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1

Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

Blamey, F.P.C.

1983-01-01

2

Weed competition and dry bean yield components  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

3

Response of Grain Yield, Yield Components and Allergic Protein Content of Buckwheat to Drought Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buckwheat is usually categorized with the cereals due to its way of cultivation and utilization. The deficiency of water occurring between the whole vegetation period and from flowering do harvest has no influence on yield level and no influence on the level of yield components in buckwheat cv. Kora. The amount of albumins and globulins was not significantly affected by

Grazyna Podolska; Iwona Konopka; Jerzy Dziuba

4

Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield

G. M. May; M. P. Pritts

1993-01-01

5

The effects of leaf rust on yield and yield components of wheat treated with varying dosages of a systemic fungicide  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF LEAF RUST ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT TBEKED WITH VARYING DOSAGES OF A SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDE A Thesis DWIGHT LES LINSLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in Iartial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Agronomy THE EFFECTS OF LEAF RUST ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT TREATED WITH VARYING DOSAGES OF A SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDE A Thesis by DWIGHT LES LINSLEY Approved...

Linsley, Dwight Les

1976-01-01

6

Reduction of soybean yield components by Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Since its discovery in the United States, the invasive plataspid Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) has infested soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] fields in often alarming numbers in parts of the southeastern United States. Although a known feeder on soybean, reports of its pest status in its native Asian range are conflicting, and little information exists documenting its impact on soybean yields. Our objective was to examine the relationship between M. cribraria density and soybean yield loss. M. cribraria adults and nymphs were confined to small soybean plots by using walk-in field cages from late vegetative stage to harvest in 2011 and 2012. Adults (0, 5, or 25 per plant) were added at late vegetative stages, and their progeny were allowed to complete a full generation within the caged plots. Densities reached as high as 182.5 +/- 23.1 (SEM) nymphs and adults per plant, and soybean yield was reduced by as much as 59.6% at the highest density treatment. The yield components seeds per pod and individual seed weight were reduced as M. cribraria densities increased, but pods per plant and protein and oil content were not affected. Preliminary economic injury level curves for a range of grain prices and management costs were calculated based on 2012 yield loss data combined with population monitoring. M. cribraria is capable of causing severe reductions in soybean yields at densities that are relevant within its invasive U.S. range. PMID:24020281

Seiter, Nicholas J; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

2013-08-01

7

Acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulose - acid yield and conversion of components  

SciTech Connect

Corn stover was fermented with a mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms to form simple (C2-C6), volatile organic acids. Alkaline pretreatment allowed a greater fermentation of the pectin and hemicellulose than of the cellulose and lignin, but all components were utilized. The percent fermentation of the soluble fraction, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin was 79.6, 74.1, 36.9, and 20.9%, respively. The yield of acid (as acetate) with respect to material fermented was 84%.

Datta, R.

1981-01-01

8

Analyzing the components of hybrid cotton yield and its relationship with environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton hybrids show a commercially useful level of heterosis for lint yield. In poor yielding environments percent heterosis for lint yield is higher than in high yielding environments. Lint yield is a product of several yield components of which boll number has been reported to contribute the most ...

9

Effects of irrigation and plant density on cotton within-boll yield components  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield is integrated through whole-plant and within-boll yield components. Crop management practices such as irrigation and plant density may impact yield. Thus, yield dynamics due to irrigation and plant density may result from changes in the most basic yield comp...

10

Increasing Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize yield improvement in the 20th century represents one of the great success stories of plant breeding and agronomy. Maize grain yield in the United States has increased on average by 0.122 metric tons per hectare per year since 1945 (Figure 1). This is in sharp contrast to essentially zero gain ...

11

Yield and Yield Components of Spring Wheat and Field Pea in Diversified Dryland Cropping Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Available water, decreased soil quality, weed competition and plant diseases constrain dryland crop production in the northern Great Plains. We initiated a field trial in 2004 comparing four crop rotations, with each component in a two-by-two matrix of tillage (conventional vs. zero tillage) and ma...

12

Genetic Analysis of Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping  

PubMed Central

The main objective in this research was the genetic analysis of heterosis in rapeseed at the QTL level. A linkage map comprising 235 SSR and 144 AFLP markers covering 2045 cM was constructed in a doubled-haploid population from a cross between the cultivar “Express” and the resynthesized line “R53.” In field experiments at four locations in Germany 250 doubled-haploid (DH) lines and their corresponding testcrosses with Express were evaluated for grain yield and three yield components. The heterosis ranged from 30% for grain yield to 0.7% for kernel weight. QTL were mapped using three different data sets, allowing the estimation of additive and dominance effects as well as digenic epistatic interactions. In total, 33 QTL were detected, of which 10 showed significant dominance effects. For grain yield, mainly complete dominance or overdominance was observed, whereas the other traits showed mainly partial dominance. A large number of epistatic interactions were detected. It was concluded that epistasis together with all levels of dominance from partial to overdominance is responsible for the expression of heterosis in rapeseed. PMID:18562665

Radoev, Mladen; Becker, Heiko C.; Ecke, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

13

QTL analysis of seed yield components in red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivars of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), an important forage crop in temperate regions, are often characterised by an unsatisfactory level of seed yield, leading\\u000a to high production costs. This complex trait is influenced by many components and negatively correlated with other important\\u000a traits, such as forage yield or persistence. Therefore, seed yield has proven to be difficult to improve.

Doris Herrmann; Beat Boller; Bruno Studer; Franco Widmer; Roland Kölliker

2006-01-01

14

Super nitro plus influence on yield and yield components of two wheat cultivars under NPK fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the beneficial impact of biological and chemical fertilizers application on wheat (Triticum aestivum) some yield characters were investigated. Our objective in this study was the interactive effects of biofertilizer (BF) and chemical fertilizer (CF) applications on: quantity yield at Iran in 2006. In this respect, the experimental unit had designed by achieved treatments in factorial on the basis

Rouhollah Rouzbeh; Jahanfar Daneshian; Hossein Aliabadi Farahani

15

Yield Components and Nutritive Value of Black Locust and Mimosa in Arkansas.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (b...

16

Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (...

17

DUAL-COMPONENT VIDEO IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM (VIASCANTM) AS A PREDICTOR OF BEEF RED MEAT YIELD PERCENTAGE AND FOR AUGMENTING APPLICATION OF USDA YIELD GRADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCANTM: (a) to predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and (b) to augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving

R. C. Cannell; J. D. Tatum; K. E. Belk; J. W. Wise; R. P. Clayton; G. C. Smith

18

Path and Ridge Regression Analysis of Seed Yield and Seed Yield Components of Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2 were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components. PMID:21533153

Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, René

2011-01-01

19

Dissecting the components of hybrid vigor associated lint yield in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Use of heterosis to increase yield of cotton has long been a breeding objective. A previous study suggests that mid-parent heterosis is negatively correlated with environment mean yield thus suggesting lint yield is higher in hybrids compared to parents in low yielding environments. We present here ...

20

Long-Term Tillage, Cover Crop, and Nitrogen Rate Effects on Cotton: Plant Growth and Yield Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield is influenced by tillage, no-till and cover crops are useful for soil moisture con- cover crop, and N fertility, but the plant growth and yield component servation in the southeastern USA. responses related to these yield responses have not been well defined. A field study was conducted from 1991 through 2001 on Gigger silt Undoubtedly,

Donald J. Boquet; Robert L. Hutchinson; Gary A. Breitenbeck

21

Waterlogging effects on growth and yield components in late-planted soybean.  

PubMed

A major agronomic problem in the southeastern USA is low yield of late-planted soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This problem is aggravated by the adverse effect of waterlogging on crop growth. Our objectives were to identify soybean growth stages sensitive to waterlogging; identify yield components and physiological parameters explaining yield losses induced by waterlogging; and determine the extent of yield losses induced by waterlogging under natural field conditions. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted during 1993 and 1994 near Baton Rouge, LA, (30 degrees N Lat) on a Commerce silt loam. Waterlogging tolerance was assessed in cultivar Centennial (Maturity Group VI) at three vegetative and five reproductive growth stages by maintaining the water level at the soil surface in a greenhouse study. Using the same cultivar, we evaluated the effect of drainage in the field for late-planted soybean. Rain episodes determined the timing of waterlogging; redox potential and oxygen concentration of the soil were used to quantify the intensity of waterlogging stress. Results of the greenhouse study indicated that the early vegetative period (V2) and the early reproductive stages (R1, R3, and R5) were most sensitive to waterlogging. Three to 5 cm of rain per day falling on poorly drained soil was sufficient to reduce crop growth rate, resulting in a yield decline from 2453 to 1550 kg ha-1. Yield loss in both field and greenhouse studies was induced primarily by decreased pod production resulting from fewer pods per reproductive node. In conclusion, waterlogging was determined to be an important stress for late-planted soybean in high rainfall areas such as the Gulf Coast Region. PMID:11541446

Linkemer, G; Board, J E; Musgrave, M E

1998-01-01

22

The effect of L-lysine intake on egg component yield and composition in laying hens  

E-print Network

and economically feasible synthetic amino acids. Many researchers have investigated amino acids as dietary supplements in layer diets. A large body of work exists on the effects of amino acids on poultry production, however, there have been relatively few... studies concerning individual crystalline amino acids and their effect on egg component yield and composition. The use of economical crystalline amino acids as dietary supplements has led to increased productivity in the commercial egg industry. Since...

Prochaska, Jerry Fred

1994-01-01

23

Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes  

E-print Network

High yielding cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivars with improved fiber bundle strength are needed for today's spinning technology. This study was initiated to determine the effects of selection for improved fiber quality on within-boll yield...

Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

2012-06-07

24

Relationships among Biomass Yield Components within and between Subspecies of Alfalfa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosses between Medicago sativa subsp. sativa and subsp. falcata show a heterotic pattern for total biomass yield, with inter-subspecific crosses outperforming intra- subspecific crosses. Little is known about relationships among agronomic traits in sativa-falcata hybrids. The objective of this study was to examine correlations among twenty traits including total biomass yield, total biomass yield heterosis, agronomic traits and forage nutritive

Heathcliffe Riday; E. Charles Brummer

25

The effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield, yield components and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).  

PubMed

Effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) are not well understood, because nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density has been tested separately. Two years field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of these factors on yield, yield components, oil and protein content in 2006 and 2007 in Kermanshah, Iran. The experiment was conducted on soybean (var. Williams) as a split-plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Nitrogen starter fertilizer treatments were arranged in three rates (0, 40, 80 kg ha(-1)) as main plots and plant density as sub plots arranged with three levels (15, 30, 45 plant m(-2)). Based on similarity treatments and experimental designs, the results of analysis of combined variance and mean comparisons showed significant (528.4 kg ha(-1) yield increase as density increased from 30 to 45 plant m(-2) and nitrogen starter fertilizer increased from 0 to 40 kg ha(-1) in two years. Analysis of correlation showed a positive significant correlation between yield and number of seed per plant (r = 0.724), number of pods and yield (r = 0.463), thousand seed weight and yield (r = 0.437). A linear regression was found between yield and number of seed per plant, number of pods and thousand seed weight (yield = 37.58 + 0.73x1-0.14x2 + 0.7x3; r2 = 0.56); p < 0.01). Seed protein was unaffected by plant densities, but nitrogen application changed it. Dissimilarly, oil content has a diverse respond to treatments. This experiment showed density of 45 plant m(-2) and application of nitrogen starter fertilizer 40 kg ha(-1) are optimum and increase grain yield under condition of our experiment. We suggest to conduct some experiments for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for levels of nitrogen starter and quadratic relationship for number of seed for levels of density. PMID:19579973

Boroomandan, P; Khoramivafa, M; Haghi, Y; Ebrahimi, A

2009-02-15

26

To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan  

SciTech Connect

Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E. [Department of Agronomy, Plant breeding and genetic, Faculty of Agricutlure, Zabol University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-01-30

27

Comparison of nodal distribution of soybean cultivars' yield components in different planting dates.  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to determine planting date effects on Nodal distribution of yield and its components in nine indeterminate soybean cultivars. To meet such a purpose, a split plot design based on a randomized complete block layout with six planting dates (24th April, 10th and 27th May, 10th and 26th June and 11th July) as main plots and nine cultivars (Williams, Clark 63, SRF 450, Steele, Hark, Corsoy, Blackhawk, Woodworth and Bonus) as sub plots have been used in five replications. The results have clarified that height, branch number, pod number, grain number and seed weight plays an important role on yield increasing. So that, medium maturity cultivars have producing maximum number of pods, grains and seed weight in their upper two third of canopy. Also, various cultivars have indicated different reactions for yield components, so that, Williams and Woodworth (medium maturity cultivars), Steele and Bonus (early maturity cultivars) have produced larger seeds in different planting dates. Generally, Woodworth, in comparison with the other cultivars, demonstrating superiorities in all the considered traits. Maximum amount of pod number, grain number and seed weight in early maturity cultivars was belong to 27th of May planting date, however, for Woodworth and Clark 63 (medium maturity) it was 24th of April and 27th of May, respectively. The highest 100 seed weight per node were produced at 26th of June and 27th of May planting dates by Woodworth and Corsoy, respectively. Differences between planting dates for 100 seed weight in Clark 63 and Bonus were not significant. PMID:19070145

Ranjbar, G A

2007-07-15

28

Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

29

Physiological and Morphological Changes Over the Past 50 Years in Yield Components in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) yield in The Netherlands has increased tremendously over the past 50 years. The effects of breeding during this period were investigated. Eight Dutch cultivars and one typical current Japanese cultivar that were released over the past 50 years were compared in a short-term experiment conducted from summer to fall in The Netherlands. Fresh fruit yield of

T. Higashide; E. Heuvelink

2009-01-01

30

TDP-43 regulates global translational yield by splicing of exon junction complex component SKAR  

PubMed Central

TDP-43 is linked to neurodegenerative diseases including frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mostly localized in the nucleus, TDP-43 acts in conjunction with other ribonucleoproteins as a splicing co-factor. Several RNA targets of TDP-43 have been identified so far, but its role(s) in pathogenesis remains unclear. Using Affymetrix exon arrays, we have screened for the first time for splicing events upon TDP-43 knockdown. We found alternative splicing of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) Aly/REF-like target (SKAR) upon TDP-43 knockdown in non-neuronal and neuronal cell lines. Alternative SKAR splicing depended on the first RNA recognition motif (RRM1) of TDP-43 and on 5?-GA-3’ and 5?-UG-3? repeats within the SKAR pre-mRNA. SKAR is a component of the exon junction complex, which recruits S6K1, thereby facilitating the pioneer round of translation and promoting cell growth. Indeed, we found that expression of the alternatively spliced SKAR enhanced S6K1-dependent signaling pathways and the translational yield of a splice-dependent reporter. Consistent with this, TDP-43 knockdown also increased translational yield and significantly increased cell size. This indicates a novel mechanism of deregulated translational control upon TDP-43 deficiency, which might contribute to pathogenesis of the protein aggregation diseases frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:22121224

Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Weber, Stephanie S.; Supper, Jochen; Zell, Andreas; Kahle, Philipp J.

2012-01-01

31

Ideotype Population Exploration: Growth, Photosynthesis, and Yield Components at Different Planting Densities in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)  

PubMed Central

Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×104, 37.5×104, 48.0×104, 58.5×104, 69.0×104 plants ha–1) during 2010–2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011–2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×104 plants ha–1 in ZS11 and 48.0×104 plants ha–1 in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×104 plants ha–1for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×104 (n m–2) and ?1×104 (n m-2), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m–2) and ?300 (n m–2), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

2014-01-01

32

Variance Component Analysis of Plant Architectural Traits and Fruit Yield in Melon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant architecture can be manipulated to increase yield in melon (Cucumis melo L.). A cross between a unique highly branched line, U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 846-1 (P1; 7 to 11 lateral branches), and ‘Topmark’ (P2; 2 to 4 lateral branches), a U.S. Western Market type melon, produced F1 ...

33

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

34

Overdominant epistatic loci are the primary genetic basis of inbreeding depression and heterosis in rice. II. Grain yield components.  

PubMed

The genetic basis underlying inbreeding depression and heterosis for three grain yield components of rice was investigated in five interrelated mapping populations using a complete RFLP linkage map, replicated phenotyping, and the mixed model approach. The populations included 254 F(10) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Lemont (japonica) and Teqing (indica), two backcross (BC) and two testcross populations derived from crosses between the RILs and the parents plus two testers (Zhong413 and IR64). For the yield components, the RILs showed significant inbreeding depression and hybrid breakdown, and the BC and testcross populations showed high levels of heterosis. The average performance of the BC or testcross hybrids was largely determined by heterosis. The inbreeding depression values of individual RILs were negatively associated with the heterosis measurements of the BC or testcross hybrids. We identified many epistatic QTL pairs and a few main-effect QTL responsible for >65% of the phenotypic variation of the yield components in each of the populations. Most epistasis occurred between complementary loci, suggesting that grain yield components were associated more with multilocus genotypes than with specific alleles at individual loci. Overdominance was also an important property of most loci associated with heterosis, particularly for panicles per plant and grains per panicle. Two independent groups of genes appeared to affect grain weight: one showing primarily nonadditive gene action explained 62.1% of the heterotic variation of the trait, and the other exhibiting only additive gene action accounted for 28.1% of the total trait variation of the F(1) mean values. We found no evidence suggesting that pseudo-overdominance from the repulsive linkage of completely or partially dominant QTL for yield components resulted in the overdominant QTL for grain yield. Pronounced overdominance resulting from epistasis expressed by multilocus genotypes appeared to explain the long-standing dilemma of how inbreeding depression could arise from overdominant genes. PMID:11514460

Luo, L J; Li, Z K; Mei, H W; Shu, Q Y; Tabien, R; Zhong, D B; Ying, C S; Stansel, J W; Khush, G S; Paterson, A H

2001-08-01

35

Quantitative trait loci(qtl) analysis of yield components and heat tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum)  

E-print Network

temperature, the amount of starch deposited per endosperm cell is reduced, leading to a reduction in the amount of starch per granule and hence reduced grain weight (Jenner, 1991; Chojeck et al., 1986). This study also showed grain filling duration... and Edwards 1996) and can have deleterious effects on thylakoid function (Pastenes and Horton 1996). Photosystem II in particular is highly heat sensitive. Significant correlations between increased photosynthesis and stomatal conductance with yields have...

Do, Jung Hwa

2009-05-15

36

Genetic associations of cotton yield with its component traits in derived primitive accessions crossed by elite Upland cultivars using the conditional ADAA genetic model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Boll number, lint percentage, and boll weight are three component traits for lint yield of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Selecting high yielding lines or hybrids depends on the ability to dissect the genetic relationship of lint yield with these component traits. In this study, 14 day-neutral...

37

Credit Headcount Forecast for Fall 1989-90: Component Yield Method Projections. Planning Brief PB90-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In forecasting its fall credit headcounts, the Office of Institutional Research and Analysis at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) utilizes the Component Yield Method (CYM), an enrollment projection model developed by the college's planning analyst in the early 1980's. By disaggregating enrolled students into multiple groups, each with an…

Clagett, Craig A.

38

Argentina corn yield model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

1984-01-01

39

A complete genetic linkage map and QTL analyses for bast fibre quality traits, yield and yield components in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).  

PubMed

We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute. PMID:23821949

Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K

2013-01-01

40

Influence on Grain Yields and Yield Components of Leaf Rust of Wheat and Crown Rust of Oats as Measured by Isogenic Resistant and Susceptible Lines.  

E-print Network

to fruiting of thr pathogen. I Weber (22) developed isogenic line pairs of Chip ' pena, Hawkeye, Ford and Clark soybeans with (No) nodu- lating and (no) nonnodulating characteristics for demon- strating, studying and evaluating the nodulation.... N. 11 ! Yields of varieties of wheat derived by backcrossing. Apror) J. 33~835-840. 22. Weber, C. R. 1966. Nodulating and nonnodulating ro)bcap isolines. Agron. J. 58:43-48. [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Texas AbM University rexas...

Atkins, I. M.; Alcala de Stephano, Maximino; Merkle, O. G.; Kilpatrick, R. A.

1966-01-01

41

Comparative effects of Apron plus 50DS and soil amendment on the growth, yield and food components of soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative effects of Apron plus 50DS (a systemic fungicide) and soil amendment (poultry droppings) on growth yield and food components of soybean (TGX 1485-1D) were studied. Soybean seeds treated with recommended dose of Apron plus 50DS had lower percentage germination when compared to the other treatments while the untreated seeds (control) had the highest percentage germination. Seeds treated with Apron

A. A. Adegbite; G. O. Agbaje; L. O. Adegbite; L. B. Taiwo; R. O. Awodoyin

42

Effect of the hope FT-B1 allele on wheat heading time and yield components.  

PubMed

Precise regulation of flowering time is critical for plant reproductive success and, in cereals, to maximize grain yields. Seasonal cues including temperature and day length are integrated to regulate the timing of flowering. In temperate cereals, extended periods of cold (vernalization) release the repression of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1), which is upregulated in the leaves in response to inductive long-day photoperiods. FT1 is a homolog of rice HD3a, which encodes a protein transported from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering. A rare FT-B1 allele from the wheat variety "Hope" has been previously shown to be associated with an early flowering phenotype under long-day photoperiods. Here, we demonstrate that the Hope FT-B1 allele accelerates flowering even under short days, and that it is epistatic to the VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) gene. On average, the introgression of Hope FT-B1 into 6 genetic backgrounds resulted in 2.6 days acceleration of flowering (P<0.0001) and 4.1% increase in spike weight (P=0.0093), although in one variety, it was associated with a decrease in spike weight. These results suggest that the Hope FT-B1 allele could be useful in wheat breeding programs to subtly accelerate floral development and increase adaptation to changing environments. PMID:25063863

Nitcher, Rebecca; Pearce, Stephen; Tranquilli, Gabriela; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Dubcovsky, Jorge

2014-01-01

43

Biotechnology of Forest Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural and genetic manipulation of Douglas fir and loblolly pine plantations have increased their productivity 70 and 300 percent, respectively, over natural forests on the same sites. Yet these intensively managed plantations are achieving less than 50 percent of their potential productivity. Future increases in yield will result from optimization of nutritional treatments, control of noncrop vegetation, and advances in

Peter Farnum; Roger Timmis; J. Laurence Kulp

1983-01-01

44

USE OF PRIMITIVE ACCESSION OF COTTON AS SOURCES OF GENES FOR IMPROVING YIELD COMPONENTS AND FIBER PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The breeding of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to improve lint yield and fiber quality is an on going processes. To meet textile mill requirements and producer demands both fiber quality and lint yield must be increased. This study was conducted to compare yield and fiber properties when exotic li...

45

Favorable QTL Alleles for Yield and Its Components Identified by Association Mapping in Chinese Upland Cotton Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping is a powerful tool for dissecting the genetic basis underlying complex traits. In this study, an association mapping panel consisting of 356 representative Upland cotton cultivars was constructed, evaluated in three environments and genotyped using 381 SSRs to detect molecular markers associated with lint yield and its components. The results showed that abundant phenotypic and moderate genetic diversities existed within this germplasm panel. The population could be divided into two subpopulations, and weak relatedness was detected between pair-wise accessions. LD decayed to the background (r2?=?0.1182, P?0.01), r2?=?0.1 and r2?=?0.2 level within 12–13 cM, 17–18 cM and 3–4 cM, respectively, providing the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in Chinese Upland cotton. A total of 55 marker-trait associations were detected between 26 SSRs and seven lint yield traits, based on a mixed linear model (MLM) and Bonferroni correction (P?0.05/145, ?log10P?3.46). Of which 41 could be detected in more than one environment and 17 markers were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Many associations were consistent with QTLs identified by linkage mapping in previous reports. Phenotypic values of alleles of each loci in 41 stably detected associations were compared, and 23 favorable alleles were identified. Population frequency of each favorable allele in historically released cultivar groups was also evaluated. The QTLs detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of lint yield and its components, and the favorable alleles may facilitate future high-yield breeding by genomic selection in Upland cotton. PMID:24386089

Mei, Hongxian; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

2013-01-01

46

Effect of fruit load on oil yield components and dynamics of fruit growth and oil accumulation in olive ( Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil yield and its components (fruit number, average fruit weight and fruit oil concentration) depend on crop load and source–sink ratios as affected by environmental conditions, management and the alternate bearing typical of the species. The aims of this work were to: (i) establish quantitative relationships between oil yield and its components as affected by fruit load in a

Eduardo R. Trentacoste; Carlos M. Puertas; Víctor O. Sadras

2010-01-01

47

The effects of planting methods and head pruning on seed yield and yield components of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. Pepo convar. Pepo var. styriaca) at low temperature areas.  

PubMed

This experiment carried out to evaluate the effects of planting methods (seed sowing and transplanting) and head pruning (no pruning, pruning after 12th node and pruning after 16th node) on yield and yield components such as number of branches (sub-branches) per plant, fruits per plant, growth, fruit size, weight of fresh fruit, weight of seeds per fruit, number of seeds per fruit and seed yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiment was carried out based of factorial experiment with Randomized Completely Blocks Design (RCBD) by three replications in Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Researches Station at 2007. Seedlings were grown in heated greenhouse. When the climatic condition became suitable and seedlings were at the four leaves stage, both seeds and seedlings were planted at the same time in the farm. Maintenance operations were done during the growth season. Head pruning treatments were done the forecast time. The results showed that the planting methods had significant effect on the number of ripen fruits per plant, fruits diameter, weight of seeds per fruit, weight of 1000 seeds and seed yield and had no significant effect on the other traits. Also the results indicated that head pruning treatments had significant effects on the number of branches per plant, growth and seed yield and no significant on the other traits. In this experiment the most seed yield (997.8 kg ha(-1)) obtained from transplanting method with head pruning after 12th node and the least seed yield obtained from control. PMID:19580007

Bahrami, R Nikkhah; Khodadadi, M; Pirivatlo, S Piry; Hassanpanah, D

2009-03-15

48

Root and shoot growth, seed composition, and yield components of no-till rainfed soybean under variable potassium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial soil-K availability for no-till soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] has not been studied extensively. We characterize soybean growth- and yield-component and quantify root parameters\\u000a as a function of soil depth in K-stratified soils with 1 M ammonium acetate extractable-K ranges 60–290 at 0–10 cm increment and 50–90 mg kg?1 at the 10–20 cm increment. Shoots and roots (five depth increments to 50 cm) were

Fabián G. Fernández; Sylvie M. Brouder; Jeffrey J. Volenec; Craig A. Beyrouty; Raymond Hoyum

2009-01-01

49

Unattended Exposure to Components of Speech Sounds Yields Same Benefits as Explicit Auditory Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning a second language as an adult is particularly effortful when new phonetic representations must be formed. Therefore the processes that allow learning of speech sounds are of great theoretical and practical interest. Here we examined whether perception of single formant transitions, that is, sound components critical in speech perception,…

Seitz, Aaron R.; Protopapas, Athanassios; Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Vlahou, Eleni L.; Gori, Simone; Grossberg, Stephen; Watanabe, Takeo

2010-01-01

50

Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ranchers need alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. Our objectives were to determine: 1) leaf and stem biomass components, 2) nutritive value (in vitro dry matter digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N and N digestibility) of leaves ...

51

Improving Target Repeatability Yields Broader Results in Component Fabrication and Overall Build  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Michigan has been fabricating targets for high energy density experiments since 2003. Our experiments study physics relevant to laboratory astrophysics. Machined acrylic structures serve as a backbone supporting all the components on our targets, as well as providing us with a method that eases our build. A most vital component to nearly every target we build, is shielding. Employing techniques to bend gold foils, enables complex geometries and eliminates seams that possibly allow unwanted emission in our diagnostics. Many of our experiments explore the dynamics of a radiative shock launched into xenon or argon gas. Polyimide (PI) tubing confines the gas and is transmissive to the diagnostic x-rays used to probe the experiment. Recent interest in the shock dynamics of non-axisymmetric shocks has lead to the development of PI tubes with non-circular cross sections. We present the techniques we use to produce repeatable targets as well as recent improvements in our techniques.

Klein, Sallee; Gamboa, Eliseo; Gillespie, Robb; Huntington, Channing; Krauland, Christine; Kuranz, Carolyn; di Stefano, Carlos; Susalla, Peter; Lairson, Bruce; Elsner, Fred; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

2012-10-01

52

Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ranchers need alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. Our objectives were to determine:\\u000a (1) leaf and stem biomass components, (2) nutritive value [in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), total nonstructural\\u000a carbohydrate (TNC), N, and N digestibility] of leaves for animal browse, (3) concentration of the secondary metabolites robinin\\u000a and mimosine, and (4) in vitro leaf and bark toxicity

David M. Burner; Danielle J. Carrier; David P. Belesky; Daniel H. Pote; Adrian Ares; E. C. Clausen

2008-01-01

53

Unattended exposure to components of speech sounds yields same benefits as explicit auditory training  

PubMed Central

Learning a second language as an adult is particularly effortful when new phonetic representations must be formed. Therefore the processes that allow learning of speech sounds are of great theoretical and practical interest. Here we examined whether perception of single formant transitions, that is, sound components critical in speech perception, can be enhanced through an implicit task-irrelevant learning procedure that has been shown to produce visual perceptual learning. The single-formant sounds were paired at sub-threshold levels with the attended targets in an auditory identification task. Results showed that task-irrelevant learning occurred for the unattended stimuli. Surprisingly, the magnitude of this learning effect was similar to that following explicit training on auditory formant transition detection using discriminable stimuli in an adaptive procedure, whereas explicit training on the subthreshold stimuli produced no learning. These results suggest that in adults learning of speech parts can occur at least partially through implicit mechanisms. PMID:20346448

Seitz, Aaron R.; Protopapas, Athanassios; Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Vlahou, Eleni L.; Gori, Simone; Grossberg, Stephen; Watanabe, Takeo

2010-01-01

54

[Factor of Prunella vulgaris yield components and morphological characteristics of relationship in different populations].  

PubMed

Prunella vulgaris is a perennial herb whose dry spike is used for medicine in China. It is also a very important traditional medicine. Current study was conducted to the biomass components factors of P. vulgaris in the different ecological environments for the development and protection. The results showed that the contribution factor of the production in different environments was significant differences. In favorable environment, the length of leaf, numbers of leaves, height, reproductive branch number of individuals gave the greatest contribution. In transitional habitats, the diameter of stem and spike, the length of leaf contributed the most. While in the undergrowth and dry hillside, the length of root, the width of leaf, the length of spike were the main factors for biomass. PMID:24494551

Yang, Wei; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Wan, De-Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Rong-Bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Huan-Rong

2013-11-01

55

Effects of Different Plant Growth Regulators and Time of Pruning on Yield Components of Rosa damascena Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) is an important essential oil yielding crop in Iran. In order to determine the best pruning time and effect of different plant growth regulators, three different times of pruning with seven types of growth hormones were assessed. Pruning time at 1st week of March significantly affected on plant height and flower yield but not on

VAHID REZA SAFFARI; AHMAD KHALIGHI; HOSSEIN LESANI; MESBAH BABALAR; JULIUS F. OBERMAIER

56

Dual Reward Prediction Components Yield Pavlovian Sign- and Goal-Tracking  

PubMed Central

Reinforcement learning (RL) has become a dominant paradigm for understanding animal behaviors and neural correlates of decision-making, in part because of its ability to explain Pavlovian conditioned behaviors and the role of midbrain dopamine activity as reward prediction error (RPE). However, recent experimental findings indicate that dopamine activity, contrary to the RL hypothesis, may not signal RPE and differs based on the type of Pavlovian response (e.g. sign- and goal-tracking responses). In this study, we address this discrepancy by introducing a new neural correlate for learning reward predictions; the correlate is called “cue-evoked reward”. It refers to a recall of reward evoked by the cue that is learned through simple cue-reward associations. We introduce a temporal difference learning model, in which neural correlates of the cue itself and cue-evoked reward underlie learning of reward predictions. The animal's reward prediction supported by these two correlates is divided into sign and goal components respectively. We relate the sign and goal components to approach responses towards the cue (i.e. sign-tracking) and the food-tray (i.e. goal-tracking) respectively. We found a number of correspondences between simulated models and the experimental findings (i.e. behavior and neural responses). First, the development of modeled responses is consistent with those observed in the experimental task. Second, the model's RPEs were similar to dopamine activity in respective response groups. Finally, goal-tracking, but not sign-tracking, responses rapidly emerged when RPE was restored in the simulated models, similar to experiments with recovery from dopamine-antagonist. These results suggest two complementary neural correlates, corresponding to the cue and its evoked reward, form the basis for learning reward predictions in the sign- and goal-tracking rats. PMID:25310184

Kaveri, Sivaramakrishnan; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

57

Yield stress of cemented tungsten carbide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cemented tungsten carbide yields plastically at room temperature in the presence of a large hydrostatic pressure component. By approximate analysis of the state of stress in supported opposed anvils and by measurement of the pressure at which the anvil tips exhibit a permanent deviation from planarity, we have obtained the yield stress of such materials. Our value for the yield stress of a 3% cobalt cemented tungsten carbide is 86 kbar.

Ruoff, A. L.; Wanagel, J.

1975-01-01

58

Genetic Dissection of Yield and Its Component Traits Using High-Density Composite Map of Wheat Chromosome 3A: Bridging Gaps between QTLs and Underlying Genes  

PubMed Central

Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield component QTLs, and to map QTLs for biomass-related traits. Many of the previously identified QTLs for yield and its component traits were confirmed and were localized to narrower intervals. Four novel QTLs one each for shoot biomass (Xcfa2262-Xbcd366), total biomass (wPt2740-Xcfa2076), kernels/spike (KPS) (Xwmc664-Xbarc67), and Pseudocercosporella induced lodging (PsIL) were also detected. The major QTLs identified for grain yield (GY), KPS, grain volume weight (GVWT) and spikes per square meter (SPSM) respectively explained 23.2%, 24.2%, 20.5% and 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of the genetic map with the integrated physical map allowed estimation of recombination frequency in the regions of interest and suggested that QTLs for grain yield detected in the marker intervals Xcdo549-Xbarc310 and Xpsp3047-Xbarc356 reside in the high-recombination regions, thus should be amenable to map-based cloning. On the other hand, QTLs for KPS and SPSM flanked by markers Xwmc664 and Xwmc489 mapped in the low-recombination region thus are not suitable for map-based cloning. Comparisons with the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA sequence identified 11 candidate genes (CGs) for yield and yield related QTLs of which chromosomal location of two (CKX2 and GID2-like) was confirmed using wheat aneuploids. This study provides necessary information to perform high-resolution mapping for map-based cloning and for CG-based cloning of yield QTLs. PMID:23894667

Rustgi, Sachin; Shafqat, Mustafa N.; Kumar, Neeraj; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Ali, M. Liakat; Dweikat, Ismail; Campbell, B. Todd; Gill, Kulvinder Singh

2013-01-01

59

Effects of dietary cation-anion difference on intake, milk yield, and blood components of the early lactation cow.  

PubMed

Early lactation Holsteins cows (15 primiparous and 18 multiparous) were offered rations with dietary cation-anion difference, calculated as mEq (Na + K - Cl - S)/100 g of feed dry matter (DCAD:S), of 20, 35, or 50 mEq from d 0 (calving) to 42 d postpartum (August 20, 2000 to January 9, 2001) to determine the effects of increasing DCAD:S on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and blood metabolites. For DCAD:S of 20, 35, and 50, DMI was 3.30, 3.38, 2.96 kg/100 kg of body weight (BW); milk yield was 25.5, 24.2, and 22.4 kg/d, respectively. No differences were observed for concentration or yield of milk fat or milk protein. Serum Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, cation-anion difference, insulin, and glucose did not differ with DCAD. Serum HCO3- was 26.07, 25.88, and 27.64 mEq/L for 20, 35, and 50 DCAD:S. Serum Ca, Mg, Na, and K concentrations were greater for primiparous cows (9.52 mg/dL, 2.35 mg/dL, 140.03 mEq/L, 4.66 mEq/L, respectively) than for multiparous cows (9.27 mg/dL, 2.12 mg/dL, 137.63 mEq/L, 4.46 mEq/ L, respectively). A DCAD:S between 23 and 33 mEq/100 g of dry matter (DM) appears to be adequate during cool weather for the milk yield that occurred in the present study based on DMI (kg/100 kg of BW), whereas DCAD:S of 50 mEq/100 g of DM may be excessive and could be too alkaline or unpalatable, resulting in decreased DMI (kg/100 kg of BW). PMID:16291630

Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K; Fernandez, J M

2005-12-01

60

The Effect of High Concentrations of Glufosinate Ammonium on the Yield Components of Transgenic Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Constitutively Expressing the bar Gene  

PubMed Central

We present an experiment done on a bar+ wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium—an effective component of nonselective herbicides—during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose was not enough to inhibit the germination of transgenic plants expressing the bar gene. Extremely high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium caused a bushy phenotype, significantly lower numbers of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weights. Concerning the productivity, we observed that concentrations of glufosinate ammonium 64 times the lethal dose did not lead to yield depression. Our results draw attention to the possibilities implied in the transgenic approaches. PMID:22649303

Áy, Zoltán; Mihály, Róbert; Cserháti, Mátyás; Kótai, Éva; Pauk, János

2012-01-01

61

Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

1982-01-01

62

Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections  

PubMed Central

Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

2015-01-01

63

hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield  

E-print Network

rate the bond pays is fixed when the bond is first sold or issued, but changes in the market interesthp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield The FINANCE menu Bond Yield Practice solving for the yield of a bond #12;hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Bond Yield The FINANCE menu

Vetter, Frederick J.

64

Effects of irrigation regime, organic and inorganic mineral source on growth and yield components of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in upland and lowland conditions in Sokoto, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The effects of organic, inorganic fertilizer and irrigation regime on yield parameters of P. virgatum in upland and lowland areas in Sokoto geoecological region of Nigeria were assessed. Four levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg N ha(-1)), three rates of farmyard manure (0, 5 and 10 t ha(-1)) and three irrigation regimes (w2, w4 and w6) were set up as a split -plots design. Farmyard manure and irrigation regimes were combined and allocated as the main plots, while nitrogen rates were assigned to the sub-plots and each replicated three times. Results revealed that raising nitrogen rate from 50 to 75 kg N ha(-1), farmyard manure rate from 5-10 t ha(-1) or irrigation intervals from 2 to 4 days did not show a significant (p > 0.05) increase in yield components evaluated. Dry matter accumulation was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by irrigation regime in both seasons and locations and 2 day interval irrigation had the highest dry matter yield. A significant interaction between nitrogen and manure application was observed only at upland in 2008/2009 and a combination of 75 kg N ha(-1) and 10 t ha(-1) manure produced the highest values in all the parameters evaluated. The study suggest that 50 kg N ha(-1) with 5 t ha(-1) of farmyard manure and 2 day irrigation interval gave the highest yield. A combination of 50 kg N ha(-1), with 5 t ha(-1) of farmyard manure and 2 day irrigation interval were found to be optimum for growth and yield of Switchgrass under both lowland and upland conditions in Sokoto geoecological zone of Nigeria. PMID:24199487

Abdullahi, A A; Aliero, B L; Aliero, A A; Zuru, A A

2013-01-15

65

Identification of a Rice stripe necrosis virus resistance locus and yield component QTLs using Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima introgression lines  

PubMed Central

Background Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs. Results We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544) in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó). Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM) on chromosome 11. Conclusions Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification of a genetic factor underlying resistance to this virus. This population is a powerful breeding tool. It also helps in overcoming hybrid sterility barriers between species of rice. PMID:20064202

2010-01-01

66

Photosynthetic maximum quantum yield increases are an essential component of the Southern Ocean phytoplankton response to iron.  

PubMed

It is well established that an increase in iron supply causes an increase in total oceanic primary production in many regions, but the physiological mechanism driving the observed increases has not been clearly identified. The Southern Ocean iron enrichment experiment, an iron fertilization experiment in the waters closest to Antarctica, resulted in a 9-fold increase in chlorophyll (Chl) concentration and a 5-fold increase in integrated primary production. Upon iron addition, the maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (phi(m)) rapidly doubled, from 0.011 to 0.025 mol C.mol quanta(-1). Paradoxically, this increase in light-limited productivity was not accompanied by a significant increase in light-saturated productivity (P(max)(b)). P(max)(b), maximum Chl normalized productivity, was 1.34 mg C.mg Chl(-1).h(-1) outside and 1.49 mg C.mg Chl(-1).h(-1) inside the iron-enriched patch. The importance of phi(m) as compared with P(max)(b) in controlling the biological response to iron addition has vast implications for understanding the ecological response to iron. We show that an iron-driven increase in phi(m) is the proximate physiological mechanism affected by iron addition and can account for most of the increases in primary production. The relative importance of phi(m) over P(max)(b) in this iron-fertilized bloom highlights the limitations of often-used primary productivity algorithms that are driven by estimates of P(max)(b) but largely ignore variability in phi(m) and light-limited productivity. To use primary productivity models that include variability in iron supply in prediction or forecasting, the variability of light-limited productivity must be resolved. PMID:18349145

Hiscock, Michael R; Lance, Veronica P; Apprill, Amy M; Bidigare, Robert R; Johnson, Zackary I; Mitchell, B Greg; Smith, Walker O; Barber, Richard T

2008-03-25

67

Deep subthreshold photofission yields analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photofission yield measurements on ²³²Th and \\/sup 235,236,238\\/U, showing the ''shelf effect,'' have been analyzed in terms of a double-humped fission barrier. From the characteristic of the shelf it was possible to evaluate the excitation energy E\\/sub II\\/ of the shape isomer. In the framework of the double-humped barrier, with the competition between ..gamma.. decay to the shape isomer and

G. Bellia; A. Del Zoppo; E. Migneco; R. C. Barna; D. De Pasquale

1979-01-01

68

Controlled reforestation can raise yield  

SciTech Connect

Reforestation in tropical countries by means of controlled man-made plantations of exotic species could increase the yield of fiber by something in the order of 20 to 30 cubic metres per hectare per annum. With the move away from wood in the solid to reconstituted wood products, this enormous annual increment could have significant effects on supply prospects and reduce the need for tropical forest destruction.

Gammie, J.I.

1981-04-25

69

Yielding of binary colloidal glasses  

E-print Network

The rheological response, in particular the non-linear response, to oscillatory shear is experimentally investigated in colloidal glasses. The glasses are highly concentrated binary hard-sphere mixtures with relatively large size disparities. For a size ratio of 0.2, a strong reduction of the normalized elastic moduli, the yield strain and stress and, for some samples, even melting of the glass to a fluid is observed upon addition of the second species. This is attributed to the more efficient packing, as indicated by the shift of random close packing to larger total volume fractions. This leads to an increase in free volume which favours cage deformations and hence a loosening of the cage. Cage deformations are also favoured by the structural heterogeneity introduced by the second species. For a limited parameter range, we furthermore found indications of two-step yielding, as has been reported previously for attractive glasses. In samples containing spheres with more comparable sizes, namely a size ratio of 0.38, the cage seems less distorted and structural heterogeneities on larger length scales seem to become important. The limited structural changes are reflected in only a small reduction of the moduli, yield strain and stress.

T. Sentjabrskaja; E. Babaliari; J. Hendricks; M. Laurati; G. Petekidis; S. U. Egelhaaf

2013-01-31

70

Electron yields from spacecraft materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoyields and secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics were determined under UHV conditions for a group of insulating materials used in spacecraft applications. The SEE studies were carried out with a pulsed primary beam while photoyields were obtained with a chopped photon beam from a Kr resonance source with major emission at 123.6 nm. This provides a photon flux close to that of the Lyman alpha in the space environment. Yields per incident photon are obtained relative to those from a freshly evaporated and air oxidized Al surface. Results are presented for Kapton, FEP Teflon, the borosilicate glass covering of a shuttle tile, and spacesuit outer fabric.

Yang, K.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

1985-01-01

71

Automated yield map delay identification using phase correlation methodology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop yield data is a key component of precision agriculture, critical for both development and evaluation of precision management strategies. Ideally, software that generates grain yield maps from raw yield monitor data should automatically correct errors associated with machine and operating charac...

72

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-10-01

73

Energy yield of black locust biomass fuel  

SciTech Connect

Detailed analysis of 2 to 10-year-old black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L). biomass components provided an accurate energy content and energy yield determinationa as well as an index defining a relative ceiling on the delivered cost for black locust biomass in comparison with other fuels such as coal and forest residues. Total energy content of individual biomass components ranged from 20.97 X 10/sup 6/ J/kg for leaf tissue to 19.23 X 10/sup 6/ J/kg for current years' growth. Annual total energy yields ranged from 33.75 to 76.79 X 10/sup 9/ J/ha/yr for 3 and 9-year-old stands, respectively. Nine-year-old stands also exhibited the highest annual net whole-tree and woody biomass (whole-tree less foliage) energy yields of 32.71 and 30.73 X 10/sup 9/ J/ha/yr. The net annual energy yield were consistently greater for whole-tree biomass compared with woody biomass due to foliage included in the whole-tree biomass. The relative cost indices maintained a high degree of variability between comparison fuels. Bituminous coal and forest residues were lowest with an overall mean cost index for woody biomass of $13.28/mt and $13.72/mt, respectively. Woody biomass maintained a greater relative index than whole-tree biomass over all age classes due to its inherently higher conversion efficiency. 18 references.

Stringer, J.W.; Carpenter, S.B.

1986-12-01

74

Root foraging and yield components underlying limited effects of Partial Root-zone Drying on oilseed rape, a crop with an indeterminate growth habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on two experiments with oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to test if partial root-zone drying techniques improve yield in a crop in which vegetative and reproductive growth overlap\\u000a (indeterminate growth habit), and to investigate what plant morphological responses contribute to the yield that is realized.\\u000a Deficit irrigation resulted in smaller plants with smaller yields but larger seeds compared

Jingfeng Wang; Hans de Kroon; Ling Wang; Hannie de Caluwe; Gerard M. Bögemann; Gerard M. van der Weerden; Shaozhong Kang; Antoine J. M. Smits

2009-01-01

75

Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not well defined in the suspension rheology we tested three types of measurement in determination of yield stress. Two methods utilized cone-plate geometry performing creep test (stress controlled) and variable shear rate test and one utilized narrow-gap concentric cylinder geometry with variable shear rate. Herschel-Bulckley model can be successfully applied to variable shear-rate tests to determine yield stress. Creep test and H-B model give almost identical yield stress, for instance 45±5Pa at 2.5wt%. At the gel volume fraction of 50% yield stress emerges and it increases with the increase of the concentration of gel powder. This critical value roughly corresponds to the random loose packing fraction while the viscosity begins to increase at lower fraction.

Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

2012-04-01

76

Yield surface approximation for lower and upper bound yield design of 3D composite frame structures  

E-print Network

Yield surface approximation for lower and upper bound yield design of 3D composite frame structures structure is presented. Keywords: yield design, limit analysis, composite frames, yield surface, 18]. In the case of yield design of frame structures made of composite sections, two approaches can

Boyer, Edmond

77

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2010-01-01

78

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields.  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

79

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

80

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2014-01-01

81

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2013-01-01

82

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2012-01-01

83

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2011-01-01

84

Relationship between Yield Components and Partial Resistance to Lecanicillium fungicola in the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, Assessed by Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping  

PubMed Central

Dry bubble, caused by Lecanicillium fungicola, is one of the most detrimental diseases affecting button mushroom cultivation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that breeding for resistance to this pathogen is quite challenging due to its quantitative inheritance. A second-generation hybrid progeny derived from an intervarietal cross between a wild strain and a commercial cultivar was characterized for L. fungicola resistance under artificial inoculation in three independent experiments. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was used to determine the locations, numbers, and effects of genomic regions associated with dry-bubble resistance. Four traits related to resistance were analyzed. Two to four QTL were detected per trait, depending on the experiment. Two genomic regions, on linkage group X (LGX) and LGVIII, were consistently detected in the three experiments. The genomic region on LGX was detected for three of the four variables studied. The total phenotypic variance accounted for by all QTL ranged from 19.3% to 42.1% over all traits in all experiments. For most of the QTL, the favorable allele for resistance came from the wild parent, but for some QTL, the allele that contributed to a higher level of resistance was carried by the cultivar. Comparative mapping with QTL for yield-related traits revealed five colocations between resistance and yield component loci, suggesting that the resistance results from both genetic factors and fitness expression. The consequences for mushroom breeding programs are discussed. PMID:22247161

Rodier, Anne; Savoie, Jean-Michel

2012-01-01

85

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. 1 Introduction

Cook, Di

86

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. Finally, spatial factor

Cook, Di

87

FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

ALDEN R. HIBBERT

88

Heterois in Switchgrass: Biomass Yield in Swards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving the biomass yield of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) will improve its utility as a dedicated energy crop by increasing energy yield per acre. In a previous space-transplanted study, mid-parent heterosis for biomass yield was reported for population and specific F1 hybrids of the lowland-...

89

Yield management in the airline industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield management systems are used by airlines in their passenger business. The systems aim at high load factors and high average yields simultaneously in a situation where capacity is fixed and demand is fluctuating. Other parts of the logistics sector could profit by such a system, further discussion and introduction of yield management outside the airline sector is recommended.

T. Biermann

2007-01-01

90

Grain yields with limited water.  

PubMed

Plant reproduction is sensitive to water deficits, especially during the early phases when development may cease irreversibly even though the parent remains alive. Grain numbers decrease because of several developmental changes, especially ovary abortion in maize (Zea mays L.) or pollen sterility in small grains. In maize, the water deficits inhibit photosynthesis, and the decrease in photosynthate flux to the developing organs appears to trigger abortion. Abscisic acid also increases in the parent and may play a role, perhaps by inhibiting photosynthesis through stomatal closure. Recent work indicates that invertase activity is inhibited and starch is diminished in the ovaries or affected pollen. Also, sucrose fed to the stems rescues many of the ovaries otherwise destined to abort. The feeding restores some of the ovary starch and invertase activity. These studies implicate invertase as a limiting enzyme step for grain yields during a water deficit, and transcript profiling with microarrays has identified genes that are up- or down-regulated during water deficit-induced abortion in maize. However, profiling studies to date have not reported changes in invertase or starch synthesizing genes in water-deficient ovaries, perhaps because there were too few sampling times. The ovary rescue with sucrose feeding indicates either that the changes identified in the profiling are of no consequence for inhibiting ovary development or that gene expression reverts to control levels when the sugar stream recovers. Careful documentation of tissue- and developmentally specific gene expression are needed to resolve these issues and link metabolic changes to the decreased sugar flux affecting the reproductive organs. PMID:15286147

Boyer, J S; Westgate, M E

2004-11-01

91

Distinguishing between yield advances and yield plateaus in historical crop production trends  

PubMed Central

Food security and land required for food production largely depend on rate of yield gain of major cereal crops. Previous projections of food security are often more optimistic than what historical yield trends would support. Many econometric projections of future food production assume compound rates of yield gain, which are not consistent with historical yield trends. Here we provide a framework to characterize past yield trends and show that linear trajectories adequately describe past yield trends, which means the relative rate of gain decreases over time. Furthermore, there is evidence of yield plateaus or abrupt decreases in rate of yield gain, including rice in eastern Asia and wheat in northwest Europe, which account for 31% of total global rice, wheat and maize production. Estimating future food production capacity would benefit from an analysis of past crop yield trends based on a robust statistical analysis framework that evaluates historical yield trajectories and plateaus. PMID:24346131

Grassini, Patricio; Eskridge, Kent M.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2013-01-01

92

Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new yield\\/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materials. This is a fundamental key to model

Davide Bigoni; Andrea Piccolroaz

2004-01-01

93

Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new yield\\/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materals. This is a fundamental key to model

Davide Bigoni; Andrea Piccolroaz

2010-01-01

94

Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods  

SciTech Connect

Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1991-06-01

95

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

Haun, J. R.

1976-01-01

96

Predicting Great Lakes fish yields: tools and constraints  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prediction of yield is a critical component of fisheries management. The development of sound yield prediction methodology and the application of the results of yield prediction are central to the evolution of strategies to achieve stated goals for Great Lakes fisheries and to the measurement of progress toward those goals. Despite general availability of species yield models, yield prediction for many Great Lakes fisheries has been poor due to the instability of the fish communities and the inadequacy of available data. A host of biological, institutional, and societal factors constrain both the development of sound predictions and their application to management. Improved predictive capability requires increased stability of Great Lakes fisheries through rehabilitation of wellintegrated communities, improvement of data collection, data standardization and informationsharing mechanisms, and further development of the methodology for yield prediction. Most important is the creation of a better-informed public that will in turn establish the political will to do what is required.

Lewis, C.A.; Schupp, D.H.; Taylor, W.W.; Collins, J.J.; Hatch, Richard W.

1987-01-01

97

Identification and mapping of yield and yield related QTLs from an Indian accession of Oryza rufipogon  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is endowed with a rich genetic variability. In spite of such a great diversity, the modern rice cultivars have narrow genetic base for most of the agronomically important traits. To sustain the demand of an ever increasing population, new avenues have to be explored to increase the yield of rice. Wild progenitor species present potential donor sources for complex traits such as yield and would help to realize the dream of sustained food security. Results Advanced backcross method was used to introgress and map new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) relating to yield and its components from an Indian accession of Oryza rufipogon. An interspecific BC2 testcross progeny (IR58025A/O. rufipogon//IR580325B///IR58025B////KMR3) was evaluated for 13 agronomic traits pertaining to yield and its components. Transgressive segregants were obtained for all the traits. Thirty nine QTLs were identified using interval mapping and composite interval mapping. In spite of it's inferiority for most of the traits studied, O. rufipogon alleles contributed positively to 74% of the QTLs. Thirty QTLs had corresponding occurrences with the QTLs reported earlier, indicating that these QTLs are stable across genetic backgrounds. Nine QTLs are novel and reported for the first time. Conclusion The study confirms that the progenitor species constitute a prominent source of still unfolded variability for traits of complex inheritance like yield. With the availability of the complete genome sequence of rice and the developments in the field of genomics, it is now possible to identify the genes underlying the QTLs. The identification of the genes constituting QTLs would help us to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the action of QTLs. PMID:15949048

Marri, Pradeep Reddy; N, Sarla; Reddy, Laxminarayana V; Siddiq, EA

2005-01-01

98

Pollinator shortage and global crop yield  

PubMed Central

A pollinator decline caused by environmental degradation might be compromising the production of pollinator-dependent crops. In a recent article, we compared 45 year series (1961–2006) in yield, production and cultivated area of pollinator-dependent and nondependent crop around the world. If pollinator shortage is occurring globally, we expected a lower annual growth rate in yield for pollinator-dependent than nondependent crops, but a higher growth in cultivated area to compensate the lower yield. We have found little evidence for the first “yield” prediction but strong evidence for the second “area” prediction. Here, we present an additional analysis to show that the first and second predictions are both supported for crops that vary in dependency levels from nondependent to moderate dependence (i.e., up to 65% average yield reduction without pollinators). However, those crops for which animal pollination is essential (i.e., 95% average yield reduction without pollinators) showed higher growth in yield and lower expansion in area than expected in a pollination shortage scenario. We propose that pollination management for highly pollinator-dependent crops, such us renting hives or hand pollination, might have compensated for pollinator limitation of yield. PMID:19704865

Aizen, Marcelo A; Cunningham, Saul A; Klein, Alexandra M

2009-01-01

99

Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

100

Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

101

High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are

W. X. Su; J. S. Hsieh

1993-01-01

102

Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree,Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are

G. Gururaja Rao; P. Sanjeeva Rao; R. Rajagopal; A. S. Devakumar; K. R. Vijayakumar; M. R. Sethuraj

1990-01-01

103

Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.  

PubMed

To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565

Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

2014-05-01

104

Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

105

Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. × G. barbadense L.) RIL population.  

PubMed

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). One hundred and fifty-nine genomic regions were identified on a saturated genetic map of more than 2,500 SSR and SNP markers, constructed with an interspecific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the genetic standards of the respective cotton species (G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 × G. barbadense acc. 3-79). Using the single nonparametric and MQM QTL model mapping procedures, we detected 428 putative loci in the 159 genomic regions that confer 24 cotton traits in three diverse production environments [College Station F&B Road (FB), TX; Brazos Bottom (BB), TX; and Shafter (SH), CA]. These putative QTL loci included 25 loci for PA, 60 for YC, and 343 for FP, of which 3, 12, and 60, respectively, were strongly associated with the traits (LOD score ? 3.0). Approximately 17.7 % of the PA putative QTL, 32.9 % of the YC QTL, and 48.3 % of the FP QTL had trait associations under multiple environments. The At subgenome (chromosomes 1-13) contributed 72.7 % of loci for PA, 46.2 % for YC, and 50.4 % for FP while the Dt subgenome (chromosomes 14-26) contributed 27.3 % of loci for PA, 53.8 % for YC, and 49.6 % for FP. The data obtained from this study augment prior evidence of QTL clusters or gene islands for specific traits or biological functions existing in several non-homoeologous cotton chromosomes. DNA markers identified in the 159 genomic regions will facilitate further dissection of genetic factors underlying these important traits and marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25314923

Yu, John Z; Ulloa, Mauricio; Hoffman, Steven M; Kohel, Russell J; Pepper, Alan E; Fang, David D; Percy, Richard G; Burke, John J

2014-12-01

106

The optical depth of the 158 micrometer (C-12 II) line: Detection of the F=1 yields 0 (C-13 III) hyperfine-structure component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first detection of the F = 1 yields 0 hyperfine component of the 158 micrometer (C-13 II) fine structure line in the interstellar medium is reported. A twelve point intensity map was obtained of the (C-13 II) distribution over the inner 190 inch (right ascension) by 190 inch (declination) regions of the Orion nebula using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. The (C-12 II)/(C-13 II) line intensity ratio varied significantly over the region mapped. It is highest (86 plus or minus 9) in the core of the Orion H II region and significantly lower (62 plus or minus 7) in the outer regions of the map, reflecting higher optical depth in the (C-12 II) line here. It is suggested that this enhanced optical depth is the result of limb brightening of the optically thin (C-13 II) line at the edges of the bowl-shaped H II region blister. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 43, the (C-12 II) line in the inner regions of the Orion nebula, has a low optical depth: tau sub 12 approximately = 0.75 plus or minus 0.25. The optical depth together with the large brightness temperature of the (C-12 II) line (approximately 160 K) requires that the excitation temperature of the P-2 sub 3/2 level be approximately 310 K, in very good agreement with the previous analysis of the physical conditions of the Orion interface region based on fine structure line intensity ratios and photodissociation region models. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 67, the line optical depth is somewhat larger (tau sub 12 approximately = 1.85), and the transition excitation temperature is somewhat smaller (approximately 190 K) than that predicted by these models. The present results therefore support values approximately = 43 for the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in the Orion nebula.

Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Poglitsch, A.; Madden, S. C.; Jackson, J. M.; Herrmann, F.; Genzel, R.; Geis, N.

1991-01-01

107

Human plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM antibodies associate with secretory component to yield biologically active secretory-like antibodies.  

PubMed

Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ?15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins. PMID:23250751

Longet, Stéphanie; Miled, Sarah; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia M; Zuercher, Adrian W; Corthésy, Blaise

2013-02-01

108

Human Plasma-derived Polymeric IgA and IgM Antibodies Associate with Secretory Component to Yield Biologically Active Secretory-like Antibodies*  

PubMed Central

Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ?15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins. PMID:23250751

Longet, Stéphanie; Miled, Sarah; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia M.; Zuercher, Adrian W.; Corthésy, Blaise

2013-01-01

109

Yield drag associated with resistance to root-knot nematodes in high-yielding cotton germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...

110

Yield drag associated with resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in high-yielding cotton germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...

111

Yield Editor 2.0: software for automated removal of yield map errors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yield maps provide important information for developing and evaluating precision management strategies. The high-quality yield maps needed for decision-making require screening raw yield monitor datasets for errors and removing them before maps are made. To facilitate this process, we developed the ...

112

Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery and Yield Monitor Data for Mapping Cotton Yield Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased availability of hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acquired using an airborne imaging system from two cotton fields during the 2001 growing season, and yield data were collected from the

Chenghai Yang; James H. Everitt; Joe M. Bradford; Dale Murden

2004-01-01

113

Yield loci for an anisotropic granular assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield loci of a granular material are derived in case of triaxial compression carried out at constant pressure. The theory is based upon a simple micromechanical model in which particles move according to an average, homogeneous deformation. We show how the presence of an inherent anisotropy in the aggregate (typical of laboratory samples due to depositional processes) produces a deviation of the yield loci in the stress space from the expected Mohr-Coulomb prediction. That is, when the compaction pressure in an anisotropic aggregate is increased, irreversibility associated with sliding between particles occurs and this will influence the yield function in the subsequent triaxial test. Numerical simulations support the theoretical result.

La Ragione, Luigi; Oger, Luc

2012-10-01

114

Long-term evaluation of yield components of young olive trees during the onset of fruit production under different irrigation regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-year study was conducted on young Olea europaea L. trees to investigate the effect of deficit irrigation starting from the onset of fruit production. Subsurface drip irrigation\\u000a was used to supply 100% (FI), 46–52% (DI), or 2–6% (SI) of tree water needs. Tree growth was reduced by deficit irrigation,\\u000a whereas, return bloom was not. Per tree fruit yield of

Giovanni Caruso; Hava F. Rapoport; Riccardo Gucci

115

Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of U.S.D.A. Quality and Yield Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef rib and plate.  

PubMed

Beef nutrition is important to the worldwide beef industry. The objective of this study was to analyze proximate composition of eight beef rib and plate cuts to update the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Furthermore, this study aimed to determine the influence of USDA Quality Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of the examined retail cuts. Carcasses (n=72) representing a composite of Yield Grade, Quality Grade, gender and genetic type were identified from six regions across the U.S. Beef plates and ribs (IMPS #109 and 121C and D) were collected from the selected carcasses and shipped to three university meat laboratories for storage, retail fabrication, cooking, and dissection and analysis of proximate composition. These data provide updated information regarding the nutrient content of beef and emphasize the influence of common classification systems (Yield Grade and Quality Grade) on the separable components, cooking yield, and proximate composition of retail beef cuts. PMID:23793084

Martin, J N; Brooks, J C; Thompson, L D; Savell, J W; Harris, K B; May, L L; Haneklaus, A N; Schutz, J L; Belk, K E; Engle, T; Woerner, D R; Legako, J F; Luna, A M; Douglass, L W; Douglass, S E; Howe, J; Duvall, M; Patterson, K Y; Leheska, J L

2013-11-01

116

User's appraisal of yield model evaluation criteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five major potential USDA users of AgRISTAR crop yield forecast models rated the Yield Model Development (YMD) project Test and Evaluation Criteria by the importance placed on them. These users were agreed that the "TIMELINES" and "RELIABILITY" of the forecast yields would be of major importance in determining if a proposed yield model was worthy of adoption. Although there was considerable difference of opinion as to the relative importance of the other criteria, "COST", "OBJECTIVITY", "ADEQUACY", AND "MEASURES OF ACCURACY" generally were felt to be more important that "SIMPLICITY" and "CONSISTENCY WITH SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE". However, some of the comments which accompanied the ratings did indicate that several of the definitions and descriptions of the criteria were confusing.

Warren, F. B. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

117

Radiation chemical yields of electrons in alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Nanosecond pulse radiolysis was used to investigate the dependence of electron capture yields on the concentrations of electron scavengers (benzyl chloride, anthracene, diphenyl) and scavengers of R/sub 2/CHOH/sup +/ and R/sub 2/CHOH/sub 2//sup +/ ions (R isH or alkyl) in methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, and n-butyl alcohols at room temperature. From these relationships it was found that in the series from methanol to n-butanol the yields of free electrons per 100 eV of absorbed energy fall from 1.9 to 1.2 while the yields of electrons disappearing in ''spurs'' rise from 2.7 to 3.2. The initial yields of electrons (solvated and ''dry''), found by summing these quantities, lie in the range 4.4-4.6.

Ponomarev, A.V.; Likaev, A.K.

1986-11-01

118

Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

Manatt, S. L.

1978-01-01

119

Solar Telescope Yields Striking New Sunspot Images  

NSF Publications Database

... Yields Striking New Sunspot Images This sunspot image shows what the new camera and adaptive ... times wider than Earth, was made possible by a new high-resolution CCD camera working in conjunction ...

120

Dividend Size, Yield, Clienteles and REITs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dividend size and dividend yield are typically highly correlated which substantially hinders the empirical assessment of ex-dividend\\u000a stock pricing. The ability to disentangle the joint effect of dividend yield and dividend size on ex-dividend stock prices\\u000a is thus of central importance in assessing existing theories. Fortunately, the REIT asset class provides data having a low\\u000a correlation between dividend size and

William G. Hardin; Gow-Cheng Huang; Kartono Liano

2012-01-01

121

Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials  

E-print Network

A new yield/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materals. This is a fundamental key to model the behaviour of materials which become cohesive during hardening (so that the shape of the yield surface evolves from that typical of a granular material to that typical of a dense material), or which decrease cohesion due to damage accumulation. The proposed yield function is shown to agree with a variety of experimental data relative to soil, concrete, rock, metallic and composite powders, metallic foams, porous metals, and polymers. The yield function represents a single, convex and smooth surface in stress space approaching as limit situations well-known criteria and the extreme limits of convexity in the deviatoric plane....

Bigoni, Davide

2010-01-01

122

Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components  

PubMed Central

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time. PMID:24987398

Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

2014-01-01

123

Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

Bignell, Lindsey J.; Jackson, Timothy W. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)] [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Mume, Eskender [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia) [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Lee, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

2013-05-27

124

Correlation between biogas yield and chemical composition of energy crops.  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to investigate the influence of the chemical composition of energy crops on biogas and methane yield. In total, 41 different plants were analyzed in batch test and their chemical composition was determined. For acid detergent lignin (ADL) content below 10% of total solids, a significant negative correlation for biogas and methane yields (r?-0.90) was observed. Based on a simple regression analysis, more than 80% of the sample variation can be explained through ADL. Based on a principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis, ADL and hemicellulose are suggested as suitable model variables for biogas yield potential predictions across plant species. PMID:25443623

Dandikas, V; Heuwinkel, H; Lichti, F; Drewes, J E; Koch, K

2014-12-01

125

Yield Structure and Kernel Potential of Winter Wheat on the Canadian Prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in agronomic practices and cultivars have allowed for expanded production of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the Canadian prairies. In this study, yield and yield components were measured in dry land and irrigation trials to identify the factors deter- mining yield potential and sample uniformity. Although genotype 3 environment interactions were important contributors to variation in the yield

B. L. Duggan; D. B. Fowler

2006-01-01

126

Regional crop yield forecasting: a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the outlook on yield and production of crops over large regions is essential for government services dealing with import and export of food crops, for agencies with a role in food relief, for international organizations with a mandate in monitoring the world food production and trade, and for commodity traders. Process-based mechanistic crop models are an important tool for providing such information, because they can integrate the effect of crop management, weather and soil on crop growth. When properly integrated in a yield forecasting system, the aggregated model output can be used to predict crop yield and production at regional, national and continental scales. Nevertheless, given the scales at which these models operate, the results are subject to large uncertainties due to poorly known weather conditions and crop management. Current yield forecasting systems are generally deterministic in nature and provide no information about the uncertainty bounds on their output. To improve on this situation we present an ensemble-based approach where uncertainty bounds can be derived from the dispersion of results in the ensemble. The probabilistic information provided by this ensemble-based system can be used to quantify uncertainties (risk) on regional crop yield forecasts and can therefore be an important support to quantitative risk analysis in a decision making process.

de Wit, A.; van Diepen, K.; Boogaard, H.

2009-04-01

127

Genes that influence yield in tomato  

PubMed Central

Yield is the most important breeding trait of crops. For fruit-bearing plants such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), fruit formation directly affects yield. The final fruit size depends on the number and volume of cell layers in the pericarp of the fruit, which is determined by the degree of cell division and expansion in the fertilized ovaries. Thus, fruit yield in tomato is predominantly determined by the efficiency of fruit set and the final cell number and size of the fruits. Through domestication, tomato fruit yield has been markedly increased as a result of mutations associated with fruit size and genetic studies have identified the genes that influence the cell cycle, carpel number and fruit set. Additionally, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that plant hormones control fruit set and size through the delicate regulation of genes that trigger physiological responses associated with fruit expansion. In this review, we introduce the key genes involved in tomato breeding and describe how they affect the physiological processes that contribute to tomato yield. PMID:23641176

Ariizumi, Tohru; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Ezura, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

128

Monitoring 2005 Corn Belt Yields From Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. corn belt, centered on Illinois, suffered extreme drought conditions during the 2005 growing season (Figure 1). The April-September rainfall ranked 10th lowest of the past 113 years (see http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/monitoring.html#state). Throughout Illinois, counties were declared agricultural disaster areas and corn yields were predicted to be 30 percent less than the record year of 2004, which had the highest corn yields in the last 50 years [Christian Science Monitor, 2005]. However, the Illinois Agricultural Statistics Service estimated the overall corn yield was 145 bushels per acre, or just seven percent below the previous five-year average, with `many farmers. . .surprised by the better than expected yields after the drought conditions' (see http://www.agstats.state.il.us/releases/crop.pdf and http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/reports/nassr/field/pcp-bb/2005/crop1005.pdf). This better-than-expected yield has been attributed to advancements in seed genetics, equipment, and water-management practices [Barrionuevo and Bradsher, 2005].

Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce T.; Myneni, Ranga

2006-04-01

129

Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter  

E-print Network

We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.

Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville

2015-02-18

130

Yield loci for an anisotropic granular assembly.  

PubMed

Yield loci of a granular material are derived in case of triaxial compression carried out at constant pressure. The theory is based upon a simple micromechanical model in which particles move according to an average, homogeneous deformation. We show how the presence of an inherent anisotropy in the aggregate (typical of laboratory samples due to depositional processes) produces a deviation of the yield loci in the stress space from the expected Mohr-Coulomb prediction. That is, when the compaction pressure in an anisotropic aggregate is increased, irreversibility associated with sliding between particles occurs and this will influence the yield function in the subsequent triaxial test. Numerical simulations support the theoretical result. PMID:23214582

La Ragione, Luigi; Oger, Luc

2012-10-01

131

Erosion yields of deposited beryllium layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion yields of various Be surfaces exposed to deuterium plasma, including polycrystalline Be (PC-Be), magnetron and thermionic vacuum arc deposited surfaces, and in situ plasma-deposited Be layers on Be (DP-Be/Be) and on graphite (DP-Be/C) targets, are measured in the linear divertor plasma simulator PISCES-B. It is observed that the enhanced erosion (˜3 times higher than PC-Be) of DP-Be/Be occurs at sample temperature Ts ˜ 310 K, while DP-Be/Be possesses the same yield as PC-Be at a higher Ts ˜ 570 K. The erosion yield of DP-Be/C is found to be slightly decreased at Ts ˜ 850 K. This is consistent with the more effective formation of Be 2C at higher Ts, which has a higher surface binding energy than Be. It has been identified from spectroscopic measurements that Be is also eroded as BeD.

Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; De Temmerman, G.

2009-06-01

132

Analyzing Landscape Effects on Corn and Soybean Yield and Yield Risk from a Large Yield Monitor Dataset  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop yield variability is due to a variety of factors including many manageable variables such as genetics, weeds and pests, drainage, irrigation, and nutrient supply, but many factors cannot be managed and/or they have un-manageable interactions with climate. Therefore climate and it’s interaction...

133

Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield  

SciTech Connect

We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources - the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

Ave, M.; Daumiller, K.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Salamida, F.; Smida, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohacova, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Ridky, J.; Schovanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Di Carlo, P.; Iarlori, M.; Petrera, S.; Rizi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita de l'Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Di Giulio, C.; Verzi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and Sezione INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); San Luis, P. Facal; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2011-09-22

134

Stellar yields of rotating first stars  

SciTech Connect

First stars, also called population III stars, are born in the earliest universe without any heavy elements. These stars are the first nuclear reactor in the universe and affect their circumstances emitting synthesized materials. Not only the stellar evolution, but also their chemical yields have many distinctive characteristics. We have modeled evolution of population III stars including effect of stellar rotation. Internal mixing induced by rotation naturally results in primary nitrogen production. Evolution of rotating massive stars is followed until the core collapse phase. The new Pop III yield model will consistently explain the observed abundances of metal-poor systems.

Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2014-05-02

135

Operation of the yield estimation subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization and products of the yield estimation subsystem (YES) are described with particular emphasis on meteorological data acquisition, yield estimation, crop calendars, weekly weather summaries, and project reports. During the three phases of LACIE, YES demonstrated that it is possible to use the flow of global meteorological data and provide valuable information regarding global wheat production. It was able to establish a capability to collect, in a timely manner, detailed weather data from all regions of the world, and to evaluate and convert that data into information appropriate to the project's needs.

Mccrary, D. G.; Rogers, J. L.; Hill, J. D. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

136

High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds  

PubMed Central

A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties. PMID:19451687

Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

2009-01-01

137

Concept : Cell Yield Glucose, mM  

E-print Network

Concept : Cell Yield Glucose, mM 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 10 20 30 40 Slope = 7.2 µg/ml per mM dS dX Y s/x = Cell Yield is: ConsumedSubstrate MassCellinChange Y s/x = #12;Cell Growth in Batch.3 Hybridoma 0.05 13.9 Insect Cells 0.06 11.6 Organism #12;Nature of Specific Growth SK S s m + µ =µ S, g/ L µ

Málaga, Universidad de

138

DETECTION AND ADJUSTMENT OF ABNORMAL TEST-DAY YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method to detect and to adjust abnormally low or high milk, fat, and protein yields on test-day (TD) was developed. TD yields are compared to previous and subsequent yields and are restricted to be between a floor and ceiling based on predicted yield. Lactation yields are then calculated from the ...

139

Integrated DFM Framework for Dynamic Yield Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an abstract of the following article. Users may request access to the full article via the website, and a direct link will be emailed to them. We present a new methodology for a balanced yield optimization and a new DFM (design for manufacturability) framework which implements it. Our approach allows designers to dynamically balance multiple factors contributing to yield loss and select optimal combination of DFM enhancements based on the current information about the IC layout, the manufacturing process, and known causes of failures. We bring together the information gained from layout analysis, layout aware circuit analysis, resolution enhancement and optical proximity correction tools, parasitics extraction, timing estimates, and other tools, to suggest the DFM solution which is optimized within the existing constraints on design time and available data. The framework allows us to integrate all available sources of yield information, characterize and compare proposed DFM solutions, quickly adjust them when new data or new analysis tools become available, fine tune DFM optimization for a particular design and process and provide the IC designer with a customized solution which characterizes the manufacturability of the design, identifies and classifies areas with the most opportunities for improvement, and suggests DFM improvements. The proposed methodology replaces the ad hoc approach to DFM which targets one yield loss cause at a time at the expense of other factors with a comprehensive analysis of competing DFM techniques and trade offs between them.

140

Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small

W. T. McKean

2000-01-01

141

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam November the appli- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam April 21- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model

143

Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review  

SciTech Connect

It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

1982-01-01

144

Predicting collector well yields with MODFLOW.  

PubMed

Groundwater flow models are commonly used to design new wells and wellfields. As the spatial scale of the problem is large and much local-scale detail is not needed, modelers often utilize two-dimensional (2D) or quasi three-dimensional models based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption. Dupuit models offer a robust set of tools for simulating regional groundwater flow including interactions with surface waters, the potential for well interference, and varying aquifer properties and recharge rates. However, given an assumed operating water level or drawdown at a well screen, Dupuit models systematically overpredict well yields. For design purposes, this discrepancy is unacceptable, and a method for predicting accurate well yields is needed. While published methods exist for vertical wells, little guidance is available for predicting yields in horizontal screens or collector wells. In plan view, a horizontal screen has a linear geometry, and will likely extend over several neighboring cells that may not align with rows or columns in a numerical model. Furthermore, the model must account for the effects of converging three-dimensional (3D) flow to the well screens and hydraulic interference among the well screens; these all depend on the design of a specific well. This paper presents a new method for simulating the yield of angled or horizontal well screens in numerical groundwater flow models, specifically using the USGS code MODFLOW. The new method is compared to a detailed, 3D analytic element model of a collector well in a field of uniform flow. PMID:22339406

Kelson, Vic

2012-01-01

145

Enhancing yield management with customer profitability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that in order to sustain the long-term profitability and growth of hotel organizations, yield management decisions must incorporate two critical constraints: the cost implications of the customer mix and guest ancillary spend. Proposes that customer profitability analysis (CPA), which reports revenues, costs and profit by customer group, will give management the ancillary spend and cost information that will enhance

Breffni Noone; Peter Griffin

1997-01-01

146

DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

147

Quasi-Biennial Corn Yield Cycles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quasi-biennial cycles are commonly observed in climate studies. The interannual El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are two phenomena containing quasi-periodicities of approximately 2.5 years and 2.2 years. It is known that ENSO affects corn yield; NAO affects su...

148

Erosion of a yield-stress fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bed erosion induced by rapid gravity flows of complex fluids, such as mudflows or avalanches, remains still poorly understood. A specificity of these natural flows is that, mostly, the material forming the static bed has mechanical properties similar to those of the flowing material (mud/mud, snow/snow). In this experimental study, yield-stress fluids are implemented to model both the eroding flow and the eroded bed with an original approach that captures the process of erosion in terms of solid-fluid transition. The hydrodynamics of erosion is studied in an inclined channel configuration, where a yield-stress fluid flows on a thick layer of the same fluid having an equal or a greater yield stress. In this work, we chose to use a micro-gel polymer (Carbopol) because of its elasto-viscoplastic rheology and its transparency, which is exploited for internal visualization techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Our approach aims to investigate the dominant physical mechanisms of erosion by combining an accurate rheological characterization of the yield-stress fluid using a rheometer (Hershel-Bulkley law), with the observation of the morphological evolution of the system substratum / flow and the local measurement of related hydrodynamic parameters. The main goal is to relate the erosion law at the substrate/flow interface with the constitutive law of the complex fluid involved, in order to refine this latter in the vicinity of the transition between the quasi-static and the liquid regimes.

Luu, Li-Hua; Philippe, Pierre; Chambon, Guillaume

2013-04-01

149

Evaluation of Yield Maps Using Fuzzy Indicators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of yield maps using fuzzy indicators, which takes into account atypical phenomena and expert opinions regarding the maps. This methodology could allow for improved methods for deciding boundary locations for precision application of production...

150

Evidence for Ni56 yields Co56 yields Fe56 decay in type IA supernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A.

Marc J. Kuchner; Robert P. Kirshner; Philip A. Pinto; Bruno Leibundgut

1994-01-01

151

Neutron monitor yield function: New improved computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ground-based neutron monitor (NM) is a standard tool to measure cosmic ray (CR) variability near Earth, and it is crucially important to know its yield function for primary CRs. Although there are several earlier theoretically calculated yield functions, none of them agrees with experimental data of latitude surveys of sea-level NMs, thus suggesting for an inconsistency. A newly computed yield function of the standard sea-level 6NM64 NM is presented here separately for primary CR protons and ?-particles, the latter representing also heavier species of CRs. The computations have been done using the GEANT-4 PLANETOCOSMICS Monte-Carlo tool and a realistic curved atmospheric model. For the first time, an effect of the geometrical correction of the NM effective area, related to the finite lateral expansion of the CR induced atmospheric cascade, is considered, which was neglected in the previous studies. This correction slightly enhances the relative impact of higher-energy CRs (energy above 5-10 GeV/nucleon) in NM count rate. The new computation finally resolves the long-standing problem of disagreement between the theoretically calculated spatial variability of CRs over the globe and experimental latitude surveys. The newly calculated yield function, corrected for this geometrical factor, appears fully consistent with the experimental latitude surveys of NMs performed during three consecutive solar minima in 1976-1977, 1986-1987, and 1996-1997. Thus, we provide a new yield function of the standard sea-level NM 6NM64 that is validated against experimental data.

Mishev, A. L.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.

2013-06-01

152

Yield stress and elastic modulus of suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids  

E-print Network

We study experimentally the behavior of isotropic suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids. This problem has been poorly studied in the literature, and only on specific materials. In this paper, we manage to develop procedures and materials that allow us to focus on the purely mechanical contribution of the particles to the yield stress fluid behavior, independently of the physicochemical properties of the materials. This allows us to relate the macroscopic properties of these suspensions to the mechanical properties of the yield stress fluid and the particle volume fraction, and to provide results applicable to any noncolloidal particle in any yield stress fluid. We find that the elastic modulus-concentration relationship follows a Krieger-Dougherty law, and we show that the yield stress-concentration relationship is related to the elastic modulus-concentration relationship through a very simple law, in agreement with results from a micromechanical analysis.

Fabien Mahaut; Xavier Chateau; Philippe Coussot; Guillaume Ovarlez

2008-10-20

153

Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups  

PubMed Central

Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

154

Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

2003-01-01

155

Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping  

SciTech Connect

In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

W.T. McKean

2000-12-15

156

Z dependence of the ( ?, ?) reaction yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactions induced by photons may be used as a probe for bonds and correlations of nucleons inside a heavy target nucleus. In contrast to strongly interacting particles, electromagnetic radiation perturbs nucleons only slightly. The yield of ( ?, ?) reactions could be used to test theoretical models that assume complete alpha-particle clustering or the presence of multiquark objects in heavy nuclei. The relative yields of ( ?, n), ( ?, p), and ( ?, ?) reactions were measured at the bremsstrahlung endpoint energy of 23 MeV for several targets. A much lower probability of ( ?, ?) in relation to ( ?, p) reactions was proved despite very close threshold and spin factors for the two reaction types being considered. Therefore, alpha-particle clustering in heavy targets was not confirmed. The mechanism of particle release in nuclear reactions is discussed, and some details are clarified.

Karamian, S. A.

2014-11-01

157

Deep enteroscopy - indications, diagnostic yield and complications  

PubMed Central

Since its introduction in 2001 capsule endoscopy opened up the small bowel for diagnostic approaches followed by double balloon enteroscopy which enabled the endoscopic community to perform therapeutic interventions in the whole small intestine. In this review the scientific developments related to indications, diagnostic yield and complications of the last years between the competing devices double ballon enteroscopy, single balloon enteroscopy and spiral enteroscopy are illustrated.

Moeschler, Oliver; Mueller, Michael Karl

2015-01-01

158

Scattered ion yields from bimetallic crystal surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a number of bimetallic single crystal surfaces and ordered epilayers we investigated scattered ion yields. He+ and Ne+ ions in the energy range of 1–4.5 keV were used to study the sytems CuAu, PdRu, AuRu, NiAl and FeAl. Choosing appropriate scattering conditions the contributions from the topmost first and second atomic layers can be separated. Comparison of the measured

E Taglauer; A Steltenpohl; R Beikler; L Houssiau

1999-01-01

159

Monitoring 2005 Corn Belt Yields From Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. corn belt, centered on Illinois, suffered extreme drought conditions during the 2005 growing season (Figure 1). The April-September rainfall ranked 10th lowest of the past 113 years (see http:\\/\\/www.ncdc.noaa.gov\\/oa\\/climate\\/research\\/monitoring.html#state). Throughout Illinois, counties were declared agricultural disaster areas and corn yields were predicted to be 30 percent less than the record year of 2004, which had the highest corn

Ping Zhang; Bruce T. Anderson; Ranga Myneni

2006-01-01

160

Yielding and flow of monodisperse emulsions  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured the yield transition of monodisperse emulsions as the volume fraction, {phi}, and droplet radius, {alpha}, are varied. They study the crossover from the perturbative shear regime, which reflects the linear viscoelastic properties, to the steady shear regime, which reflects nonlinear, plastic flow. For small oscillatory strains of peak amplitude {gamma}, the peak stress, {tau}, is linearly proportional to {gamma}. As the strain is increased, the stress becomes nonlinear in {gamma} at the yield strain, {gamma}{sub y}. The {phi} dependence of {gamma}{sub y} is independent of {alpha} and exhibits a minimum near the critical volume fraction, {phi}{sub c} = 0.635, associated with the random close packing of monodisperse spheres. They show that the yield stress, {tau}{sub y}, increases dramatically as the volume fraction increases above {phi}{sub c}; {tau}{sub y} also scales with the Laplace pressure, {sigma}/{alpha}, where {sigma} is the interfacial tension. For comparison, they also determine the steady shear stress over a wide range of strain rates, {dot {gamma}}. Below {phi} = 0.70, the flow is homogeneous throughout the sample, while for higher {phi}, the emulsion fractures resulting in highly inhomogeneous flow along the fracture plane. Above {phi} = 0.58, the steady shear stress exhibits a low strain rate plateau which corresponds with the yield stress measured with the oscillatory technique. Moreover, {tau}{sub y} exhibits a robust power law dependence on {dot {gamma}} with exponents decreasing with {phi}, varying from 2/3 to {1/2}. Below {phi} = 0.58, associated with the colloidal glass transition, the plateau stress disappears entirely.

Mason, T.G.; Bibette, J. [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France)] [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Weitz [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

1996-05-10

161

Genetic composition of yield heterosis in an elite rice hybrid  

PubMed Central

Heterosis refers to the superior performance of hybrids relative to the parents. Utilization of heterosis has contributed tremendously to the increased productivity in many crops for decades. Although there have been a range of studies on various aspects of heterosis, the key to understanding the biological mechanisms of heterotic performance in crop hybrids is the genetic basis, much of which is still uncharacterized. In this study, we dissected the genetic composition of yield and yield component traits using data of replicated field trials of an “immortalized F2” population derived from an elite rice hybrid. On the basis of an ultrahigh-density SNP bin map constructed with population sequencing, we calculated single-locus and epistatic genetic effects in the whole genome and identified components pertaining to heterosis of the hybrid. The results showed that the relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits. Overdominance/pseudo-overdominance is the most important contributor to heterosis of yield, number of grains per panicle, and grain weight. Dominance × dominance interaction is important for heterosis of tillers per plant and grain weight and has roles in yield and grain number. Single-locus dominance has relatively small contributions in all of the traits. The results suggest that cumulative effects of these components may adequately explain the genetic basis of heterosis in the hybrid. PMID:23019369

Zhou, Gang; Chen, Ying; Yao, Wen; Zhang, Chengjun; Xie, Weibo; Hua, Jinping; Xing, Yongzhong; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

2012-01-01

162

Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...

163

Second Generation Crop Yield Models Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Second generation yield models, including crop growth simulation models and plant process models, may be suitable for large area crop yield forecasting in the yield model development project. Subjective and objective criteria for model selection are defined and models which might be selected are reviewed. Models may be selected to provide submodels as input to other models; for further development and testing; or for immediate testing as forecasting tools. A plant process model may range in complexity from several dozen submodels simulating (1) energy, carbohydrates, and minerals; (2) change in biomass of various organs; and (3) initiation and development of plant organs, to a few submodels simulating key physiological processes. The most complex models cannot be used directly in large area forecasting but may provide submodels which can be simplified for inclusion into simpler plant process models. Both published and unpublished models which may be used for development or testing are reviewed. Several other models, currently under development, may become available at a later date.

Hodges, T. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

164

Generalized storage-reliability-yield relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally water resource engineers have employed Rippl's mass curve approach or its automated equivalent sequent peak alogrithm, in conjunction with the historical streamflow sequence to obtain a single estimate of the design capacity of a storage reservoir. More recently stochastic streamflow models have been recommended for use in deriving the probability distribution of the required capacity of a storage reservoir to maintain a prespecified release. The use of stochastic streamflow models in conjunction with the sequent peak algorithm leads to a storage-reliability-yield (S-R-Y) relationship. This study develops approximate but general expressions which describe the over-year S-R-Y relationship when annual streamflows are log normal and follow a first-order autoregressive model. These expressions were developed for three reasons: (1) to provide preliminary design capacity or yield estimates for storage reservoirs governed by over-year storage requirements; (2) to improve our understanding of the S-R-Y relationship; and (3) to facilitate Monte-Carlo experiments which examine the sampling properties of reservoir design capacity and/or yield estimates.

Vogel, Richard M.; Stedinger, Jery R.

1987-01-01

165

Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type IA supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

1994-05-01

166

Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

1994-01-01

167

The yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and analytical evaluation was made of the yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene, a semi-crystalline thermoplastic. Polyethylene was selected for study because it is very inexpensive and readily available in the form of thin-walled tubes. Thin-walled tubular specimens were subjected to axial loads and internal pressures, such that the specimens were subjected to a known biaxial loading. A constant octahederal shear stress rate was imposed during all tests. The measured yield and post-yield behavior was compared with predictions based on both isotropic and anisotropic models. Of particular interest was whether inelastic behavior was sensitive to the hydrostatic stress level. The major achievements and conclusions reached are discussed.

Semeliss, M. A.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M. E.

1990-01-01

168

Genetic mechanisms underlying yield potential in the rice high-yielding cultivar Takanari, based on reciprocal chromosome segment substitution lines.  

PubMed

BackgroundIncreasing rice yield potential is a major objective in rice breeding programs, given the need for meeting the demands of population growth, especially in Asia. Genetic analysis using genomic information and high-yielding cultivars can facilitate understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying rice yield potential. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are a powerful tool for the detection and precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that have both large and small effects. In addition, reciprocal CSSLs developed in both parental cultivar backgrounds may be appropriate for evaluating gene activity, as a single factor or in epistatic interactions.ResultsWe developed reciprocal CSSLs derived from a cross between Takanari (one of the most productive indica cultivars) and a leading japonica cultivar, Koshihikari; both the cultivars were developed in Japan. Forty-one CSSLs covered most of the Takanari genome in the Koshihikari background and 39 CSSLs covered the Koshihikari genome in the Takanari background. Using the reciprocal CSSLs, we conducted yield trials under canopy conditions in paddy fields. While no CSSLs significantly exceeded the recurrent parent cultivar in yield, genetic analysis detected 48 and 47 QTLs for yield and its components in the Koshihikari and Takanari backgrounds, respectively. A number of QTLs showed a trade-off, in which the allele with increased sink-size traits (spikelet number per panicle or per square meter) was associated with decreased ripening percentage or 1000-grain weight. These results indicate that increased sink size is not sufficient to increase rice yield in both backgrounds. In addition, most QTLs were detected in either one of the two genetic backgrounds, suggesting that these loci may be under epistatic control with other gene(s).ConclusionsWe demonstrated that the reciprocal CSSLs are a useful tool for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying yield potential in the high-yielding rice cultivar Takanari. Our results suggest that sink-size QTLs in combination with QTLs for source strength or translocation capacity, as well as careful attention to epistatic interactions, are necessary for increasing rice yield. Thus, our findings provide a foundation for developing rice cultivars with higher yield potential in future breeding programs. PMID:25404368

Takai, Toshiyuki; Ikka, Takashi; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Nonoue, Yasunori; Ono, Nozomi; Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

2014-11-18

169

Yields of hawthorn Crataegus monogyna berries under different hedgerow management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yields of hawthorn berries under different hedgerow management treatments were examined in experimental hedgerows at Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire, UK. Statistically significant differences existed between the management treatments with yields per unit area of hedgerows unmanaged for more than a decade out-yielding managed hedgerows by an order of magnitude. These differences were further inflated if yields were considered per unit length

T. H Sparks; T Martin

1999-01-01

170

A Computational Study of Feeding Rules and Yield Improvement Techniques  

E-print Network

of increasing the casting yield through the vertical stacking of castings, and the semi-continuous casting casting yield through increased feeding distance by using yield improvement methods is also investigated. Improved feeding distances and casting yields resulting from using insulating riser sleeves and block

Beckermann, Christoph

171

Statistical circuit design for yield improvement in CMOS circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the statistical design of CMOS integrated circuits for improved parametric yield. The work uses the Monte Carlo technique of circuit simulation to obtain an unbiased estimation of the yield. A simple graphical analysis tool, the yield factor histogram, is presented. The yield factor histograms are generated by a new computer program called SPICENTER. Using the yield factor histograms, the most sensitive circuit parameters are noted, and their nominal values are changed to improve the yield. Two basic CMOS example circuits, one analog and one digital, are chosen and their designs are 'centered' to illustrate the use of the yield factor histograms for statistical circuit design.

Kamath, H. J.; Purviance, J. E.; Whitaker, S. R.

1990-01-01

172

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

1978-01-01

173

Gas breakdown and secondary electron yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a systematic study of the gas breakdown potentials. An analysis of the key elementary processes in low-current low-pressure discharges is given, with an aim to illustrate how such discharges are used to determine swarm parameters and how such data may be applied to modeling discharges. Breakdown data obtained in simple parallel-plate geometry are presented for a number of atomic and molecular gases. Ionization coefficients, secondary electron yields and their influence on breakdown are analyzed, with special attention devoted to non-hydrodynamic conditions near cathode.

Mari?, Dragana; Savi?, Marija; Sivoš, Jelena; Škoro, Nikola; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, Marija; Malovi?, Gordana; Petrovi?, Zoran Lj.

2014-06-01

174

The Journey from Safe Yield to Sustainability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Safe-yield concepts historically focused attention on the economic and legal aspects of ground water development. Sustainability concerns have brought environmental aspects more to the forefront and have resulted in a more integrated outlook. Water resources sustainability is not a purely scientific concept, but rather a perspective that can frame scientific analysis. The evolving concept of sustainability presents a challenge to hydrologists to translate complex, and sometimes vague, socioeconomic and political questions into technical questions that can be quantified systematically. Hydrologists can contribute to sustainable water resources management by presenting the longer-term implications of ground water development as an integral part of their analyses.

Alley, W.M.; Leake, S.A.

2004-01-01

175

Genetic Improvement of Mentha arvensis Based on Essential Oil Yield and Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic divergence among 38 genotypes of Japanese mint Mentha arvensis, studied under the climatic conditions of northern India, could be grouped into eight clusters based on essential oil yield and quality components. Genotypes with relatively high essential oil yields could be identified and suggest the possibility of developing high-yielding, Japanese mint plants having good oil quality. Identification of genotype performance

S. P. Singh; Srikant Sharma; R. K. Tewari

1998-01-01

176

Comparison of sensors and techniques for crop yield mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of site-specific crop management is dependent on the variations in yield and yield potential within a field. Crop yield maps are important for both the implementation and evaluation of site-specific crop management strategies. Management decisions and evaluations based on yield maps must take into consideration the accuracy and resolution of the maps.An impact-based yield monitor and a volumetric

Stuart J. Birrell; Kenneth A. Sudduth; Steven C. Borgelt

1996-01-01

177

Room temperature creep deformation and its effect on yielding behaviour of a line pipe steel with discontinuous yielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to understand post-yield creep behaviour and its effect on the subsequent tensile behaviour of X-52 line pipe steel at room temperature. As a result of the carbon-locking effect, this steel exhibits a distinct yield point followed by a range of discontinuous yielding. Although normally not observed during re-loading after the first yielding, there was a yield

Sheng-Hui Wang; Weixing Chen

2001-01-01

178

Estimation of yield zones using aerial images and yield data from a few tracks of a combine harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield maps derived from yield mapping systems are often erroneous not only due to limitations in measuring the yield precisely\\u000a but due to insufficient consideration of the requirements of yield mapping systems in practice as well. Aerial images of cultivated\\u000a crop fields at an advanced growth stage frequently provide a spatial pattern similar to that of yield maps. Therefore, the

Horst Domsch; Michael Heisig; Katrin Witzke

2008-01-01

179

Infrasound Propagation Modeling for Explosive Yield Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on developing methods of estimating the size or yield of HE surface explosions from local and regional infrasound measurements in the southwestern United States. A munitions disposal facility near Mina, Nevada provides a repeating ground-truth source for this study, with charge weights ranging from 870 - 3800 lbs. Detonation logs and GPS synchronized videos were obtained for a sample of shots representing the full range of weights. These are used to calibrate a relationship between charge weight and spectral level from seismic waveforms recorded at the Nevada Seismic Array (NVAR) at a distance of 36 km. Origin times and yields for the remaining shots are inferred from the seismic recordings at NVAR. Infrasound arrivals from the detonations have been continuously recorded on three four-element, small aperture infrasound arrays since late 2009. NVIAR is collocated with NVAR at a range of approximately 36 km to the northeast. FALN and DNIAR are located at ranges of 154 km to the north, and 293 km to the southeast respectively. Travel times and amplitudes for stratospheric arrivals at DNIAR show strong seasonal variability with the largest amplitudes and celerities occurring during the winter months when the stratospheric winds are favorable. Stratospheric celerities for FNIAR to the north are more consistent as they are not strongly affected by the predominantly meridional stratospheric winds. Tropospheric arrivals at all three arrays show considerable variability that does not appear to be a seasonal effect. Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space (NRL-G2S) Mesoscale models are used to specify the atmosphere along the propagation path for each detonation. Ray-tracing is performed for each source/receiver pair to identify events for which the models closely match the travel-time observations. This subset of events is used to establish preliminary wind correction formulas using wind values from the G2S profile for the entire propagation path. These results are then compared with results for the entire data set to analyze the performance of the formulas. Full-wave hydrodynamic calculations are carried out to investigate the effects of finite-amplitude propagation, attenuation, and wind velocity on the amplitude and spectral content of the observed signals. Relationships are explored between the yields of the explosions and the period and wind corrected amplitudes of the signals recorded at various distances. The atmospheric specifications combined with propagation modeling techniques may allow propagation path effects to be better removed so that source characteristics can be extracted from the signals.

Howard, J. E.; Golden, P.; Negraru, P.

2013-12-01

180

Electron-induced electron yields of uncharged insulating materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented here are electron-induced electron yield measurements from high-resistivity, high-yield materials to support a model for the yield of uncharged insulators. These measurements are made using a low-fluence, pulsed electron beam and charge neutralization to minimize charge accumulation. They show charging induced changes in the total yield, as much as 75%, even for incident electron fluences of <3 fC/mm2, when compared to an uncharged yield. The evolution of the yield as charge accumulates in the material is described in terms of electron recapture, based on the extended Chung and Everhart model of the electron emission spectrum and the dual dynamic layer model for internal charge distribution. This model is used to explain charge-induced total yield modification measured in high-yield ceramics, and to provide a method for determining electron yield of uncharged, highly insulating, high-yield materials. A sequence of materials with progressively greater charge susceptibility is presented. This series starts with low-yield Kapton derivative called CP1, then considers a moderate-yield material, Kapton HN, and ends with a high-yield ceramic, polycrystalline aluminum oxide. Applicability of conductivity (both radiation induced conductivity (RIC) and dark current conductivity) to the yield is addressed. Relevance of these results to spacecraft charging is also discussed.

Hoffmann, Ryan Carl

181

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

Haun, J. R.

1975-01-01

182

Diode laser welding of high yield steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following article describes results of investigations on influence of laser welding parameters on the weld shape, quality and mechanical properties of 2.5 mm thick butt joints of thermo-mechanically rolled, high yield strength steel for cold forming S420MC (according to EN 10149 - 3 and 060XLK according to ASTM) welded with high power diode laser HPDL ROFIN SINAR DL 020 with rectangular laser beam spot and 2.2 kW output power, and 808 nm wavelength. The investigations at the initial stage were focused on detailed analysis of influence of the basic laser welding parameters such as laser power and welding speed on the shape and quality of single bead produced during bead-on-plate welding. Then the optimal parameters were chosen for laser welding of 2.5 mm thick butt joints of the thermo-mechanically rolled, high yield strength steel sheets for cold forming S420MC. The test joints were prepared as single square groove and one-side laser welded without an additional material, at a flat position. Edges of steel sheets were melted in argon atmosphere by the laser beam focused on the top joint surface. The test welded joints were investigated by visual inspection, metallographic examinations, mechanical tests such as tensile tests and bending tests. It was found that the high power diode laser may be applied successfully for one-side welding of the S420MC steel butt joints. Additionally it was found that in the optimal range of laser welding parameters the high quality joint were produced.

Lisiecki, Aleksander

2013-01-01

183

Decay time and light yield measurements for plastic scintillating fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied light production and propagation in three different samplesof plastic scintillating fibers manufactured by Kyowa Gas Co.: SCSF-81, SCSF-38 and SCSF-38 with afquenching additive. The emissio time distribution is described phenomenologically by a fast two-step scintillation process and an additional slow component, the time constants of which are determined. The light yield from the fibers is measured as

C. M. Hawkes; M. Kuhlen; B. Milliken; R. Stroynowski; E. Wicklund; T. Shimizu; O. Shinji

1990-01-01

184

Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species  

PubMed Central

Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

2013-01-01

185

The effects of climate change on United States rice yields and California wheat yields  

SciTech Connect

The USA produces 7.9 million tons of rice (Oryza sativa L.), 28% of which is exported to developing countries. Rice is one of the most important grain crops both in the USA and the world. Therefore it is important to understand the impact of weather and climate change on rice yields and production. In the USA rice is produced in California and the Gulf Coast states. It is anticipated that global climate change will have a major influence on agricultural practices and crop selection in these states. This study uses simulation techniques to quantify the potential magnitude of this influence. In addition, the impact of climate change on fall planted dryland spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in California is evaluated. Results indicate that rice yields decrease by between 14 and 24% in the Gulf Coast states and between 11 and 21% in California. In both regions the decrease in rice yields were due primarily to the large increase in summer temperatures. On the other hand, dryland fall planted spring wheat yields in California increase by 62 and 125%. This is because of the increased rainfall and temperatures during the winter months in California.

Barry, T.A.; Geng, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

186

upwelling circulations in the ocean, yield-ing colder ocean surface temperatures and  

E-print Network

963 upwelling circulations in the ocean, yield- ing colder ocean surface temperatures valuable to sci- ence. Careful coordination of satellite re- search missions and ocean field programs (as in, for example, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment) were used in the past decade to maximize

Rasmussen, Steen

187

Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid  

E-print Network

Field-induced static and dynamic yield stresses are explored for magnetorheological (MR) suspensions in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid composed of an aqueous dispersion of Laponite® clay. Using a custom-built ...

Rich, Jason P.

188

Framework for the determination of yield limits In pharmaceutical operations  

E-print Network

The manufacturing production of active pharmaceutical ingredients often involve a series of processing stages in which yield limits are prescribed to ensure that the target yield has been achieved for a batch and that the ...

Liow, Yuh Han John

2010-01-01

189

7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.105 Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the extent that the loss calculation...

2014-01-01

190

Mass yields in 229 Th(n,f)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cumulative yields of 27 fission products have been determined in 229Th(n,f) by recoil catcher technique followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Absolute fission yields were arrived at from the fission\\u000a rate measured by track etch counting method. Mass yields were obtained from the cumulative yields using the charge distribution\\u000a parameters reported in the literature. The values agree well with the reported values

C. Agarwal; A. Goswami; P. C. Kalsi; S. Singh; A. Mhatre; A. Ramaswami

2008-01-01

191

Raising yield potential in wheat: increasing photosynthesis capacity and efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing wheat yields to help to ensure food security is a major challenge. Meeting this challenge requires a quantum improvement in the yield potential of wheat. Past increases in yield potential have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index not through increased biomass. Further large...

192

Structure-enhanced yield stress of magnetorheological fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield stress of magnetorheological (MR) fluids depends on the induced solid structure. Since thick columns have a yield stress much higher than a single-chain structure, we improve the yield stress of MR fluids by changing the fluid microstructure. Immediately after a magnetic field is applied, we compress the MR fluid along the field direction. Scanning electron microscopy images show

X. Tang; X. Zhang; R. Tao; Yiming Rong

2000-01-01

193

Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid  

E-print Network

1 Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid Jason P. Rich,a Patrick S. Doyle,a Gareth@mit.edu Abstract Field-induced static and dynamic yield stresses are explored for magnetorheological (MR Magnetorheology, Yield Stress, Aging, Clay, Suspensions Introduction Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are field

194

Growth and yield models for improved Sitka spruce  

E-print Network

Growth and yield models for improved Sitka spruce Talk to the Timber Quality Steering Group from improved Sitka spruce · Wider issues 17/06/20092 · Example output #12;17/06/20093 Growth and yield for improved SS Modelling improved Sitka spruce #12;Growth and yield models for improved SS · We have a number

195

Observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice is developed based on the characteristic analysis of the stress field within the pack ice. The analysis shows that the slope of the yield curve is associated with the angle between intersecting linear kinematic features; thus by measuring the intersection angles we can inversely estimate the yield curve. Applying

Keguang Wang

2007-01-01

196

Original article Milk yield adjustments for milking length  

E-print Network

evaluation round of the year 1995. Predicted milk yields for levels of milking length were obtainedOriginal article Milk yield adjustments for milking length and age-parity-lambing month interaction - Milk yield adjustments for milking length and age-parity-lambing month interac- tion were estimated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

STUDYING THE INHERITANCE OF HIGH MILLING YIELD IN CYPRESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milling yield, also called ‘head rice yield’, is the percentage of whole grain obtained from rough rice (paddy rice) after milling. Milling yield is a critically important trait in rice because it is a major factor determining the price farmers are paid for their crop. Developing genetic markers t...

198

Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value

C. England; J. E. Funk

1980-01-01

199

ELECTROMIGRATION-DEPENDENT PARAMETRIC YIELD ESTIMATION Roman Barsky  

E-print Network

ELECTROMIGRATION-DEPENDENT PARAMETRIC YIELD ESTIMATION Roman Barsky Computer Science Department, electromigration-dependent parametric faults can make a significant contribution to the total yield estimation. 1 used to predict the yield of a VLSI chip. The critical area is traditionally defined as the area

Markovitch, Shaul

200

Investigations on a particular yield mapping system for combine harvesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatially variable field operations depend on various parameters such as in-field variations of soil and crop yield. A yield map can provide local information on nutrient absorption, variability of soil and effects of special treatment strategies. In order to monitor the spatial variations of yield the combine harvester has to be equipped at least with data acquisition for locating and

P. Reitz; H. D. Kutzbach

1996-01-01

201

Feature Selection for Wheat Yield Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrying out effective and sustainable agriculture has become an important issue in recent years. Agricultural production has to keep up with an everincreasing population by taking advantage of a field’s heterogeneity. Nowadays, modern technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) and a multitude of developed sensors enable farmers to better measure their fields’ heterogeneities. For this small-scale, precise treatment the term precision agriculture has been coined. However, the large amounts of data that are (literally) harvested during the growing season have to be analysed. In particular, the farmer is interested in knowing whether a newly developed heterogeneity sensor is potentially advantageous or not. Since the sensor data are readily available, this issue should be seen from an artificial intelligence perspective. There it can be treated as a feature selection problem. The additional task of yield prediction can be treated as a multi-dimensional regression problem. This article aims to present an approach towards solving these two practically important problems using artificial intelligence and data mining ideas and methodologies.

Ruß, Georg; Kruse, Rudolf

202

Runge Kutta integrators yield optimal regularization schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymptotic regularization (also called Showalter's method) is a theoretically appealing regularization scheme for an ill-posed problem Tx = y, T acting between Hilbert spaces. Here, Tx = y is stably solved by evaluating the solution of the evolution equation u'(t) = T*(y - Tu(t)), u(0) = 0, at a properly chosen finite time. For a numerical realization, however, we have to apply an integrator to the ODE. Fortunately all properties of asymptotic regularization carry over to its numerical realization: Runge-Kutta integrators yield optimal regularization schemes when stopped by the discrepancy principle. In this way a common analysis is obtained for such different regularization schemes as, for instance, the Landweber iteration and the iterated Tikhonov-Phillips method which are generated by the explicit and implicit Euler integrators, respectively. Furthermore it turns out that inconsistent Runge-Kutta schemes, which are useless for solving ODEs, lead to optimal regularizations as well which can even be more efficient than regularizations from consistent Runge-Kutta integrators. The presented computational examples illustrate the theoretical findings and demonstrate that implicit schemes outperform the explicit ones.

Rieder, Andreas

2005-04-01

203

Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

204

On Strength at Yield in Condensed Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the lower of a range of thresholds that control the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient laboratory state to the point at which the bond strength is overcome and warm dense matter is formed. One oft-used term is yield stress and its variation with the rise time of the loading pulse are considered in this first paper. This threshold shows a correlation between the length scale swept by the rise of the pulse and the defect distribution within the target for a range of materials. Strain rate is also a useful term that reflects the evolution of the stress state within a target but must be defined for a particular volume element containing a particular defect distribution to reflect continuum conditions acting within and thus applies to a defined length scale within a target. This overview of behavior suggests concepts borrowed from rate-independent plasticity have served the community well but that to advance it may be necessary to use viscoplastic concepts in constitutive descriptions for the future.

Bourne, Neil K.

2014-10-01

205

PXAMS -- Projectile X ray AMS: X ray yields and applications  

SciTech Connect

Characteristic x rays have recently been explored as a method for the detection and identification of ions in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions stop in an appropriately chosen target and the induced x rays identify the ions by atomic number. For the application of AMS to higher mass isotopes, characteristic x rays allow significantly better discrimination of competing atomic isobars than is possible using energy loss detectors. Characteristic x rays also show promise as a convenient component in hybrid detection systems. Measurements of x ray yields are presented for Si, Fe, Ni, Se, Mo, and Pd ions of 0.5--2 MeV/AMU. The yields rise by more than a factor of 10 over this energy range, and approach 1 x-ray per incident ion at 2 MeV/AMU for the lighter ions. Preliminary work on the application of PXAMS to the detection of {sup 79}Se is described.

McAninch, J.E.; Bench, G.S.; Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Roberts, M.L.; Southon, J.R.; Vogel, J.S.; Proctor, I.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

1994-10-07

206

Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

2013-12-01

207

Energy yield of black locust biomass fuel. [Robinia pseudoacacia L  

SciTech Connect

Detailed analysis of 2- and 10-year-old black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) biomass components provided an accurate energy content and energy yield determination as well as an index defining relative ceiling on the delivered cost for black locust biomass in comparison with other fuels such as coal and forest residues. Total energy content of individual biomass components ranged from 20.97 x J kg/sup -1/ for leaf tissue to 19.23 x 10/sup 6/ J kg/sup -1/ for current years' growth. Annual total energy yields ranged from 33.75 to 76.79 x 10/sup 9/ J ha/sup -1/ for 3- and 9-year-old stands, respectively. Nine-year-old stands also exhibited the highest annual net whole-tree and woody biomass (whole-tree less foliage) energy yields of 32.71 and 30.73 x 10/sup 9/ J ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/. The net annual energy yields were consistently greater for whole-tree biomass compared with woody biomass due to the foliage included in the whole-tree biomass. The relative cost indices maintained a high degree of variability between comparison fuels. Bituminous coal and forest residues were lowest with an overall mean cost index for woody biomass of $13.28 mt/sup -1/ and $13.72 mt/sup -1/, respectively. Woody biomass maintained a greater relative index than whole-tree biomass over all age classes due to its inherently higher conversion efficiency.

Stringer, J.W.; Carpenter, S.B.

1986-12-01

208

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.  

PubMed

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2012-01-24

209

Optimizing feed composition for improved methane yield during anaerobic digestion of cow manure based waste mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated methane yield via anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates based on mixtures of biodegradable single-component substrates with cow dung as main component. Bench and full-scale digestion experiments were carried out for both single and multi-component substrates to identify the relationship between methane yield and substrate composition. Results from both bench- and full-scale experiments corresponded well and showed that

S. M. Ashekuzzaman; Tjalfe G. Poulsen

2011-01-01

210

A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments  

SciTech Connect

The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

Thielemann, N. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, P. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foehlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

2012-09-15

211

Comparison of statistical models for analyzing wheat yield time series.  

PubMed

The world's population is predicted to exceed nine billion by 2050 and there is increasing concern about the capability of agriculture to feed such a large population. Foresight studies on food security are frequently based on crop yield trends estimated from yield time series provided by national and regional statistical agencies. Various types of statistical models have been proposed for the analysis of yield time series, but the predictive performances of these models have not yet been evaluated in detail. In this study, we present eight statistical models for analyzing yield time series and compare their ability to predict wheat yield at the national and regional scales, using data provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and by the French Ministry of Agriculture. The Holt-Winters and dynamic linear models performed equally well, giving the most accurate predictions of wheat yield. However, dynamic linear models have two advantages over Holt-Winters models: they can be used to reconstruct past yield trends retrospectively and to analyze uncertainty. The results obtained with dynamic linear models indicated a stagnation of wheat yields in many countries, but the estimated rate of increase of wheat yield remained above 0.06 t ha?¹ year?¹ in several countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, and the estimated values were highly uncertain for several major wheat producing countries. The rate of yield increase differed considerably between French regions, suggesting that efforts to identify the main causes of yield stagnation should focus on a subnational scale. PMID:24205280

Michel, Lucie; Makowski, David

2013-01-01

212

Probabilistic Yield Forecast Based on Aproduction Process Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for probabilistic forecast of agricultural yield depending on meteorological variability, i.e. forecast of agrometeorological resources, is discussed. Forecast is based on the category of meteorologically possible yield (MPY)-the maximum possible yield for a given variety in the existing meteorological conditions. The forecasting process is realized by a potato production process model POMOD, which applies the principle of maximum plant productivity and method of reference yields. The yield diversity, granting probabilistic distribution was obtained from series of model calculations,whereby the weather realizations for post-forecast period were gained from a century-long meteorological data series. Three examples realized for extremely different years are discussed. The results of such forecast, presented as a cumulative distribution, allow user to adjust and plan activities to thesufficiently assured yield level. Forecast of agrometeorological resources can be transformed to the forecast of real commercial yield (CY) by incorporating the efficiency coefficient of using meteorological conditions (CY/MPY).

Kadaja, Jüri; Saue, Triin; Vii, Peeter

213

Crop transformation and the challenge to increase yield potential.  

PubMed

Molecular transformation is commonly offered as a hope to overcome the apparent stagnation in crop yield potential. A basic understanding of the resource limits imposed on crops and the yield hierarchy going from gene expression to harvestable yield leads to a rather negative view that transformations of a few, or even of a complex of genes will result directly in major yield increases. Forty years of biochemical and physiological research illustrate the great difficulty in translating research at the basic level into improvements in crop yield. However, there are a few cases where physiological research has led to improved crop cultivars with increased yield. These successes are instructive in highlighting key elements required to achieve success in developing crop cultivars for increased yield. PMID:15102372

Sinclair, Thomas R; Purcell, Larry C; Sneller, Clay H

2004-02-01

214

Low and intermediate mass star yields.II: The evolution of nitrogen abundances  

E-print Network

We analyze the impact on the Galactic nitrogen abundances of using a new set of low and intermediate mass star yields. These yields have a significant yield of primary nitrogen from intermediate mass stars. We use these yields as an input to a Galactic Chemical Evolution model and study the nitrogen abundances in the halo and in the disc, and compare them with models obtained using other yield sets and with a large amount of observational data. We find that, using these new yields, our model adequately reproduce the observed trends. In particular, these yields solve the historical problem of the evolution of nitrogen, giving the right level of relative abundance N/O by the production of a primary component in intermediate mass stars. Moreover, using different evolutionary rates in each radial region of the Galaxy, we may explain the observed N dispersion.

Marta Gavilan; Mercedes Molla; James F. Buell

2006-01-16

215

Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

1990-09-01

216

QTL in mega-environments: II. Agronomic trait QTL co-localized with seed yield QTL detected in a population derived from a cross of high-yielding adapted x high-yielding exotic soybean lines.  

PubMed

Seed yield mega-environment-universal and specific QTL (QTL(U) and QTL(SP), respectively) linked to Satt100, Satt130, Satt162, Satt194, Satt259 Satt277 and Sat_126, have been identified in a population derived from a cross between a Chinese and a Canadian soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] elite line. The variation observed in yield could be the consequence of the variation of agronomic traits. Yield-component traits have been reported in the literature, but a better understanding of their impact at the molecular level is still lacking. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify traits correlated with yield and to determine if the yield QTL(U) and QTL(SP) were co-localized with QTL(U) and QTL(SP) associated with an agronomic trait. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was developed from a cross between a high-yielding adapted Canadian and a high-yielding exotic Chinese soybean elite line. The RIL were evaluated in multiple environments in China and Canada during the period from 2004 to 2006. Four yield QTL(U,) tagged by markers Satt100, Satt277, Satt162 and Sat_126, were co-localized with a QTL associated with an agronomic trait, behaving as either QTL(U) or QTL(SP) for the agronomic trait. For example, the yield QTL(U,) tagged by marker Satt100 was associated also with 100 seed weight, pods per plant, pods per node, plant height, R1, R5, R8, oil content and protein content in all Canadian environments, but only with pods per plant, pods per node, plant height, R1, R5, R8 and oil content in two or more Chinese environments. No agronomic traits QTL were co-localized with the yield QTL(U) tagged by the marker Satt139 or the yield QTL(SP) tagged by Satt259, suggesting a physiological basis of the yield in these QTL. The results suggest that a successful introgression of crop productivity alleles from plant introductions into an adapted germplasm could be facilitated by the use of both the QTL(U) and QTL(SP) because each type of QTL contributed either directly or indirectly through yield-component traits to seed yield of RILs. PMID:19462149

Palomeque, Laura; Li-Jun, Liu; Li, Wenbin; Hedges, Bradley; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

2009-08-01

217

HVM die yield improvement as a function of DRSEM ADC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the current manufacturing technology roadmap and the competitiveness of the global semiconductor manufacturing environment in conjunction with the semiconductor manufacturing market dynamics, the market place continues to demand a reduced die manufacturing cost. This continuous pressure on lowering die cost in turn drives an aggressive yield learning curve, a key component of which is defect reduction of manufacturing induced anomalies. In order to meet and even exceed line and die yield targets there is a need to revamp defect classification strategies and place a greater emphasize on increasing the accuracy and purity of the Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM) Automated Defect Classification (ADC) results while placing less emphasis on the ADC results of patterned/un-patterned wafer inspection systems. The increased emphasis on DRSEM ADC results allows for a high degree of automation and consistency in the classification data and eliminates variance induced by the manufacturing staff. This paper examines the use of SEM based Auto Defect Classification in a high volume manufacturing environment as a key driver in the reduction of defect limited yields.

Maheshwary, Sonu; Haas, Terry; McGarvey, Steve

2010-03-01

218

Combining regional forecast and crop yield models for the USDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides the risk of different economic and market conditions, large agricultural interests face the risk of crop losses from a number of weather-related perils including drought and heat, excess moisture, hail, frost and freeze, and wind. In a joint project, AIR Worldwide and Agrilogic are teamed with the RMA(Risk Management Agency) component of the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) in developing InsuranceVision, a tool to support the producer in crop insurance decision-making. The tool will use available climatic, agronomic and econometric models to analyze likely scenarios over the growing season and project probable yields and prices by harvest. The tool will ultimately assist growers in deciding what insurance products will best minimize their market risk. This presentation focuses on the weather/climate related models based on the NCAR-NCEP Global Reanalysis Project data set, the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM 3.6) and the 5th generation NCAR-Penn State University Mesoscale Model (MM5). A method will be discussed that derives crop yield probability distributions from historical detrended yield data, numerical weather model climatologies, climate projections and locally refined forecasts.

Zuba, G.; Gibbas, M.; Lee, M.; Dailey, P.; Keller, J.

2003-04-01

219

Boosting Crop Yields with Plant Steroids[W  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols and steroid hormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs), are compounds that exert a wide range of biological activities. They are essential for plant growth, reproduction, and responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Given the importance of sterols and BRs in these processes, engineering their biosynthetic and signaling pathways offers exciting potentials for enhancing crop yield. In this review, we focus on how alterations in components of sterol and BR metabolism and signaling or application of exogenous steroids and steroid inhibitors affect traits of agronomic importance. We also discuss areas for future research and identify the fine-tuning modulation of endogenous BR content as a promising strategy for crop improvement. PMID:22438020

Vriet, Cécile; Russinova, Eugenia; Reuzeau, Christophe

2012-01-01

220

Fruiting-branch removal enhances endotoxin expression and lint yield in Bt cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of removal of early-fruiting branches (REFB) on yield, quality, and endotoxin expression in transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Two early-fruiting branches of field-grown cotton plants were removed and retained at squaring to form the REFB and the control treatments, respectively. Lint yield, yield components, fibre quality, and

Dongmei Zhang; Weijiang Li; Wei Tang; Hezhong Dong

2009-01-01

221

In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams  

DOEpatents

An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ); Kaita, Robert (Englishtown, NJ)

1987-01-01

222

Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability.

Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

2015-01-01

223

Will current trends close major crop yield gaps by 2025?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have projected a need to double global agricultural production by 2050 to meet the demands posed by population growth, increased dairy and meat consumption, and biofuel use. However, recent work shows many regions where there are shortfalls in production compared to the regions with the highest yield. While these "yield gaps" could be closed through more intensive and advanced management, already between 24% and 39% of the global crop growing regions are witnessing yield stagnation. In this presentation we will identify the areas across the globe where yield gaps (as quantified circa the year 2000) are projected to either close or persist given observed rates of yield increases. Major investments in better management are needed in areas where yield gaps are projected to persist.

Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Johnston, M.; Foley, J. A.

2012-12-01

224

Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability.  

PubMed

Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32-39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

Ray, Deepak K; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C

2015-01-01

225

Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.  

PubMed

Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

2014-04-01

226

Large-area rice yield forecasting using satellite imageries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ability to make large-area yield prediction before harvest is important in many aspects of agricultural decision-making. In this study, canopy reflectance band ratios (NIR\\/RED, NIR\\/GRN) of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) at booting stage, from field measurements conducted from 1999 to 2005, were correlated with the corresponding yield data to derive regression-type yield prediction models for the first and second

Yi-Ping Wang; Kuo-Wei Chang; Rong-Kuen Chen; Jeng-Chung Lo; Yuan Shen

2010-01-01

227

Yield prediction by analysis of multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary model describing the growth and grain yield of wheat was developed. The modeled growth characteristics of the wheat crop were used to compute wheat canopy reflectance using a model of vegetation canopy reflectance. The modeled reflectance characteristics were compared with the corresponding growth characteristics and grain yield in order to infer their relationships. It appears that periodic wheat canopy reflectance characteristics potentially derivable from earth satellites will be useful in forecasting wheat grain yield.

Colwell, J. E.; Suits, G. H.

1975-01-01

228

Improved methods for yield-optimization of digital logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield optimization remains the primary device-level design task in digital superconductor electronics. We discuss yield-optimization in the context of our particular software implementation, Malt2, which interfaces to the circuit simulator Spice. This version contains significant improvements both to the numerical algorithms and in ease of use. Two special algorithms of yield-optimization are extant, both of which map out the multidimensional

Quentin P. Herr; Mark W. Johnson

2001-01-01

229

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion

David MacNeill; Joerg Rottler

2010-01-01

230

Roll-your-own smoke yields: theoretical and practical aspects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To identify the key parameters that influence smoke yields from roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes and to compare smoke yields of cigarettes made under laboratory conditions with those made by habitual RYO consumers.?DESIGN AND SETTING—One-way parametric variations in the laboratory-based production of RYO cigarettes complemented by a consumer survey conducted in a busy street at Romford, Essex, United Kingdom.?SUBJECTS—26 habitual RYO consumers.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Cigarette weights, puff numbers, and yields (carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar).?RESULTS—Smoke yields vary for specimen changes in weight of tobacco used, paper porosity, and the incorporation of a filter in the cigarette. Yields of cigarettes produced by 26 RYO smokers ranged from 9.9 to 21.0 mg tar per cigarette and from 0.9 to 1.8 mg nicotine per cigarette, and were generally lower than yields of laboratory-produced RYO cigarettes.?CONCLUSIONS—Laboratory studies can provide useful information concerning the parameters that affect smoke yields of RYO cigarettes such as the incorporation of a filter to reduce yields. However, such studies must be complemented by surveys of cigarettes made by actual current RYO smokers. In one such investigation, it was found that the mean tar yields from cigarettes produced by 57% of the smokers were above the current maximum of 15 mg per cigarette for manufactured cigarettes. Currently 8% of manufactured cigarettes in the UK have a declared nicotine yield of greater than 1.1 mg per cigarette whereas 77% of RYO smokers produced cigarettes with a nicotine yield greater than this value.???Keywords: roll-your-own cigarettes; smoke yield; carbon monoxide; tar; nicotine PMID:9789936

Darrall, K.; Figgins, J.

1998-01-01

231

On-line measurement of rheological yield stress  

SciTech Connect

The yield stress of rheologically plastic fluids such as coatings or sealants determines their tendency to flow at low gravitational stresses. Yield stress may be defined as the apparent threshold stress above which flow is observed on an arbitrary time scale. An on-line technique to monitor yield stress during processing would be commercially valuable in controlling the critical self-leveling vs. non-slump behavior of such products. Such a technique is proposed and crudely demonstrated using a capillary rheometer.

DeLeeuw, D.; Langley, N. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

232

Acid rain and seed yields reductions in corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yields were significantly reduced on corn (Zea mays L.) plants where the silks had been exposed to an episode of simulated acid rain at pH 3.6 as compared with yields on plants with silks exposed to simulated rain of pH 5.6. The reduction in yield appeared related to a decrease in pollen germination and tube elongation associated with acidic

L. E. Craker; P. F. Waldron

2009-01-01

233

High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

2011-01-01

234

Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding in model cohesive suspensions  

E-print Network

An experimental system has been found recently, a coagulated CaCO3 suspension system, which shows very variable yield behaviour depending upon how it is tested and, specifically, at what rate it is sheared. At P\\'eclet numbers Pe > 1 it behaves as a simple Herschel Bulkley liquid, whereas at Pe measure flow curves in controlled stress mode routinely, it can show very erratic and irreproducible behaviour. All of these features will be attributed here to a dependence of the solid phase, or, yield stress, on the prevailing rate of shear at the yield point. Stress growth curves obtained from step strain-rate testing showed that this rate-dependence was a consequence of P\\'eclet number dependent strain softening. At very low Pe, yield was cooperative and the yield strain was order-one, whereas as Pe approached unity, the yield strain reduced to that needed to break interparticle bonds, causing the yield stress to be greatly reduced. It is suspected that rate-dependent yield could well be the rule rather than the exception for cohesive suspensions more generally. If so, then the Herschel-Bulkley equation can usefully be generalized to read (in simple shear). The proposition that rate-dependent yield might be general for cohesive suspensions is amenable to critical experimental testing by a range of means and along lines suggested.

Richard Buscall; Peter J. Scales; Anthony D. Stickland; Hui-En Teo; Tiara E. Kusuma; Daniel R. Lester

2015-02-02

235

Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ? 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Two companies in Osaka, Japan. Subjects: 130 Japanese male workers selected randomly during their annual regular health check up and 116 Japanese male volunteers taking part in a smoking cessation programme. Main outcome measurements: Subjects answered a questionnaire about smoking habits. Following the interview, each participant was asked to smoke his own cigarette and, after extinguishing it, to blow expired air into an apparatus for measuring carbon monoxide concentration. Urine was also collected for the assays of nicotine metabolites. Results: We found wide variation in urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations at any given nicotine yield. Based on one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations of ultra low yield cigarette smokers were significantly lower compared to smokers of high (p = 0.002) and medium yield cigarettes (p = 0.017). On the other hand, the estimated nicotine intake per ultra low yield cigarette smoked (0.59 mg) was much higher than the 0.1 mg indicated by machine. Conclusions: In this study of Japanese male smokers, actual levels of nicotine intake bore little relation to advertised nicotine yield levels. Our study reinforces the need to warn consumers of inappropriate advertisements of nicotine yields, especially low yield brands. PMID:11891369

Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

2002-01-01

236

The solid-state photoluminescent quantum yield of triboluminescent materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground rules defining design of triboluminescent (TL) materials are currently missing, in part since the triboluminescent efficiency is the product of the efficiency of excited-state formation and the efficiency of radiative relaxation from these excited-states. In order to de-couple these two processes, we have measured, for the first time, the solid-state photoluminescent quantum yield of various triboluminescent materials. The measurements highlighted: (i) some triboluminescent materials possess near-optimised radiative yields; (ii) structurally similar triboluminescent compounds can exhibit widely varying yields and (iii) some triboluminescent materials, which appear to the eye as reasonably efficient, possess low radiative yields, allowing possible triboluminescent enhancement.

Bourhill, G.; Pålsson, L. O.; Samuel, I. D. W.; Sage, I. C.; Oswald, I. D. H.; Duignan, J. P.

2001-03-01

237

Application of two physically-based sediment yield models at plot and field scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different sediment yield models (SHE and MULTSED) are used to assess the degree to which model parameters calibrated at a small spatial scale remain representative at a large scale. The test data are taken from the Reynolds Creek rangeland research basin near Boise, Idaho, USA. At the smallest scale the water and sediment yield components of both models were

J. M. WICKS; J. C. BATHURST; C. W. JOHNSON

1988-01-01

238

Mid-Season Prediction of Wheat-Grain Yield Potential Using Plant, Soil, and Sensor Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The components that define cereal-grain yield potential have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to collect many differing biological measurements from a long-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) study in an attempt to better define yield potential. Four treatments were sampled that annually received 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg N ha at fixed rates of

K. Girma; K. L. Martin; R. H. Anderson; D. B. Arnall; K. D. Brixey; M. A. Casillas; B. Chung; B. C. Dobey; S. K. Kamenidou; S. K. Kariuki; E. E. Katsalirou; J. C. Morris; J. Q. Moss; C. T. Rohla; B. J. Sudbury; B. S. Tubana; W. R. Raun

2006-01-01

239

Optimization of multi-layer ceramic capacitor geometry for maximum yield during binder burnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield during binder burnout of barium titanate multi-layer ceramic capacitors with poly(vinyl) butyral as a binder and platinum as the electrode material depends on the side length and height of the devices. In general, the yield decreases with increasing volume of the capacitor and depends on the aspect ratio of the component. For capacitors of square parallelepiped geometry, the

B. Peters; S. J. Lombardo

2001-01-01

240

EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON YIELD RESPONSE OF TWO SOYBEAN CULTIVARS  

EPA Science Inventory

An important component of the effects of acid rain on our ecosystem is its impact on the yield of agricultural crops. ield experiments were conducted for 3 yr to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on seed yield of two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. 'Amsoy 7...

241

Uncertainty in Simulating Wheat Yields Under Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments1,2. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change has been increasingly described in the literature3,4 while assessments of the uncertainty in crop responses to climate change are very rare. Systematic and objective comparisons across impact studies is difficult, and thus has not been fully realized5. Here we present the largest coordinated and standardized crop model intercomparison for climate change impacts on wheat production to date. We found that several individual crop models are able to reproduce measured grain yields under current diverse environments, particularly if sufficient details are provided to execute them. However, simulated climate change impacts can vary across models due to differences in model structures and algorithms. The crop-model component of uncertainty in climate change impact assessments was considerably larger than the climate-model component from Global Climate Models (GCMs). Model responses to high temperatures and temperature-by-CO2 interactions are identified as major sources of simulated impact uncertainties. Significant reductions in impact uncertainties through model improvements in these areas and improved quantification of uncertainty through multi-model ensembles are urgently needed for a more reliable translation of climate change scenarios into agricultural impacts in order to develop adaptation strategies and aid policymaking.

Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J.W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Ruane, Alex; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, Peter; Rotter, R.P.; Cammarano, D.; Brisson, N.; Basso, B.; Martre, P.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, AJ; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grant, Robert; Heng, L.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Mueller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.O.; Olesen, JE; Osborne, T.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Travasso, M.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

2013-09-01

242

Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability  

PubMed Central

Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

2015-01-01

243

Comparison of Statistical Models for Analyzing Wheat Yield Time Series  

PubMed Central

The world's population is predicted to exceed nine billion by 2050 and there is increasing concern about the capability of agriculture to feed such a large population. Foresight studies on food security are frequently based on crop yield trends estimated from yield time series provided by national and regional statistical agencies. Various types of statistical models have been proposed for the analysis of yield time series, but the predictive performances of these models have not yet been evaluated in detail. In this study, we present eight statistical models for analyzing yield time series and compare their ability to predict wheat yield at the national and regional scales, using data provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and by the French Ministry of Agriculture. The Holt-Winters and dynamic linear models performed equally well, giving the most accurate predictions of wheat yield. However, dynamic linear models have two advantages over Holt-Winters models: they can be used to reconstruct past yield trends retrospectively and to analyze uncertainty. The results obtained with dynamic linear models indicated a stagnation of wheat yields in many countries, but the estimated rate of increase of wheat yield remained above 0.06 t ha?1 year?1 in several countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, and the estimated values were highly uncertain for several major wheat producing countries. The rate of yield increase differed considerably between French regions, suggesting that efforts to identify the main causes of yield stagnation should focus on a subnational scale. PMID:24205280

Michel, Lucie; Makowski, David

2013-01-01

244

Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.  

PubMed

Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

2015-01-01

245

Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond (Prunus dulcis), pistachio (Pistacia vera), and walnut (Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

2014-08-01

246

Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds.  

PubMed

Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond (Prunus dulcis), pistachio (Pistacia vera), and walnut (Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change. PMID:25119825

Pope, Katherine S; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H; DeJong, Theodore M

2014-08-14

247

Comprehensive Cost Planning Yields Successful Tech Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author calls for librarians to find ways to implement technology projects with very limited budgets and to consider all the cost components of a technology project amidst the economic pressures. The author offers some perspective on what is involved in trying to accomplish important work with limited resources while…

Breeding, Marshall

2006-01-01

248

PERSISTENCE AND YIELD STABILITY OF INTERSUBSPECIFIC ALFALFA HYBRIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longer term persistence and sustained biomass yields of alfalfa (M. sativa) stands are important for producers. Yield performance and persistence of intrasubspecific crosses between alfalfa subsp. sativa and falcata after the first post-establishment year are unknown. The objectives of this study ...

249

Response of switchgrass yield to future climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climate envelope approach was used to model the response of switchgrass, a model bioenergy species in the United States, to future climate change. The model was built using general additive models (GAMs), and switchgrass yields collected at 45 field trial locations as the response variable. The model incorporated variables previously shown to be the main determinants of switchgrass yield, and utilized current and predicted 1 km climate data from WorldClim. The models were run with current WorldClim data and compared with results of predicted yield obtained using two climate change scenarios across three global change models for three time steps. Results did not predict an increase in maximum switchgrass yield but showed an overall shift in areas of high switchgrass productivity for both cytotypes. For upland cytotypes, the shift in high yields was concentrated in northern and north-eastern areas where there were increases in average growing season temperature, whereas for lowland cultivars the areas where yields were projected to increase were associated with increases in average early growing season precipitation. These results highlight the fact that the influences of climate change on switchgrass yield are spatially heterogeneous and vary depending on cytotype. Knowledge of spatial distribution of suitable areas for switchgrass production under climate change should be incorporated into planning of current and future biofuel production. Understanding how switchgrass yields will be affected by future changes in climate is important for achieving a sustainable biofuels economy.

Tulbure, Mirela G.; Wimberly, Michael C.; Owens, Vance N.

2012-12-01

250

The meaning and management of yield in hotels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitions of yield management vary in terms of their content and focus. Develops a “best fit” definition of yield management of the hotel sector by reviewing the literature in this area and extracting the key words and central meanings used. In addition, produces a list of eight features using a comparison and analysis of the views of London-based front office

Stuart Jauncey; Ian Mitchell; Pamudji Slamet

1995-01-01

251

Wheat Yield Prediction through Agro Meteorological Indices for Ardebil District  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat prediction was carried out using different meteorological variables together with agro meteorological indices in Ardebil district for the years 2004-2005 & 2005—2006. On the basis of correlation coefficients, standard error of estimate as well as relative deviation of predicted yield from actual yield using different statistical models, the best subset of agro meteorological indices were selected including daily minimum

Fariba Esfandiary; Ghafoor Aghaie; Ali Dolati

2009-01-01

252

Tillage effects on soil physical properties, sugarbeet yield and quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage influences the soil-water-plant ecosystem thereby affecting crop yield and quality. The effects of tillage on soil physical properties, sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) yield and quality were evaluated. A field study comprises of three tillage practices: no tillage (NT) shallow (ST) of 10-cm and...

253

BUTTERBEAN SEED YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENT ARE AFFECTED BY PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yield and seed protein content of edible beans are important to growers and consumers. We hypothesized that some colors of light reflected to growing bean plants could affect photomorphogenesis enough to result in greater seed yield and protein content. Speckled butterbean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) was...

254

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979

Shaobing Peng; Jianliang Huang; John E. Sheehy; Rebecca C. Laza; Romeo M. Visperas; Xuhua Zhong; Grace S. Centeno; Gurdev S. Khush; Kenneth G. Cassman

2004-01-01

255

PROGRESS IN MAPPING QTL CONTROLLING YIELD IN SOYBEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed yield is the most important trait for both breeders and producers and is controlled by a complex set of factors including the physiological efficiency of the plant, the environment, disease, seed composition, and plant maturity. The economic importance of yield is the impetus to understand the ...

256

Primary radical yields in pulse irradiated alkaline aqueous solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primary radical yields of hydrated electrons, H atoms, and OH radicals are determined by measuring hydrated electron formation following a 4 microsecond pulse of X rays. The pH dependence of free radical yields beyond pH 12 is determined by observation of the hydrated electrons.

Fielden, E. M.; Hart, E. J.

1969-01-01

257

Smart Monte Carlo for Yield Estimation Serdar Tasiran Alper Demir  

E-print Network

Smart Monte Carlo for Yield Estimation Serdar Tasiran Alper Demir stasiran@ku.edu.tr aldemir and compu- tationally viable estimation of timing yield using circuit-level Monte Carlo simulation. Our techniques are based on well-known variance reduction approaches from Monte Carlo simulation literature

Tasiran, Serdar

258

Edible fruit yielding plants of shevaroy hills in Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

The paper deals with the common edible fruit yielding plants, During the course of medicinal plant survey of shevaroy hills of Eastern ghats. Salem district, Tamil Nadu. Thirty species belonging to 23 genera and 21 families yield edible fruits. They are listed in alphabetical order followed by family, common name and Tamil names. PMID:22556784

Alagesaboopathi, C; Balu, S; Dwarakan, P

1996-10-01

259

Physiology of yeasts in relation to biomass yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometric limit to the biomass yield (maximal assimilation of the carbon source) is determined by the amount of CO2 lost in anabolism and the amount of carbon source required for generation of NADPH. This stoichiometric limit may be reached when yeasts utilize formate as an additional energy source. Factors affecting the biomass yield on single substrates are discussed under

Cornelis Verduyn

1991-01-01

260

Critical Review Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas  

E-print Network

Critical Review Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led

261

Lithographic variation aware design centering for SRAM yield enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) cells use the smallest manufacturable device sizes in a given technology and hence see a highly pronounced random dopant effect. Moreover, SRAM cells are designed to satisfy conflicting read and write requirements. It makes SRAMs extremely vulnerable to failures due to lithographic variations. We propose a design centering approach for maximizing SRAM electrical yield under lithographic variation. The centering is obtained by applying small biases to the gate lengths of devices in the circuit. We refer to this process of enhancing electrical yield by changing the original target layout as electrically driven layout retargeting. The idea behind layout retargeting is that the default distribution of process variability band (PV-band) around nominal design edge is sub-optimal for electrical yield. The overall worst-case electrical yield can be improved by intentional shifting of the lithographic PV-band in the preferred direction. The PV-band can be shifted through retargeting the layout such that nominal target CD is biased up or down to obtain a desired shift. We present a linear programming formulation to calculate the optimal retargeting values for each device in the circuit. We apply the proposed retargeting flow to optimize electrical yield of an industrial SRAM design. Our results show that the electrically driven retargeting scheme improves the normalized SRAM yield from 0.89 (read access yield at outer lithographic contour) to 0.95 (read disturb yield at inner contour).

Agarwal, Kanak

2011-04-01

262

Linking land use, erosion and sediment yields in river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained from erosion plots and catchment experiments provide clear evidence of the sensitivity of erosion rates to land use change and related human activity. Evidence for the impact of land use on the sediment yields of world rivers is less clear, although examples of rivers where sediment yields have both increased and decreased in recent decades can be identified.

D. E. Walling

1999-01-01

263

MISSISSIPPI COTTON YIELD MONITOR: THREE YEARS OF FIELD TEST RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mississippi cotton yield monitor, which is based on an optical cotton-flow sensor comprised of emitters and detectors in one unit that can be affixed to only one side of a pneumatic duct, has been under development at Mississippi State University since 1999. One prototype of the yield monitor was field tested that year in Mississippi. In 2000, three prototypes

J. A. Thomasson; R. Sui

264

Crop modelling and remote sensing for yield production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the application of crop growth models, remote sensing and their integrative use for yield forecasting and prediction are presented. First, the general principles of crop growth models are explained. When crop simulation models are used on regional scales, uncertainty and spatial variation in model parameters can result in broad bands of simulated yield. Remote sensing can be used

B. A. M. Bouman

1995-01-01

265

A CONSISTENT YIELD-BASED CAPITAL BUDGETING METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a yield-based capital budgeting method that is consistent in maximizing shareholder wealth in six out of seven preconditioned environments. Academic studies surveying corporate management consistently conclude that corporate management prefers a yield-based capital budgeting method, such as the IRR, to a discount cash flow model, such as the NPV. This preference is strong with the NPV and

David A. Volkman

266

Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully

Marcel Toonen; Simon Ribot; J. T. N. M. Thissen

2006-01-01

267

Yield Enhancement of Reconfigurable Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using  

E-print Network

Yield Enhancement of Reconfigurable Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Interstitial Redundancy FEI SU and KRISHNENDU CHAKRABARTY Duke University Microfluidics-based biochips for biochemical analysis cost. We propose an interstitial redundancy approach to enhance the yield of biochips that are based

Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

268

Predicting Cotton Lint Yield Maps from Aerial Photographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that aerial images of growing crops provide spatial and temporal information about crop growth conditions and may even be indicative of crop yield. The focus of this study was to develop a straightforward technique for creating predictive cotton yield maps from aerial images. A total of ten fields in southern Georgia, USA, were studied during three

G. Vellidis; M. A. Tucker; C. D. Perry; D. L. Thomas; N. Wells; C. K. Kvien

2004-01-01

269

The alfalfa yield gap: A review of the evidence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of feasibly attainable crop yields is needed for many purposes, from field-scale management to national policy decisions. For alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most widely used estimates of yield in the US are whole-farm reports from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, which are b...

270

What's holding us back? Raising the alfalfa yield bar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Measuring yield of commodity crops is easy – weight and moisture content are determined on delivery. Consequently, reports of production or yield for grain crops can be made reliably to the agencies that track crop production, such as the USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). The s...

271

Original article Influence of increasing breast meat yield  

E-print Network

Original article Influence of increasing breast meat yield on muscle histology and meat quality chickens from two lines (ten birds from each line) diver- gently selected for breast meat yield were compared. Moreover, some quality parameters (ie, drip loss, ultimate pH value and meat colour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

Year patterns of climate impact on wheat yields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rainfall, temperature, and solar radiation are defining factors for crop production. Due to the close correlation among these factors, it is difficult to evaluate their individual impact on crop yield. We propose to identify year patterns of climate impact on yield on the basis of rain and non-rain ...

273

ESTIMATING GRAPEVINE YIELD FROM MEASUREMENTS OF TRELLIS WIRE TENSION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel approach was devised to estimate vegetative growth and fruit mass (i.e., yield) in grapevines by continuously measuring tension in the horizontal (cordon) wire of the trellis. Hand collection, counting, and weighing of fruit clusters remains the standard approach to yield estimation in viney...

274

Estimating Shrub Forage Yield and Utilization Using a Photographic Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed a photographic technique to estimate shrub yield and utilization of common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake), snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Douglas ex Hook.), and firmleaf willow ( Salix rigida Muhl.) found in mixed-conifer rangelands. We determined the correlation between green leaf area size (LA) and forage yield (Y) and compared plant utilization estimated by photographic technique (ULA) to actual

Daalkhaijav Damiran; Timothy DelCurto; Douglas E. Johnson; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

2006-01-01

275

Fact Sheet: Accurately measuring forage yield in pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers have a few options for measuring pasture yield. These include pasture rulers, plate meters, and electronic gauges. Pasture rulers simply measure canopy height and assume that forage yield is directly related to height. Plate meters improve accuracy by measuring compressed height. Electronic ...

276

7 CFR 760.638 - Determination of SURE yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for calculating the SURE yield for insured crops. (c) The counter-cyclical yield for a crop on a farm will be weighted based on total...prevented planted acres in the county for the current crop year. (d) Participants who do not...

2010-01-01

277

Hadron yields and hadron spectra from the NA49 experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary inclusive spectra of negative hadrons, net protons and neutral strange particles are presented, measured by the NA49 experiment in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon. Comparison of their yields with those from the lighter S+S system suggests that the yields scale approximately with the number of participating nucleons.

Jones, P. G.; Afanasiev, S. V.; Alber, T.; Appelshäuser, H.; Bächler, J.; Barnby, L. S.; Bartke, J.; Bia?kowska, H.; Blyth, C. O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F. P.; Brockmann, R.; Bunicic, N.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H. L.; Cebra, D.; Chan, P.; Cooper, G. E.; Cramer, J. G.; Cramer, P. B.; Csato, P.; Cyprian, M.; Derado, I.; Dietz, O.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Euler, S.; Ferguson, M. I.; Fischer, H. G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ga?dzicki, M.; G?adysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Günther, J.; Harris, J. W.; Hegyi, S.; Hill, L. A.; Huang, I.; Howe, M. A.; Hümmler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P. G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lévai, P.; Malakhov, A. I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mitchell, J. W.; Mock, A.; Molnár, J.; Nelson, J. M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D. J.; Pühlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H. G.; Röhrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Schäfer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schönfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Vassiliou, M.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Weerasundara, D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T. A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Zybert, R.; NA49 Collaboration

1996-02-01

278

CENTRAL GREAT PLAINS YIELD CALCULATOR, CD VERSION 2.2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Central Great Plains Yield Calculator is a simple Excel spreadsheet(distributed on CD) that calculates crop yield (for 16 crops: cereal grains, seed legumes, oilseeds, forages) based on user-selected values for available starting soil water at planting and expected growing season precipitation (...

279

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

280

Genetic Diversity and Soybean Yield: Finding the Balance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Based on national production statistics since 1924, average soybean yield in the U.S. has increased at a nearly steady rate of 22 kg ha-1 year-1. It is possible to show some changes in this rate depending on how these past 85 years are divided, but two conclusions seem evident. Soybean yield has not...

281

Plastic deformation and yield criterion for compressible sintered powder materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the basic aspects of plastic deformation behaviours of compressible sintered powder materials, such as plastic volume change, mass constancy, small Poisson's ratio and the effect of hydrostatic pressure on yield. Based on the uniaxial compression tests using sintered powder copper as a model material, the true stress–strain equation, a generalized yield criterion and some plastic constitutive equations

Lin Hua; Xunpeng Qin; Huajie Mao; Yumin Zhao

2006-01-01

282

Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Continuous maize yields are limited by the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous year’s maize residue decomposes. We tested the hypothesis that soil biochar applications could help mitigate maize autotoxicity and the associated yield depression. Eighteen small field plots (23.7 m2) were es...

283

Thermodynamics of yield in boron nitride nanotubes Traian Dumitrica,1  

E-print Network

Thermodynamics of yield in boron nitride nanotubes Traian Dumitrica,1 Holger F. Bettinger,2 investigate the atomistic mechanism of yield to mechanical tension in boron nitride nanotubes. The formation s : 61.48. c, 71.15.Pd I. INTRODUCTION Boron nitride nanotubes BNNT's are a new type of nanoparticles

Dumitrica,Traian

284

Process Yields Strong, Void-Free Laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Need for lightweight materials as structural components for future space transportation systems stimulated development of systematic method for manufacturing a polyimide/graphite composite. Laminates manufactured by process are void-free, exhibit excellent thermo-oxidative stability up to 315 degrees C (600 degrees F) and are 40 percent lighter than aluminum. Process is precise, repeatable, and ideally suited for researchers and small-lot producers of composite materials.

Bryant, L. E.; Covington, E. W., III; Dale, W. J.; Hall, E. T., Jr; Justice, J. E.; Taylor, E. C.; Wilson, M. L.

1983-01-01

285

Climate change impacts on crop yield: evidence from China.  

PubMed

When estimating climate change impact on crop yield, a typical assumption is constant elasticity of yield with respect to a climate variable even though the elasticity may be inconstant. After estimating both constant and inconstant elasticities with respect to temperature and precipitation based on provincial panel data in China 1980-2008, our results show that during that period, the temperature change contributes positively to total yield growth by 1.3% and 0.4% for wheat and rice, respectively, but negatively by 12% for maize. The impacts of precipitation change are marginal. We also compare our estimates with other studies and highlight the implications of the inconstant elasticities for crop yield, harvest and food security. We conclude that climate change impact on crop yield would not be an issue in China if positive impacts of other socio-economic factors continue in the future. PMID:25181045

Wei, Taoyuan; Cherry, Todd L; Glomrød, Solveig; Zhang, Tianyi

2014-11-15

286

Drops of Yield-Stress Liquid Impacting a Solid Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use high-speed video to investigate the drop impact process for yield-stress fluids under different initial conditions. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the impact dynamics of yield-stress liquids are greatly affected by the their viscoelasticity, which can be attributed to either a surface stress or bulk material properties. To explore these two different mechanisms, we perform impact experiments for two model fluids: liquid metals and particle suspensions, which both exhibit significant yield-stress in rheology. By controlling surface oxidation (for liquid metals) and packing density (for suspensions), we quantitatively vary the yield-stress within several orders of magnitude. In this way, we draw a direct comparison between the two fluids at various impact velocities to clarify the role of different sources of yield stress. Also, we build up an approach to bridge impact dynamics with rheological measurements.

Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich

2012-02-01

287

Calculation of the total electron excitation cross section in the Born approximation using Slater wave functions for the Li (2s yields 2p), Li (2s yields 3p), Na (3s yields 4p), Mg (3p yields 4s), Ca (4s yields 4p) and K (4s yields 4p) excitations. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.

Simsic, P. L.

1974-01-01

288

Large-area rice yield forecasting using satellite imageries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ability to make large-area yield prediction before harvest is important in many aspects of agricultural decision-making. In this study, canopy reflectance band ratios (NIR/RED, NIR/GRN) of paddy rice ( Oryza sativa L.) at booting stage, from field measurements conducted from 1999 to 2005, were correlated with the corresponding yield data to derive regression-type yield prediction models for the first and second season crop, respectively. These yield models were then validated with ground truth measurements conducted in 2007 and 2008 at eight sites, of different soil properties, climatic conditions, and various treatments in cultivars planted and N application rates, using surface reflectance retrieved from atmospherically corrected SPOT imageries. These validation tests indicated that root mean square error of predicting grain yields per unit area by the proposed models were less than 0.7 T ha -1 for both cropping seasons. Since village is the basic unit for national rice yield census statistics in Taiwan, the yield models were further used to forecast average regional yields for 14 selected villages and compared with officially reported data. Results indicate that the average yield per unit area at village scale can be forecasted with a root mean square error of 1.1 T ha -1 provided no damaging weather occurred during the final month before actual harvest. The methodology can be applied to other optical sensors with similar spectral bands in the visible/near-infrared and to different geographical regions provided that the relation between yield and spectral index is established.

Wang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Rong-Kuen; Lo, Jeng-Chung; Shen, Yuan

2010-02-01

289

Infrared scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid argon  

E-print Network

The study of primary and secondary scintillations in noble gases and liquids is of paramount importance to rare-event experiments using noble gas media. In the present work, the scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid Ar has for the first time been measured in the near infrared (NIR) and visible region, both for primary and secondary (proportional) scintillations, using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs) and pulsed X-ray irradiation. The primary scintillation yield of the fast component was measured to be 17000 photon/MeV in gaseous Ar in the NIR, in the range of 690-1000 nm, and 510 photon/MeV in liquid Ar, in the range of 400-1000 nm. Proportional NIR scintillations (electroluminescence) in gaseous Ar have been also observed; their amplification parameter at 163 K was measured to be 13 photons per drifting electron per kV. Possible applications of NIR scintillations in high energy physics experiments are discussed.

A. Buzulutskov; A. Bondar; A. Grebenuk

2011-04-19

290

The decays. eta. yields. pi. e. nu. sub e and. eta. yields. pi. mu. nu. sub. mu  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the available empirical information on the interactions that can contribute to the decays {eta} {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu}{sub ell} ({ell} = e,{mu}), and discuss the implications for the {eta} {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu}{sub ell} branching ratios. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Herczeg, P.

1991-01-01

291

The calculation of neutron yields in mixtures and compounds from the thick target (alpha, n) yields in the separate constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple relation is derived between the thick target yield of neutrons produced following (alpha, n) reactions in compounds or homogeneous mixtures and the yields in the separate constituents. It is necessary to assume that the Bragg law of additivity of stopping powers holds for the compound and to make the approximation that the stopping powers of all materials vary

1979-01-01

292

Ensemble approach to wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop yield forecasting is an extremely important component of the agriculture monitoring domain. In our previous study [1], we assessed relative efficiency and feasibility of using an NDVI-based empirical model for winter wheat yield forecasting at oblast level in Ukraine. Though the NDVI-based model provides minimum data requirements, it has some limitations since NDVI is indirectly related just to biomass but not meteorological conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to assess satellite-derived parameters that incorporate meteorology while maintaining the requirement of minimum data inputs. The objective of the proposed paper is several-fold: (i) to assess efficiency of using biophysical satellite-derived parameters for crop yield forecasting for Ukraine and select the optimal ones based on rigorous feature selection procedure; (ii) to assimilate predictions made by models built on various satellite-derived parameters. Two new parameters are considered in the paper: (i) vegetation health index (VHI) at 4 km spatial resolution derived from a series of NOAA satellites; (ii) Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION at 1 km spatial resolution. VHI data are provided as weekly composites and FAPAR data are provided as decadal composites. The particular advantage of using VHI is that it incorporates moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation canopy, while FAPAR is directly related to the primary productivity of photosynthesis It is required to find a day of the year for which a parameter is taken and used in the empirical model. For this purpose, a Random Forest feature selection procedure is applied. It is found that VHI and FAPAR values taken in April-May provided the minimum error value when comparing to the official statistics, thus enabling forecasts 2-3 months prior to harvest, and this corresponds to results derived from LOOCV procedure. The best timing for making reliable yield forecasts is nearly the same as it was for the NDVI-based approach (±16 days). The most accurate predictions for 2012 were achieved using the FAPAR-based approach with the RMSE value of 0.56 t ha-1 (performance of VHI-based and NDVI-based approaches was 0.7 t ha-1 and 0.68 t ha-1, respectively). Therefore, we can conclude that performance of empirical regression models based on satellite data with biophysical variables (such as VHI and FAPAR) is approximately 20% more accurate (on datasets available at the moment) comparing to the NDVI approach when producing winter wheat yield forecasts at oblast level in Ukraine 2-3 months prior to harvest. [1] F. Kogan, N. Kussul, T. Adamenko, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, O. Kryvobok, A. Shelestov, A. Kolotii, O. Kussul, and A. Lavrenyuk, "Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013.

Kussul, Nataliia; Kolotii, Andrii; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga; Kravchenko, Oleksii

2014-05-01

293

Effect of greenbugs (Homoptera: Aphididae) on yield loss of winter wheat.  

PubMed

The effect of greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), feeding on the yield of four winter wheat cultivars commonly grown in Oklahoma was studied. Cultivars tested were 'Karl', a recent derivative 'Karl-92', and '2163', all greenbug-susceptible cultivars; and 'TAM-110', a cultivar with resistance to biotype E greenbugs. The objectives were to determine the effect of different greenbug densities during fall and spring on yield of winter wheat, and to develop mathematical models to quantify the effect of greenbugs on yield loss. The intensity of greenbug infestations achieved in plots by artificial infestation varied among years and growing seasons within a year, but was generally sufficient to cause a reduction in yield. Among yield components, the number of heads per square meter and the number of seeds per head were frequently negatively correlated with the accumulated number of greenbug-days per tiller. Seed weight was rarely affected by greenbug infestation. A regression model estimated yield loss for greenbug-susceptible cultivars at 0.51 kg/ha loss of yield per greenbug-day in years with near normal precipitation, and a loss of 1.17 kg/ha under severe drought conditions. The susceptible winter wheat cultivars exhibited similar yield loss in relation to the intensity of greenbug infestation, as indicated by a common slope parameter in the regression model. Results suggest that the model is robust for predicting yield loss for susceptible cultivars. PMID:11942769

Kindler, S D; Elliott, N C; Giles, K L; Royer, T A; Fuentes-Granados, R; Tao, F

2002-02-01

294

Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding in model cohesive suspensions  

E-print Network

An experimental system has been found recently, a coagulated CaCO3 suspension, that shows very variable yield behaviour depending upon how it is tested and at what rate it is strained. At P\\'eclet number Pe > 1 it behaves as a simple Herschel Bulkley liquid, whereas at Pe testing can show hysteresis and shear-banding and in the usual type of sweep used to measure flow curves in controlled stress mode routinely, it shows very erratic and irreproducible behaviour. All of these features can be attributed to a dependence of yield stress on rate of strain. Stress growth curves obtained from step strain-rate testing showed that the rate-dependence of the yield stress was a consequence of rate-dependent strain-softening. At very low Pe, yield was cooperative and the yield strain was order-one, whereas as the Pe approached unity, the yield strain reduced to that needed to break interparticle bonds and the yield stress decayed to a minimal value. For example, at 40%v/v it dropped from ca. 200 Pa to testing by a range of means and along lines suggested.

Richard Buscall; Peter J. Scales; Anthony D. Stickland; Hui-En Teo; Tiara E. Kusuma; Daniel R. Lester

2015-01-22

295

Loss of quantum yield in extremely low light.  

PubMed

It has generally been assumed that the photosynthetic quantum yield of all C3 plants is essentially the same for all unstressed leaves at the same temperature and CO2 and O2 concentrations. However, some recent work by H.C. Timm et al. (2002, Trees 16:47-62) has shown that quantum yield can be reduced for some time after leaves have been exposed to darkness. To investigate under what light conditions quantum yield can be reduced, we carried out a number of experiments on leaves of a partial-shade (unlit greenhouse)-grown Coleus blumei Benth. hybrid. We found that after leaves had been exposed to complete darkness, quantum yield was reduced by about 60%. Only very low light levels were needed for quantum yield to be fully restored, with 5 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) being sufficient for 85% of the quantum yield of fully induced leaves to be achieved. Leaves regained higher quantum yields upon exposure to higher light levels with an estimated time constant of 130 s. It was concluded that the loss of quantum yield would be quantitatively important only for leaves growing in very dense understoreys where maximum light levels might not exceed 5 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) even in the middle of the day. Most leaves, even in understorey conditions, do, however, experience light levels in excess of 5 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) over periods where they obtain most of their carbon so that the loss of quantum yield would affect total carbon gain of those leaves only marginally. PMID:14722771

Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Ohlemacher, Christian; Küppers, Manfred

2004-04-01

296

Numerical Modeling for Yield Pillar Design: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two single-entry gateroad systems employing a yield pillar for bump control in a Chinese coal mine were introduced. The overburden depth of the longwall panels was approximately 390 m. When the width/height (W/H) ratio of the yield pillar was 2.67, coal bumps in the tailgate occurred in front of the longwall retreating face. However, in another panel, the coal bump was eliminated because the W/H ratio was reduced to 1.67. Under this condition, instrumentation results indicated that the roof-to-floor and rib-to-rib convergences reached 1,050 and 790 mm, respectively, during longwall retreat. The numerical model was used to back-analyze the two cases of yield pillar application in the hope to find the principle for yield pillar design. In order to improve the reliability of the numerical model, the strain-hardening gob and strain-softening pillar materials were meticulously calibrated, and the coal/rock interface strength was determined by laboratory direct shear tests. The results of the validated model indicate that if the W/H ratio of the yield pillar equals 1.67, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (37.7 MPa) is much larger than that in the yield pillar (21.1 MPa); however, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (30.87 MPa) is smaller than that in the yield pillar (36 MPa) when the W/H ratio of yield pillar is 2.67. These findings may be helpful to the design of yield pillars for bump control.

Li, Wenfeng; Bai, Jianbiao; Peng, Syd; Wang, Xiangyu; Xu, Ying

2015-01-01

297

Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.  

PubMed

The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site. PMID:23673936

Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

2013-01-01

298

Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels  

PubMed Central

Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. It functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. Despite its low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted. PMID:23543255

Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T.

2013-01-01

299

High-Yield D-T Neutron Generator  

SciTech Connect

A high-yield D-T neutron generator has been developed for neutron interrogation in homeland security applications such as cargo screening. The generator has been designed as a sealed tube with a performance goal of producing 5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} n/s over a long lifetime. The key generator components developed are a radio-frequency (RF) driven ion source and a beam-loaded neutron production target that can handle a beam power of 10 kW. The ion source can provide a 100 mA D{sup +}/T{sup +} beam current with a high fraction of atomic species and can be pulsed up to frequencies of several kHz for pulsed neutron generator operation. Testing in D-D operation has been started.

Ludewigt, B.A.; Wells, R.P.; Reijonen, J.

2006-11-15

300

Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value of a product. As a result, it is particularly convenient in analyzing fuel conversion plants and their potential for improvement. Relationships are also given for the effects of irreversibilities on requirements for process heat and for feedstocks.

England, C.; Funk, J. E.

1980-01-01

301

Yield enhancement methodologies for 90-nm technology and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to stay competitive in the rapidly advancing international semiconductor industry, a manufacturing company needs to continually focus on several areas including rapid yield learning, manufacturing cost, statistical process control limits, process yield, equipment availability, cycle time, turns per direct labor hour, customer on time delivery and zero customer defects. To hold a competitive position in the semiconductor market, performance to these measurable factors mut be maintained regardless of the technology generation. In this presentation, the methodology applied by Freescale Semiconductor to achieve the fastest yield learning curve in the industry, as cited by Dr. Robert Leachman of UC Berkley in 2003, will be discussed.

Allgair, John; Carey, Todd; Dougan, James; Etnyre, Tony; Langdon, Nate; Murray, Brooke

2006-03-01

302

Observation of {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}J/{psi}  

SciTech Connect

From e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data acquired with the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we observe the non-DD decay {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1} with a statistical significance of 6.6 standard deviations, using the two-photon cascades to J/{psi} and J/{psi}{yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}. We determine {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{psi}(3770))xB({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})=(18.0{+-}3.3= {+-}2.5) pb and branching fraction B({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})=(2.8{+-}0.5{+-}0.4)x10{sup -3}. We set 90% C.L. upper limits for the transition to {chi}{sub c2} ({chi}{sub c0}): {sigma}xB<5.7 pb (<282 pb) and B<0.9x10{sup -3} (<44x10{sup -3}). We also determine {gamma}({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})/{gamma}({psi}(3770){yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}J/= {psi})=1.5{+-}0.3{+-}0.3 (>1.0 at 90% C.L.), which bears upon the interpretation of X(3872)

Coan, T.E.; Gao, Y.S.; Liu, F. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Boulahouache, C.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nandakumar, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Redjimi, R.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, K. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Csorna, S. E. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] (and others)

2006-05-12

303

Future Yield Growth: What Evidence from Historical Data?  

E-print Network

The potential future role of biofuels has become an important topic in energy legislation as it is seen as a potential low carbon alternative to conventional fuels. Hence, future yield growth is an important topic from ...

Gitiaux, Xavier

304

Origin of yielding in metallic glass: Stress-induced flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yielding in crystalline metals is well known to be governed by dislocation dynamics; however, the structural origin of yielding in metallic glasses (MGs) still remains as an issue of intense debate despite that substantial research efforts have been expended. In this Letter, based on well-designed cyclic microcompression tests, we provide compelling experimental evidence revealing that yielding of MGs is essentially a stress-induced viscous flow process, during which the measured viscosity ranges from 1014 Pa.s to 1011 Pa.s and decreases with the increase of applied stress, resembling the "shear-thinning" behavior of non-Newtonian liquids. This stress-induced non-Newtonian flow finally leads to shear instability, which manifests itself as the phenomenon of delayed yielding common to a variety of MGs.

Liu, Z. Y.; Chen, M. W.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

2014-06-01

305

Polyimide polymers provide higher char yield for graphitic structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for manufacture of graphite composites uses high-char-forming processable polyimide resin systems to produce the graphitic matrix. Only three cyclic steps are required to yield a 99.7 percent graphite product.

Burns, E. A.; Jones, J. F.; Lubowitz, H. R.

1970-01-01

306

50 CFR 648.20 - Maximum optimum yield (OYs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.20 Maximum optimum yield (OYs...associated with a fishing mortality rate of FMSY . (d) Butterfish—the catch associated with a fishing mortality rate of...

2010-10-01

307

50 CFR 648.20 - Maximum optimum yield (OYs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.20 Maximum optimum yield (OYs...associated with a fishing mortality rate of FMSY . (d) Butterfish—the catch associated with a fishing mortality rate of...

2011-10-01

308

Efficient vlsi yield prediction with consideration of partial correlations  

E-print Network

With the emergence of the deep submicron era, process variations have gained importance in issues related to chip design. The impact of process variations is measured using manufacturing/parametric yield. In order to get an accurate estimate...

Varadan, Sridhar

2009-05-15

309

Effect of grain orientation on tantalum magnetron sputtering yield  

SciTech Connect

The differential sputter yields of tantalum grains during argon ion magnetron sputtering were measured and found to correlate with the atomic packing density in the uppermost atomic layer. Grains with their (110) planes aligned within 15 deg. of the sputtering surface had the highest sputtering yield (0.95 at./ion at 400 eV). Simultaneously, grains oriented so that their (111) planes were within 15 deg. of the sputtering surface had sputtering yields of around two times lower (0.47 at./ion at 400 eV). These results are consistent with the surface sputtering rather than the channeling model. A correlation was found between the number of free atoms on the surface as determined using a facetted surface model and the measured sputtering yield.

Zhang, Z.; Kho Ling; Wickersham, C.E. Jr. [Cabot Corporation, 1255 Kinnear Road, Columbus, Ohio 43212 (United States)

2006-07-15

310

A YIELD-FACTOR MODEL OF INTEREST RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a consistent and arbitrage-free multifactor model of the term structure of interest rates in which yields at selected fixed maturities follow a parametric muitivariate Markov diffusion process with \\

Darrell Duffie; Rui Kan

1996-01-01

311

Biaxial Yield Surface Investigation of Polymer-Matrix Composites  

PubMed Central

This article presents a numerical technique for computing the biaxial yield surface of polymer-matrix composites with a given microstructure. Generalized Method of Cells in combination with an Improved Bodner-Partom Viscoplastic model is used to compute the inelastic deformation. The validation of presented model is proved by a fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain test system through uniaxial testing under two different strain rate conditions. On this basis, the manufacturing process thermal residual stress and strain rate effect on the biaxial yield surface of composites are considered. The results show that the effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial yield response is closely dependent on loading conditions. Moreover, biaxial yield strength tends to increase with the increasing strain rate. PMID:23529150

Ye, Junjie; Qiu, Yuanying; Zhai, Zhi; He, Zhengjia

2013-01-01

312

Biaxial yield surface investigation of polymer-matrix composites.  

PubMed

This article presents a numerical technique for computing the biaxial yield surface of polymer-matrix composites with a given microstructure. Generalized Method of Cells in combination with an Improved Bodner-Partom Viscoplastic model is used to compute the inelastic deformation. The validation of presented model is proved by a fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain test system through uniaxial testing under two different strain rate conditions. On this basis, the manufacturing process thermal residual stress and strain rate effect on the biaxial yield surface of composites are considered. The results show that the effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial yield response is closely dependent on loading conditions. Moreover, biaxial yield strength tends to increase with the increasing strain rate. PMID:23529150

Ye, Junjie; Qiu, Yuanying; Zhai, Zhi; He, Zhengjia

2013-01-01

313

7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. (a) Production reports must be provided to the crop...

2014-01-01

314

Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress  

PubMed Central

Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulatory network and identified a transcription factor HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) associated with PCM, which on expression in rice enhances photosynthesis under multiple environmental conditions, determining a morpho-physiological programme leading to higher grain yield under normal, drought and high-temperature stress conditions. We show HYR is a master regulator, directly activating photosynthesis genes, cascades of transcription factors and other downstream genes involved in PCM and yield stability under drought and high-temperature environmental stress conditions. PMID:25358745

Ambavaram, Madana M. R.; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

2014-01-01

315

31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart? 351...BONDS, SERIES EE Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings...market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart? We...

2010-07-01

316

The yield strength of subliquidus basalts — experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield strength is an important property of particle-fluid suspensions. In basaltic lavas that crystallize during flow emplacement, the onset of yield strength may result in threshold transitions in flow behavior and flow surface morphology. However, yield strength-crystallinity relations are poorly known, particularly in geologic suspensions, where difficulties of experimental and field measurements have limited data acquisition in the subliquidus temperature range. Here we describe two complementary experimental approaches designed to examine the effect of particle shape on the low-shear yield strength of subliquidus basalts. The first involves melting cubes of holocrystalline basalt samples with different initial textures to determine the temperature (crystallinity) at which these samples lose their cubic form. These experiments provide information on the minimum crystal volume fractions (0.20< ?<0.35) required to maintain the structual integrity of the cube. The second set of experiments uses suspensions of corn syrup and neutrally buoyant particles to isolate the effect of particle shape on yield strength development. From these experiments, we conclude that the shape is important in determining the volume fraction range over which suspensions exhibit a finite yield strength. As anisotropic particles may orient during flow, the effect of particle shape will be controlled by the orientation distribution of the constituent particles. We find that the so-called 'excluded volume' can be used to relate results of experiments on anisotropic particles to those of suspensions of spherical particles. Recent measurements of yield strength onset in basaltic melts at crystal volume fractions near 0.25 are consistent with our observations that crystal frameworks develop at low to moderate crystal volume fractions when crystals are anisotropic (e.g. plagioclase). We further suggest that conditions leading to yield strength onset at low crystallinities include rapid cooling (increased crystal anisotropy), heterogeneous nucleation (which promotes extensive crystal clustering and large cluster anisotropy) and static conditions (random crystal orientations).

Hoover, S. R.; Cashman, K. V.; Manga, M.

2001-06-01

317

Light yield of liquid and solid xenon irradiated with ?-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the absolute light yield of liquid and solid xenon (LXe and SXe respectively) irradiated with ?-rays with energies from 320 keV to 1770 keV. With our method, which consisted of comparing the light yield of LXeSXe with that of BaF2, we found a value of (24±3)×103 photons\\/MeV. This means we estimate the Ws-value to be (42±6) eV.

R. van Sonsbeek; C. W. E. van Eijk; R. W. Hollander

1995-01-01

318

USE OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE-ALKALI FOR HIGH YIELD PULPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nonsulfur delignification of wood with chlorine dioxide-alkali to provide high-yield pulps nonuniformity of oxidation across chips is overcome by pressurized fiberization. Subsequent limited reaction with chlorine dioxide, at least one quarter of which can be replaced by the chemical equivalent amount of chlorine, modifies lignin facilitating its removal by alkali at below 100°C. High-yield unbleached softwood and bleached

Gordon A. Nicholls

319

Effect of particle size on the alcohol yield from corn  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size on the conversion of corn to ethanol. Standard analytical procedures were used to measure carbohydrates, sugar, and alcohol. The highest yield obtained was 2.4 gal/bu with the average being 1.8 gal/bu. The results showed that particle size has little effect on alcohol yield. 7 refs.

Gantt, R.E.; Hegg, R.O.

1981-01-01

320

The yield behavior of polyethylene tubes subjected to biaxial loadings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-density polyethylene is subjected to biaxial states of stress to examine the yield behavior of the semicrystalline thermoplastic under constant octahedral shear-stress rates. Combinations of internal pressures and axial loads are applied to thin-walled tubes of polyethylene, and the strain response in the axial and hoop directions are measured. The polyethylene specimens are found to be anisotropic, and the experimental measurements are compared to yield criteria that are applicable to isotropic and anisotropic materials.

Semeliss, M.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M.

1990-01-01

321

Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.  

PubMed

Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions. PMID:25621333

Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

2015-01-22

322

Z{gamma}{gamma}{gamma} {yields} 0 Processes in SANC  

SciTech Connect

We describe the analytic and numerical evaluation of the {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}Z process cross section and the Z {yields} {gamma}{gamma}{gamma} decay rate within the SANC system multi-channel approach at the one-loop accuracy level with all masses taken into account. The corresponding package for numeric calculations is presented. For checking of the results' correctness we make a comparison with the other independent calculations.

Bardin, D. Yu., E-mail: bardin@nu.jinr.ru; Kalinovskaya, L. V., E-mail: kalinov@nu.jinr.ru; Uglov, E. D., E-mail: corner@nu.jinr.ru [JINR, Dzhelepov Laboratory for Nuclear Problems (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15

323

Maximum energy yield approach for CPV tracker design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foton HC Systems has developed a new CPV tracker model, specially focused on its tracking efficiency and the effect of the tracker control techniques on the final energy yield of the system. This paper presents the theoretical work carried out into determining the energy yield for a CPV system, and illustrates the steps involved in calculating and understanding how energy consumption for tracking is opposed to tracker pointing errors. Additionally, the expressions to compute the optimum parameters are presented and discussed.

Aldaiturriaga, E.; González, O.; Castro, M.

2012-10-01

324

Maximum photosynthetic yield of green microalgae in photobioreactors.  

PubMed

The biomass yield on light energy of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlorella sorokiniana was investigated in a 1.25- and 2.15-cm light path panel photobioreactor at constant ingoing photon flux density (930 µmol photons m?²?s?¹). At the optimal combination of biomass density and dilution rate, equal biomass yields on light energy were observed for both light paths for both microalgae. The observed biomass yield on light energy appeared to be based on a constant intrinsic biomass yield and a constant maintenance energy requirement per gram biomass. Using the model of Pirt (New Phytol 102:3-37, 1986), a biomass yield on light energy of 0.78 and 0.75 g?mol photons?¹ and a maintenance requirement of 0.0133 and 0.0068 mol photons g?¹?h?¹ were found for D. tertiolecta and C. sorokiniana, respectively. The observed yield decreases steeply at low light supply rates, and according to this model, this is related to the increase of the amount of useable light energy diverted to biomass maintenance. With this study, we demonstrated that the observed biomass yield on light in short light path bioreactors at high biomass densities decreases because maintenance requirements are relatively high at these conditions. All our experimental data for the two strains tested could be described by the physiological models of Pirt (New Phytol 102:3-37, 1986). Consequently, for the design of a photobioreactor, we should maintain a relatively high specific light supply rate. A process with high biomass densities and high yields at high light intensities can only be obtained in short light path photobioreactors. PMID:20177951

Zijffers, Jan-Willem F; Schippers, Klaske J; Zheng, Ke; Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H

2010-11-01

325

Maximum Photosynthetic Yield of Green Microalgae in Photobioreactors  

PubMed Central

The biomass yield on light energy of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlorella sorokiniana was investigated in a 1.25- and 2.15-cm light path panel photobioreactor at constant ingoing photon flux density (930 µmol photons m?2?s?1). At the optimal combination of biomass density and dilution rate, equal biomass yields on light energy were observed for both light paths for both microalgae. The observed biomass yield on light energy appeared to be based on a constant intrinsic biomass yield and a constant maintenance energy requirement per gram biomass. Using the model of Pirt (New Phytol 102:3–37, 1986), a biomass yield on light energy of 0.78 and 0.75 g?mol photons?1 and a maintenance requirement of 0.0133 and 0.0068 mol photons g?1?h?1 were found for D. tertiolecta and C. sorokiniana, respectively. The observed yield decreases steeply at low light supply rates, and according to this model, this is related to the increase of the amount of useable light energy diverted to biomass maintenance. With this study, we demonstrated that the observed biomass yield on light in short light path bioreactors at high biomass densities decreases because maintenance requirements are relatively high at these conditions. All our experimental data for the two strains tested could be described by the physiological models of Pirt (New Phytol 102:3–37, 1986). Consequently, for the design of a photobioreactor, we should maintain a relatively high specific light supply rate. A process with high biomass densities and high yields at high light intensities can only be obtained in short light path photobioreactors. PMID:20177951

Zijffers, Jan-Willem F.; Schippers, Klaske J.; Zheng, Ke; Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes

2010-01-01

326

Measuring the yield stress in magnetorheological fluids using ultrasounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose a method to accurately determine the yield stress in magnetorheological (MR) fluids using ultrasounds. The setup is constructed, and experimental data are obtained on a model conventional MR fluid under steady shear stress ramp-up tests. By using video-microscopy, ultrasonic techniques, and rheometry simultaneously, it is possible to precisely determine the yield stress at experimentally accessible times.

Rodríguez-López, Jaime; Elvira, Luis; Montero de Espinosa Freijo, Francisco; Bossis, Georges; de Vicente, Juan

2013-02-01

327

Ecoinformatics Reveals Effects of Crop Rotational Histories on Cotton Yield  

PubMed Central

Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:24465657

Meisner, Matthew H.; Rosenheim, Jay A.

2014-01-01

328

Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement.  

PubMed

Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Global soybean production and yield per hectare increased steadily over the past century with improved agronomy and development of cultivars suited to a wide range of latitudes. In order to meet the needs of a growing world population without unsustainable expansion of the land area devoted to this crop, yield must increase at a faster rate than at present. Here, the historical basis for the yield gains realized in the past 90 years are examined together with potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Optimization of investment in photosynthetic enzymes, bypassing photorespiratory metabolism, engineering the electron transport chain and engineering a faster recovery from the photoprotected state are different strategies to improve photosynthesis in soybean. These potential improvements in photosynthetic carbon gain will need to be matched by increased carbon and nitrogen transport to developing soybean pods and seeds in order to maximize the benefit. Better understanding of control of carbon and nitrogen transport along with improved knowledge of the regulation of flower initiation and abortion will be needed to optimize sink capacity in soybean. Although few single targets are likely to deliver a quantum leap in yields, biotechnological advances in molecular breeding techniques that allow for alteration of the soybean genome and transcriptome promise significant yield gains. PMID:21689112

Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Yendrek, Craig R; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Long, Stephen P

2012-01-01

329

Quantitative generalizations for catchment sediment yield following forest logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

data for temperate forests across the world are analyzed to investigate the potential for generalized quantitative expressions of catchment sediment yield impact in the years immediately following logging. Such generalizations would be useful in a variety of forestry and engineering tasks and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. Data were assembled for paired catchment studies (51 catchments including 16 controls) that enabled the postlogging sediment yield impact to be compared with both the prelogging period and an undisturbed control catchment, using a specially defined relative response factor. Three categories of impact were derived: low-moderate, high, and very high, defined by specific ranges in the maximum value of the relative response factor. The maximum increase in specific sediment yield (in t km-2 yr-1) following logging is 1 order of magnitude above the control sediment yield at both the annual and storm event scales, at least under normal circumstances of Best Management Practice. There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield and the proportion of catchment logged, at least at the general scale. A cumulative probability distribution for the year in which the maximum postlogging sediment yield occurs, shows the majority of cases falling in the first 2 years. These generalizations refer to the broad response to logging as a function of ground disturbance, for example, by logging technique, roads, and burning. Although limited to order of magnitude quantification, they provide a basis for first estimates and for a general appreciation of an impact problem.

Bathurst, James C.; Iroumé, Andrés.

2014-11-01

330

A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage-reliability-yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series.

Kuria, Faith W.; Vogel, Richard M.

2014-09-01

331

Calculation of Delayed Neutron Yields for Various Libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the comparison between the total delayed neutron yields (?dbar) calculated and the recommended values proposed by Tuttle, the experimental data of Waldo and those of Benedetti. These data are given for thermal, fast, and high energy fission ranges. The calculation of total delayed neutron yields is performed either by the NJOY nuclear data processing system or by the summation method. The decay data found in the various evaluations as the delayed neutron branching ratios (Pn) and the cumulative fission yields (CY) can also be validated by delayed neutron yield calculation using the summation method. In the first method, where the treatment is performed by the NJOY system, the general purpose evaluation files (JEFF-3, JEF-2, ENDF/B-VII.0 and ENDF/B-VI.4 were considered. In the summation calculation, the data used are the delayed neutron branching ratios (also called delayed neutron emission probabilities) and the cumulative fission yields that are given for thermal, fast, high energy fission and spontaneous fission. These data are found in the Radioactive Decay Data and Fission Yield Data files (File 8) of nuclear data evaluations. In this study, we also perform a benchmark calculation with various libraries: JEF-2.2, JEFF3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL/FP-2011.

Huynh, T. D.; Jouanne, C.

2014-04-01

332

Sensitivity of simulated maize crop yields to regional climate in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of maize yield to the regional climate in the Southwestern United States (SW US) has been investigated by using a crop-yield simulation model (APSIM) in conjunction with meteorological forcings (daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and radiation) from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. The primary focus of this study is to look at the effects of interannual variations of atmospheric components on the crop productivity in the SW US over the 21-year period (1991 to 2011). First of all, characteristics and performance of APSIM was examined by comparing simulated maize yields with observed yields from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the leaf-area index (LAI) from MODIS satellite data. Comparisons of the simulated maize yield with the available observations show that the crop model can reasonably reproduce observed maize yields. Sensitivity tests were performed to assess the relative contribution of each climate driver to regional crop yield. Sensitivity experiments show that potential crop production responds nonlinearly to climate drivers and the yield sensitivity varied among geographical locations depending on their mean climates. Lastly, a detailed analysis of both the spatial and temporal variations of each climate driver in the regions where maize is actually grown in three states (CA, AZ, and NV) in the SW US was performed.

Kim, S.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kim, J.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kafatos, M.

2013-12-01

333

High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 × 109 n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 ?s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T.; Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A.; Jones, G.

2013-04-01

334

High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction  

SciTech Connect

A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 {mu}s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi technology, 2003 E. Bayshore Rd. 94061, Redwood City, CA (United States); Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jones, G. [G and J Enterprise, 1258 Quary Ln, Suite F, Pleasanton California 94566 (United States)

2013-04-19

335

Sputter yields of Mo, Ti, W, Al, Ag under xenon ion incidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sputter yield is an important material parameter not only for various surface treatment techniques, but also for electric spacecraft propulsion. Many satellite or thruster components might be subject of erosion due to energetic and/or related secondary ions. In order to estimate the lifetime of these components the sputter yield under xenon ion incidence has to be known in dependence on ion energy and incidence angle, mainly in the low energy region (i.e. below 1500 eV). However, for many materials related to electric propulsion the supply of sputter yield data in literature is quite poor. Therefore, in this study the sputter yields of molybdenum, titanium, tungsten, silver and aluminium was investigated under xenon ion incidence.

Tartz, M.; Heyn, T.; Bundesmann, C.; Zimmermann, C.; Neumann, H.

2011-02-01

336

Estimates of spatial and temporal variation of energy crops biomass yields in the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) have been identified for potential use as biomass feedstocks in the US. Current research on perennial grass biomass production has been evaluated on small-scale plots. However, the extent to which this potential can be realized at a landscape-scale will depend on the biophysical potential to grow these grasses with minimum possible amount of land that needs to be diverted from food to fuel production. To assess this potential three questions about the biomass yield for these grasses need to be answered: (1) how the yields for different grasses are varied spatially and temporally across the US; (2) whether the yields are temporally stable or not; and (3) how the spatial and temporal trends in yields of these perennial grasses are controlled by limiting factors, including soil type, water availability, climate, and crop varieties. To answer these questions, the growth processes of the perennial grasses are implemented into a coupled biophysical, physiological and biogeochemical model (ISAM). The model has been applied to quantitatively investigate the spatial and temporal trends in biomass yields for over the period 1980 -2010 in the US. The bioenergy grasses considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock switchgrass and Alamo switchgrass. The effects of climate, soil and topography on the spatial and temporal trends of biomass yields are quantitatively analyzed using principal component analysis and GIS based geographically weighted regression. The spatial temporal trend results are evaluated further to classify each part of the US into four homogeneous potential yield zones: high and stable yield zone (HS), high but unstable yield zone (HU), low and stable yield zone (LS) and low but unstable yield zone (LU). Our preliminary results indicate that the yields for perennial grasses among different zones are strongly related to the different controlling factors. For example, the yield in HS zone is depended on soil and topography factors. However, the yields in HU zone are more controlled by climate factors, leading to a large uncertainty in yield potential of bioenergy grasses under future climate change.

Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

2013-12-01

337

Synthesis of (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan in the Golgi apparatus of maize coleoptiles  

SciTech Connect

Membranes of the Golgi apparatus from maize (Zea mays L.) were used to synthesize in vitro the (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan (MG) that is unique to the cell wall of the Poaceae. The MG was about 250 kDa and was separated from a much larger (1 [yields] 3)-[beta]-D-glucan (callose) by gel-permeation chromatography. Diagnostic oligosaccharides, released by a sequence-dependent endoglucanase from Bacillus subtilis, were separated by HPLC and GLC. The trisaccharide [beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, the tetrasaccharide [[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)][sub 2]-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, and longer cellodextrin-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc oligosaccharides were synthesized in proportions similar to those found in purified MG. Activated charcoal added during homogenization enhanced synthesis of MG, presumably by removing inhibitory compounds. The Golgi apparatus was determined as the site of synthesis by a combination of downward and flotation centrifugations on sucrose step gradients. The rate of synthesis did not reach saturation at up to 10 mM UDP-Glc. Chelators completely abolished synthesis, but synthase activity was restored by addition of either MgCl[sub 2] or, to a lesser extent, MnCl[sub 2]. Synthesis continued for well over 1 h; addition of KOH to raise the pH from 7.2 to 8.0 during the reaction increased the rate of synthesis, which indicates that a transmembrane pH gradient may facilitate synthesis of MG. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

1993-05-01

338

Estimation of corn and soybeans yield using remote sensing and crop yield data in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crop yield estimation is essential for the food security and the economic development of any nation. Particularly, the United States is the world largest grain exporter, and the total amount of corn exported from the U.S. accounted for 49.2% of the world corn trade in 2010 and 2011. Thus, accurate estimation of crop yield in U.S. is very significant for not only the U.S. crop producers but also decision makers of food importing countries. Estimating the crop yield using remote sensing data plays an important role in the Agricultural Sector, and it is actively discussed and studied in many countries. This is because remote sensing can observe the large areas repetitively. Consequently, the use of various techniques based on remote sensing data is steadily increasing to accurately estimate for crop yield. Therefore, the objective of this study is to estimate the accurate yield of corn and soybeans using climate dataset of PRISM climate group and Terra/MODIS products in the United States. We construct the crop yield estimation model for the decade (2001-2010) and perform predictions and validation for 2011 and 2012.

Kim, Nari; Lee, Yang-Won

2014-10-01

339

QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT) based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for days to 50% flowering (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?14.3), panicles per plant (R2?=?19%, LOD?=?9.74), flag leaf length (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?3.05), flag leaf width (R2?=?53%, LOD?=?46.5), spikelets per panicle (R2?=?16%, LOD?=?13.8), filled grains per panicle (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?15.3), percent spikelet sterility (R2?=?18%, LOD?=?14.24), thousand grain weight (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?12.9) and spikelet setting density (R2?=?23%, LOD?=?15) expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2) ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709) on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits were distributed among two subspecies of rice and QTLs were co-localized in different genomic regions. QTL hotspots will be useful for understanding the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits and selection for beneficial allele at these loci will result in a cumulative increase in yield due to the integrative positive effect of various QTLs. The information generated in the present study will be useful to fine map and to identify the genes underlying major robust QTLs and to transfer all favourable QTLs to one genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield for sustained food security. PMID:22876968

2012-01-01

340

Possible changes to arable crop yields by 2050  

PubMed Central

By 2050, the world population is likely to be 9.1 billion, the CO2 concentration 550 ppm, the ozone concentration 60 ppb and the climate warmer by ca 2°C. In these conditions, what contribution can increased crop yield make to feeding the world? CO2 enrichment is likely to increase yields of most crops by approximately 13 per cent but leave yields of C4 crops unchanged. It will tend to reduce water consumption by all crops, but this effect will be approximately cancelled out by the effect of the increased temperature on evaporation rates. In many places increased temperature will provide opportunities to manipulate agronomy to improve crop performance. Ozone concentration increases will decrease yields by 5 per cent or more. Plant breeders will probably be able to increase yields considerably in the CO2-enriched environment of the future, and most weeds and airborne pests and diseases should remain controllable, so long as policy changes do not remove too many types of crop-protection chemicals. However, soil-borne pathogens are likely to be an increasing problem when warmer weather will increase their multiplication rates; control is likely to need a transgenic approach to breeding for resistance. There is a large gap between achievable yields and those delivered by farmers, even in the most efficient agricultural systems. A gap is inevitable, but there are large differences between farmers, even between those who have used the same resources. If this gap is closed and accompanied by improvements in potential yields then there is a good prospect that crop production will increase by approximately 50 per cent or more by 2050 without extra land. However, the demands for land to produce bio-energy have not been factored into these calculations. PMID:20713388

Jaggard, Keith W.; Qi, Aiming; Ober, Eric S.

2010-01-01

341

Quantitative analysis of factors controlling sediment yield in mountainous watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and turbidity are primary causes of impaired river ecosystems; remedial action for these impairments requires the identification of their sources and controlling factors. This paper examines the combined effects of watershed complexity in terms of land use and physiography on the specific sediment yield of the upper Du River watershed (8973 km2) in China. The land use composition, land use pattern, morphometric variables, and soil properties of the watershed were calculated at the subwatershed scale and considered to be potentially influential factors. Because these watershed characteristics are highly codependent, a partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the linkages between the specific sediment yield and metrics composed of 19 selected watershed characteristics. The first-order factors were identified by calculating the variable importance for the projection (VIP). The results revealed that the land use composition and land use pattern exerted the largest effects on the specific sediment yield and explained 65.2% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. A set of physiographic indices was also found to have a large effect on the specific sediment yield and explained 17.7% of the observed variation in the specific sediment yield. The following are the dominant first-order factors of the specific sediment yield at the subwatershed scale: the areal percentages of agriculture and forest, patch density, value of the Shannon's diversity index, contagion, value of the hypsometric integral, and saturated soil hydraulic conductivity. The watershed size exerted a substantial effect on the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). The VIP values also suggested that the Shannon's diversity index, contagion, and hypsometric integral are important factors in the SDR. With a readily available digital spatial database and rapid developments in geographic information system (GIS) technology, this practical and simple PLSR approach could be applied to a variety of watersheds.

Shi, Z. H.; Huang, X. D.; Ai, L.; Fang, N. F.; Wu, G. L.

2014-12-01

342

Crop structure effect on Vicia sativa L. and Vicia villosa Roth seed yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Vicia spp. (Vicia villosa Roth and V. sativa L. cv. Marianna) plant densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 plants.m-2) and oat mixture ratios (30:90, 60:60, 90:30, 50:90, 100:60 and 150:30 plants.m-2 Vicia spp and Avena sativa) on seed yield and yield components were observed at EEA H Ascasubi (39º 22' S, 62º 39' O) in 2006. The

Estación Experimental

343

Integrated Evaluation to High Yield and Water-saving of Winter Wheat in North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation to high yield and water-saving for improving water use efficiency (WUE) of crops is becoming important in irrigated farming and dry farming. Field experiments with 7 winter wheat varieties under 2 levels of irrigation were conducted in Luancheng Experiment Station (37°53´N,140°40´E; 50m above the sea level) during 2001 to 2002. The growth and development of yield and its components,

Baodi Dong; Mengyu Liu

344

Effect of media on spore yield and thermal resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interference of eight components in the yield of sporulation and thermal resistance to moist heat (121C) of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in 0.02 M calcium acetate solution and inoculated on paper strips previously treated with calcium acetate\\/calcium hydroxide was studied.\\u000a The spore yield of 1.0108\\/mL was developed at 62C in 17 media containing different concentrations of d-glucose, sodium chloride,

Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna; Irene A. Machoshvili; Marina Ishii

2003-01-01

345

Artificial lighting during winter increases milk yield in dairy ewes.  

PubMed

In Australia, the supply of sheep milk is reduced during the winter. Housing dairy animals under lights during winter is a simple technique to increase milk yield; however, it is difficult to predict the magnitude of this increase in dairy ewes, because there are few corroborating data. We studied 220 East Friesian crossbred ewes (50 primiparous and 170 multiparous ewes, respectively) that lambed in April to May 2007 (late autumn, southern hemisphere) and were weaned from their lambs within 24 h of parturition and milked exclusively by machine. These ewes were ranked according to their milk production, and ewes producing > or =1,000 mL/d of milk were allocated to 1 of 2 groups. One group of ewes was kept indoors under a long-day photoperiod (16 h of light), whereas the other group was kept indoors under a naturally declining day length. Ewes were maintained under these conditions for 8 wk. Milk yield was measured twice weekly, and ewe weight and condition were measured at weekly intervals. From a subset of ewes (n = 20 per group), milk samples were collected twice weekly at the morning milking to measure milk lipid, protein, and lactose, and blood samples were collected once a week to measure plasma prolactin concentrations. Mean daily milk yield was analyzed as a percentage of preexperimental milk yield because the milk yield of ewes housed under the long photoperiod was lower than that of ewes under a declining day length when the treatments began. Thus, the ewes under a long photoperiod yielded 91.7% of their starting yield by wk 8 of treatment, whereas ewes under a declining day length yielded 76.25% of their initial value (LSD = 5.1), and this divergence in milk yield was apparent by wk 2 of treatment. Mean plasma prolactin levels were greater in ewes housed under the long-day photoperiod (n = 20) compared with control ewes (n = 20) at wk 6 (168 +/- 27 vs. 72 +/- 19 ng/mL, respectively), wk 7 (125 +/- 28 vs. 37 +/- 7 ng/mL, respectively), and wk 8 of the experiment (132 +/- 35 vs. 31 +/- 7 ng/mL, respectively). The composition of the milk was similar between the groups at each time point, and milk from these ewes (n = 20 per group) contained, on average, 6.1 +/- 0.05% lipid, 4.8 +/- 0.02% protein, and 5.4 +/- 0.01% lactose (n = 309 samples). We concluded that ewes increase milk production in response to being housed under a long-day photoperiod during winter. PMID:18946128

Morrissey, A D; Cameron, A W N; Tilbrook, A J

2008-11-01

346

Preventing pesticide contamination of groundwater while maximizing irrigated crop yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation/optimization model is developed for maximizing irrigated crop yield while avoiding unacceptable pesticide leaching. The optimization model is designed to help managers prevent non-point source contamination of shallow groundwater aquifers. It computes optimal irrigation amounts for given soil, crop, chemical, and weather data and irrigation frequencies. It directly computes the minimum irrigated crop yield reduction needed to prevent groundwater contamination. Constraint equations used in the model maintain a layered soil moisture volume balance; describe percolation, downward unsaturated zone solute transport and pesticide degradation; and limit the amount of pesticide reaching groundwater. Constraints are linear, piecewise linear, nonlinear, and exponential. The problem is solved using nonlinear programming optimization. The model is tested for different scenarios of irrigating corn. The modeling approach is promising as a tool to aid in the development of environmentally sound agricultural production practices. It allows direct estimation of trade-offs between crop production and groundwater protection for different management approaches. More frequent irrigation tends to give better crop yield and reduce solute movement. Trade-offs decrease with increasing irrigation frequency. More frequent irrigation reduces yield loss due to moisture stress and requires less water to fill the root zone to field capacity. This prevents the solute from moving to deeper soil layers. Yield-environmental quality trade-offs are smaller for deeper groundwater tables because deeper groundwater allows more time for chemical degradation.

Peralta, R. C.; Hegazy, M. A.; Musharrafieh, G. R.

1994-11-01

347

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses.  

PubMed

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale. PMID:20365392

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Jörg

2010-01-01

348

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2010-01-15

349

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Jörg

2010-01-01

350

Measurement of the Helicity Difference in {gamma}{sup {yields}p{yields}{yields}p{pi}+{pi}-} with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W {approx_equal} 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a ''complete'' experiment for the reaction {gamma}N{yields}KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

Park, Sungkyun [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306 (United States)

2010-08-05

351

Water yield issues in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The jarrah forest of south-western Australia produces little streamflow from moderate rainfall. Water yield from water supply catchments for Perth, Western Australia, are low, averaging 71 mm (7% of annual rainfall). The low water yields are attributed to the large soil water storage available for continuous use by the forest vegetation. A number of water yield studies in south-western Australia have examined the impact on water yield of land use practices including clearing for agricultural development, forest harvesting and regeneration, forest thinning and bauxite mining. A permanent reduction in forest cover by clearing for agriculture led to permanent increases of water yield of approximately 28% of annual rainfall in a high rainfall catchment. Thinning of a high rainfall catchment led to an increase in water yield of 20% of annual rainfall. However, it is not clear for how long the increased water yield will persist. Forest harvesting and regeneration have led to water yield increases of 16% of annual rainfall. The subsequent recovery of vegetation cover has led to water yields returning to pre-disturbance levels after an estimated 12-15 years. Bauxite mining of a high rainfall catchment led to a water yield increase of 8% of annual rainfall, followed by a return to pre-disturbance water yield after 12 years. The magnitude of specific streamflow generation mechanisms in small catchments subject to forest disturbance vary considerably, typically in a number of distinct stages. The presence of a permanent groundwater discharge area was shown to be instrumental in determining the magnitude of the streamflow response after forest disturbance. The long-term prognosis for water yield from areas subject to forest thinning, harvesting and regeneration, and bauxite mining are uncertain, owing to the complex interrelationship between vegetation cover, tree height and age, and catchment evapotranspiration. Management of the forest for water yield needs to acknowledge this complexity and evaluate forest management strategies both at the large catchment scale and at long time-scales. The extensive network of small catchment experiments, regional studies, process studies and catchment modelling at both the small and large scale, which are carried out in the jarrah forest, are all considered as integral components of the research to develop these management strategies to optimise water yield from the jarrah forest, without forfeiting other forest values.

Ruprecht, J. K.; Stoneman, G. L.

1993-10-01

352

Sputtering yield of Pu bombarded by fission Fragments from Cf  

SciTech Connect

We present results on the yield of sputtering of Pu atoms from a Pu foil, bombarded by fission fragments from a {sup 252}Cf source in transmission geometry. We have found the number of Pu atoms/incoming fission fragments ejected to be 63 {+-} 1. In addition, we show measurements of the sputtering yield as a function of distance from the central axis, which can be understood as an angular distribution of the yield. The results are quite surprising in light of the fact that the Pu foil is several times the thickness of the range of fission fragment particles in Pu. This indicates that models like the binary collision model are not sufficient to explain this behavior.

Danagoulian, Areg [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcneil, Wendy V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yuan, Vincent W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

353

X-1: The challenge of high fusion yield  

SciTech Connect

In the past three years, tremendous strides have been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy and power output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources have great potential to drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. Technical challenges in three key areas are discussed in this paper: (1) the design of a target for high yield, (2) the development of a suitable pulsed power driver, and (3) the design of a target chamber capable of containing the high fusion yield.

Cook, D.L.; Ramirez, J.J.; Raglin, P.S. [and others

1998-06-01

354

Pyrolysis of wood to biochar: increasing yield while maintaining microporosity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if biochar yield could be increased by the deposition of volatile pyrolysis species within the bed during production, without negatively influencing the microporosity and adsorption properties. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood chips were loaded into three vertically stacked zones within a reactor and heated in nitrogen to temperatures between 420 and 650°C (i.e., pyrolyzed). The yield did increase from the zone at the reactor inlet to the subsequent zones as volatile species deposited and carbonized, and importantly, the carbonized deposits had a similar microporous structure and organic vapor uptake (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) to that of the primary biochar. Based on these results, bio-oil from previous runs at 600°C was recycled to the bed, which further increased the yield while maintaining the desirable adsorption properties of the biochar. PMID:24365739

Veksha, Andrei; McLaughlin, Hugh; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

2014-02-01

355

Specific Yield--Column drainage and centrifuge moisture content  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The specific yield of a rock or soil, with respect to water, is the ratio of (1) the volume of water which, after being saturated, it will yield by gravity to (2) its own volume. Specific retention represents the water retained against gravity drainage. The specific yield and retention when added together are equal to the total interconnected porosity of the rock or soil. Because specific retention is more easily determined than specific yield, most methods for obtaining yield first require the determination of specific retention. Recognizing the great need for developing improved methods of determining the specific yield of water-bearing materials, the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Department of Water Resources initiated a cooperative investigation of this subject. The major objectives of this research are (1) to review pertinent literature on specific yield and related subjects, (2) to increase basic knowledge of specific yield and rate of drainage and to determine the most practical methods of obtaining them, (3) to compare and to attempt to correlate the principal laboratory and field methods now commonly used to obtain specific yield, and (4) to obtain improved estimates of specific yield of water-bearing deposits in California. An open-file report, 'Specific yield of porous media, an annotated bibliography,' by A. I. Johnson, D. A. Morris, and R. C. Prill, was released in 1960 in partial fulfillment of the first objective. This report describes the second phase of the specific-yield study by the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Laboratory at Denver, Colo. Laboratory research on column drainage and centrifuge moisture equivalent, two methods for estimating specific retention of porous media, is summarized. In the column-drainage study, a wide variety of materials was packed into plastic columns of 1- to 8-inch diameter, wetted with Denver tap water, and drained under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The effects of cleaning the porous media; of different column diameters; of dye and time on drainage; and of different methods of drainage, wetting, and packing were all determined. To insure repeatability of porosity in duplicate columns, a mechanical technique of packing was developed. In the centrifuge moisture-content study, the centrifuge moisture-equivalent (the moisture content retained by a soil that has been first saturated and then subjected to a force equal to 1,000 times the force of gravity for 1 hour) test was first reviewed and evaluated. It was determined that for reproducible moisture-retention results the temperature and humidity should be controlled by use of a controlled-temperature centrifuge. In addition to refining this standard test, the study determined the effect of length of period of centrifuging and of applied tension on the drainage results. The plans for future work require the continuation of the laboratory standardization study qith emphasis on investigation of soil-moisture tension and unsaturated-permeability techniques. A detailed study in the field then will be followed by correlation and evaluation of laboratory and field methods.

Johnson, A.I.; Prill, R.C.; Morris, D.A.

1963-01-01

356

Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.  

PubMed

Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-12-01

357

Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission  

SciTech Connect

The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of {sup 235}U nuclei.

Grudzevich, O. T., E-mail: ogrudzevich@ippe.ru; Klinov, D. A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15

358

Estimation of neutron-induced spallation yields of krypton isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure is outlined for estimating cross sections for neutron-induced spallation products relative to those for proton-induced reactions. When combined with known proton spallation systematics, it is demonstrated that cumulative yields for cosmogenically-important stable 84Kr and 86Kr isotopes are ~1.4 and ~2.8 times greater, respectively, for incident neutrons compared to protons at 0.2<=E<=3.0 GeV for nearby medium mass targets. Yields for lighter kryptons are relatively insensitive to the identity of the incident nucleon. NUCLEAR REACTIONS (n, spallation), 0.2<=En<=3.0 GeV, stable Kr product yield estimates from proton spallation systematics.

Karol, Paul J.; Tobin, Michael J.; Shibata, Seiichi

1983-10-01

359

Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of 235U nuclei.

Grudzevich, O. T.; Klinov, D. A.

2013-07-01

360

Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests  

PubMed Central

Local and landscape-scale agricultural intensification is a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Controversially discussed solutions include wildlife-friendly farming or combining high-intensity farming with land-sparing for nature. Here, we integrate biodiversity and crop productivity data for smallholder cacao in Indonesia to exemplify for tropical agroforests that there is little relationship between yield and biodiversity under current management, opening substantial opportunities for wildlife-friendly management. Species richness of trees, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates did not decrease with yield. Moderate shade, adequate labor, and input level can be combined with a complex habitat structure to provide high biodiversity as well as high yields. Although livelihood impacts are held up as a major obstacle for wildlife-friendly farming in the tropics, our results suggest that in some situations, agroforests can be designed to optimize both biodiversity and crop production benefits without adding pressure to convert natural habitat to farmland. PMID:21536873

Clough, Yann; Barkmann, Jan; Juhrbandt, Jana; Kessler, Michael; Wanger, Thomas Cherico; Anshary, Alam; Buchori, Damayanti; Cicuzza, Daniele; Darras, Kevin; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Erasmi, Stefan; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Schmidt, Carsten; Schulze, Christian H.; Seidel, Dominik; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stenchly, Kathrin; Vidal, Stefan; Weist, Maria; Wielgoss, Arno Christian; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-01-01

361

Serrated yielding in Al-Li base alloys  

SciTech Connect

Serrated yielding (SY) has been studied in both substitutional and interstitial solid solutions. Three types of serration have been reported: type A (periodic), type B (fine) and type C (high frequency) serration. This phenomenon, generally referred to as the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, is related to the solute atom-mobile dislocation interactions. Serrated yielding (SY) is observed in conventional aluminum alloys as well as in low-density, high-stiffness Al-Li base alloys, which are used in airframe construction. The aim of this paper is to study such serration and to estimate the influence of strain rate, temperature and composition on the critical strain for serrated yielding in three Al-Li based alloys. The apparent activation energy for SY is evaluated and the influence of quenched-in vacancies and vacancies produced by deformation on {epsilon}{sub c}, is also considered.

Ilic, N.; Jovanovic, M.T.; Markovic, D. [Inst. of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Materials Science] [Inst. of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Materials Science; Drobnjak, D.; Radmilovic, V. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Physical Metallurgy] [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Physical Metallurgy

1996-04-01

362

phi. yields K sup + K sup minus. gamma. and its relation to. phi. yields K sup 0 K sup 0. gamma  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors calculate {Gamma} ({phi} {yields} K{sup +}k{sup {minus}} {gamma}) using Low's soft photon theorem and compare it with a model dependent calculation in which the process proceeds through the chain of decays {phi} {yields} K{sup +} K{sup {minus}} {yields} f{sub 0} + {gamma} {yields} K{sup +} K{sup {minus}} {gamma}.

Alvarado, J.J. (Seccion de Metrologic, Dept. de Ing. Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo, Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07000 (MX)); Lucio, J.L.M.; Vargas, M. (Dept. di Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07000 (MX))

1992-05-10

363

Off-fault Yielding During Dynamic Ruptures: Distribution and Orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use 2D spectral element code to simulate dynamic ruptures on a fault governed by slip- and velocity-weakening friction with off-fault yielding and possible elastic contrast across the fault. The off-fault yielding is implemented with Mohr-Coulomb plasticity, and a continuum brittle damage that accounts for dynamic changes of elastic properties in the yielding zones (Lyakhovsky et al., 1997). The studies attempt to clarify properties of dynamic ruptures and generated yielding zones for different off-fault rheologies, frictional laws, orientations of the maximum regional compressive stress relative to fault ?, values of the seismic S ratio and conditions representing different depth sections. In the current simulations, the damage rheology is used with parameters that prevent off-fault instabilities, leading to results that are generally similar to those obtained with plasticity. The location and extent of the yielding zone are found to depend on ?, seismic S ratio and the crack vs. pulse mode of rupture, in agreement with previous theoretical and numerical studies. The off-fault yielding zone is wide for conditions representing shallow depth and becomes progressively localized for conditions representing deeper sections. The intensity of plasticity/damage for both rupture modes is enhanced for larger regional stress, but the width can be suppressed due to higher confining pressure and larger rock cohesion. The angle ? representing expected microcrack orientations is generally shallow (less than 45 degrees) on the compressional side and steep (greater than 45 degrees) on the extensional side. The ? values depend also on the S ratio, conditions representing different depth sections, rupture speed, and existence of velocity contrast across the fault. The latter produces steeper angles of ? on the compliant side compared to the stiffer side for situations representing the same type (extension or compression) of quadrant.

Xu, S.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.

2010-12-01

364

How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker & Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2012) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Kinney & Graham, 1985). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.

2012-04-01

365

Cryoradiolytic reduction of heme proteins: Maximizing dose-dependent yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiolytic reduction in frozen solutions and crystals is a useful method for generation of trapped intermediates in protein-based radical reactions. In this communication we define the conditions which provide the maximum yield of one electron-reduced myoglobin at 77 K using 60Co ?-irradiation in aqueous glycerol glass. The yield reached 50% after 20 kGy, was almost complete at ˜160 kGy total dose, and does not depend on the protein concentration in the range 0.01-5 mM.

Denisov, Ilia G.; Victoria, Doreen C.; Sligar, Stephen G.

2007-04-01

366

Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements  

SciTech Connect

A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

2011-04-06

367

Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report  

SciTech Connect

To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

2009-12-01

368

Nitric oxide ferrohemes: kinetics of formation and photodissociation quantum yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum yield for NO photodissociation from iron protoporphyrin 1-methylimidazole nitrosyl, FePP(1-MeIm)(NO), in the presence of excess 1-MeIm is wavelength independent, phi⁠= 0.08-0.1, and the NO binding rate to the five coordinate heme, Fe(PP)(1-MeIm), is Kâ\\/sup NO\\/ = 1.7 +\\/- 0.7 x 10⁸ M⁻¹ s⁻¹; for Fe(PP)(NO), phi⁠= 0.05-0.08. This quantum yield is much higher than believed earlier

Emily J. Rose; Brian M. Hoffman

1983-01-01

369

Fission fizzles: Estimating the yield of a predetonated nuclear weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An undergraduate-level model is developed for estimating the fraction of the design yield that can be realized if a uranium or a plutonium fission bomb suffers an uncontrolled predetonation due to a spontaneous fission of the fissile material. The model is based on the combination of one published earlier for the predetonation probability and a yield model developed by Mark et al. ["Explosive properties of reactor-grade plutonium," Sci. Global Secur. 17 (2), 170-185 (2009); a reprint of the same paper published in Sci. Global Secur. 4 (1), 111-128 (1993)].

Cameron Reed, B.

2011-07-01

370

Cryoradiolytic reduction of heme proteins: Maximizing dose dependent yield  

PubMed Central

Radiolytic reduction in frozen solutions and crystals is a useful method for generation of trapped intermediates in protein based radical reactions. In this communication we define the conditions which provide the maximum yield of one electron reduced myoglobin at 77 K using 60Co ?-irradiation in aqueous glycerol glass. The yield reached 50% after 20 kGy, was almost complete at ?160 kGy total dose, and does not depend on the protein concentration in the range 0.01 – 5 mM. PMID:18379640

Denisov, Ilia G.; Victoria, Doreen C.; Sligar, Stephen. G.

2007-01-01

371

Cluster-impact fusion: Yields from binary-collision sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory is developed for dd fusion resulting from the impact of accelerated clusters of D2O on deuterated solid targets. Sequences of collisions between D atoms and heavy atoms of the beam and target are studied as a mechanism for quickly increasing the relative velocities of pairs of deuterons. Fusion yields are calculated as a sum over 10 such sequences. Calculated yields are many orders of magnitude smaller than the results reported by Beuhler, Friedlander, and Friedman. Implications of these differences are discussed.

Crawford, Oakley H.

1991-09-01

372

Sediment yield in eastern Montana; summary of data and proposed techniques for estimating sediment yields from small, ungaged watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment-yield data for 121 sites in eastern Montana have been compiled from results of studies conducted by various Federal, State, and private agencies. Methods used to determine mean annual sediment yields included reservoir sedimentation surveys, suspended-sediment sampling in streams, and estimates of gross erosion and indirect estimation based on physical characteristics of the basin. Multiple-regression equations were developed and evaluated for their adequacy in estimating mean annual sediment yields from small, ungaged watersheds in eastern Montana. Sediment yields determined from reservoir surveys were used as the dependent variable because they were considered the most representative of long-term yields. Independent variables consisted of basin characteristics which could be measured from maps or obtained from published sources. Consequently, equations developed in this study do not require onsite data. Evaluation of equations indicated that the best prediction capability was obtained when reservoir basins were segregated into classes of similar vegetation/soil complex. The predictive capability of regression equations developed for each of three classes of vegetation/soil complex, as indicated by the coefficient of determination (R2), ranged from 0.59 to 0.96. Corresponding standard errors ranged from 95 to 20 percent. The equations are applicable for small drainage basins of 2 square miles or less within the study area. (USGS)

Lambing, J.H.

1984-01-01

373

{eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{eta}{gamma}{gamma}: A primer analysis  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic rare decays {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} are analysed for the first time and their predicted branching ratios given. The vector meson exchange dominant contribution is treated using Vector Meson Dominance and the scalar component is estimated by means of the Linear Sigma Model. The agreement between our calculation and the measurement of the related process {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} is a check of the procedure. Scalar meson effects are seen to be irrelevant for {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}, while a significant scalar contribution due to the {sigma}(500) resonance seems to emerge in the case of {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}. Future measurements coming from KLOE-2, Crystal Ball, WASA, and BES-III will elucidate if any of these processes carry an important scalar contribution or they are simply driven by the exchange of vector mesons.

Escribano, Rafel [Grup de Fisica Teorica (Departament de Fisica) and Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies (IFAE), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

2012-10-23

374

A meteorologically-driven yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat was developed for large-area crop condition assessment. Reductions are expressed in percentage from a base yield and are calculated on a daily basis. The algorithm contains two integral components: a two-layer soil water budget model and a crop calendar routine. Yield reductions associated with hot, dry winds (Sukhovey) and soil moisture stress are determined. Input variables include evapotranspiration, maximum temperature and precipitation; subsequently crop-stage, available water holding percentage and stress duration are evaluated. No specific base yield is required and may be selected by the user; however, it may be generally characterized as the maximum likely to be produced commercially at a location.

Ravet, F. W.; Cremins, W. J.; Taylor, T. W.; Ashburn, P.; Smika, D.; Aaronson, A. (principal investigators)

1983-01-01

375

Sputter yield measurements of thin foils using scanning transmission ion microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) has been applied to measure sputter yields of thin Kovar foil. The results have been found in very good agreement with values determined by the weight loss method, demonstrating STIM as a feasible alternative measurement technique for sputter yield estimation of thin material samples. Measurements have been carried out under normal xenon ion incidence for ion energies in the range between 100 eV and 1000 eV. In addition, sputter yields of Kovar bulk samples are reported. The data might be interesting for ion beam applications such as solar electric propulsion, in which materials with low sputter yields are preferred to ensure a long operational lifetime of the system components.

Eichhorn, Christoph; Manova, Darina; Feder, René; Wunderlich, Ralf; Nömayr, Christel; Zimmermann, Claus G.; Neumann, Horst

2015-01-01

376

{mu} {yields} e{gamma} decay versus the {mu} {yields} eee bound and lepton flavor violating processes in supernova  

SciTech Connect

Even tiny lepton flavor violation (LFV) due to some New Physics is able to alter the conditions inside a collapsing supernova core and probably to facilitate the explosion. LFV emerges naturally in a see-saw type-II model of neutrino mass generation. Experimentally, the LFV beyond the Standard Model is constrained by rare lepton decay searches. In particular, strong bounds are imposed on the {mu} {yields} eee branching ratio and on the {mu}-e conversion in muonic gold. Currently, the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} is under investigation in the MEG experiment that aims at a dramatic increase in sensitivity in the next three years. We seek a see-saw type-II LFV pattern that fits all the experimental constraints, leads to Br({mu} {yields}e{gamma}) Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu}{mu} {yields}eee), and ensures a rate of LFV processes in supernova high enough to modify the supernova physics. These requirements are sufficient to eliminate almost all freedom in the model. In particular, they lead to the prediction 0.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu} {yields} e{gamma}) Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}, which will be testable by MEG in the nearest future. The considered scenario also constrains the neutrino mass-mixing pattern and provides lower and upper bounds on {tau}-lepton LFV decays. We also briefly discuss a model with a single bilepton in which the {mu} {yields} eee decay is absent at the tree level.

Lychkovskiy, O. V., E-mail: lychkovskiy@itep.ru; Vysotsky, M. I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

377

Yield quantitative trait loci from wild tomato are predominately expressed by the shoot  

PubMed Central

Plant yield is the integrated outcome of processes taking place above and below ground. To explore genetic, environmental and developmental aspects of fruit yield in tomato, we phenotyped an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and a wild species (Solanum pennellii). Both homozygous and heterozygous ILs were grown in irrigated and non-irrigated fields and evaluated for six yield components. Thirteen lines displayed transgressive segregation that increased agronomic yield consistently over 2 years and defined at least 11 independent yield-improving QTL. To determine if these QTL were expressed in the shoots or the roots of the plants, we conducted field trials of reciprocally grafted ILs; out of 13 lines with an effect on yield, 10 QTL were active in the shoot and only IL8-3 showed a consistent root effect. To further examine this unusual case, we evaluated the metabolic profiles of fruits from both the homo- and heterozygous lines for IL8-3 and compared these to those obtained from the fruit of their equivalent genotypes in the root effect population. We observed that several of these metabolic QTL, like the yield QTL, were root determined; however, further studies will be required to delineate the exact mechanism mediating this effect in this specific line. The results presented here suggest that genetic variation for root traits, in comparison to that present in the shoot, represents only a minor component in the determination of tomato fruit yield. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1456-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20872209

Gur, Amit; Semel, Yaniv; Osorio, Sonia; Friedmann, Michael; Seekh, Saleh; Ghareeb, Bilal; Mohammad, Ayed; Pleban, Tzili; Gera, Gabi; Zamir, Dani

2010-01-01

378

Genetic contributions to yield gains in US wheat, 1980 - 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increases in wheat grain yield (kg harvested per hectare) over time derive from improved agronomic practices, and from enhanced genetic potential of wheat cultivars. Estimation of the rate of genetic improvement over time is important as it allows prediction of whether future grain supplies will me...

379

Mapping and candidate genes associated with saccharification yield in sorghum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potentially high-yielding hardy energy crop to produce lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification is a process by which hydrolytic enzymes break down lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Mapping and identifying genes und...

380

Generalised yield criteria of porous sintered powder metallurgy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new form of yield criterion considering an anisotropic parameter for porous sintered powder metallurgy metals has been proposed in this technical paper. In addition to the above, the flow rule with anisotropic parameter for porous metal is introduced. The mathematical expression for the calculation of flow stress in the case of simple compression or tension test is deduced from

R. Narayanasamy; R. Ponalagusamy; K. R. Subramanian

2001-01-01

381

CONVERGENCE AND ANCHORING OF YIELD CURVES IN THE EURO AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the convergence of European bond markets and the anchoring of inflation expectations in the euro area using high-frequency bond yield data for France, Germany, Italy, and Spain as well as smaller euro area countries and a control group comprising the UK, Denmark, and Sweden. We find that Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) has led to substantial convergence in

Michael Ehrmann; Marcel Fratzscher; Refet S. Gürkaynak; Eric T. Swanson

2008-01-01

382

Sovereign bond yields in emerging Asia: New evidence  

E-print Network

Keywords: Debt market; Sovereign bond yields; Emerging Asia; Panel analysis 1 The author gratefully currency bond market, including government bonds, corporate bonds and mortgage bonds. A well-functioning local bond market, which is considered as an alternative to the banking sector brings a number

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

NITROGEN AND TILLAGE AFFECTS ON IRRIGATED CONTINUOUS CORN YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

No-till (NT) irrigated production systems can potentially reduce soil erosion, fossil fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions compared with a conventional till (CT) system. Tillage (CT and NT) and N fertilization effects on irrigated, continuous corn yields were evaluated for 5-yr on a clay ...

384

Interactions of Optical Brightening Agents With High Yield Pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of Optical Brightening Agents (OBA) with High Yield Pulp (HYP) fibers under two methods of OBA addition were evaluated on a softwood TMP and hardwood (aspen) HYP: OBA added to the peroxide bleach liquor (Method A), and OBA added conventionally at the wet end (Method B). The treated pulps were fractionated and OBA retention and efficiency in each

R. Zhang; Y. Ni; D. Wong; J. Schmidt; C. Heitner; B. Jordan

2009-01-01

385

Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands  

E-print Network

Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands Peter J. Blank1 *, David W bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from

Turner, Monica G.

386

LESS KNOWN EDIBLE FRUIT – YIELDING PLANTS OF NILGIRIS  

PubMed Central

The present paper is concerned with 27 species belonging to 22 generate and 18 families, which yield wild edible fruits. They are arranged in alphabetical order followed by their local names and habit. An attempt has been also made to indicate the nutritive values of edible portions on the basis of documented literature. Brief illustration is furnished wherever necessary. PMID:22556615

Nayagam, M. Cyril; Pushparaj, M.S.; Rajan, S.

1993-01-01

387

Fission Yields and Other Diagnostics for Nuclear Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I summarize advances in our understanding of basic nuclear physics cross sections and decay properties that are needed to characterize the magnitude and energy-dependence of a neutron flux, and to determine the amount of fission burnup in plutonium fuel. The number of fissions that have occurred in a neutron environment can be deduced from measurements of the fission products created, providing that the fission product yields are known accurately. I describe how our understanding of plutonium fission product yields has improved in recent years through a meta-analysis of various measured data, and through identification of fission product yield incident-energy dependencies over the 0.2-2 MeV fast energy region. This led to the resolution of a previous discrepancy between the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in their plutonium yield assessments in the fast energy region, although more experimental work is still needed to resolve discrepancies at 14 MeV. Work is also described that has improved our understanding of (n,2n) cross sections that are used as diagnostics of the high-energy neutron spectrum - both on plutonium and americium, and on the radiochemical detectors yttrium, iridium, and thulium. Finally, some observations are made on the importance of continuing to develop our Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) database using physics insights from differential cross section and integral laboratory experiments and from nuclear theory advances.

Chadwick, M. B.

2014-06-01

388

SPRINKLER-INDUCED FLOWER LOSSES AND YIELD REDUCTIONS IN COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton pollen is highly sensitive to water, rupturing within 1-2 minutes of contact. Greenhouse cotton was grown for 120 d under natural light conditions (28 ± 5*C air temperature). Flowers were sprayed with known volumes of water to determine how much was needed to reduce yield. These studies sho...

389

Rain-fed fig yield as affected by rainfall distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable annual rainfall and its uneven distribution are the major uncontrolled inputs in rain-fed fig production and possibly the main cause of yield fluctuation in Istahban region of Fars Province, I.R. of Iran. This introduces a considerable risk in rain-fed fig production. The objective of this study was to find relationships between seasonal rainfall distribution and rain-fed fig production in Istahban region to determine the critical rainfall periods for rain-fed fig production and supplementary irrigation water application. Further, economic analysis for rain-fed fig production was considered in this region to control the risk of production. It is concluded that the monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall indices are able to show the effects of rainfall and its distribution on the rain-fed fig yield. Fig yield with frequent occurrence of 80 % is 374 kg ha-1. The internal rates of return for interest rate of 4, 8 and 12 % are 21, 58 and 146 %, respectively, that are economically feasible. It is concluded that the rainfall in spring especially in April and in December has negatively affected fig yield due to its interference with the life cycle of Blastophaga bees for pollination. Further, it is concluded that when the rainfall is limited, supplementary irrigation can be scheduled in March.

Bagheri, Ensieh; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza

2014-08-01

390

Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

391

2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield  

E-print Network

© 2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host,3 Cyanobacteria, and the viruses (phages) that infect them, are significant contributors to the oceanic `gene pool­19 photosynthetic host­virus systems. Thus, continued photosynthesis is required for maximum phage production in our

Church, George M.

392

Uncertainty and the convenience yield in crude oil price backwardations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines why firms hold stocks of crude oil, particularly during price backwardations when spot prices exceed prices for forward delivery. Using a stochastic control model, this paper shows that the equilibrium value of inventories contains: the conventional Hotelling principle; the convenience yield from the classical theory of storage; and an option value related to price uncertainty. Our empirical

Timothy J. Considine; Donald F. Larson

2001-01-01

393

Remote-sensing and weather information in cotton yield prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

If farmers could predict yield on a spatially variable basis, they could better understand risks and returns in applying costly inputs such as fertilizers, etc. To this end, several remotely sensed images of a cotton field were collected during the 2002 growing season, along with daily high and low temperatures. Image data were converted to normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI), and

John A. Thomasson; James R. Wooten; Swapna Gogineni; Ruixiu Sui; Bulli M. Kolla

2004-01-01

394

Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat  

E-print Network

Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat Jean-François LEDENT Volkmar STOY Helena in length (R,) of ear primordia was measured in collections of winter wheats (Triticum aestivum (L.) em or morphological characters. However, genotypes with faster growing ear primordia tended to have smaller cars

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

395

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Yield prediction for seamless tubing processes  

E-print Network

Abstract Seamless tubing is the most commonly used process for high quality pipe products due to itsORIGINAL ARTICLE Yield prediction for seamless tubing processes: a computational intelligence in a seamless tubing factory, using neural networks to model relationships between controlled and uncontrolled

Huang, Samuel H.

396

Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all

Frans R. P. Kalf; Donald R. Woolley

2005-01-01

397

Managing high IC yields with short cycle times  

Microsoft Academic Search

High IC yields are the key to low product costs, essential for profitable pursuit of high volume GaAs IC markets for consumer applications. Short product development cycle times are essential for getting entry into such markets. Technology has been moving at a fast pace and product life cycles are getting shorter. Short development cycle times are needed not only to

S. Khetan; P. Fowler

1995-01-01

398

Yield performance of cacao propagated by somatic embryogenesis and grafting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve cacao (Theobroma cacao) clones propagated by grafting and somatic embryogenesis and grown on an Ultisol soil were evaluated for five years under intensive management at Corozal, Puerto Rico. Preliminary data showed no significant differences between propagation methods for yield of dry beans ...

399

Original article Analysis of local limitations to maize yield  

E-print Network

Original article Analysis of local limitations to maize yield under tropical conditions Joseph Weya in maize was tested. The test was based on a survey carried out in west Burkina-Faso, with a total of 437 farmers, over a period of 3 years. Data on weather, soil, farm, maize (cul- tural practices, and, on two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Conditions that Influence Drivers' Yielding Behavior for Uncontrolled Crossings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pedestrians with visual impairments need to cross streets where traffic signals and traffic signage are not present. This study examined the influences of several interventions, including a pedestrian's use of a mobility cane, on the behavior of drivers when they were expected to yield to a pedestrian crossing at an uncontrolled crossing.…

Bourquin, Eugene; Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

2011-01-01

401

Stochastic Convenience Yield and the Pricing of Oil Contingent Claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and empirically tests a two-factor model for pricing financial and real assets contingent on the price of oil. The factors are the spot price of oil and the instantaneous convenience yield. The parameters of the model are estimated using weekly oil futures contract prices from January 1984 to November 1988, and the model's performance is assessed out

Rajna Gibson; Eduardo S. Schwartz

1990-01-01

402

19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.75 Final determination of clean yield. The...consideration of all the tests made in connection with the wool or hair concerned. [T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17470, July 2,...

2012-04-01

403

19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.75 Final determination of clean yield. The...consideration of all the tests made in connection with the wool or hair concerned. [T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17470, July 2,...

2014-04-01

404

19 CFR 151.75 - Final determination of clean yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.75 Final determination of clean yield. The...consideration of all the tests made in connection with the wool or hair concerned. [T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17470, July 2,...

2013-04-01

405

Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators  

SciTech Connect

Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a {gamma}-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909 (Australia)

2011-07-15

406

Photoperiod shift effects on yield characteristics of rice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Edible yield must be maximized for each crop species selected for inclusion in the Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) proposed by NASA to support long-term manned space missions. In a greenhouse study aimed at increasing biomass partitioning to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain, plants of the high yielding semi-dwarf rice cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao were started in pots under 8-h photoperiods at a density of 212 plants m-2. After different periods of time under 8-h photoperiods, pots were switched to continuous light for the remainder of the cropping cycle. Continuous light did not delay time to first panicle emergence (60 d) or time to harvest (83 d). There was a positive correlation between the length of continuous light treatments and nongrain biomass. Grain yield (1.6 +/- 0.2 g plant-1) did not increase in continuous light. Yield-efficiency rate (grain weight per length of cropping cycle, canopy volume, and weight of nongrain shoot biomass) was used to compare treatments. Small Ai-Nan-Tsao rice canopies grown under 8-h photoperiods were more efficient producers of grain than canopies grown under continuous light for a portion of the rice cropping cycle.

Volk, G. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

1995-01-01

407

HIGHLIGHT OF THE MONTH Trapped biomolecules yield critical information  

E-print Network

HIGHLIGHT OF THE MONTH Trapped biomolecules yield critical information RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Metal individual proteins developed by researchers in Japan promises to make their analysis easier1 . It could also Kumasaka at the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI) and Masaki Takata at the RIKEN

Fukai, Tomoki

408

Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering

John D. Williams; Michael M. Gardner; Mark L. Johnson; Paul J. Wilbur

2003-01-01

409

Fruit Set and Yield Patterns in Six Capsicum Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit set and yield patterns were studied in detail in six pepper cultivars. Fruit set differed largely between the cultivars: cultivars with small fruits (fruit fresh weight 20 to 40 g) showed higher fruit set (50%) than cultivars with large fruits (fruit fresh weight 120 to 200 g; 11% to 19%). The former showed continuous fruit set (four to five

A. M. Wubs; Y. T. Ma; L. Hemerik; E. Heuvelink

2009-01-01

410

Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density for battery used as an auxiliary power source in space vehicle systems. Maximum reliability and minimum battery weight is achieved by using a stacking configuration of 23 series-connected modules with 6 parallel-connected cells per module.

Graff, C. B.

1968-01-01

411

IMPACT OF OZONE AND SULPHUR DIOXIDE ON SOYBEAM YIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

Little dose-response information exists on the effects of chronic ozone (O3) and intermittent sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposures on the yield of important agricultural crops. Such information is needed for refinement of estimates of air pollution induced crop losses. Field-grown plan...

412

Estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Geographical Information System (GIS) based method is proposed and demonstrated for the identification of sediment source areas and the prediction of storm sediment yield from catchments. Data from the Nagwa and Karso catchments in Bihar (India) have been used. The Integrated Land and Water Information System (ILWIS) GIS package has been used for carrying out geographic analyses. An Earth

MANOJ K. JAIN; UMESH C. KOTHYARI

2001-01-01

413

Yield and ultrasonic modulus of elasticity of red maple veneer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to assess the potential for using red maple sawlogs to manufacture laminated veneer lumber (LVL). The primary objective was to determine the yield of ultrasonically graded veneer from red maple logs. A sample of 48 logs was ob- tained from six Eastern and Lake States in the United States. The logs were visually graded

John R. Erickson; Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang; Steven A. Verhey; John W. Forsman; Crystal L. Pilon

414

Effects of Clinical Mastitis on Milk Yield in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of clinical mastitis on milk yield was studied in 24,276 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved in 1993 and were followed for one lactation (i.e., until culling or the next calving). Cows that had only mastitis, but no other diseases, and cows that had no diseases (healthy cows) during the lactation were included in the study. Monthly test day

P. J. Rajala-Schultz; Y. T. Gröhn; C. E. McCulloch; C. L. Guard

1999-01-01

415

Quasi-biennial corn yield cycles in Iowa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quasi-biennial cycles are often reported in climate studies. The interannual El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are two phenomena containing quasi-periodicities of approximately 2.5 and 2.2 years. It is known that ENSO affects corn yield through weather patterns...

416

Setting the Record Straight on "High-Yield" Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Widely credited with proposing nine "high-yield" instructional strategies, author Robert J. Marzano sets the record straight about the broader number of strategies identified by the research. He provides a list of 41 strategies and suggests more nuanced ways of using, observing, and evaluating them. (Contains 1 figure.)

Marzano, Robert J.

2009-01-01

417

Tropical rotation crops influence nematode densities and vegetable yields.  

PubMed

The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The eight summer crop rotation treatments were as follows: 'Hale' castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), sesame (Sesamum indicum), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), weed fallow, 'SX- 17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max), and 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) as a control. Rotations with castor, velvetbean, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass were most effective in maintaining the lowest population densities of Meloidogyne spp. (a mixture of M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria race 1), but Paratrichodorus minor built up in the sorghum-sudangrass rotation. Yield of squash was lower (P Yield of eggplant was greater (P yields of subsequent vegetable crops. PMID:19279897

McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hochmuth, R C

1994-09-01

418

Modelling biomass production and yield of horticultural crops: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptive and explanatory modelling of biomass production and yield of horticultural crops is reviewed with special reference to the simulation of leaf area, light interception, dry matter (DM) production, DM partitioning and DM content. Most models for prediction of harvest date (timing of production) are descriptive. For DM production many descriptive and explanatory models have been developed. Most explanatory models

L. F. M. Marcelis; E. Heuvelink; J. Goudriaan

1998-01-01

419

RATOON STUNT AND YELLOW LEAF EFFECTS ON SUGARCANE YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Separate trials were established to determine the effects of ratoon stunt, caused by Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) and yellow leaf, caused by Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV), on sugarcane yields in plant and first-ratoon crops. In 1-m long plots, responses of eight cultivars were tested for r...

420

Impact of sugarcane diseases on yield and control practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane diseases reduce yields and cause the withdrawal of cultivars from production. Three diseases, ratoon stunt, yellow leaf and smut are discussed to demonstrate methods of spread and control practices required. Ratoon stunt, caused by the bacterial pathogen, Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli, is im...

421

Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...

422

Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.  

PubMed

A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers. PMID:15092277

Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

1990-01-01

423

IDENTIFICATION OF PUTATIVE YIELD ENHANCING QTL FROM EXOTIC SOYBEAN GERMPLASM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluates exotic soybean germplasm as a source of genes for the improvement of seed yields in North American domestic soybean germplasm. A population was developed by crossing lines of domestic and exotic origin. Traits including days to flower, days to maturity, reproductive period, plan...

424

Pancreatitis. Secretin increases the diagnostic yield of MRCP.  

PubMed

The presence of ductal abnormalities after an unexplained acute attack of acute pancreatitis or in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis might lead to a misdiagnosis of chronic pancreatitis or complications of acute pancreatitis. A new study suggests secretin administered during magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) leads to a better diagnostic yield than MRCP alone. PMID:25023037

Pezzilli, Raffaele

2014-09-01

425

Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in  

E-print Network

are one to two weeks earlier than for winter wheat, and thus fall N uptake can be greater for win- ter barley than for winter wheat. Excessive fall barley growth can occur and result in freeze injury to stemsIntroduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in excess of 170 bu

Liskiewicz, Maciej

426

Cost-driven mask strategies considering parametric yield, defectivity, and  

E-print Network

, considering throughput, yield, and manufacturing volume, we assess various reticle strategies (e.g., single such as shifting of the mask pattern within a mask blank to avoid defects being superposed by performance. For high-volume products, mask cost can be disregarded, but for low-volume products--in light of shuttle

Kahng, Andrew B.

427

Determination of yield stress fluid behaviour from inclined plane test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to determine precisely under which conditions an inclined plane can be used as a rheometer, which could represent a practical and rapid technique for various types of industrial or natural viscoplastic coarse suspensions. We first examine its efficiency and relevancy for determining fluid yield stress in a straight way by measuring the deepest fluid

Philippe Coussot; Stéphane Boyer

1995-01-01

428

AFLP markers linked with long grain milling yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milling yield is an important trait in rice because it is a major factor determining the price farmers are paid for their crop. To address this issue, the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Rice Research Unit in Beaumont, TX launched an investigation to identify...

429

Breeding for Yield Potential and Stress Adaptation in Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to accelerate breeding for increased yield potential and better adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses is an issue of increasing urgency. As the population continues to grow rapidly, the pressure on resources (mainly untouched land and water) is also increasing, and potential climate change poses further challenges. We discuss ways to improve the efficiency of crop breeding

José Luis Araus; Gustavo A. Slafer; Conxita Royo; M. Dolores Serret

2008-01-01

430

Corn Response to Competition: Growth Alteration vs. Yield Limiting Factors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding competition mechanisms among adjacent plants can improve site-specific management recommendations. This 2-yr study compared two hypotheses, yield limiting factors vs. behavior modification, to explain plant interactions. Corn was grown under different levels of stress by varying light ...

431

Diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy in histologically proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening infectious complication in neutropenic patients after high-dose chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Its diagnosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms, and radiological signs on thoracic CT scan. The value of bronchoscopy is controversial. We analyzed the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy in 23 consecutive patients with histologically proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In seven

F Reichenberger; J Habicht; P Matt; R Frei; M Solèr; P Dalquen; A Gratwohl; M Tamm

1999-01-01

432

Evaluation of oil yield from Jordanian oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the influences of particle size, grade and pyrolysis temperature on the oil yield have been evaluated in a laboratory scale reactor. Five categories of particle sizes from two different oil shale samples were pyrolyzed by employing a fixed bed retorting system. The reactor and the oil shale sample were heated at a constant rate and nitrogen gas

J. O. Jaber; S. D. Probert; P. T. Williams

1999-01-01

433

Original article Selection of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) for yield  

E-print Network

Original article Selection of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) for yield and symbiotic nitrogen fixation for improved symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) under saline conditions. 200 Moroccan lines were screened. Cicer arietinum / selection / nitrogen fixation / salt tolerance Résumé ­ Sélection du pois chiche

Boyer, Edmond

434

Airline price discrimination: A practice of yield management or customer  

E-print Network

in which two European full-service and two European low-cost carriers were followed and prices of sixteen-service carriers showed typical pricing patterns, whereas the two low-cost carriers did not show many fluctuationsAirline price discrimination: A practice of yield management or customer profiling? Rasha H

Twente, Universiteit

435

Sugarcane yield and morphological responses to long-term flooding.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane in south Florida is often subjected to flooding in the summer months or following hurricanes. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adaptation and yield response to l...

436

Baby corn, green ear, and grain yield of corn cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most maize cultivars have been developed for grain production. Because superior cultivars may differ in their exploiting purposes, interest has been demonstrated for the evaluation of corn cultivars with regard to their baby corn, green ear, and grain yields production ability. In the present work ten corn cultivars (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080,

Itala Paula de C. Almeida; Paulo Sérgio L. e Silva; Maria Z. de Negreiros; Zenaide Barbosa

2005-01-01

437

Yielding Behavior in Injectable Hydrogels from Telechelic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Injectable hydrogels show substantial promise for use in minimally invasive tissue engineering and drug delivery procedures.1,2 A new injectable hydrogel material, developed from recombinant telechelic proteins expressed in E. coli, demonstrates shear thinning by three orders of magnitude at large strains. Large amplitude oscillatory shear illustrates that shear thinning is due to yielding within the bulk of the gel, and the rheological response and flow profiles are consistent with a shear-banding mechanism for yielding. The sharp yielding transition and large magnitude of the apparent shear thinning allow gels to be injected through narrow gauge needles with only gentle hand pressure. After injection the gels reset to full elastic strength in seconds due to rapid reformation of the physical network junctions, allowing self-supporting structures to be formed. The shear thinning and recovery behavior is largely independent of the midblock length, enabling genetic engineering to be used to control the equilibrium modulus of the gel without loss of the characteristic yielding behavior. The shear-banding mechanism localizes deformation during flow into narrow regions of the gels, allowing more than 95% of seeded cells to survive the injection process. PMID:21221427

Olsen, Bradley D.; Kornfield, Julia A.; Tirrell, David A.

2010-01-01

438

Impact of simulated heat waves on soybean physiology and yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With increases in mean global temperatures and associated climate change, extreme temperature events are predicted to increase in both intensity and frequency. Despite the clearly documented negative public health impacts of heat waves, the impact on physiology and yields of key agricultural species...

439

Effects of a Driver Enforcement Program on Yielding to Pedestrians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A driver-yielding enforcement program that included decoy pedestrians, feedback flyers, written and verbal warnings, and saturation enforcement for a 2-week period was evaluated in the city of Miami Beach using a multiple baseline design. During baseline, data were collected at crosswalks along two major corridors. Treatment was introduced first…

Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis

2004-01-01

440

The energetic and nutritional yields from insectivory for Kasekela chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Insectivory is hypothesized to be an important source of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet nutritional data based on actual intake are lacking. Drawing on observations from 2008 to 2010 and recently published nutritional assays, we determined the energy, macronutrient and mineral yields for termite-fishing (Macrotermes), ant-dipping (Dorylus), and ant-fishing (Camponotus) by the Kasekela chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We also estimated the yields from consumption of weaver ants (Oecophylla) and termite alates (Macrotermes and Pseudacanthotermes). On days when chimpanzees were observed to prey on insects, the time spent in insectivorous behavior ranged from <1 min to over 4 h. After excluding partial bouts and those of <1 min duration, ant-dipping bouts were of significantly shorter duration than the other two forms of tool-assisted insectivory but provided the highest mass intake rate. Termite-fishing bouts were of significantly longer duration than ant-dipping and had a lower mass intake rate, but provided higher mean and maximum mass yields. Ant-fishing bouts were comparable to termite-fishing bouts in duration but had significantly lower mass intake rates. Mean and maximum all-day yields from termite-fishing and ant-dipping contributed to or met estimated recommended intake (ERI) values for a broad array of minerals. The mean and maximum all-day yields of other insects consistently contributed to the ERI only for manganese. All forms of insectivory provided small but probably non-trivial amounts of fat and protein. We conclude that different forms of insectivory have the potential to address different nutritional needs for Kasekela chimpanzees. Other than honeybees, insects have received little attention as potential foods for hominins. Our results suggest that ants and (on a seasonal basis) termites would have been viable sources of fat, high-quality protein and minerals for extinct hominins employing Pan-like subsistence technology in East African woodlands. PMID:24698197

O'Malley, Robert C; Power, Michael L

2014-06-01

441

Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.  

PubMed

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition. PMID:23535305

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

2013-01-01

442

The Titan haze revisted: Magnetospheric energy sorces quantitative tholin yields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present laboratory measurements of the radiation yields of complex organic solids produced from N2/CH4 gas mixtures containing 10 or 0.1% CH4. These tholins are thought to resemble organic aerosols produced in the atmospheres of Titan, Pluto, and Triton. The tholin yields are large compared to the total yield of gaseous products: nominally, 13 (C + N)/100 eV for Titan tholin and 2.1 (C + N)/100 eV for Triton tholin. High-energy magnetospheric electrons responsible for tholin production represents a class distinct from the plasma electrons considered in models of Titan's aiglow. Electrons with E greater than 20 keV provide an energy flux approximately 1 x 10(exp -2) erg/cm/sec, implying from our measured tholin yields a mass flux of 0.5 to 4.0 x 10(exp -14) g/sq cm/sec of tholin. (The corresponding thickness of the tholin sedimentary column accumulated over 4 Gyr on Titan's surface is 4 to 30 m). This figure is in agreement with required mass fluxes computed from recent radiative transfer and sedimentation models. If, however, theses results, derived from experiments at approximately 2 mb, are applied to lower pressure levels toward peak auroral electron energy deposition and scaled with pressure as the gas-phase organic yields, the derived tholin mass flux is at least an order of magnitude less. We attrribute this difference to the fact that tholin synthesis occurs well below the level of maximum electron energy depositon and to possible contributions to tholis from UV-derived C2-hydrocarbons. We conclude that Tita tholin, produced by magnetospheric electrons, is alone sufficient to supply at least a significant fraction of Titan's haze-a result consistent with the fact that the optical properties of Titan tholin, among all proposed material, are best at reproducing Titan's geometric albedo spectrum from near UV to mid-IR in light-scattering models.

Thompson, W. Reid; Mcdonald, Gene D.; Sagan, Carl

1994-01-01

443

The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

2014-05-01

444

Annual Corn Yield Estimation through Multi-temporal MODIS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research employed 13 years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate annual corn yield for the Midwest of the United States. The overall objective of this study was to examine if annual corn yield could be accurately predicted using MODIS time-series NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and ancillary data such monthly precipitation and temperature. MODIS-NDVI 16-Day composite images were acquired from the USGS EROS Data Center for calendar years 2000 to 2012. For the same time-period, county level corn yield statistics were obtained from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). The monthly precipitation and temperature measures were derived from Precipitation-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) climate data. A cropland mask was derived using 2006 National Land Cover Database. For each county and within the cropland mask, the MODIS-NDVI time-series data and PRISM climate data were spatially averaged, at their respective time steps. We developed a random forest predictive model with the MODIS-NDVI and climate data as predictors and corn yield as response. To assess the model accuracy, we used twelve years of data as training and the remaining year as hold-out testing set. The training and testing procedures were repeated 13 times. The R2 ranged from 0.72 to 0.83 for testing years. It was also found that the inclusion of climate data did not improve the model predictive performance. MODIS-NDVI time-series data alone might provide sufficient information for county level corn yield prediction.

Shao, Y.; Zheng, B.; Campbell, J. B.

2013-12-01

445

17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1...T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction...orderly markets and to yield priority, parity, and precedence in execution to...

2010-04-01

446

Yukon gold mine yields ancient horse fossil 700,000yearold fossil discovered in Yukon permafrost yields genome world record.  

E-print Network

Yukon gold mine yields ancient horse fossil 700,000yearold fossil discovered in Yukon permafrost an unusually large horse fossil in the Yukon permafrost, he knew it was important. Now, in a new study published in the journal Nature, this fossil is rewriting the story of equine evolution as the ancient

Machel, Hans

447

Antioxidant activity of colored rice bran obtained at different milling yields.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant components of three types of colored rice bran--forbidden rice, red rice and green rice--obtained from rice in which the pigment layer had been removed at milling yields of 90%-100% and 80%-90%. An evaluation of the effects of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity revealed that rice bran obtained from forbidden rice at milling yields of 90%-100% and 80%-90% and rice bran obtained from red rice at milling yields of 90%-100% showed favorable antioxidant activity. The antioxidant components were confirmed to be 3,4-dihydroxy methyl benzoate and p-methoxyphenol and they influence the antioxidant activity of the three types of colored rice bran. PMID:20877150

Fujita, Akiko; Fujitake, Hironori; Kawakami, Koji; Nomura, Masato

2010-01-01

448

In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams  

DOEpatents

Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

1983-09-26

449

High yield synthesis and processing of nanoscale YTZP ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials are the subject of increasing interest. The expectation of new and enhanced mechanical, optical, magnetic, and electronic properties, in part due to the high concentration of interfaces and grain boundaries within the nanoscale microstructure, has initiated many studies on how to synthesize materials and process components with a final grain size below 100 nm. Several obstacles have hindered the practical application of such materials. Issues related to the production of sufficient quantities of powders composed of nanoparticles, the tendency of the nanoparticles to aggregate, the production of homogeneous green bodies, and avoiding grain growth during sintering have all been addressed with varying degrees of success. The focus of this thesis research is to address several issues inherent to the processing of nanoscale particulates, specifically in yttria tetragonal stabilized zirconia polycrystalline (YTZP) materials, for the purpose of fabricating dense, bulk components with a nano-scale microstructure. These issues include the synthesis of sufficient quantities of an appropriate material in a dispersed state, the formation of homogeneous green bodies of high green density, and design of sintering conditions that retain the fine-grain microstructure while allowing densification to near theoretical density. A recently-developed hydrothermal precipitation procedure was chosen for the production of nano-YTZP because crystalline, 8--10 nm particles of zirconia or YTZP can be produced with a flexible composition and dispersed for further processing. A wide range of characterization techniques are employed to verify particle size, phase, composition, and impurity content. Material yields are increased to 100 g of zirconia or YTZP per liter of stock solution by increasing in the reagent concentrations. Despite the increased ionic strength of the as-synthesized suspension, a laundering and dispersion procedure is described in which well-dispersed suspensions of up to 20wt% nano-YTZP are recovered. DLVO theory (named for authors Derjagiun and Landau, Verwey and Overbeek) is applied to the zirconia-water system to characterize the dispersion behavior. Two green forming procedures are compared: pressure filtration and dry powder compaction. Homogeneous green bodies can be formed by pressure filtration; however, due to strong capillary forces that act within the nano-scale pore structure during drying, green bodies could not be recovered without cracks. Two methods for the recovery of dry powder suitable for compaction are compared: pan-drying and freeze-drying. During pan-drying, primary particles tend to agglomerate; agglomerates are compressed into high-strength, low-density aggregates that negatively affect densification and final component properties. During freeze-drying, the crystallization of water breaks apart agglomerates, primary particles are immobilized, and capillary forces are avoided. Compaction behavior of pan- and freeze-dried powders is compared using a model that describes powder consolidation as a combination of activated and saturation processes. Formation of a nanograin bulk component requires that grain growth during densification be minimized. A two-step sintering procedure that accomplishes this is discussed, along with constant heating rate and (CHR) master sintering curve (MSC) models. Sintering activation energies are calculated with these models and found to be slightly lower than previously reported values. With the aid of the MSC, a two-step sintering procedure is presented that produces crack-free, bulk YTZP components of >95% theoretical density and grain sizes <100nm.

Szepesi, Christopher J.

450

The effect of antifoam addition on protein production yields.  

PubMed

Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for recombinant protein production. The foaming associated with culturing it on a large scale is commonly prevented by the addition of chemical antifoaming agents or "antifoams." Unexpectedly, the addition of a range of antifoams to both shake flask and bioreactor cultures of P. pastoris has been shown to alter the total yield of the recombinant protein being produced. Possible explanations for this are that the presence of the antifoam increases the total amount of protein being produced and secreted per cell or that it increases the density of the culture. Antifoaming agents may therefore have specific effects on the growth and yield characteristics of recombinant cultures, in addition to their primary action as de-foamers. PMID:22454117

Routledge, Sarah J; Bill, Roslyn M

2012-01-01

451

The effect of yield strength and ductility to fatigue damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cumulative damage of aluminium alloys with different yield strength and various ductility due to seismic loads was studied. The responses of an idealized beam with a centered mass at one end and fixed at the other end to El Centro's and Taft's earthquakes are computed by assuming that the alloys are perfectly elastoplastic materials and by using numerical technique. Consequently, the corresponding residual plastic strain can be obtained from the stress-strain relationship. The revised Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage theorem is utilized to calculate the fatigue damage. The numerical results show that in certain cases, the high ductility materials are more resistant to seismic loads than the high yield strength materials. The results also show that if a structure collapse during the earthquake, the collapse always occurs in the very early stage.

Yeh, H. Y.

1973-01-01

452

Comparison of Fission Product Yields and Their Impact  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum describes the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) Space Nuclear Power Program (SNPP) interest in determining the expected fission product yields from a Prometheus-type reactor and assessing the impact of these species on materials found in the fuel element and balance of plant. Theoretical yield calculations using ORIGEN-S and RACER computer models are included in graphical and tabular form in Attachment, with focus on the desired fast neutron spectrum data. The known fission product interaction concerns are the corrosive attack of iron- and nickel-based alloys by volatile fission products, such as cesium, tellurium, and iodine, and the radiological transmutation of krypton-85 in the coolant to rubidium-85, a potentially corrosive agent to the coolant system metal piping.

S. Harrison

2006-02-01

453

Biexciton quantum yield of single semiconductor nanocrystals from photon statistics.  

PubMed

Biexciton properties strongly affect the usability of a light emitter in quantum photon sources and lasers but are difficult to measure for single fluorophores at room temperature due to luminescence intermittency and bleaching at the high excitation fluences usually required. Here, we observe the biexciton (BX) to exciton (X) to ground photoluminescence cascade of single colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) under weak excitation in a g((2)) photon correlation measurement and show that the normalized amplitude of the cascade feature is equal to the ratio of the BX to X fluorescence quantum yields. This imposes a limit on the attainable depth of photon antibunching and provides a robust means to study single emitter biexciton physics. In NC samples, we show that the BX quantum yield is considerably inhomogeneous, consistent with the defect sensitivity expected of the Auger nonradiative recombination mechanism. The method can be extended to study X,BX spectral and polarization correlations. PMID:21288042

Nair, Gautham; Zhao, Jing; Bawendi, Moungi G

2011-03-01

454

Biexciton quantum yield of single semiconductor nanocrystals from photon statistics  

PubMed Central

Biexciton properties strongly affect the usability of a light emitter in quantum photon sources and lasers but are difficult to measure for single fluorophores at room temperature due to luminescence intermittency and bleaching at the high excitation fluences usually required. Here, we observe the biexciton (BX) to exciton (X) to ground photoluminescence cascade of single colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) under weak excitation in a g(2) photon correlation measurement and show that the normalized amplitude of the cascade feature is equal to the ratio of the BX to X fluorescence quantum yields. This imposes a limit on the attainable depth of photon antibunching and provides a robust means to study single emitter biexciton physics. In NC samples, we show that the BX quantum yield is considerably inhomogeneous, consistent with the defect sensitivity expected of the Auger nonradiative recombination mechanism. The method can be extended to study X,BX spectral and polarization correlations. PMID:21288042

Nair, Gautham; Zhao, Jing; Bawendi, Moungi G

2012-01-01

455

Microeconomics of yield learning and process control in semiconductor manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple microeconomic models that directly link yield learning to profitability in semiconductor manufacturing have been rare or non-existent. In this work, we review such a model and provide links to inspection capability and cost. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300mm factories, including the impact of technology transitions to 130nm design rules and below. We show that the dramatic increase in value per wafer at the 300mm transition becomes a driver for increasing metrology and inspection capability and sampling. These analyses correlate well wtih actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential cost savings. We demonstrate this using the example of grating-based overlay metrology for the 65nm node.

Monahan, Kevin M.

2003-06-01

456

Enhancement of Sputtering Yields by Low-Energy Molecular Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sputtering yields from polycrystalline gold targets bombarded with N_2^+, O_2^+, N^+, and O^+ ions were measured at low kinetic energies, near-threshold. When sputtering yields are normalized to the number of incident atoms, an unexpected and pronounced enhancement is observed for the molecular species relative to the corresponding atomic species. For N_2^+ and N^+ this occurs below kinetic energies of 500 eV per atom. For O_2^+ and O^+ it is only observed below 100 eV per atom. The degree of enhancement increases with decreasing projectile energy. A simple molecular-dynamics model is proposed to explain this effect in terms of the relative values of the vibrational period of the incident molecule and the collision time.

Hargitai, Zsuzsanna; Yao, Y.; Albert, M. M.; Barnes, A. V.; Gilligan, J. M.; Gordon, V. D.; Lüpke, G.; Pratt-Ferguson, B.; Puckett, A.; Tolk, N. H.; Betz, G.; Tully, J.

1997-11-01

457

Advanced scheme for high-yield laser driven nuclear reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a low contrast nanosecond laser pulse with a relatively low intensity (3? × ?1016?W?cm?2) allowed the enhancing of the yield of induced nuclear reactions in advanced solid targets. In particular the ‘ultraclean’ proton–boron fusion reaction, producing energetic alpha particles without neutron generation, was chosen. A spatially well-defined layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen-enriched silicon substrate was used as a target. A combination of the specific target composition and the laser pulse temporal shape allowed the enhancing of the yield of alpha particles up to 109 per steradian. This result can be ascribed to the interaction of the long-laser pre-pulse with the target and to the optimal target geometry and composition.

Margarone, D.; Picciotto, A.; Velyhan, A.; Krasa, J.; Kucharik, M.; Mangione, A.; Szydlowsky, A.; Malinowska, A.; Bertuccio, G.; Shi, Y.; Crivellari, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Bellutti, P.; Korn, G.

2015-01-01

458

Effect of seed stimulation on germination and sugar beet yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germination and sugar beet yield after seed stimulation were investigated. The seeds came from the energ'hill technology and were subject to laser irradiation. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory and field conditions. Lengthening of germinal roots and hypocotyls was observed. A positive effect of the stimulation on the morphological features was observed for the Eh seeds and laser irradiation applied in a three-fold dose. The energ'hill seeds exhibited a significantly higher content of carotenoids in seedlings and an increase in the content of chlorophylls. Laser light irradiation favourably modified the ratio of chlorophyll a to b. The leaves and roots of plants developed from the energ'hill and irradiated seeds were characterized by higher dry matter content thanin non-stimulated seeds. Seed stimulation had a positive influence on yielding and the saccharose content.

Pro?ba-Bia?czyk, U.; Szajsner, H.; Grzy?, E.; Demczuk, A.; Saca?a, E.; B?k, K.

2013-03-01

459

EarthSat spring wheat yield system test 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an operational test of the EarthSat System during the period 1 June - 30 August 1975 over the spring wheat regions of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota are presented. The errors associated with each sub-element of the system during the operational test and the sensitivity of the complete system and each major functional sub-element of the system to the observed errors were evaluated. Evaluations and recommendations for future operational users of the system include: (1) changes in various system sub-elements, (2) changes in the yield model to affect improved accuracy, (3) changes in the number of geobased cells needed to develop an accurate aggregated yield estimate, (4) changes associated with the implementation of future operational satellites and data processing systems, and (5) detailed system documentation.

1976-01-01

460

X-Ray Imaging at High Neutron Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray imaging is an important and established diagnostic tool for ICF implosion experiments. The National Ignition will soon be producing radiation environments and neutron yields that will be higher than any produced in laboratory settings in the past. Even for a non-igniting plasma (1017 neutrons) an unshielded diagnostic situated outside the target chamber, but inside the target bay will be subjected to a neutron fluence in excess of 1010 /cm2, with a comparable gamma fluence. These conditions are sufficient to cause unacceptable backgrounds or permanent damage to detectors. We will present modeling, experimental data, and design concepts for x-ray imaging with increasing neutron yield. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Bradley, David

2011-11-01

461

Effect of light scalar mesons in {eta} {yields} 3{pi}  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the decay {eta} {yields} 3{pi}, for which the observed branching ratio is larger than the simplest predict ions from chiral symmetry. This process occurs primarily due to strong isospin violation and so is in principle a sensitive measure of the up-down quark mass difference. We study the role of a possible nonet of light scalar mesons in the {eta} {yields} 3{pi} decay. Using a non-linear chiral Lagrangian approach which successfully describes several other strong processes, we find that the inclusion of the scalar mesons leads to a modest increase relative to the simplest prediction. The main effect of the scalar mesons is due to a light broad {sigma} meson.

A. Abdel-Rehim; Deirdre Black; A. H. Fariborz; J. Schechter

2004-02-05

462

Canopy architecture and morphology of switchgrass populations differing in forage yield  

SciTech Connect

Phenotypic selection has been used to improve forage yield in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), but the effects on canopy architecture and morphology are not understood. Our objectives were to determine if canopy architecture and morphology can explain genotype x environment (G x E) yield difference in switchgrass (Panicum L.) and to evaluate canopy architecture and morphology as selection criteria for increasing yield. This study was conducted in 1993 near Mead, NE, and near Ames, IA. The experimental design was a randomized complete block experiment with a split-plot arrangement of four replicates at each location. Whole plots were tiller population and subplots were sward maturity. Tiller populations were harvested on 9 June, 19 July, and 27 August at Ames and on 10 June, 27 July, and 26 August at Mead and were classified morphologically. Tillers were separated into primary yield components and dried at 55{degrees}C to determine total forage yield and dry matter contribution of morphological components. Genotype x environment interactions occurred for total forage yield and IVDMD apparently altered morphological changes within the canopy of selected switchgrass populations. The most apparent changes were development of additional collared leaves and internodes in some populations across locations. Although canopy architecture may not be a useful selection criterion because of variability associated with individual canopy traits, indirect measurements showed that leaf area index (LAI) has some potential as a selection criterion for increasing total forage yield. However, selection for individual canopy traits may be most effective for modifying sward growth habits. 36 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

Redfearn, D.D. [Louisiana State Univ., Franklinton, LA (United States); Moore, K.J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Vogel, K.P. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others

1997-03-01

463

Hadron yields and the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter  

E-print Network

This paper presents a brief review of the interpretation of measurements of hadron yields in hadronic interactions within the framework of thermal models, over a broad energy range (from SIS to LHC energies, $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\simeq$ 2.5 GeV -- 5 TeV). Recent experimental results and theoretical developments are reported, with an emphasis on topics discussed during the Quark Matter 2014 conference.

Michele Floris

2014-10-02

464

Microstructural investigations of the yielding behaviour of bidisperse magnetorheological fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle level simulations were used to investigate the effects of size bidispersity and particle size ratios on the static\\u000a and yielding behaviour of magnetorheological fluids (MRF). The MRF were treated as linearly magnetisable, neutrally buoyant\\u000a particles dispersed in a viscous carrier liquid. In the quiescent mode (static structures), the bidisperse suspensions were\\u000a found to have a higher tendency to form

Charles Ekwebelam; Howard See

2009-01-01

465

Optimization and fundamentals of high-yield pulping with ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-yield pulping process based on ethanol pretreatment and steam cooking was studied. The effect of processing conditions (cooking temperature at six levels and ethanol concentration at five levels) was determined. Optimum results appeared at 30% ethanol concentration and with cooking at 195 °C. The cooking liquor was analyzed by GC-MS and low-molecular lignin fragments were identified. Alcohol in

Jan Bendzala; Bohuslav V. Kokta

1995-01-01

466

High-yield enzymatic glycerolysis of fats and oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several triglyceride fats and oils were reacted with glycerol using lipase as catalyst. A batch system with magnetic stirring\\u000a was used without the addition of any solvents or emulsifiers. In all cases a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides was obtained.\\u000a However, the yield of monglyceride (MG) depended strongly on the reaction temperature: at higher temperatures approximately\\u000a 30% MG was

Gerald P. McNeill; Shoichi Shimizu; Tsuneo Yamane

1991-01-01

467

The prediction of sediment yields from small blackland watersheds  

E-print Network

to predict sediment yields directly. These are the methods that fall into tha second category mentioned in the beginning paragraph of the literature reviom. Anderson (3) developed one such equation in shich he related the annual suspended sediment... using these variables and measured suspended sediment discharge. The six important prodictor variables mere: (1) relative rain area; (2) acres of mildfire per square mile of matershed area mithin the ten year poriod 10 prior to analysis; (3) acres...

Williams, Jimmy Ray

2012-06-07

468

Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields.  

PubMed

Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26-72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12-19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2013-12-01

469

GGE Biplot Analysis of Oil Yield in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six varieties\\/strains belonging to three species of Cymbopogon, viz., C. flexuosus, C. khasianus and C. pendulus, or their hybrids, were evaluated for oil yield across four years (1997-98-2000-01) as very limited information is available on variety-by-environment interaction from multi-environment trials. The main effects, varieties and years, were significant, but variety-by-year interaction was not significant. Log-transformation of data reduced coefficients of

M. K. Bhan; S. Pal; B. L. Rao; A. K. Dhar; M. S. Kang

2005-01-01

470

Pre-harvest pecan yield estimation in Texas  

E-print Network

), but as the dangers of wholesale pesticide use become known, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is becoming more widely accepted. The format and style of this thesis follows that used in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Sciences. This research...PRE-HARVEST PECAN YIELD ESTIMATION IN TEXAS A Thesis by GLENN CHARLES WRIGHT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject...

Wright, Glenn Charles

2012-06-07

471

Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands  

PubMed Central

Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes. PMID:25299593

Blank, Peter J.; Sample, David W.; Williams, Carol L.; Turner, Monica G.

2014-01-01

472

A Simple Method for Determining Specific Yield from Pumping Tests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simpler solution which greatly reduces the time necessary to compute the specific yield by the pumping-test method of Remson and Lang (1955) is presented. The method consists of computing the volume of dewatered material in the cone of depression and comparing it with the total volume of discharged water. The original method entails the use of a slowly converging series to compute the volume of dewatered material. The solution given herein is derived directly from Darcy's law.

Ramsahoye, L.E.; Lang, Solomon Max

1961-01-01

473

Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields  

PubMed Central

Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26–72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12–19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2013-01-01