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1

Yield and yield components of saffron under different cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate yield and yield components of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in response to (i) production system (PS) (irrigated vs. non-irrigated); (ii) corm size (CS) (medium ?2.25 to 3cm diameter vs. small corms <2.25cm diameter); (iii) planting depth (PD) (10cm vs. 20cm); and iv) planting density (PDEN) (51cormsm?2 vs. 69cormsm?2).This fully replicated multifactorial design was started

José Arturo de Juan; Horacio López Córcoles

2009-01-01

2

Heterosis and Correlation of Yield and Yield Components in Tomato (Lycopersicon esulentum Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heteroisis and character association were estimated in 45 single cross hybrids, obtained by 1 0 parental lines of tomato for yield and yield component traits : plant height at 60 days after transplantation (PH60D), days to first flowering (DFF), number of flower per cluster (NFPC), number of fruits per plant (NFPP), fruit weight per plant (FWPP), days to first fruit

M. M. Hannan; M. B. Ahmed; M. A. Razvy; R. Karim; M. Khatun; A. Haydar; M. Hossain; U. K. Roy

3

Effect of methionine consumption on egg component yield and composition  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF METHIONINE CONSUMPTION ON EGG COMPONENT YIELD AND COMPOSITION A Thesis by DANIEL JOHN SHAFER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject; Poultry Science EFFECT OF METHIONINE CONSUMPTION ON EGG COMPONENT YIELD AND COMPOSITION A Thesis by DANIEL JOHN SHAFER Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Shafer, Daniel John

2012-06-07

4

Path coefficient analysis of the effects of stripe rust and cultivar mixtures on yield and yield components of winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four club wheat cultivars and three two-component cultivar mixtures, planted at five frequencies, were grown in three environments in both the presence and absence of stripe rust. The effect of stripe rust on wheat yield was through the yield components, with weight of individual seed being the component most affected by rust. In some cases, yield component compensation was indicated

S. I. Akanda; C. C. Mundt

1996-01-01

5

EVALUATION OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) HYBRIDS FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN CENTRAL PUNJAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen sunflower hybrids were studied during spring 2002 in central Punjab- Pakistan. The results revealed that cross ORI-1 x RL-110 gave maximum heterobeltiosis (284.37%) for seed yield per plant. The cross ORI-43 x RL-10 produced maximum seed yield per plant (56.25 g) and was statistically at par with ORI-1 x RL- 110. The cross combination ORI-2 x V-214 produced taller

Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Anwar Butt; Manzoor Ali Akhter; Muhammad Aslam; Akhter Saeed

6

Effects of previous cropping on seed yield and yield components of oil-seed rape ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about the effect of the preceding crop or crop combination on the seed yield of oil-seed rape is extremely scarce. Experiments were carried out in northwest Germany to investigate the effect of different preceding crops on the growth, seed yield and yield components of oil-seed rape. The two directly preceding crops, wheat and oil-seed rape, had only a negligible

Klaus Sieling; Olaf Christen; Bahadour Nemati; Herbert Hanus

1997-01-01

7

Effects of Inoculation with Rhizobium on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum on seed yield and yield components of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) were evaluated under Black Sea Coastal Region conditions, Turkey, in the 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 growing seasons using common vetch cultivars Kubilay, Ürem, Karaelçi, Uluda¤, Emir, Çubuk and Nilüfer. The experiment was established as a split block design with 3 replications. Inoculation

Sebahattin ALBAYRAK; Cafer S

8

Effect of ‘Mixtalol’ on growth, yield and yield components of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtalol (a mixture of long chain aliphatic alcohols varying in chain length from C24 to C32) applied to Brassica juncea plants as foliar spray caused an increase in secondary and tertiary branching with consequent enhancement in seed yield through increased number of inflorescences and siliquae per plant. The percentage of immature siliquae and shattering of siliquae decreased with this treatment.

R. C. Setia; Richa; Neelam Setia; K. L. Ahuja; C. P. Malik

1989-01-01

9

Seeding date influence on camelina seed yield, yield components, and oil content in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) was introduced for the first time in Chile in 2008 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and also as high omega-3-containing seed oil for the salmon feed industry. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum seeding date to maximize camelina seed yield in South Central Chile. The experiment was conducted under dryland conditions

Marisol Berti; Rosemarie Wilckens; Susana Fischer; Alejandro Solis; Burton Johnson

2011-01-01

10

EVALUATION OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN NEW SPINY GENOTYPES OF SAFFLOWER (Carthamus tinctorius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of oilseeds cultivation has an important role in providing of requisite edible oils for country people. Iran is one of the origin areas of safflower as a drought and salt tolerant crop. Therefore safflower can be a suitable alternative crop for cultivation in marginal areas. Limited studies have been done on new high yield genotypes of safflower. Results of

B. Pasban Eslam

11

Effect of inoculation and nitrogen addition on the yield and yield components of soybeans  

E-print Network

throughout his graduate studies. A very special thanks is also expressed to those for whom this thesis is dedicated. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW MATERIALS AND METHODS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 16 Early Season Growth 50... all the nitrogen that could be used for maximum growth through symbiotic fixation. Norman and Krampitz (1945) concluded after a number of experiments under greenhouse conditions that nodulated soybeans did not produce maximum dry weight yields when...

Gambaudo, Sebastian Pedro

2012-06-07

12

Effect of row spacing on yield and yield components of winter wheat cultivars  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE August 19I7 Nsj or Subject: Plant Breeding EFFECT OF ROii SPACING GN YIELD AND YLELD GGMPONENFS OF WINIER WHEAT CULTIVARS A Thesis ROSS JAY PETERS (Chairman of Committee of De artme t) p( (Member (Membe r) August 1977 EFFECT OF BC...!A SPACINC ON YL LD AND YLELD C(24PONENJS OF MINTER VREAT CDLTIVABS. (August 19i7) BOSS . TAY PETERS S. S. , Arisona State University Chairman of Adviso"y Commi t tee; Dr. Earl Gilmore Tn 197 ~ six locally adapted winter w! est (Trit'. curn acstiv::m L...

Peters, Ross Jay

2012-06-07

13

Quantitative trait loci(qtl) analysis of yield components and heat tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum)  

E-print Network

evaluated as indicators of heat tolerance / susceptibility. Most of the phenotypic variations of yield components exhibited a normally distributed pattern in response to heat stress treatments. This suggests that the yield component responses to high...

Do, Jung Hwa

2009-05-15

14

Conceptualizing yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a framework for employing the concept of tourism yield in a multidimensional manner, in particular applied to various quality of life aspects promoted by sustainable development. Most analysts employ a narrow economic definition of yield while paying some attention to the triple bottom line. Here, a framework is proposed that not only seeks to conceptualize tourism yield

Jeremy Northcote; Jim Macbeth

2006-01-01

15

Heritability and gene effects for yield and yield components in chickpea.  

PubMed

A 4x4 full-diallel cross set of chickpea (ILC 3279, Konya, Balikesir and Aknohut) was studied to estimate the gene effects and genetic parameters of nine traits. According to Hayman's method, only additive gene effects were found significant for days to flowering, plant height, number of pods and seeds per plant. In additon to the significant additive gene effects, dominant gene effects were significant for days to maturity, basal pod height, number of branches per plant and 100-seed weight. However, the magnitude of the additive gene effects was much higher than dominant gene effects. Reciprocal differences were observed for days to flowering and 100-seed weight. Estimates of genetic parameters also revealed that additive variance was significant for all traits studied except for seed yield, while dominance variance was significant only for days to maturity. The narrow-sense heritabilities were high for 100-seed weight (96%), days to flowering (84%), seeds (78%) and pods per plant (74%) indicating that great genetic gain could be achieved for these traits. PMID:19076689

Tuba Biçer, B T; Sakar, Do?an

2008-10-01

16

Planting date and genotype effects on components of corn yield  

E-print Network

and Heat Units Accumulated at 50% Silking Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Weight at 50% Silking . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Physiological Maturity by Black Layer . Determination of Yield Parameters RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Planting Date and Genotypic... . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 42 Heat units accumulated from emergence to 50% silking for 6 planting dates of corn, 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10 12. 13 Leaf area above the top ear at 50% si lking for 6 planting dates of corn, 1985...

Rubottom, Bradley Gene

2012-06-07

17

Fiber quality parameters and within-boll yield components of Gossypium arboreum L. putative mutant lines  

E-print Network

mean fiber length (UBM), fiber bundle strength, micronaire, and uniformity index. Lint yield components, using the ontogenetic yield model proposed by Worley et al. included: lint percentage (LP), seeds per boll (S/BOLL), seed cotton per seed (SC...

Naivar, Kevin Scott

2012-06-07

18

Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with yield and yield components under reproductive stage salinity stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Salinity tolerance in rice is critical at reproductive stage because it ultimately determines grain yield. An F2 mapping population derived from a Sadri/FL478 cross was exposed to saline field conditions (6-8 dS m(-1)) after the active tillering stage to identify reproductive stage specific QTLs for salinity tolerance. Genetic linkage map was constructed using 123 microsatellite markers on 232 F2 progenies. Totally 35 QTLs for 11 traits under salinity stress were detected with LOD > 3, out of which 28 QTLs that explained from 5.9 to 30.0% phenotypic variation were found to be significant based on permutation test. Three major QTL clusters were found on chromosomes 2 (RM423-RM174), 4 (RM551-RM518) and 6 (RM20224-RM528) for multiple traits under salinity stress. Both parental lines contributed additively for QTLs identified for the yield components. A majority of the QTLs detected in our study are reported for the first time for reproductive stage salinity stress. Fine-mapping of selected putative QTLs will be the next step to facilitate marker-assisted backcrossing and to detect useful genes for salinity tolerance at the reproductive stage in rice. PMID:24371165

Mohammadi, Reza; Mendioro, Merlyn S; Diaz, Genaleen Q; Gregorio, Glenn B; Singh, Rakesh K

2013-12-01

19

Effect of laser priming on canola yield and its components under salt stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of laser priming at different irradiation times on canola yield and its components under saline conditions were investigated. The results showed that laser priming had a positive effect on yield and its components and caused yield increase under saline conditions. Increase in salt levels had a negative and significant effect on seed yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, pod length and plant height. The results showed that 45-min laser priming had the strongest effect on yield and yield components and reduced significantly the adverse effects of salinity. By contrast, laser radiation applied for 60 and 75 min, resulted in a dramatic decrease in yield and its components. Correlation coefficients between the attributes showed that canola yield had a positive and significant correlation with plant height, number of seeds, pod per main branch and lateral branches, length of pod and number of lateral branches. Effects of laser and salinity were significant on lateral branch pod length but not on main branch pods.

Mohammadi, S. K.; Shekari, F.; Fotovat, R.; Darudi, A.

2012-02-01

20

Effect of between and on row distance of first development, tillering, yield and yield components in wheat cultivars (Triticum sp.).  

PubMed

This study was carried out at the University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Haymana Research and Application Farm, Haymana County, Ankara, Turkey during 1987/1990 with the aim of to determine the effect of between and on row distances (B(rd) and O(rd), respectively) on the first development, tillering, yield and yield components in wheat cultivars (Triticum sp.). Five wheat cultivars (Bezostaja-I, Gerek 79, Haymana 79; Triticum aestivum L., Cakmak 79 and Kunduru 1149; Triticum durum Desf.) were used and experimental design was arranged in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) in split plots with four replications. The cultivars were allocated to the main plots at three different B(rd) (5, 10 and 17.5 cm) and six various O(rd) (4.7, 2.2, 1.2 cm in commons and 3.8, 1.8, 1.0 cm in durums) values. B(rd) and O(rd) distances were not affected from emergency date; the number of plant m(-2) was varied between 173-326; the number of tillering was m(-2) was determined between 12-86; the number of the first root was changed 3-4; the length of the adventitious root was happened between 89-116 mm; the number of the adventitious root was varied between 2-3 mm; the length of the adventitious root was realized between 42-74 mm; the number of the downy brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) was changed between 7-16; plant height was measured between 45-73 cm; spike length was recorded between 62-81 mm; the number of spikelet was determined between 16-23; the number of grain was found between 19-30; grain weight per plant was calculated between 1-2 g plant(-1); 1000-kernel weight was varied between 18-44 g and grain yield per m2 was fixed between 119-208 g m(-2). Increasing in the B(rd) and O(rd) were negatively effected the adventitious root development so to ensure a long and fertile spike, narrow B(rd) and O(rd) distances should be used. Spikelet and grain number, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield per m2 were increased by narrowing either between nor on row distances. In addition, all the B(rd) parameters were not significantly effected to seedling traits in commons but not in durums. B(rd) = 17.5 cm was found the most beneficial distance in durums. On the other hand, to avoid reducing of the yield components, between row distance should not be increase and in all circimcustances, that value always must be adjusted wide otherwise control of the weeds, diseases and pest could be a great problem during the cultivation. PMID:19093497

Ulukan, Hakan; Kün, Ekrem

2007-12-15

21

Cotton Response to 1-Methylcyclopropene Under Different Light Regimes and Growth Stages: Lint Yield and Yield Components  

E-print Network

imposed at four developmental stages of growth: pinhead square (PHS), first flower (FF), peak flower (PF), and boll development (BD). Data pooled over both years indicated that there were no significant differences in yield for 1-MCP treatments; however...

Carden, Charles Warren

2010-10-12

22

Mapping QTL for biomass yield and its components in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Additive effects, additive by additive epistatic effects, and their environmental interactions of QTLs are important genetic components of quantitative traits. Genetic architecture underlying rice biomass yield and its two component traits (straw yield and grain yield) were analyzed for a population of 125 DH lines from an inter-subspecific cross of IR64/Azucena. The mixed-model based composite interval mapping approach (MCIM) was used to detect QTLs, There were 12 QTLs detected with additive main effects, 27 QTLs involved in digenic interaction with aa and/or aae effects, and 18 QTLs affected by environments with ae and/or aae effects. It was revealed that epistatic effects and QE interaction effects existed on biomass yield and its component traits in rice. In addition, the genetic basis of relationships among these traits were investigated. Four QTLs and one pair of epistatic QTLs were detected to be responsible for the positive correlation between biomass yield and straw yield. Three QTLs might be responsible for the negative correlation between straw yield and grain yield. This result could partially explain the genetic basis of correlation among the three traits, and provide useful information for genetic improvement of these traits by marker-assisted selection. PMID:16875318

Liu, Gui-Fu; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Jun

2006-07-01

23

Seed-yield and yield components response to source–sink ratio in annual and perennial species of Lesquerella (Brassicaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the annual Lesquerella fendleri is the prime candidate for the development of a lesquerolic rich oil-seed crop, within this genus there are other species available to breeders, some of which are perennials. However, the feasibility of a perennial crop of Lesquerella is not clear because increases in seed-yield tend to reduce perennially. The objective of this work was to

W. J. Masnatta; D. A. Ravetta

2011-01-01

24

Effect of Fertilizers on Growth, Yield, Yield Components, Quality and Certain Nutrient Contents in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plastic-house experiment was carried out during winter 2006-2007 to determine of the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield and quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica). Four organic fertilizer doses (0, 40, 60 & 80 t ha - 1 ) and three inorganic fertilizer doses (0, 30 & 60 kg ha-1) were used. Application of 60

BASEL A. OUDA; ATIF Y. MAHADEEN

25

Path and Ridge Regression Analysis of Seed Yield and Seed Yield Components of Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2 were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components. PMID:21533153

Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, Rene

2011-01-01

26

Growth parameter and yield component response of field corn to simulated acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yield changes the study examined the effect of simulated acid rain on parameters associated with corn yield. Cultivars B73 x

W. L. Banwart; P. M. Porter; E. L. Ziegler; J. J. Hassett

1988-01-01

27

The effect of L-lysine intake on egg component yield and composition in laying hens  

E-print Network

Roles of Amino Acids in Protein Synthesis . . 8 III THE INFLUENCE OF LYSINE ON EGG COMPONENT YIELD AND COMPOSITION IN LAYER HENS 10 Introduction Materials and Methods Experimental Design Ration Preparation Liquid Egg Analyses Total Solids... Introduction Materials and Methods Experimental Design Ration Preparation Liquid Egg Analyses Protein Determination Data Analysis . Results 22 22 22 23 25 25 27 28 V DISCUSSION 38 Possible mechanisms of increasing protein levels. . . 42 VI...

Prochaska, Jerry Fred

2012-06-07

28

Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes  

E-print Network

High yielding cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivars with improved fiber bundle strength are needed for today's spinning technology. This study was initiated to determine the effects of selection for improved fiber quality on within-boll yield...

Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

2012-06-07

29

Combining ability of yield components and agronomic characteristics among selected Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench inbreds  

E-print Network

showed large positive results fo" the female parent ATx623 and he male parer. ts RTx430, 77CS1, 77CS286, and 77CS3. The hybrids ATx399 x 77CS1, A x623 x RTx415, A x399 x R x7000, ATx378 x 77CS2, ano A1388 x 77CS256 had large positive SCA effec.... The objectives o this study were: 1) To compare Fi hybrids fo" total v' eld and associated componer ts. 2) To de erm ne general and spec fic combining ability of yield, yield compo eats, and related plant cna ecteristics us'ng four selects" female and nine...

Smith, Leslie Kay

2012-06-07

30

Investigation the growth, yield and yield components of rice varieties in rotation with garlic, Faba bean, lettuce, pea and fallow in north of Iran.  

PubMed

In order to investigating the effects of second crop cultivation on growth, yield and yield components of rice, a field experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Iran-Deputy of Mazandaran (Amol) during 2004 and 2005. Tarom as a traditional variety and Fajr as a improved variety were used in this research. Faba, pea, Lettuce and garlic were used as a second crop in rotation with rice. Second crop cultivation, variety and interaction between them had a significant effect on tiller number at 0.01 probability level. Results showed that rice yield after lettuce and garlic rotation was lower than with Faba bean, pea and fallow rotation. These results indicated that rice varieties had different reaction to second crop cultivation. For example, Tarom variety in rotation with lettuce and garlic had higher yield deficiency than Fajr variety. These results suggested that Lettuce and garlic can not be a permanent second crop in paddy field. According to results, pea and faba bean in rotation with rice for the best performance of yield attributes of rice varieties were recommended. PMID:19070083

Nasiri, Morteza; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Tari, Davood Barari

2007-08-15

31

Popcorn ( Zea mays L. var. everta) yield and yield components as influenced by the timing of broadcast flaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers are interested in producing popcorn under organic production systems and propane flaming could be a significant component of an integrated weed management program. The objective of this study was to collect baseline information on popcorn tolerance to broadcast flaming as influenced by propane dose and crop growth stage at the time of flaming. Field experiments were conducted at the

Santiago M. Ulloa; Avishek Datta; Sidnei D. Cavalieri; Mario Lesnik; Stevan Z. Knezevic

2010-01-01

32

To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan  

SciTech Connect

Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E. [Department of Agronomy, Plant breeding and genetic, Faculty of Agricutlure, Zabol University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-01-30

33

Growth parameter and yield component response of field corn to simulated acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yield changes the study examined the effect of simulated acid rain on parameters associated with corn yield. Cultivars B73 x Mo17 and Pioneer 3377 were shielded from ambient rain by two movable rain exclusion shelters. Six simulated rain treatments were applied biweekly within these shelters through the use of a nozzle distribution system. For the most part, growth and yield parameters were unaffected by simulated rain treatment. While the only significant yield reduction was a contrast of pH 3.0 and the average of all other treatments for B73 x Mo17, the reduction appears to be the result both of slightly fewer ears and slightly less successful ear fill.

Banwart, W.L.; Porter, P.M.; Ziegler, E.L.; Hassett, J.J.

1988-01-01

34

Seed yield and its components in smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yield performance and effect on seed yield of morphological traits such as seeds\\/panicle, seed weight, seeds\\/branch, branches\\/2nd node, branches\\/panicle, fertile tillers\\/plant and panicle length were evaluated in 13 cultivars of smooth bromegrass in a spaced-plant nursery. Wide variation was observed between and within cultivars for seed yield and traits. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found among traits and seed

E. ACIKGijZ; A. S. Tekeli

1980-01-01

35

Evaluation of Grain Yield and Its Components in Durum Wheat under Mediterranean Conditions: An Ontogenic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

the number of spikes per square meter predominantly influenced grain drought stress, with respect to grain yield, is from double production in the warmer environments. The number of kernels per ridge to anthesis due to its negative impact on spikelet spike had a significant contribution to grain yield, especially under number and kernels per spike (Shpiler and Blum, 1991). drought

L. F. Garcia del Moral; Y. Rharrabti; D. Villegas; C. Royo

36

Effect of okra mosaic virus disease on the above-ground morphological yield components of okra in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of virus and virus-like diseases on the above-ground morphological yield components of okra was determined in farmers’ fields in June 2001. Virus and virus-like disease symptoms were found in all the surveyed fields with disease incidence that averaged 55% and ranged from 30 to 89%. There was a significant (P<0.05) variation in the above-ground yield components between virus-infected

J Ndunguru; A. C Rajabu

2004-01-01

37

The yield stress myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New experimental data obtained from constant stress rheometers are used to show that the yield stress concept is an idealization, and that, given accurate measurements, no yield stress exists. The simple Cross model is shown to be a useful empiricism for many non-Newtonian fluids, including those which have hitherto been thought to possess a yield stress.

H. A. Barnes; K. Walters

1985-01-01

38

Impact of Animal Manures and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield Components of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was treated with N as (urea) (CO(NH ) , 46% N) at 50 kg ha? ; P as super 2 2 1 1 n (stigma dry weight) of saffron. The highest yield (0.45 g m? ) was obtained with combination of M , P and N, 2 n while, the lowest (0.24 g m? ) with

Mohammad E. Amiri

39

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

40

Yield of green peas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green peas (cv.‘Victory Freezer’) were grown at five plant densities (52, 90, 105, 182, 358 plants\\/m) and three soil moisture treatments: natural rainfall, irrigation at flowering and pod swelling, and water stress at these periods. Both total green yield and green pea yield increased with increasing density, although green pea yield dropped slightly below 182 plants\\/m. No significant differences occurred

J. A. D. Anderson; J. G. H. White

1974-01-01

41

Wild-Proso Millet Differentially Affects Canopy Architecture and Yield Components of 25 Sweet Corn Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of cultivar-specific information on crop tolerance, the ability of the crop to endure competitive stress from weeds, has garnered recent interest in organic crop production. Twenty-five commercial sweet corn hybrids from nine seed companies weregrowninthepresenceandabsenceofwild-prosomillet(PanicummiliaceumL.)to1) quantify tolerance in crop growth and yield to weed interference; 2) determine associations between tolerance in crop growth andyield; and 3) identify hybridsdiffering in

Yim F. So; Jerald K. Pataky

42

Carcass and non-carcass component yields of crossbred Boer and Brazilian semiarid indigenous goats subjected to different feeding levels.  

PubMed

The effect of different feeding levels (ad libitum, 25 and 50 % restriction) and genotypes (½ Boer?×?½ nondescript breed goats, Canindé, and Moxotó) on carcass quantitative characteristics and non-carcass components (NCC) were evaluated. Forty-five intact male goats were distributed in a 3 × 3 factorial design with five replicates. There was no effect of genotype on carcass weights and yields and retail cuts weights and yields (P > 0.05). Compared to Moxotó, ½ Boer presented better carcass conformation and higher weights (P < 0.01) and yields of viscera from gastrointestinal tract (P < 0.05), and compared to the other genotypes (P < 0.01), ½ Boer presented larger carcass compactness. Carcass weights and yields, retail cuts weights and NCC, and soft tissues yields were higher (P < 0.01) in goats fed ad libitum. The two restriction levels did not differ (P > 0.05) for these variables. There were interactions of genotype and feeding level. At ad libitum feeding, ½ Boer had higher weights of breast and shank, leg, soft tissues, and gastrointestinal viscera compared to the Moxotó (P < 0.05). The crossing of nondescript breed goats with Boer may be a strategy for increasing the efficiency of goat meat production in the Brazilian semiarid. Moreover, in times of feed scarcity, farmers may use higher feed restriction levels to keep animals, since for most of the parameters evaluated, there were no differences between the restriction levels. PMID:24492978

Martins, Samara Rodrigues; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Yamamoto, Sandra Mari; Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Tiago Santos

2014-04-01

43

Ecosystem Viable Yields  

E-print Network

The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

2011-01-01

44

Estimating Corn Grain Yields  

E-print Network

to potential crop insurance claims, ? A corn crop for harvest as silage during the milk stage (R3), and ? Grain yields of corn at the dent (R5) or physiological maturity (R6) stage of development when planning harvest and post-harvest grain storage needs... to potential crop insurance claims, ? A corn crop for harvest as silage during the milk stage (R3), and ? Grain yields of corn at the dent (R5) or physiological maturity (R6) stage of development when planning harvest and post-harvest grain storage needs...

Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne

2009-06-12

45

Impact of brown stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on corn grain yield components and quality.  

PubMed

Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), damage on developing corn, Zea mays L., ears was examined in 2005 and 2006 by using eight parameters related to its yield and kernel quality. Stink bug infestations were initiated when the corn plants were at tasseling (VT), mid-silking (R1), and blister (R2) stages by using zero, three, and six in 2005 or zero, one, two, and four bugs per ear in 2006, and maintained for 9 d. The percentage of discolored kernels was affected by stink bug number in both years, but not always affected by plant growth stage. The growth stage effect on the percentage of discolored kernels was significant in 2006, but not in 2005. The percentage of aborted kernels was affected by both stink bug number and plant growth stage in 2005 but not in 2006. Kernel weight was significantly reduced when three E. sercus adults were confined on a corn ear at stage VT or R1 for 9 d in 2005, whereas one or two adults per ear resulted in no kernel weight loss, but four E. servus adults did cause significant kernel weight loss at stage VT in 2006. Stink bug feeding injury at stage R2 did not affect kernel damage, ear weight or grain weight in either year. The infestation duration (9 or 18 d) was positively correlated to the percentage of discolored kernels but did not affect kernel or ear weight. Based on the regression equations between the kernel weight and stink bug number, the gain threshold or economic injury level should be 0.5 bugs per ear for 9 d at stage VT and less for stage R1. This information will be useful in developing management guidelines for stink bugs in field corn during ear formation and early grain filling stages. PMID:21309227

Ni, Xinzhi; Da, Kedong; Buntin, G David; Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn; Olson, Dawn M; Powell, Robert; Lee, R Dewey; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Scully, Brian T

2010-12-01

46

HETEROSIS STUDIES FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT UNDER NORMAL AND LATE-SOWING CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 *, R. S. SAIN, and E. V. D. SASTRY SUMMARY The magnitude of heterosis over mid-parent and better-parent for yield and yield contributing characters, as well as inbreeding depression were calculated in a 10 x 10 diallel set of bread wheat under two different environments. For grain yield, 55 crosses showed significant positive heterobeltiosis in two sowing dates; however,

H. SINGH; S. N. SHARMA

47

Favorable QTL Alleles for Yield and Its Components Identified by Association Mapping in Chinese Upland Cotton Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping is a powerful tool for dissecting the genetic basis underlying complex traits. In this study, an association mapping panel consisting of 356 representative Upland cotton cultivars was constructed, evaluated in three environments and genotyped using 381 SSRs to detect molecular markers associated with lint yield and its components. The results showed that abundant phenotypic and moderate genetic diversities existed within this germplasm panel. The population could be divided into two subpopulations, and weak relatedness was detected between pair-wise accessions. LD decayed to the background (r2?=?0.1182, P?0.01), r2?=?0.1 and r2?=?0.2 level within 12–13 cM, 17–18 cM and 3–4 cM, respectively, providing the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in Chinese Upland cotton. A total of 55 marker-trait associations were detected between 26 SSRs and seven lint yield traits, based on a mixed linear model (MLM) and Bonferroni correction (P?0.05/145, ?log10P?3.46). Of which 41 could be detected in more than one environment and 17 markers were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Many associations were consistent with QTLs identified by linkage mapping in previous reports. Phenotypic values of alleles of each loci in 41 stably detected associations were compared, and 23 favorable alleles were identified. Population frequency of each favorable allele in historically released cultivar groups was also evaluated. The QTLs detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of lint yield and its components, and the favorable alleles may facilitate future high-yield breeding by genomic selection in Upland cotton. PMID:24386089

Mei, Hongxian; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

2013-01-01

48

Sensitivity of Yield Optimized Superoscillations  

E-print Network

Super oscillating signals are band limited signals that oscillate in some region faster than their largest Fourier component. Such signals have many obvious scientific and technological applications, yet their practical use is strongly limited by the fact that an overwhelming proportion of the energy goes into that part of the signal, which is not superoscillating. In a recent article the problem of optimization of such signals has been studied. In that article the concept of superoscillation yield is defined as the ratio of the energy in the super oscillations to the total energy of the signal, given the range in time and frequency of the superoscillations, which is imposed by forcing the signal to interpolate among a set of predetermined points. The optimization of the superoscillation yield consists of obtaining the Fourier coefficients of the low frequency components of which the signal consists, that maximize the yield under the interpolation constraint. Since in practical applications it is impossible t...

Schwartz, Moshe

2014-01-01

49

Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (<315nm), UV-A+B (<400nm), transmitted all the UV (280-400nm) or without filters. All the four plant species responded to UV exclusion by a significant increase in plant height, leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. PMID:24041852

Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

2013-10-01

50

Role of nitric oxide in cadmium-induced stress on growth, photosynthetic components and yield of Brassica napus L.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to study the effect of cadmium (Cd) and exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on growth, photosynthetic attributes, yield components and structural features of Brassica napus L. (cv. GSL 1). Cadmium in the growth medium at different levels (1, 2 and 4 Mm) retarded plant growth viz. shoot (27%) and root (51%) length as compared to control. The accumulation of total dry matter and its partitioning to different plant parts was also reduced by 31% due to Cd toxicity. Photosynthetic parameters viz., leaf area plant(-1) (51%), total Chl (27%), Chl a / Chl b ratio (22%) and Hill reaction activity of chloroplasts (42%) were greatly reduced in Cd-treated plants. Cd treatments adversely affected various yield parameters viz., number of branches (23) and siliquae plant(-1) (246), seed number siliqua(-1) (10.3), 1000-seed weight (2.30g) and seed yield plant(-1) (7.09g). Different Cd treatments also suppressed the differentiation of various tissues like vessels in the root with a maximum inhibition caused by 4mM Cd. Exogenous application of nitric oxide (NO) improved the various morpho-physiological and photosynthetic parameters in control as well as Cd-treated plants. PMID:23741796

Jhanji, Shalini; Setia, R C; Kaur, Navjyot; Kaur, Parminder; Setia, Neelam

2012-11-01

51

Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ranchers need alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. Our objectives were to determine:\\u000a (1) leaf and stem biomass components, (2) nutritive value [in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), total nonstructural\\u000a carbohydrate (TNC), N, and N digestibility] of leaves for animal browse, (3) concentration of the secondary metabolites robinin\\u000a and mimosine, and (4) in vitro leaf and bark toxicity

David M. Burner; Danielle J. Carrier; David P. Belesky; Daniel H. Pote; Adrian Ares; E. C. Clausen

2008-01-01

52

UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR YIELD IMPROVEMENT  

E-print Network

/average casting weight (yield decreases with its increase). VARIABLES IMPACTING YIELD IN STEEL CASTING of Iowa researchers are conducting a casting yield survey to deter- mine the average metal yield in steel techniques for decreasing the size and number of risers re- quired to produce quality castings

Beckermann, Christoph

53

Defining and managing sustainable yield.  

PubMed

Ground water resource management programs are paying increasing attention to the integration of ground water and surface water in the planning process. Many plans, however, show a sophistication in approach and presentation that masks a fundamental weakness in the overall analysis. The plans usually discuss issues of demand and yield, yet never directly address a fundamental issue behind the plan--how to define sustainable yield of an aquifer system. This paper points out a number of considerations that must be addressed in defining sustainable yield in order to make the definition more useful in practical water resource planning studies. These include consideration for the spatial and temporal aspects of the problem, the development of a conceptual water balance, the influence of boundaries and changes in technology on the definition, the need to examine water demand as well as available supply, the need for stakeholder involvement, and the issue of uncertainty in our understanding of the components of the hydrologic system. PMID:15584295

Maimone, Mark

2004-01-01

54

Dual Reward Prediction Components Yield Pavlovian Sign- and Goal-Tracking  

PubMed Central

Reinforcement learning (RL) has become a dominant paradigm for understanding animal behaviors and neural correlates of decision-making, in part because of its ability to explain Pavlovian conditioned behaviors and the role of midbrain dopamine activity as reward prediction error (RPE). However, recent experimental findings indicate that dopamine activity, contrary to the RL hypothesis, may not signal RPE and differs based on the type of Pavlovian response (e.g. sign- and goal-tracking responses). In this study, we address this discrepancy by introducing a new neural correlate for learning reward predictions; the correlate is called “cue-evoked reward”. It refers to a recall of reward evoked by the cue that is learned through simple cue-reward associations. We introduce a temporal difference learning model, in which neural correlates of the cue itself and cue-evoked reward underlie learning of reward predictions. The animal's reward prediction supported by these two correlates is divided into sign and goal components respectively. We relate the sign and goal components to approach responses towards the cue (i.e. sign-tracking) and the food-tray (i.e. goal-tracking) respectively. We found a number of correspondences between simulated models and the experimental findings (i.e. behavior and neural responses). First, the development of modeled responses is consistent with those observed in the experimental task. Second, the model's RPEs were similar to dopamine activity in respective response groups. Finally, goal-tracking, but not sign-tracking, responses rapidly emerged when RPE was restored in the simulated models, similar to experiments with recovery from dopamine-antagonist. These results suggest two complementary neural correlates, corresponding to the cue and its evoked reward, form the basis for learning reward predictions in the sign- and goal-tracking rats. PMID:25310184

Kaveri, Sivaramakrishnan; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

55

The association of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components of the F3 derived F4 progeny of two upland cotton populations  

E-print Network

parameters, determined by high volume instrument, were: micronaire, upper half mean fiber length (UHM), unifon-nity index (UI), fiber strength, and elongation. Within-boll yield components, determined by direct measurements or through calculations included...

Basal, Huseyin

2012-06-07

56

Yield enhancement with DFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

2012-03-01

57

The effect of milk-based foliar sprays on yield components of field pumpkins with powdery mildew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that foliar applications of mixtures of cow's milk and water are effective in preventing powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) of zucchini on greenhouse grown plants. Our own work on field-grown pumpkins indicated that the efficacy of such foliar sprays is highly variable. This study is an attempt to measure the effect of milk-based sprays on the yield

Francis J. Ferrandino; Victoria L. Smith

2007-01-01

58

Association of growth dynamics, yield components and seed quality in long-term trials covering rapeseed cultivation history at high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brassica oilseed yield trend has declined in Finland by over 20% during the last 15 years. Improved genetic yield potential of turnip rape (B. rapa L.) and oilseed rape (B. napus L.) can be better realised with increased understanding of yield determining processes under northernmost growing conditions. This study aimed at (1) determining the genetic improvements in seed yield, yield

Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio; Lauri Jauhiainen

2008-01-01

59

Rx for low cash yields.  

PubMed

Certain strategies can offer not-for-profit hospitals potentially greater investment yields while maintaining stability and principal safety. Treasury inflation-indexed securities can offer good returns, low volatility, and inflation protection. "Enhanced cash" strategies offer liquidity and help to preserve capital. Stable value "wrappers" allow hospitals to pursue higher-yielding fixed-income securities without an increase in volatility. PMID:14560584

Tobe, Chris

2003-10-01

60

Heterosis and combining ability analysis for yield and its components in Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Half diallel analysis of eight parents was carried out to identify the high heterotic crosses and their relationship in terms\\u000a of general and specific combining ability (GCA & SCA) in Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss at IARI, New Delhi, during 2007–2008 and 2008–2009. The relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis were observed\\u000a to be the highest with respect to seed yield

Priti Gupta; H. B. Chaudhary; Sandeep Kumar Lal

2010-01-01

61

Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

1982-01-01

62

Maximum Sustainable Yield Lives On  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined 142 papers published from 1977 through 1985 that used the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). I classified them as to how MSY was used, year of publication, subject, and publication forum. The primary uses of MSY were in estimating long-term yield (28.9%), evaluating stock condition (28.2%), and analyzing policy (21.8%). The number of such publications declined significantly

Willard E. Barber

1988-01-01

63

Yield Strength of bcc Tantalum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined the quasi-static yield strength of bcc tantalum at room temperature and pressures up to 60 GPa, using two independent methods with the diamond-anvil cell. In the first method, synchrotron x-ray diffraction patterns of samples having varying degrees of hydrostaticity yield results that are consistent with theoretically predicted values. Radial pressure gradients, determined from ruby flourescence in the second method, compare well with the diffraction results. In addition, the equation of state of tantalum obtained in the present study can be compared to previously published static - as well as shock-compression results in order to distinguish pressure from strain-rate and temperature effects.

Nguyen, Jeffrey H.; Kruger, Michael B.; Caldwell, Wendell A.; Benedetti, Laura Robin; Chen, Bin; Jeanloz, Raymond; Holmes, Neil C.

1998-03-01

64

Yield Estimation from Surface-wave Amplitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-wave amplitudes from explosion sources show less variation for a given event han body wave amplitudes, so it is natural to expect that yield estimates derived from surface waves will be more accurate than yield estimates derived from body waves. However, yield estimation from surface waves is complicated by the presence of tectonic strain release, which acts like one or more earthquake sources superimposed on top of the explosion. Moment-tensor inversion can be used to remove the tectonic component of the surface waves, however moment-tensor inversion for shallow sources is inherently non-unique so the explosion isotropic moment cannot be determined with the necessary accuracy by this means. Explosions on an island or near a mountain slope can exhibit anomalous surface waves similar to those caused by tectonic strain release. These complications cause yield estimates derived from surface waves to be less accurate than yield estimates from body waves recorded on a well-calibrated network with good coverage. Surface-wave amplitudes can be expressed as a surface-wave magnitude Ms, which is defined as the logarithm of the amplitude plus a distance correction, or as a path corrected spectral magnitude, log M'0, which is derived from the surface-wave spectrum. We derive relations for Ms vs. yield and log M'0 vs. yield for a large data set and estimate the accuracy of these estimates.

Stevens, J. L.; Murphy, J. R.

65

Yield potential of Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield of individual plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. ‘Mary Washington 500W’ grown from seed is very variable. Yield can be improved by selection on plant sex, specific vegetative characters, or yield itself. A study of yield variation among plants in an experimental population showed that an all-male population would yield 35% more than a population with about equal numbers

D. M. Moon

1976-01-01

66

Effects of varying forage particle size and fermentable carbohydrates on feed sorting, ruminal fermentation, and milk and component yields of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Ration sorting is thought to affect ruminal fermentation in such a manner that milk yield milk and components are often decreased. However, the influence of ruminally degradable starch on ration sorting has not been studied. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interactions between forage particle size (FPS) and ruminally fermentable carbohydrates (RFC) for dry matter intake (DMI), ration sorting, ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and milk yield and components. In this study, 12 (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were fed a total mixed ration that varied in FPS and RFC. Two lengths of corn silage were used to alter FPS and 2 grind sizes of corn grain were used to alter RFC. It was determined that increasing RFC increased ruminating time and did not affect eating time, whereas increasing FPS increased eating time and did not affect ruminating time. Ruminal fermentation did not differ by altering either FPS or RFC. However, increasing FPS tended to increase mean and maximum ruminal pH and increasing RFC tended to decrease minimum ruminal pH. Particle size distribution became more diverse and neutral detergent fiber content of refusals increased over time, whereas starch content decreased, indicating that cows were sorting against physically effective neutral detergent fiber and for RFC. Selection indices determined that virtually no interactions occurred between FPS and RFC and that despite significant sorting throughout the day, by 24h after feeding cows had consumed a ration very similar to what was offered. This theory was reinforced by particle fraction intakes that very closely resembled the proportions of particle fractions in the offered total mixed ration. An interaction between FPS and RFC was observed for DMI, as DMI decreased with increasing FPS when the diet included low RFC and did not change when the diet included high RFC. Dry matter intake increased with RFC for long diets and did not change with RFC on short diets. Increasing RFC was found to increase milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and lactose content and yield but decrease milk fat content. Increasing FPS did not have as great an effect on milk production as RFC. This study found no significant interaction between FPS and RFC for ration sorting, although an interaction between FPS and RFC for DMI was observed. Neither FPS nor RFC affected ruminal fermentation, whereas RFC had a greater influence on milk yield and components than FPS. PMID:23477824

Maulfair, D D; Heinrichs, A J

2013-05-01

67

Effects of irrigation regime, organic and inorganic mineral source on growth and yield components of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in upland and lowland conditions in Sokoto, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The effects of organic, inorganic fertilizer and irrigation regime on yield parameters of P. virgatum in upland and lowland areas in Sokoto geoecological region of Nigeria were assessed. Four levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg N ha(-1)), three rates of farmyard manure (0, 5 and 10 t ha(-1)) and three irrigation regimes (w2, w4 and w6) were set up as a split -plots design. Farmyard manure and irrigation regimes were combined and allocated as the main plots, while nitrogen rates were assigned to the sub-plots and each replicated three times. Results revealed that raising nitrogen rate from 50 to 75 kg N ha(-1), farmyard manure rate from 5-10 t ha(-1) or irrigation intervals from 2 to 4 days did not show a significant (p > 0.05) increase in yield components evaluated. Dry matter accumulation was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by irrigation regime in both seasons and locations and 2 day interval irrigation had the highest dry matter yield. A significant interaction between nitrogen and manure application was observed only at upland in 2008/2009 and a combination of 75 kg N ha(-1) and 10 t ha(-1) manure produced the highest values in all the parameters evaluated. The study suggest that 50 kg N ha(-1) with 5 t ha(-1) of farmyard manure and 2 day irrigation interval gave the highest yield. A combination of 50 kg N ha(-1), with 5 t ha(-1) of farmyard manure and 2 day irrigation interval were found to be optimum for growth and yield of Switchgrass under both lowland and upland conditions in Sokoto geoecological zone of Nigeria. PMID:24199487

Abdullahi, A A; Aliero, B L; Aliero, A A; Zuru, A A

2013-01-15

68

Efficient vlsi yield prediction with consideration of partial correlations  

E-print Network

of the yield computation problem namely - Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Adaptive Quadrisection (HAQ). Systematic process variations are also included in our yield model. The biggest plus in these two methods is reducing the size...

Varadan, Sridhar

2009-05-15

69

Yields of Bacterial Cells from Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

A strain of Nocardia and one of Pseudomonas, both isolated on pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane), gave cell yields of approximately 100% on n-octadecane and pristane. Both organisms grew more rapidly on the n-octadecane than on the pristane. A mixed culture, isolated on 3-methylheptane, whose two components were identified as species of Pseudomonas and of Nocardia, gave approximately 100% cell yields and grew with generation times of about 5 hr on n-heptane, n-octane, and 2-methylheptane. The generation time on 3-methylheptane was 8.6 hr and the cell yield was only 79%. A strain of Pseudomonas isolated from naphthalene enrichments and one from phenanthrene enrichments both gave a cell yield of 50% on naphthalene. The phenanthrene isolate gave a cell yield of 40% on phenanthrene. A Nocardia species isolated on benzene gave a 79% cell yield on benzene. The generation times of the bacteria isolated on aromatic hydrocarbons were related to the solubility of the aromatic hydrocarbons on which they were grown; the more insoluble hydrocarbons gave slower growth. PMID:5726161

Wodzinski, Richard S.; Johnson, Marvin J.

1968-01-01

70

Computer simulation of serrated yielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for serrated yielding based on the negative resistance characteristics of materials is discussed. An analog computer\\u000a based on this model is described. The simulated curves show oscillations which are regular and uniform in amplitude. To simulate\\u000a more realistic tensile test curves, a refined model which includes the effects of fluctuations in dislocation density and\\u000a velocity is described. Some

K Neelakantan; Indira Gandhi

1986-01-01

71

Yield and size of deficit irrigated potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) has been studied in a potato crop cultivated in a semi-arid zone (Albacete, Spain). Ten drip irrigation treatments were differentiated by the level of fulfilment of the water requirements. The effect of deficit irrigation at three crop stages (growth, tuber bulking and ripening) has been studied. Tuber yield and its components were highly influenced by the

C. Fabeiro; F Mart??n de Santa Olalla; J. A. de Juan

2001-01-01

72

The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays  

SciTech Connect

The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

Achasov, N. N., E-mail: achasov@math.nsc.ru [Russina Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15

73

Circuit yield of organic integrated electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on organic electronics is focussed on materials and on the performance of discrete devices. Reliability and circuit yield is largely unexplored. Yield, based on measurements on digital organic circuits up to 1000 transistors, is described. The causes of yield loss are analyzed and design solutions to improve the yield are discussed.

E. Cantatore; C. M. Hart; M. Digioia; G. H. Gelinck; T. C. T. Geuns; H. E. A. Huitema; L. R. R. Schrijnemakers; E. van Veenendaal; D. M. de Leeuw

2003-01-01

74

Electron yields from spacecraft materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoyields and secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics were determined under UHV conditions for a group of insulating materials used in spacecraft applications. The SEE studies were carried out with a pulsed primary beam while photoyields were obtained with a chopped photon beam from a Kr resonance source with major emission at 123.6 nm. This provides a photon flux close to that of the Lyman alpha in the space environment. Yields per incident photon are obtained relative to those from a freshly evaporated and air oxidized Al surface. Results are presented for Kapton, FEP Teflon, the borosilicate glass covering of a shuttle tile, and spacesuit outer fabric.

Yang, K.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

1985-01-01

75

Neutrino yield from Galactic cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the neutrino yield from collisions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with gas using the event generator QGSJET-II. We present first the general characteristics and numerical results for the neutrino yield assuming power-law fluxes for the primary CR nuclei. Then we use three parametrizations for the Galactic CR flux to derive the neutrino yield for energies around and above the knee. The shape and the normalization of the resulting neutrino flux above ˜1014 eV depends on the composition of the Galactic CR flux employed, but is generally dominated by its proton component. The spectral shape and magnitude of the neutrino flux suggest that the IceCube excess is not connected to interactions of Galactic sea CRs.

Kachelrieß, M.; Ostapchenko, S.

2014-10-01

76

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-10-01

77

Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not well defined in the suspension rheology we tested three types of measurement in determination of yield stress. Two methods utilized cone-plate geometry performing creep test (stress controlled) and variable shear rate test and one utilized narrow-gap concentric cylinder geometry with variable shear rate. Herschel-Bulckley model can be successfully applied to variable shear-rate tests to determine yield stress. Creep test and H-B model give almost identical yield stress, for instance 45±5Pa at 2.5wt%. At the gel volume fraction of 50% yield stress emerges and it increases with the increase of the concentration of gel powder. This critical value roughly corresponds to the random loose packing fraction while the viscosity begins to increase at lower fraction.

Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

2012-04-01

78

Relationship between Yield Components and Partial Resistance to Lecanicillium fungicola in the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, Assessed by Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping  

PubMed Central

Dry bubble, caused by Lecanicillium fungicola, is one of the most detrimental diseases affecting button mushroom cultivation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that breeding for resistance to this pathogen is quite challenging due to its quantitative inheritance. A second-generation hybrid progeny derived from an intervarietal cross between a wild strain and a commercial cultivar was characterized for L. fungicola resistance under artificial inoculation in three independent experiments. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was used to determine the locations, numbers, and effects of genomic regions associated with dry-bubble resistance. Four traits related to resistance were analyzed. Two to four QTL were detected per trait, depending on the experiment. Two genomic regions, on linkage group X (LGX) and LGVIII, were consistently detected in the three experiments. The genomic region on LGX was detected for three of the four variables studied. The total phenotypic variance accounted for by all QTL ranged from 19.3% to 42.1% over all traits in all experiments. For most of the QTL, the favorable allele for resistance came from the wild parent, but for some QTL, the allele that contributed to a higher level of resistance was carried by the cultivar. Comparative mapping with QTL for yield-related traits revealed five colocations between resistance and yield component loci, suggesting that the resistance results from both genetic factors and fitness expression. The consequences for mushroom breeding programs are discussed. PMID:22247161

Rodier, Anne; Savoie, Jean-Michel

2012-01-01

79

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields.  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

80

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

81

Yield learning model for integrated circuit package  

E-print Network

assemblies has been developed and implemented. Sensitivity analysis was performed to isolate the factors that affected yield learning the most. The yield model was developed after performing case studies on the Tape Carrier Package at Intel Corporation...

Balasubramaniam, Gaurishankar

2012-06-07

82

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2010-01-01

83

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2011-01-01

84

Wheat yield forecasts using Landsat data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaf area index and percentage of vegetative cover, two indices of crop yield developed from Landsat multispectral scanning data, are discussed. Studies demonstrate that the Landsat indicators may be as highly correlated with winter wheat yield as estimates based on traditional field sampling methods; in addition, the Landsat indicators may account for variations in individual field yield which are not explainable by meteorological data. A simple technique employing early-season Landsat data to make wheat yield predictions is also considered.

Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

1977-01-01

85

A greedy algorithm for yield surface approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Note presents an approximation method for convex yield surfaces in the framework of yield design theory. The proposed algorithm constructs an approximation using a convex hull of ellipsoids such that the approximate criterion can be formulated in terms of second-order conic constraints. The algorithm can treat bounded as well as unbounded yield surfaces. Its efficiency is illustrated on two yield surfaces obtained using up-scaling procedures.

Bleyer, Jérémy; de Buhan, Patrick

86

Yield optimization through MLR techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some chip manufacturing steps lead to non-negligible process variation at wafer level. Typically, chemomechanical planarization, known as CMP, is a nonhomogeneous process and thickness variations can be measured depending on the distance from a specific die to the wafer center. These variations have an impact on chip performances and thus on the final yield. This effect may be amplified by the fact that thickness variations on processed wafers introduce focus issues during later photo-lithography steps. Original chip layouts are modified by inserting dummies to correct thickness variation issues due to CMP, but these correction are based on models only depending on average values. In this paper, we propose a methodology to replace a single instance of the field written on the mask by multiple instances of this field as commonly used for Multi Layer Reticles. In the described methodology, each field of a same mask does not consist in different layers of the same chip, but of an optimized image of the same layer of the chip.

Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

2011-11-01

87

Possible future directions in crop yield forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines present and future possible applications of remote sensing to crop yield forecasting. It is concluded that there are ways in which Landsat data could be used to assist in crop yield forecasting using present technology. A framework for global crop yield forecasting which uses remote sensing, meteorological, field and ancillary data, as available, is proposed for the future.

Colwell, J. E.

1979-01-01

88

A unified explanation for secondary ion yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pure element secondary ion yields under oxygen and cesium ion bombardment are shown to be solely dependent on a) the ionization potential (or electron affinity for negative ionization) of the sputtered atom and b) the reciprocal of the matrix sputtering yield which determines the equilibrium concentration of implanted oxygen or cesium. This unified approach accounts for the yields of

V. R. Deline; C. A. Evans; Peter Williams

1978-01-01

89

Diallel analysis of within-boll seed yield components and fiber properties in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and breeding potential for heat tolerance  

E-print Network

. Significant interactions of these parameters with years were also observed, suggesting that selection should be based on multiple years and or locations. In addition to effects on yield, individual seed number traits were found to respond to heat stress under...

Ragsdale, Paul Irwin

2004-09-30

90

Redefining yield gaps at various spatial scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research has highlighted the prevalence of 'yield gaps' around the world and the importance of closing them for global food security. However, the traditional concept of yield gap -defined as the difference between observed and optimal yield under biophysical conditions - omit relevant socio-economic and ecological constraints and thus offer limited guidance on potential policy interventions. This paper proposes alternative definitions of yield gaps by incorporating rich, high resolution, national and sub-national agricultural datasets. We examine feasible efforts to 'close yield gaps' at various spatial scales and across different socio-economic and ecological domains.

Meng, K.; Fishman, R.; Norstrom, A. V.; Diekert, F. K.; Engstrom, G.; Gars, J.; McCarney, G. R.; Sjostedt, M.

2013-12-01

91

Baryon resonance yields after QGP hadronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the yields of ?(1232), ?(1385) and ?(1520) baryon resonances in the framework of a kinetic master equations for the case of entropy rich QGP fast hadronization leading to initial above chemical equilibrium yields of hadrons. In this case the resonance yield in a rapidly expanding system does not follow the chemical equilibrium yield as function of time. We find that a significant additional yields of ?(1232), ?(1385) can be produced by the back-reaction of the over- abundance of the decay products of resonances. A more complex situation arises for a relatively narrow resonance such as ?(1520), which can be in part seen as a stable state, which is depopulated to increase the heavier resonance yield. We find that a suppression of yield of such resonances, as compared to statistical hadronization model, is possible. The pattern of deviation of hadron resonance yields from expectations based on statistical hadronization model are another characteristic signature for a fast hadronization of entropy rich QGP. The total yields of the ground state baryons used in analysis of data (such as N, ?) are not affected. The results are in agreement with yields of these resonances reported by RHIC experiments.

Kuznetsova, Inga; Rafelski, Johann

2009-05-01

92

Distinguishing between yield advances and yield plateaus in historical crop production trends  

PubMed Central

Food security and land required for food production largely depend on rate of yield gain of major cereal crops. Previous projections of food security are often more optimistic than what historical yield trends would support. Many econometric projections of future food production assume compound rates of yield gain, which are not consistent with historical yield trends. Here we provide a framework to characterize past yield trends and show that linear trajectories adequately describe past yield trends, which means the relative rate of gain decreases over time. Furthermore, there is evidence of yield plateaus or abrupt decreases in rate of yield gain, including rice in eastern Asia and wheat in northwest Europe, which account for 31% of total global rice, wheat and maize production. Estimating future food production capacity would benefit from an analysis of past crop yield trends based on a robust statistical analysis framework that evaluates historical yield trajectories and plateaus. PMID:24346131

Grassini, Patricio; Eskridge, Kent M.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2013-01-01

93

Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Yield and Yield Stability in Modern Spring Barley Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Associations between markers and complex quantitative traits were investigated in a collection of 146 modern two-row spring barley cultivars, representing the current commercial germ plasm in Europe. Using 236 AFLP markers, associations between markers were found for markers as far apart as 10 cM. Subsequently, for the 146 cultivars the complex traits mean yield, adaptability (Finlay-Wilkinson slope), and stability (deviations from regression) were estimated from the analysis of variety trial data. Regression of those traits on individual marker data disclosed marker-trait associations for mean yield and yield stability. Support for identified associations was obtained from association profiles, i.e., from plots of P-values against chromosome positions. In addition, many of the associated markers were located in regions where earlier QTL were found for yield and yield components. To study the oligogenic genetic base of the traits in more detail, multiple linear regression of the traits on markers was carried out, using stepwise selection. By this procedure, 18–20 markers that accounted for 40–58% of the variation were selected. Our results indicate that association mapping approaches can be a viable alternative to classical QTL approaches based on crosses between inbred lines, especially for complex traits with costly measurements. PMID:15454555

Kraakman, Arnold T. W.; Niks, Rients E.; Van den Berg, Petra M. M. M.; Stam, Piet; Van Eeuwijk, Fred A.

2004-01-01

94

Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods  

SciTech Connect

Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1991-06-01

95

Partitioning potential fish yields from the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We proposed and implemented procedures for partitioning future fish yields from the Great Lakes into taxonomic components. These projections are intended as guidelines for Great Lakes resource managers and scientists. Attainment of projected yields depends on restoration of stable fish communities containing some large piscivores that will use prey efficiently, continuation of control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and restoration of high-quality fish habitat. Because Great Lakes fish communities were harmonic before their collapse, we used their historic yield properties as part of the basis for projecting potential yields of rehabilitated communities. This use is qualified, however, because of possible inaccuracies in the wholly commercial yield data, the presence now of greatly expanded sport fisheries that affect yield composition and magnitude, and some possibly irreversible changes since the 1950s in the various fish communities themselves. We predict that total yields from Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario will be increased through rehabilitation, while those from Lakes Michigan and Erie will decline. Salmonines and coregonines will dominate future yields from the upper lakes. The Lake Erie fishery will continue to yield mostly rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the relative importance of percids, especially of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) will increase. In Lake Ontario, yields of salmonines will be increased. Managers will have to apply the most rigorous management strictures to major predator species.

Loftus, D.H.; Olver, C.H.; Brown, Edward H.; Colby, P.J.; Hartman, Wilbur L.; Schupp, D.H.

1987-01-01

96

Predicting Great Lakes fish yields: tools and constraints  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prediction of yield is a critical component of fisheries management. The development of sound yield prediction methodology and the application of the results of yield prediction are central to the evolution of strategies to achieve stated goals for Great Lakes fisheries and to the measurement of progress toward those goals. Despite general availability of species yield models, yield prediction for many Great Lakes fisheries has been poor due to the instability of the fish communities and the inadequacy of available data. A host of biological, institutional, and societal factors constrain both the development of sound predictions and their application to management. Improved predictive capability requires increased stability of Great Lakes fisheries through rehabilitation of wellintegrated communities, improvement of data collection, data standardization and informationsharing mechanisms, and further development of the methodology for yield prediction. Most important is the creation of a better-informed public that will in turn establish the political will to do what is required.

Lewis, C.A.; Schupp, D.H.; Taylor, W.W.; Collins, J.J.; Hatch, Richard W.

1987-01-01

97

Yield strength of molybdenum at high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the diamond anvil cell technology, the pressure gradient approach is one of the three major methods in determining the yield strength for various materials at high pressures. In the present work, by in situ measuring the thickness of the sample foil, we have improved the traditional technique in this method. Based on this modification, the yield strength of molybdenum

Qiumin Jing; Yan Bi; Qiang Wu; Fuqian Jing; Zhigang Wang; Jian Xu; Sheng Jiang

2007-01-01

98

Estimating Crop Yields From Multispectral Reflectance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three reports describe research on proposed method for estimating crop yields by combining meteorological data with satellite measurements of reflected radiation to estimate crop-absorbed radiation. Concept, when tested over large areas, forms basis for evaluating crop conditions and estimating yields over regions where ground observations too costly or too difficult.

Daughtry, C.

1986-01-01

99

The Quantum Yield of Diacetyl Fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum yield of fluorescence of diacetyl, excited by radiation of ?4047 and ?4358, has been measured and found to be 0.145±0.03. It is approximately independent of pressure. On the other hand, the yield with excitation of ?3650, as first observed by Henriques and Noyes, increases apparently from zero at zero pressure to nearly the value obtained for the longer

G. M. Almy; P. R. Gillette

1943-01-01

100

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

101

Yield Stress in Foods: Measurements and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the presence of true yield stress has been debated, it has been accepted as an engineering reality. Now, yield stress is routinely measured and used in the food industry not only for basic process calculations and manufacturing practices, but also as a test for sensory and quality indices and to determine the effect of composition and manufacturing procedures on

Adriano Sun; Sundaram Gunasekaran

2009-01-01

102

New yield-aware mask strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we provide new yield-aware mask strategies to mitigate emerging variability and defectivity challenges. To address variability, we analyze CD variability with respect to reticle size, and its impact on parametric yield. With a cost model that incorporates mask, wafer, and processing cost considering throughput, yield, and manufacturing volume, we assess various reticle strategies (e.g., single layer reticle (SLR), multiple layer reticle (MLR), and small and large size) considering field-size dependent parametric yield. To address defectivity, we compare parametric yield due to EUV mask blank defects for various reticle strategies in conjunction with reticle floorplan optimizations such as shifting of the mask pattern within a mask blank to avoid defects being superposed by performance-critical patterns of a design.

Jeong, Kwangok; Kahng, Andrew B.; Progler, Christopher J.

2011-05-01

103

Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. × G. barbadense L.) RIL population.  

PubMed

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). One hundred and fifty-nine genomic regions were identified on a saturated genetic map of more than 2,500 SSR and SNP markers, constructed with an interspecific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the genetic standards of the respective cotton species (G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 × G. barbadense acc. 3-79). Using the single nonparametric and MQM QTL model mapping procedures, we detected 428 putative loci in the 159 genomic regions that confer 24 cotton traits in three diverse production environments [College Station F&B Road (FB), TX; Brazos Bottom (BB), TX; and Shafter (SH), CA]. These putative QTL loci included 25 loci for PA, 60 for YC, and 343 for FP, of which 3, 12, and 60, respectively, were strongly associated with the traits (LOD score ? 3.0). Approximately 17.7 % of the PA putative QTL, 32.9 % of the YC QTL, and 48.3 % of the FP QTL had trait associations under multiple environments. The At subgenome (chromosomes 1-13) contributed 72.7 % of loci for PA, 46.2 % for YC, and 50.4 % for FP while the Dt subgenome (chromosomes 14-26) contributed 27.3 % of loci for PA, 53.8 % for YC, and 49.6 % for FP. The data obtained from this study augment prior evidence of QTL clusters or gene islands for specific traits or biological functions existing in several non-homoeologous cotton chromosomes. DNA markers identified in the 159 genomic regions will facilitate further dissection of genetic factors underlying these important traits and marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25314923

Yu, John Z; Ulloa, Mauricio; Hoffman, Steven M; Kohel, Russell J; Pepper, Alan E; Fang, David D; Percy, Richard G; Burke, John J

2014-12-01

104

The optical depth of the 158 micrometer (C-12 II) line: Detection of the F=1 yields 0 (C-13 III) hyperfine-structure component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first detection of the F = 1 yields 0 hyperfine component of the 158 micrometer (C-13 II) fine structure line in the interstellar medium is reported. A twelve point intensity map was obtained of the (C-13 II) distribution over the inner 190 inch (right ascension) by 190 inch (declination) regions of the Orion nebula using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. The (C-12 II)/(C-13 II) line intensity ratio varied significantly over the region mapped. It is highest (86 plus or minus 9) in the core of the Orion H II region and significantly lower (62 plus or minus 7) in the outer regions of the map, reflecting higher optical depth in the (C-12 II) line here. It is suggested that this enhanced optical depth is the result of limb brightening of the optically thin (C-13 II) line at the edges of the bowl-shaped H II region blister. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 43, the (C-12 II) line in the inner regions of the Orion nebula, has a low optical depth: tau sub 12 approximately = 0.75 plus or minus 0.25. The optical depth together with the large brightness temperature of the (C-12 II) line (approximately 160 K) requires that the excitation temperature of the P-2 sub 3/2 level be approximately 310 K, in very good agreement with the previous analysis of the physical conditions of the Orion interface region based on fine structure line intensity ratios and photodissociation region models. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 67, the line optical depth is somewhat larger (tau sub 12 approximately = 1.85), and the transition excitation temperature is somewhat smaller (approximately 190 K) than that predicted by these models. The present results therefore support values approximately = 43 for the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in the Orion nebula.

Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Poglitsch, A.; Madden, S. C.; Jackson, J. M.; Herrmann, F.; Genzel, R.; Geis, N.

1991-01-01

105

Light yield and surface treatment of barium fluoride crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a study of the light yield and surface treatment of barium fluoride (BaF2) scintillation crystals. Using a bialkali photocathode the photoelectron (p.e.) yield of BaF2 crystals was measured to be 130 p.e.\\/MeV for the fast components and 700 p.e.\\/MeV for the slow component. A somewhat hygroscopic nature for the BaF2 is found. Teflon film was found to

Z. Y. Wei; R. Y. Zhu; H. Newman; Z. W. Yin

1991-01-01

106

The yield condition in the mobilization of yield-stress materials in distensible tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the yield condition in the mobilization of yield-stress materials in distensible tubes. We discuss the two possibilities for modeling the yield-stress materials prior to yield: solid-like materials and highly-viscous fluids and identify the logical consequences of these two approaches on the yield condition. Our results reveal that these two modeling approaches have far reaching consequences on the yield bottleneck and hence should be critically examined in the light of experimental evidence. As part of this investigation we derive an analytical expression for the pressure field inside a distensible tube with a Newtonian flow using a one-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow model in conjunction with a pressurearea constitutive relation based on elastic tube wall characteristics. This analytical expression has wider applicability than in the identification of the yield condition of yield-stress material.

Sochi, Taha

2014-08-01

107

Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.  

PubMed

To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565

Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

2014-05-01

108

Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery and Yield Monitor Data for Mapping Cotton Yield Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased availability of hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acquired using an airborne imaging system from two cotton fields during the 2001 growing season, and yield data were collected from the

Chenghai Yang; James H. Everitt; Joe M. Bradford; Dale Murden

2004-01-01

109

Absolute quantum yield measurement of powder samples.  

PubMed

Measurement of fluorescence quantum yield has become an important tool in the search for new solutions in the development, evaluation, quality control and research of illumination, AV equipment, organic EL material, films, filters and fluorescent probes for bio-industry. Quantum yield is calculated as the ratio of the number of photons absorbed, to the number of photons emitted by a material. The higher the quantum yield, the better the efficiency of the fluorescent material. For the measurements featured in this video, we will use the Hitachi F-7000 fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with the Quantum Yield measuring accessory and Report Generator program. All the information provided applies to this system. Measurement of quantum yield in powder samples is performed following these steps: 1. Generation of instrument correction factors for the excitation and emission monochromators. This is an important requirement for the correct measurement of quantum yield. It has been performed in advance for the full measurement range of the instrument and will not be shown in this video due to time limitations. 2. Measurement of integrating sphere correction factors. The purpose of this step is to take into consideration reflectivity characteristics of the integrating sphere used for the measurements. 3. Reference and Sample measurement using direct excitation and indirect excitation. 4. Quantum Yield calculation using Direct and Indirect excitation. Direct excitation is when the sample is facing directly the excitation beam, which would be the normal measurement setup. However, because we use an integrating sphere, a portion of the emitted photons resulting from the sample fluorescence are reflected by the integrating sphere and will re-excite the sample, so we need to take into consideration indirect excitation. This is accomplished by measuring the sample placed in the port facing the emission monochromator, calculating indirect quantum yield and correcting the direct quantum yield calculation. 5. Corrected quantum yield calculation. 6. Chromaticity coordinates calculation using Report Generator program. The Hitachi F-7000 Quantum Yield Measurement System offer advantages for this application, as follows: High sensitivity (S/N ratio 800 or better RMS). Signal is the Raman band of water measured under the following conditions: Ex wavelength 350 nm, band pass Ex and Em 5 nm, response 2 sec), noise is measured at the maximum of the Raman peak. High sensitivity allows measurement of samples even with low quantum yield. Using this system we have measured quantum yields as low as 0.1 for a sample of salicylic acid and as high as 0.8 for a sample of magnesium tungstate. Highly accurate measurement with a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude allows for measurements of both sharp scattering peaks with high intensity, as well as broad fluorescence peaks of low intensity under the same conditions. High measuring throughput and reduced light exposure to the sample, due to a high scanning speed of up to 60,000 nm/minute and automatic shutter function. Measurement of quantum yield over a wide wavelength range from 240 to 800 nm. Accurate quantum yield measurements are the result of collecting instrument spectral response and integrating sphere correction factors before measuring the sample. Large selection of calculated parameters provided by dedicated and easy to use software. During this video we will measure sodium salicylate in powder form which is known to have a quantum yield value of 0.4 to 0.5. PMID:22617474

Moreno, Luis A

2012-01-01

110

User's appraisal of yield model evaluation criteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five major potential USDA users of AgRISTAR crop yield forecast models rated the Yield Model Development (YMD) project Test and Evaluation Criteria by the importance placed on them. These users were agreed that the "TIMELINES" and "RELIABILITY" of the forecast yields would be of major importance in determining if a proposed yield model was worthy of adoption. Although there was considerable difference of opinion as to the relative importance of the other criteria, "COST", "OBJECTIVITY", "ADEQUACY", AND "MEASURES OF ACCURACY" generally were felt to be more important that "SIMPLICITY" and "CONSISTENCY WITH SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE". However, some of the comments which accompanied the ratings did indicate that several of the definitions and descriptions of the criteria were confusing.

Warren, F. B. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

111

Gene Research Yields Insights into Ebola Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Gene Research Yields Insights Into Ebola Virus Strain tied to West Africa outbreak has ... 2014) Thursday, August 28, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Ebola Genes and Gene Therapy THURSDAY, Aug. 28, 2014 ( ...

112

Mb Bias and Regional Magnitude and Yield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditional seismic yield estimation is performed using body wave magnitude (mb) measured from compressional wave amplitudes recorded across the globe. Stability is obtained by averaging many measurements. These waves traverse the earth's mantle, and are ...

G. E. Randall, H. E. Phillips, R. J. Stead

2008-01-01

113

Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to increase H2 yields from fermentative H2 production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although\\u000a heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H2 yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming\\u000a acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low

Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2007-01-01

114

Automated Crop Yield Estimation for Apple Orchards  

E-print Network

Abstract Crop yield estimation is an important task in apple orchard management. The current manual sampling-based yield estimation is time-consuming, labor-intensive and inaccurate. To deal with this challenge, we developed a computer vision-based system for automated, rapid and accurate yield estimation. The system uses a two-camera stereo rig for image acquisition. It works at nighttime with controlled artificial lighting to reduce the variance of natural illumination. An autonomous orchard vehicle is used as the support platform for automated data collection. The system scans both sides of each tree row in orchards. A computer vision algorithm detects and registers apples from acquired sequential images, and then generates apple counts as crop yield estimation. We deployed the yield estimation system in Washington state in September, 2011. The results show that the system works well with both red and green apples in the tall-spindle planting system. The crop yield estimation errors are-3.2 % for a red apple block with about 480 trees, and 1.2 % for a green apple block with about 670 trees. 1

Qi Wang; Stephen Nuske; Marcel Bergerman; Sanjiv Singh

115

Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials  

E-print Network

A new yield/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materals. This is a fundamental key to model the behaviour of materials which become cohesive during hardening (so that the shape of the yield surface evolves from that typical of a granular material to that typical of a dense material), or which decrease cohesion due to damage accumulation. The proposed yield function is shown to agree with a variety of experimental data relative to soil, concrete, rock, metallic and composite powders, metallic foams, porous metals, and polymers. The yield function represents a single, convex and smooth surface in stress space approaching as limit situations well-known criteria and the extreme limits of convexity in the deviatoric plane....

Bigoni, Davide

2010-01-01

116

Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

Bignell, Lindsey J.; Jackson, Timothy W. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)] [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Mume, Eskender [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia) [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Lee, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

2013-05-27

117

Radioluminescence yield of alpha particles in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpha particles can be detected by measuring the radioluminescence light which they induce when absorbed in air. The light is emitted in the near ultraviolet region by nitrogen molecules excited by secondary electrons. The accurate knowledge of the radioluminescence yield is of utmost importance for novel radiation detection applications utilizing this secondary effect. Here, the radioluminescence yield of an alpha particle is investigated as a function of energy loss in air for the first time. Also, the total radioluminescence yield of the particle is measured with a carefully calibrated ^{239}Pu emitter used in the experiments. The obtained results consistently indicate that alpha particles generate 19±3 photons per one MeV of energy released in air at normal pressure (temperature 22°C, relative humidity 43%) and the dependence is found to be linear in the studied energy range from 0.3 MeV to 5.1 MeV. The determined radioluminescence yield is higher than previously reported for alpha particles and similar to the radioluminescence yield of electrons at comparable energies. This strengthens the evidence that the luminescence induced by charged particles is mostly proportional to the energy loss in the media and not very sensitive to the type of primary particle.

Sand, J.; Ihantola, S.; Peräjärvi, K.; Toivonen, H.; Toivonen, J.

2014-05-01

118

A Required Yield Theory of Stock Market Valuation and Treasury Yield Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stock market valuation and Treasury yield determination are consistent with the Fisher effect (1896) as generalized by Darby (1975) and Feldstein (1976). The U.S. stock market (S&P 500) is priced to yield ex-ante a real after-tax return directly related to real long-term GDP\\/capita growth (the required yield). Elements of our theory show that: 1) real after-tax Treasury and S&P 500

Faugere Christophe

2003-01-01

119

A Required Yield Theory of Stock Market Valuation and Treasury Yield Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stock market valuation and Treasury yield determination are consistent with the Fisher effect (1896) as generalized by Darby (1975) and Feldstein (1976). The U.S. stock market (S&P 500) is priced to yield ex-ante a real after-tax return directly related to real long-term GDP/capita growth (the required yield). Elements of our theory show that: (1) real after-tax Treasury and S&P 500

Christophe Faugère; Julian Van Erlach

2009-01-01

120

Evaluation of trends in wheat yield models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trend terms in models for wheat yield in the U.S. Great Plains for the years 1932 to 1976 are evaluated. The subset of meteorological variables yielding the largest adjusted R(2) is selected using the method of leaps and bounds. Latent root regression is used to eliminate multicollinearities, and generalized ridge regression is used to introduce bias to provide stability in the data matrix. The regression model used provides for two trends in each of two models: a dependent model in which the trend line is piece-wise continuous, and an independent model in which the trend line is discontinuous at the year of the slope change. It was found that the trend lines best describing the wheat yields consisted of combinations of increasing, decreasing, and constant trend: four combinations for the dependent model and seven for the independent model.

Ferguson, M. C.

1982-01-01

121

Erosion yields of deposited beryllium layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion yields of various Be surfaces exposed to deuterium plasma, including polycrystalline Be (PC-Be), magnetron and thermionic vacuum arc deposited surfaces, and in situ plasma-deposited Be layers on Be (DP-Be/Be) and on graphite (DP-Be/C) targets, are measured in the linear divertor plasma simulator PISCES-B. It is observed that the enhanced erosion (˜3 times higher than PC-Be) of DP-Be/Be occurs at sample temperature Ts ˜ 310 K, while DP-Be/Be possesses the same yield as PC-Be at a higher Ts ˜ 570 K. The erosion yield of DP-Be/C is found to be slightly decreased at Ts ˜ 850 K. This is consistent with the more effective formation of Be 2C at higher Ts, which has a higher surface binding energy than Be. It has been identified from spectroscopic measurements that Be is also eroded as BeD.

Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; De Temmerman, G.

2009-06-01

122

Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are directly related to year-end yield. During 2012 (a drier-than-normal growing season) corn in parts of the field with shallow groundwater had significantly higher yields than the rest of the field, indicating that groundwater can provide significant yield benefits during drought. In contrast, during 2013 (a wetter-than-normal growing season) areas with the shallowest groundwater experienced total yield losses due to early-season groundwater flooding and oxygen stress. This demonstrates that the optimal DTGW for agricultural production is variable and depends on growing season weather conditions. The presence or absence of shallow groundwater is an important and dynamic feature of many agroecosystems, and should be considered when making both field- and watershed-scale management decisions.

Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

2013-12-01

123

Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield  

SciTech Connect

We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources - the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

Ave, M.; Daumiller, K.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Salamida, F.; Smida, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohacova, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Ridky, J.; Schovanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Di Carlo, P.; Iarlori, M.; Petrera, S.; Rizi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita de l'Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Di Giulio, C.; Verzi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and Sezione INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); San Luis, P. Facal; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2011-09-22

124

Variables affecting simulated Be sputtering yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since beryllium is a strong candidate for the main plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors, its sputtering behaviour plays an important role in predicting the reactor's life-time. Consensus about the actual sputtering yields has not yet been achieved, as observations are influenced by experimental method and/or studied sample. In this work, the beryllium sputtering due to deuterium and beryllium self-bombardment is analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The main methodological aspects that influence the outcome, such as flux and fluence of the bombardment, are highlighted, and it is shown that the simulated yields also depend on the sample structure and deuterium content.

Björkas, C.; Nordlund, K.

2013-08-01

125

Effect of puffing intensity on cigarette smoke yields.  

PubMed

Two US blend style cigarette products, one ventilated, were smoked under 16 smoking regimes. 'Tar', nicotine, carbon monoxide (TNCO) and water smoke yields determined with these regimes, are shown to form part of continuous functions linked with puffing intensity (the product of puff volume and puff frequency) and total puff volume (the product of puff volume and puff number). This allows the prediction of yields for any regime and leads to the conclusion that the characterisation of cigarette products with these analytes is achievable from using a single smoking regime. The rate of increase of TNCO yields decreases as the puffing intensity increases, due to the more rapid burning of the tobacco available for smoking, although (particulate phase) water yield, relative to TNCO, increases considerably with intensity. Total puff volume is linearly related to TNCO machine yields from a range of regimes, to duplicated human yields and to the nicotine and solanesol retained in spent filters. The concentration of these smoke components is essentially independent of the regime used to generate them. This is not the case with water for which the yield in smoke increases exponentially with the total puff volume and its concentration increases rapidly with intensity. PMID:23523712

Purkis, S W; Troude, V; Hill, C A

2013-06-01

126

Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review  

SciTech Connect

It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

1982-01-01

127

Erosion of a yield-stress fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bed erosion induced by rapid gravity flows of complex fluids, such as mudflows or avalanches, remains still poorly understood. A specificity of these natural flows is that, mostly, the material forming the static bed has mechanical properties similar to those of the flowing material (mud/mud, snow/snow). In this experimental study, yield-stress fluids are implemented to model both the eroding flow and the eroded bed with an original approach that captures the process of erosion in terms of solid-fluid transition. The hydrodynamics of erosion is studied in an inclined channel configuration, where a yield-stress fluid flows on a thick layer of the same fluid having an equal or a greater yield stress. In this work, we chose to use a micro-gel polymer (Carbopol) because of its elasto-viscoplastic rheology and its transparency, which is exploited for internal visualization techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Our approach aims to investigate the dominant physical mechanisms of erosion by combining an accurate rheological characterization of the yield-stress fluid using a rheometer (Hershel-Bulkley law), with the observation of the morphological evolution of the system substratum / flow and the local measurement of related hydrodynamic parameters. The main goal is to relate the erosion law at the substrate/flow interface with the constitutive law of the complex fluid involved, in order to refine this latter in the vicinity of the transition between the quasi-static and the liquid regimes.

Luu, Li-Hua; Philippe, Pierre; Chambon, Guillaume

2013-04-01

128

DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

129

Enhancing yield management with customer profitability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that in order to sustain the long-term profitability and growth of hotel organizations, yield management decisions must incorporate two critical constraints: the cost implications of the customer mix and guest ancillary spend. Proposes that customer profitability analysis (CPA), which reports revenues, costs and profit by customer group, will give management the ancillary spend and cost information that will enhance

Breffni Noone; Peter Griffin

1997-01-01

130

Independent Isotopic Fission Yield Studies with Jyfltrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique to determine the independent isotopic fission yields utilizing the ability of a Penning trap to unambiguously identify the isotopes based on their mass has recently been developed at the IGISOL facility in the University of Jyväskylä. The analysis of proton induced fission of 238U at 25 MeV energy has been finalized. The results will be compared with theoretical models.

Penttilä, H.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Gorelov, D.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Moore, I. D.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Rubchenya, V.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Äystö, J.

2014-09-01

131

Predicting collector well yields with MODFLOW.  

PubMed

Groundwater flow models are commonly used to design new wells and wellfields. As the spatial scale of the problem is large and much local-scale detail is not needed, modelers often utilize two-dimensional (2D) or quasi three-dimensional models based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption. Dupuit models offer a robust set of tools for simulating regional groundwater flow including interactions with surface waters, the potential for well interference, and varying aquifer properties and recharge rates. However, given an assumed operating water level or drawdown at a well screen, Dupuit models systematically overpredict well yields. For design purposes, this discrepancy is unacceptable, and a method for predicting accurate well yields is needed. While published methods exist for vertical wells, little guidance is available for predicting yields in horizontal screens or collector wells. In plan view, a horizontal screen has a linear geometry, and will likely extend over several neighboring cells that may not align with rows or columns in a numerical model. Furthermore, the model must account for the effects of converging three-dimensional (3D) flow to the well screens and hydraulic interference among the well screens; these all depend on the design of a specific well. This paper presents a new method for simulating the yield of angled or horizontal well screens in numerical groundwater flow models, specifically using the USGS code MODFLOW. The new method is compared to a detailed, 3D analytic element model of a collector well in a field of uniform flow. PMID:22339406

Kelson, Vic

2012-01-01

132

High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

1993-03-01

133

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...data; National Institute of Food and Agriculture records...used in the actual production history base period when less than...in the actual production history base period when the...

2012-01-01

134

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...data; National Institute of Food and Agriculture records...used in the actual production history base period when less than...in the actual production history base period when the...

2013-01-01

135

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

...Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...data; National Institute of Food and Agriculture records...used in the actual production history base period when less than...in the actual production history base period when the...

2014-01-01

136

Relations among storage, yield, and instream flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive literature documents relations between reservoir storage capacity and water supply yield and the properties of instream flow needed to support downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, the literature that evaluates the impact of reservoir operating rules on instream flow properties is limited to a few site-specific studies, and as a result, few general conclusions can be drawn to date. This

Richard M. Vogel; Jack Sieber; Stacey A. Archfield; Mark P. Smith; Colin D. Apse; Annette Huber-Lee

2007-01-01

137

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam April 21- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model

138

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam November the appli- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING RESERVOIR YIELDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the amount of water which can be supplied by existing reservoir systems is becoming an increasingly important means for meeting growing water needs. The paper outlines several reservoir management strategies, within the general categories of system operations, storage reallocations, and buffer zone operations. A case study illustrates the potential of these approaches for improving yields.

Ralph A. Wurbs; Patrick E. Carriere; William K. Johnson

1990-01-01

140

Yield stress measurements with the vane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield stress measurements were performed on a TiO2 pigment suspension with the vane in both a rate controlled and a stress controlled mode. In the rate controlled mode, a constant rotational speed is applied to the vane immersed in the suspension, and the resulting stress is measured as a function of time. In the stress controlled mode, a constant stress

Petra V. Liddel; David V. Boger

1996-01-01

141

Nonlinear elasticity and yielding of depletion gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microscopic activated barrier hopping theory of the viscoelasticity of colloidal glasses and gels has been generalized to treat the nonlinear rheological behavior of particle-polymer suspensions. The quiescent cage constraints and depletion bond strength are quantified using the polymer reference interaction site model theory of structure. External deformation (strain or stress) distorts the confining nonequilibrium free energy and reduces the barrier. The theory is specialized to study a limiting mechanical description of yielding and modulus softening in the absence of thermally induced barrier hopping. The yield stress and strain show a rich functional dependence on colloid volume fraction, polymer concentration, and polymer-colloid size asymmetry ratio. The yield stress collapses onto a master curve as a function of the polymer concentration scaled by its ideal mode-coupling gel boundary value, and sufficiently deep in the gel is of an effective power-law form with a universal exponent. A similar functional and scaling dependence of the yield stress on the volume fraction is found, but the apparent power-law exponent is nonuniversal and linearly correlated with the critical gel volume fraction. Stronger gels are generally, but not always, predicted to be more brittle in the strain mode of deformation. The theoretical calculations appear to be in accord with a broad range of observations.

Kobelev, Vladimir; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

2005-10-01

142

Effects of geoengineering on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as market shares of agricultural output may change with the different spatial pattern of climate change. More importantly, geoengineering by SRM does not address a range of other detrimental consequences of climate change, such as ocean acidification, which could also affect food security via effects on marine food webs. Finally, SRM poses substantial anticipated and unanticipated risks by interfering with complex, not fully understood systems. Therefore, despite potential positive effects of SRM on crop yields, the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2011-12-01

143

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

144

Anthocyanin yields of clonal wild carrot cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthocyanin yields in clonal populations of wild carrot suspension cultures were measured after four patterns of cloning and selection. These patterns were:1.serial selection of high yielding clones,2 and 3.one selection of a low yielding clone followed by serial selection of high yielding clones,4.serial selection of low yielding clones.

D. K. Dougall; D. L. Vogelien

1990-01-01

145

Wafer yield prediction by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of yield from the production lines is concentrated at a high-yield area and tapers down to the lower-yield area. Production management would find it useful if the yield of individual wafers could be forecast. The yield is determined by the variability of electrical characteristics and dust. In this study, only the variability of electrical characteristics was discussed. One

M. Asada

2001-01-01

146

General results for the decays D yields. pi. ell. nu. and B yields. pi. ell. nu  

SciTech Connect

Results are given for the two form factors for D {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} and B {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} at the soft pion limit. The deriviation depends only on pion PCAC and heavy quark spin symmetry. The usefulness of these results is discussed.

Wolfenstein, L. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1992-01-01

147

Yield parameters in young jojoba plants and their relation to actual yield in later years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 30 jojoba clones, among them six already commercial clones and 24 newly selected ones were characterized in terms of yield parameters, chilling requirements and morphological traits. The aim was to supply farmers (from Israel and abroad) better yielding clones. Considerable variability was found among the clones in all the parameters. Some clones exhibited excellent vegetative traits related

Aliza Benzioni; E Shiloh; M Ventura

1999-01-01

148

Yield stress and elastic modulus of suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids  

E-print Network

We study experimentally the behavior of isotropic suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids. This problem has been poorly studied in the literature, and only on specific materials. In this paper, we manage to develop procedures and materials that allow us to focus on the purely mechanical contribution of the particles to the yield stress fluid behavior, independently of the physicochemical properties of the materials. This allows us to relate the macroscopic properties of these suspensions to the mechanical properties of the yield stress fluid and the particle volume fraction, and to provide results applicable to any noncolloidal particle in any yield stress fluid. We find that the elastic modulus-concentration relationship follows a Krieger-Dougherty law, and we show that the yield stress-concentration relationship is related to the elastic modulus-concentration relationship through a very simple law, in agreement with results from a micromechanical analysis.

Fabien Mahaut; Xavier Chateau; Philippe Coussot; Guillaume Ovarlez

2008-10-20

149

7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Determining payments for low yield. 1437.105 Section 1437.105 ...Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.105 Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the extent...

2011-01-01

150

7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Determining payments for low yield. 1437.105 Section 1437.105 ...Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.105 Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the extent...

2010-01-01

151

No steady state flows below the yield stress. A true yield stress at last?  

E-print Network

For more than 20 years it has been debated if yield stress fluids are solid below the yield stress or actually flow; whether true yield stress fluids exist or not. Advocates of the true yield stress picture have demonstrated that the effective viscosity increases very rapidly as the stress is decreased towards the yield stress. Opponents have shown that this viscosity increase levels off, and that the material behaves as a Newtonian fluid of very high viscosity below the yield stress. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally (on four different materials, using three different rheometers, five different geometries, and two different measurement methods) that the low-stress Newtonian viscosity is an artifact that arises in non steady state experiments. For measurements as long as 10,000 seconds we find that the value of the 'Newtonian viscosity' increases indefinitely. This proves that the yield stress exists and marks a sharp transition between flowing states and states where the steady state viscosity is infinite -a solid!

Peder CF Moller; Abdoulaye Fall; Daniel Bonn

2009-04-09

152

Mapping and candidate genes associated with saccharification yield in sorghum.  

PubMed

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a high-yielding, stress tolerant energy crop for lignocellulosic-based biofuel production. Saccharification is a process by which hydrolytic enzymes break down lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars for biofuel production, and mapping and identifying genes underlying saccharification yield is an important first step to genetically improve the plant for higher biofuel productivity. In this study, we used the ICRISAT sorghum mini core germplasm collection and 14?739 single nucleotide polymorphism markers to map saccharification yield. Seven marker loci were associated with saccharification yield and five of these loci were syntenic with regions in the maize genome that contain quantitative trait loci underlying saccharification yield and cell wall component traits. Candidate genes from the seven loci were identified but must be validated, with the most promising candidates being ?-tubulin, which determines the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in plant secondary cell walls, and NST1, a master transcription factor controlling secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fibers. Other candidate genes underlying the different saccharification loci included genes that play a role in vascular development and suberin deposition in plants. The identified loci and candidate genes provide information into the factors controlling saccharification yield and may facilitate increasing biofuel production in sorghum. PMID:24299105

Wang, Yi-Hong; Acharya, Aniruddha; Burrell, A Millie; Klein, Robert R; Klein, Patricia E; Hasenstein, Karl H

2013-11-01

153

Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping  

SciTech Connect

In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

W.T. McKean

2000-12-15

154

Primary quantum yields of NO2 photodissociation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantum yields of formation of NO, O2, and NO2 loss are measured for NO2 vapor at low pressures (0.13-0.30 torr) irradiated at 334-405 nm wavelengths and temperature in the range 273-370 K in order to study the primary quantum efficiencies of NO2 photodecomposition. The temperature and wavelength dependences of the primary quantum efficiencies are examined. It is observed that the primary quantum efficiencies increase rapidly from near zero at 424 nm to near unity for excitation at wavelengths less than 394 nm. The theory of Pitts et al. (1964) that the energy deficiency for photodissociation of NO2 excited at wavelengths greater than 397.9 nm is due to the rotational and vibrational energy of the NO2 molecules is confirmed by the data. Values for the primary quantum yields of NO2 photodecomposition as a function of wavelength are presented.

Gardner, Edward P.; Sperry, Paul D.; Calvert, Jack G.

1987-01-01

155

Science yield estimation for AFTA coronagraphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the algorithms and results of an estimation of the science yield for five candidate coronagraph designs for the WFIRST-AFTA space mission. The targets considered are of three types, known radial-velocity planets, expected but as yet undiscovered exoplanets, and debris disks, all around nearby stars. The results of the original estimation are given, as well as those from subsequently updated designs that take advantage of experience from the initial estimates.

Traub, Wesley A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Krist, John; Macintosh, Bruce; Mennesson, Bertrand; Savransky, Dmitry; Shao, Michael; Serabyn, Eugene; Trauger, John

2014-08-01

156

Monitoring 2005 Corn Belt Yields From Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. corn belt, centered on Illinois, suffered extreme drought conditions during the 2005 growing season (Figure 1). The April-September rainfall ranked 10th lowest of the past 113 years (see http:\\/\\/www.ncdc.noaa.gov\\/oa\\/climate\\/research\\/monitoring.html#state). Throughout Illinois, counties were declared agricultural disaster areas and corn yields were predicted to be 30 percent less than the record year of 2004, which had the highest corn

Ping Zhang; Bruce T. Anderson; Ranga Myneni

2006-01-01

157

Erosion yields of deposited beryllium layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion yields of various Be surfaces exposed to deuterium plasma, including polycrystalline Be (PC-Be), magnetron and thermionic vacuum arc deposited surfaces, and in situ plasma-deposited Be layers on Be (DP-Be\\/Be) and on graphite (DP-Be\\/C) targets, are measured in the linear divertor plasma simulator PISCES-B. It is observed that the enhanced erosion (?3 times higher than PC-Be) of DP-Be\\/Be occurs at

D. Nishijima; R. P. Doerner; M. J. Baldwin; G. De Temmerman

2009-01-01

158

Cotranslational Folding Increases GFP Folding Yield  

PubMed Central

Protein sequences evolved to fold in cells, including cotranslational folding of nascent polypeptide chains during their synthesis by the ribosome. The vectorial (N- to C-terminal) nature of cotranslational folding constrains the conformations of the nascent polypeptide chain in a manner not experienced by full-length chains diluted out of denaturant. We are still discovering to what extent these constraints affect later, posttranslational folding events. Here we directly address whether conformational constraints imposed by cotranslational folding affect the partitioning between productive folding to the native structure versus aggregation. We isolated polyribosomes from Escherichia coli cells expressing GFP, analyzed the nascent chain length distribution to determine the number of nascent chains that were long enough to fold to the native fluorescent structure, and calculated the folding yield for these nascent chains upon ribosome release versus the folding yield of an equivalent concentration of full-length, chemically denatured GFP polypeptide chains. We find that the yield of native fluorescent GFP is dramatically higher upon ribosome release of nascent chains versus dilution of full-length chains from denaturant. For kinetically trapped native structures such as GFP, folding correctly the first time, immediately after release from the ribosome, can lead to lifelong population of the native structure, as opposed to aggregation. PMID:20371331

Ugrinov, Krastyu G.; Clark, Patricia L.

2010-01-01

159

Plant and seed characteristics that contribute to yield of rice varieties grown under different nitrogen levels  

E-print Network

than Japonica rices, the grain yield response seems generally less on the Indicas. Yamada (40) in Ceylons evaluated the growth and yield components of three Japonica and two Indica varieties of rice under three levels of nitrogen applications. He... than Japonica rices, the grain yield response seems generally less on the Indicas. Yamada (40) in Ceylons evaluated the growth and yield components of three Japonica and two Indica varieties of rice under three levels of nitrogen applications. He...

Espinosa, Ezequiel

2012-06-07

160

Some Phenotypic Selection Criteria to Improve Seed Yield and Essential Oil Percentage of Sweet Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. Dulce)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research was aimed to determine relationships between seed yield and some yield components of 20 sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var dulce) lines. The highest positive correlation (r=0.915) was recorded between biological yield and single plant yield. Plant height, number of branches, number of umbels and umbellets had a positive effect on single plant yield. One thousand seed weight

Bilal GÜRBÜZ

161

The yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and analytical evaluation was made of the yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene, a semi-crystalline thermoplastic. Polyethylene was selected for study because it is very inexpensive and readily available in the form of thin-walled tubes. Thin-walled tubular specimens were subjected to axial loads and internal pressures, such that the specimens were subjected to a known biaxial loading. A constant octahederal shear stress rate was imposed during all tests. The measured yield and post-yield behavior was compared with predictions based on both isotropic and anisotropic models. Of particular interest was whether inelastic behavior was sensitive to the hydrostatic stress level. The major achievements and conclusions reached are discussed.

Semeliss, M. A.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M. E.

1990-01-01

162

Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

1994-01-01

163

Climate Change Impact on Rice Yield and Production Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship among rice yield and weather variables in Korea is explored using a stochastic production function. The results reveal that average rice yield is positively related to temperature and negatively associated with precipitation. Both temperature and precipitation, which are risk-increasing inputs, are positively related to rice yield variability. The widened yield variability can be transferred to the fluctuation of

Man-Keun Kim; Arwin Pang

2009-01-01

164

A Computational Study of Feeding Rules and Yield Improvement Techniques  

E-print Network

experimental work. A casting yield survey [2] among steel foundries in North America was recently undertaken casting yield through increased feeding distance by using yield improvement methods is also investigated. Improved feeding distances and casting yields resulting from using insulating riser sleeves and block

Beckermann, Christoph

165

Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments  

E-print Network

Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments Scott M. Olson, A.M.ASCE,1 in ground subjected to a static shear stress, i.e., sloping ground, using the yield strength ratio, su(yield and standard penetration resistances. These yield strength ratios and previously published liquefied strength

166

7 CFR 760.638 - Determination of SURE yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...will be used for calculating the SURE yield for insured crops. (c) The counter-cyclical yield for a crop on a farm will be weighted based on...at 65 percent of the county expected yield for each crop. (2) The SURE yield will be...

2010-01-01

167

Multiple limit cycles in the chemostat with variable yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global asymptotic behavior of solutions of the variable yield model is determined. The model generalizes the classical Monod model and it assumes that the yield is an increasing function of the nutrient concentration. In contrast to the Monod model, it is demonstrated that the variable yield model exhibits sustained oscillations. Moreover, it is shown that the variable yield model

Sergei S. Pilyugin; Paul Waltman

2003-01-01

168

Can Naked Singularities Yield Gamma Ray Bursts?  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray bursts are believed to be the most luminous objects in the Universe. There has been some suggestion that these arise from quantum processes around naked singularities. The main problem with this suggestion is that all known examples of naked singularities are massless and hence there is effectively no source of energy. It is argued that a globally naked singularity coupled with quantum processes operating within a distance of the order of Planck length of the singularity will probably yield energy burst of the order of M_pc^2\\approx2\\times 10^{16} ergs, where M_p is the Planck mass.

H. M. Antia

1998-07-09

169

FISSION YIELDS OF Sr⁹°  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fission yields were determined from 14-Mev neutrons on U²³⁵ and U\\/;\\u000a sup 238\\/, thermal neutrons on U²³⁵, and fission spectrum neutrons on U\\/sup ;\\u000a 235\\/, U²³⁸, and Pu²³⁹. The number of fissions was determined for the ;\\u000a Mo⁹⁹ activity. The Sr⁹° was chemically separated and Y⁹° ;\\u000a allowed to reach equilibrium. The Y⁹° was separated and counted. ;\\u000a (W.D.M.)

Bayhurst

2009-01-01

170

Relativistic electron PXR and FPXR yield ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parametric X-radiation of relativistic electron crossing a single crystal plate is considered on the basis of dynamic diffraction theory in Laue geometry both in Bragg (PXR) and forward (FPXR) directions. Analytical expressions for spectral-angular density of these radiations in indicated directions are derived in general case of electron coulomb field asymmetric reflection from the target surface. The ratio of contributions of these radiation mechanisms into the total yield of the radiation is investigated. It is shown that the ratio of contributions of these radiation mechanisms can change sharply depending on the value of the reflection asymmetry.

Blazhevich, S.; Noskov, A.

2010-06-01

171

Increased upconversion quantum yield in plasmonic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upconversion processes have found widespread applications in drug delivery, bio-imaging and solar-cells. In this paper we present a theoretical model that analyzes the impact of a plasmonic shield structure on the quantum yield of upconversion nanoparticles. We use this model to assess the efficiency of NaYF4: Tm3+ Yb3+/NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles when embedded in a polymer matrix and covered by a metallic can-like structure. We find that as a result of this specific plasmonic structure, the upconversion luminescence from NIR to UV can be increased by a factor of 30.

Elhalawany, A.; Hayenga, W. E.; He, S.; Lantigua, C.; Johnson, N. J. J.; Almutairi, A.; Khajavikhan, M.

2014-09-01

172

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

1978-01-01

173

Effect of gibberellin on rice yield response to nitrogen applied at heading, and quality of seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The influence of gibberellin on the yield response of paddy to nitrogen applied at heading was studied through seed yield and yield components and quality of seeds. The crop response to added nitrogen at heading increased with GA concentration upto 10 ppm. Seed quality in terms of seed protein and germination potential also improved with GA upto 10 ppm

R. K. Mukherjee; B. S. Prabhakar

1980-01-01

174

Yield functions that account for the effects of initial and subsequent plastic anisotropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A descriptive initial yield function is presented from an examination of experimentally determined yield loci, component plastic strain paths and Lode's parameters that indicate either a severe textural anisotropy in a material or a slight departure from the von Mises condition. The transition from the initial function to one that describes a subsequent yield surface which translates with the

D. W. A. Rees

1982-01-01

175

Genetic Improvement of Mentha arvensis Based on Essential Oil Yield and Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic divergence among 38 genotypes of Japanese mint Mentha arvensis, studied under the climatic conditions of northern India, could be grouped into eight clusters based on essential oil yield and quality components. Genotypes with relatively high essential oil yields could be identified and suggest the possibility of developing high-yielding, Japanese mint plants having good oil quality. Identification of genotype performance

S. P. Singh; Srikant Sharma; R. K. Tewari

1998-01-01

176

Rheopexy and tunable yield stress of carbon black suspensions  

E-print Network

We show that besides simple or thixotropic yield stress fluids there exists a third class of yield stress fluids. This is illustrated through the rheological behavior of a carbon black suspension, which is shown to exhibit a viscosity bifurcation effect around a critical stress along with rheopectic trends, i.e., after a preshear at a given stress the fluid tends to accelerate when it is submitted to a lower stress. Viscosity bifurcation displays here original features: the yield stress and the critical shear rate depend on the previous flow history. The most spectacular property due to these specificities is that the material structure can be adjusted at will through an appropriate flow history. In particular it is possible to tune the material yield stress to arbitrary low values. A simple model assuming that the stress is the sum of one component due to structure deformation and one component due to hydrodynamic interactions predicts all rheological trends observed and appears to well represent quantitatively the data.

Guillaume Ovarlez; Laurent Tocquer; François Bertrand; Philippe Coussot

2012-11-16

177

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

Haun, J. R.

1975-01-01

178

Avalanche behavior in yield stress fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that above a critical stress, typical yield stress fluids (gels, clay suspensions) and soft glassy materials (the colloidal glass of Laponite) start flowing abruptly and subsequently accelerate, leading to avalanches that are remarkably similar to those of granular materials. Rheometrical tests reveal that this is associated to a bifurcation in rheological behavior: for small stresses, the viscosity increases in time: the material ``ages,'' and eventually stops flowing. For slightly larger stresses the viscosity decreases continuously in time: the flow accelerates and we observe a 1 ``rejuvenation'' of the material by the flow. We show that for the Laponite system, both the aging and the shear rejuvenation can be observed directly using Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy. We propose a simple physical model capable of reproducing the rheological observations. These results may have some implication in geophysics: they shed some light on certain landslides of clayey soils, and the way quicksand works.

Bonn, Daniel

2005-03-01

179

Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species  

PubMed Central

Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

2013-01-01

180

Does engagement with exposure yield better outcomes? Components of presence as a predictor of treatment response for virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia  

PubMed Central

Virtual reality exposure (VRE) has been shown to be effective for treating a variety of anxiety disorders, including social phobia. Presence, or the level of connection an individual feels with the virtual environment, is widely discussed as a critical construct both for the experience of anxiety within a virtual environment and for a successful response to VRE. Two published studies show that whereas generalized presence relates to fear ratings during VRE, it does not relate to treatment response. However, presence has been conceptualized as multidimensional, with three primary factors (spatial presence, involvement, and realness). These factors can be linked to other research on the facilitation of fear during exposure, inhibitors of treatment response (e.g., distraction), and more recent theoretical discussions of the mechanisms of exposure therapy, such as Bouton’s description of expectancy violation. As such, one or more of these components of presence may be more strongly associated with the experience of fear during VRE and treatment response than the overarching construct. The current study (N = 41) evaluated relations between three theorized components of presence, fear ratings during VRE, and treatment response for VRE for social phobia. Results suggest that total presence and realness subscale scores were related to in-session peak fear ratings. However, only scores on the involvement subscale significantly predicted treatment response. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21515027

Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Tone, Erin B.; Anderson, Page L.

2012-01-01

181

Does engagement with exposure yield better outcomes? Components of presence as a predictor of treatment response for virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia.  

PubMed

Virtual reality exposure (VRE) has been shown to be effective for treating a variety of anxiety disorders, including social phobia. Presence, or the level of connection an individual feels with the virtual environment, is widely discussed as a critical construct both for the experience of anxiety within a virtual environment and for a successful response to VRE. Two published studies show that whereas generalized presence relates to fear ratings during VRE, it does not relate to treatment response. However, presence has been conceptualized as multidimensional, with three primary factors (spatial presence, involvement, and realness). These factors can be linked to other research on the facilitation of fear during exposure, inhibitors of treatment response (e.g., distraction), and more recent theoretical discussions of the mechanisms of exposure therapy, such as Bouton's description of expectancy violation. As such, one or more of these components of presence may be more strongly associated with the experience of fear during VRE and treatment response than the overarching construct. The current study (N=41) evaluated relations between three theorized components of presence, fear ratings during VRE, and treatment response for VRE for social phobia. Results suggest that total presence and realness subscale scores were related to in-session peak fear ratings. However, only scores on the involvement subscale significantly predicted treatment response. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21515027

Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Tone, Erin B; Anderson, Page L

2011-08-01

182

43—THE YIELD-TESTING OF WOOL BY REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of the measurement of diffuse reflectance in the near-infra-red and visible regions, and it is shown that a new method of yield-testing of wool by reflectance spectroscopy in the two regions is available. The method gives a measure of the concentration of the components in washed wool.It is demonstrated that measurements obtained from the InfraAIyzer and the

J. P. Connell; G. H. Brown

1978-01-01

183

Decay time and light yield measurements for plastic scintillating fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied light production and propagation in three different samplesof plastic scintillating fibers manufactured by Kyowa Gas Co.: SCSF-81, SCSF-38 and SCSF-38 with afquenching additive. The emissio time distribution is described phenomenologically by a fast two-step scintillation process and an additional slow component, the time constants of which are determined. The light yield from the fibers is measured as

C. M. Hawkes; M. Kuhlen; B. Milliken; R. Stroynowski; E. Wicklund; T. Shimizu; O. Shinji

1990-01-01

184

An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

2011-08-01

185

An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang [Mechanical Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2011-08-22

186

Estimation of yield and ultimate strengths of bolted timber joints by nonlinear analysis and yield theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element nonlinear analysis was conducted on bolted timber joints under lateral loads parallel and perpendicular to the grain. The results obtained from this analysis were compared with the experimental results and calculated values based on the yield theory. The analysis and experiment were performed on double shear bolted joints parallel and perpendicular to the grain with steel side

Kei Sawata; Motoi Yasumura

2003-01-01

187

The effects of climate change on United States rice yields and California wheat yields  

SciTech Connect

The USA produces 7.9 million tons of rice (Oryza sativa L.), 28% of which is exported to developing countries. Rice is one of the most important grain crops both in the USA and the world. Therefore it is important to understand the impact of weather and climate change on rice yields and production. In the USA rice is produced in California and the Gulf Coast states. It is anticipated that global climate change will have a major influence on agricultural practices and crop selection in these states. This study uses simulation techniques to quantify the potential magnitude of this influence. In addition, the impact of climate change on fall planted dryland spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in California is evaluated. Results indicate that rice yields decrease by between 14 and 24% in the Gulf Coast states and between 11 and 21% in California. In both regions the decrease in rice yields were due primarily to the large increase in summer temperatures. On the other hand, dryland fall planted spring wheat yields in California increase by 62 and 125%. This is because of the increased rainfall and temperatures during the winter months in California.

Barry, T.A.; Geng, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

188

Definition of Architectural Ideotypes for Good Yield Capacity in Coffea canephora  

PubMed Central

• Background Yield capacity is a target trait for selection of agronomically desirable lines; it is preferred to simple yields recorded over different harvests. Yield capacity is derived using certain architectural parameters used to measure the components of yield capacity. • Methods Observation protocols for describing architecture and yield capacity were applied to six clones of coffee trees (Coffea canephora) in a comparative trial. The observations were used to establish architectural databases, which were explored using AMAPmod, a software dedicated to the analyses of plant architecture data. The traits extracted from the database were used to identify architectural parameters for predicting the yield of the plant material studied. • Conclusions Architectural traits are highly heritable and some display strong genetic correlations with cumulated yield. In particular, the proportion of fruiting nodes at plagiotropic level 15 counting from the top of the tree proved to be a good predictor of yield over two fruiting cycles. PMID:16394023

CILAS, CHRISTIAN; BAR-HEN, AVNER; MONTAGNON, CHRISTOPHE; GODIN, CHRISTOPHE

2006-01-01

189

Fertilization of yellow beardgrass, Andropogon Ischaemum L., with special reference to forage yield, seed yield, and seed quality  

E-print Network

in the rate of nitrogen applied increased ths seed yields up to a certain point. There vers i. ncreassd yields with 20, 30, 5$, and V6 pounds of nitrogen psr acre, Podsivalov and Podsivalova (33) reported . that ths seed yields of' Festuca ~m~t~, ~Da ~s ~~a... in the rate of nitrogen applied increased ths seed yields up to a certain point. There vers i. ncreassd yields with 20, 30, 5$, and V6 pounds of nitrogen psr acre, Podsivalov and Podsivalova (33) reported . that ths seed yields of' Festuca ~m~t~, ~Da ~s ~~a...

Bates, Richard P

2012-06-07

190

21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.103 Calculation of yield. Actual yields and...

2011-04-01

191

Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid  

E-print Network

Field-induced static and dynamic yield stresses are explored for magnetorheological (MR) suspensions in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid composed of an aqueous dispersion of Laponite® clay. Using a custom-built ...

Rich, Jason P.

192

Framework for the determination of yield limits In pharmaceutical operations  

E-print Network

The manufacturing production of active pharmaceutical ingredients often involve a series of processing stages in which yield limits are prescribed to ensure that the target yield has been achieved for a batch and that the ...

Liow, Yuh Han John

2010-01-01

193

7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.  

...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.105 Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the extent that the loss calculation...

2014-01-01

194

Accurate estimates of sediment yield difficult to achieve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment yield, the total mass of sediment discharged at a basin outlet during a hydrologic event such as a flood, is difficult to estimate. Scientists have tried to accomplish this task by developing relationships between sediment yield and hydrologic characteristics such as flow volume and peak flow. However, these relationships have generally not been successful at predicting sediment yield because they suffer from nonuniqueness—that is, the same flow and hydrologic characteristics sometimes yield different sediment amounts.

Balcerak, Ernie

2014-06-01

195

Yield stress transition in gas fluidized sand.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas fluidized powders can take on three distinct states. I: Solid like for low gas flow rates. II: At intermediate flow rates, the bed expands and drastically reduces its yield stress, i.e. quicksand which cannot support the weight of solid objects. III: At high flow rates rising gas bubbles churn the sand grains violently. We have measured that the transition from regime I to II does not occur simultaneously for the entire column, but rather as a well defined front which sweeps through the column as a function of gas flow rate. Earlier measurements sensed this front by measuring the depth to which a brass sphere would sink in the liquid phase. We have supplemented this with careful measurements of the vertical gas pressure gradient throughout the column. The pressure profile shows a distinct change in the gradient at a height which correlates well with results from the sinking sphere measurement. From the pressure gradient we calculate the local gas permeability of the sand, which is related to the grain density, which can be measured with an accuracy of better than 1 part in 100. We thank the NSF-REU program for partial support of this research.

Stoker, David; Poker, Jennifer; Savrin, Tamara; Rutgers, Maarten

2000-11-01

196

On Strength at Yield in Condensed Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the lower of a range of thresholds that control the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient laboratory state to the point at which the bond strength is overcome and warm dense matter is formed. One oft-used term is yield stress and its variation with the rise time of the loading pulse are considered in this first paper. This threshold shows a correlation between the length scale swept by the rise of the pulse and the defect distribution within the target for a range of materials. Strain rate is also a useful term that reflects the evolution of the stress state within a target but must be defined for a particular volume element containing a particular defect distribution to reflect continuum conditions acting within and thus applies to a defined length scale within a target. This overview of behavior suggests concepts borrowed from rate-independent plasticity have served the community well but that to advance it may be necessary to use viscoplastic concepts in constitutive descriptions for the future.

Bourne, Neil K.

2014-10-01

197

Quantitative surface analysis by total electron yield.  

PubMed

When the surface of a solid sample is irradiated under vacuum by x-rays an electron emission, owing to photoabsorption, can be measured. As the electrons are detected under neglection of their kinetic energies the total electron yield (TEY) is determined. With a tuneable x-ray monochromator the TEY is measured below and above of one of the absorption edges of a given element. A jumplike increase of the TEY signal, due to the additional photoabsorptions in the corresponding atomic level, can be observed - qualitative analysis. The height of this jump can be correlateted to the concentration - quantitative analysis. It can be shown by a fundamental parameter approach for primary and secondary excitations how to use TEY for a quantitative analysis. The information depth lambda of this new method is approximately 2-400 nm depending on the chemical elements and on the original kinetic energies of Auger and photoelectrons. Thus, TEY is located between photoelectron spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence analysis. PMID:15048496

Ebel, H; Zagler, N; Svagera, R; Ebel, M; Kaitna, R

1995-10-01

198

Yield and Fertility Relationships in Dairy Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of yield and fertility were obtained from breeding receipts of artificial insemination and records of test-day yield. Estimates of heritability were by Henderson Method 3, maximum likelihood, and restricted maximum like- lihood. Heritabilities for measures of yield varied, but most were within the range of earlier estimates. Measures of fertility had heritabilities from 0 to .03. Alternative upper bounds

L. B. Hansen; A. E. Freeman; P. J. Berger

1983-01-01

199

The yield strength of subliquidus basalts — experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield strength is an important property of particle–fluid suspensions. In basaltic lavas that crystallize during flow emplacement, the onset of yield strength may result in threshold transitions in flow behavior and flow surface morphology. However, yield strength–crystallinity relations are poorly known, particularly in geologic suspensions, where difficulties of experimental and field measurements have limited data acquisition in the subliquidus temperature

S. R Hoover; K. V Cashman; M Manga

2001-01-01

200

Yield Strength as a Function of Dislocation Density  

E-print Network

Yield Strength as a Function of Dislocation Density Travis Grider, David Bahr Characterization http://www.hardnesstesters.com/vickers.jpg Yield strength of a material is a very useful statistic deformation. Many metals' yield strength follows the Hall-Petch relationship, Vickers Tip Results Grain size

Collins, Gary S.

201

Shear yielding strength of gusset plates in lap splice joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fillet welded Lap Splice Joints are commonly used to connect tension members to a gusset plate. In most cases, the shear yielding strength, or Base Metal Shear Yielding (BMSY) strength, of the gusset plates controls the capacity of the connection. The stress from tension members is transferred to the gusset plate through fillet welds, causing the yielding of the gusset

Nam Thanh Nguyen

2011-01-01

202

7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maintain continuity of yield data of file. Production...for those years a crop insurance policy...submitted on the insured crop. The reported yield is subject to revision...shares in the insured crop, which are used...the approved APH yield, must also be...

2010-01-01

203

7 CFR 760.811 - Rates and yields; calculating payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a unit with respect to yield-based crops are determined by...Separate payment rates and yields for the same crop may be established by...separate end use of the crop. Despite potential differences in yield or values, separate...

2010-01-01

204

Assessing Crop Yield Simulations with Various Seasonal Climate Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive evaluation of crop yield simulations with various seasonal climate data is performed to improve the current practice of crop yield projections. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-based historical data are commonly used to predict the upcoming season crop yields over the southeast United States. In this study, eight different seasonal climate data are generated using the combinations of

D. W. Shin; G. A. Baigorria; Y.-K. Lim; S. Cocke; T. E. LaRow; James J. O'Brien; James W. Jones

205

Estimating Forage Yields For Pastures Management Intensive Grazing  

E-print Network

Estimating Forage Yields For Pastures Management Intensive Grazing The following are expected yield ranges for different soils and fertility levels when utilizing management intensive grazing systems/ac/yr 3.5 tons/ac/yr Rotational Grazing The following are expected yield ranges for management and soil

Guiltinan, Mark

206

Recent Changes of Sediment Yield in the Upper Yangtze, China  

PubMed

/ Reservoir sedimentation is one of the many environmental problems associated with the Three Gorges Project in China. The rate and characteristics of sedimentation that directly affect the operating life of the reservoir are closely related to soil erosion and sediment transport dynamics in the upstream catchment and to the ability to manage the throughput of sediment-laden waters. The recent changes in sediment yield were examined using gauging data from 187 stations of varying sizes from less than 100 km2 to larger than 1,000,000 km2 in the Upper Yangtze basin between 1956 and 1987. Whereas many previous studies have concentrated on the trends in the main channel of the Yangtze, the distributed pattern of changes across the whole catchment is complex. Results from time series analysis indicate ten stations, mainly located in the Dadu and Wu tributaries (with a total incremental catchment area of 78,963 km2) have shown increasing trajectories of sediment yield, and six stations, located in the upper Jialing and Tuo tributaries (with a total incremental area of 27,816 km2) have experienced decreasing trajectories. By dividing the time series into three components, it is possible to map significant decadal changes in sediment yields that can be related to phases of deforestation and the construction of water conservancy projects. Most of the observed decreases in sediment yield are associated with large reservoir schemes on tributary rivers. The lack of evidence for increasing sediment input to the Three Gorges area masks a considerable variation in sediment conveyance and storage within the Upper Yangtze catchment.KEY WORDS: Sediment yield; Reservoir sedimentation; Three Gorges Project; Time series analysis; China PMID:9680538

Lu; Higgitt

1998-09-01

207

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity  

PubMed Central

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N?ha?1) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m3 ha?1). Although energy inputs (30 GJ?ha?1) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg?ha?1 and 159 GJ?ha?1, respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO2e?Mg?1 of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N2O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

208

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.  

PubMed

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2012-01-24

209

Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51-2.10 t ha-1, or 44-52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14-3.30 t ha-1, or 62-63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha-1) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets.

Schierhorn, Florian; Faramarzi, Monireh; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Koch, Friedrich J.; Müller, Daniel

2014-08-01

210

A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments  

SciTech Connect

The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

Thielemann, N. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, P. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foehlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

2012-09-15

211

This is the documentation for the yield strength neural network, as described in Program MAP_NEURAL_AUSTENITIC_YIELD  

E-print Network

Appendix B This is the documentation for the yield strength neural network, as described in chapter 2002 #12; Purpose To estimate the yield strength of austenitic stainless steels at particular 8. Program MAP_NEURAL_AUSTENITIC_YIELD 1. Provenance of code. 2. Purpose of code. 3. Specification

Cambridge, University of

212

Yield Stress Modeling of Electrorheological Fluids Using Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrorheological (ER) fluids are a kind of smart materials whose rheological properties can be rapidly changed by applied electric fields. Many potential industrial applications of ER technology have been proposed. In order to formulate better ER fluids and design ER devices, it is important to predict the yield stress of ER fluids based on the ER fluids components and the operating conditions. This paper proposes a new method for predicting the yield stress of ER fluids with neural network (NN). A multilayer perceptron with a single hidden layer of neurons is used to model the ER effect. The data for training and test were produced from the simulation of previous proposed mathematical models. The Levernberg-Marquardt back propagation algorithm was selected for fast learning. The results show the neural network model can well approximate the previous theoretical model, and the predicted outputs of NN agree nearly with the theoretical model values under the same input, all of which demonstrate that it is possible to generate a robust NN model for rapidly predicting the yield stress of ER fluids under different input parameters.

Wei, Kexiang; Meng, Guang

213

High Yield Production Process for Shigella Outer Membrane Particles  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacteria naturally shed particles that consist of outer membrane lipids, outer membrane proteins, and soluble periplasmic components. These particles have been proposed for use as vaccines but the yield has been problematic. We developed a high yielding production process of genetically derived outer membrane particles from the human pathogen Shigella sonnei. Yields of approximately 100 milligrams of membrane-associated proteins per liter of fermentation were obtained from cultures of S. sonnei ?tolR ?galU at optical densities of 30–45 in a 5 L fermenter. Proteomic analysis of the purified particles showed the preparation to primarily contain predicted outer membrane and periplasmic proteins. These were highly immunogenic in mice. The production of these outer membrane particles from high density cultivation of bacteria supports the feasibility of scaling up this approach as an affordable manufacturing process. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of using this process with other genetic manipulations e.g. abolition of O antigen synthesis and modification of the lipopolysaccharide structure in order to modify the immunogenicity or reactogenicity of the particles. This work provides the basis for a large scale manufacturing process of Generalized Modules of Membrane Antigens (GMMA) for production of vaccines from Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22701551

Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Colucci, Anna Maria; Maggiore, Luana; Sanzone, Silvia; Rossi, Omar; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Pesce, Isabella; Caboni, Mariaelena; Norais, Nathalie; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

2012-01-01

214

HVM die yield improvement as a function of DRSEM ADC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the current manufacturing technology roadmap and the competitiveness of the global semiconductor manufacturing environment in conjunction with the semiconductor manufacturing market dynamics, the market place continues to demand a reduced die manufacturing cost. This continuous pressure on lowering die cost in turn drives an aggressive yield learning curve, a key component of which is defect reduction of manufacturing induced anomalies. In order to meet and even exceed line and die yield targets there is a need to revamp defect classification strategies and place a greater emphasize on increasing the accuracy and purity of the Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM) Automated Defect Classification (ADC) results while placing less emphasis on the ADC results of patterned/un-patterned wafer inspection systems. The increased emphasis on DRSEM ADC results allows for a high degree of automation and consistency in the classification data and eliminates variance induced by the manufacturing staff. This paper examines the use of SEM based Auto Defect Classification in a high volume manufacturing environment as a key driver in the reduction of defect limited yields.

Maheshwary, Sonu; Haas, Terry; McGarvey, Steve

2010-03-01

215

Galactic disk abundance ratios: constraining SNIa stellar yields  

SciTech Connect

Stellar abundance ratios of very good quality are now available for a large number of stars in the solar vicinity. Moreover, for an increasing number of stars informations on kinematics is also available. The combined information on abundance and kinematics enables one to select objects belonging to the different components of our Galaxy (thin disk, thick disk and halo). In this work we show that a careful comparison of our chemical evolution model for the Milky Way with the available abundance ratio measurements for stars in the solar neighborhood can be used to constrain the stellar yields. In particular, yields of Type Ia SNe are constrained by the abundance pattern of thin disk stars. Our results suggest that the 3-D models for SNIa explosion studied here lead to discrepancies once their predicted stellar yields are used as input in our chemical evolution model. These models produce flat Si/O and Mg/O ratios in disagreement with what is observed in thin disk stars. Moreover, our results indicate that larger quantities of Mg (at least a factor of 10 more than current theoretical predictions of either 1-D or multi-D models) need to be produced in SNIa.

Chiappini, Cristina [Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste - OAT/INAF - Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste 34131 (Italy)

2005-10-21

216

Maximizing DNA Yield for Epidemiologic Studies: No More Buffy Coats?  

PubMed Central

Some molecular analyses require microgram quantities of DNA, yet many epidemiologic studies preserve only the buffy coat. In Frederick, Maryland, in 2010, we estimated DNA yields from 5 mL of whole blood and from equivalent amounts of all-cell-pellet (ACP) fraction, buffy coat, and residual blood cells from fresh blood (n = 10 volunteers) and from both fresh and frozen blood (n = 10). We extracted DNA with the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, Maryland) for silica spin column capture and measured double-stranded DNA. Yields from frozen blood fractions were not statistically significantly different from those obtained from fresh fractions. ACP fractions yielded 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 66, 97) of the yield of frozen whole blood and 99.3% (95% confidence interval: 86, 100) of the yield of fresh blood. Frozen buffy coat and residual blood cells each yielded only half as much DNA as frozen ACP, and the yields were more variable. Assuming that DNA yield and quality from frozen ACP are stable, we recommend freezing plasma and ACP. Not only does ACP yield twice as much DNA as buffy coat but it is easier to process, and its yield is less variable from person to person. Long-term stability studies are needed. If one wishes to separate buffy coat before freezing, one should also save the residual blood cell fraction, which contains just as much DNA. PMID:23857774

Gail, Mitchell H.; Sheehy, Tim; Cosentino, Mark; Pee, David; Diaz-Mayoral, Norma A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Caporaso, Neil E.; Pitt, Karen; Ziegler, Regina G.

2013-01-01

217

Boosting Crop Yields with Plant Steroids[W  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols and steroid hormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs), are compounds that exert a wide range of biological activities. They are essential for plant growth, reproduction, and responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Given the importance of sterols and BRs in these processes, engineering their biosynthetic and signaling pathways offers exciting potentials for enhancing crop yield. In this review, we focus on how alterations in components of sterol and BR metabolism and signaling or application of exogenous steroids and steroid inhibitors affect traits of agronomic importance. We also discuss areas for future research and identify the fine-tuning modulation of endogenous BR content as a promising strategy for crop improvement. PMID:22438020

Vriet, Cecile; Russinova, Eugenia; Reuzeau, Christophe

2012-01-01

218

Assessment of factors influencing the biomethane yield of maize silages.  

PubMed

A large set of maize silage samples was produced to assess the major traits influencing the biomethane production of this crop. The biomass yield, the volatile solids contents and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare (average=7266m(3)ha(-1)). The most influential factor controlling the biomethane yield was the cropping environment. The biomass yield had more impact than the anaerobic digestibility. Nevertheless, the anaerobic digestibility of maize silages was negatively affected by high VS content in mature maize. Late maturing maize varieties produced high biomass yield with high digestibility resulting in high biomethane yield per hectare. The BMP was predicted with good accuracy using solely the VS content. PMID:24368275

Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Sinnaeve, Georges; Dardenne, Pierre; Delfosse, Philippe

2014-02-01

219

Impacts of variability in cellulosic biomass yields on energy security.  

PubMed

The practice of modeling biomass yields on the basis of deterministic point values aggregated over space and time obscures important risks associated with large-scale biofuel use, particularly risks related to drought-induced yield reductions that may become increasingly frequent under a changing climate. Using switchgrass as a case study, this work quantifies the variability in expected yields over time and space through switchgrass growth modeling under historical and simulated future weather. The predicted switchgrass yields across the United States range from about 12 to 19 Mg/ha, and the 80% confidence intervals range from 20 to 60% of the mean. Average yields are predicted to decrease with increased temperatures and weather variability induced by climate change. Feedstock yield variability needs to be a central part of modeling to ensure that policy makers acknowledge risks to energy supplies and develop strategies or contingency plans that mitigate those risks. PMID:24941019

Mullins, Kimberley A; Matthews, H Scott; Griffin, W Michael; Anex, Robert

2014-07-01

220

Uncertainties in Supernova Yields I: 1D Explosions  

E-print Network

Theoretical nucleosynthetic yields from supernovae are sensitive to both the details of the progenitor star and the explosion calculation. We attempt to comprehensively identify the sources of uncertainties in these yields. In this paper we concentrate on the variations in yields from a single progenitor arising from common 1-dimensional methods of approximating a supernova explosion. Subsequent papers will examine 3-dimensional effects in the explosion and the progenitor, and trends in mass and composition. For the 1-dimensional explosions we find that both elemental and isotopic yields for Si and heavier elements are a sensitive function of explosion energy. Also, piston-driven and thermal bomb type explosions have different yields for the same explosion energy. Yields derived from 1-dimensional explosions are non-unique.

Patrick A. Young; Chris L. Fryer

2006-12-22

221

Engineering design automation tool for yield learning model for IC packaging  

E-print Network

using time series model. . . . . Predicted yield due to chronic yield loss. . . . . . Predicted yield - chronic and excursions. . . . . . Actual vs predicted. Predicted yield for change in experience level. . . . PBGA - chronic yield. PBGA - yield... with excursions. CBGA - chronic yield. . CBGA ? yield with excursions. . . . . . CBGA - tuning (yield prediction) with 4 weeks of data. . . . . . Yield prediction navigation window of "Pack Tool" . . Factor window for value assignment. 26 28 28 29 32 33...

Sarwar, Abul Kalam

2012-06-07

222

Yield prediction by analysis of multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary model describing the growth and grain yield of wheat was developed. The modeled growth characteristics of the wheat crop were used to compute wheat canopy reflectance using a model of vegetation canopy reflectance. The modeled reflectance characteristics were compared with the corresponding growth characteristics and grain yield in order to infer their relationships. It appears that periodic wheat canopy reflectance characteristics potentially derivable from earth satellites will be useful in forecasting wheat grain yield.

Colwell, J. E.; Suits, G. H.

1975-01-01

223

Yield stress for initial firmness determination on yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield stress and apparent residual stress were measured in laboratory-made yogurts containing different gum concentrations and in seven retail yogurts. Yield stress exhibited significant correlation (p<0.001) with the sensory initial firmness perceived by trained panelists in both laboratory-made (r=0.99) and retail (r>0.97) yogurts. Apparent residual stress was significantly correlated with sensory viscosity for retail yogurts (r>0.90). The yield stress had

F. Harte; S. Clark; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2007-01-01

224

, NuFact Target Yields using Fluka University of Warwick  

E-print Network

1 , µ NuFact Target Yields using Fluka John Back University of Warwick 14th July 2009 #12;2 Introduction · Using Fluka 2008.3b.1 to estimate , µ yields for NuFact Hg jet target · Study II geometry-averaged yields as a function of proton beam energy #12;3 Fluka Geometry (Study II) Neutrino Factory target

McDonald, Kirk

225

Yield strength of overaged alloys containing coherent ordered precipitates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing models for yielding of overaged alloys do not account for the observed strain rate sensitivity of the yield stress\\u000a and predict a sharper decrease in stress as a function of particle size than the experimental observations. A dynamic model\\u000a has been presented here to account for the yield strength of overaged alloys containing coherent ordered precipitates which\\u000a takes

Raghuram; L. K. Singhal

1975-01-01

226

COMPRESSIVE DEFORMATION AND YIELDING MECHANISMS IN CELLULAR Al ALLOYS DETERMINED  

E-print Network

, the cellular alloy must have stiness and yield strength approaching theoretically achievable levels. The levels the modulus of the cell wall material and r the relative density. A similar relationship exists for the yield strength, s0, at low density [7, 9, 10]: s0assI0X3r 1b where ss is the yield strength of the cell wall ma

Wadley, Haydn

227

Yield strength enhancement of martensitic steel through titanium addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield strength enhancement for martensitic steel fabricated by vacuum induction melting is investigated. It is found that\\u000a the addition of Ti can improve the yield strength property of the martensitic steel, which can be attributed to increase in\\u000a precipitation hardening from formation of TiC precipitates in the martensitic matrix. Moreover, the yield strength can be\\u000a further enhanced by tempering and

L. Xu; J. Shi; W. Q. Cao; M. Q. Wang; W. J. Hui; H. Dong

2011-01-01

228

Bushland Management For Water Yield: Prospects for Texas.  

E-print Network

the situation regarding brush management, the committee found that: ? Existing brushland water yield research results from other states are of limited relevance to Texas conditions. Application of a formula based on Arizona and California research to five... area of Texas demonstrates the potential for water yield enhancement. ? Water yield does not equate to water use or water use value. Evidence from an Arizona study shows less than one-half the additional water from brush management went...

McCarl, Bruce A.; Griffin, Ronald C.; Kaiser, Ronald A.; Freeman, Lansingh S.; Blackburn, Wilbert H.; Jordan, Wayne R.

1987-01-01

229

Roll-your-own smoke yields: theoretical and practical aspects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To identify the key parameters that influence smoke yields from roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes and to compare smoke yields of cigarettes made under laboratory conditions with those made by habitual RYO consumers.?DESIGN AND SETTING—One-way parametric variations in the laboratory-based production of RYO cigarettes complemented by a consumer survey conducted in a busy street at Romford, Essex, United Kingdom.?SUBJECTS—26 habitual RYO consumers.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Cigarette weights, puff numbers, and yields (carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar).?RESULTS—Smoke yields vary for specimen changes in weight of tobacco used, paper porosity, and the incorporation of a filter in the cigarette. Yields of cigarettes produced by 26 RYO smokers ranged from 9.9 to 21.0 mg tar per cigarette and from 0.9 to 1.8 mg nicotine per cigarette, and were generally lower than yields of laboratory-produced RYO cigarettes.?CONCLUSIONS—Laboratory studies can provide useful information concerning the parameters that affect smoke yields of RYO cigarettes such as the incorporation of a filter to reduce yields. However, such studies must be complemented by surveys of cigarettes made by actual current RYO smokers. In one such investigation, it was found that the mean tar yields from cigarettes produced by 57% of the smokers were above the current maximum of 15 mg per cigarette for manufactured cigarettes. Currently 8% of manufactured cigarettes in the UK have a declared nicotine yield of greater than 1.1 mg per cigarette whereas 77% of RYO smokers produced cigarettes with a nicotine yield greater than this value.???Keywords: roll-your-own cigarettes; smoke yield; carbon monoxide; tar; nicotine PMID:9789936

Darrall, K.; Figgins, J.

1998-01-01

230

Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.  

PubMed

Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

2014-04-01

231

The microstructural origins of yield strength changes in aisi 316 during fission or fusion irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in yield strength of AISI 316 irradiated in breeder reactors have been successfully modeled in terms of concurrent changes in microstructural components. Two new insights involving the strength contributions of voids and Frank loops have been incorporated into the hardening models. Both the radiation-induced microstructure and the yield strength exhibit transients which are then followed by saturation at

F. A. Garner; M. L. Hamilton; N. F. Panayotou; G. D. Johnson

1981-01-01

232

Canopy Light Environment and Yield of Narrow-Row Cotton as Affected by Canopy Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

canopy were measured when the canopy was fully developed. Seed- cotton yield and yield components by plots, fruiting positions, and near developing bolls and erect mutant-type leaves at strata by four main-stem node groups were obtained. Early canopy the top of the canopy. Kerby and Buxton (1981) suggest modifications simulating plant characteristics such as reduced plant that cultivars with short

David G. Reta-Sánchez; James L. Fowler

2002-01-01

233

Mid-Season Prediction of Wheat-Grain Yield Potential Using Plant, Soil, and Sensor Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The components that define cereal-grain yield potential have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to collect many differing biological measurements from a long-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) study in an attempt to better define yield potential. Four treatments were sampled that annually received 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg N ha at fixed rates of

K. Girma; K. L. Martin; R. H. Anderson; D. B. Arnall; K. D. Brixey; M. A. Casillas; B. Chung; B. C. Dobey; S. K. Kamenidou; S. K. Kariuki; E. E. Katsalirou; J. C. Morris; J. Q. Moss; C. T. Rohla; B. J. Sudbury; B. S. Tubana; W. R. Raun

2006-01-01

234

Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond (Prunus dulcis), pistachio (Pistacia vera), and walnut (Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

2014-08-01

235

Effect of harvest method and date on lesquerella seed yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted to compare the harvested yields of lesquerella seed obtained from windrow combining to those obtained by direct combining following spraying with a desiccant. The mean harvested yield for windrow combining was less than for direct combining. The difference was statistically significant for the detailed trials, but not for the commercial trials. Delaying crop termination by two

Wayne Coates

1996-01-01

236

Isotope yield ratios of fragments from heavy-ion reactions  

SciTech Connect

Isotope yield ratios produced in collisions of 35 MeV/nucleon {sup 14}N with targets of C, Ni, Ag, and Ho have an exponential dependence on total neutron-to-proton ratio. A statistical multifragmentation model including particle emission from excited fragments predicted such behavior for yield ratios measured earlier at the higher energy of 84 MeV/nucleon.

Deak, F.; Kiss, A. (Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes University, Puskin utca 5-7, H-1088 Budapest, Hungary (HU)); Seres, Z. (Central Research Institute for Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, Hungary (HU)); Galonsky, A.; Heilbronn, L. (National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (USA))

1991-05-01

237

Metabolic Engineering for Improved Biofuel Yield in a Marine  

E-print Network

Metabolic Engineering for Improved Biofuel Yield in a Marine Cyanobacterium/conclusion · future work that will be done to increase biofuel yield #12;Problems? · Many na@al renewable source of energy -Biofuel produc@on from aqua@c photoautotroph

Petta, Jason

238

Estimating Shrub Forage Yield and Utilization Using a Photographic Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed a photographic technique to estimate shrub yield and utilization of common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake), snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Douglas ex Hook.), and firmleaf willow ( Salix rigida Muhl.) found in mixed-conifer rangelands. We determined the correlation between green leaf area size (LA) and forage yield (Y) and compared plant utilization estimated by photographic technique (ULA) to actual

Daalkhaijav Damiran; Timothy DelCurto; Douglas E. Johnson; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

2006-01-01

239

Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol,  

E-print Network

Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol, amino acids, urea and glucose to a single yield, plasma cortisol, free amino acids, urea and glucose in lactating cows. The animals were treated cortisol occurred within 10 min of administration of 6 IU ACTH. The maximum increase in plasma cortisol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

MODELING PRECIPITATION-RUNOFF RELATIONSHIPS TO DETERMINE WATER YIELD  

E-print Network

MODELING PRECIPITATION-RUNOFF RELATIONSHIPS TO DETERMINE WATER YIELD FROM A PONDEROSA PINE FOREST.D., __________________________________ Alex Finkral, Ph.D. #12;II ABSTRACT MODELING PRECIPITATION-RUNOFF RELATIONSHIPS TO DETERMINE WATER YIELD FROM ARIZONA'S PONDEROSA PINE FORESTS ASSEFA S. DESTA A stochastic precipitation-runoff modeling

241

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979

Shaobing Peng; Jianliang Huang; John E. Sheehy; Rebecca C. Laza; Romeo M. Visperas; Xuhua Zhong; Grace S. Centeno; Gurdev S. Khush; Kenneth G. Cassman

2004-01-01

242

Yield strength predictions from the plastic zone around nanocontacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a simplified version of Johnson’s core model analysis of the plastic zone, one may determine the plastic zone size around a contact or, alternatively, determine the yield strength by measuring the plastic zone. The theoretical model contains three parameters: indentation load, yield strength and zone size so that knowing any two gives the third. This is experimentally demonstrated for

D. Kramer; H. Huang; M. Kriese; J. Robach; J. Nelson; A. Wright; D. Bahr; W. W. Gerberich

1998-01-01

243

On the homogenized yield strength of two-phase composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for bounding and estimating the effective yield strength of plastic composites in terms of the effective properties of appropriately chosen classes of linear comparison composites is proposed. The method is applied to the class of two-phase plastic composites with prescribed volume fractions and overall isotropy to obtain bounds and estimates for their effective yield strengths. The application of

P. Ponte Castaneda; G. Debotton

1992-01-01

244

Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is proposed to evaluate the triggering of liquefaction in ground subjected to a static shear stress, i.e., sloping ground, using the yield strength ratio, s u(yield)\\/ v0 . Thirty liquefaction flow failures were back analyzed to evaluate shear strengths and strength ratios mobilized at the triggering of liquefaction. Strength ratios mobilized during the static liquefaction flow failures ranged

Scott M. Olson

2003-01-01

245

Magnetic means for the determination of torsional yield strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the yield strength of steels and other materials is typically limited to values determined from uniaxial tension tests. The torsional yield strength, required for the rational design of shafts is generally assumed to be 0.5-0.6 of the tensile value, based on one or another of the several theories of plasticity.

I. J. Garshelis; R. J. Kari; S. Bitar

2003-01-01

246

Measurement of yield strength of thin metal film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on measurement of the load-depth curve in nanoindentation, the yield strength of thin metal film on Si substrate can be determined with the model of finite element analysis. An example is given of thin Cu film and the result shows that the yield strength thus determined can eventually reflect changes of processing condition both in deposition and in post-treatment.

Fei Wang; Kewei Xu

2004-01-01

247

Effective utilization of high-yield strength steels in fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcommittee for Effective Utilization of Yield Strength was established under the Materials Division of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee of the Welding Research Council to study the effects of strain hardening and the yield strength to tensile strength ratio on the various failure modes of pressure vessels. Specifically their purpose is to determine if high-strength steels can be more

R. A. May; A. Stuber; S. T. Rolfe

1978-01-01

248

Yield estimation of sugarcane based on agrometeorological-spectral models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work has the objective to assess the performance of a yield estimation model for sugarcane (Succharum officinarum). The model uses orbital gathered spectral data along with yield estimated from an agrometeorological model. The test site includes the sugarcane plantations of the Barra Grande Plant located in Lencois Paulista municipality in Sao Paulo State. Production data of four crop years were analyzed. Yield data observed in the first crop year (1983/84) were regressed against spectral and agrometeorological data of that same year. This provided the model to predict the yield for the following crop year i.e., 1984/85. The model to predict the yield of subsequent years (up to 1987/88) were developed similarly, incorporating all previous years data. The yield estimations obtained from these models explained 69, 54, and 50 percent of the yield variation in the 1984/85, 1985/86, and 1986/87 crop years, respectively. The accuracy of yield estimations based on spectral data only (vegetation index model) and on agrometeorological data only (agrometeorological model) were also investigated.

Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; Batista, Getulio Teixeira

1990-01-01

249

Factors Affecting Plant Height and Yield of Eggplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the interaction of environment and cultural methods will lead to a better understanding of the development of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and contribute to sustained yield. Seedlings were transplanted on 16 April 1991 and 21 July 1992 into soil left bare or treated with black spray-on or black plastic mulch. Plant height, and total and marketable fruit yield

T. D. Abney; V. M. Russo

1997-01-01

250

7 CFR 760.811 - Rates and yields; calculating payments.  

...Program § 760.811 Rates and yields; calculating...loss of quantity on a unit with respect to yield-based...for a quantity loss on a unit with respect to value-based...multiplying the payment rate established for the...determined by FSA, of the unit. (3) As...

2014-01-01

251

A CONSISTENT YIELD-BASED CAPITAL BUDGETING METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a yield-based capital budgeting method that is consistent in maximizing shareholder wealth in six out of seven preconditioned environments. Academic studies surveying corporate management consistently conclude that corporate management prefers a yield-based capital budgeting method, such as the IRR, to a discount cash flow model, such as the NPV. This preference is strong with the NPV and

David A. Volkman

252

Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onfarm field trials carried out with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers

Matin Qaim; David Zilberman

2003-01-01

253

SUSTAINABLE YIELD OF A KARST AQUIFER IN CENTRAL TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, various hydrogeologic studies have been conducted to characterize the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer and to support sustainable yield determination. These studies include: geologic mapping, pumping tests, tracer tests, evaluation of historical data, numerical ground-water modeling, well-impact analysis, and biological studies. A broad definition of sustainable yield considers that water can be extracted from an

Brian A. Smith; Brian B. Hunt; Kirk Holland

254

The yield stress—a review or ‘????? ???’—everything flows?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the development of the idea of a yield stress for solids, soft solids and structured liquids from the beginning of this century to the present time. Originally, it was accepted that the yield stress of a solid was essentially the point at which, when the applied stress was increased, the deforming solid first began to

Howard A. Barnes

1999-01-01

255

RESEARCH ARTICLE Climate change model predicts 33 % rice yield decrease  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Climate change model predicts 33 % rice yield decrease in 2100 in Bangladesh online: 12 June 2012 # INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract In Bangladesh, projected climate parameters on rice. The effects of climate change on yield of a popular winter rice cultivar in Bangladesh

Boyer, Edmond

256

Shear rejuvenation, aging and shear banding in yield stress fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to simulate shear rejuvenation and aging effects in shear thinning yield stress fluids in a typical rotational rheometer and to provide a common framework to describe the behavior of yield stress materials in general. This is particularly important in the determination of material constants under both steady and unsteady conditions. The breakdown and buildup

Andreas N. Alexandrou; Nicholas Constantinou; Georgios Georgiou

2009-01-01

257

Nutrient availability and cocoyam yield under different tillage practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research information on the effect of tillage systems on cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott) growth, nutrient status and yield is lacking in Africa. The effects of zero tillage with mulch, zero tillage without mulch, manual mounding, manual ridging and conventional tillage on cocoyam yield, growth and nutrient availability were compared during 2 years on an Alfisol (Oxic Tropuldaf) at Owo

T. M. Agbede

2008-01-01

258

Climate change impacts on crop yield: evidence from China.  

PubMed

When estimating climate change impact on crop yield, a typical assumption is constant elasticity of yield with respect to a climate variable even though the elasticity may be inconstant. After estimating both constant and inconstant elasticities with respect to temperature and precipitation based on provincial panel data in China 1980-2008, our results show that during that period, the temperature change contributes positively to total yield growth by 1.3% and 0.4% for wheat and rice, respectively, but negatively by 12% for maize. The impacts of precipitation change are marginal. We also compare our estimates with other studies and highlight the implications of the inconstant elasticities for crop yield, harvest and food security. We conclude that climate change impact on crop yield would not be an issue in China if positive impacts of other socio-economic factors continue in the future. PMID:25181045

Wei, Taoyuan; Cherry, Todd L; Glomrød, Solveig; Zhang, Tianyi

2014-11-15

259

Temporal changes in the spatial extent of crop yield stagnation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have documented areas around the globe with stagnant growth in crop yields. Here we additionally examine how the spatial extent of maize, wheat, rice, and soybean area with stagnant yields is changing over time. To carry out our analysis, we utilize a recently developed database of ~2.5 million agricultural census observations and a series of model fits that characterize the yield trend of each census unit over time. For each census unit, we determine whether the yields were stagnant (not improving or declining) or improving based on the model fit in every year from 1961-2008. We then determine the extent to which the cropland area with stagnant yields is increasing over time, and how these trends differ between crops and major agricultural regions.

Mueller, N. D.; Ray, D. K.; Foley, J. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Huybers, P. J.

2013-12-01

260

Calculation of the total electron excitation cross section in the Born approximation using Slater wave functions for the Li (2s yields 2p), Li (2s yields 3p), Na (3s yields 4p), Mg (3p yields 4s), Ca (4s yields 4p) and K (4s yields 4p) excitations. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.

Simsic, P. L.

1974-01-01

261

Spectral reflectance indices as a selection criterion for yield improvement in wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and methods of study. Yield in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a complex trait and influenced by many environmental factors, and yield improvement is a daunting task for wheat breeders. Spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) have been used to study different physiological traits in wheat. SRIs have the potential to differentiate genotypes for grain yield. SRIs strongly associated with grain yield can be used to achieve effective genetic gain in wheat under different environments. Three experiments (15 adapted genotypes, 25 and 36 random sister lines derived from two different crosses) under irrigated conditions, and three experiments (each with 30 advanced genotypes) under water-limited conditions were conducted in three successive years in Northwest Mexico at the CIMMYT (International Maize and wheat Improvement Center) experimental station. SRIs and different agronomic data were collected for three years, and biomass was harvested for two years. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between SRIs and grain yield, between SRIs and biomass, realized and broad sense heritability, direct and correlated selection responses for grain yield, and SRIs were calculated. Findings and conclusion. Seven SRIs were calculated, and three near infrared based indices (WI, NWI-1 and NWI-2) showed higher level of genetic and phenotypic correlations with grain yield, yield components and biomass than other SRIs (PRI, RNDVI, GNDVI, and SR) under both irrigated and water limiting environments. Moderate to high realized and broad sense heritability, and selection response were demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. High efficiency of correlated response for yield estimation was demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. The ratio between the correlated response to grain yield based on the three NIR based indices and direct selection response for grain yield was very close to one. The NIR based indices showed very high accuracy in selecting superior genotypes for grain yield under both well-watered and water-limited conditions. These results demonstrated that effective genetic gain in grain yield improvement can be achieved by making selections with the three NIR based indices.

Babar, Md. Ali

262

Assessing the impacts of current and future concentrations of surface ozone on crop yield with meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of rising ozone concentrations ([O 3]) on yield and yield components of major food crops: potato, barley, wheat, rice, bean and soybean in 406 experimental observations. Yield loss of the crops under current and future [O 3] was expressed relative to the yield under base [O 3] (?26 ppb). With potato, current [O 3] (31-50 ppb) reduced the yield by 5.3%, and it reduced the yield of barley, wheat and rice by 8.9%, 9.7% and 17.5%, respectively. In bean and soybean, the yield losses were 19.0% and 7.7%, respectively. Compared with yield loss at current [O 3], future [O 3] (51-75 ppb) drove a further 10% loss in yield of soybean, wheat and rice, and 20% loss in bean. Mass of individual grain, seed, or tuber was often the major cause of the yield loss at current and future [O 3], whereas other yield components also contributed to the yield loss in some cases. No significant difference was found between the responses in crops grown in pots and those in the ground for any yield parameters. The ameliorating effect of elevated [CO 2] was significant in the yields of wheat and potato, and the individual grain weight in wheat exposed to future [O 3]. These findings confirm the rising [O 3] as a threat to food security for the growing global population in this century.

Feng, Zhaozhong; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

263

General results for the decays D {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} and B {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu}  

SciTech Connect

Results are given for the two form factors for D {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} and B {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} at the soft pion limit. The deriviation depends only on pion PCAC and heavy quark spin symmetry. The usefulness of these results is discussed.

Wolfenstein, L. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1992-09-01

264

Water and Sediment Yields for Wala Dam Catchment Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wala Watershed occupies the upper part of Al-Mujib Basin, Jordan, with Mediterranean climate, sparse inhabitants and moderate agriculture. The area, in spite of its limited water resources, is considered as an important water supply as it encompasses Al-Heidan springs and pumping wells, which supply Amman city with a considerable amount of water, it also includes Wala Dam that has been constructed for groundwater recharge purposes. Recognizing the threats of water and soil loss with the consequent sedimentation problems, and the benefits of watershed modeling techniques in studying such topics, this study comprised an application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), associated with the Geographic Information System (GIS) to simulate the hydrology, soil erosion and sedimentation of Wala Dam Catchment Area. A set of hydrological techniques was utilized to simulate various components such as the Curve Number Method, the Rational Method and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and modified USLE models. The use of such techniques in a GIS environment required certain types of data, which were collected and prepared either as database files such as the daily rainfall records, or as analytical GIS layers of soil, landuse/cover, drainage pattern and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). A weather generator was incorporated to generate any missed weather data. The area was discretized into 43 subbasins and 82 hydrologic response units. Two simulation series were performed using annual and monthly printout frequency. Several results were obtained including water and sediment yields at Wala Dam location with the respective delivery ratios, and spatial representation of precipitation, surface runoff, soil erosion, sediment and water yield on subbasin level. Model calibration and verification were carried out using flow rate and sediment yield data observed at Wala flow station and the results were satisfactory, indicating that this model can represent well the climatic and physical conditions of the area. Two prediction scenarios were performed, both indicated that the western and northern subbasins yield more water to the dam and are more susceptible to soil erosion and sediment generation. The study resulted in some recommendations to enhance the built model and suggest soil conservation and sediment reduction measures to control soil loss and maintain storage in Wala Dam reservoir, in addition to protecting its bottom against clogging through which the process of groundwater recharge might malfunction.

Tarawneh, E.

2009-04-01

265

Lepton flavor violating decays {tau}{yields}lll and {mu}{yields}e{gamma} in the Higgs triplet model  

SciTech Connect

Singly and doubly charged Higgs bosons in the Higgs triplet model mediate the lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays {tau}{yields}lll and {mu}{yields}e{gamma}. The lepton flavor violating decay rates are proportional to products of two triplet Yukawa couplings (h{sub ij}) which can be expressed in terms of the parameters of the neutrino mass matrix and an unknown triplet vacuum expectation value. We determine the parameter space of the neutrino mass matrix in which a signal for {tau}{yields}lll and/or {mu}{yields}e{gamma} is possible at ongoing and planned experiments. The conditions for respecting the stringent upper limit for {mu}{yields}eee are studied in detail, with emphasis given to the possibility of |h{sub ee}|{approx_equal}0, which can only be realized if Majorana phases are present.

Akeroyd, A. G. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Aoki, Mayumi [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiroaki [SISSA, via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

2009-06-01

266

Ensemble approach to wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop yield forecasting is an extremely important component of the agriculture monitoring domain. In our previous study [1], we assessed relative efficiency and feasibility of using an NDVI-based empirical model for winter wheat yield forecasting at oblast level in Ukraine. Though the NDVI-based model provides minimum data requirements, it has some limitations since NDVI is indirectly related just to biomass but not meteorological conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to assess satellite-derived parameters that incorporate meteorology while maintaining the requirement of minimum data inputs. The objective of the proposed paper is several-fold: (i) to assess efficiency of using biophysical satellite-derived parameters for crop yield forecasting for Ukraine and select the optimal ones based on rigorous feature selection procedure; (ii) to assimilate predictions made by models built on various satellite-derived parameters. Two new parameters are considered in the paper: (i) vegetation health index (VHI) at 4 km spatial resolution derived from a series of NOAA satellites; (ii) Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION at 1 km spatial resolution. VHI data are provided as weekly composites and FAPAR data are provided as decadal composites. The particular advantage of using VHI is that it incorporates moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation canopy, while FAPAR is directly related to the primary productivity of photosynthesis It is required to find a day of the year for which a parameter is taken and used in the empirical model. For this purpose, a Random Forest feature selection procedure is applied. It is found that VHI and FAPAR values taken in April-May provided the minimum error value when comparing to the official statistics, thus enabling forecasts 2-3 months prior to harvest, and this corresponds to results derived from LOOCV procedure. The best timing for making reliable yield forecasts is nearly the same as it was for the NDVI-based approach (±16 days). The most accurate predictions for 2012 were achieved using the FAPAR-based approach with the RMSE value of 0.56 t ha-1 (performance of VHI-based and NDVI-based approaches was 0.7 t ha-1 and 0.68 t ha-1, respectively). Therefore, we can conclude that performance of empirical regression models based on satellite data with biophysical variables (such as VHI and FAPAR) is approximately 20% more accurate (on datasets available at the moment) comparing to the NDVI approach when producing winter wheat yield forecasts at oblast level in Ukraine 2-3 months prior to harvest. [1] F. Kogan, N. Kussul, T. Adamenko, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, O. Kryvobok, A. Shelestov, A. Kolotii, O. Kussul, and A. Lavrenyuk, "Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013.

Kussul, Nataliia; Kolotii, Andrii; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga; Kravchenko, Oleksii

2014-05-01

267

Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2003-01-01

268

Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2002-01-01

269

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming  

PubMed Central

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35°C and 1.13°C, respectively, for the period 1979–2003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1°C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming. PMID:15226500

Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Sheehy, John E.; Laza, Rebecca C.; Visperas, Romeo M.; Zhong, Xuhua; Centeno, Grace S.; Khush, Gurdev S.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2004-01-01

270

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming.  

PubMed

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35 degrees C and 1.13 degrees C, respectively, for the period 1979-2003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1 degrees C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming. PMID:15226500

Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Sheehy, John E; Laza, Rebecca C; Visperas, Romeo M; Zhong, Xuhua; Centeno, Grace S; Khush, Gurdev S; Cassman, Kenneth G

2004-07-01

271

Quantitative Generalizations for Catchment Sediment Yield Following Plantation Logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a reasonably clear qualitative understanding of the impact of forest plantations on sediment yield, there is a lack of quantitative generalizations. Such generalizations would be helpful for estimating the impacts of proposed forestry operations and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. This study therefore analyzed data from the literature to determine the extent to which quantitative statements can be established. The research was restricted to the impact of plantation logging on catchment sediment yield as a function of ground disturbance in the years immediately following logging, in temperate countries, and does not consider landslides consequent upon tree root decay. Twelve paired catchment studies incorporating pre- and post-logging measurements of sediment yield were identified, resulting in forty-three test catchments (including 14 control catchments). Analysis yielded the following principal conclusions: 1) Logging generally provokes maximum annual sediment yields of less than a few hundred t km-2 yr-1; best management practice can reduce this below 100 t km-2 yr-1. 2) At both the annual and event scales, the sediment yield excess of a logged catchment over a control catchment is within one order of magnitude, except with severe ground disturbance. 3) There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield impact and the proportion of catchment logged. The effect depends on which part of the catchment is altered and on its connectivity to the stream network. 4) The majority of catchments delivered their maximum sediment yield in the first two years after logging. The logging impacts were classified in terms of the absolute values of specific sediment yield, the values relative to those in the control catchments for the same period and the values relative both to the control catchment and the pre-logging period. Most studies have been for small catchments (< 10 km2) and temperate regions; the impact at large catchment scales and in tropical regions requires further research.

Bathurst, James; Iroume, Andres

2014-05-01

272

Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.  

PubMed

In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. PMID:22932270

Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

2012-10-11

273

Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels  

PubMed Central

Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. It functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. Despite its low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted. PMID:23543255

Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T.

2013-01-01

274

High-Yield D-T Neutron Generator  

SciTech Connect

A high-yield D-T neutron generator has been developed for neutron interrogation in homeland security applications such as cargo screening. The generator has been designed as a sealed tube with a performance goal of producing 5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} n/s over a long lifetime. The key generator components developed are a radio-frequency (RF) driven ion source and a beam-loaded neutron production target that can handle a beam power of 10 kW. The ion source can provide a 100 mA D{sup +}/T{sup +} beam current with a high fraction of atomic species and can be pulsed up to frequencies of several kHz for pulsed neutron generator operation. Testing in D-D operation has been started.

Ludewigt, B.A.; Wells, R.P.; Reijonen, J.

2006-11-15

275

Yield stress and shear-banding in granular suspensions  

E-print Network

We study the emergence of a yield stress in dense suspensions of non-Brownian particles, by combining local velocity and concentration measurements using Magnetic Resonance Imaging with macroscopic rheometric experiments. We show that the competition between gravity and viscous stresses is at the origin of the development of a yield stress in these systems at relatively low volume fractions. Moreover, it is accompanied by a shear banding phenomenon that is the signature of this competition. However, if the system is carefully density matched, no yield stress is encountered until a volume fraction of 62.7 0.3%.

Abdoulaye Fall; Francois Bertrand; Guillaume Ovarlez; Daniel Bonn

2009-07-13

276

Yielding and flow in adhesive and nonadhesive concentrated emulsions.  

PubMed

The nonlinear rheological response of soft glassy materials is addressed experimentally by focusing on concentrated emulsions where interdroplet attraction is tuned through varying the surfactant content. Velocity profiles are recorded using ultrasonic velocimetry simultaneously to global rheological data in the Couette geometry. Our data show that nonadhesive and adhesive emulsions have radically different flow behaviors in the vicinity of yielding: while the flow remains homogeneous in the nonadhesive emulsion and the Herschel-Bulkley model for a yield stress fluid describes the data very accurately, the adhesive system displays shear localization and does not follow a simple constitutive equation, suggesting that the mechanisms involved in yielding transitions are not universal. PMID:16712042

Bécu, Lydiane; Manneville, Sébastien; Colin, Annie

2006-04-01

277

Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of yield for comparison was an effective method of avoiding autocorrelation of data while better representing impacts within a field. Occasional yield increases, ranging from 1 to 5 percent, were recorded following goose grazing. Goose grazing generally resulted in seed yield reductions, ranging up to 20 percent. Later and more intensive grazing tended to increase yield reductions. Newly seeded tall fescue tended to be the most sensitive to grazing. Established perennial ryegrass tended to be more resilient.

Louhaichi, Mounir

278

Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

2003-03-01

279

26Al yields from rotating Wolf--Rayet star models  

E-print Network

We present new $^{26}$Al stellar yields from rotating Wolf--Rayet stellar models which, at solar metallicity, well reproduce the observed properties of the Wolf-Rayet populations. These new yields are enhanced with respect to non--rotating models, even with respect to non--rotating models computed with enhanced mass loss rates. We briefly discuss some implications of the use of these new yields for estimating the global contribution of Wolf-Rayet stars to the quantity of $^{26}$Al now present in the Milky Way.

C. Vuissoz; G. Meynet; J. Knoedlseder; M. Cervino; D. Schaerer; A. Palacios; N. Mowlavi

2003-11-04

280

Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value of a product. As a result, it is particularly convenient in analyzing fuel conversion plants and their potential for improvement. Relationships are also given for the effects of irreversibilities on requirements for process heat and for feedstocks.

England, C.; Funk, J. E.

1980-01-01

281

Nonlocal Rheology of Granular Flows across Yield Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rheology of dense granular flows is studied numerically in a shear cell controlled at constant pressure and shear stress, confined between two granular shear flows. We show that a liquid state can be achieved even far below the yield stress, whose flow can be described with the same rheology as above the yield stress. A nonlocal constitutive relation is derived from dimensional analysis through a gradient expansion and calibrated using the spatial relaxation of velocity profiles observed under homogeneous stresses. Both for frictional and frictionless grains, the relaxation length is found to diverge as the inverse square root of the distance to the yield point, on both sides of that point.

Bouzid, Mehdi; Trulsson, Martin; Claudin, Philippe; Clément, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno

2013-12-01

282

Fission Yield Measurements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Correct prediction of the fission products inventory in irradiated nuclear fuels is essential for accurate estimation of fuel burnup, establishing proper requirements for spent fuel transportation and storage, materials accountability and nuclear forensics. Such prediction is impossible without accurate knowledge of neutron induced fission yields. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the fission yields reported in the ENDF/B-VII.0 library is not uniform across all of the data and much of the improvement is desired for certain isotopes and fission products. We discuss our measurements of cumulative fission yields in nuclear fuels irradiated in thermal and fast reactor spectra using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

Irina Glagolenko; Bruce Hilton; Jeffrey Giglio; Daniel Cummings; Karl Grimm; Richard McKnight

2009-11-01

283

Heritability and expected selection response for yield traits in blanched asparagus.  

PubMed

Despite the continuous breeding that has been conducted with asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) since the beginning of the last century, there is little information on parameters for predicting direct and indirect selection response. Yield traits for blanched asparagus production were studied along a two-year period in a half-sib family population planted in Zavalla, Argentina. Half-sib family mean heritability values were low for total yield and marketable spear number (0.31 and 0.35), intermediate for marketable yield and total spear number (0.55 and 0.64), and relatively high for spear diameter and spear weight (0.75 and 0.74). An average increase in marketable yield of 15.9% is expected after each cycle of selection of the top 5% of the families. Total yield failed to express significant genetic correlations with any of the yield components; meanwhile marketable yield showed highly significant relations with market spear number (0.96) and spear weight (0.89). Indirect selection response over yield components (CRx) failed to be advantageous over direct selection (Rx), since the ratio CRx/Rx was always equal or below unity. PMID:15841437

Gatti, Ileana; López Anido, Fernando; Cravero, Vanina; Asprelli, Pablo; Cointry, Enrique

2005-01-01

284

Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from YieldGard (MON810), YieldGard x Roundup Ready (GA21), nontransgenic control, or commercial corn.  

PubMed

This 42-day experiment was undertaken to compare the nutritional value of insect-protected corn event MON810 (YieldGard) and YieldGard x herbicide-tolerant corn event GA21 (Roundup Ready) to their nontransgenic controls as well as four different commercial reference corns, when fed to growing Cobb x Cobb broilers. A randomized complete block design was used, and each treatment was replicated with five pens of males and five pens of females with 10 broilers per pen. Broilers were fed approximately 55% wt/wt corn during the first 20 d and approximately 60% wt/wt corn thereafter. The corn component of diets fed to broilers was supplied entirely with grain from the eight hybrids included in the experiment. Final live weights averaged 2.09 kg/bird fed YieldGard corn and 2.15 kg/bird fed YieldGard x Roundup Ready corn and were not different (P > 0.05) from final weights for birds fed control or commercial corn. Feed conversion was not affected (P > 0.05) by YieldGard (1.72) or YieldGard x Roundup Ready (1.77) corn feeding when compared with the feeding of other corn diets. Chill weights, fat pad, thigh weights, and wing weights were not affected by diets (P > 0.05). Differences (P < 0.05) were noted for breast and drum weights across treatments. Broilers overall performed consistently and had similar carcass yield and meat composition when fed diets containing YieldGard (event MON810) or YieldGard (event MON810) x Roundup Ready (event GA21) as compared with their nontransgenic controls and commercial diets. PMID:12762406

Taylor, M L; Hartnell, G F; Riordan, S G; Nemeth, M A; Karunanandaa, K; George, B; Astwood, J D

2003-05-01

285

The limits of crop productivity: validating theoretical estimates and determining the factors that limit crop yields in optimal environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant scientists have sought to maximize the yield of food crops since the beginning of agriculture. There are numerous reports of record food and biomass yields (per unit area) in all major crop plants, but many of the record yield reports are in error because they exceed the maximal theoretical rates of the component processes. In this article, we review the component processes that govern yield limits and describe how each process can be individually measured. This procedure has helped us validate theoretical estimates and determine what factors limit yields in optimal environments.

Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.

1992-01-01

286

Explanation of the relationships between seed yield and some morphological traits in smooth bromegrass ( Bromus inermis Leyss.) by path analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path analysis was performed on plant characters in a sward of smooth bromegrass to determine the seed yield, the direct and indirect effects of the following seed yield components: stem yield\\/m2, total stem number\\/m2, fertile stem number\\/m2, sterile stem number\\/m2, percentage of fertile stem, seeds\\/m2, seeds\\/panicle, seed weight\\/panicle, 1000-seed weight, and plant height under field conditions. Seed yield was significantly

Hayati Seker; Yunus Serin

2004-01-01

287

12 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Annual Percentage Yield Calculation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Annual Percentage Yield Calculation A Appendix A to Part 230 Banks...Part 230—Annual Percentage Yield Calculation The annual percentage yield measures...discusses the annual percentage yield calculations for account disclosures and...

2010-01-01

288

12 CFR Appendix A to Part 707 - Annual Percentage Yield Calculation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Annual Percentage Yield Calculation A Appendix A to Part 707 Banks...Part 707—Annual Percentage Yield Calculation The annual percentage yield...discusses the annual percentage yield calculations for account disclosures and...

2010-01-01

289

Study Of Seed Yield Correlation With Different Traits Of Common Bean Under Stress Condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study seed yield and the most effective traits on seed yield of ten common been cultivars, a split plot in the form of complete block design was conducted at Shahrekord University. Among the characters studied, seed yield had the highest variation and the weight of plants had the lowest variation. the number of pods per plant had the highest correlation with seed yield in both stress and non stress conditions, while the number of seed per plant and 100 seeds weight had the lowest correlation with seed yield in non stress and stress conditions, respectively. Increase in stress intensity caused the increase in correlation between seed yield and the total weight of plant and the number of seed per pod. In principal components analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pods and seed yield had the highest correlation with the first component while 100 seeds weight and number of seeds per plant had the highest correlation with the second component.

Aminian, Roghayeh; Khodambashi, Mahmood; Yadegari, Mehrab

2008-01-01

290

Agriculture and Bioactives: Achieving Both Crop Yield and Phytochemicals  

PubMed Central

Plants are fundamental elements of the human diet, either as direct sources of nutrients or indirectly as feed for animals. During the past few years, the main goal of agriculture has been to increase yield in order to provide the food that is needed by a growing world population. As important as yield, but commonly forgotten in conventional agriculture, is to keep and, if it is possible, to increase the phytochemical content due to their health implications. Nowadays, it is necessary to go beyond this, reconciling yield and phytochemicals that, at first glance, might seem in conflict. This can be accomplished through reviewing food requirements, plant consumption with health implications, and farming methods. The aim of this work is to show how both yield and phytochemicals converge into a new vision of agricultural management in a framework of integrated agricultural practices. PMID:23429238

Garcia-Mier, Lina; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.; Mondragon-Olguin, Victor M.; Verduzco-Cuellar, Beatriz del Rocio; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo

2013-01-01

291

Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Report Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk Studies of cleanup workers from the Chernobyl ... a link between ionizing radiation and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Victor Kryuchkov, Burnazyan Federal ...

292

Future Yield Growth: What Evidence from Historical Data?  

E-print Network

The potential future role of biofuels has become an important topic in energy legislation as it is seen as a potential low carbon alternative to conventional fuels. Hence, future yield growth is an important topic from ...

Gitiaux, Xavier

293

Brain Scans Yield Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain Scans Yield Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Findings ... HealthDay News) -- There are clear differences in the brains of people with chronic fatigue syndrome and the ...

294

Factors Affecting SOS (Silicon-on-Sapphire) Yield and Reliability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes methods for characterizing the quality of silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) wafers to improve the yield and reliability of integrated circuits fabrication in this material. Epilayer stress was measured by Raman lineshift. Epilayer surface ha...

P. G. McMullin

1984-01-01

295

50 CFR 648.20 - Maximum optimum yield (OYs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.20 Maximum optimum yield (OYs). The OYs specified pursuant to § 648.21...

2010-10-01

296

Yield Enhancement of Reconfigurable Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using  

E-print Network

Yield Enhancement of Reconfigurable Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Interstitial Redundancy FEI SU and KRISHNENDU CHAKRABARTY Duke University Microfluidics-based biochips for biochemical analysis cumbersome equipment with minia- turized and integrated systems. As these microfluidics-based microsystems

Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

297

Educational Software for Illustration of Drainage, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Yield.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that developed a software package for illustrating drainage, evapotranspiration, and crop yield as influenced by water conditions. The software is a tool for depicting water's influence on crop production in western Kansas. (DDR)

Khan, A. H.; And Others

1996-01-01

298

7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.  

... FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. (a) Production reports must be provided to the crop...

2014-01-01

299

Predicting milk yield in sheep used for dairying in Australia.  

PubMed

It is necessary to identify traits that are simple to measure and correlated with milk yield to select ewes for dairying from existing populations of sheep in Australia. We studied 217 primiparous and 113 multiparous (second parity, n = 51; third parity, n = 40; and fourth parity, n = 22) East Friesian crossbred ewes, for 2 consecutive lactations, that were milked by machine following a period of suckling (24 to 28 d). We measured lamb growth, milk production, milk yield, and residual milk during early lactation (yield. Milk production at weaning, or the amount of residual milk, or both, predict milk yield within lactations. These measures also predict milk yield between lactations. Lambs were weighed at birth and weaning and milk production in ewes was measured using a 4-h milk production test at d 5 of lactation and at weaning. Following weaning, ewes were milked twice daily and milk yield was recorded weekly for 8 wk and once a month thereafter. Milk production (using a 16-h milk production test) and residual milk were measured at weaning, and again 1 wk and 4 wk later. Milk yield to 120 d was correlated (r2 = 0.39) between lactations, and 120-d milk yield (primiparous 82.7 +/- 2.0 L; multiparous 107.1 +/- 4.2 L; second lactation 146 +/- 3.7 L) can be predicted after 4 wk of machine milking using a single measurement of either daily milk yield (primiparous 770 +/- 25 mL/d; multiparous 940 +/- 44 mL/d; second lactation 1,372 +/- 46 mL/d, r2 = 0.60 to 0.65) or daily milk production (primiparous 1,197 +/- 27 mL/d; multiparous 1,396 +/- 62 mL/d; second lactation 1,707 +/- 45 mL/d, r2 = 0.50 to 0.53). Residual milk in primiparous ewes (38%) and multiparous ewes (34%) was high (292 +/- 11 and 321 +/- 20 mL, respectively) in the first lactation, but lower (17%) in the second lactation (238 +/- 17 mL). Residual milk and 120-d milk yield were not correlated in either lactation and we suggest that the transfer of milk from the alveoli to the cistern between each milking may be an important mechanism that maintains milk yield in these ewes. PMID:17954745

Morrissey, A D; Cameron, A W N; Caddy, D J; Tilbrook, A J

2007-11-01

300

Primer Notes 1. Primer yield and concentration (approximate )  

E-print Network

52 Primer Notes 1. Primer yield and concentration (approximate ): 1 OD260 of ssDNA 37 µg DNA A260 Example: 10 OD260 units of a 20-mer in 1 ml 57 nmol/ml 57 µM 57 pmol/µl Primer yield and concentration 9.3) + (#U X 10.1) + (#I X 12.25) + (#N X 10.95) 2. Primer storage: It is best to store primers

Aris, John P.

301

PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCES THEIR FABRICATION AND THEIR YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigntion of the plutonium-beryllium phase diagram demonstrates ;\\u000a the suitability of these alloys and most particularly the intermetallic compound ;\\u000a PuBeââ for stable neutron sources. These sources are superior to polonium-;\\u000a beryllium sources in respect to sthbility of neutron yield as a iunction of time ;\\u000a and the prediotability of neutroc yield as a function of mass. The gamma-ray

R. E. Tate; A. S. Coffinberry

1958-01-01

302

Research note Yield stress for initial firmness determination on yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield stress and apparent residual stress were measured in laboratory-made yogurts containing different gum concentrations and in seven retail yogurts. Yield stress exhibited significant correlation (p < 0.001) with the sensory initial firmness perceived by trained pan- elists in both laboratory-made (r = 0.99) and retail (r > 0.97) yogurts. Apparent residual stress was significantly correlated with sensory viscosity for

F. Harte; S. Clark; G. V. Barbosa-Canovas

303

Enhanced yield strength of materials: The thinness effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that yield strength is determined by ``thinness'' i.e., by the smallest dimension of a structure. Compressing wall-like structures of different length to width ratio, using a NanoindenterXP, has allowed us to distinguish between proposed plasticity size effect theories by determining the dimensional dependence of uniaxial plastic deformation of small pillars. We show that yield stress is determined by

N. M. Jennett; R. Ghisleni; J. Michler

2009-01-01

304

Improved, integrated yield-accounting system saves time and money  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cit-Con Corp.'s Lake Charles, La., lube plant has improved operating efficiency by employing a computerized yield-accounting process that uses new balancing methods and reconciles plant data. Cit-Con produces high-quality lubricating oils and paraffin waxes using modern refining methods. The yield-accounting task, therefore, is particularly critical because: Cit-Con is jointly owned 65% by Citgo Petroleum Corp. and 35% by Conoco Inc.

Bayard

1993-01-01

305

Fluorescence Quantum Yield of I-Dimethyl-aminonaphthalene-5-sulphonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

FLUORESCENCE quantum yields may be determined with spectrofluorometers simply by comparing the corrected emission spectrum of an unknown substance with that of a compound of known fluorescence yield1, provided that the relative numbers of photons reaching the solutions are known. Recently, l-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulphonate (DNS) in water at 25° was used by Churchich2,3 as a fluorescence standard which was assumed to have

Raymond F. Chen

1966-01-01

306

Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding in model cohesive suspensions  

E-print Network

An experimental system has been found recently, a coagulated CaCO3 suspension, that shows very different yield behaviour depending upon how it is tested and at what rate it is strained. At P\\'eclet number Pe > 1 it behaves as a simple Herschel Bulkley liquid, whereas at Pe curves are seen. In controlled stress testing it shows hysteresis and shear-banding and in the usual type of sweep used to measure flow curves in controlled stress mode routinely, it shows very erratic and irreproducible behaviour. All of these features can be attributed to a dependence of yield stress on rate of strain. Stress growth curves obtained from step strain-rate testing showed that the rate-dependence of the yield stress was a consequence of rate-dependent strain-softening. At very low Pe yield was cooperative and the yield strain was order-one, whereas as the Pe approached unity, the yield strain reduced to that needed to break interparticle bonds and the yield stress decayed to a minimal value. For example, at 40%v/v it dropped from ca. 200 Pa to rule rather than the exception for cohesive suspensions, the importance or otherwise of the rate dependence being a matter of scale or degree. If so, then the Herschel-Bulkley equation could usefully be generalised to read (in simple shear). The proposition that rate-dependent yield might be general, for cohesive suspensions at least, is amenable to further rigorous experimental testing by a range of means and along lines suggested.

Richard Buscall; Peter J Scales; Anthony D Stickland; Hui-En Teo; Tiara E Kusuma; Daniel R Lester

2014-10-01

307

The yield behavior of polyethylene tubes subjected to biaxial loadings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-density polyethylene is subjected to biaxial states of stress to examine the yield behavior of the semicrystalline thermoplastic under constant octahedral shear-stress rates. Combinations of internal pressures and axial loads are applied to thin-walled tubes of polyethylene, and the strain response in the axial and hoop directions are measured. The polyethylene specimens are found to be anisotropic, and the experimental measurements are compared to yield criteria that are applicable to isotropic and anisotropic materials.

Semeliss, M.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M.

1990-01-01

308

The prediction of sediment yields from small blackland watersheds  

E-print Network

SC-ninute intensity. . . . . . . . . . Relationship betueon mean peakedness ratio and matershed area. . . , . . . . , . . . . LIST OF' TABLES Table Page Description oi' L'~atershed Chcractoristics. 19 'Jatershed Land Use and Tre tment. 19...'or predicting sediment yields have been developed. I;boost of these procedures attempt to predict ths average annual sediment yield in tons or tons por acre These procedures consider matershsd characteristics and land use and treatment, but do not consider...

Williams, Jimmy Ray

2012-06-07

309

A Neural Network Based Approach to Wind Energy Yield Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is commonly acknowledged that wind energy is the leading renewable energy generation method; currently producing a power\\u000a yield equivalent to 35 GW, with an estimated projection of 40-60 GW by 2012. In order to successfully integrate wind energy\\u000a with traditional generation supplies it is necessary to have the ability to accurately forecast the available yield of a wind\\u000a installation

Piers R. J. Campbell; Faheem Ahmed; Haydar Fathulla; Ahmad D. Jaffar

310

Astroparticle yield and transport from extragalactic jet terminal shocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the yield and transport of high-energy particle within extragalactic jet terminal shocks, also known as hot-spots. These astrophysical sources are responsible for strong non-thermal synchrotron emission produced by relativistic electrons accelerated via a Fermi-type mechanism. We investigate in some details the cosmic ray, neutrinos and high-energy photons yield in hot-spots of powerful FRII radio-galaxies by

Fabien Casse; Alexandre Marcowith

2005-01-01

311

A feasible crop yield model for worldwide international food production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses itself to the problem of deriving feasible computational methods for the determination of temporal and spatial agricultural distribution of productivity for potential application in international food production-allocation modeling. A solution has been sought through the creation of a crop-specific, crop-growth-stage-specific yield model (YIELD). The computer program is a compromise between area-specific regression models and expensive, complex energy

J. T. Hayes; P. A. O'Rourke; W. H. Terjung; P. E. Todhunter

1982-01-01

312

Development of weather-yield function for winter wheat  

SciTech Connect

Crop models require detailed knowledge of weather relationships for estimating and predicting yields. Objectives of this research were to develop a weather-yield function (WYF) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that had stable coefficients and minimal bias over a wide range of climates. The WYF was derived by regressing 966 location-years of plot yields, adjusted for genetic gain, on candidate sets of weather-related variables, applied N, location-related variables and time. Applied N, location, and time variables were included to reduce bias in coefficients of weather-related variables. The portion of the regression function that included only weather-related variables became the WYF. Observations used for regression came from a wide range of climates with high interannual variance. Values of WYF ranged from 546 to 2765 kg ha/sup /minus/1/; they reflected deleterious effects of high and low temperatures and of inadequate and excessive moisture during the crop yield. Besides estimating the impact of weather on yields, the WYF can be applied to identifying yield-limiting factors and managing wheat for increased productivity. 24 refs., 4 tabs.

Feyerherm, A.M.; Paulsen, G.M.

1986-01-01

313

Ecoinformatics Reveals Effects of Crop Rotational Histories on Cotton Yield  

PubMed Central

Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:24465657

Meisner, Matthew H.; Rosenheim, Jay A.

2014-01-01

314

A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage-reliability-yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series.

Kuria, Faith W.; Vogel, Richard M.

2014-09-01

315

Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.  

PubMed

Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:24465657

Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

2014-01-01

316

Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress.  

PubMed

Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulatory network and identified a transcription factor HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) associated with PCM, which on expression in rice enhances photosynthesis under multiple environmental conditions, determining a morpho-physiological programme leading to higher grain yield under normal, drought and high-temperature stress conditions. We show HYR is a master regulator, directly activating photosynthesis genes, cascades of transcription factors and other downstream genes involved in PCM and yield stability under drought and high-temperature environmental stress conditions. PMID:25358745

Ambavaram, Madana M R; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

2014-01-01

317

Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress  

PubMed Central

Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulatory network and identified a transcription factor HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) associated with PCM, which on expression in rice enhances photosynthesis under multiple environmental conditions, determining a morpho-physiological programme leading to higher grain yield under normal, drought and high-temperature stress conditions. We show HYR is a master regulator, directly activating photosynthesis genes, cascades of transcription factors and other downstream genes involved in PCM and yield stability under drought and high-temperature environmental stress conditions. PMID:25358745

Ambavaram, Madana M. R.; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

2014-01-01

318

High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 × 109 n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 ?s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T.; Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A.; Jones, G.

2013-04-01

319

Essential oil yield and composition reflect browsing damage of junipers.  

PubMed

The impact of browsing on vegetation depends on the relative density and species composition of browsers. Herbivore density and plant damage can be either site-specific or change seasonally and spatially. For juniper (Juniperus communis) forests of a sand dune region in Hungary, it has been assumed that plant damage investigated at different temporal and spatial scales would reflect selective herbivory. The level of juniper damage was tested for a possible correlation with the concentration of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in plants and seasonal changes in browsing pressure. Heavily browsed and nonbrowsed junipers were also assumed to differ in their chemical composition, and the spatial distribution of browsing damage within each forest was analyzed to reveal the main browser. Long-term differences in local browsing pressure were also expected and would be reflected in site-specific age distributions of distant juniper populations. The concentrations of PSMs (essential oils) varied significantly among junipers and seasons. Heavily browsed shrubs contained the lowest oil yield; essential oils were highest in shrubs bearing no damage, indicating that PSMs might contribute to reduce browsing in undamaged shrubs. There was a seasonal fluctuation in the yield of essential oil that was lower in the summer period than in other seasons. Gas chromatography (GC) revealed differences in some essential oil components, suggesting that certain chemicals could have contributed to reduced consumption. The consequential long-term changes were reflected in differences in age distribution between distant juniper forests. These results confirm that both the concentration of PSMs and specific compounds of the essential oil may play a role in selective browsing damage by local herbivores. PMID:19009322

Markó, Gábor; Gyuricza, Veronika; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbacker, Vilmos

2008-12-01

320

High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction  

SciTech Connect

A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 {mu}s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi technology, 2003 E. Bayshore Rd. 94061, Redwood City, CA (United States); Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jones, G. [G and J Enterprise, 1258 Quary Ln, Suite F, Pleasanton California 94566 (United States)

2013-04-19

321

Subcritical compaction and yielding of granular quartz sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cylindrical samples of water-saturated, initially loose, St. Peter quartz sand were consolidated using triaxial deformation apparatus at room temperature, constant fluid pressure (12.5 MPa), and elevated confining pressures (up to 262.5 MPa). The samples were deformed along four loading paths: (1) hydrostatic stressing tests in which confining pressure was monotonically increased; (2) hydrostatic stress cycling similar to (1) except that effective pressure was periodically decreased to initial conditions; (3) triaxial deformation at constant effective pressure in which differential stress was applied after raising effective pressure to an elevated level; and (4) triaxial stress cycling similar to (3) except that the axial differential stress was periodically decreased to zero. Hydrostatic stressing at a constant rate results in a complex nonlinear consolidation response. At low pressures, large strains occur without significant acoustic emission (AE) activity. With increased pressure, the stress versus strain curve becomes quasi-linear with a corresponding nonlinear increase in AE rates. At elevated pressures, macroscopic yielding is marked by the onset of large strains, high AE rates, and significant grain failure. Stress cycling experiments show that measurable inelastic strain occurs at all stages of hydrostatic loading. The reload portions of stress cycles are characterized by a poro-elastic response and lower AE rates than during constant rate hydrostatic stressing. As the stress nears and exceeds the level that was applied during previous loading cycles, strain and AE rates increase in a manner consistent with yielding. Triaxial stressing cycles achieve greater consolidation and AE rates than hydrostatic loading at similar mean stress levels. By comparing our results with previously published studies, we construct a three-component model to describe elastic and inelastic compaction of granular sand. This model involves acoustically silent grain rearrangement that contributes significant inelastic strain at low pressures, poro-elastic (Hertzian) deformation at all pressures, and inelastic strain related to granular cracking and particle failure which increases in significance at greater pressures.

Karner, Stephen L.; Chester, Frederick M.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.; Chester, Judith S.

2003-12-01

322

{mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {tau}{yields}l{gamma} decays in the fermion triplet seesaw model  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the seesaw models with triplets of fermions, we evaluate the decay rates of {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {tau}{yields}l{gamma} transitions. We show that although, due to neutrino mass constraints, those rates are in general expected to be well under the present experimental limits, this is not necessarily always the case. Interestingly enough, the observation of one of those decays in planned experiments would nevertheless contradict bounds stemming from present experimental limits on the {mu}{yields}eee and {tau}{yields}3l decay rates, as well as from {mu} to e conversion in atomic nuclei. Such detection of radiative decays would therefore imply that there exist sources of lepton flavor violation not associated to triplet fermions.

Abada, A.; Bonnet, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique UMR 8627, Universite de Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Biggio, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Gavela, M. B. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Hambye, T. [Service de Physique Theorique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2008-08-01

323

Sensitivity of simulated maize crop yields to regional climate in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of maize yield to the regional climate in the Southwestern United States (SW US) has been investigated by using a crop-yield simulation model (APSIM) in conjunction with meteorological forcings (daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and radiation) from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. The primary focus of this study is to look at the effects of interannual variations of atmospheric components on the crop productivity in the SW US over the 21-year period (1991 to 2011). First of all, characteristics and performance of APSIM was examined by comparing simulated maize yields with observed yields from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the leaf-area index (LAI) from MODIS satellite data. Comparisons of the simulated maize yield with the available observations show that the crop model can reasonably reproduce observed maize yields. Sensitivity tests were performed to assess the relative contribution of each climate driver to regional crop yield. Sensitivity experiments show that potential crop production responds nonlinearly to climate drivers and the yield sensitivity varied among geographical locations depending on their mean climates. Lastly, a detailed analysis of both the spatial and temporal variations of each climate driver in the regions where maize is actually grown in three states (CA, AZ, and NV) in the SW US was performed.

Kim, S.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kim, J.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kafatos, M.

2013-12-01

324

Possible changes to arable crop yields by 2050  

PubMed Central

By 2050, the world population is likely to be 9.1 billion, the CO2 concentration 550 ppm, the ozone concentration 60 ppb and the climate warmer by ca 2°C. In these conditions, what contribution can increased crop yield make to feeding the world? CO2 enrichment is likely to increase yields of most crops by approximately 13 per cent but leave yields of C4 crops unchanged. It will tend to reduce water consumption by all crops, but this effect will be approximately cancelled out by the effect of the increased temperature on evaporation rates. In many places increased temperature will provide opportunities to manipulate agronomy to improve crop performance. Ozone concentration increases will decrease yields by 5 per cent or more. Plant breeders will probably be able to increase yields considerably in the CO2-enriched environment of the future, and most weeds and airborne pests and diseases should remain controllable, so long as policy changes do not remove too many types of crop-protection chemicals. However, soil-borne pathogens are likely to be an increasing problem when warmer weather will increase their multiplication rates; control is likely to need a transgenic approach to breeding for resistance. There is a large gap between achievable yields and those delivered by farmers, even in the most efficient agricultural systems. A gap is inevitable, but there are large differences between farmers, even between those who have used the same resources. If this gap is closed and accompanied by improvements in potential yields then there is a good prospect that crop production will increase by approximately 50 per cent or more by 2050 without extra land. However, the demands for land to produce bio-energy have not been factored into these calculations. PMID:20713388

Jaggard, Keith W.; Qi, Aiming; Ober, Eric S.

2010-01-01

325

Quantitative analysis of factors controlling sediment yield in mountainous watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and turbidity are primary causes of impaired river ecosystems; remedial action for these impairments requires the identification of their sources and controlling factors. This paper examines the combined effects of watershed complexity in terms of land use and physiography on the specific sediment yield of the upper Du River watershed (8973 km2) in China. The land use composition, land use pattern, morphometric variables, and soil properties of the watershed were calculated at the subwatershed scale and considered to be potentially influential factors. Because these watershed characteristics are highly codependent, a partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the linkages between the specific sediment yield and metrics composed of 19 selected watershed characteristics. The first-order factors were identified by calculating the variable importance for the projection (VIP). The results revealed that the land use composition and land use pattern exerted the largest effects on the specific sediment yield and explained 65.2% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. A set of physiographic indices was also found to have a large effect on the specific sediment yield and explained 17.7% of the observed variation in the specific sediment yield. The following are the dominant first-order factors of the specific sediment yield at the subwatershed scale: the areal percentages of agriculture and forest, patch density, value of the Shannon's diversity index, contagion, value of the hypsometric integral, and saturated soil hydraulic conductivity. The watershed size exerted a substantial effect on the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). The VIP values also suggested that the Shannon's diversity index, contagion, and hypsometric integral are important factors in the SDR. With a readily available digital spatial database and rapid developments in geographic information system (GIS) technology, this practical and simple PLSR approach could be applied to a variety of watersheds.

Shi, Z. H.; Huang, X. D.; Ai, L.; Fang, N. F.; Wu, G. L.

2014-12-01

326

Action of some micronutrients on the infestation and yield components of faba bean by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera).  

PubMed

Field experiments were carried out in the two growing seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 on faba bean (Vicia faba) plants in the Experimental Farm of Agriculture Research Station at Nubaria region, Alexandria, which is considered as a newly reclaimed calcareous soil. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of spraying faba bean plants with certain micronutrients, i.e. Iron, Manganese and Zinc either in single double or triple combinations on the infestation by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trfolü (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera). The infestation by these insects was assessed using the parameters of Infestation grades as well as the injury indices. Faba bean plants cv. Giza Blanca were sprayed twice (45 and 66 days) after planting with the above-mentioned micronutrients. However, results of this investigation showed, with no doubt, that Mn, Zn and Fe individually or in double or triple combinations have increased to varied extents the infestation rates (%) of faba bean plants compared to the untreated ones. Such varied increases were mainly due to the metabolic roles of the used foliar sprays and their interactions, which indirectly affect the physio-biological actions of plants that may render them suitable for either A. craccivora or L. trifoii reproduction. This phenomenon might be also due to the different environmental factors. In both seasons, the relationship between nutrients applications and pests Infestation followed the same trend of increase in the percentages of infested plants. This assures and confirms the constant metabolic roles of such micronutrients. The biological seed weight (ton/fed.) was positively affected by the application of the used micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the maximum response was observed in case of the triple treatment followed by the double and single treatments in a descending order. Application of the investigated micronutrients alone or in mixtures resulted in significant increases in yield and its components. Such increases were due to the fact that ions of Zn, Fe and Mn are cofactors of several enzymes, but rarely if ever with a high degree of specificity. PMID:15759427

Mourad, A K; Hammad, S A; Guirguis, G Z; Zaghloul, O A; Sadek, Hanan A

2004-01-01

327

Estimates of spatial and temporal variation of energy crops biomass yields in the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) have been identified for potential use as biomass feedstocks in the US. Current research on perennial grass biomass production has been evaluated on small-scale plots. However, the extent to which this potential can be realized at a landscape-scale will depend on the biophysical potential to grow these grasses with minimum possible amount of land that needs to be diverted from food to fuel production. To assess this potential three questions about the biomass yield for these grasses need to be answered: (1) how the yields for different grasses are varied spatially and temporally across the US; (2) whether the yields are temporally stable or not; and (3) how the spatial and temporal trends in yields of these perennial grasses are controlled by limiting factors, including soil type, water availability, climate, and crop varieties. To answer these questions, the growth processes of the perennial grasses are implemented into a coupled biophysical, physiological and biogeochemical model (ISAM). The model has been applied to quantitatively investigate the spatial and temporal trends in biomass yields for over the period 1980 -2010 in the US. The bioenergy grasses considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock switchgrass and Alamo switchgrass. The effects of climate, soil and topography on the spatial and temporal trends of biomass yields are quantitatively analyzed using principal component analysis and GIS based geographically weighted regression. The spatial temporal trend results are evaluated further to classify each part of the US into four homogeneous potential yield zones: high and stable yield zone (HS), high but unstable yield zone (HU), low and stable yield zone (LS) and low but unstable yield zone (LU). Our preliminary results indicate that the yields for perennial grasses among different zones are strongly related to the different controlling factors. For example, the yield in HS zone is depended on soil and topography factors. However, the yields in HU zone are more controlled by climate factors, leading to a large uncertainty in yield potential of bioenergy grasses under future climate change.

Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

2013-12-01

328

Relationships of Isoflavone, Oil, and Protein in Seed with Yield of Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition of soybean seed can be affected by culti- var, planting date, and environmental factors. Previous Idealsoybean(Glycinemax(L.)Merr.)productionsystemsachieve investigations have shown that differences in seed com- both high seed yield and high concentrations of desired seed quality components. However, the relationships between seed quality and positionareinherentamongcultivars(SimpsonandWil- yield of soybean are largely unknown. This study sought to determine cox,1983;HartwigandKilen,1991;HelmsandOrf,1998). the relationships of

Xinhua Yin; Tony J. Vyn

2005-01-01

329

A yield strength model for the Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy AA6111  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yield strength model is developed for the Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy AA6111. The evolution of the strength of precipitates, as obstacles to dislocation motion, during various stages of aging is modeled according to the theories for strengthening mechanisms, as well as the microstructural and mechanical behavior of the alloy. The precipitation hardening component of yield strength is modeled for conditions where

S. Esmaeili; D. J. Lloyd; W. J. Poole

2003-01-01

330

Effects of cycocel on growth and seed yield of Lotus uliginosus Schk. cv. Grasslands Maku  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons to investigate the effects of the plant growth retardant cycocel applied at 1.25 and 2.50 kg a.i.\\/ha at different plant growth stages on the vegetative and reproductive growth, yield components, and seed yield of Lotus uliginosus Schk. cv. Grasslands Maku. Cycocel did not retard internode length or affect total dry matter, flowering

R. S. Tabora; J. G. Hampton

1992-01-01

331

Particle structuring and yield stress in magnetofluidized beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel experimental technique to measure the tensile yield stress of fluidized beds of magnetic powders stabilized by an externally applied cross-flow magnetic field is shown. Basically, the tensile yield stress of the magnetically stabilized bed (MSB) is measured by means of the pressure drop of a gas flow that puts the bed under tension. A first relevant result is that the yield stress depends strongly on the field operation mode. In the H off/on operation mode, the bed was driven to bubbling by imposing a high gas velocity in the absence of magnetic field. Once the gas velocity was decreased below the bubbling onset and the bed was stabilized by the natural cohesive forces alone, the field was applied. The yield stress of the naturally stabilized bed is not essentially changed by application of the field a posteriori (H off/on), which can be attributed to the inability of the field to alter the arrangement of the particles once they were jammed in the stable fluidization state. In the H on/on mode, the field was kept during the whole process of bubbling and stabilization at reduced gas velocities. In this operation mode, the field was the main stabilizing source. In contrast with the H off/on mode results, the yield stress in the H on/on mode was observed to be appreciably increased, which is a consequence of the formation of particle chains as the gas velocity is decreased in the presence of the magnetic field. The influence of other parameters such as particle size distribution reveals also a correlation between the microstructure of the MSB and its yield stress. In analogy with structured magneto-and electro-rheological fluids, it is found that the yield stress increases as the average particle size is increased. Moreover, the microstructure of the MSB is relevantly affected by the natural cohesiveness of the powder due to van der Waals forces, which leads to the formation of large-scale branched chains when the field is applied, thus enhancing the yield stress. Our work shows therefore that it is the microstructure of the MSB as affected by the presence of the magnetic field what essentially determines its yield stress.

Valverde, J. M.; Espin, M. J.; Quintanilla, M. A. S.; Castellanos, A.

2010-05-01

332

Growth Yields in Bacterial Denitrification and Nitrate Ammonification?  

PubMed Central

Denitrification and nitrate ammonification are considered the highest-energy-yielding respiration systems in anoxic environments after oxygen has been consumed. The corresponding free energy changes are 7 and 35% lower than that of aerobic respiration, respectively. Growth yield determinations with pure cultures of Paracoccus denitrificans and Pseudomonas stutzeri revealed that far less energy is converted via ATP into cell mass than expected from the above calculations. Denitrification with formate or hydrogen as electron donor yielded about 2.4 to 3.0 g dry matter per mol formate or hydrogen and 15 to 18 g dry matter per mol acetate. Similar yields with acetate were obtained with Pseudomonas stutzeri. Wolinella succinogenes and Sulfurospirillum deleyianum, which reduce nitrate to ammonia, both exhibited similar yield values with formate or H2 plus nitrate. The results indicate that ATP synthesis in denitrification is far lower than expected from the free energy changes and even lower than in nitrate ammonification. The results are discussed against the background of our present understanding of electron flow in denitrification and with respect to the importance of denitrification and nitrate ammonification in the environment. PMID:17209072

Strohm, Tobin O.; Griffin, Ben; Zumft, Walter G.; Schink, Bernhard

2007-01-01

333

Yield and quality of forages grown on mine spoil  

SciTech Connect

Pasture or hayland is a potential use for much of the reclaimed mined land in Kentucky. To determine the usefulness of several species for forage production, two study areas were established, one in the eastern coal fields, the second in the western coal fields. Eight species were seeded in eight different mixtures at each location. Each plot was harvested twice each year to determine yield, and samples were analyzed to determine percent protein, DMD, and sugar. Analysis of variance of the data show that there are significant differences in yield, stand, percent protein and percent DMD among the different species. There is also a significant difference in the yield of the same species between the two study areas. In eastern Kentucky, two mixtures, switchgrass-Interstate sericea lespedeza and Caucasian bluestem-Appalow sericea lespedeza yielded more hay than tall fescue-Interstate sericea, the standard of comparison. In western Kentucky, all seeding mixtures yielded more than the tall fescue Interstate mixture. There is no difference in stand among the species in eastern Kentucky. In western Kentucky, Caucasian bluestem, tall fescue, and switchgrass have better stands than other species.

Kuenstler, W.F.; Henry, D.S.

1980-12-01

334

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

PubMed Central

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R.; Turner, Glenn W.; Davis, Edward M.; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C.; Boydston, Rick A.; Croteau, Rodney B.

2011-01-01

335

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2010-01-15

336

Weather yield model for the semi tropical region (Pakistan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather models are essential tools for checking of the effect of the weather elements in terms of their effect on the production of the crop. This research is an attempt to see the effect of only two variables i.e., temperature and rainfall for the division Faisalabad (semitropical region of Pakistan). The model fitted is of the linear form: Y= a+ bX 1+ cX 2, the values of a,b,c have been found. The expected yield has been calculated by using the aridity indices X 1 and X 2 and the result in the form of coefficient of determination R 2 has been found equal to 0.166. The significance of the regression coefficient has been tested, which shows that the contribution to the yield from aridity index at germination and that at ripening is significant. The wheat yields are the results of a wide variety of variables, most of which show varying degree of relationship with one another, some positive and some negative in terms of output. These variables may be technology, fertilizers, pesticides, epidemics, kinds of seeds used, market price of crop and the area under cultivation etc, which can be the source of variation in the wheat yield. Since rainfall during germination and temperature at the ripening periods are the necessary factors for the yield of wheat, for this purpose these parameters have been studied in order to their contribution.

Haider, Syed Faizan; Asif, K. H.; Gilani, Amjad Hussain

1992-09-01

337

Stress localization, stiffening, and yielding in a model colloidal gel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use numerical simulations and an athermal quasi-static shear protocol to investigate the yielding of a model colloidal gel. Under increasing deformation, the elastic regime is followed by a significant stiffening before yielding takes place. A space-resolved analysis of deformations and stresses unravel how the complex load curve observed is the result of stress localization and that the yielding can take place by breaking a very small fraction of the network connections. The stiffening corresponds to the stretching of the network chains, unbent and aligned along the direction of maximum extension. It is characterized by a strong localization of tensile stresses, that triggers the breaking of a few network nodes at around 30% of strain. Increasing deformation favors further breaking but also shear-induced bonding, eventually leading to a large-scale reorganization of the gel structure at the yielding. At low enough shear rates, density and velocity profiles display significant spatial inhomogeneity during yielding in agreement with experimental observations.

Colombo, Jader; Del Gado, Emanuela

2014-09-01

338

Measurement of the Helicity Difference in {gamma}{sup {yields}p{yields}{yields}p{pi}+{pi}-} with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W {approx_equal} 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a ''complete'' experiment for the reaction {gamma}N{yields}KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

Park, Sungkyun [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306 (United States)

2010-08-05

339

LDEF's map experiment foil perforations yield hypervelocity impact penetration parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space exposure of LDEF for 5.75 years, forming a host target in low earth orbit (LEO) orbit to a wide distribution of hypervelocity particulates of varying dimensions and different impact velocities, has yielded a multiplicity of impact features. Although the projectile parameters are generally unknown and, in fact not identical for any two impacts on a target, the great number of impacts provides statistically meaningful basis for the valid comparison of the response of different targets. Given sufficient impacts for example, a comparison of impact features (even without knowledge of the project parameters) is possible between: (1) differing material types (for the same incident projectile distribution); (2) differing target configurations (e.g., thick and thin targets for the same material projectiles; and (3) different velocities (using LDEF's different faces). A comparison between different materials is presented for infinite targets of aluminum, Teflon, and brass in the same pointing direction; the maximum finite-target penetration (ballistic limit) is also compared to that of the penetration of similar materials comprising of a semi-infinite target. For comparison of impacts on similar materials at different velocities, use is made of the pointing direction relative to LDEF's orbital motion. First, however, care must be exercised to separate the effect of spatial flux anisotropies from those resulting from the spacecraft velocity through a geocentrically referenced dust distribution. Data comprising thick and thin target impacts, impacts on different materials, and in different pointing directions is presented; hypervelocity impact parameters are derived. Results are also shown for flux modeling codes developed to decode the relative fluxes of Earth orbital and unbound interplanetary components intercepting LDEF. Modeling shows the west and space pointing faces are dominated by interplanetary particles and yields a mean velocity of 23.5 km/s at LDEF, corresponding to a V(infinity) Earth approach velocity = 20.9 km/s. Normally resolved average impact velocities on LDEF's cardinal point faces are shown. As 'excess' flux on the east, north, and south faces is observed, compatible with an Earth orbital component below some 5 microns in particle diameter.

Mcdonnell, J. A. M.

1992-01-01

340

Science Forum 2009. Wageningen 16-17 June 2009 Workshop 4. Beyond the yield curve - exerting the power of genetics, genomics, and synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on recent progress in wheat, rice and maize yields resulting from substantial breeding efforts in favourable environments. Breeding and improved agronomy lift potential yield (PY), namely yield in the absence of manageable abiotic and biotic stresses, and PY progress through new varieties is a key component of farm yield (FY) progress. Current PY and FY progress is

G. O. Edmeades

341

Pyrolysis of wood to biochar: increasing yield while maintaining microporosity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if biochar yield could be increased by the deposition of volatile pyrolysis species within the bed during production, without negatively influencing the microporosity and adsorption properties. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood chips were loaded into three vertically stacked zones within a reactor and heated in nitrogen to temperatures between 420 and 650°C (i.e., pyrolyzed). The yield did increase from the zone at the reactor inlet to the subsequent zones as volatile species deposited and carbonized, and importantly, the carbonized deposits had a similar microporous structure and organic vapor uptake (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) to that of the primary biochar. Based on these results, bio-oil from previous runs at 600°C was recycled to the bed, which further increased the yield while maintaining the desirable adsorption properties of the biochar. PMID:24365739

Veksha, Andrei; McLaughlin, Hugh; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

2014-02-01

342

Strategy for continuous improvement in IC manufacturability, yield, and reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continual improvements in yield, reliability and manufacturability measure a fab and ultimately result in Total Customer Satisfaction. A new organizational and technical methodology for continuous defect reduction has been established in a formal feedback loop, which relies on yield and reliability, failed bit map analysis, analytical tools, inline monitoring, cross functional teams and a defect engineering group. The strategy requires the fastest detection, identification and implementation of possible corrective actions. Feedback cycle time is minimized at all points to improve yield and reliability and reduce costs, essential for competitiveness in the memory business. Payoff was a 9.4X reduction in defectivity and a 6.2X improvement in reliability of 256 K fast SRAMs over 20 months.

Dreier, Dean J.; Berry, Mark; Schani, Phil; Phillips, Michael; Steinberg, Joe; DePinto, Gary

1993-01-01

343

Fatigue crack growth under general-yielding cyclic-loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In low cycle fatigue, cracks are initiated, and propagated under general-yielding cyclic loading. For general-yielding cyclic loading, Dowling and Begley (1976) have shown that fatigue crack growth rate correlates well with the measured Delta J. The correlation of da/dN with Delta J has also been studied by a number of other investigators. However, none of these studies has correlated da/dN with Delta J calculated specifically for the test specimens. Solomon measured fatigue crack growth in specimens in general-yielding cyclic loading. The crack tip fields for Solomon's specimens are calculated, using the finite element method, and the J-values of Solomon's tests are evaluated. The measured crack growth rate in Solomon's specimens correlates very well with the calculated Delta J.

Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.

1986-01-01

344

Fatigue crack growth under general-yielding cyclic-loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In low cycle fatigue, cracks are initiated and propagated under general yielding cyclic loading. For general yielding cyclic loading, Dowling and Begley have shown that fatigue crack growth rate correlates well with the measured delta J. The correlation of da/dN with delta J was also studied by a number of other investigators. However, none of thse studies have correlated da/dN with delta J calculated specifically for the test specimens. Solomon measured fatigue crack growth in specimens in general yielding cyclic loading. The crack tips fields for Solomon's specimens are calculated using the finite element method and the J values of Solomon's tests are evaluated. The measured crack growth rate in Solomon's specimens correlates very well with the calculated delta J.

Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.

1986-01-01

345

Yielding behavior of copper nanowire in the presence of vacancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present research, the measurement fluctuations of mechanical properties in nanowires (NWs) are investigated by using the molecular dynamics simulation. The large numbers of simulations are performed to study the yield behaviors of the NWs. The results have shown that the yield behavior of the smaller diameter NW is more sensitive to the presence of vacancies, and the dispersion of the measured mechanical properties for the small scale NW is larger than that for the large scale NW. Present results have also shown that vacancies escape from the bulk to the free surfaces as a result of high stress applied at the small scale systems similar to the dislocation starvation phenomenon observed in the compression test of nano-pillars, and dislocation nucleation induced by surface defect occurs after the vacancy reaches free surface leading to lower yield strength. Moreover, the strong surface vacancy interactions at the nanoscale level are also investigated.

Liu, XiaoMing; Yang, XiaoBin; Wei, YueGuang

2012-06-01

346

Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission  

SciTech Connect

The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of {sup 235}U nuclei.

Grudzevich, O. T., E-mail: ogrudzevich@ippe.ru; Klinov, D. A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15

347

Evaluation and compilation of fission product yields 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document is the latest in a series of compilations of fission yield data. Fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been used to produce a recommended set of yields for the fission products. The original data with reference sources, and the recommended yields axe presented in tabular form. These include many nuclides which fission by neutrons at several energies. These energies include thermal energies (T), fission spectrum energies (F), 14 meV High Energy (H or HE), and spontaneous fission (S), in six sets of ten each. Set A includes U235T, U235F, U235HE, U238F, U238HE, Pu239T, Pu239F, Pu241T, U233T, Th232F. Set B includes U233F, U233HE, U236F, Pu239H, Pu240F, Pu241F, Pu242F, Th232H, Np237F, Cf252S. Set C includes U234F, U237F, Pu240H, U234HE, U236HE, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, Cm242F. Set D includes Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242MT, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, Es254T. Set E includes Cf250S, Cm244S, Cm248S, Es253S, Fm254S, Fm255T, Fm256S, Np237H, U232T, U238S. Set F includes Cm243T, Cm246S, Cm243F, Cm244F, Cm246F, Cm248F, Pu242H, Np237T, Pu240T, and Pu242T to complete fission product yield evaluations for 60 fissioning systems in all. This report also serves as the primary documentation for the second evaluation of yields in ENDF/B-VI released in 1993.

England, T.R.; Rider, B.F.

1995-12-31

348

Climate change: implications for the yield of edible rice.  

PubMed

Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980-2009 at IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy. PMID:23776635

Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa

2013-01-01

349

The Effect of Spacing on the Yield of Cotton.  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF SPACING ON THE YIELD OF COTTON 25 TABLE 10. ve yieIds of Iint cotton secured in spacing experiments with cotton at Substation No. 2, Troup, Texas, 1915, 1917, 1918. One stalk to the hill. 3 6 3 2 5 8 21 24 27 30 33 -56 SPACING /N /NCNES... THE EFFECT OF SPACING ON THE YIELD OF COTTON 25 TABLE 10. ve yieIds of Iint cotton secured in spacing experiments with cotton at Substation No. 2, Troup, Texas, 1915, 1917, 1918. One stalk to the hill. 3 6 3 2 5 8 21 24 27 30 33 -56 SPACING /N /NCNES...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1926-01-01

350

Quantum dots fluorescence quantum yield measured by Thermal Lens Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An essential parameter to evaluate the light emission properties of fluorophores is the fluorescence quantum yield, which quantify the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons to emitted photons. We detail here an alternative nonfluorescent method to determine the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of quantum dots (QDs). The method is based in the so-called Thermal Lens Spectroscopy (TLS) technique, which consists on the evaluation of refractive index gradient thermally induced in the fluorescent material by the absorption of light. Aqueous dispersion carboxyl-coated cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs samples were used to demonstrate the Thermal Lens Spectroscopy technical procedure. PMID:25103802

Estupiñán-López, Carlos; Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

2014-01-01

351

X-ray Yield Scaling for High-Energy Backlighters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total number of photons produced by an x-ray backlighter is of great concern in the design of ICF experimental diagnostics. The spatial resolution and image quality are directly linked to the number of photons reaching a given detector. Understanding the factors that control the number of x-rays produced allows appropriate design of the backlighter for the highest image quality. We present results from the TRIDENT laser facility of x-ray yield scaling with laser intensity both by varying spot size and energy. Yield measurements at 4.75 keV titanium k-shell emission are generated both with and without random phase plates.

Workman, Jonathan; Evans, Scott; Kyrala, George; Barnes, Cris; Shambo, Nathan

1999-11-01

352

Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report  

SciTech Connect

To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

2009-12-01

353

Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements  

SciTech Connect

A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

2011-04-06

354

Sediment yield in eastern Montana; summary of data and proposed techniques for estimating sediment yields from small, ungaged watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment-yield data for 121 sites in eastern Montana have been compiled from results of studies conducted by various Federal, State, and private agencies. Methods used to determine mean annual sediment yields included reservoir sedimentation surveys, suspended-sediment sampling in streams, and estimates of gross erosion and indirect estimation based on physical characteristics of the basin. Multiple-regression equations were developed and evaluated for their adequacy in estimating mean annual sediment yields from small, ungaged watersheds in eastern Montana. Sediment yields determined from reservoir surveys were used as the dependent variable because they were considered the most representative of long-term yields. Independent variables consisted of basin characteristics which could be measured from maps or obtained from published sources. Consequently, equations developed in this study do not require onsite data. Evaluation of equations indicated that the best prediction capability was obtained when reservoir basins were segregated into classes of similar vegetation/soil complex. The predictive capability of regression equations developed for each of three classes of vegetation/soil complex, as indicated by the coefficient of determination (R2), ranged from 0.59 to 0.96. Corresponding standard errors ranged from 95 to 20 percent. The equations are applicable for small drainage basins of 2 square miles or less within the study area. (USGS)

Lambing, J. H.

1984-01-01

355

phi. yields K sup + K sup minus. gamma. and its relation to. phi. yields K sup 0 K sup 0. gamma  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors calculate {Gamma} ({phi} {yields} K{sup +}k{sup {minus}} {gamma}) using Low's soft photon theorem and compare it with a model dependent calculation in which the process proceeds through the chain of decays {phi} {yields} K{sup +} K{sup {minus}} {yields} f{sub 0} + {gamma} {yields} K{sup +} K{sup {minus}} {gamma}.

Alvarado, J.J. (Seccion de Metrologic, Dept. de Ing. Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo, Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07000 (MX)); Lucio, J.L.M.; Vargas, M. (Dept. di Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07000 (MX))

1992-05-10

356

{eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{eta}{gamma}{gamma}: A primer analysis  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic rare decays {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} are analysed for the first time and their predicted branching ratios given. The vector meson exchange dominant contribution is treated using Vector Meson Dominance and the scalar component is estimated by means of the Linear Sigma Model. The agreement between our calculation and the measurement of the related process {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} is a check of the procedure. Scalar meson effects are seen to be irrelevant for {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}, while a significant scalar contribution due to the {sigma}(500) resonance seems to emerge in the case of {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}. Future measurements coming from KLOE-2, Crystal Ball, WASA, and BES-III will elucidate if any of these processes carry an important scalar contribution or they are simply driven by the exchange of vector mesons.

Escribano, Rafel [Grup de Fisica Teorica (Departament de Fisica) and Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies (IFAE), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

2012-10-23

357

Foliar application of Zn at flowering stage improves plant's performance, yield and yield attributes of black gram.  

PubMed

Black gram plants subjected to varying levels of Zn supply (0.01 to 10 microM Zn) showed optimum growth and dry matter yield in plants receiving 1 microM Zn. The dry matter yield of plants decreased in plants receiving 0.01 and 0.1 microM Zn (deficient) and excess levels of Zn (2 and 10 microM Zn). The plants grown with Zn deficient supply showed delayed flowering, premature bud abscission, reduced size of anthers, pollen producing capacity, pollen viability and stigma receptivity resulting in poor pod formation and seed yield. Providing Zn as a foliar spray at pre-flowering stage minimized the severity of Zn deficiency on reproductive structure development and enhanced the seed nutritional status by enhancing seed Zn density, seed carbohydrate (sugar and starch content) and storage proteins (albumins, globulins, glutenins, and prolamines). PMID:23898554

Pandey, Nalini; Gupta, Bhavana; Pathak, Girish Chandra

2013-07-01

358

{mu} {yields} e{gamma} decay versus the {mu} {yields} eee bound and lepton flavor violating processes in supernova  

SciTech Connect

Even tiny lepton flavor violation (LFV) due to some New Physics is able to alter the conditions inside a collapsing supernova core and probably to facilitate the explosion. LFV emerges naturally in a see-saw type-II model of neutrino mass generation. Experimentally, the LFV beyond the Standard Model is constrained by rare lepton decay searches. In particular, strong bounds are imposed on the {mu} {yields} eee branching ratio and on the {mu}-e conversion in muonic gold. Currently, the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} is under investigation in the MEG experiment that aims at a dramatic increase in sensitivity in the next three years. We seek a see-saw type-II LFV pattern that fits all the experimental constraints, leads to Br({mu} {yields}e{gamma}) Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu}{mu} {yields}eee), and ensures a rate of LFV processes in supernova high enough to modify the supernova physics. These requirements are sufficient to eliminate almost all freedom in the model. In particular, they lead to the prediction 0.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu} {yields} e{gamma}) Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}, which will be testable by MEG in the nearest future. The considered scenario also constrains the neutrino mass-mixing pattern and provides lower and upper bounds on {tau}-lepton LFV decays. We also briefly discuss a model with a single bilepton in which the {mu} {yields} eee decay is absent at the tree level.

Lychkovskiy, O. V., E-mail: lychkovskiy@itep.ru; Vysotsky, M. I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

359

2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield  

E-print Network

© 2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host­6 probably influences the genetic and functional diversity of both. For example, photosynthesis genes period. We also show that the expression of host photosynthesis genes declines over the course

Church, George M.

360

Supplement to Peptide retention time prediction yields improved  

E-print Network

Supplement to Peptide retention time prediction yields improved tandem mass spectrum identification A C D E F GH I K LMN P QR S T VWY Residue -15 0 15 MudPIT-6 Figure 1: Contributions to retention time the number of peptides used to train the retention time support vector regressor for the TFA data set. 3 #12;

Noble, William Stafford

361

Peptide Retention Time Prediction Yields Improved Tandem Mass Spectrum Identification  

E-print Network

Peptide Retention Time Prediction Yields Improved Tandem Mass Spectrum Identification for Diverse, ignoring precursor informa- tion such as peptide retention time (RT). Efforts to exploit peptide RT., 1997; Yates, III, 1998). 1 Abbreviations used in this manuscript include retention time (RT), liquid

Noble, William Stafford

362

Airline Yield Management with Overbooking, Cancellations, and No-Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate and analyze a Markov decision process (dynamic programming) model for airline seat allocation (yield management) on a single-leg flight with multiple fare classes. Unlike previous models, we allow cancellation, no-shows, and overbooking. Additionally, we make no assumptions on the arrival patterns for the various fare classes. Our model is also applicable to other problems of revenue management with

Janakiram Subramanian; Shaler Stidham Jr.; Conrad J. Lautenbacher

1999-01-01

363

Yielding of magnesium: From single crystal to polycrystalline aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals show a deformation behavior, which is quite different from that of materials with cubic crystalline structure. As a consequence, rolled or extruded products of magnesium and its alloys exhibit a strong anisotropy and an unlike yielding in tension and compression. In this work, the microstructural mechanisms of deformation in pure magnesium are modeled by visco-plastic constitutive

Stéphane Graff; Wolfgang Brocks; Dirk Steglich

2007-01-01

364

Evaluation of oil yield from Jordanian oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the influences of particle size, grade and pyrolysis temperature on the oil yield have been evaluated in a laboratory scale reactor. Five categories of particle sizes from two different oil shale samples were pyrolyzed by employing a fixed bed retorting system. The reactor and the oil shale sample were heated at a constant rate and nitrogen gas

J. O. Jaber; S. D. Probert; P. T. Williams

1999-01-01

365

Biodiversity, yield, and shade coffee certification Ivette Perfectoa,*, John Vandermeerb  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS Biodiversity, yield, and shade coffee certification Ivette Perfectoa,*, John Vandermeerb; accepted 25 October 2004 Available online 2 February 2005 Abstract The current crisis in the coffee market provides an opportunity to explore alternative markets. In Latin America, coffee is traditionally produced

366

Fission Yields and Other Diagnostics for Nuclear Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I summarize advances in our understanding of basic nuclear physics cross sections and decay properties that are needed to characterize the magnitude and energy-dependence of a neutron flux, and to determine the amount of fission burnup in plutonium fuel. The number of fissions that have occurred in a neutron environment can be deduced from measurements of the fission products created, providing that the fission product yields are known accurately. I describe how our understanding of plutonium fission product yields has improved in recent years through a meta-analysis of various measured data, and through identification of fission product yield incident-energy dependencies over the 0.2-2 MeV fast energy region. This led to the resolution of a previous discrepancy between the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in their plutonium yield assessments in the fast energy region, although more experimental work is still needed to resolve discrepancies at 14 MeV. Work is also described that has improved our understanding of (n,2n) cross sections that are used as diagnostics of the high-energy neutron spectrum - both on plutonium and americium, and on the radiochemical detectors yttrium, iridium, and thulium. Finally, some observations are made on the importance of continuing to develop our Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) database using physics insights from differential cross section and integral laboratory experiments and from nuclear theory advances.

Chadwick, M. B.

2014-06-01

367

LIGHT-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE FLUORESCENCE YIELD OF  

E-print Network

uncoupler acting near the photo- synthetic electron transport chain, abolishes the rise from S to M investigation, appears to reflect changes in the rate of the photo- synthetic electron transport (3 in the fluorescence yield (S -*1M) requires light absorbed in system II while light absorbed in system I is ineffec

Govindjee

368

RESEARCH ARTICLE Impact of water stress on citrus yield  

E-print Network

October 2011 # INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2011 Abstract Water shortage is becoming a severe problemRESEARCH ARTICLE Impact of water stress on citrus yield Iván García-Tejero & Victor Hugo Durán in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide, reducing the avail- ability of agricultural land and water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

Etiologic Yield of Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the etiologic yield in community-derived samples of young children with an autistic spectrum disorder is not known. To address this question, all young children (under 5 years of age) referred for an initial assessment to ambulatory pediatric neurology or developmental pediatric clinics at a tertiary university center over an 18-month period for a suspected developmental delay were prospectively

Michael I. Shevell; Annette Majnemer; Peter Rosenbaum; Michal Abrahamowicz

2001-01-01

370

IMPACT OF OZONE AND SULPHUR DIOXIDE ON SOYBEAM YIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

Little dose-response information exists on the effects of chronic ozone (O3) and intermittent sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposures on the yield of important agricultural crops. Such information is needed for refinement of estimates of air pollution induced crop losses. Field-grown plan...

371

Baby corn, green ear, and grain yield of corn cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most maize cultivars have been developed for grain production. Because superior cultivars may differ in their exploiting purposes, interest has been demonstrated for the evaluation of corn cultivars with regard to their baby corn, green ear, and grain yields production ability. In the present work ten corn cultivars (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080,

Itala Paula de C. Almeida; Paulo Sérgio L. e Silva; Maria Z. de Negreiros; Zenaide Barbosa

2005-01-01

372

Critical Review Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas  

E-print Network

that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas of carbondioxidethatcontributestoclimatechange.Renewable hydrogen production is possible by water electrolysis using energy gained from renewableCritical Review Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic

373

Generalised yield criteria of porous sintered powder metallurgy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new form of yield criterion considering an anisotropic parameter for porous sintered powder metallurgy metals has been proposed in this technical paper. In addition to the above, the flow rule with anisotropic parameter for porous metal is introduced. The mathematical expression for the calculation of flow stress in the case of simple compression or tension test is deduced from

R. Narayanasamy; R. Ponalagusamy; K. R. Subramanian

2001-01-01

374

Nanotechnology . Author manuscript High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds  

E-print Network

concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds-controlled properties. MESH Keywords Carbon ; chemistry ; Colloids ; chemistry ; Diamond ; chemistry ; Fluorescence

Boyer, Edmond

375

Statistical design and optimization of SRAM cell for yield enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have analyzed and modeled the failure probabilities of SRAM cells due to process parameter variations. A method to predict the yield of a memory chip based on the cell failure probability is proposed. The developed method is used in an early stage of a design cycle to minimize memory failure probability by statistically sizing of SRAM

Saibal Mukhopadhyay; Hamid Mahmoodi-meimand; Kaushik Roy

2004-01-01

376

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE IN OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER AND YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avocado tree often has an alternate bearing yield pattern. This pattern is often ascribed to pollination and fruit set being reduced by low temperatures during flowering and in the initial stages of fruit set in spring mid-October to mid- November. For avocado cultivars the best temperatures for the most effective pollination is thought to be 25°C during the day

J. Dixon; R. Barber

2002-01-01

377

Influence of Yellow Foxtail on Corn Growth and Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow foxtail [Setaria pumila syn. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.] competitive influence on corn (Zea mays L.) growth and yield was investigated at Brookings, South Dakota, and Morris, Minnesota, in 1995 and 1996. Yellow foxtail was seeded at different densities, and at Morris, two levels of nitrogen (N) were applied. Corn biomass measured at V?6 or V?8, silking, and harvest and

S. A. Clay; K. R. Banken; F. Forcella; M. M. Ellsbury; D. E. Clay; A. E. Olness

2006-01-01

378

Free-ion yield for tetramethylsilane and tetramethylgermanium  

SciTech Connect

In high energy physics experiments, calorimeters are used to measure the total energy dissipated by the primary particles produced from high energy collisions. In one type of calorimeter, ionization chambers filled with liquid argon are used. The necessity of a cryostat in many cases prevents a compact chamber design. Hence, it is very desirable to have liquid ionization chambers operating at room temperature. From this view point, hydrocarbon liquids are intensively investigated as calorimeter media in high energy physics experiments. TMS and TMG are promising liquid materials because they have the properties of a large electron drift velocity and a large free-ion yield. The free-ion yield determines the sensitivity of the chamber and amplifier system to ionizing particles. Here, free-ion yields from [sup 207]Bi conversion electrons were measured as a function of applied electric field in an ionization chamber filled with tetramethylsilane (TMS) or tetramethylgermanium (TMG), which were purified by simple methods. Also, the mean thermalization length of electrons liberated in the liquid was calculated by fitting a Gaussian form for the distribution function. The total free-ion yield and thermalization length in TMS and TMG were obtained to be 3.1 [+-] 0.3, 3.5 [+-] 0.2 and 191 [+-] 12[angstrom], respectively, including the impurity effect in liquid.

Hoshi, Y.; Higuchi, M.; Iso, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Ooyama, K. (Tohoku Gakuin Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Engineering); Yuta, H.; Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Kawamura, N.; Neichi, M.; Suzuki, K. (Tohoku Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Masuda, K. (Saitama Coll. of Health (Japan)); Kikuchi, R. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Miyano, K. (Niigata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics)

1993-08-01

379

Yield loss in conventional and natural rice farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to modern, conventional agriculture, alternative agricultural production systems may rely on biologically different mechanisms (syndromes) to attain similar production goals. Yield loss to rice in conventional and natural farming rice paddies in Japan was evaluated by simulated injury (leaf-clipping) and monitoring plants damaged by insect herbivores. Rice grown under natural farming practices was more tolerant of simulated injury and

D. A Andow; K Hidaka

1998-01-01

380

Phenomenological model of yield strength temperature dependence for irradiated materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, it is formulated a phenomenological model to describe a yield strength temperature dependence of polycrystalline materials that have undergone irradiation and mechanical experiences in a wide temperature interval including structure levels of plastic deformation. The proposed model shows a good agreement with experimental data of both irradiated and no irradiated materials. Also it is shown that empirical

V. V. Krasil'Nikov; S. E. Savotchenko; A. A. Parkhomenko

2010-01-01

381

Prediction of effective yield strength domain for random heterogeneous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random heterogeneous material is represented by a family of microstructures. It is assumed that the random distribution of these microstructures in a representative volume satisfies a condition of perfect mix. The determination of microstructure stress fields then leads to a prediction of the effective yield strength domain. This homogenization method is validated by comparing the provided tensile strength of

Turgeman Sylvain; Guessab Benaceur

2009-01-01

382

METHODOLOGIES FOR VALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL CROP YIELD CHANGES. A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This research effort was initiated with the objective to complete a review and evaluation of the methodological and analytical techniques used to assess and quantify the economic impact of changes in agricultural crop yields. The review focused on two major areas: (1) physical ef...

383

Method for selective alteration of fluid catalytic cracker yield structures  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oil feed. It comprises: contacting the feed under catalytic cracking conditions with a cracking catalyst in the presence of an additive comprising a basic nitrogen compound, to effect a shift in yield distribution from a maximum gasoline mode to a maximum middle distillate mode of operation.

Krishna, A.S.; Kowalczyk, D.C.

1991-03-05

384

Rheological behaviour of suspensions of bubbles in yield stress fluids  

E-print Network

of the suspending fluid. We demonstrate that those capillary numbers govern the decrease of the elastic and loss fluid, bubble, capillarity, suspension, emulsion, elastic modulus, yield stress, consistency 1 suspensions) and decreases at high shear rate. Observation of the bubbles in the flow (also quantified in Rust

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

385

Biopsy techniques and yields in diagnosing primary intraocular lymphoma  

PubMed Central

A review of current biopsy techniques that are used in obtaining specimens from which to make a diagnosis of primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) is presented. Methods for obtaining and subsequently testing vitrectomy specimens are discussed. In addition, the yields of external and internal approaches for obtaining chorioretinal tissue, and diagnostic vitrectomies, are reviewed. PMID:17440686

Gonzales, John A.; Chan, Chi-Chao

2007-01-01

386

Light yield from a scintillator tile with embedded readout fibers  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the light yield in two straight fibers embedded in a square scintillator tile by means of computer simulation. The tile and fiber dimensions are taken in the ballpark of interest for the SDC main calorimeter. A fairly flat total response across the tile can be obtained. Important parameters to be controlled are identified.

Trost, H.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tonnison, J.I.; Barnes, V.E. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

1991-07-15

387

Stochastic Convenience Yield and the Pricing of Oil Contingent Claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and empirically tests a two-factor model for pricing financial and real assets contingent on the price of oil. The factors are the spot price of oil and the instantaneous convenience yield. The parameters of the model are estimated using weekly oil futures contract prices from January 1984 to November 1988, and the model's performance is assessed out

Rajna Gibson; Eduardo S. Schwartz

1990-01-01

388

Marginal Maximum Entropy Partitioning Yields Asymptotically Consistent Probability Density Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marginal maximum entropy criterion has been used to guide recursive partitioning of a continuous sample space. Although the criterion has been successfully applied in pattern discovery applications, its theoretical justification has not been clearly addressed. In the paper, it is shown that the basic marginal maximum entropy partitioning algorithm yields asymptotically consistent density estimates. This result supports the use

Tom Chau

2001-01-01

389

Potato growth and yield using nutrient film technique (NFT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potato plants, cvs Denali and Norland, were grown in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) trays using a continuous flowing nutrient film technique (NFT) to study tuber yield for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Nutrient solution pH was controlled automatically using 0.39M (2.5% (v/v) nitric acid (HNO3), while water and nutrients were replenished manually each day and twice each week, respectively. Plants were spaced either one or two per tray, allotting 0.2 or 0.4 m2 per plant. All plants were harvested after 112 days. Denali plants yielded 2850 and 2800 g tuber fresh weight from the one- and two-plant trays, respectively, while Norland plants yielded 1800 and 2400 g tuber fresh weight from the one- and two-plant trays. Many tubers of both cultivars showed injury to the periderm tissue, possibly caused by salt accumulation from the nutrient solution on the surface. Total system water usage throughout the study for all the plants equaled 709 liters (L), or approximately 2 L m-2 d-1. Total system acid usage throughout the study (for nutrient solution pH control) equaled 6.60 L, or 18.4 ml m-2 d-1 (7.2 mmol m-2 d-1). The results demonstrate that continuous flowing nutrient film technique can be used for tuber production with acceptable yields for the CELSS program.

Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Hinkle, C. R.

1990-01-01

390

An effective biophysical indicator for opium yield estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opium is a narcotic obtained from opium poppy and raw materials of heroin for illegal drug trade. Information on opium production is important for governments and international communities to understand the scale of illegal drug trade and to implement drug fighting policies. Opium production can be estimated from opium yield and poppy cultivation acreage. Poppy cultivation acreage in turn can

Kun Jia; Bingfang Wu; Yichen Tian; Qiangzi Li; Xin Du

2011-01-01

391

Second generation insect pest problems on high yielding rices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional lowland rices of Asia are photoperiod sensitive and ripen at the end of the monsoon rainy season, producing stable but low yields even under environmental extremes. The dry season fallow of these single rice crop systems breaks insect and plant virus disease cycles limiting pest buildup. Modern rices developed in the sixties to feed a growing human population attain

James A. Litsinger

1989-01-01

392

Optimizing Production of Hydroquinone Achieves Increased Yield and Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

Optimizing Production of Hydroquinone Achieves Increased Yield and Energy Efficiency Stephanie Goss Chemicals Development Division May 19, 2010 Presentation overview ? Project background ? Project definition ? Implementation of campaign... ? Large division (Chemicals Manufacturing) permitted labor sharing 2009 Campaign strategy operation ? Targeted maximum production rate (100% of capacity) with two extended shutdowns ? Spring shutdown ? 10 weeks ? Fall shutdown ? 3 weeks ? Performed...

Gross, S.

393

Breeding for Yield Potential and Stress Adaptation in Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to accelerate breeding for increased yield potential and better adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses is an issue of increasing urgency. As the population continues to grow rapidly, the pressure on resources (mainly untouched land and water) is also increasing, and potential climate change poses further challenges. We discuss ways to improve the efficiency of crop breeding

José Luis Araus; Gustavo A. Slafer; Conxita Royo; M. Dolores Serret

2008-01-01

394

A new route to improved glucose yields in cellulose hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

An unusual inverse temperature-dependent pathway was discovered for cellulose decrystallization in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Cellulose was completely decrystallized by TFA at 0 °C in less than 2 hours, a result not achieved in 48 hours at 25°C in the same medium. The majority of TFA used in cellulose decrystallization was recycled via a vacuum process. The small remaining amount of TFA was diluted with water to make a 0.5% TFA solution and used as a catalyst in dilute acid hydrolysis. After one minute, under batch conditions at 185 °C, the glucose yield reached 63.5% without production of levulinic acid. In comparison, only 15.0% glucose yield was achieved in the hydrolysis of untreated cellulose by 0.5% H2SO4 under the same condition. Further improvement of glucose yield is possible by optimizing reaction conditions. Alternatively, the remaining TFA can be completely removed by water while keeping the regenerated cellulose in a highly amorphous state. This regenerated cellulose is much more reactive than untreated cellulose in hydrolysis reactions, but still less reactive than corn starch. The lower temperatures and shorter reaction times with this activated cellulose makes it possible to reduce operating costs and decrease byproduct yields such as HMF and levulinic acid.

Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2007-08-01

395

Self sputtering yields of silver under bombardment with polyatomic projectiles  

E-print Network

.elsevier.com/locate/nimb #12;computer (MD) simulations that have been carried out for various cluster projectiles and surfaces of motion are integrated numerically for all atoms of the system, i.e. for the projectile constituentsSelf sputtering yields of silver under bombardment with polyatomic projectiles A. Duvenbeck, M

Wucher, Andreas

396

Heterosis for yield and related characters in pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the levels of heterosis in F1 hybrids, four current pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars from southern Australia were used as female parents and crossed with 18 introduced genotypes. The 22 parents, 72 F1 hybrids and, depending on the environment, either 54 or all 72 F2 families were grown in replicated plots in four environments. Grain yield, total dry

P. Sarawat; F. L. Stoddard; D. R. Marshall; S. M. Ali

1994-01-01

397

Interfacial viscoelasticity, yielding and creep ringing of globular proteinsurfactant mixtures  

E-print Network

. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions, and globular proteins in general, exhibit an apparent yield stress�surfactant mixture, using solutions of a model globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), mixed with a non-ionic surfactant polysorbate 80 (or Tween 80�). We specifically chose bovine serum albumin (BSA) for our study

Sharma, Vivek

398

BOOK REVIEW Karin Nickelsen and Govindjee: The Maximum Quantum Yield  

E-print Network

BOOK REVIEW Ka�rin Nickelsen and Govindjee: The Maximum Quantum Yield Controversy: Otto Warburg groups were Robert Emerson at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and Otto Warburg of the quantum requirement problem: Are 4 (Warburg) or 8�12 (Emerson and others) photons of light needed

Govindjee

399

Effects of Stubble Management on Yield of Tomato  

E-print Network

Abstract- Field experiments were conducted on-farm in the forest zone of Ghana to determine the effects of stubble mulch (in-situ residues from Mucuna pruriens var utilis or natural grass fallow) and method of land preparation on the yield of dry season tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Land preparation methods studied were slash burn and ridge; ridge and mulching with the existing residue; and zero tillage without burning. The design was randomized complete block with four replications. Tomato seedlings were transplanted at a spacing of 50 cm within plants and 90 cm between rows; 2 seedlings per hill. Results showed that stubble mulch resulted in significant reduction in soil temperature and an increase in soil moisture content. Ridging resulted in a higher content of soil nutrients. Mulching especially with Mucuna residue, was however associated with insect pest problems. Despite this problem, stubble mulching with mucuna resulted in up to 100 % increase in tomato yield and resulted in the highest yields among the management options. Result of the studies showed that soil moisture and temperature might be more important than soil fertility in the short term in determining yield in dry season tomato in the study area. Index Terms- Stubble management, tomato, dry season, vegetables V I.

P. Osei-bonsu; J. Y. Asibuo

400

MFR PAPER 1132 The ocean's yield of seafood  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1132 The ocean's yield of seafood depends on international cooperation. An integrated management system for salmon could be a beginning. Toward a Planetary Aquaculture- the Seas as Range and Cropland TIMOTHY JOYNER THE OCEANS SEEN FROM SPACE Views ofthe earth from orbiting satel- lites

401

A meteorologically-driven yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat was developed for large-area crop condition assessment. Reductions are expressed in percentage from a base yield and are calculated on a daily basis. The algorithm contains two integral components: a two-layer soil water budget model and a crop calendar routine. Yield reductions associated with hot, dry winds (Sukhovey) and soil moisture stress are determined. Input variables include evapotranspiration, maximum temperature and precipitation; subsequently crop-stage, available water holding percentage and stress duration are evaluated. No specific base yield is required and may be selected by the user; however, it may be generally characterized as the maximum likely to be produced commercially at a location.

Ravet, F. W.; Cremins, W. J.; Taylor, T. W.; Ashburn, P.; Smika, D.; Aaronson, A. (principal investigators)

1983-01-01

402

Mapping QTLs for improving grain yield using the USDA rice mini-core collection.  

PubMed

Yield is the most important and complex trait for genetic improvement in crops, and marker-assisted selection enhances the improvement efficiency. The USDA rice mini-core collection derived from over 18,000 accessions of global origins is an ideal panel for association mapping. We phenotyped 203 O. sativa accessions for 14 agronomic traits and identified 5 that were highly and significantly correlated with grain yield per plant: plant height, plant weight, tillers, panicle length, and kernels/branch. Genotyping with 155 genome-wide molecular markers demonstrated 5 main cluster groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed at least 20 cM and marker pairs with significant LD ranged from 4.64 to 6.06% in four main groups. Model comparisons revealed that different dimensions of principal component analysis affected yield and its correlated traits for mapping accuracy, and kinship did not improve the mapping in this collection. Thirty marker-trait associations were highly significant, 4 for yield, 3 for plant height, 6 for plant weight, 9 for tillers, 5 for panicle length and 3 for kernels/branch. Twenty-one markers contributed to the 30 associations, because 8 markers were co-associated with 2 or more traits. Allelic analysis of OSR13, RM471 and RM7003 for their co-associations with yield traits demonstrated that allele 126 bp of RM471 and 108 bp of RM7003 should receive greater attention, because they had the greatest positive effect on yield traits. Tagging the QTLs responsible for multiple yield traits may simultaneously help dissect the complex yield traits and elevate the efficiency to improve grain yield using marker-assisted selection in rice. PMID:21479810

Li, Xiaobai; Yan, Wengui; Agrama, Hesham; Jia, Limeng; Shen, Xihong; Jackson, Aaron; Moldenhauer, Karen; Yeater, Kathleen; McClung, Anna; Wu, Dianxing

2011-08-01

403

Updated stellar yields from asymptotic giant branch models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated grid of stellar yields for low- to intermediate-mass thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is presented. The models cover a range in metallicity Z = 0.02, 0.008, 0.004 and 0.0001, and masses between 1 and 6Msolar. New intermediate-mass (M >= 3Msolar) Z = 0.0001 AGB models are also presented, along with a finer mass grid than used in previous studies. The yields are computed using an updated reaction rate network that includes the latest NeNa and MgAl proton capture rates, with the main result that between ~6 and 30 times less Na is produced by intermediate-mass models with hot bottom burning. In low-mass AGB models, we investigate the effect, on the production of light elements, of including some partial mixing of protons into the intershell region during the deepest extent of each third dredge-up episode. The protons are captured by the abundant 12C to form a 13C pocket. The 13C pocket increases the yields of 19F, 23Na, the neutron-rich Mg and Si isotopes, 60Fe and 31P. The increase in 31P is by factors of ~4 to 20, depending on the metallicity. Any structural changes caused by the addition of the 13C pocket into the He intershell are ignored. However, the models considered are of low mass and any such feedback is likely to be small. Further study is required to test the accuracy of the yields from the partial-mixing models. For each mass and metallicity, the yields are presented in a tabular form suitable for use in galactic chemical evolution studies or for comparison to the composition of planetary nebulae.

Karakas, A. I.

2010-04-01

404

The energetic and nutritional yields from insectivory for Kasekela chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Insectivory is hypothesized to be an important source of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet nutritional data based on actual intake are lacking. Drawing on observations from 2008 to 2010 and recently published nutritional assays, we determined the energy, macronutrient and mineral yields for termite-fishing (Macrotermes), ant-dipping (Dorylus), and ant-fishing (Camponotus) by the Kasekela chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We also estimated the yields from consumption of weaver ants (Oecophylla) and termite alates (Macrotermes and Pseudacanthotermes). On days when chimpanzees were observed to prey on insects, the time spent in insectivorous behavior ranged from <1 min to over 4 h. After excluding partial bouts and those of <1 min duration, ant-dipping bouts were of significantly shorter duration than the other two forms of tool-assisted insectivory but provided the highest mass intake rate. Termite-fishing bouts were of significantly longer duration than ant-dipping and had a lower mass intake rate, but provided higher mean and maximum mass yields. Ant-fishing bouts were comparable to termite-fishing bouts in duration but had significantly lower mass intake rates. Mean and maximum all-day yields from termite-fishing and ant-dipping contributed to or met estimated recommended intake (ERI) values for a broad array of minerals. The mean and maximum all-day yields of other insects consistently contributed to the ERI only for manganese. All forms of insectivory provided small but probably non-trivial amounts of fat and protein. We conclude that different forms of insectivory have the potential to address different nutritional needs for Kasekela chimpanzees. Other than honeybees, insects have received little attention as potential foods for hominins. Our results suggest that ants and (on a seasonal basis) termites would have been viable sources of fat, high-quality protein and minerals for extinct hominins employing Pan-like subsistence technology in East African woodlands. PMID:24698197

O'Malley, Robert C; Power, Michael L

2014-06-01

405

Spectrally-Based Assessment of Crop Seasonal Performance and Yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid advances of space technologies concern almost all scientific areas from aeronautics to medicine, and a wide range of application fields from communications to crop yield predictions. Agricultural monitoring is among the priorities of remote sensing observations for getting timely information on crop development. Monitoring agricultural fields during the growing season plays an important role in crop health assessment and stress detection provided that reliable data is obtained. Successfully spreading is the implementation of hyperspectral data to precision farming associated with plant growth and phenology monitoring, physiological state assessment, and yield prediction. In this paper, we investigated various spectral-biophysical relationships derived from in-situ reflectance measurements. The performance of spectral data for the assessment of agricultural crops condition and yield prediction was examined. The approach comprisesd development of regression models between plant spectral and state-indicative variables such as biomass, vegetation cover fraction, leaf area index, etc., and development of yield forecasting models from single-date (growth stage) and multitemporal (seasonal) reflectance data. Verification of spectral predictions was performed through comparison with estimations from biophysical relationships between crop growth variables. The study was carried out for spring barley and winter wheat. Visible and near-infrared reflectance data was acquired through the whole growing season accompanied by detailed datasets on plant phenology and canopy structural and biochemical attributes. Empirical relationships were derived relating crop agronomic variables and yield to various spectral predictors. The study findings were tested using airborne remote sensing inputs. A good correspondence was found between predicted and actual (ground-truth) estimates

Kancheva, Rumiana; Borisova, Denitsa; Georgiev, Georgy

406

The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

2014-05-01

407

Yield quantitative trait loci from wild tomato are predominately expressed by the shoot  

PubMed Central

Plant yield is the integrated outcome of processes taking place above and below ground. To explore genetic, environmental and developmental aspects of fruit yield in tomato, we phenotyped an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and a wild species (Solanum pennellii). Both homozygous and heterozygous ILs were grown in irrigated and non-irrigated fields and evaluated for six yield components. Thirteen lines displayed transgressive segregation that increased agronomic yield consistently over 2 years and defined at least 11 independent yield-improving QTL. To determine if these QTL were expressed in the shoots or the roots of the plants, we conducted field trials of reciprocally grafted ILs; out of 13 lines with an effect on yield, 10 QTL were active in the shoot and only IL8-3 showed a consistent root effect. To further examine this unusual case, we evaluated the metabolic profiles of fruits from both the homo- and heterozygous lines for IL8-3 and compared these to those obtained from the fruit of their equivalent genotypes in the root effect population. We observed that several of these metabolic QTL, like the yield QTL, were root determined; however, further studies will be required to delineate the exact mechanism mediating this effect in this specific line. The results presented here suggest that genetic variation for root traits, in comparison to that present in the shoot, represents only a minor component in the determination of tomato fruit yield. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1456-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20872209

Gur, Amit; Semel, Yaniv; Osorio, Sonia; Friedmann, Michael; Seekh, Saleh; Ghareeb, Bilal; Mohammad, Ayed; Pleban, Tzili; Gera, Gabi; Zamir, Dani

2010-01-01

408

Yukon gold mine yields ancient horse fossil 700,000yearold fossil discovered in Yukon permafrost yields genome world record.  

E-print Network

Yukon gold mine yields ancient horse fossil 700,000yearold fossil discovered in Yukon permafrost an unusually large horse fossil in the Yukon permafrost, he knew it was important. Now, in a new study visiting Yukon placer gold mining exposures to understand the permafrost and the ice age environments

Machel, Hans

409

49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...whose specification or tensile properties are unknown, the yield strength to be used in the design...of the average yield strength determined by the tensile tests. (ii) The lowest yield strength determined by the tensile tests. (2)...

2012-10-01

410

49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...whose specification or tensile properties are unknown, the yield strength to be used in the design...of the average yield strength determined by the tensile tests. (ii) The lowest yield strength determined by the tensile tests. (2)...

2013-10-01

411

49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...whose specification or tensile properties are unknown, the yield strength to be used in the design...of the average yield strength determined by the tensile tests. (ii) The lowest yield strength determined by the tensile tests. (2)...

2010-10-01

412

49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...whose specification or tensile properties are unknown, the yield strength to be used in the design...of the average yield strength determined by the tensile tests. (ii) The lowest yield strength determined by the tensile tests. (2)...

2011-10-01

413

7 CFR 1412.33 - Payment yield for counter-cyclical payments for covered commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Yields for Direct and Counter-Cyclical...Counter cyclical payment yields for designated oilseeds or eligible pulse crops for which direct payment yields were not established as...

2010-01-01

414

7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section...2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Yields for Direct and Counter-Cyclical...commodity, except pulse crops, will be the payment yield established...

2010-01-01

415

7 CFR 1412.32 - Direct payment yield for designated oilseed and pulse crops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (1) The national average yield for the crop for the 1981 through 1985 crop... (2) The national average yield for the crop for the 1998 through 2001 crop...the harvested average county yield for that crop determined, where...

2010-01-01

416

In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams  

DOEpatents

Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

1983-09-26

417

Genetic Linkage Map of a High Yielding FELDA DelixYangambi Oil Palm Cross  

PubMed Central

Enroute to mapping QTLs for yield components in oil palm, we constructed the linkage map of a FELDA high yielding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), hybrid cross. The parents of the mapping population are a Deli dura and a pisifera of Yangambi origin. The cross out-yielded the average by 8–21% in four trials all of which yielded comparably to the best current commercial planting materials. The higher yield derived from a higher fruit oil content. SSR markers in the public domain - from CIRAD and MPOB, as well as some developed in FELDA - were used for the mapping, augmented by locally-designed AFLP markers. The female parent linkage map comprised 317 marker loci and the male parent map 331 loci, both in 16 linkage groups each. The number of markers per group ranged from 8–47 in the former and 12–40 in the latter. The integrated map was 2,247.5 cM long and included 479 markers and 168 anchor points. The number of markers per linkage group was 15–57, the average being 29, and the average map density 4.7 cM. The linkage groups ranged in length from 77.5 cM to 223.7 cM, with an average of 137 cM. The map is currently being validated against a closely related population and also being expanded to include yield related QTLs. PMID:22069457

Seng, Tzer-Ying; Mohamed Saad, Siti Hawa; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Harminder Singh, Rajinder Singh; Qamaruz Zaman, Faridah; Tan, Soon-Guan; Syed Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah

2011-01-01

418

Complex oscillatory yielding of model hard-sphere glasses.  

PubMed

The yielding behavior of hard sphere glasses under large-amplitude oscillatory shear has been studied by probing the interplay of Brownian motion and shear-induced diffusion at varying oscillation frequencies. Stress, structure and dynamics are followed by experimental rheology and Browian dynamics simulations. Brownian-motion-assisted cage escape dominates at low frequencies while escape through shear-induced collisions at high ones, both related with a yielding peak in G''. At intermediate frequencies a novel, for hard sphere glasses, double peak in G'' is revealed reflecting both mechanisms. At high frequencies and strain amplitudes a persistent structural anisotropy causes a stress drop within the cycle after strain reversal, while higher stress harmonics are minimized at certain strain amplitudes indicating an apparent harmonic response. PMID:23679786

Koumakis, N; Brady, J F; Petekidis, G

2013-04-26

419

Effects of monolayer coverages on substrate sputtering yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials used or considered for plasma-side applications are not entirely satisfactory, particularly in the medium edge temperature (100 to 300 eV) regime. An approach to impurity control based on self-sustaining surface segregated low-Z layers with high secondary ion fractions was tested in laboratory experiments. A crucial requirement is that substrate sputtering yields be reduced about an order of magnitude by monolayer adsorbate coverages. Theoretical and experimental evidence is adduced to support the contention that overlayer coverages (a monolayer of Li on Cu) result in profound reductions of substrate (e.g., Cu) sputtering yields. The conclusion that a material such as a dilute alloy of Li in Cu could function as a limiter or a divertor plate material is, in part, based on the fact that more than 85% of the sputtered flux originates in the first atomic layer (e.g., Li) of the target.

Gruen, D. M.; Krauss, A. R.; Pellin, M. J.

1984-10-01

420

Search for the decay J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}+invisible  

SciTech Connect

A search for J/{psi} radiative decay to weakly interacting neutral final states was performed using the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. J/{psi} events were selected by observing the hadronic decay {psi}(2S){yields}{pi}{sup +{pi}-}J/{psi}. A total of 3.7x10{sup 6} J/{psi} events were used to study the decay J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}+X, where X is a narrow state that is invisible to the detector. No significant signal was observed, and upper limits on the branching fraction were set for masses m{sub X} up to 960 MeV/c{sup 2}. The upper limit corresponding to m{sub X}=0 is 4.3x10{sup -6} at the 90% confidence level.

Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Ricciardi, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Thomas, C. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Mountain, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Lincoln, A.; Smith, M. J.; Zhou, P. [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

2010-05-01

421

The effect of yield strength and ductility to fatigue damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cumulative damage of aluminium alloys with different yield strength and various ductility due to seismic loads was studied. The responses of an idealized beam with a centered mass at one end and fixed at the other end to El Centro's and Taft's earthquakes are computed by assuming that the alloys are perfectly elastoplastic materials and by using numerical technique. Consequently, the corresponding residual plastic strain can be obtained from the stress-strain relationship. The revised Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage theorem is utilized to calculate the fatigue damage. The numerical results show that in certain cases, the high ductility materials are more resistant to seismic loads than the high yield strength materials. The results also show that if a structure collapse during the earthquake, the collapse always occurs in the very early stage.

Yeh, H. Y.

1973-01-01

422

Complex Oscillatory Yielding of Model Hard-Sphere Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yielding behavior of hard sphere glasses under large-amplitude oscillatory shear has been studied by probing the interplay of Brownian motion and shear-induced diffusion at varying oscillation frequencies. Stress, structure and dynamics are followed by experimental rheology and Browian dynamics simulations. Brownian-motion-assisted cage escape dominates at low frequencies while escape through shear-induced collisions at high ones, both related with a yielding peak in G''. At intermediate frequencies a novel, for hard sphere glasses, double peak in G'' is revealed reflecting both mechanisms. At high frequencies and strain amplitudes a persistent structural anisotropy causes a stress drop within the cycle after strain reversal, while higher stress harmonics are minimized at certain strain amplitudes indicating an apparent harmonic response.

Koumakis, N.; Brady, J. F.; Petekidis, G.

2013-04-01

423

Biexciton quantum yield of single semiconductor nanocrystals from photon statistics  

PubMed Central

Biexciton properties strongly affect the usability of a light emitter in quantum photon sources and lasers but are difficult to measure for single fluorophores at room temperature due to luminescence intermittency and bleaching at the high excitation fluences usually required. Here, we observe the biexciton (BX) to exciton (X) to ground photoluminescence cascade of single colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) under weak excitation in a g(2) photon correlation measurement and show that the normalized amplitude of the cascade feature is equal to the ratio of the BX to X fluorescence quantum yields. This imposes a limit on the attainable depth of photon antibunching and provides a robust means to study single emitter biexciton physics. In NC samples, we show that the BX quantum yield is considerably inhomogeneous, consistent with the defect sensitivity expected of the Auger nonradiative recombination mechanism. The method can be extended to study X,BX spectral and polarization correlations. PMID:21288042

Nair, Gautham; Zhao, Jing; Bawendi, Moungi G

2012-01-01

424

EarthSat spring wheat yield system test 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an operational test of the EarthSat System during the period 1 June - 30 August 1975 over the spring wheat regions of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota are presented. The errors associated with each sub-element of the system during the operational test and the sensitivity of the complete system and each major functional sub-element of the system to the observed errors were evaluated. Evaluations and recommendations for future operational users of the system include: (1) changes in various system sub-elements, (2) changes in the yield model to affect improved accuracy, (3) changes in the number of geobased cells needed to develop an accurate aggregated yield estimate, (4) changes associated with the implementation of future operational satellites and data processing systems, and (5) detailed system documentation.

1976-01-01

425

Shear induced drainage in foamy yield-stress fluids  

E-print Network

Shear induced drainage of a foamy yield stress fluid is investigated using MRI techniques. Whereas the yield stress of the interstitial fluid stabilizes the system at rest, a fast drainage is observed when a horizontal shear is imposed. It is shown that the sheared interstitial material behaves as a viscous fluid in the direction of gravity, the effective viscosity of which is controlled by shear in transient foam films between bubbles. Results provided for several bubble sizes are not captured by the R^2 scaling classically observed for liquid flow in particulate systems, such as foams and thus constitute a remarkable demonstration of the strong coupling of drainage flow and shear induced interstitial flow. Furthermore, foam films are found to be responsible for the unexpected arrest of drainage, thus trapping irreversibly a significant amount of interstitial liquid.

Julie Goyon; François Bertrand; Olivier Pitois; Guillaume Ovarlez

2010-03-30

426

Cavity-QED enhancement of fluorescence yields in microdroplets  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the integrated fluorescence yield of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in levitated microdroplets (4 to 16 {mu}m diameter) display a size dependence which is attributed to a decreased probability per excitation cycle of photochemical bleaching as a result of cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rates. The average number of fluorescence photons detected per molecule in 4 {mu}m droplets (where emission rate enhancement has been previously demonstrated) is shown to be approximately a factor of 2 larger than the yield measured for larger droplets where emission rate enhancement does not occur. Within some simple approximations, these results suggest that essentially no emission rate inhibition occurs in this system. A mechanism based on spectral diffusion is postulated for the apparent absence of cavity-inhibited emission and is illustrated by Monte Carlo calculations using time-dependent lineshape functions.

Barnes, M.D.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Analytical Chemistry Div.

1993-12-31

427

Improving yield through the application of process window OPC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the industry progresses toward more challenging patterning nodes with tighter error budgets and weaker process windows, it is becoming clear that current single process condition Optical Proximity Corrections (OPC) as well as OPC verification methods such as Optical Rules Checking (ORC) performed at a single process point fail to provide robust solutions through process. Moreover, these techniques can potentially miss catastrophic failures that will negatively impact yield while surely failing to capitalize on every chance to enhance process window. Process-aware OPC and verification algorithms have been developed [1,2] that minimize process variability to enhance yield and assess process robustness, respectively. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of process aware OPC and ORC tools to enable first time right manufacturing solutions, even for technology nodes prior to 45nm such as a 65nm contact level, by identifying critical spots on the layout that became significant yield detractors on the chip but nominal ORC could not catch. Similarly, we will demonstrate the successful application of a process window OPC (PWOPC) algorithm capable of recognizing and correcting for process window systematic variations that threaten the overall RET performance, while maintaining printed contours within the minimum overlay tolerances. Direct comparison of wafer results are presented for two 65nm CA masks, one where conventional nominal OPC was applied and a second one processed with PWOPC. Thorough wafer results will show how our process aware OPC algorithm was able to address and successfully strengthen the lithography performance of those areas in the layout previously identified by PWORC as sensitive to process variations, as well as of isolated and semi-isolated features, for an overall significant yield enhancement.

Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Krasnoperova, Azalia; Siddiqui, Shahab; Settlemyer, Kenneth; Graur, Ioana; Stobert, Ian; Oberschmidt, James M.

2009-03-01

428

Dynamic tensile behavior of multi phase high yield strength steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of uni-axial tensile testing of multi phase 800 High Yield strength steel (MP800HY) at different strain rates (0.001–750s?1) are reported here. Flat specimens having gauge length 10mm, width 4mm and thickness 2mm were tested to determine the mechanical properties of MP800HY under tensile loads. The quasi-static tests (0.001s?1) were performed on electromechanical universal testing machine, whereas, hydro-pneumatic machine and

N. K. Singh; E. Cadoni; M. K. Singha; N. K. Gupta

2011-01-01

429

Yield prediction in apple orchards based on image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that apple (\\u000a Malus * domestica Borkh) flowering distribution maps can be used for site-specific management decisions. The objectives of this study were\\u000a (i) to study the flower density variability in an apple orchard using image analysis and (ii) to model the correlation between\\u000a flower density as determined from image analysis and fruit yield. The research was carried

A. D. Aggelopoulou; D. Bochtis; S. Fountas; K. C. Swain; T. A. Gemtos; G. D. Nanos

2011-01-01

430

Production Yields of Neutron-Rich Fluorine Isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were performed at the NSCL to investigate the momentum distributions from projectile fragmentation. An 40Ar beam reacted with three N\\/Z targets in order to determine the effects of the N\\/Z of the target on the production yields of neutron-rich fluorine isotopes. A 48Ca beam was then used with a Ta target to re-measure the production cross-sections and to

E. Kwan; D. J. Morrissey; D. A. Davies; M. Steiner; C. S. Sumithrarachchi; L. Weissman

2007-01-01

431

Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands  

PubMed Central

Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes. PMID:25299593

Blank, Peter J.; Sample, David W.; Williams, Carol L.; Turner, Monica G.

2014-01-01

432

Yield Spreads and Interest Rate Movements: A Bird's Eye View  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectations theory of the term structure implies that the spread between a longer-term interest rate and a shorter-term interest rate forecasts two subsequent interest rate changes: the change in yield of the longer-term bond over the life of the shorter-term bond, and a weighted average of the changes in shorter-term rates over the life of the longer-term bond. For

John Y. Campbell; Robert J. Shiller

1991-01-01

433

Neutron yield in conic targets with additional laser fuel heating  

SciTech Connect

The compression and the thermonuclear energy release in conic targets with additional laser heating are calculated. It is shown that irradiation of conic targets with a compound (long plus short) KrF laser pulse with energy 300 - 400 kJ can provide a neutron yield of {approx}10{sup 16} per shot and, accordingly, target energy gain coefficients above 0.1. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Lebo, I G [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2000-05-31

434

A Simple Method for Determining Specific Yield from Pumping Tests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simpler solution which greatly reduces the time necessary to compute the specific yield by the pumping-test method of Remson and Lang (1955) is presented. The method consists of computing the volume of dewatered material in the cone of depression and comparing it with the total volume of discharged water. The original method entails the use of a slowly converging series to compute the volume of dewatered material. The solution given herein is derived directly from Darcy's law.

Ramsahoye, L. E.; Lang, Solomon Max.

1961-01-01

435

Potato growth and yield using nutrient film technique (NFT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato plants, cvs Denali and Norland, were grown in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) trays using a continuous flowing nutrient film\\u000a technique (NFT) to study tuber yield for NASs Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Nutrient solution\\u000a pH was controlled automatically using 0.39M (2.5% (v\\/v) nitric acid (HNO3), while water and nutrients were replenished manually each day and twice each week,

Raymond M. Wheeler; C. Ross Hinkle; Cheryl L. Mackowiak; John C. Sager; William M. Knott

1990-01-01

436

A critical evaluation of factors affecting reservoir yield estimates  

E-print Network

Analysis Techniques Mathematical Computation Models HEC-3 Reservoir System Analysis for Conservation 14 17 18 20 21 25 30 30 33 33 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) HEC-5 Simulation of Flood Control and Conservation Systems MOSS-IV Monthly... Streamflow Simulation SIMYLD-II River Basin Simulation Model and RESOP-II Reservoir Operating and Quality Routing Program System Yield Studies Conclusions CHAPTER III CASE STUDY Page 38 39 41 41 43 45 Case Study Objective Brazos River Basin 45...

Bergman, Carla Elaine

2012-06-07

437

Phenomenological model of yield strength temperature dependence for irradiated materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, it is formulated a phenomenological model to describe a yield strength temperature dependence of polycrystalline\\u000a materials that have undergone irradiation and mechanical experiences in a wide temperature interval including structure levels\\u000a of plastic deformation. The proposed model shows a good agreement with experimental data of both irradiated and no irradiated\\u000a materials. Also it is shown that empirical

V. V. Krasil’nikov; S. E. Savotchenko; A. A. Parkhomenko

2010-01-01

438

A simple technique for determining yield strength of thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique to measure the yield strength of thin films has been developed which combines experimental observations of deflection\\u000a and plastic deformation with finite element predictions of stress. This technique relies on integrated circuit technology\\u000a to build bridge and cross beam test structures with a range of dimensions. Each structure is deflected in increments of 1\\u000a ?m until the structure

M. H. Gordon; W. F. Schmidt; Q. Qiao; B. Huang; S. S. Ang

2002-01-01

439

SPEYES: Sensing and Patrolling Enablers Yielding Effective SASO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a DARPA seedling initiative that analyzed, simulated, and assessed the force-multiplying payoff potential of various ground-based C3I technologies for stability and support operations (SASO). The initiative was called sensing and patrolling enablers yielding effective SASO (SPEYES). A variety of daily-occurring threats, challenges, and manpower-intensive tasks facing ground forces performing SASO missions in a post-combat environment were identified.

R. Popp; G. Levchuk; D. Serfaty; D. Allen; C. Meirina; Feili Yu; K. Pattipati; M. Lazaroff

2005-01-01

440

Copper Stress Affects Metabolism and Reproductive Yield of Chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To observe the effects of copper (Cu) deficiency on growth, metabolism, and reproductive yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cv. ‘13.G-256’, plants were grown in refined sand at deficient (0.1 ?M) and adequate Cu (1 ?M), supplied as copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O). At d 35–40, at deficient Cu, the growth of plants were depressed and the young leaflets appeared reduced in

Gitanjali Bhakuni; B. K. Dube; Pratima Sinha; C. Chatterjee

2009-01-01

441

Top ten models constrained by b {yields} s{gamma}  

SciTech Connect

The radiative decay b {yields} s{gamma} is examined in the Standard Model and in nine classes of models which contain physics beyond the Standard Model. The constraints which may be placed on these models from the recent results of the CLEO Collaboration on both inclusive and exclusive radiative B decays is summarized. Reasonable bounds are found the parameters in some of the models.

Hewett, J.L.

1994-05-01

442

Disequilibrium of Holocene sediment yield in glaciated British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally supposed that specific sediment yield-the quantity of sediment passing a monitored river cross-section per unit area drained upstream of that section-declines as the area drained increases1-3. Part of the sediment mobilized from the land surface is supposed to go back into storage at field edges, and on footslopes and floodplains. In contrast, we show here that data

Michael Church; Olav Slaymaker

1989-01-01

443

Predictive formulae for goat cheese yield based on milk composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of the yield and quality of different types of cheeses that could be produced from a given type and\\/or amount of goat milk is of great economic benefit to goat milk producers and goat cheese manufacturers. Bulk tank goat milk was used for manufacturing hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses (N=25, 25 and 24, respectively) to develop predictive formulae of

S. S. Zeng; K. Soryal; B. Fekadu; B. Bah; T. Popham

2007-01-01

444

Detector Fabrication Yield for SuperCDMS Soudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SuperCDMS collaboration is presently operating a 9 kg Ge payload at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in their direct search for dark matter. The Ge detectors utilize double-sided athermal phonon sensors with an interdigitated electrode structure (iZIPs) to reject near-surface electron-recoil events. These detectors each have a mass of 0.6 kg and were fabricated with photolithographic techniques. The detector fabrication advances required and the production yield encountered are described.

Brink, P. L.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Bauer, D. A.; Beaty, J.; Brandt, D.; Cabrera, B.; Chagani, H.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Doughty, T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fritts, M.; Godfrey, G.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, R.; Hertel, S.; Hines, B. A.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kenany, S. A.; Leman, S. W.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Novak, L.; Partridge, R.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Radpour, R.; Rau, W.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Seitz, D. N.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Tomada, A.; Villano, A.; Welliver, B.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

2014-08-01

445

Integrating Yield and Shortage Management under Multiple Uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic-engineering modeling approach is presented for integrating urban water supply reliability analysis with shortage management options such as dry year option and spot market water transfers, water reuse, and long- and short-term water conservation. The integrated model links supply-side yield simulation to probabilistic shortage management optimization, using a probability plotting position formula. The approach can help joint planning of

Marion W. Jenkins; Jay R. Lund

2000-01-01

446

A new approach for estimation suspended sediment yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-distributed conceptual model, HBV-SED, for estimation of total suspended sediment concentration and yield at the outlet of a catchment was developed and tested through a case study. The base of the suspended sediment model is a dynamic hydrological model, which produces daily series of areal runoff and rainfall for each sub-basin as input to the sediment routine. A lumped

R. Lidén

1999-01-01

447

HETEROSIS FOR CERTAIN YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN WINTER TRITICALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated heterosis for certain yield and quality traits in F1 hybrids in winter triticale.The highest level of mid-parent heterosis was determined as 20.95 % for seed weight per spike. This was followed by mean mid-parent heterosis values at the rates of 18.07 % and 17.64 % for protein content and spike lenght, respectively. Negative mid- parent heterosis was

Esra AYDOGAN CIFCI; Koksal YAGDI

448

Managing Forests for Water Yield: The Importance of Scale  

SciTech Connect

Examination of expected change in water yield for a large area where vegetation thinning has been proposed in the Sierra Mountains of California, indicates that the size of the area has an important bearing on annual runoff. Results indicate that average changes in annual runoff per unit area for large areas would typically be less than 0.4%. Such changes can only be quantified by extrapolation of paired watershed studies because direct measurement is not feasible.

Huff, D.D.

1999-11-13

449

Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.  

PubMed

Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes. PMID:25299593

Blank, Peter J; Sample, David W; Williams, Carol L; Turner, Monica G

2014-01-01

450

Stable high yields with zero tillage and permanent bed planting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtropical highlands of the world have been densely populated and intensively cropped. Agricultural sustainability problems resulting from soil erosion and fertility decline have arisen throughout this agro-ecological zone. This article considers practices that would sustain higher and stable yields for wheat and maize in such region. A long-term field experiment under rainfed conditions was started at El Batán, Mexico (2240ma.s.l.;

Bram Govaerts; Ken D. Sayre; Jozef Deckers

2005-01-01

451

A survey for low stau yields in the MSSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the implications of LHC results for the abundance of long-lived staus after freeze-out from thermal equilibrium in a super-WIMP dark matter scenario. We classify regions in the MSSM parameter space according to the stau yield, considering all possible co-annihilation effects as well as the effects of resonances and large Higgs-sfermion couplings. Afterwards, we examine the viability of these regions after imposing experimental and theoretical constraints, in particular a Higgs mass around 125 GeV and null-searches for heavy stable charged particles (HSCP) at the LHC. We work in a pMSSM framework and perform a Monte Carlo scan over the parameter space. To interpret the HSCP searches in our scenario, we consider all potentially important superparticle production processes, developing a fast estimator for NLO cross sections for electroweak and strong production at the LHC. After applying all constraints, we find that stau yields below 10-14 occur only for resonant annihilation via a heavy Higgs in combination with either co-annihilation or large left-right stau mixing. We encounter allowed points with yields as low as 2 × 10-16, thus satisfying limits from big bang nucleosynthesis even for large stau lifetimes.

Heisig, Jan; Kersten, Jörn; Panes, Boris; Robens, Tania

2014-04-01

452

Senescence, nutrient remobilization, and yield in wheat and barley.  

PubMed

Cereals including wheat and barley are of primary importance to ensure food security for the 21st century. A combination of lab- and field-based approaches has led to a considerably improved understanding of the importance of organ and particularly of whole-plant (monocarpic) senescence for wheat and barley yield and quality. A delicate balance between senescence timing, grain nutrient content, nutrient-use efficiency, and yield needs to be considered to (further) improve cereal varieties for a given environment and end use. The recent characterization of the Gpc-1 (NAM-1) genes in wheat and barley demonstrates the interdependence of these traits. Lines or varieties with functional Gpc-1 genes demonstrate earlier senescence and enhanced grain protein and micronutrient content but, depending on the environment, somewhat reduced yields. A major effort is needed to dissect regulatory networks centred on additional wheat and barley transcription factors and signalling pathways influencing the senescence process. Similarly, while important molecular details of nutrient (particularly nitrogen) remobilization from senescing organs to developing grains have been identified, important knowledge gaps remain. The genes coding for the major proteases involved in senescence-associated plastidial protein degradation are largely unknown. Membrane transport proteins involved in the different transport steps occurring between senescing organ (such as leaf mesophyll) cells and protein bodies in the endosperm of developing grains remain to be identified or further characterized. Existing data suggest that an improved understanding of all these steps will reveal additional, important targets for continued cereal improvement. PMID:24470467

Distelfeld, Assaf; Avni, Raz; Fischer, Andreas M

2014-07-01

453

Micrometeoroid impact charge yield for common spacecraft materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact ionization charge yield is experimentally measured from four common materials used in space and specifically on the two STEREO spacecraft (germanium-coated black Kapton, beryllium copper, multilayer insulation, and solar cells). Cosmic dust particle impacts on spacecraft have been detected by electric field and plasma and radio wave instruments. The accurate interpretation of these signals is complicated by many factors, including the details of the spacecraft antenna system, the local spacecraft plasma environment, and our understanding of the physics of the impact process. The most basic quantity, the amount of charge liberated upon impact, is generally considered poorly constrained and is suspected to depend on the target material. Here we show that for common materials used on spacecraft this variability is small for impacts around 10 km/s, and the impact charge yield can be approximated by 80 fC for a 1 pg projectile. At higher speeds (˜50 km/s), variation of up to a factor of 5 is observed. The measured yields in the 10-50 km/s range are compared to measurements and predictions from the literature and are found to be lower than predicted by at least a factor of 12 at 10 km/s and at least a factor of 1.7 at 50 km/s. Impact charge is also found to depend on angle of incidence; the data suggest a maximum at 45°.

Collette, A.; Grün, E.; Malaspina, D.; Sternovsky, Z.

2014-08-01

454

The yield equations in the modeling and control of bioprocesses  

SciTech Connect

Two basic questions in bioprocess modeling are how many rate equations must be specified and which processes (substrate uptake, product formation, etc.) they should describe. The number of rate equations is constrained by the yield equations, which represent the balances of reducing power, energy in the form of ATP, and the various elements involved in microbial metabolism. These balances are derived from a simplified picture that divides metabolism into catabolic, anabolic, respiratory, and product formation pathways. The linear growth equation for aerobic metabolism and the Ludeking-Piret equation for product formation by fermentation are derived from these balances, and the yield coefficients are related to the metabolic parameters, Y[sub ATP] (P/O), etc. The use of oxygen for purposes other than respiration is included in the analysis and extends the idea of a constant yield on available electrons' to very reduced substrates. These balances specify the number of degrees of freedom, i.e., the number of pieces of information required to complete the description of the system. This information may be in the form of measurements, knowledge of the biochemical pathways, or rate equations. The number of rate measurements available (usually two, the consumption rates of O[sub 2] and CO[sub 2]) versus the number needed defines the state estimation problem in bioprocess control. Rate equations usually specify the biomass growth rate, but it may be preferable to specify the specific consumption rate of the limiting nutrient.

Andrews, G.F. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Bioprocessing Technology)

1993-08-20

455

Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high-yield plantations could be further analyzed by considering whether they help depress global prices, reducing incentives to expand elsewhere (Angelsen and Kaimowitz 2001). The significance of the study goes well beyond the bounds of Ucayli, and highlights risks to Amazonian forests from oil palm expansion (Butler and Laurance 2010). Oil palm is an astoundingly profitable and productive crop, with typical oil yields more than ten times that of soy. Some have even argued that oil palm is innately land sparing because it would take substantially more land for all other oil-bearing crops to provide the same output. However, most production gains from oil palm have occurred through increased area rather than increased yield, and in many cases expansion has been through forest clearing (Koh and Wilcove 2008, Gibbs et al 2010). The findings of Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) are particularly significant considering that the booming palm oil sectors in Indonesia and Malaysia, which currently produce over 80% of the world's product, are facing a host of pressures that constrain future area expansion. Malaysia has little remaining land suited for plantations and Indonesia faces intensifying international scrutiny over the future of their forestlands. Consequently, the Amazon basin is widely considered the new frontier, with more than half of its forest area suitable for palm oil cultivation (Butler and Laurance 2010) and growing incentives from Brazil's Program for the Sustainable Production of Oil Palm, which aims to utilize degraded lands and spur reforestation efforts. Their results also illuminate another key issue, namely the constraints faced by large-scale producers when they seek to expand plantation area. Emerging demand-side conservation efforts, such as the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), assume that already cleared and non-forested lands are freely available. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) hint at the obstacles to using such cleared lands, which is that they are inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these c

Gibbs, Holly

2012-03-01

456

Quantum yield of conversion of the dental photoinitiator camphorquinone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary absorber in dental resins is the photoinitiators, which start the photo polymerization process. We studied the quantum yield of conversion of camphorquinone (CQ), a blue light photoinitiator, using 3M FreeLight LED lamp as the light curing unit. The molar extinction coefficient, ?469, of CQ was measured to be 46+/-2 cm-1/(mol/L) at 469 nm. The absorption coefficient change to the radiant exposure was measured at three different irradiances. The relationship between the CQ absorption coefficient and curing lamp radiant exposure was the same for different irradiances and fit an exponential function: ?a469(H)= ?ao exp(-H/Hthreshold), where ?ao is 4.46+/-0.05 cm-1, and Hthreshold=43+/-4 J/cm2. Combining this exponential relationship with CQ molar extinction coefficient and the absorbed photon energy (i.e., the product of the radiant exposure with the absorption coefficient), we plotted CQ concentration [number of molecules/cm3] as a function of the accumulated absorbed photons per volume. The slope of the relationship is the quantum yield of the CQ conversion. Therefore, in our formulation (0.7 w% CQ with reducing agents 0.35 w% DMAEMA and 0.05 w% BHT) the quantum yield was solved to be 0.07+/-0.01 CQ conversion per absorbed photon.

Chen, Yin-Chu; Ferracane, Jack L.; Prahl, Scott A.

2005-06-01

457

High-Yield Magnetized Liner Fusion Explosions and Blast Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cylindrical liner implosions with preheated and magnetized deuterium-tritium (DT) are predicted to reach fusion conditions on present pulsed power machines [S.A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We present simulations indicating that high yields (1-10 GJ) and gains (100-1000) may be possible at currents of about 60-70 MA if a cryogenic layer of solid DT is provided on the inside surface of the metal liner. A hot spot is formed from the central preheated magnetized low-density gas and a burn wave propagates radially into the surrounding cold dense fuel. These yields and gains are more than adequate for inertial fusion energy. However, the pulsed-power driver must be protected from the blast of these high-yield explosions. Numerical simulations are presented which show that the blast can be deflected and the fusion neutrons absorbed by a blanket that partially surrounds the liner. Thus a modest length transmission line can be used to deliver power to the liner.

Slutz, Stephen; Vesey, Roger; Cuneo, Michael

2011-11-01

458

Consequences of selection for milk yield from a geneticist's viewpoint.  

PubMed

The annual genetic trend for milk yield of Holsteins in the United States has accelerated with time and had means of 37 kg during the 1960s, 79 kg during the 1970s, 102 kg during the 1980s, and 116 kg from 1990 to 1996. Selection programs of the dairy cattle breeding firms in the United States have become more selective and effective with time, and selection goals continue to place major emphasis on yield traits, which clearly impact profitability of dairying. Traits other than yield are also included in selection goals of the industry. Type traits, especially those related to udder conformation, body size, and angularity have been included in selection programs and have altered the appearance and physiological functions of Holstein cows. Selection programs have continued to increase the body size of Holsteins despite mounting evidence that smaller cows have advantages for survival and efficiency. Favorable emphasis on cows that appear sharper might result in cows that are more prone to metabolic problems. The high intensity of current selection in the United States has brought about a rapid increase in genetic relationships among animals. Increased relationships will inevitably result in undesirable levels of inbreeding in the commercial cow population unless dairy producers turn to crossbreeding. PMID:10821591

Hansen, L B

2000-05-01

459

Food security: increasing yield and improving resource use efficiency.  

PubMed

Food production and security will be a major issue for supplying an increasing world population. The problem will almost certainly be exacerbated by climate change. There is a projected need to double food production by 2050. In recent times, the trend has been for incremental modest yield increases for most crops. There is an urgent need to develop integrated and sustainable approaches that will significantly increase both production per unit land area and the resource use efficiency of crops. This review considers some key processes involved in plant growth and development with some examples of ways in which molecular technology, plant breeding and genetics may increase the yield and resource use efficiency of wheat. The successful application of biotechnology to breeding is essential to provide the major increases in production required. However, each crop and each specific agricultural situation presents specific requirements and targets for optimisation. Some increases in production will come about as new varieties are developed which are able to produce satisfactory crops on marginal land presently not considered appropriate for arable crops. Other new varieties will be developed to increase both yield and resource use efficiency on the best land. PMID:20860858

Parry, Martin A J; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

2010-11-01

460

Sources of Variability in the Measurement of Fungal Spore Yields  

PubMed Central

Variability in the production of fungal spores and in the measurement of spore yields was investigated in four species of fungi: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum phomoides, and Acremonium strictum. When the fungi were grown on solid medium in microplates and spore yields were measured by counting the subsamples with a hemacytometer, the variability among hemacytometer squares was always the largest source of variation, accounting for 51 to 91% of the total variation. Variability among replicate cultures and results of repeat experiments were generally also significant. The effect of square-to-square variability on the precision of spore yield measurement was minimized by counting a moderate number (ca. 30) of squares per culture. Culture-to-culture variability limited the practical precision of spore production measurements to a 95% confidence interval of approximately the mean ± 25%. We provide guidelines for determining the number of replicate cultures required to attain this or other degrees of precision. Particle counter-derived spore counts and counts based on spore weights were much less variable than were hemacytometer counts, but they did not improve spore production estimates very much because of culture-to-culture variability. Results obtained by both of these methods differed from those obtained with a hemacytometer; particle counter measurements required a correction for spore pairs, while the relationship between spore weights and spore counts changed as the cultures aged. PMID:16347653

Smith, C. S.; Slade, S. J.; Nordheim, E. V.; Cascino, J. J.; Harris, R. F.; Andrews, J. H.

1988-01-01

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