinenian, F. H. Seguin, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, P. B. Radha, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, D. P. McNabb, P. A. Amendt, R. N. Boyd, J. R. Rygg, H. W. Herrmann, Y. H. Kim, G. P. Grim and A. D. Bacher. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG03-03SF22691), LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974).

  9. High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.

    PubMed

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2012-01-24

    Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

  10. Weather-based forecasts of California crop yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D B; Cahill, K N; Field, C B

    2005-09-26

    Crop yield forecasts provide useful information to a range of users. Yields for several crops in California are currently forecast based on field surveys and farmer interviews, while for many crops official forecasts do not exist. As broad-scale crop yields are largely dependent on weather, measurements from existing meteorological stations have the potential to provide a reliable, timely, and cost-effective means to anticipate crop yields. We developed weather-based models of state-wide yields for 12 major California crops (wine grapes, lettuce, almonds, strawberries, table grapes, hay, oranges, cotton, tomatoes, walnuts, avocados, and pistachios), and tested their accuracy using cross-validation over the 1980-2003 period. Many crops were forecast with high accuracy, as judged by the percent of yield variation explained by the forecast, the number of yields with correctly predicted direction of yield change, or the number of yields with correctly predicted extreme yields. The most successfully modeled crop was almonds, with 81% of yield variance captured by the forecast. Predictions for most crops relied on weather measurements well before harvest time, allowing for lead times that were longer than existing procedures in many cases.

  11. Model-independent Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC using the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Heather E. [Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Salvail, Jeff Z. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-10-01

    We show that combining a direct measurement of the Higgs total width from the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape with Higgs signal rate measurements allows Higgs couplings to be extracted in a model-independent way from CERN LHC data. Using existing experimental studies with 30 fb{sup -1} at one detector of the 14 TeV LHC, we show that the couplings squared of a 190 GeV Higgs to WW, ZZ, and gg can be extracted with statistical precisions of about 10%, and a 95% confidence level upper limit on an unobserved component of the Higgs decay width of about 22% of the standard model Higgs width can be set. The method can also be applied for heavier Higgs masses.

  12. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ); Kaita, Robert (Englishtown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  13. The Impact of Microstructure on Yield Strength Anisotropy in Linepipe Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatsurya, P. K. C.; Misra, R. D. K.; Mulholland, M. D.; Manohar, M.; Hartmann, J. E.

    2014-05-01

    We describe here the effect of microstructure on the yield strength anisotropy in high-strength microalloyed linepipe steels. The anisotropy in steel with ferrite-bainite microstructure was lower compared to the steel with ferrite-pearlite microstructure and is attributed to the significant difference in their transformation texture components, {112}<110> and {332}<113>. The yield strength anisotropy is discussed in terms of crystal plasticity concept involving estimation of average orientation factor and its relation to yield strength.

  14. Galactic disk abundance ratios: constraining SNIa stellar yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, Cristina

    2005-10-01

    Stellar abundance ratios of very good quality are now available for a large number of stars in the solar vicinity. Moreover, for an increasing number of stars informations on kinematics is also available. The combined information on abundance and kinematics enables one to select objects belonging to the different components of our Galaxy (thin disk, thick disk and halo). In this work we show that a careful comparison of our chemical evolution model for the Milky Way with the available abundance ratio measurements for stars in the solar neighborhood can be used to constrain the stellar yields. In particular, yields of Type Ia SNe are constrained by the abundance pattern of thin disk stars. Our results suggest that the 3-D models for SNIa explosion studied here lead to discrepancies once their predicted stellar yields are used as input in our chemical evolution model. These models produce flat Si/O and Mg/O ratios in disagreement with what is observed in thin disk stars. Moreover, our results indicate that larger quantities of Mg (at least a factor of 10 more than current theoretical predictions of either 1-D or multi-D models) need to be produced in SNIa.

  15. HVM die yield improvement as a function of DRSEM ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwary, Sonu; Haas, Terry; McGarvey, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Given the current manufacturing technology roadmap and the competitiveness of the global semiconductor manufacturing environment in conjunction with the semiconductor manufacturing market dynamics, the market place continues to demand a reduced die manufacturing cost. This continuous pressure on lowering die cost in turn drives an aggressive yield learning curve, a key component of which is defect reduction of manufacturing induced anomalies. In order to meet and even exceed line and die yield targets there is a need to revamp defect classification strategies and place a greater emphasize on increasing the accuracy and purity of the Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM) Automated Defect Classification (ADC) results while placing less emphasis on the ADC results of patterned/un-patterned wafer inspection systems. The increased emphasis on DRSEM ADC results allows for a high degree of automation and consistency in the classification data and eliminates variance induced by the manufacturing staff. This paper examines the use of SEM based Auto Defect Classification in a high volume manufacturing environment as a key driver in the reduction of defect limited yields.

  16. Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Increasing agricultural productivity to ‘close yield gaps’ creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms. PMID:24535392

  17. Experimental Techniques Verified for Determining Yield and Flow Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Ellis, Rod; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    1998-01-01

    Structural components in aircraft engines are subjected to multiaxial loads when in service. For such components, life prediction methodologies are dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive models that determine the elastic and inelastic portions of a loading cycle. A threshold surface (such as a yield surface) is customarily used to differentiate between reversible and irreversible flow. For elastoplastic materials, a yield surface can be used to delimit the elastic region in a given stress space. The concept of a yield surface is central to the mathematical formulation of a classical plasticity theory, but at elevated temperatures, material response can be highly time dependent. Thus, viscoplastic theories have been developed to account for this time dependency. Since the key to many of these theories is experimental validation, the objective of this work (refs. 1 and 2) at the NASA Lewis Research Center was to verify that current laboratory techniques and equipment are sufficient to determine flow surfaces at elevated temperatures. By probing many times in the axial-torsional stress space, we could define the yield and flow surfaces. A small offset definition of yield (10 me) was used to delineate the boundary between reversible and irreversible behavior so that the material state remained essentially unchanged and multiple probes could be done on the same specimen. The strain was measured with an off-the-shelf multiaxial extensometer that could measure the axial and torsional strains over a wide range of temperatures. The accuracy and resolution of this extensometer was verified by comparing its data with strain gauge data at room temperature. The extensometer was found to have sufficient resolution for these experiments. In addition, the amount of crosstalk (i.e., the accumulation of apparent strain in one direction when strain in the other direction is applied) was found to be negligible. Tubular specimens were induction heated to determine the flow surfaces at elevated temperatures. The heating system induced a large amount of noise in the data. By reducing thermal fluctuations and using appropriate data averaging schemes, we could render the noise inconsequential. Thus, accurate and reproducible flow surfaces (see the figure) could be obtained.

  18. Engineering design automation tool for yield learning model for IC packaging

    E-print Network

    Sarwar, Abul Kalam

    1996-01-01

    using time series model. . . . . Predicted yield due to chronic yield loss. . . . . . Predicted yield - chronic and excursions. . . . . . Actual vs predicted. Predicted yield for change in experience level. . . . PBGA - chronic yield. PBGA - yield... with excursions. CBGA - chronic yield. . CBGA ? yield with excursions. . . . . . CBGA - tuning (yield prediction) with 4 weeks of data. . . . . . Yield prediction navigation window of "Pack Tool" . . Factor window for value assignment. 26 28 28 29 32 33...

  19. Groundwater management under sustainable yield uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delottier, Hugo; Pryet, Alexandre; Dupuy, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The definition of the sustainable yield (SY) of a groundwater system consists in adjusting pumping rates so as to avoid groundwater depletion and preserve environmental flows. Once stakeholders have defined which impacts can be considered as "acceptable" for both environmental and societal aspects, hydrogeologists use groundwater models to estimate the SY. Yet, these models are based on a simplification of actual groundwater systems, whose hydraulic properties are largely unknown. As a result, the estimated SY is subject to "predictive" uncertainty. We illustrate the issue with a synthetic homogeneous aquifer system in interaction with a stream for steady state and transient conditions. Simulations are conducted with the USGS MODFLOW finite difference model with the river-package. A synthetic dataset is first generated with the numerical model that will further be considered as the "observed" state. In a second step, we conduct the calibration operation as hydrogeologists dealing with real word, unknown groundwater systems. The RMSE between simulated hydraulic heads and the synthetic "observed" values is used as objective function. But instead of simply "calibrating" model parameters, we explore the value of the objective function in the parameter space (hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient and total recharge). We highlight the occurrence of an ellipsoidal "null space", where distinct parameter sets lead to equally low values for the objective function. The optimum of the objective function is not unique, which leads to a range of possible values for the SY. With a large confidence interval for the SY, the use of modeling results for decision-making is challenging. We argue that prior to modeling operations, efforts must be invested so as to narrow the intervals of likely parameter values. Parameter space exploration is effective to estimate SY uncertainty, but not efficient because of its computational burden and is therefore inapplicable for real world groundwater systems. For predictive analysis of the SY to be realistic for real world problems, we test a calibration method based on the Gauss-Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Our results highlight that the analysis of the SY predictive uncertainty is essential for groundwater management. This uncertainty is expected to be large and can be addressed with better a priori information on model parameter values.

  20. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by considering seasonal effects. Typically, sediment concentration is the highest during the warmest months. The infrequent high flows carry a large, disproportionate amount of sediment.

  1. Boosting Crop Yields with Plant Steroids[W

    PubMed Central

    Vriet, Cécile; Russinova, Eugenia; Reuzeau, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Plant sterols and steroid hormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs), are compounds that exert a wide range of biological activities. They are essential for plant growth, reproduction, and responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Given the importance of sterols and BRs in these processes, engineering their biosynthetic and signaling pathways offers exciting potentials for enhancing crop yield. In this review, we focus on how alterations in components of sterol and BR metabolism and signaling or application of exogenous steroids and steroid inhibitors affect traits of agronomic importance. We also discuss areas for future research and identify the fine-tuning modulation of endogenous BR content as a promising strategy for crop improvement. PMID:22438020

  2. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability.

  3. Impacts of variability in cellulosic biomass yields on energy security.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Matthews, H Scott; Griffin, W Michael; Anex, Robert

    2014-07-01

    The practice of modeling biomass yields on the basis of deterministic point values aggregated over space and time obscures important risks associated with large-scale biofuel use, particularly risks related to drought-induced yield reductions that may become increasingly frequent under a changing climate. Using switchgrass as a case study, this work quantifies the variability in expected yields over time and space through switchgrass growth modeling under historical and simulated future weather. The predicted switchgrass yields across the United States range from about 12 to 19 Mg/ha, and the 80% confidence intervals range from 20 to 60% of the mean. Average yields are predicted to decrease with increased temperatures and weather variability induced by climate change. Feedstock yield variability needs to be a central part of modeling to ensure that policy makers acknowledge risks to energy supplies and develop strategies or contingency plans that mitigate those risks. PMID:24941019

  4. Uncertainties in Supernova Yields I: 1D Explosions

    E-print Network

    Patrick A. Young; Chris L. Fryer

    2006-12-22

    Theoretical nucleosynthetic yields from supernovae are sensitive to both the details of the progenitor star and the explosion calculation. We attempt to comprehensively identify the sources of uncertainties in these yields. In this paper we concentrate on the variations in yields from a single progenitor arising from common 1-dimensional methods of approximating a supernova explosion. Subsequent papers will examine 3-dimensional effects in the explosion and the progenitor, and trends in mass and composition. For the 1-dimensional explosions we find that both elemental and isotopic yields for Si and heavier elements are a sensitive function of explosion energy. Also, piston-driven and thermal bomb type explosions have different yields for the same explosion energy. Yields derived from 1-dimensional explosions are non-unique.

  5. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

  6. Mid-Season Prediction of Wheat-Grain Yield Potential Using Plant, Soil, and Sensor Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Girma; K. L. Martin; R. H. Anderson; D. B. Arnall; K. D. Brixey; M. A. Casillas; B. Chung; B. C. Dobey; S. K. Kamenidou; S. K. Kariuki; E. E. Katsalirou; J. C. Morris; J. Q. Moss; C. T. Rohla; B. J. Sudbury; B. S. Tubana; W. R. Raun

    2006-01-01

    The components that define cereal-grain yield potential have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to collect many differing biological measurements from a long-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) study in an attempt to better define yield potential. Four treatments were sampled that annually received 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg N ha at fixed rates of

  7. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON YIELD RESPONSE OF TWO SOYBEAN CULTIVARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important component of the effects of acid rain on our ecosystem is its impact on the yield of agricultural crops. ield experiments were conducted for 3 yr to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on seed yield of two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. 'Amsoy 7...

  8. A Study of Specialty Clones’ Yield Performance in Early and Late Harvests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: A study was conducted on specialty potato breeding lines to examine yield components in an early and late harvest. Upon first examination it was apparent that the early water cutoff had a large effect on total yield. In the early trial only one clone achieved 600 cwt/A of total...

  9. Environmental effects on linseed ( Linum usitatissimum L.) yield and growth of flax at different stand densities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Casa; G. Russell; B. Lo Cascio; F. Rossini

    1999-01-01

    The effect of environmental factors and stand density on linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) yield was investigated by examining yield components and development rates from 4years of field experiments carried out at Viterbo, Central Italy, in which different seed rates were tested. Spring sowings were carried out using the linseed cultivar ‘Mikael’. Growth analysis using the functional approach and modelling using

  10. Optimization of multi-layer ceramic capacitor geometry for maximum yield during binder burnout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Peters; S. J. Lombardo

    2001-01-01

    The yield during binder burnout of barium titanate multi-layer ceramic capacitors with poly(vinyl) butyral as a binder and platinum as the electrode material depends on the side length and height of the devices. In general, the yield decreases with increasing volume of the capacitor and depends on the aspect ratio of the component. For capacitors of square parallelepiped geometry, the

  11. Rice yield estimation with multi-temporal Radarsat-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Cheng-Ru

    2015-04-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in Taiwan. Monitoring rice crop yield is thus crucial for agronomic planners to formulate successful strategies to address national food security and rice grain export issues. However, there is a real challenge for this monitoring purpose because the size of rice fields in Taiwan was generally small and fragmented, and the cropping calendar was also different from region to region. Thus, satellite-based estimation of rice crop yield requires the data that have sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. This study aimed to develop models to estimate rice crop yield from multi-temporal Radarsat-2 data (5 m resolution). Data processing were carried out for the first rice cropping season from February to July in 2014 in the western part of Taiwan, consisting of four main steps: (1) constructing time-series backscattering coefficient data, (2) spatiotemporal noise filtering of the time-series data, (3) establishment of crop yield models using the time-series backscattering coefficients and in-situ measured yield data, and (4) model validation using field data and government's yield statistics. The results indicated that backscattering behavior varied from region to region due to changes in cultural practices and cropping calendars. The highest correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.8) was obtained at the ripening period. The robustness of the established models was evaluated by comparisons between the estimated yields and in-situ measured yield data showed satisfactory results, with the root mean squared error (RMSE) smaller than 10%. Such results were reaffirmed by the correlation analysis between the estimated yields and government's rice yield statistics (R2 > 0.8). This study demonstrates advantages of using multi-temporal Radarsat-2 backscattering data for estimating rice crop yields in Taiwan prior to the harvesting period, and thus the methods were proposed for rice yield monitoring in other regions.

  12. An approximate yield criterion for anisotropic porous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyam M. Keralavarma; A. Amine Benzerga

    2008-01-01

    We derive a new yield function for materials containing spheroidal voids embedded in a perfectly-plastic anisotropic Hill-type matrix. Using approximate limit-analysis and a restricted set of trial velocity fields, analytical yield loci are derived for a hollow, spheroidal volume element containing a confocal spheroidal void. Alternatively, the yield loci are determined through numerical limit-analysis, i.e., employing a larger set of

  13. Electron impact on atmospheric gases. II - Yield spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. E. S.; Jackman, C. H.; Garvey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A concept yield spectrum is introduced and this two-dimensional function is calculated, using a modified discrete energy bin method for 50-eV to 10-keV incident electrons impacting on the gases Ar, H2, H2O, O2, N2, O, CO, CO2, and He. The yield spectrum is amenable to physical interpretation, accurate analytic representation, and convenient application to the determination of all types of yields needed in aeronomical problems.

  14. High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

  15. Direct laboratory tensile testing of select yielding rock bolt systems

    SciTech Connect

    VandeKraats, J.D.; Watson, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    Yielding rock bolt support systems have been developed to accommodate ground movement in shifting ground such as in coal operations; in creeping ground such as salt, trona, and potash; and in swelling ground associated with some clays. These systems, designed to remain intact despite ground movement, should enhance mine safety and help contain costs in areas where rebolting of rigid non-yielding systems is typically required. Four such systems were tested in straight tensile pulls in the laboratory. They include the Slip Nut System from Dywidag Systems International USA, Inc., Ischebeck`s bolt mounted Titan Load Indicator, Rocky Mountain Bolt Company`s Yielding Cable Bolt, and a rock bolt installed variation of the yielding steel post developed by RE/SPEC Inc. The first two systems are currently marketed products and the latter two are prototype systems. Each system responds to load and displacement by yielding in an unique manner. All are designed to yield at predetermined loads. A description of each system and its yield function is provided. Each system was tested over its prescribed yield range in a test machine. At least five tests were performed on each system. Each system yielded and continued to provide support according to its design. Each shows promise for ground control use in shifting or creeping rock. This work helps to illustrate the comparative differences in performance between these specialized systems and the applications where they may be most useful.

  16. Direct laboratory tensile testing of select yielding rock bolt systems

    SciTech Connect

    VandeKraats, J.D.; Watson, S.O. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Yielding rock bolt support systems have been developed to accommodate ground movement in shifting ground such as in coal operations; in creeping ground such as salt, trona, and potash; and in swelling ground associated with some clays. These systems, designed to remain intact despite ground movement, should enhance mine safety and help contain costs in areas where revolting of rigid non-yielding systems is typically required. Four such systems were tested in straight tensile pulls in the laboratory. They include the Slip Nut System from Dywidag Systems International USA, Inc., Ischebeck`s bolt mounted Titan Load Indicator, Rocky Mountain Bolt Company`s Yielding Cable Bolt, and a rock bolt installed variation of the yielding steel post developed by RE/SPEC Inc. The first two systems are currently marketed products and the latter two are prototype systems. Each system responds to load and displacement by yielding in a unique manner. All are designed to yield at predetermined loads. A description of each system and its yield function is provided. Each system was tested over its prescribed yield range in a test machine. At least five tests were performed on each system. Each system yielded and continued to provide support according to its design. Each shows promise for ground control use in shifting or creeping rock. This work helps to illustrate the comparative differences in performance between these specialized systems and the applications where they may be most useful.

  17. Tensile Yielding of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Srivastava, Deepak; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The tensile yielding of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been studied using Molecular Dynamics simulations and a Transition State Theory based model. We find a strong dependence of the yielding on the strain rate. A critical strain rate has been predicted above/below which yielding strain of a MWCNT is larger/smaller than that of the corresponding single-wall carbon nanotubes. At experimentally feasible strain rate of 1% /hour and T = 300K, the yield strain of a MWCNT is estimated to be about 3-4 % higher than that of an equivalent SWCNT (Single Wall Carbon Nanotube), in good agreement with recent experimental observations.

  18. Uncertainty in Simulating Wheat Yields Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J.W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Ruane, Alex; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, Peter; Rotter, R.P.; Cammarano, D.; Brisson, N.; Basso, B.; Martre, P.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, AJ; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grant, Robert; Heng, L.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Mueller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.O.; Olesen, JE; Osborne, T.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Travasso, M.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

    2013-09-01

    Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments1,2. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change has been increasingly described in the literature3,4 while assessments of the uncertainty in crop responses to climate change are very rare. Systematic and objective comparisons across impact studies is difficult, and thus has not been fully realized5. Here we present the largest coordinated and standardized crop model intercomparison for climate change impacts on wheat production to date. We found that several individual crop models are able to reproduce measured grain yields under current diverse environments, particularly if sufficient details are provided to execute them. However, simulated climate change impacts can vary across models due to differences in model structures and algorithms. The crop-model component of uncertainty in climate change impact assessments was considerably larger than the climate-model component from Global Climate Models (GCMs). Model responses to high temperatures and temperature-by-CO2 interactions are identified as major sources of simulated impact uncertainties. Significant reductions in impact uncertainties through model improvements in these areas and improved quantification of uncertainty through multi-model ensembles are urgently needed for a more reliable translation of climate change scenarios into agricultural impacts in order to develop adaptation strategies and aid policymaking.

  19. Decays Z{yields}gg{gamma} and Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma} in the minimal 331 model

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Tlalpa, A.; Montano, J.; Ramirez-Zavaleta, F.; Toscano, J. J. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-10-01

    The one-loop induced Z{yields}gg{gamma} and Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma} decays are studied within the context of the minimal 331 model, which predicts the existence of new gauge bosons and three exotic quarks. It is found that the Z{yields}gg{gamma} decay is insensitive to the presence of the exotic quarks, as it is essentially governed by the first two families of known quarks. As to the Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma} decay, it is found that the exotic quark contribution dominates and that for a heavy Z{sup '} boson it leads to a {gamma}(Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma}) that is more than 1 order of magnitude larger than that associated with {gamma}(Z{sup '}{yields}ggg). This result may be used to distinguish a new neutral Z{sup '} boson from those models that do not introduce exotic quarks.

  20. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

  1. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  2. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2014-08-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond (Prunus dulcis), pistachio (Pistacia vera), and walnut (Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  3. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds.

    PubMed

    Pope, Katherine S; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H; DeJong, Theodore M

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond (Prunus dulcis), pistachio (Pistacia vera), and walnut (Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change. PMID:25119825

  4. Spectral reflectance indices as a selection criterion for yield improvement in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babar, Md. Ali

    2005-11-01

    Scope and methods of study. Yield in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a complex trait and influenced by many environmental factors, and yield improvement is a daunting task for wheat breeders. Spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) have been used to study different physiological traits in wheat. SRIs have the potential to differentiate genotypes for grain yield. SRIs strongly associated with grain yield can be used to achieve effective genetic gain in wheat under different environments. Three experiments (15 adapted genotypes, 25 and 36 random sister lines derived from two different crosses) under irrigated conditions, and three experiments (each with 30 advanced genotypes) under water-limited conditions were conducted in three successive years in Northwest Mexico at the CIMMYT (International Maize and wheat Improvement Center) experimental station. SRIs and different agronomic data were collected for three years, and biomass was harvested for two years. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between SRIs and grain yield, between SRIs and biomass, realized and broad sense heritability, direct and correlated selection responses for grain yield, and SRIs were calculated. Findings and conclusion. Seven SRIs were calculated, and three near infrared based indices (WI, NWI-1 and NWI-2) showed higher level of genetic and phenotypic correlations with grain yield, yield components and biomass than other SRIs (PRI, RNDVI, GNDVI, and SR) under both irrigated and water limiting environments. Moderate to high realized and broad sense heritability, and selection response were demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. High efficiency of correlated response for yield estimation was demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. The ratio between the correlated response to grain yield based on the three NIR based indices and direct selection response for grain yield was very close to one. The NIR based indices showed very high accuracy in selecting superior genotypes for grain yield under both well-watered and water-limited conditions. These results demonstrated that effective genetic gain in grain yield improvement can be achieved by making selections with the three NIR based indices.

  5. THE BIOPHYSICAL BASIS FOR SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND QUALITY IN A COTTON PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canopy microenvironment is dependant on external environmental conditions, and is modified geospatially by soil and crop properties. This study was undertaken to explore the spatial variability of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) yield and quality, and delineate the underlying biophysical components cont...

  6. QTLS FOR MILLING YIELD IN TROPICAL JAPONICA LONG GRAIN RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milling yield, defined as the percentage of whole rice kernels recovered after de-hulling rough rice and milling, is a critically important trait in rice. Milling yields vary considerably between cultivars, with low milling cultivars being rejected by rice growers. The cultivar Cypress, well-known...

  7. NEST: A Comprehensive Model for Scintillation Yield in Liquid Xenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Szydagis; N. Barry; K. Kazkaz; J. Mock; D. Stolp; M. Sweany; M. Tripathi; S. Uvarov; N. Walsh; M. Woods

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive model for explaining scintillation yield in liquid xenon is introduced. We unify various definitions of work function which abound in the literature and incorporate all available data on electron recoil scintillation yield. This results in a better understanding of electron recoil, and facilitates an improved description of nuclear recoil. An incident gamma energy range of O(1 keV) to

  8. Trellis Tension Monitor for Continuous Growth and Yield Information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 'Trellis Tension Monitor' (TTM) can be used for continuous monitoring of growth and development in trellised crops and for automatically predicting yield. The technology was developed initially for vineyards because juice processors and wineries require yield predictions and an indication of the...

  9. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  10. Understanding grain yield: It is a journey, not a destination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20 years ago, we began our efforts to understand grain yield in winter wheat using chromosome substitution lines between Cheyenne and Wichita. We found that two chromosome substitutions, 3A and 6A, greatly affected grain yield. Cheyenne(Wichita 3A) and Cheyenne(Wichita 6A) had 15 to 20...

  11. Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol, amino acids, urea and glucose to a single yield, plasma cortisol, free amino acids, urea and glucose in lactating cows. The animals were treated cortisol occurred within 10 min of administration of 6 IU ACTH. The maximum increase in plasma cortisol

  12. Evaluating SPOT 5 Multispectral Imagery for Crop Yield Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High resolution satellite imagery has the potential for mapping within-field variability in crop growth and yield. This study examined SPOT 5 multispectral imagery for estimating grain sorghum yield. A SPOT 5 image with 10-m spatial resolution and four spectral bands (green, red, near-infrared and m...

  13. Comparison of Airborne Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery for Yield Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery is being used to monitor crop conditions and map yield variability. However, limited research has been conducted to compare the differences between these two types of imagery for assessing crop growth and yield. The objective of this study was to compare airbo...

  14. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful post-harvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (...

  15. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...

  16. What's holding us back? Raising the alfalfa yield bar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring yield of commodity crops is easy – weight and moisture content are determined on delivery. Consequently, reports of production or yield for grain crops can be made reliably to the agencies that track crop production, such as the USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). The s...

  17. CHANGES IN CROP PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY WITH HIGH YIELD PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in crop yield are due to changes in the genetic efficiency in the use of inputs. However, there are constraints on efficient use of resources, e.g., water, nitrogen, solar radiation, that limit consistent high yield response. The interactions of water, nitrogen, and light form a basis fo...

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modelling on Soot Yield for Fire

    E-print Network

    smoke spread in fire, we propose to conduct a further investigation into the issue of soot yieldComputational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modelling on Soot Yield for Fire Engineering Assessment Yong S (CFD) Modelling is now widely used by fire safety engineers throughout the world as a tool

  19. Total and differential sputter yields of boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topper, James Leo, IV

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based system was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of Boron Nitride targets due to Xenon ion bombardment. The system used a four-grid ion source to generate a (nearly) mono-energetic beam of ions with a low singles-to-doubles ratio that remains well-collimated at low energies. Boron Nitride sputter yields were measured as a function of Xenon ion energy and incidence angle. Total yield measurements are found by integrating differential yield data taken by the QCM. The measurement system was validated by sputtering Molybdenum, for which the measured yields compared well with published data. For Boron Nitride, complementary weight loss sputter yield measurements were conducted, but were found to be less accurate due to moisture absorption effects when samples were exposed to atmosphere. The effects of neutralization of both the ion beam and target surface were investigated, and a plasma bridge neutralizer (PBN) was used to prevent surface charge buildup on the target. The measured total sputter yields were found to vary strongly due to neutralization conditions, and were found to be approximately a factor of two higher than those available in the literature when aggressive target and beam neutralization was applied. The angular shape of the differential sputter yield profiles was described with fit parameters from the Modified Zhang equation.

  20. Relationship between grain crop yield potential and nitrogen response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal grain fertilizer nitrogen (N) recommendations should conform to accepted theory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between yield potential (yield level) and N responsiveness in long-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) field experiments ...

  1. Characterizing the LSI Yield Equation from Wafer Test Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharad C. Seth; Vishwani D. Agrawal

    1984-01-01

    The results of production test on LSI wafers are analyzed to determine the parameters of the yield equation. Recognizing that a physical defect on a chip can produce several logical faults, the number of faults per defect is assumed to be a random variable with Poisson distribution. The analysis provides a relationship between the yield of the tested fraction of

  2. Do increases in agricultural yield spare land for nature?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT M. E WERS; J ORN P. W. S CHARLEMANN; A N D R E W B A L M F O R Dw

    Feeding a rapidly expanding human population will require a large increase in the supply of agricultural products during the coming decades. This may lead to the transformation of many landscapes from natural vegetation cover to agricultural land use, unless increases in crop yields reduce the need for new farmland. Here, we assess the evidence that past increases in agricultural yield

  3. Yield to maturity modelling and a Monte Carlo Technique for

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Yield to maturity modelling and a Monte Carlo Technique for pricing Derivatives on Constant Maturity Treasury (CMT) and Derivatives on forward Bonds By Didier KOUOKAP YOUMBI1 First version: 29 rate function, yield to maturity, CMS, CMT, volatility, convexity adjustment, martingale Abstract

  4. Hyperspectral imagery for mapping crop yield for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yield is perhaps the most important piece of information for crop management in precision agriculture. It integrates the effects of various spatial variables such as soil properties, topographic attributes, tillage, plant population, fertilization, irrigation, and pest infestations. A yield map...

  5. The alfalfa yield gap: A review of the evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of feasibly attainable crop yields is needed for many purposes, from field-scale management to national policy decisions. For alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most widely used estimates of yield in the US are whole-farm reports from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, which are b...

  6. Estimating Shrub Forage Yield and Utilization Using a Photographic Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daalkhaijav Damiran; Timothy DelCurto; Douglas E. Johnson; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    We assessed a photographic technique to estimate shrub yield and utilization of common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake), snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Douglas ex Hook.), and firmleaf willow ( Salix rigida Muhl.) found in mixed-conifer rangelands. We determined the correlation between green leaf area size (LA) and forage yield (Y) and compared plant utilization estimated by photographic technique (ULA) to actual

  7. Modeling and Calibrating Visual Yield Estimates in Vineyards

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    Modeling and Calibrating Visual Yield Estimates in Vineyards Stephen Nuske, Kamal Gupta, Srinivasa Narasimhan and Sanjiv Singh Abstract Accurate yield estimates are of great value to vineyard growers to make destructive hand sampling and are prac- tically too sparse to capture spatial variability in large vineyard

  8. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  9. The development of core concepts of yield management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna E. Leask; Ian Yeoman

    1999-01-01

    Yield management offers an Operations Manager a decision support framework for examining the revenue and conservation decision variables that integrate the characteristics of the Heritage Visitor Attraction (HVA) experience. The principles of yield management are drawn from the hotel and airline industries to demonstrate how the problem of fixed capacity is managed in other service sectors. This paper compares these

  10. Image Furnace for Low Yield Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Griff; Robert J. Heilferty; Willard L. Derksen

    1967-01-01

    The capability of the Naval Applied Science Laboratory for direct simulation of thermal effects due to nuclear weapons has been extended to low yield devices [as small as 10 kilotons (kt)] by the installation of a high performance servo-driven shutter in a carbon arc imaging furnace. The system can simulate thermal radiation pulses from atmospheric detonations with yields of from

  11. Yield and Economic Responses of Peanut to Crop Rotation Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of all crops in, or potentially in, the crop rotation ...

  12. Mississippi cotton yield monitor: beta test for commercialization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruixiu Sui; J. Alex Thomasson; Robert Mehrle; Matt Dale; Calvin Perry; Glen Rains

    2004-01-01

    Based on a novel cotton-flow sensor, the Mississippi Cotton Yield Monitor has been under development at Mississippi State University since 1999, when one prototype of the yield monitor was field tested in Mississippi. Three prototypes were constructed and field tested in Texas, Georgia, and Mississippi in 2000. Five prototypes of an improved version were fabricated and field tested in 2001.

  13. Predicting Cotton Lint Yield Maps from Aerial Photographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Vellidis; M. A. Tucker; C. D. Perry; D. L. Thomas; N. Wells; C. K. Kvien

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that aerial images of growing crops provide spatial and temporal information about crop growth conditions and may even be indicative of crop yield. The focus of this study was to develop a straightforward technique for creating predictive cotton yield maps from aerial images. A total of ten fields in southern Georgia, USA, were studied during three

  14. MISSISSIPPI COTTON YIELD MONITOR: THREE YEARS OF FIELD TEST RESULTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Thomasson; R. Sui

    The Mississippi cotton yield monitor, which is based on an optical cotton-flow sensor comprised of emitters and detectors in one unit that can be affixed to only one side of a pneumatic duct, has been under development at Mississippi State University since 1999. One prototype of the yield monitor was field tested that year in Mississippi. In 2000, three prototypes

  15. GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF MEAT YIELD IN FARM-RAISED CATFISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat yield, the proportion of whole fish weight comprised of saleable meat, is an economically important trait in farm-raised catfish. The economic impact of increasing meat yield depends on the cut (dressed fish, shank fillet etc.), pricing system, and influence on the volume of product sold. Cur...

  16. Chinese germplasm evaluation for yield and disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-five accessions of Chinese germplasm reported last year (Dilday et al., 2001) were evaluated for grain yield and disease reactions in field tests. All but 6 of them were indica. The yield test was conducted in the same way as last year, i.e. 4 maturity groups formed by the heading dates col...

  17. Trellis Tension Monitoring Improves Yield Estimation in Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The preponderance of yield estimation practices for commercial vineyards is based on longstanding but individually variable industry protocols that rely on hand sampling fruit on one or a small number of dates during the growing season. Limitations associated with the static nature of yield estimati...

  18. Yield and quality response of tea plant to fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahram Sedaghathoor; Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand; Davood Hashemabadi

    To improve quality and yield of Iranian tea, this experiment was projected and effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and micronutrients (Zn and Cu) fertilizers was studied on yield and quality of tea. The trial conducted by using factorial split-plot design, with three factors in three replications in RCBD. Nitrogen and potassium fertilizers were both distributed in two

  19. PERSISTENCE AND YIELD STABILITY OF INTERSUBSPECIFIC ALFALFA HYBRIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longer term persistence and sustained biomass yields of alfalfa (M. sativa) stands are important for producers. Yield performance and persistence of intrasubspecific crosses between alfalfa subsp. sativa and falcata after the first post-establishment year are unknown. The objectives of this study ...

  20. Preparation of specific-yield logs for clastic bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific yield is the principal aquifer characteristic needed to estimate the volume of recoverable ground water in storage in an aquifer. Determination of specific yield can be difficult and costly, particularly in deep, confined aquifers where core drilling and core analyses may be needed to define specific yield. A method has been developed for preparation of specific-yield geophysical logs that could greatly ease the determination of specific yields in such aquifers. Three geophysical logs that were investigated as potential indicators of specific yield were the free fluid index log, the effective-porosity log, and the apparent grain-density log. The free fluid index log did not accurately represent conditions at the test site in central Colorado and may not be suitable for application in other shallow and permeable aquifers. The effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs were each used in least-squares linear regressions to correlate log response to specific yield measured in core samples. The resulting regression equations have coefficients of correlation (R) of 0.84 and 0.90, and were used to successfully prepare specific-yield logs from the effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs.

  1. Yield constraints of rainfed lowland rice in Central Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Boling; T. P. Tuong; S. Y. Jatmiko; M. A. Burac

    2004-01-01

    The low and unstable yields of rainfed lowland rice in Central Java can be attributed to drought, nutrient stress, pest infestation or a combination of these factors. Field experiments were conducted in six crop seasons from 1997 to 2000 at Jakenan Experiment Station to quantify the yield loss due to these factors. Experimental treatments—two water supply levels (well-watered, rainfed) in

  2. NITROGEN SOURCE AFFECTS CRUNCHINESS, BUT NOT LETTUCE YIELD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Simonne; Amy Simonne; Larry Wells

    2001-01-01

    While nitrogen (N) form affects growth and yield of many vegetables crops, previous studies suggested that N-form may affect lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) quality more than growth and yield. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of the N-source used as injection material on the field performance and sensory attributes of three lettuce types. Three lettuce types

  3. Yield estimation from hyperspectral imagery using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from remotely sensed imagery are commonly used to estimate crop yields. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) provides an alternative approach to quantifying the spectral differences among all pixels in imagery and therefore has the potential for mapping yield variability. The...

  4. ESTIMATING SUGAR BEET YIELD USING AVIRIS-DERIVED INDICES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nahum Gat; Hector Erives; Glenn J. Fitzgerald; Steve R. Kaffka; Stephan J. Maas

    In this paper we discuss a preliminary analysis of the use of AVIRIS-derived vegetation indices to estimate sugar beet yield. Analysis was performed on scenes from a sugar beet field near Stratford, CA acquired by AVIRIS (20 meter pixel resolution) and images acquired with the Shafter Airborne Multispectral Remote Sensing System (SAMRSS) at 1 meter pixel size. A yield map

  5. DRAM Yield Analysis and Optimization by a Statistical Design Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Li; Helmut Schneider; Florian Schnabel; Roland Thewes; Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the electric yield of DRAM core circuits is investigated by means of a statistical approach that incorporates a hierarchical linear Gaussian model for the DRAM core sensing process and a lognormal distribution model for the DRAM cell leakage. Analytical yield expressions are obtained and found to be dominated by two independent sources—either the lognormal distribution of the

  6. Electron yield X-ray absorption spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tourillon; E. Dartyge; A. Fontaine; M. Lemonnier; F. Bartol

    1987-01-01

    The electron yield at atmospheric pressure for X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a new technique able to study the very top surface of thick samples in real environments. A combined detector has been designed at LURE which yields EXAFS spectra in transmission, electron and fluorescence modes. A variable probed thickness is obtained, depending on the polarization. With a positively biased collector

  7. Physiology of yeasts in relation to biomass yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelis Verduyn

    1991-01-01

    The stoichiometric limit to the biomass yield (maximal assimilation of the carbon source) is determined by the amount of CO2 lost in anabolism and the amount of carbon source required for generation of NADPH. This stoichiometric limit may be reached when yeasts utilize formate as an additional energy source. Factors affecting the biomass yield on single substrates are discussed under

  8. Nomographic and cartographic estimation of eragrostis curvula yields in natal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Schulze; M. C. Dent

    1983-01-01

    The solution of a multivariate regression function for the yield estimation of Eragrostis curvula in Natal is presented in nomographic and cartographic form. The yield expression which is a complex function of, inter alia, mean annual precipitation, major soil group rating, age and nitrogen application, the latter interacting with soil depth, degree of leaching and texture, is modified to facilitate

  9. Cover crops can improve potato tuber yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is the need to develop sustainable systems with higher yields and crop quality. We conducted studies with cover crops grown under limited irrigation (< 200 mm) to assess the effects of certain types of cover crops on tuber yield and quality. On a commercial farm operation prior to the 2006 and...

  10. Seismic wave attenuation and yield determination at regional distances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Mitchell; O. W. Nuttli; J. K. Xie; H. Al-Shukri; A. Correig

    1989-01-01

    Work was completed on yield determination at the Soviet test site on Novaya Zemlya. Magnitudes and yields, determined for 30 explosions using Lg amplitudes recorded in northwestern Europe, ranged between 2.5 and 4900 kt, the largest since April 1976 being about 145 kt. Studies were completed on seismic wave attenuation of surface waves at intermediate periods and of Lg waves

  11. Effects of capillarity and microtopography on wetland specific yield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic models aid in describing water flows and levels in wetlands. Frequently, these models use a specific yield conceptualization to relate water flows to water level changes. Traditionally, a simple conceptualization of specific yield is used, composed of two constant values for above- and below-surface water levels and neglecting the effects of soil capillarity and land surface microtopography. The effects of capiltarity and microtopography on specific yield were evaluated at three wetland sites in the Florida Everglades. The effect of capillarity on specific yield was incorporated based on the fillable pore space within a soil moisture profile at hydrostatic equilibrium with the water table. The effect of microtopography was based on areal averaging of topographically varying values of specific yield. The results indicate that a more physically-based conceptualization of specific yield incorporating capillary and microtopographic considerations can be substantially different from the traditional two-part conceptualization, and from simpler conceptualizations incorporating only capillarity or only microtopography. For the sites considered, traditional estimates of specific yield could under- or overestimate the more physically based estimates by a factor of two or more. The results suggest that consideration of both capillarity and microtopography is important to the formulation of specific yield in physically based hydrologic models of wetlands. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  12. Unsupervised linear unmixing of hyperspectral image for crop yield estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery are often used for estimating crop yield. This paper describes an unsupervised unmixing scheme of hyperspectral images to estimate crop yield. From the hyperspectral images, the endmembers and their abundance maps are computed by unsupervised unmixing. The abu...

  13. Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaobing Peng; Jianliang Huang; John E. Sheehy; Rebecca C. Laza; Romeo M. Visperas; Xuhua Zhong; Grace S. Centeno; Gurdev S. Khush; Kenneth G. Cassman

    2004-01-01

    The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979

  14. Nontree routing for reliability and yield improvement [IC layout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew B. Kahng; Bao Liu; Ion I. Mandoiu

    2004-01-01

    We propose to introduce redundant interconnects for manufacturing yield and reliability improvement. By introducing redundant interconnects, the potential for open faults is reduced, at the cost of increased potential for short faults. Overall, manufacturing yield and fault tolerance can be improved. We focus on a postprocessing, tree-augmentation approach, which can be easily integrated in current physical design flows. Our contributions

  15. Genetic Diversity and Soybean Yield: Finding the Balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on national production statistics since 1924, average soybean yield in the U.S. has increased at a nearly steady rate of 22 kg ha-1 year-1. It is possible to show some changes in this rate depending on how these past 85 years are divided, but two conclusions seem evident. Soybean yield has not...

  16. EDIBLE FRUIT YIELDING PLANTS OF SHEVAROY HILLS IN TAMIL NADU

    PubMed Central

    Alagesaboopathi, C.; Balu, S.; Dwarakan, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the common edible fruit yielding plants, During the course of medicinal plant survey of shevaroy hills of Eastern ghats. Salem district, Tamil Nadu. Thirty species belonging to 23 genera and 21 families yield edible fruits. They are listed in alphabetical order followed by family, common name and Tamil names. PMID:22556784

  17. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using no-till systems have found that crop yields often exceed their expectation based on nutrient and water supply. For example, corn yields 7% higher in a no-till system in central South Dakota than in a tilled system in eastern South Dakota. This is surprising because rainfall is 5 in...

  18. Topsoil Depth Effects on Crop Yields as Affected by Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott; Cruse, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topsoil (A-horizon) depth is positively correlated with crop productivity; crop roots and available nutrients are concentrated in this layer; topsoil is critical for nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Its loss or reduction can be considered an irreversible impact of soil erosion. Climatic factors such as precipitation and temperature extremes that impose production stress further complicate the relationship between soil erosion and crop productivity. The primary research objective was to determine the effects of soil erosion on corn and soybean yields of loess and till-derived soils in the rain-fed farming region of Iowa. Data collection took place from 2007 to 2012 at seven farm sites located in different major soil regions. Collection consisted of 40 to 50 randomly selected georeferenced soil probe locations across varying erosion classes in well drained landscape positions. Soil probes were done to a minimum depth of 100 cm and soil organic carbon samples were obtained in the top 10 cm. Crop yields were determined utilizing georeferenced harvest maps from yield monitoring devices and cross referenced with georeferenced field data points. Data analysis targeted relationships between crop yields versus soil organic carbon contents (SOC) and crop yields versus topsoil depths (TSD). The variation of yield and growing season rainfall across multiple years were also evaluated to provide an indication of soil resiliency associated with topsoil depth and soil organic carbon levels across varying climatic conditions. Results varied between sites but generally indicated a greater yield potential at thicker TSD's and higher SOC concentrations; an annual variation in yield response as a function of precipitation amount during the growing season; largest yield responses to both TSD and SOC occurred in the driest study year (2012); and little to no significant yield responses to TSD occurred during the wettest study year (2010). These results were not representative for all seven sites. Of the sites sampled, five showed similar yield responses while two sites did not indicate a response, and results varied between corn and soybean crops. The results indicate the potential for crop yield sensitivity and lost production due to thinning topsoil depths and lost soil organic carbon is likely associated with soil erosion. This yield sensitivity appeared to increase during drier years as thinner topsoils typically have lower water retention capacity. Minimal yield response during the wettest year further suggests that topsoil plays a critical role in plant-soil water relations.

  19. Calculation of the total electron excitation cross section in the Born approximation using Slater wave functions for the Li (2s yields 2p), Li (2s yields 3p), Na (3s yields 4p), Mg (3p yields 4s), Ca (4s yields 4p) and K (4s yields 4p) excitations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simsic, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.

  20. Comprehensive Cost Planning Yields Successful Tech Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for librarians to find ways to implement technology projects with very limited budgets and to consider all the cost components of a technology project amidst the economic pressures. The author offers some perspective on what is involved in trying to accomplish important work with limited resources while…

  1. Large-area rice yield forecasting using satellite imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Rong-Kuen; Lo, Jeng-Chung; Shen, Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Ability to make large-area yield prediction before harvest is important in many aspects of agricultural decision-making. In this study, canopy reflectance band ratios (NIR/RED, NIR/GRN) of paddy rice ( Oryza sativa L.) at booting stage, from field measurements conducted from 1999 to 2005, were correlated with the corresponding yield data to derive regression-type yield prediction models for the first and second season crop, respectively. These yield models were then validated with ground truth measurements conducted in 2007 and 2008 at eight sites, of different soil properties, climatic conditions, and various treatments in cultivars planted and N application rates, using surface reflectance retrieved from atmospherically corrected SPOT imageries. These validation tests indicated that root mean square error of predicting grain yields per unit area by the proposed models were less than 0.7 T ha -1 for both cropping seasons. Since village is the basic unit for national rice yield census statistics in Taiwan, the yield models were further used to forecast average regional yields for 14 selected villages and compared with officially reported data. Results indicate that the average yield per unit area at village scale can be forecasted with a root mean square error of 1.1 T ha -1 provided no damaging weather occurred during the final month before actual harvest. The methodology can be applied to other optical sensors with similar spectral bands in the visible/near-infrared and to different geographical regions provided that the relation between yield and spectral index is established.

  2. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O`Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-07-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) has been developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E-2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E-v measurement.

  3. Explicit CP violation in the MSSM through gg{yields}H{sub 1{yields}{gamma}{gamma}}

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselbach, S. [IPPP, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Moretti, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Munir, S. [Instituto de Fisica, Departmento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Poulose, P. [Physics Department, IIT Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India)

    2010-10-01

    We prove the strong sensitivity of the gg{yields}H{sub 1{yields}{gamma}{gamma}} cross section at the Large Hadron Collider on the explicitly CP-violating phases of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, where H{sub 1} is the lightest supersymmetric Higgs boson.

  4. Effect of biofertilizers on the nutrient availability in soil in relation to growth, yield and yield attributes of Stevia rebaudiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuntal Das; Raman Dang; T. N. Shivananda

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Rani Chandramma Agricultural University (Arabhavi, Belgaum), Karnataka, India, in basic soil to study the nutrient availability in soil, yield and yield attributes of the medicinal plant stevia (Stevia rebaudiana). The results showed that the availability of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the soil increased up to the fifth

  5. EFFICIENCY OF INDIRECT SELECTION FOR DRY MATTER YIELD BASED ON FRESH MATTER YIELD IN LOLIUM PERENNE L. SWARD PLOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage dry matter yield (DMY) is a high-priority trait in breeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). However, determining dry matter concentration is highly labor intensive. Indirect selection based on fresh matter yield (FMY) would be easier, quicker and less expensive and, for a similar leve...

  6. The limits of crop productivity: validating theoretical estimates and determining the factors that limit crop yields in optimal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.

    1992-01-01

    Plant scientists have sought to maximize the yield of food crops since the beginning of agriculture. There are numerous reports of record food and biomass yields (per unit area) in all major crop plants, but many of the record yield reports are in error because they exceed the maximal theoretical rates of the component processes. In this article, we review the component processes that govern yield limits and describe how each process can be individually measured. This procedure has helped us validate theoretical estimates and determine what factors limit yields in optimal environments.

  7. Heritability and expected selection response for yield traits in blanched asparagus.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Ileana; López Anido, Fernando; Cravero, Vanina; Asprelli, Pablo; Cointry, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Despite the continuous breeding that has been conducted with asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) since the beginning of the last century, there is little information on parameters for predicting direct and indirect selection response. Yield traits for blanched asparagus production were studied along a two-year period in a half-sib family population planted in Zavalla, Argentina. Half-sib family mean heritability values were low for total yield and marketable spear number (0.31 and 0.35), intermediate for marketable yield and total spear number (0.55 and 0.64), and relatively high for spear diameter and spear weight (0.75 and 0.74). An average increase in marketable yield of 15.9% is expected after each cycle of selection of the top 5% of the families. Total yield failed to express significant genetic correlations with any of the yield components; meanwhile marketable yield showed highly significant relations with market spear number (0.96) and spear weight (0.89). Indirect selection response over yield components (CRx) failed to be advantageous over direct selection (Rx), since the ratio CRx/Rx was always equal or below unity. PMID:15841437

  8. Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

  9. Yield Loss in Soybean Caused by Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Young, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    Yields of four soybean cultivars were measured for 4 years in a field infested with Heterodera glycines race 3 and in a field infested with H. glycines race 14. Cultivars included Hutcheson (susceptible to both races), Deltapine 415 (resistant to race 3 and susceptible to race 14), Asgrow 5979 (resistant to both races), and Harwig (resistant to both races as well as most other known races of H. glycines). Although no above-ground symptoms of nematode infection were visible, mean yield was 16-32% greater for Asgrow 5979 than for Hutcheson. Yield for Dehpiue 415 was similar to that of Asgrow 5979 in the field infested with race 3 and similar to that of Hutcheson in the race 14-infested field. Hartwig produced lower yields than Asgrow 5979 in both fields. Yield differences, particularly between Asgrow 5979 and Hutcheson, were attributed primarily to nematodes because both cultivars have been shown to produce similar yields in the absence of H. glycines. This study illustrates the importance of knowing which race of the nematode is prevalent in a field and demonstrates that the nematode can cause significant yield loss in the absence of visible symptoms of infection. PMID:19277181

  10. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  11. Can proteomics yield insight into aging aorta?

    PubMed

    Fu, Zongming; Wang, Mingyi; Everett, Allen; Lakatta, Edward; Van Eyk, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    The aging aorta exhibits structural and physiological changes that are reflected in the proteome of its component cells types. The advance in proteomic technologies has made it possible to analyze the quantity of proteins associated with the natural history of aortic aging. These alterations reflect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging and could provide an opportunity to predict vascular health. This paper focuses on whether discoveries stemming from the application of proteomic approaches of the intact aging aorta or vascular smooth muscle cells can provide useful insights. Although there have been limited studies to date, a number of interesting proteins have been identified that are closely associated with aging in the rat aorta. Such proteins, including milk fat globule-EGF factor 8, matrix metalloproteinase type-2, and vitronectin, could be used as indicators of vascular health, or even explored as therapeutic targets for aging-related vascular diseases. PMID:23788441

  12. Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Mullan, Daniel; Izanloo, Ali; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    A large proportion of the worlds' wheat growing regions suffers water and/or heat stress at some stage during the crop growth cycle. With few exceptions, there has been no utilisation of managed environments to screen mapping populations under repeatable abiotic stress conditions, such as the facilities developed by the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). Through careful management of irrigation and sowing date over three consecutive seasons, repeatable heat, drought and high yield potential conditions were imposed on the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population to identify genetic loci for grain yield, yield components and key morpho-physiological traits under these conditions. Two of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located on chromosome 3B and had a large effect on canopy temperature and grain yield, accounting for up to 22 % of the variance for these traits. The locus on chromosome arm 3BL was detected under all three treatments but had its largest effect under the heat stress conditions, with the RAC875 allele increasing grain yield by 131 kg ha(-1) (or phenotypically, 7 % of treatment average). Only two of the eight yield QTL detected in the current study (including linkage groups 3A, 3D, 4D 5B and 7A) were previously detected in the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population; and there were also different yield components driving grain yield. A number of discussion points are raised to understand differences between the Mexican and southern Australian production environments and explain the lack of correlation between the datasets. The two key QTL detected on chromosome 3B in the present study are candidates for further genetic dissection and development of molecular markers. PMID:22772727

  13. Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site. PMID:23673936

  14. EMPIRICALLY DERIVED INTEGRATED STELLAR YIELDS OF Fe-PEAK ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R. B. C.; Cowan, John J. [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer, E-mail: henry@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: jsobeck@uchicago.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We present here the initial results of a new study of massive star yields of Fe-peak elements. We have compiled from the literature a database of carefully determined solar neighborhood stellar abundances of seven iron-peak elements, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and then plotted [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] to study the trends as functions of metallicity. Chemical evolution models were then employed to force a fit to the observed trends by adjusting the input massive star metallicity-sensitive yields of Kobayashi et al. Our results suggest that yields of Ti, V, and Co are generally larger as well as anticorrelated with metallicity, in contrast to the Kobayashi et al. predictions. We also find the yields of Cr and Mn to be generally smaller and directly correlated with metallicity compared to the theoretical results. Our results for Ni are consistent with theory, although our model suggests that all Ni yields should be scaled up slightly. The outcome of this exercise is the computation of a set of integrated yields, i.e., stellar yields weighted by a slightly flattened time-independent Salpeter initial mass function and integrated over stellar mass, for each of the above elements at several metallicity points spanned by the broad range of observations. These results are designed to be used as empirical constraints on future iron-peak yield predictions by stellar evolution modelers. Special attention is paid to the interesting behavior of [Cr/Co] with metallicity-these two elements have opposite slopes-as well as the indirect correlation of [Ti/Fe] with [Fe/H]. These particular trends, as well as those exhibited by the inferred integrated yields of all iron-peak elements with metallicity, are discussed in terms of both supernova nucleosynthesis and atomic physics.

  15. Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. It functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. Despite its low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted. PMID:23543255

  16. Yield stress and shear-banding in granular suspensions

    E-print Network

    Abdoulaye Fall; Francois Bertrand; Guillaume Ovarlez; Daniel Bonn

    2009-07-13

    We study the emergence of a yield stress in dense suspensions of non-Brownian particles, by combining local velocity and concentration measurements using Magnetic Resonance Imaging with macroscopic rheometric experiments. We show that the competition between gravity and viscous stresses is at the origin of the development of a yield stress in these systems at relatively low volume fractions. Moreover, it is accompanied by a shear banding phenomenon that is the signature of this competition. However, if the system is carefully density matched, no yield stress is encountered until a volume fraction of 62.7 0.3%.

  17. Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Funk, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value of a product. As a result, it is particularly convenient in analyzing fuel conversion plants and their potential for improvement. Relationships are also given for the effects of irreversibilities on requirements for process heat and for feedstocks.

  18. Potential yields and properties of oil from the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae with different biochemical content.

    PubMed

    Biller, P; Ross, A B

    2011-01-01

    A range of model biochemical components, microalgae and cyanobacteria with different biochemical contents have been liquefied under hydrothermal conditions at 350 °C, ?200 bar in water, 1M Na(2)CO(3) and 1M formic acid. The model compounds include albumin and a soya protein, starch and glucose, the triglyceride from sunflower oil and two amino acids. Microalgae include Chlorella vulgaris,Nannochloropsis occulata and Porphyridium cruentum and the cyanobacteria Spirulina. The yields and product distribution obtained for each model compound have been used to predict the behaviour of microalgae with different biochemical composition and have been validated using microalgae and cyanobacteria. Broad agreement is reached between predictive yields and actual yields for the microalgae based on their biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude are 5-25 wt.% higher than the lipid content of the algae depending upon biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude follow the trend lipids>proteins>carbohydrates. PMID:20599375

  19. Influence of polyaspartic acid on growth and yield of cotton 

    E-print Network

    Witten, Ty Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is normally required by upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for optimism yields. Increasing the efficiency of applied N fertilizer and other nutrients would aid in cotton production. Polyaspartic ...

  20. Yield Enhancement of Reconfigurable Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Yield Enhancement of Reconfigurable Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Interstitial Redundancy FEI SU and KRISHNENDU CHAKRABARTY Duke University Microfluidics-based biochips for biochemical analysis cumbersome equipment with minia- turized and integrated systems. As these microfluidics-based microsystems

  1. Yield conditions for deformation of amorphous polymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottler, Jörg; Robbins, Mark O.

    2001-11-01

    Shear yielding of glassy polymers is usually described in terms of the pressure-dependent Tresca or von Mises yield criteria. We test these criteria against molecular dynamics simulations of deformation in amorphous polymer glasses under triaxial loading conditions that are difficult to realize in experiments. Difficulties and ambiguities in extending several standard definitions of the yield point to triaxial loads are described. Two definitions, the maximum and offset octahedral stresses, are then used to evaluate the yield stress for a wide range of model parameters. In all cases, the onset of shear is consistent with the pressure-modified von Mises criterion, and the pressure coefficient is nearly independent of many parameters. Under triaxial tensile loading, the mode of failure changes to cavitation, and the von Mises criterion no longer applies.

  2. Gene Mapping Yields Clues to Recent Ebola Outbreak

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 153157.html Gene Mapping Yields Clues to Recent Ebola Outbreak Cross-border movement in West Africa was ... 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New insight into the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has been gained by ...

  3. Measurement of the fluorescence quantum yield of bis-MSB

    E-print Network

    Feng, Ding Xue; Xiang, Zhou; Yun, Ding Ya; Chen, Ye Xing; Li, Zhou; Chao, Liu Meng; Hao, Cai; Jun, Cao

    2015-01-01

    The fluorescence quantum yield of bis-MSB, a widely used liquid scintillator wavelength shifter, was measured to study the photon absorption and re-emission processes in liquid scintillator. The re-emission process affects the photoelectron yield and distribution, especially in a large liquid scintillator detector, thus must be understood to optimize the liquid scintillator for good energy resolution and to precisely simulate the detector with Monte Carlo. In this study, solutions of different bis-MSB concentration were prepared for absorption and fluorescence emission measurements to cover a broad range of wavelengths. Harmane was used as a standard reference to obtain the absolution fluorescence quantum yield. For the first time we measured the fluorescence quantum yield of bis-MSB up to 430 nm as inputs required by Monte Carlo simulation, which is 0.926$\\pm$0.053 at $\\lambda_{\\rm ex}$ = 350 nm.

  4. Scalings of implosion experiments for high neutron yield

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, H.; Yamanaka, M.; Mima, K.; Yamanaka, C.; Azechi, H.; Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Jitsuno, T.; Norimatsu, T.; Takagi, M.; and others

    1988-10-01

    A series of experiments focused on high neutron yield has been performed with the Gekko-XII green laser system (Nucl. Fusion 27, 19 (1987)). Deuterium--tritium (DT) neutron yield of 10/sup 13/ and pellet gain of 0.2% have been achieved. Based on the experimental data from more than 70 irradiations, the scaling laws of the neutron yield and the related physical quantities have been studied. Comparison of the experimental neutron yield with that obtained by using a one-dimensional fluid code has led to the conclusion that most of the neutrons produced in the stagnation phase of the computation are not observed in the experiment because of fuel--pusher mixing, possibly induced by the Rayleigh--Taylor instability. The coupling efficiency and ablation pressure have been calculated using the ion temperature measured experimentally. A coupling efficiency of 5.5% and an ablation pressure of 50 Mbar have been obtained.

  5. Fusion Yield Enhancement in Magnetized Laser-Driven Implosions

    E-print Network

    Seguin, Fredrick Hampton

    Enhancement of the ion temperature and fusion yield has been observed in magnetized laser-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA Laser Facility. A spherical CH target with a 10 atm D[subscript 2] gas ...

  6. TOWARDS STANDARDIZATION OF CSP YIELD ASSESSMENTS Richard Meyer

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    practices for determination of yields has created the required comfort for financing of projects with derivation of uncertainties in the involved processes are preconditions to get access to debt and equity

  7. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content. PMID:25794725

  8. An approximate yield criterion for anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keralavarma, Shyam M.; Benzerga, A. Amine

    2008-09-01

    We derive a new yield function for materials containing spheroidal voids embedded in a perfectly-plastic anisotropic Hill-type matrix. Using approximate limit-analysis and a restricted set of trial velocity fields, analytical yield loci are derived for a hollow, spheroidal volume element containing a confocal spheroidal void. Alternatively, the yield loci are determined through numerical limit-analysis, i.e., employing a larger set of velocity fields. The numerical results are quasi-exact for transversely isotropic materials under axisymmetric loading. We show that an enhanced description of admissible microscopic deformation fields results in a close agreement between analytical and numerical macroscopic yield loci. To cite this article: S.M. Keralavarma, A.A. Benzerga, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  9. 7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...maintain continuity of yield data of file. Production on uninsured (for those...3) In the event acreage or production data certified by two or more persons...determine which acreage and production data, if any, will be used...

  10. Estimating ethanol yield from switchgrass strains using NIRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields from biomass conversion processes requires expensive, complex fermentation tests and extensive laboratory analyses of the biomass sample with costs exceeding $300 per sample. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-destructive technolo...

  11. Efficient vlsi yield prediction with consideration of partial correlations 

    E-print Network

    Varadan, Sridhar

    2009-05-15

    With the emergence of the deep submicron era, process variations have gained importance in issues related to chip design. The impact of process variations is measured using manufacturing/parametric yield. In order to get ...

  12. Hierarchy of scales in B{yields}PS decays

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato Loma del Bosque no 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Mendoza S, J. A. [Depto. de Fisica-Matematicas, Universidad de Pamplona Pamplona, Norte de Santander (Colombia); Ramirez, Carlos A. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2008-08-31

    We show that the naive factorization approach can accommodate the existence of the observed hierarchy of branching ratios for the B{yields}PS decays (P stands for pseudoscalar and S for scalar mesons respectively.

  13. Individual fragment yields and determination of the critical exponent ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. B.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D. A.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Gilkes, M. L.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Insolia, A.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J. C.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lisa, M. A.; Lynen, U.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Müller, W. F. J.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Sann, H.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M.; Tuvé, C.; Wang, S.; Warren, P.; Wieman, H. H.; Wolf, K.; EOS Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    We have studied the yield of individual fragments formed in the projectile fragmentation of gold nuclei at 1 AGeV incident on a carbon target as a function of the total charge multiplicity. The yields of fragments of different nuclear charge peak at different multiplicities. We show that this behavior can be used to determine the critical exponent ?. We obtain ? = 0.68±0.05, consistent with the liquid-gas value.

  14. Collapse load analysis of yield-line elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell Gohnert

    2000-01-01

    Yield-line elements are a new type of finite element formulated for the analysis of slabs in bending. Both the elastic and inelastic theories have been developed. However, this paper only describes the inelastic theory used to determine the collapse load of a slab. The theory proposed is an overshoot–return method which is both simple and stable. Yield-lines and plastic rotations

  15. Automated yield-line analysis of orthotropic slabs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Johnson

    1996-01-01

    The rigid-plastic yield-line analysis of orthotropically reinforced concrete slabs under uniformly distributed loading is developed as the lower-bound form of a linear programming formulation. The analysis is extended to consider geometric variation of chosen yield-line patterns by the technique of sequential linear programming. It is shown that the omission, within the iterations of the sequential linear programming process, of the

  16. Assessment of Sustainable Yield of Karst Water in Huaibei, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Yin; Longcang Shu; Xunhong Chen; Zhenlong Wang; Mokhatar Eisa Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of sustainable yield in the Huaibei karst water area of Anhui province, China. A review\\u000a of sustainable yield definition is introduced first in this paper, and sustainable development in karst areas is more difficult\\u000a due to the complicated hydrogeologic conditions. General hydrogeology of the study area is provided to characterize hydraulic\\u000a connections between the karst

  17. Estimating the uncertainty in long-term photovoltaic yield predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didier Thevenard; Sophie Pelland

    The uncertainty in long-term photovoltaic (PV) system yield predictions was examined by statistical modeling of a hypothetical 10MW AC, c-Si photovoltaic system in Toronto, Canada. The goal of this research was to develop a methodology for estimating the uncertainty in PV yield predictions and to identify avenues for reducing this uncertainty. In this case study, uncertainties were estimated to be

  18. A critical evaluation of factors affecting reservoir yield estimates 

    E-print Network

    Bergman, Carla Elaine

    1987-01-01

    A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING RESERVOIR YIELD ESTIMATES A Thesis by CARLA ELAINE BERGMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1987 Major Subject: Civil Engineering A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING RESERVOIR YIELD ESTIMATES A Thesis by CARLA ELAINE BERGMAN Approved as to style and content by: Ralph A . Wurbs (Chair of Committee) James Member) Wa h R...

  19. Nutritional factors limiting forage yields in Houston black clay 

    E-print Network

    Gentzsch, Enrique Pedro

    1968-01-01

    NUTRITIONAL FACTORS LIMITING FORAGE YIELDS IN HOUSTON BLACK CLAY A Thesis By ENRIQUE PEDRO GENTZSCH Submitted to the Graduate College of the TEXAS AQ4 UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1968 Major Subject: Soil Fertility NUTRITIONAL FACTORS LIMITING FORAGE YIELDS IN HOUSTON BLACK CLAY A Thesis By ENRIQUE PEDRO GENTZSCH Approved as to style and content by; (C axrman of Committee) (Head o Department (Memb r May 1968...

  20. Atomic radiative and radiationless yields for K and L shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Krause

    1979-01-01

    The available body of information on (a) fluorescence, Auger, and Coster-Kronig yields, (b) radiative and radiationless transition rates, (c) level widths, (d) x-ray and Auger line widths, (e) x-ray and Auger spectra, and (f) Coster-Kronig energies has been used to generate an internally consistent set of values of atomic radiative and radiationless yields for the K shell (5 ?Z?110) and

  1. Optimization of exopolysaccharide yields in sourdoughs fermented by lactobacilli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Kaditzky; Rudi F. Vogel

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the yields of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced in situ during sourdough fermentations with Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 synthesizing glucan from sucrose were investigated under variation of the fermentation parameters dough yield (DY),\\u000a pH, sucrose content and fermentation substrate. The obtained amounts of EPS after 1 day of fermentation were higher in softer\\u000a (DY 500) than in firmer (DY 220)

  2. Z{gamma}{gamma}{gamma} {yields} 0 Processes in SANC

    SciTech Connect

    Bardin, D. Yu., E-mail: bardin@nu.jinr.ru; Kalinovskaya, L. V., E-mail: kalinov@nu.jinr.ru; Uglov, E. D., E-mail: corner@nu.jinr.ru [JINR, Dzhelepov Laboratory for Nuclear Problems (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    We describe the analytic and numerical evaluation of the {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}Z process cross section and the Z {yields} {gamma}{gamma}{gamma} decay rate within the SANC system multi-channel approach at the one-loop accuracy level with all masses taken into account. The corresponding package for numeric calculations is presented. For checking of the results' correctness we make a comparison with the other independent calculations.

  3. What determines the probing depth of electron yield XAS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. M. Schroeder; G. D. Moggridge; R. M. Ormerod; T. Rayment; R. M. Lambert

    1995-01-01

    Comparative Ni K-edge (8332.8 eV) total electron-yield (TEY) and conversion electron-yield (CEY) XAS spectra were collected from Ni wafers covered by NiO of varying thickness. In contrast to previous predictions, the surface sensitivity of TEY detection was found to be actually higher than for CEY detection. Examination of signal amplification factors upon switching from TEY to CEY detection indicates that

  4. Embedded Memory Test and Repair: Infrastructure IP for SOC Yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yervant Zorian

    2002-01-01

    Today's system-on-chip typically embeds memory IP cores with very large aggregate bit count per SoC. This trend requires using dedicated resources to increase memory yield, while containing test and repair cost and minimizing time-to-volume. This paper summarizes the evolution of such yield optimization resources, compares their trade-offs, and concentrates on on-chip infrastructure IP. To maximize the repair efficiency, this infrastructure

  5. Quasi-biennial corn yield cycles in Iowa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Malone; D. W. Meek; J. L. Hatfield; M. E. Mann; R. J. Jaquis

    2009-01-01

    Quasi-biennial cycles are often reported in climate studies. The interannual El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are two phenomena containing quasi-periodicities of approximately 2.5 and 2.2 years. It is known that ENSO affects corn yield through weather patterns, NAO affects surface temperature and cloudiness, and surface temperature, rainfall, and radiation affect corn yield. However, a quasi-biennial

  6. Yield stress and elasticity influence on surface tension measurements

    E-print Network

    Loren Jørgensen; Marie Le Merrer; Hélène Delanoë-Ayari; Catherine Barentin

    2015-06-04

    We have performed surface tension measurements on carbopol gels of different concentrations and yield stresses. Our setup, based on the force exerted by a capillary bridge on two parallel plates, allows to measure an effective surface tension of the complex fluid and to investigate the influence of flow history. More precisely the effective surface tension measured after stretching the bridge is always higher than after compressing it. The difference between the two values is due to the existence of a yield stress in the fluid. The experimental observations are successfully reproduced with a simple elasto-plastic model. The shape of successive stretching-compression cycles can be described by taking into account the yield stress and the elasticity of the gel. We show that the surface tension $\\gamma_{LV}$ of yield stress fluids is the mean of the effective surface tension values only if the elastic modulus is high compared to the yield stress. This work highlights that thermodynamical quantities measurements are challenged by the fluid out-of-equilibrium state implied by jamming, even at small scales where the shape of the bridge is driven by surface energy. Therefore setups allowing deformation in opposite directions are relevant for measurements on yield stress fluids.

  7. Yield stress and elasticity influence on surface tension measurements.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Loren; Le Merrer, Marie; Delanoë-Ayari, Hélène; Barentin, Catherine

    2015-06-17

    We have performed surface tension measurements on carbopol gels of different concentrations and yield stresses. Our setup, based on the force exerted by a capillary bridge on two parallel plates, allows us to measure an apparent surface tension of the complex fluid and to investigate the influence of flow history. More precisely the apparent surface tension measured after stretching the bridge is always higher than after compressing it. The difference between the two values is due to the existence of a yield stress in the fluid. The experimental observations are successfully reproduced with a simple elasto-plastic model. The shape of successive stretching-compression cycles can be described by taking into account the yield stress and the elasticity of the gel. We show that the surface tension ?LV of yield stress fluids is the mean of the apparent surface tension values only if the elastic modulus is high compared to the yield stress. This work highlights that measurements of thermodynamic quantities are challenged by the fluid out-of-equilibrium state implied by jamming, even at small scales where the shape of the bridge is driven by surface energy. Therefore setups allowing for deformation in opposite directions are relevant for surface tension measurements on yield stress fluids. PMID:26037476

  8. A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuria, Faith W.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage-reliability-yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series.

  9. Calculation of Delayed Neutron Yields for Various Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, T. D.; Jouanne, C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the comparison between the total delayed neutron yields (?dbar) calculated and the recommended values proposed by Tuttle, the experimental data of Waldo and those of Benedetti. These data are given for thermal, fast, and high energy fission ranges. The calculation of total delayed neutron yields is performed either by the NJOY nuclear data processing system or by the summation method. The decay data found in the various evaluations as the delayed neutron branching ratios (Pn) and the cumulative fission yields (CY) can also be validated by delayed neutron yield calculation using the summation method. In the first method, where the treatment is performed by the NJOY system, the general purpose evaluation files (JEFF-3, JEF-2, ENDF/B-VII.0 and ENDF/B-VI.4 were considered. In the summation calculation, the data used are the delayed neutron branching ratios (also called delayed neutron emission probabilities) and the cumulative fission yields that are given for thermal, fast, high energy fission and spontaneous fission. These data are found in the Radioactive Decay Data and Fission Yield Data files (File 8) of nuclear data evaluations. In this study, we also perform a benchmark calculation with various libraries: JEF-2.2, JEFF3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL/FP-2011.

  10. Disinfection byproduct yields from the chlorination of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Yields for the formation of trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide disinfection byproducts were determined as a function of pH and initial free-chlorine concentration for the chlorination of water from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected at 12 sites on the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, MN, to New Orleans. LA, and on the Missouri and Ohio Rivers 1.6 km above their confluences with the Mississippi during the summer, fall, and spring seasons of the year. Yields varied little with distance along the Mississippi River, although the dissolved organic-carbon concentration decreased considerably with distance downstream. Yields for the Missouri and Ohio were comparable to yields for the Mississippi, despite much higher bromide concentrations for the Missouri and Ohio. Trihalomethane yields increased as the pH and initial free- chlorine concentration increased. Nonpurgeable total organic-halide yields also increased as the initial free-chlorine concentration increased, but decreased as the pH increased.

  11. Sensitivity of simulated maize crop yields to regional climate in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kim, J.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kafatos, M.

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of maize yield to the regional climate in the Southwestern United States (SW US) has been investigated by using a crop-yield simulation model (APSIM) in conjunction with meteorological forcings (daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and radiation) from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. The primary focus of this study is to look at the effects of interannual variations of atmospheric components on the crop productivity in the SW US over the 21-year period (1991 to 2011). First of all, characteristics and performance of APSIM was examined by comparing simulated maize yields with observed yields from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the leaf-area index (LAI) from MODIS satellite data. Comparisons of the simulated maize yield with the available observations show that the crop model can reasonably reproduce observed maize yields. Sensitivity tests were performed to assess the relative contribution of each climate driver to regional crop yield. Sensitivity experiments show that potential crop production responds nonlinearly to climate drivers and the yield sensitivity varied among geographical locations depending on their mean climates. Lastly, a detailed analysis of both the spatial and temporal variations of each climate driver in the regions where maize is actually grown in three states (CA, AZ, and NV) in the SW US was performed.

  12. Estimates of spatial and temporal variation of energy crops biomass yields in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) have been identified for potential use as biomass feedstocks in the US. Current research on perennial grass biomass production has been evaluated on small-scale plots. However, the extent to which this potential can be realized at a landscape-scale will depend on the biophysical potential to grow these grasses with minimum possible amount of land that needs to be diverted from food to fuel production. To assess this potential three questions about the biomass yield for these grasses need to be answered: (1) how the yields for different grasses are varied spatially and temporally across the US; (2) whether the yields are temporally stable or not; and (3) how the spatial and temporal trends in yields of these perennial grasses are controlled by limiting factors, including soil type, water availability, climate, and crop varieties. To answer these questions, the growth processes of the perennial grasses are implemented into a coupled biophysical, physiological and biogeochemical model (ISAM). The model has been applied to quantitatively investigate the spatial and temporal trends in biomass yields for over the period 1980 -2010 in the US. The bioenergy grasses considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock switchgrass and Alamo switchgrass. The effects of climate, soil and topography on the spatial and temporal trends of biomass yields are quantitatively analyzed using principal component analysis and GIS based geographically weighted regression. The spatial temporal trend results are evaluated further to classify each part of the US into four homogeneous potential yield zones: high and stable yield zone (HS), high but unstable yield zone (HU), low and stable yield zone (LS) and low but unstable yield zone (LU). Our preliminary results indicate that the yields for perennial grasses among different zones are strongly related to the different controlling factors. For example, the yield in HS zone is depended on soil and topography factors. However, the yields in HU zone are more controlled by climate factors, leading to a large uncertainty in yield potential of bioenergy grasses under future climate change.

  13. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi technology, 2003 E. Bayshore Rd. 94061, Redwood City, CA (United States); Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jones, G. [G and J Enterprise, 1258 Quary Ln, Suite F, Pleasanton California 94566 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 {mu}s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  14. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T.; Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A.; Jones, G.

    2013-04-01

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 × 109 n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 ?s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  15. Essential oil yield and composition reflect browsing damage of junipers.

    PubMed

    Markó, Gábor; Gyuricza, Veronika; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbacker, Vilmos

    2008-12-01

    The impact of browsing on vegetation depends on the relative density and species composition of browsers. Herbivore density and plant damage can be either site-specific or change seasonally and spatially. For juniper (Juniperus communis) forests of a sand dune region in Hungary, it has been assumed that plant damage investigated at different temporal and spatial scales would reflect selective herbivory. The level of juniper damage was tested for a possible correlation with the concentration of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in plants and seasonal changes in browsing pressure. Heavily browsed and nonbrowsed junipers were also assumed to differ in their chemical composition, and the spatial distribution of browsing damage within each forest was analyzed to reveal the main browser. Long-term differences in local browsing pressure were also expected and would be reflected in site-specific age distributions of distant juniper populations. The concentrations of PSMs (essential oils) varied significantly among junipers and seasons. Heavily browsed shrubs contained the lowest oil yield; essential oils were highest in shrubs bearing no damage, indicating that PSMs might contribute to reduce browsing in undamaged shrubs. There was a seasonal fluctuation in the yield of essential oil that was lower in the summer period than in other seasons. Gas chromatography (GC) revealed differences in some essential oil components, suggesting that certain chemicals could have contributed to reduced consumption. The consequential long-term changes were reflected in differences in age distribution between distant juniper forests. These results confirm that both the concentration of PSMs and specific compounds of the essential oil may play a role in selective browsing damage by local herbivores. PMID:19009322

  16. Predicting Crop Yield from Biophysical and Spectral Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kancheva, Rumiana; Borisova, Denitsa

    A strong stress is being put over the past years on the application and added-value of remotely sensed data. Agricultural monitoring is an important application field of remote sensing tech-nologies associated with plant growth assessment, stress detection and yield forecasting. In-terest is rapidly spreading in the use of hyperspectral data to precision farming. For precision agriculture running, regular and timely information is needed about plant growth in order to assess crop development and predict yield. Entering wider into their opperational stage, re-mote sensing technologies face higher requirements to the accuracy of the information they provide. Because of the raising need for reliability of the information products, ground-based observations are considered one of the pillars of remote sensing being used in land cover stud-ies for the development and validation of data analysis and retrieval algorithms. This paper presents the results of ground-level studies aimed at the empirical modelling of cereals yield using multispectral and multitemporal data. The objective of the study is to develop and test the performance of vegetation indices as predictors of crop production. The approach com-prises the development of yield forecasting models from single and multi-date spectral data and the verification of remote sensing predictions through comparison with estimations from yield relationships with crop agronomical parameters. Statistical relationships between crop spectral reflectance, growth variables and yield have been established. Grain yield has been related to spectral data acquired at different phenological stages of plant development and to spectral data accumulated during the entire growing season. Comparison has been made between the yield prediction results from crop biophysical, multispectral and multitemporal data in order to validate the predictive performance of the spectral models. The algorithm has been realized on winter wheat. In-situ high-resolution visible and near-infrared reflectance data have been acquired throughout the growing season, along with detailed datasets of crop bioparameters. Spectral-biophysical models have been developed relating crop variables and yield to different spectral predictors. The algorithm has been tested using airborne remote sensing data. A good correspondence was found between predicted and actual yield.

  17. Resilience of catchment sediment yield to climate perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Wiel, Marco; Lipkowski, Emily

    2015-04-01

    It is commonly thought that catchment sediment yield is largely governed by allogenic controls acting on the catchment. Under this paradigm, variations in climatic, tectonic or anthropogenic forcing are directly transmitted to the catchment sediment yield. The sediment yield thus represents a temporal signature of the governing external forces. This paradigm, however, has been challenged by recent research, which has shown that autogenic controls from within the catchment can significantly affect and, in some cases, overwrite the allogenic signal in the sediment yield signal. In these cases the catchment sediment yield can be considered to be resilient to external perturbation. On the other hand, it also has been shown that, in some other cases, the allogenic signal can indeed be transmitted efficiently through the catchment, without too much distortion by the autogenic controls. In these latter cases, the sediment yield signal, and hence the downstream sediment deposits, can be a reliable archive of past environmental forcing. This study uses computer simulation to investigate the autogenic resilience of catchment sediment yields. Specifically, it investigates allogenic signal preservation in catchment sediment yield in the context of climate signals. It is hypothesized that 1) the resilience of the catchment sediment yield signal is largely determined by the catchment's spatial heterogeneity (of topography, vegetation, soil properties, ...) and the external signal's temporal heterogeneity and amplitude; and 2) catchment resilience is inversely correlated with spatial heterogeneity and positively correlated with the temporal heterogeneity and amplitude of the allogenic signal. This hypothesis is tested using a set of similar catchments, but with different relief ranges, different levels of topographic smoothness, different sediment distributions, and different artificial vegetation covers. These catchments are subjected to a range of rainfall scenarios over a 300-year simulation period, using the CAESAR landscape evolution model. Results confirm that the sediment yields in the more homogeneous catchments are less resilient and better preserve the signal from all rainfall scenarios, whereas the more heterogeneous catchments are more resilient and only preserve those climate signals with higher amplitudes or larger wavelengths.

  18. Predicting yield loss of peanut in Texas caused by Meloidogyne arenaria 

    E-print Network

    Wheeler, Terry Ann

    1987-01-01

    in Microplot Test II with linear and exponential models 31 5 Relationship of dollar value of yield per hectare and initial population density of Meloidogyne arenaria with a linear model INTRODUCTION Management of plant parasitic nematodes has... an exponential model but contains components for calculation of host tolerance (damage threshold) for the nematode populations below which no yield loss occurs, and assumes that each additional nematode causes a lesser amount of damage than the previous...

  19. Crop structure effect on Vicia sativa L. and Vicia villosa Roth seed yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estación Experimental

    The effects of Vicia spp. (Vicia villosa Roth and V. sativa L. cv. Marianna) plant densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 plants.m-2) and oat mixture ratios (30:90, 60:60, 90:30, 50:90, 100:60 and 150:30 plants.m-2 Vicia spp and Avena sativa) on seed yield and yield components were observed at EEA H Ascasubi (39º 22' S, 62º 39' O) in 2006. The

  20. Integrated Evaluation to High Yield and Water-saving of Winter Wheat in North China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baodi Dong; Mengyu Liu

    Evaluation to high yield and water-saving for improving water use efficiency (WUE) of crops is becoming important in irrigated farming and dry farming. Field experiments with 7 winter wheat varieties under 2 levels of irrigation were conducted in Luancheng Experiment Station (37°53´N,140°40´E; 50m above the sea level) during 2001 to 2002. The growth and development of yield and its components,

  1. Synthesis of (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan in the Golgi apparatus of maize coleoptiles

    SciTech Connect

    Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Membranes of the Golgi apparatus from maize (Zea mays L.) were used to synthesize in vitro the (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan (MG) that is unique to the cell wall of the Poaceae. The MG was about 250 kDa and was separated from a much larger (1 [yields] 3)-[beta]-D-glucan (callose) by gel-permeation chromatography. Diagnostic oligosaccharides, released by a sequence-dependent endoglucanase from Bacillus subtilis, were separated by HPLC and GLC. The trisaccharide [beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, the tetrasaccharide [[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)][sub 2]-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, and longer cellodextrin-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc oligosaccharides were synthesized in proportions similar to those found in purified MG. Activated charcoal added during homogenization enhanced synthesis of MG, presumably by removing inhibitory compounds. The Golgi apparatus was determined as the site of synthesis by a combination of downward and flotation centrifugations on sucrose step gradients. The rate of synthesis did not reach saturation at up to 10 mM UDP-Glc. Chelators completely abolished synthesis, but synthase activity was restored by addition of either MgCl[sub 2] or, to a lesser extent, MnCl[sub 2]. Synthesis continued for well over 1 h; addition of KOH to raise the pH from 7.2 to 8.0 during the reaction increased the rate of synthesis, which indicates that a transmembrane pH gradient may facilitate synthesis of MG. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Process gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} in the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, F.; Underwood, T. E. J.; Zwicky, R. [IPPP, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-01

    The process gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} is studied in the Lee-Wick extension of the standard model (LWSM) proposed by Grinstein, O'Connell, and Wise. In this model, negative norm partners for each SM field are introduced with the aim to cancel quadratic divergences in the Higgs mass. All sectors of the model relevant to gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} are diagonalized and results are commented on from the perspective of both the Lee-Wick and higher-derivative formalisms. Deviations from the SM rate for gg{yields}h{sub 0} are found to be of the order of 15%-5% for Lee-Wick masses in the range 500-1000 GeV. Effects on the rate for h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} are smaller, of the order of 5%-1% for Lee-Wick masses in the same range. These comparatively small changes may well provide a means of distinguishing the LWSM from other models such as universal extra dimensions where same-spin partners to standard model fields also appear. Corrections to determinations of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) elements |V{sub t(b,s,d)}| are also considered and are shown to be positive, allowing the possibility of measuring a CKM element larger than unity, a characteristic signature of the ghostlike nature of the Lee-Wick fields.

  3. Possible changes to arable crop yields by 2050.

    PubMed

    Jaggard, Keith W; Qi, Aiming; Ober, Eric S

    2010-09-27

    By 2050, the world population is likely to be 9.1 billion, the CO(2) concentration 550 ppm, the ozone concentration 60 ppb and the climate warmer by ca 2 degrees C. In these conditions, what contribution can increased crop yield make to feeding the world? CO(2) enrichment is likely to increase yields of most crops by approximately 13 per cent but leave yields of C4 crops unchanged. It will tend to reduce water consumption by all crops, but this effect will be approximately cancelled out by the effect of the increased temperature on evaporation rates. In many places increased temperature will provide opportunities to manipulate agronomy to improve crop performance. Ozone concentration increases will decrease yields by 5 per cent or more. Plant breeders will probably be able to increase yields considerably in the CO(2)-enriched environment of the future, and most weeds and airborne pests and diseases should remain controllable, so long as policy changes do not remove too many types of crop-protection chemicals. However, soil-borne pathogens are likely to be an increasing problem when warmer weather will increase their multiplication rates; control is likely to need a transgenic approach to breeding for resistance. There is a large gap between achievable yields and those delivered by farmers, even in the most efficient agricultural systems. A gap is inevitable, but there are large differences between farmers, even between those who have used the same resources. If this gap is closed and accompanied by improvements in potential yields then there is a good prospect that crop production will increase by approximately 50 per cent or more by 2050 without extra land. However, the demands for land to produce bio-energy have not been factored into these calculations. PMID:20713388

  4. Possible changes to arable crop yields by 2050

    PubMed Central

    Jaggard, Keith W.; Qi, Aiming; Ober, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    By 2050, the world population is likely to be 9.1 billion, the CO2 concentration 550 ppm, the ozone concentration 60 ppb and the climate warmer by ca 2°C. In these conditions, what contribution can increased crop yield make to feeding the world? CO2 enrichment is likely to increase yields of most crops by approximately 13 per cent but leave yields of C4 crops unchanged. It will tend to reduce water consumption by all crops, but this effect will be approximately cancelled out by the effect of the increased temperature on evaporation rates. In many places increased temperature will provide opportunities to manipulate agronomy to improve crop performance. Ozone concentration increases will decrease yields by 5 per cent or more. Plant breeders will probably be able to increase yields considerably in the CO2-enriched environment of the future, and most weeds and airborne pests and diseases should remain controllable, so long as policy changes do not remove too many types of crop-protection chemicals. However, soil-borne pathogens are likely to be an increasing problem when warmer weather will increase their multiplication rates; control is likely to need a transgenic approach to breeding for resistance. There is a large gap between achievable yields and those delivered by farmers, even in the most efficient agricultural systems. A gap is inevitable, but there are large differences between farmers, even between those who have used the same resources. If this gap is closed and accompanied by improvements in potential yields then there is a good prospect that crop production will increase by approximately 50 per cent or more by 2050 without extra land. However, the demands for land to produce bio-energy have not been factored into these calculations. PMID:20713388

  5. Closing Yield Gaps: How Sustainable Can We Be?

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Prajal; Fischer, Günther; van Velthuizen, Harrij; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2015-01-01

    Global food production needs to be increased by 60–110% between 2005 and 2050 to meet growing food and feed demand. Intensification and/or expansion of agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. Closing yield gaps to attain potential yields may be a viable option to increase the global crop production. Traditional methods of agricultural intensification often have negative externalities. Therefore, there is a need to explore location-specific methods of sustainable agricultural intensification. We identified regions where the achievement of potential crop calorie production on currently cultivated land will meet the present and future food demand based on scenario analyses considering population growth and changes in dietary habits. By closing yield gaps in the current irrigated and rain-fed cultivated land, about 24% and 80% more crop calories can respectively be produced compared to 2000. Most countries will reach food self-sufficiency or improve their current food self-sufficiency levels if potential crop production levels are achieved. As a novel approach, we defined specific input and agricultural management strategies required to achieve the potential production by overcoming biophysical and socioeconomic constraints causing yield gaps. The management strategies include: fertilizers, pesticides, advanced soil management, land improvement, management strategies coping with weather induced yield variability, and improving market accessibility. Finally, we estimated the required fertilizers (N, P2O5, and K2O) to attain the potential yields. Globally, N-fertilizer application needs to increase by 45–73%, P2O5-fertilizer by 22–46%, and K2O-fertilizer by 2–3 times compared to the year 2010 to attain potential crop production. The sustainability of such agricultural intensification largely depends on the way management strategies for closing yield gaps are chosen and implemented. PMID:26083456

  6. Yield and quality of forages grown on mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenstler, W.F.; Henry, D.S.

    1980-12-01

    Pasture or hayland is a potential use for much of the reclaimed mined land in Kentucky. To determine the usefulness of several species for forage production, two study areas were established, one in the eastern coal fields, the second in the western coal fields. Eight species were seeded in eight different mixtures at each location. Each plot was harvested twice each year to determine yield, and samples were analyzed to determine percent protein, DMD, and sugar. Analysis of variance of the data show that there are significant differences in yield, stand, percent protein and percent DMD among the different species. There is also a significant difference in the yield of the same species between the two study areas. In eastern Kentucky, two mixtures, switchgrass-Interstate sericea lespedeza and Caucasian bluestem-Appalow sericea lespedeza yielded more hay than tall fescue-Interstate sericea, the standard of comparison. In western Kentucky, all seeding mixtures yielded more than the tall fescue Interstate mixture. There is no difference in stand among the species in eastern Kentucky. In western Kentucky, Caucasian bluestem, tall fescue, and switchgrass have better stands than other species.

  7. Weather yield model for the semi tropical region (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Syed Faizan; Asif, K. H.; Gilani, Amjad Hussain

    1992-09-01

    Weather models are essential tools for checking of the effect of the weather elements in terms of their effect on the production of the crop. This research is an attempt to see the effect of only two variables i.e., temperature and rainfall for the division Faisalabad (semitropical region of Pakistan). The model fitted is of the linear form: Y= a+ bX 1+ cX 2, the values of a,b,c have been found. The expected yield has been calculated by using the aridity indices X 1 and X 2 and the result in the form of coefficient of determination R 2 has been found equal to 0.166. The significance of the regression coefficient has been tested, which shows that the contribution to the yield from aridity index at germination and that at ripening is significant. The wheat yields are the results of a wide variety of variables, most of which show varying degree of relationship with one another, some positive and some negative in terms of output. These variables may be technology, fertilizers, pesticides, epidemics, kinds of seeds used, market price of crop and the area under cultivation etc, which can be the source of variation in the wheat yield. Since rainfall during germination and temperature at the ripening periods are the necessary factors for the yield of wheat, for this purpose these parameters have been studied in order to their contribution.

  8. Compilation of fission product yields Vallecitos Nuclear Center

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    This document is the ninth in a series of compilations of fission yield data made at Vallecitos Nuclear Center in which fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been utilized to produce a recommended set of yields for the known fission products. The original data with reference sources, as well as the recommended yields are presented in tabular form for the fissionable nuclides U-235, Pu-239, Pu-241, and U-233 at thermal neutron energies; for U-235, U-238, Pu-239, and Th-232 at fission spectrum energies; and U-235 and U-238 at 14 MeV. In addition, U-233, U-236, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Np-237 at fission spectrum energies; U-233, Pu-239, Th-232 at 14 MeV and Cf-252 spontaneous fission are similarly treated. For 1979 U234F, U237F, Pu249H, U234He, U236He, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, and Cm242F yields were evaluated. In 1980, Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242Mt, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, and Es254T are also evaluated.

  9. Stress localization, stiffening and yielding in a model colloidal gel

    E-print Network

    Jader Colombo; Emanuela Del Gado

    2014-06-16

    We use numerical simulations and an athermal quasi-static shear protocol to investigate the yielding of a model colloidal gel. Under increasing deformation, the elastic regime is followed by a significant stiffening before yielding takes place. A space-resolved analysis of deformations and stresses unravel how the complex load curve observed is the result of stress localization and that the yielding can take place by breaking a very small fraction of the network connections. The stiffening corresponds to the stretching of the network chains, unbent and aligned along the direction of maximum extension. It is characterized by a strong localization of tensile stresses, that triggers the breaking of a few network nodes at around 30% of strain. Increasing deformation favors further breaking but also shear-induced bonding, eventually leading to a large-scale reorganization of the gel structure at the yielding. At low enough shear rates, density and velocity profiles display significant spatial inhomogeneity during yielding in agreement with experimental observations.

  10. The Fingerprint of Climate Trends on European Crop Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Lobell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Europe has experienced a stagnation of some crop yields since the early-1990s as well as statistically-significant warming during the growing-season. While it has been argued that these two are causally connected, no previous studies have formally attributed long-term European yield trends to a changing climate. Here we present two statistical tests based on the distinctive spatial pattern of climate change impacts and adaptation, and explore their power under a range of parameter values. We show that statistical power for the identification of climate change impacts is high in many settings, but that power for identifying adaptation is almost always low. Applying these test to European agriculture, we find evidence that long-term temperature and precipitation trends have reduced continent-wide wheat, maize, and barley yields by 2.7%, 1.1%, and 3.9% respectively, and have increased sugarbeet yields by 1.0%. This can account for approximately 10% of the yield stagnation in Europe, with changes in agricultural and environmental policies likely explaining the remainder.

  11. Heme Proteins: Quantum Yield Determined by the Pulse Method

    PubMed Central

    Brunori, Maurizio; Giacometti, Giorgio M.; Antonini, Eraldo; Wyman, Jeffries

    1973-01-01

    We report results of the application of the “pulse method” to the study of photodissociation of various ligands from several heme proteins. By use of this technique, which allows the determination of the quantum yield of photodissociation accurately and rapidly, several ligands (CO, O2, isocyanides) have been investigated for sperm-whale myoglobin and trout hemoglobin I. In agreement with previous results, the new data lead to the conclusion that no simple relationship exists between the quantum yield and the affinity constant in the ground state. For trout hemoglobin I, the experiments were extended to measure the quantum yield of the CO photodissociation as a function of the initial degree of saturation, from fully saturated down to the initial values of about 1.5%. The results yield additional information to that obtained by the “steady-state” method, and in particular exclude the idea that the photochemical yield is in any way dependent on the fractional saturation of the molecule with carbon monoxide. PMID:4361678

  12. Metabolism and growth yields in Bacteroides ruminicola strain b14.

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, M R; Mountfort, D O; Turner, K W; Roberton, A M

    1976-01-01

    Metabolism of D-glucose by Bacteroides ruminicola subsp. brevis, strain B14, has been examined. Growth yield studies gave molar growth yields, corrected for storage polysaccharide, of approximately 66 g (dry weight)/mol of glucose fermented. The storage polysaccharide amounted to about 14% of the total dry weight, or 55% of the total cellular carbohydrate, at full growth. After correcting glucose utilization for incorporation into cellular carbohydrate, measurement of product formation showed that 1.1 succinate, 0.8 acetate, and 0.35 formate are produced and 0.5 CO2 net is taken up during the fermentation of 1 glucose under the conditions used. The implication of these results with respect to adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) molar growth yield calculations is discussed. If substrate-level phosphorylation reactions alone are responsible for ATP generation, then the ATP molar growth yield must be about 23 g (dry weight)/mol of ATP. Alternatively, if anaerobic electron transfer-linked phosphorylation also occurs, the ATP molar growth yield will be lower. Images PMID:970946

  13. From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

  14. LDEF's map experiment foil perforations yield hypervelocity impact penetration parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.

    1992-01-01

    The space exposure of LDEF for 5.75 years, forming a host target in low earth orbit (LEO) orbit to a wide distribution of hypervelocity particulates of varying dimensions and different impact velocities, has yielded a multiplicity of impact features. Although the projectile parameters are generally unknown and, in fact not identical for any two impacts on a target, the great number of impacts provides statistically meaningful basis for the valid comparison of the response of different targets. Given sufficient impacts for example, a comparison of impact features (even without knowledge of the project parameters) is possible between: (1) differing material types (for the same incident projectile distribution); (2) differing target configurations (e.g., thick and thin targets for the same material projectiles; and (3) different velocities (using LDEF's different faces). A comparison between different materials is presented for infinite targets of aluminum, Teflon, and brass in the same pointing direction; the maximum finite-target penetration (ballistic limit) is also compared to that of the penetration of similar materials comprising of a semi-infinite target. For comparison of impacts on similar materials at different velocities, use is made of the pointing direction relative to LDEF's orbital motion. First, however, care must be exercised to separate the effect of spatial flux anisotropies from those resulting from the spacecraft velocity through a geocentrically referenced dust distribution. Data comprising thick and thin target impacts, impacts on different materials, and in different pointing directions is presented; hypervelocity impact parameters are derived. Results are also shown for flux modeling codes developed to decode the relative fluxes of Earth orbital and unbound interplanetary components intercepting LDEF. Modeling shows the west and space pointing faces are dominated by interplanetary particles and yields a mean velocity of 23.5 km/s at LDEF, corresponding to a V(infinity) Earth approach velocity = 20.9 km/s. Normally resolved average impact velocities on LDEF's cardinal point faces are shown. As 'excess' flux on the east, north, and south faces is observed, compatible with an Earth orbital component below some 5 microns in particle diameter.

  15. Study of the B{yields}X(3872)({yields}D*{sup 0}D{sup 0})K decay

    SciTech Connect

    Aushev, T. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zwahlen, N.; Bay, A.; Louvot, R.; Schneider, O.; Vervink, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Adachi, I.; Haba, J.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Sakai, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; Wicht, J.; Yamauchi, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-02-01

    We present a study of B{yields}X(3872)K with X(3872) decaying to D*{sup 0}D{sup 0} using a sample of 657x10{sup 6} BB pairs recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Both D*{sup 0{yields}}D{sup 0{gamma}} and D*{sup 0{yields}}D{sup 0{pi}0} decay modes are used. We find a peak of 50.1{sub -11.1}{sup +14.8} events with a mass of (3872.9{sub -0.4-0.5}{sup +0.6+0.4}) MeV/c{sup 2}, a width of (3.9{sub -1.4-1.1}{sup +2.8+0.2}) MeV/c{sup 2} and a product branching fraction B(B{yields}X(3872)K)xB(X(3872){yields}D*{sup 0}D{sup 0})=(0.80{+-}0.20{+-}0.10)x10{sup -4}, where the first errors are statistical and the second ones are systematic. The significance of the signal is 6.4{sigma}. The difference between the fitted mass and the D*{sup 0}D{sup 0} threshold is calculated to be (1.1{sub -0.4-0.3}{sup +0.6+0.1}) MeV/c{sup 2}. We also obtain an upper limit on the product of branching fractions B(B{yields}Y(3940)K)xB(Y(3940){yields}D*{sup 0}D{sup 0}) of 0.67x10{sup -4} at 90% CL.

  16. On distinguishing cause and consequence: Do high somatic cell counts lead to lower milk yield or does high milk yield lead to lower somatic cell count?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Green; Y. H. Schukken; M. J. Green

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have reported that as milk yield increases composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) is diluted in cattle with no intramammary infection (IMI) and as a consequence, estimates of SCC from high yields are lower than estimates of SCC from low yields in dairy cows without an IMI. To date, estimates of reduced milk yield associated with high SCC because

  17. Independent yields of fast-neutron fission of 232Th: Observation of proton odd-even effect and neutron shell effect on the yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talma Izak-Biran; Saadia Amiel

    1977-01-01

    Elemental yields in the fission of 232Th induced by reactor neutrons were measured and found to disclose a pronounced odd-even effect. Independent and cumulative yields of isotopes of Kr, Xe, Sn, and Sb were measured and the independent yields of isotopes of Rb, Cs, and Sb were subsequently derived. A comparison of the yield values obtained with the calculated \\

  18. Universality in fragment inclusive yields from Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insolia, A.; Tuvè, C.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M. L.; Wang, S.; Warren, P. G.; Wieman, H. H.; Wolf, K. L.

    2001-11-01

    The inclusive light fragment (Z?7) yield data in Au+Au reactions, measured by the EOS Collaboration at the LBNL Bevalac, are presented and discussed. For peripheral collisions the measured charge distributions develop progressively according to a power law which can be fitted by a single ? exponent independently of the bombarding energy in the range 250-1200 A MeV. In addition to this universal feature, we observe that the location of the maximum in the individual yields of different charged fragments shift towards lower multiplicity as the fragment charge increases from Z=3 to Z=7. This trend is common to all six measured beam energies. Moments of charge distributions and correlations among different moments are reported. Finally, the THe,DT thermometer has been constructed for central and peripheral collisions using the double yield ratios of He and D, T projectile fragments. The measured nuclear temperatures are in agreement with experimental findings in other fragmentation reactions.

  19. Accuracy of Energy Yield Prediction of Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Jyotirmoy; Betts, Thomas Richard; Gottschalg, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    The uncertainty analysis of irradiance and temperature measurements in relation to the energy yield prediction of the photovoltaic (PV) modules are presented. A Monte Carlo simulation approach is demonstrated separately to propagate the monthly and annual measurement uncertainties of irradiance and temperature to annual energy yield prediction uncertainty for two commercially available PV modules. The annual irradiation uncertainty as measured with a thermopile pyranometer is calculated as ±1.56%. Uncertainty of the annual average of ambient temperature measurement is calculated as ±0.08 °C. Finally, the uncertainty in the energy yield estimation of the PV devices is determined as 2.8 and 15.5% for crystalline silicon (c-Si) and copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) modules, respectively.

  20. Nucleosynthesis Yields from the Explosion of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Carla; Fischer, T.; Liebendoerfer, M.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Truran, J. W.

    2008-04-01

    The large number of recent abundance observations in metal-poor stars and the progressing field of galactic evolution pose a need for improved predictions of nucleosynthesis yields from core collapse supernovae. The innermost ejecta and especially the Fe-group nuclei are directly affected by the explosion mechanism. Induced explosion models employing a piston or thermal bomb fail to predict the observed yields because the effects of neutrino interactions are not included. However, comprehensive core collapse supernova simulations are a complex and long standing problem. Despite continuous improvement they still bear important uncertainties. We will present detailed nucleosynthesis yields based on a model for the supernova ejecta featuring accurate Boltzmann neutrino transport and detailed neutrino-matter interaction in the nuclear network. The results will be confronted with recent observations of metal-poor stars and their impact on Galactic chemical evolution will be addressed.

  1. Relationship between SCS-CN and Sediment Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Sarita; Mishra, S. K.; Pandey, Ashish

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of runoff and sediment yield amount is not only an important task in physiographic but also important for proper watershed management. This paper proposes a seasonal relationship between Soil Conservation Services, runoff curve number (CN) and sediment yield (SY). Short-term sediment yield value of duration range from 1 to 30 day was correlated with the runoff CN derived for the respective duration from observed rainfall-runoff data. It is derived empirically from short-term (10 years) daily rainfall-runoff data of the Shakkar watershed of Narmada Basin falling in Madhya Pradesh (India). The resulting coefficient of determination ( R 2) values range (0.76-0.79) strongly support the versatility of the derived relationship and invokes determination of SY from the available National Engineering Handbook (NEH-4) CN values.

  2. Specific Yield--Column drainage and centrifuge moisture content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.I.; Prill, R.C.; Morris, D.A.

    1963-01-01

    The specific yield of a rock or soil, with respect to water, is the ratio of (1) the volume of water which, after being saturated, it will yield by gravity to (2) its own volume. Specific retention represents the water retained against gravity drainage. The specific yield and retention when added together are equal to the total interconnected porosity of the rock or soil. Because specific retention is more easily determined than specific yield, most methods for obtaining yield first require the determination of specific retention. Recognizing the great need for developing improved methods of determining the specific yield of water-bearing materials, the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Department of Water Resources initiated a cooperative investigation of this subject. The major objectives of this research are (1) to review pertinent literature on specific yield and related subjects, (2) to increase basic knowledge of specific yield and rate of drainage and to determine the most practical methods of obtaining them, (3) to compare and to attempt to correlate the principal laboratory and field methods now commonly used to obtain specific yield, and (4) to obtain improved estimates of specific yield of water-bearing deposits in California. An open-file report, 'Specific yield of porous media, an annotated bibliography,' by A. I. Johnson, D. A. Morris, and R. C. Prill, was released in 1960 in partial fulfillment of the first objective. This report describes the second phase of the specific-yield study by the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Laboratory at Denver, Colo. Laboratory research on column drainage and centrifuge moisture equivalent, two methods for estimating specific retention of porous media, is summarized. In the column-drainage study, a wide variety of materials was packed into plastic columns of 1- to 8-inch diameter, wetted with Denver tap water, and drained under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The effects of cleaning the porous media; of different column diameters; of dye and time on drainage; and of different methods of drainage, wetting, and packing were all determined. To insure repeatability of porosity in duplicate columns, a mechanical technique of packing was developed. In the centrifuge moisture-content study, the centrifuge moisture-equivalent (the moisture content retained by a soil that has been first saturated and then subjected to a force equal to 1,000 times the force of gravity for 1 hour) test was first reviewed and evaluated. It was determined that for reproducible moisture-retention results the temperature and humidity should be controlled by use of a controlled-temperature centrifuge. In addition to refining this standard test, the study determined the effect of length of period of centrifuging and of applied tension on the drainage results. The plans for future work require the continuation of the laboratory standardization study qith emphasis on investigation of soil-moisture tension and unsaturated-permeability techniques. A detailed study in the field then will be followed by correlation and evaluation of laboratory and field methods.

  3. Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Theodore A.; Dawes, Tracy Z.; Ward, Philip R.; Lo, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has increased crop yields, but at high economic and environmental cost. Harnessing ecosystem services of naturally occurring organisms is a cheaper but under-appreciated approach, because the functional roles of organisms are not linked to crop yields, especially outside the northern temperate zone. Ecosystem services in soil come from earthworms in these cooler and wetter latitudes; what may fulfill their functional role in agriculture in warmer and drier habitats, where they are absent, is unproven. Here we show in a field experiment that ants and termites increase wheat yield by 36% from increased soil water infiltration due to their tunnels and improved soil nitrogen. Our results suggest that ants and termites have similar functional roles to earthworms, and that they may provide valuable ecosystem services in dryland agriculture, which may become increasingly important for agricultural sustainability in arid climates. PMID:21448161

  4. X-1: The challenge of high fusion yield

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.L.; Ramirez, J.J.; Raglin, P.S. [and others

    1998-06-01

    In the past three years, tremendous strides have been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy and power output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources have great potential to drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. Technical challenges in three key areas are discussed in this paper: (1) the design of a target for high yield, (2) the development of a suitable pulsed power driver, and (3) the design of a target chamber capable of containing the high fusion yield.

  5. Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission

    SciTech Connect

    Grudzevich, O. T., E-mail: ogrudzevich@ippe.ru; Klinov, D. A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of {sup 235}U nuclei.

  6. Pyrolysis of wood to biochar: increasing yield while maintaining microporosity.

    PubMed

    Veksha, Andrei; McLaughlin, Hugh; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if biochar yield could be increased by the deposition of volatile pyrolysis species within the bed during production, without negatively influencing the microporosity and adsorption properties. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood chips were loaded into three vertically stacked zones within a reactor and heated in nitrogen to temperatures between 420 and 650°C (i.e., pyrolyzed). The yield did increase from the zone at the reactor inlet to the subsequent zones as volatile species deposited and carbonized, and importantly, the carbonized deposits had a similar microporous structure and organic vapor uptake (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) to that of the primary biochar. Based on these results, bio-oil from previous runs at 600°C was recycled to the bed, which further increased the yield while maintaining the desirable adsorption properties of the biochar. PMID:24365739

  7. Climate change: implications for the yield of edible rice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980-2009 at IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy. PMID:23776635

  8. {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{eta}{gamma}{gamma}: A primer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Escribano, Rafel [Grup de Fisica Teorica (Departament de Fisica) and Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies (IFAE), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-10-23

    The electromagnetic rare decays {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} are analysed for the first time and their predicted branching ratios given. The vector meson exchange dominant contribution is treated using Vector Meson Dominance and the scalar component is estimated by means of the Linear Sigma Model. The agreement between our calculation and the measurement of the related process {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} is a check of the procedure. Scalar meson effects are seen to be irrelevant for {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}, while a significant scalar contribution due to the {sigma}(500) resonance seems to emerge in the case of {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}. Future measurements coming from KLOE-2, Crystal Ball, WASA, and BES-III will elucidate if any of these processes carry an important scalar contribution or they are simply driven by the exchange of vector mesons.

  9. Fluorescene yields for hypersatellite lines for variously ionized silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalla, C.P.; Karim, K.R.; Wilson, M.

    1993-05-01

    In high energy Si{sup q+} collisions with solid targets, one observes the hypersatellite x-rays. The analysis of such data requires the theoretical fluorescence yields. These results are also important in the investigations of low energy highly charged silicon ions scattered from surfaces. Calculations have been performed with the Hartree-Fock model for states with electron configurations 1s{sup o} 2s{sup a} 2p{sup b} for all allowed values of a and b. The x-ray energies, line fluorescence yields and life times are presented.

  10. Yielding and plastic slip in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, T. H.; Huang, J. C.; Hsu, J. H.; Jian, S. R.; Nieh, T. G.

    2012-05-01

    The mechanical properties of ZnO were examined using nanoindentation and microcompression. The modulus, hardness, onset of yielding, and shear strength of the as-grown wafer measured by nanoindentation are 140, 7.1, 12, and 3.6 GPa. The onset of shearing (3.6 GPa) corresponds to the theoretical shear strength. Young's modulus and yield strength measured from micropillar samples were 123 and 3 GPa. The primary slip plane forms an acute angle of 62° with respect to the basal planes, indicting it is pyramidal. Thermal annealing does not affect the residual stresses but can reduce the defect concentration, thus improves the ZnO luminescent properties.

  11. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

  12. Particle yield fluctuations and chemical non-equilibrium at RHIC

    E-print Network

    Giorgio Torrieri; Sangyong Jeon; Johann Rafelski

    2006-04-29

    We study charge fluctuations within the statistical hadronization model. Considering both the particle yield ratios and the charge fluctuations we show that it is possible to differentiate between chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium freeze-out conditions. As an example of the procedure we show quantitatively how the relative yield ratio $\\Lambda/K^-$ together with the normalized net charge fluctuation $v(Q)=\\ave{\\Delta Q^2}/\\ave{\\Nch}$ constrain the chemical conditions at freeze-out. We also discuss the influence of the limited detector acceptance on fluctuation measurements, and show how this can be accounted for within a quantitative analysis.

  13. Strain rate influence on yield stress of some metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, A. V.; Stepanov, G.; Zubov, V.

    2003-09-01

    The results of investigations of the influence of high strain rates on yield stress of some structural metals are presented. Specimens from mild steel, high strength steel (HRA) and titanium alloy in the form of 2-nm thick sheet blank with regular parallel slits are used for impact compression tests in strain rate range up to 2105s^{-1}. The tendency of the yield stress to saturate with strain rate for all the metals tested was noted. Some patterns of deformation and failure of tested materials at such loading are shown.

  14. Up-conversion yield in glass ceramics containing silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malta, O. L.; Santa-Cruz, P. A.; de S´, G. F.; Auzel, F.

    1987-06-01

    Small silver particles are known to increase the fluorescence yield in rare-earth-doped glasses. These particles can be grown easily in glass ceramics of general composition (PbF 2, GeO 2, YbF 3, ErF 3). We have studied the effect of the addition of silver on the up-conversion yield due to sequential energy transfer between Yb 3+ and Er 3+ ions. The origin and the information that can be obtained from this effect are discussed.

  15. County-Level Crop Yield Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, K. L.; Roper, A.; Lane, T.

    2007-12-01

    Early estimates of crop yield, particularly at a fine scale, can inform precision agriculture efforts. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) currently provides estimates of yield on a monthly basis for each state. These estimates are based on phone interviews with farmers and in-situ examination of randomly selected plots. We seek to provide predictions at a much higher spatial resolution, on a more frequent basis, using remote sensing observations. We use publicly available data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft. These observations have a spatial resolution of 250 m and consist of two spectral bands (red and infra-red) with a repeat period of 8 days. As part of the HARVIST (Heterogeneous Agricultural Research Via Interactive, Scalable Technology) project, we have created statistical crop yield models using historical MODIS data combined with the per-county yield reported by the USDA at the end of the growing season. In our approach, we analyze 100 randomly selected historical pixels from each county to generate a yield prediction for the county as a whole. We construct a time series for each pixel that consists of its NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) value observed during each 8-day time period to date. We then cluster all pixels together to identify groups of distinct elements (different crops, bodies of water, urban areas, desert, etc.) and create a regression model for each one. For each crop of interest, the model that best predicts that crop's historical yield is selected. These models can then be applied to data from subsequent years to generate predictions for the future. We applied this approach to data from California and Kansas for corn and wheat. We found that, in general, the yield prediction error decreased as the harvest time approached. In California, distinctly different models were selected to predict corn and wheat, permitting specialization for each crop type. The best models from 2001 predicted yield for 2002 with a 10% (corn) and 23% (wheat) relative error three months before harvest. In Kansas, the 2001 models for corn and wheat were not well distinguished, providing good predictions for wheat (19% error three months before harvest) but poor predictions for corn (55% error three months before harvest). In post-analysis, we found that the 2001 pixel NDVI time series for Kansas are much more homogeneous than those for California, making it difficult to select crop-specific models. We are currently working on incorporating historical data from additional years, which will provide more diversity and potentially better predictions. We are also in the process of applying this technique to additional crops.

  16. Anomalous softening of yield strength in tantalum at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Qiumin; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Ji-an; Bi, Yan; Liu, Lei; Liu, Shenggang; Zhang, Yi; Geng, Huayun

    2015-02-01

    The pressure dependence of the yield strength of tantalum was investigated experimentally up to 101 GPa at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell. A yield strength softening is observed between 52 and 84 GPa, whereas a normal trend is observed below 52 GPa and above 84 GPa. The onset pressure of the softening is in agreement with previous results obtained by the pressure gradient method and shock wave experiments. This unusual strength softening in tantalum is not related with structural transformation, preferred orientation, or material damage. Our measurements indicate that microscopic deviatoric strain is the major reason for the observed strength softening in tantalum.

  17. Fission fizzles: Estimating the yield of a predetonated nuclear weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron Reed, B.

    2011-07-01

    An undergraduate-level model is developed for estimating the fraction of the design yield that can be realized if a uranium or a plutonium fission bomb suffers an uncontrolled predetonation due to a spontaneous fission of the fissile material. The model is based on the combination of one published earlier for the predetonation probability and a yield model developed by Mark et al. ["Explosive properties of reactor-grade plutonium," Sci. Global Secur. 17 (2), 170-185 (2009); a reprint of the same paper published in Sci. Global Secur. 4 (1), 111-128 (1993)].

  18. A meteorologically-driven yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravet, F. W.; Cremins, W. J.; Taylor, T. W.; Ashburn, P.; Smika, D.; Aaronson, A. (principal investigators)

    1983-01-01

    A yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat was developed for large-area crop condition assessment. Reductions are expressed in percentage from a base yield and are calculated on a daily basis. The algorithm contains two integral components: a two-layer soil water budget model and a crop calendar routine. Yield reductions associated with hot, dry winds (Sukhovey) and soil moisture stress are determined. Input variables include evapotranspiration, maximum temperature and precipitation; subsequently crop-stage, available water holding percentage and stress duration are evaluated. No specific base yield is required and may be selected by the user; however, it may be generally characterized as the maximum likely to be produced commercially at a location.

  19. Mapping QTLs for improving grain yield using the USDA rice mini-core collection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobai; Yan, Wengui; Agrama, Hesham; Jia, Limeng; Shen, Xihong; Jackson, Aaron; Moldenhauer, Karen; Yeater, Kathleen; McClung, Anna; Wu, Dianxing

    2011-08-01

    Yield is the most important and complex trait for genetic improvement in crops, and marker-assisted selection enhances the improvement efficiency. The USDA rice mini-core collection derived from over 18,000 accessions of global origins is an ideal panel for association mapping. We phenotyped 203 O. sativa accessions for 14 agronomic traits and identified 5 that were highly and significantly correlated with grain yield per plant: plant height, plant weight, tillers, panicle length, and kernels/branch. Genotyping with 155 genome-wide molecular markers demonstrated 5 main cluster groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed at least 20 cM and marker pairs with significant LD ranged from 4.64 to 6.06% in four main groups. Model comparisons revealed that different dimensions of principal component analysis affected yield and its correlated traits for mapping accuracy, and kinship did not improve the mapping in this collection. Thirty marker-trait associations were highly significant, 4 for yield, 3 for plant height, 6 for plant weight, 9 for tillers, 5 for panicle length and 3 for kernels/branch. Twenty-one markers contributed to the 30 associations, because 8 markers were co-associated with 2 or more traits. Allelic analysis of OSR13, RM471 and RM7003 for their co-associations with yield traits demonstrated that allele 126 bp of RM471 and 108 bp of RM7003 should receive greater attention, because they had the greatest positive effect on yield traits. Tagging the QTLs responsible for multiple yield traits may simultaneously help dissect the complex yield traits and elevate the efficiency to improve grain yield using marker-assisted selection in rice. PMID:21479810

  20. Effect of plant density and mixing ratio on crop yield in sweet corn/mungbean intercropping.

    PubMed

    Sarlak, S; Aghaalikhani, M; Zand, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m(-2) for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m(-2) for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p < 0.01). Therefore, the mixing ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it's maximum rate of total sweet corn's biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture. PMID:19266927

  1. {mu} {yields} e{gamma} decay versus the {mu} {yields} eee bound and lepton flavor violating processes in supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Lychkovskiy, O. V., E-mail: lychkovskiy@itep.ru; Vysotsky, M. I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    Even tiny lepton flavor violation (LFV) due to some New Physics is able to alter the conditions inside a collapsing supernova core and probably to facilitate the explosion. LFV emerges naturally in a see-saw type-II model of neutrino mass generation. Experimentally, the LFV beyond the Standard Model is constrained by rare lepton decay searches. In particular, strong bounds are imposed on the {mu} {yields} eee branching ratio and on the {mu}-e conversion in muonic gold. Currently, the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} is under investigation in the MEG experiment that aims at a dramatic increase in sensitivity in the next three years. We seek a see-saw type-II LFV pattern that fits all the experimental constraints, leads to Br({mu} {yields}e{gamma}) Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu}{mu} {yields}eee), and ensures a rate of LFV processes in supernova high enough to modify the supernova physics. These requirements are sufficient to eliminate almost all freedom in the model. In particular, they lead to the prediction 0.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu} {yields} e{gamma}) Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}, which will be testable by MEG in the nearest future. The considered scenario also constrains the neutrino mass-mixing pattern and provides lower and upper bounds on {tau}-lepton LFV decays. We also briefly discuss a model with a single bilepton in which the {mu} {yields} eee decay is absent at the tree level.

  2. Predicting Thymine Dimerization Yields from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Law, Yu Kay; Azadi, Javad; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E.; Olmon, Eric; Kohler, Bern

    2008-01-01

    It was recently shown that thymine dimers in the all-thymine oligonucleotide (dT)18 are fully formed in <1 ps after ultraviolet excitation. The speed and low quantum yield of this reaction suggest that only a small fraction of the conformers of this structurally disordered oligonucleotide are in a position to react at the instant of photon absorption. In this work, we explore the hypothesis that conventional molecular dynamics simulations can be used to predict the yield of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Conformations obtained from simulations of thymidylyl-(3?-5?)-thymidine in various cosolvents were classified as dimerizable or nondimerizable depending on the distance between the C5-C6 double bonds of the adjacent thymine bases and the torsion angle between them. The quantum yield of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation was calculated as the number of dimerizable conformations divided by the total number of conformations. The experimental quantum yields measured in the different solvents were satisfactorily reproduced using physically reasonable values for the two parameters. The mean dimerizable structure computed by averaging all of the dimerizable cis-syn conformations is structurally similar to the actual cis-syn dimer. Compared to the canonical B-form TT step, the most important structural property of a dimerizable conformation is its reduced helical twist angle of 22°. PMID:18192364

  3. Generalised yield criteria of porous sintered powder metallurgy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Narayanasamy; R. Ponalagusamy; K. R. Subramanian

    2001-01-01

    A new form of yield criterion considering an anisotropic parameter for porous sintered powder metallurgy metals has been proposed in this technical paper. In addition to the above, the flow rule with anisotropic parameter for porous metal is introduced. The mathematical expression for the calculation of flow stress in the case of simple compression or tension test is deduced from

  4. Weather Derivatives and Yield Index Insurance As Exotic Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Hertzler

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops methods to quantify weather derivatives and yield index insurance. These are exotic options that differ from financial options in several ways. The underlying random variable is not a price but a quantity such as millimeters of rainfall. Instead of option \\

  5. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into

    E-print Network

    Pachter, Lior

    Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution Rat Genome ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality `draft' covering over 90% of the genome

  6. Effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the US sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, crop is produced in North Dakota and Minnesota . The objective of this research was to determine the effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality in the absence of disease. Sugar beet was planted at Prosper, North Dakota in 2005, 2006 and...

  7. Determination of yield stress fluid behaviour from inclined plane test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Coussot; Stéphane Boyer

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine precisely under which conditions an inclined plane can be used as a rheometer, which could represent a practical and rapid technique for various types of industrial or natural viscoplastic coarse suspensions. We first examine its efficiency and relevancy for determining fluid yield stress in a straight way by measuring the deepest fluid

  8. Improving yield of PZT piezoelectric devices on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2012-10-01

    The proposed SMART-X telescope includes adaptive optics systems that use piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. Several processing constraints are imposed by current designs: the crystallization temperature must be kept below 550 °C, the total stress in the film must be minimized, and the yield on 1 cm2 actuator elements should be < 90%. For this work, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit films since chemical solution deposition (CSD) led to warping of large area flexible glass substrates. A PZT 52/48 film that wasdeposited at 4 mTorr and annealed at 550 °C for 24 hours showed no detectable levels of either PbO or pyrochlore second phases. Large area electrodes (1cm x 1 cm) were deposited on 4" glass substrates. Initially, the yield of the devices was low, however, two methods were employed to increase the yield to near 100 %. The first method included a more rigorous cleaning to improve the continuity of the Pt bottom electrode. The second method was to apply 3 V DC across the capacitor structure to burn out regions of defective PZT. The result of this latter method essentially removed conducting filaments in the PZT but left the bulk of the material undamaged. By combining these two methods, the yield on the large area electrodes improved from < 10% to nearly 100%.

  9. DISTRIBUTION AND YIELD OF THE DEEPWATER SHRIMP HETEROCARPUS RESOURCE

    E-print Network

    DISTRIBUTION AND YIELD OF THE DEEPWATER SHRIMP HETEROCARPUS RESOURCE IN THE MARIANAS ROBERT B. MOFFITT AND JEFFREY J. POLOVINA! ABSTRACf A shrimp trapping survey was conducted at 22 islands and banks in the Mariana Archipelago during a 2-year field period. Three species of deepwater shrimp were found

  10. Remote Sensing and Modeling Methods for Crop Grain Yield Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring crop condition and yields at regional scales using satellite imagery from operational satellites remains a challenge for the developed and developing countries. Imagery from the MODIS sensor onboard NASA’s TERRA and ACQUA satellites offer an excellent opportunity for daily coverage at 25...

  11. YIELDING AND PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF BOOM CLAY Nabil Sultan1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 YIELDING AND PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF BOOM CLAY Nabil Sultan1 , Yu-Jun Cui2 and Pierre Delage2 1: An Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has been constructed in the deposit of Boom clay at a depth of 223 m to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the natural Boom clay and to examine the effect of initial and induced

  12. PLANT RESISTANCE Photosynthesis and Yield Reductions From Wheat Stem Sawfly

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    PLANT RESISTANCE Photosynthesis and Yield Reductions From Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Interactions With Wheat Solidness, Water Stress, and Phosphorus Deficiency KEVIN J. DELANEY,1 DAVID K. WEAVER. The current study examined causes of variation in the impact of larval stem mining by the wheat stem sawßy

  13. Lower bound limit analysis of slabs with nonlinear yield criteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristian Krabbenhoft; Lars Damkilde

    2002-01-01

    A finite element formulation of the limit analysis of perfectly plastic slabs is given. An element with linear moment fields for which equilibrium is satisfied exactly is used in connection with an optimization algorithm taking into account the full nonlinearity of the yield criteria. Both load and material optimization problems are formulated and by means of the duality theory of

  14. Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat Jean-François LEDENT Volkmar STOY Helena in length (R,) of ear primordia was measured in collections of winter wheats (Triticum aestivum (L.) em or morphological characters. However, genotypes with faster growing ear primordia tended to have smaller cars

  15. Potato growth and yield using nutrient film technique (NFT).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Mackowiak, C L; Sager, J C; Knott, W M; Hinkle, C R

    1990-01-01

    Potato plants, cvs Denali and Norland, were grown in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) trays using a continuous flowing nutrient film technique (NFT) to study tuber yield for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Nutrient solution pH was controlled automatically using 0.39M (2.5% (v/v) nitric acid (HNO3), while water and nutrients were replenished manually each day and twice each week, respectively. Plants were spaced either one or two per tray, allotting 0.2 or 0.4 m2 per plant. All plants were harvested after 112 days. Denali plants yielded 2850 and 2800 g tuber fresh weight from the one- and two-plant trays, respectively, while Norland plants yielded 1800 and 2400 g tuber fresh weight from the one- and two-plant trays. Many tubers of both cultivars showed injury to the periderm tissue, possibly caused by salt accumulation from the nutrient solution on the surface. Total system water usage throughout the study for all the plants equaled 709 liters (L), or approximately 2 L m-2 d-1. Total system acid usage throughout the study (for nutrient solution pH control) equaled 6.60 L, or 18.4 ml m-2 d-1 (7.2 mmol m-2 d-1). The results demonstrate that continuous flowing nutrient film technique can be used for tuber production with acceptable yields for the CELSS program. PMID:11537254

  16. Climate and soil effects on resilience of corn grain yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain yields are known to be impacted by environmental and soil conditions. Air temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, evapotranspiration, along with soil temperature, moisture, and residual inorganic N concentration were evaluated in this study across 15 years and a range of N fertility ...

  17. Soil health for increasing sugarcane yield and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil health can be defined as the capacity of the soil to continually produce high yields of sugarcane. Soil organic matter, native fertility, adequate moisture and drainage, soil workability, and high levels of beneficial microorganisms all contribute to soil health. Sugarcane growers in Louisiana ...

  18. Soybean Aphid Feeding Injury and Soybean Yield and Seed Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate prediction of the level of yield loss caused by soybean aphid feeding is considered to be the crux of integrated pest management for these pests. Despite the accumulating literature on the soybean aphid, there are currently few published data on the effects of soybean aphid populations on ...

  19. Albedo measurement for remote sensing of crop yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Idso; R. J. Reginato; R. D. Jackson

    1977-01-01

    ANY remote sensing programme designed to estimate regional agricultural productivity has three major requirements. First, the crops present must be identified; second, the amount of land planted to each type must be determined, and third, the yields of the crops per unit land area must be evaluated. The large area crop inventory experiment (LACIE) uses measurements of reflected solar radiation

  20. Biodiversity, yield, and shade coffee certification Ivette Perfectoa,*, John Vandermeerb

    E-print Network

    ANALYSIS Biodiversity, yield, and shade coffee certification Ivette Perfectoa,*, John Vandermeerb; accepted 25 October 2004 Available online 2 February 2005 Abstract The current crisis in the coffee market provides an opportunity to explore alternative markets. In Latin America, coffee is traditionally produced

  1. Computing Realized Compound Yield with a Financial Calculator: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Ronald L.; Terregrossa, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This note points out that realized compound yield (RCY) has a similar concept from capital budgeting; namely, modified internal rate of return. Recognizing this relationship makes it easier to teach the concept and allows students to easily compute RCY using a financial calculator.

  2. Isotopic yield in alpha accompanied ternary fission of 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith; Priyanka, B.

    2015-01-01

    The cold ternary fission of 252Cf with 4He as light charged particle (LCP) is studied with fragments in the equatorial and collinear configuration, taking the interacting barrier as the sum of the Coulomb and Proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot and by calculating the yield for charge-minimized fragments. In both equatorial and collinear configurations, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination 116Pd + 4He + 132Sn, which possess doubly magic nuclei 132Sn(N = 82, Z = 50). The presence of doubly or near doubly magic nuclei (132Sn, 130Sn etc.) and higher Q value plays an important role in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of 252Cf. The comparison of the relative yield for equatorial configuration with that of collinear configuration, points to the fact that equatorial configuration is the preferred configuration for the LCP (4He) accompanied ternary fission in 252Cf isotope. The yields obtained for the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of 252Cf in equatorial and collinear configuration are compared with the experimental data. The emission probability of long range alpha (LRA) particle from 252Cf isotope is predicted using our formalism and is found to be in agreement with experimental value.

  3. Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands Peter J. Blank1 *, David W bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from

  4. Yield modeling of acoustic charge transport transversal filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, J. S.; May, G. S.; Hunt, W. D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a yield model for acoustic charge transport transversal filters. This model differs from previous IC yield models in that it does not assume that individual failures of the nondestructive sensing taps necessarily cause a device failure. A redundancy in the number of taps included in the design is explained. Poisson statistics are used to describe the tap failures, weighted over a uniform defect density distribution. A representative design example is presented. The minimum number of taps needed to realize the filter is calculated, and tap weights for various numbers of redundant taps are calculated. The critical area for device failure is calculated for each level of redundancy. Yield is predicted for a range of defect densities and redundancies. To verify the model, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed on an equivalent circuit model of the device. The results of the yield model are then compared to the Monte Carlo simulation. Better than 95% agreement was obtained for the Poisson model with redundant taps ranging from 30% to 150% over the minimum.

  5. Yield performance of cacao propagated by somatic embryogenesis and grafting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve cacao (Theobroma cacao) clones propagated by grafting and somatic embryogenesis and grown on an Ultisol soil were evaluated for five years under intensive management at Corozal, Puerto Rico. Preliminary data showed no significant differences between propagation methods for yield of dry beans ...

  6. Cytokinin amelioration of yield losses from drought and nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squ...

  7. Modelling biomass production and yield of horticultural crops: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. M. Marcelis; E. Heuvelink; J. Goudriaan

    1998-01-01

    Descriptive and explanatory modelling of biomass production and yield of horticultural crops is reviewed with special reference to the simulation of leaf area, light interception, dry matter (DM) production, DM partitioning and DM content. Most models for prediction of harvest date (timing of production) are descriptive. For DM production many descriptive and explanatory models have been developed. Most explanatory models

  8. Yield analysis of 2D hexagonal VLSI\\/WSI arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afzel Noore; S. Cambam

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes techniques for determining the yield of redundant 2D hexagonal VLSI and WSI arrays. Such arrays are very useful in parallel processing, distributed processing and systolic array applications. Redundancy is implemented at the interstitial spaces of the array structure and reconfiguration is performed locally in order to keep the interconnections short and simple. The first reconfiguration strategy models

  9. Expanding Genetic Diversity to Increase Soybean Seed Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, fewer than 100 ancestral lines have contributed to currently grown cultivars and more than 50% of that contribution comes from only 5 lines. Based on national production statistics, the average rate of yield improvement from 1924 to 1978 is nearly identical to the rate of from ...

  10. Improved Yield Potential with an Early Planting Cotton Production System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Pettigrew

    2002-01-01

    the summer solstice should, in theory, time the repro- ductive growth to develop when more C assimilates are Mid-South cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has reached a yield available to support reproductive structures. plateau in recent years. Shifting the growing season earlier in the One technique to accomplish this shift in the bloom- year by planting earlier may allow the crop

  11. Design for Circuit Quality: Yield Maximization, Minimax, and Taguchi Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Styblinski

    1990-01-01

    A relationship between yield optimization, deterministic minimax design, and the Taguchi `on-target' design with variability reduction is established. It is shown that all these and other design approaches can be combined into one coherent methodology, using the same statistical optimization algorithms and the same generic gradient evaluation formulas. A specific choice is controlled by the selection of the generalized membership

  12. Effects of a Driver Enforcement Program on Yielding to Pedestrians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis

    2004-01-01

    A driver-yielding enforcement program that included decoy pedestrians, feedback flyers, written and verbal warnings, and saturation enforcement for a 2-week period was evaluated in the city of Miami Beach using a multiple baseline design. During baseline, data were collected at crosswalks along two major corridors. Treatment was introduced first…

  13. Conditions that Influence Drivers' Yielding Behavior for Uncontrolled Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourquin, Eugene; Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrians with visual impairments need to cross streets where traffic signals and traffic signage are not present. This study examined the influences of several interventions, including a pedestrian's use of a mobility cane, on the behavior of drivers when they were expected to yield to a pedestrian crossing at an uncontrolled crossing.…

  14. An effective biophysical indicator for opium yield estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Jia; Bingfang Wu; Yichen Tian; Qiangzi Li; Xin Du

    2011-01-01

    Opium is a narcotic obtained from opium poppy and raw materials of heroin for illegal drug trade. Information on opium production is important for governments and international communities to understand the scale of illegal drug trade and to implement drug fighting policies. Opium production can be estimated from opium yield and poppy cultivation acreage. Poppy cultivation acreage in turn can

  15. Topographically Controlled Yield Response of Canola to Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pennock; F. Walley; M. Solohub; B. Si; G. Hnatowich

    2001-01-01

    or soil organic matter. Uncontrolled stochastic factors are not controlled by the farmer but are also not con- The effect of topographical position on the yield response of canola stant over time—for example, weather conditions dur- (Brassica rapa var. Maverick) to N fertilizer was evaluated in a 3-yr field study in Saskatchewan, Canada. The hummocky, glacial till re- ing the

  16. Dynamic cache resizing architecture for high yield SOC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baker Mohammad; Muhammad Tauseef Rab; Khadir Mohammad; M. Aater Suleman

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic cache resizing coupled with built in self test (BIST) is proposed to enhance yield of SRAM-based cache memory. BIST is used as part of the power-up sequence to identify the faulty memory addresses. Logic is added to prevent access to the identified locations, effectively reducing the cache size. Cache resizing approach can solve for as many faulty locations as

  17. TARGET YIELDS AND HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION IN BROWN COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Matsumura; Ronald J. Camier

    1986-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model for brown coal liquefaction has been developed and used in conjunction with data from PDU operation to examine the factors which contribute to hydrogen consumption. It is found that after allowing for hydrogen generation requirements, the maximum achievable refined product yield from Morwell brown coal ((ssuming a naphtha\\/middle distillate ratio of 5:6 together with refined product

  18. Soybean Growth and Seed Yield Response to Tillage and Compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant response to organic amendment often varies and may interact with tillage. The objectives of this research were to quantify soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] water use and nutrient uptake to understand whole-plant and seed yield response to compost amendment and tillage intensity. A corn (Zea ma...

  19. Self sputtering yields of silver under bombardment with polyatomic projectiles

    E-print Network

    Wucher, Andreas

    Self sputtering yields of silver under bombardment with polyatomic projectiles A. Duvenbeck, M: Molecular dynamics simulations; Sputtering; Nonlinear effects; Cluster bombardment; Collisional Spikes 1 projectiles, i.e. clusters composed of several atoms. Andersen and Bay [1] as well as Thompson and Johar [2

  20. Lemon yield and fruit quality affected by NPK fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A Quaggio; D Mattos; H Cantarella; E. L. E Almeida; S. A. B Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    A field trial with Sicilian lemon on Volkameriana rootstock was carried out, during 7 years, in a sandy and low fertility oxisol in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine quantitative relationships of lemon yield and fruit quality with NPK fertilization. The experiment was set up in an incomplete factorial design of the (1\\/2) 43 type, summing

  1. Yields and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes at LOHENGRIN and ISOLDE

    E-print Network

    Köster, U

    1999-01-01

    Yields of radioactive nuclei were measured at two facilities: the recoil separator LOHENGRIN at the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble and the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN in Geneva. At LOHENGRIN the yields of light charged particles were measured from thermal neutron induced ternary fission of several actinide targets: 233U, 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and 245Cm. Thin targets are brought into a high neutron flux. The produced nuclei leave these with the recoil obtained in the fission reaction. They are measured at different energies and ionic charge states. After corrections for the experimental acceptance, the time behaviour of the fission rate and the ionic charge fraction, the yields are integrated over the kinetic energy distribution. Comparing these yields with the predictions of various ternary fission models shows that the most abundant nuclides are well reproduced. On the other hand the models overestimate significantly the production of more "exotic" nuclides with an extreme N/Z ratio. Therefore ...

  2. CYTOZYME EFFECT ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF MUNGBEAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THANH PHONG

    An experiment of cytozyme effect on the growth and yield of mungbean was conducted at the experimental farm of TOP\\/AVRDC, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand from November 27, 1990 to February 20, 1991. The objective of this study was to explore possibility of using plant growth enhancing substances cytozyme soil plus and cytozyme crop plus to improve

  3. Data Collection Ratings and Best Prediction of Lactation Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Best prediction (BP) has been used in the US to calculate lactation yields of milk, fat, protein, and somatic cell score (SCS) from test day data since 1998, when it replaced the test interval method (TIM) used since 1969. It is more complex than TIM but also more accurate, particularly when testing...

  4. Fluorescent nanopigments: Quantitative assessment of their quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, R.; Nicolet, O.; Huber, S.; Zuppiroli, L.; Chappellet, S.; Lovey, C.; Perrenoud, J.; Pauchard, M.

    2010-06-01

    In the last few years, an intense research effort has focused on the synthesis of fluorescent nanopigments for functional inks, light harvesting, tagging, tracing, (bio)labeling, imaging, and lighting applications. Moreover, combined with dielectric matrices, these fluorescent nanoparticles may open the way to the realization of novel optophotonic devices. In particular, due to the large variety of available organic fluorescent dyes, their encapsulation into either an inorganic or an organic host is a very promising approach to synthesize a large palette of new fluorescent nanopigments. However, since the dye encapsulation may affect the fluorescence efficiency, measuring the quantum yield of fluorescent nanopigments is of paramount importance for the development of any connected application. In this article, we present a diffuse reflectance (DR) technique that enables the quantitative assessment of the quantum yield of fluorescent nanoparticles such as zeolite L nanocrystals and poly(methyl methacrylate) nanospheres both loaded with fluorescent perylene molecules. Our method is validated by measuring a well known fluorescence standard and by comparing the results obtained for a model zeolite nanopigment with those provided by an alternative DR technique. Reliable and reproducible quantum yield values are obtained for both low- and high-efficiency fluorescent nanoparticles. Our technique can thus enable systematic and quantitative studies that may yield an important insight in the mechanisms affecting the fluorescence efficiency of a large variety of nanopigments.

  5. Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, C. B.

    1968-01-01

    Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density for battery used as an auxiliary power source in space vehicle systems. Maximum reliability and minimum battery weight is achieved by using a stacking configuration of 23 series-connected modules with 6 parallel-connected cells per module.

  6. High yield regioselective monobenzyloxycarbonylation of secondary alcohols in glycopyranoside series.

    PubMed

    Morère, Alain; Mouffouk, Fouzi; Jeanjean, Audrey; Leydet, Alain; Montero, Jean-Louis

    2003-10-31

    The regioselective monobenzyloxycarbonylation of secondary alcohols in methyl 6-O-(4-methoxytrityl)-alpha-D-manno-, gluco- and galactopyranoside has been achieved in high yields (74-85%) by using benzyl chloroformate in the presence of 4-dimethylaminopyridine and/or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane. PMID:14572726

  7. A Study of Variance Reduction Techniques for Estimating Circuit Yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale E. Hocevar; Michael R. Lightner; Timothy N. Trick

    1983-01-01

    The efficiency of several variance reduction techniques (in particular, importance sampling, stratified sampling, and control variates) are studied with respect to their application in estimating circuit yields. This study suggests that one essentially has to have a good approximation of the region of acceptability in order to achieve significant variance reduction. Further, all the methods considered are based, either explicitly

  8. A detailed investigation of the quantum yield experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Ielmini; Alessandro S. Spinelli; Andrea L. Lacaita; Donelli J. DiMaria; Gabriella Ghidini

    2001-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the quantum yield (QY) experiment is proposed. Experimental data show that no correlation exists between the QY and the stress-induced leakage current (SILC), and that the QY is determined by high-energy oxide traps. Numerical simulations are then used, based on a detailed calculation of the oxide defect distribution. It is shown that the leakage current and

  9. Quasi-biennial corn yield cycles in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quasi-biennial cycles are often reported in climate studies. The interannual El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are two phenomena containing quasi-periodicities of approximately 2.5 and 2.2 years. It is known that ENSO affects corn yield through weather patterns...

  10. EnvironmEntal CrisEs YiEld

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    differences in health vulnerabilities due to global warming. The synthesis review paper, which was the cover QUARTERLY Global EnvironmEntal CrisEs YiEld danGErous nEw HEaltH CHallEnGEs EColoGYand Publi, Patz speaks eloquently, with passion gained over a 1-year career of studying public health on a global

  11. Shock Timing and Yield Sensitivity Studies for NIF Ignition Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    OLSON,RICHARD E.

    1999-11-23

    A cryogenic, {beta}-layered NIF ignition capsule with a beryllium ablator that employs a BeO dopant (2% O) for opacity control is described. The design has an optimized yield of 12 MJ and uses a ''reduced drive'' hohlraum temperature pulse shape that peaks at {approx}250 eV. Shock timing sensitivity calculations have been performed for this capsule design. Individual uncertainties of (1) {approx}200 ps in the timing of the ''footpulse; (2) {approx}5% in the x-ray flux of the foot pulse and first step; (3) {approx}10% in the ablator EOS; or (4) {approx} 5 {micro}m in the DT ice layer thickness each have a significant impact on thermonuclear yield. Combined uncertainties have greater impact than isolated, individual issues. For example, a combination of uncertainties of: 200 ps in the foot + 2 eV in the foot + 5 pm in the DT thickness results in a calculation that produces only {approx}1% of the original design yield. A second, more speculative, capsule concept utilizing a liquid DT ablator is also discussed. This design produces a 5 MJ yield in a 250 eV peak drive calculation.

  12. Shock Timing and Yield Sensitivity Studies for NIF Ignition Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    OLSON,RICHARD E.

    1999-11-08

    A cryogenic, {beta}-layered NIF ignition capsule with a beryllium ablator that employs a BeO dopant (2% O) for opacity control is described. The design has an optimized yield of 12 MJ and uses a reduced drive hohlraum temperature pulse shape that peaks at {approx} 250 eV. Shock timing sensitivity calculations have been performed for this capsule design. Individual uncertainties of: (1) {approx}200 ps in the timing of the foot pulse; (2) {approx}5% in the x-ray flux of the foot pulse and first step; (3) {approx}10% in the ablator EOS; or (4) {approx} 5 {micro}m in the DT ice layer thickness each have a significant impact on thermonuclear yield. Combined uncertainties have greater impact than isolated, individual issues. For example, a combination of uncertainties of 200 ps in the foot + 2 eV in the foot + 5 {micro}m in the DT thickness results in a calculation that produces only {approx} 1% of the original design yield. A second, more speculative, capsule concept utilizing a liquid DT ablator is also discussed. This design produces a 5 MJ yield in a 250 eV peak drive calculation.

  13. Grassland converted to cropland: Soil conditions and sorghum yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Laryea; P. W. Unger

    1995-01-01

    An appropriate tillage system is needed for conversion of virgin lands or revegetated lands to croplands to ensure sustainable crop production. We compared the effects of three tillage systems (viz. primary tillage with sweep implement (SW), moldboard plough (MB), and no-tillage NT)) on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) yield and some soil properties. The land had been used for

  14. Fission Yields and Other Diagnostics for Nuclear Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.

    2014-06-01

    I summarize advances in our understanding of basic nuclear physics cross sections and decay properties that are needed to characterize the magnitude and energy-dependence of a neutron flux, and to determine the amount of fission burnup in plutonium fuel. The number of fissions that have occurred in a neutron environment can be deduced from measurements of the fission products created, providing that the fission product yields are known accurately. I describe how our understanding of plutonium fission product yields has improved in recent years through a meta-analysis of various measured data, and through identification of fission product yield incident-energy dependencies over the 0.2-2 MeV fast energy region. This led to the resolution of a previous discrepancy between the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in their plutonium yield assessments in the fast energy region, although more experimental work is still needed to resolve discrepancies at 14 MeV. Work is also described that has improved our understanding of (n,2n) cross sections that are used as diagnostics of the high-energy neutron spectrum - both on plutonium and americium, and on the radiochemical detectors yttrium, iridium, and thulium. Finally, some observations are made on the importance of continuing to develop our Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) database using physics insights from differential cross section and integral laboratory experiments and from nuclear theory advances.

  15. Supply Chain Yield Management based on Reinforcement Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Stockheim; Michael Schwind; Alexander Korth; Burak Simsek

    The paper presents a yield optimizing scheduling system (YOSS) in a decentral- ized supply chain management (DSCM) environment. For this purpose we employ a DSCM scenario in which each supplier, provides system parts by order of one or more customers. The supplier tries to optimize its return by searching the optimal schedule for the single ma- chine he uses to

  16. EFFECT OF CHELATED CALCIUM ON VALENCIA PEANUT YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium nutrition is often a yield limiting factor for peanuts and is necessary for pod growth and increased peg strength. Calcium (Ca) applied to the fruiting zone increases the number of pods per plant. Application of Ca 30 to 45 days after penetration of gynophores into the soil increased the p...

  17. IMPACT OF OZONE AND SULPHUR DIOXIDE ON SOYBEAM YIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little dose-response information exists on the effects of chronic ozone (O3) and intermittent sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposures on the yield of important agricultural crops. Such information is needed for refinement of estimates of air pollution induced crop losses. Field-grown plan...

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of absolute secondary electron yield of Cu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. J. Ding; H. M. Li; X. D. Tang; R. Shimizu

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation model of electron interaction with solids that includes cascade secondary electron production has been used to study secondary electron emission from Cu. An optical dielectric function was used to describe electron energy loss and the associated secondary electron excitation. From the simulation, the absolute primary energy dependence of the secondary yield and the energy distribution of

  19. Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mounir Louhaichi

    2003-01-01

    A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium

  20. LESS KNOWN EDIBLE FRUIT – YIELDING PLANTS OF NILGIRIS

    PubMed Central

    Nayagam, M. Cyril; Pushparaj, M.S.; Rajan, S.

    1993-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with 27 species belonging to 22 generate and 18 families, which yield wild edible fruits. They are arranged in alphabetical order followed by their local names and habit. An attempt has been also made to indicate the nutritive values of edible portions on the basis of documented literature. Brief illustration is furnished wherever necessary. PMID:22556615