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1

Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

Blamey, F.P.C.

1983-01-01

2

Weed competition and dry bean yield components  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

3

Yield Improvement by the Redundancy Method for Component Calibration  

E-print Network

Yield Improvement by the Redundancy Method for Component Calibration F. Enikeeva, D. Morche, and A propose a normal approximation of the yield in order to estimate the number of redundant components needed proportional to the area. However, the reduction in the total area depends on the target yield as well

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

QTL mapping of yield and yield components for elite hybrid derived-RILs in upland cotton.  

PubMed

A population of 180 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed by single seed descended from the cross of high yield Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties Zhongmiansuo12 (ZMS12) and 8891, the two parents of Xiangzamian2 (XZM2). A genetic linkage map consisting of 132 loci and covering 865.20 cM was constructed using the RIL population chiefly with SSR markers. Yield and yield components were investigated for RILs in three environments in China. The purpose of the present research was to analyze the relationship between yield and its components and to map QTL for yield and yield components in cotton. QTL were tagged with data sets from single environment (separate analysis) and a set of data from means of the three environments (joint analysis). A total of 34 QTL for yield and yield components were independently detected in three environments, whereas fifteen QTL were found in joint analysis. Notably, a stable lint percentage QTL qLP-A10-1 was detected both in joint analysis and in two environments of separate analysis, which might be of special value for marker-assisted selection. The QTL detected in the present study provide new information on improving yield and yield components. Results of path analysis showed that bolls/plant had the largest contribution to lint yield, which is consistent with the mid-parent heterosis value in F(1). Accordingly, in cotton breeding, bolls/plant can be considered first and other yield components measured as a whole to implement variety enhancement and hybrid selection of cotton. PMID:17469776

Wang, Baohua; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhu, Xiefei; Wu, Yaoting; Huang, Naitai; Zhang, Tianzhen

2007-01-01

5

Carcase and component yields of rheas.  

PubMed

1. Three Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) and 5 Lesser Rheas (Pterocnemia pennata) were slaughtered, using the procedures conventional for ostriches in South Africa, in order to determine the expected yield of by-products and saleable lean meat, fat and bone of rheas. 2. Differences (P < 0.05) between species were found in the proportional weight of the wings, feet, skin and liver. The wings, feet and head of rheas form a higher proportion of the carcase than in ostriches, whereas the skin of the former represents a lower percentage of body weight. 3. Lean meat production from rheas (64% on a carcase weight basis) is in the same order as for ostriches, broilers, turkeys and beef. PMID:9347146

Sales, J; Navarro, J L; Bellis, L; Manero, A; Lizurume, M; Martella, M B

1997-09-01

6

High Temperature Effects on Cotton Yield, Yield Components, and Fiber Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As with all biological processes, an optimum temperature range exists for cotton growth. This research tests the upper threshold of that optimum temperature range by investigating how cotton growth and development, lint yield production, yield components, and fiber quality were affected by higher t...

7

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENTS IN CUCUMBER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three U.S. adapted Cucumis sativus var. sativus L. lines and one C. sativus var. hardwickii (R.) Alef. derived line were mated in a half-diallel design to determine their relative combining for several yield-related traits (yield components). The resulting six F1 progenies were evaluated in a rando...

8

Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry  

SciTech Connect

The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield responded linearly to B and quadratically to P. At pH 6.5, P interacted with B and Zn. Fruit count per inflorescence was the yield component most strongly associated with yield, followed by individual fruit weight. However, these two yield components responded differently to soil-applied nutrients. Foliar nutrient levels generally did not increase with the amount of applied nutrient, but often an applied nutrient had a strong effect on the level of another nutrient. Leaf nutrient levels were often correlated with fruit levels, but foliar and fruit levels at harvest were not related to reproductive performance. The study identifies some of the problems inherent in using foliar nutrient levels to predict a yield response and demonstrates how plant responses to single nutrients depend on soil chemistry and the presence of other nutrients.

May, G.M.; Pritts, M.P. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

1993-01-01

9

Effects of leaf rust and powdery mildew on yield, yield components, and quality characters of winter wheats  

E-print Network

). Experiments were conducted in both experimental nur- series and commercial fields during the 1981-82 and 1982-83 seasons. The effects of fungicide treatments on grain yield, yield components, above-ground dry matter yield, harvest index, plant height, test... of powdery mi 1 dew. Yield component analysis was performed on cultivars in the primary experiments which had significant grain yield response to treatment. Tiller number and seed/spike generally were negatively correlated with each other, and highly...

Shafer, Brian Andrew

1985-01-01

10

[Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].  

PubMed

The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

2003-01-01

11

Identification of QTLs for yield and yield components of barley under different growth conditions*  

PubMed Central

Waterlogging is a major abiotic stress limiting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and its stability in areas with excessive rainfall. Identification of genomic regions influencing the response of yield and its components to waterlogging stress will enhance our understanding of the genetics of waterlogging tolerance and the development of more tolerant barley cultivars. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield and its components were identified using 156 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from a cross between the cultivars Yerong (waterlogging-tolerant) and Franklin (waterlogging-sensitive) grown under different conditions (waterlogged and well drained). A total of 31 QTLs were identified for the measured characters from two experiments with two growth environments. The phenotypic variation explained by individual QTLs ranged from 4.74% to 55.34%. Several major QTLs determining kernel weight (KW), grains per spike (GS), spikes per plant (SP), spike length (SL) and grain yield (GY) were detected on the same region of chromosome 2H, indicating close linkage or pleiotropy of the gene(s) controlling these traits. Some different QTLs were identified under waterlogging conditions, and thus different markers may have to be used in selecting cultivars suitable for high rainfall areas. PMID:20205303

Xue, Da-wei; Zhou, Mei-xue; Zhang, Xiao-qin; Chen, Song; Wei, Kang; Zeng, Fan-rong; Mao, Ying; Wu, Fei-bo; Zhang, Guo-ping

2010-01-01

12

Reduction of soybean yield components by Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Since its discovery in the United States, the invasive plataspid Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) has infested soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] fields in often alarming numbers in parts of the southeastern United States. Although a known feeder on soybean, reports of its pest status in its native Asian range are conflicting, and little information exists documenting its impact on soybean yields. Our objective was to examine the relationship between M. cribraria density and soybean yield loss. M. cribraria adults and nymphs were confined to small soybean plots by using walk-in field cages from late vegetative stage to harvest in 2011 and 2012. Adults (0, 5, or 25 per plant) were added at late vegetative stages, and their progeny were allowed to complete a full generation within the caged plots. Densities reached as high as 182.5 +/- 23.1 (SEM) nymphs and adults per plant, and soybean yield was reduced by as much as 59.6% at the highest density treatment. The yield components seeds per pod and individual seed weight were reduced as M. cribraria densities increased, but pods per plant and protein and oil content were not affected. Preliminary economic injury level curves for a range of grain prices and management costs were calculated based on 2012 yield loss data combined with population monitoring. M. cribraria is capable of causing severe reductions in soybean yields at densities that are relevant within its invasive U.S. range. PMID:24020281

Seiter, Nicholas J; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

2013-08-01

13

Seeding date influence on camelina seed yield, yield components, and oil content in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) was introduced for the first time in Chile in 2008 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and also as high omega-3-containing seed oil for the salmon feed industry. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum seeding date to maximize camelina seed yield in South Central Chile. The experiment was conducted under dryland conditions

Marisol Berti; Rosemarie Wilckens; Susana Fischer; Alejandro Solis; Burton Johnson

2011-01-01

14

Soybean Aphid Feeding Injury and Soybean Yield, Yield Components, and Seed Composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Information that describes soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) feeding damage effects on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield and seed composition is needed to develop management practices for this invasive pest. This 2-yr controlled-infestation field study measured aphid populations and th...

15

Yield component analysis of grain sorghum grown under water stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Delayed leaf senescence, or 'stay green', in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench L.) allows continued photosynthesis under drought conditions which can result in normal grain fill and larger yields compared with senescent cultivars. The objective of this study was to compare the yield response of ...

16

Effects of irrigation and plant density on cotton within-boll yield components  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield is integrated through whole-plant and within-boll yield components. Crop management practices such as irrigation and plant density may impact yield. Thus, yield dynamics due to irrigation and plant density may result from changes in the most basic yield comp...

17

Original article Genetic variation for seed yield and its components  

E-print Network

of inflorescences, seed number per plant and seed weight per inflorescence showed high phenotypic and genetic correlations with seed yield per plant. The possibility of using the seed weight per inflorescence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Effect of row spacing on yield and yield components of winter wheat cultivars  

E-print Network

in their experiments. Stoskopf (21) studied the effects of seeding rates and row widths on two shortmtatured narrow-leaved winter wheat experimental lines and one tall-statured broad-leaved cultivar, 'Talbot'. Three seeding rates and two row widths, 22. 8 and 11. 4..., in themselves, did not warrant conversion to narrow row spacing yield trials Bxiggs (1) planted three spring wheat cultivar ('tlenlea', 'Pitic 62' and 'Neepawa') at two locations, at three seeding rates, in row spacings of 15, 23 and 30 cm for two years...

Peters, Ross Jay

1977-01-01

19

Commonality analysis and selection of parents for with-in boll yield components in Upland cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Relationships between lint yield and within-boll yield components are important for genetic improvement of lint yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars. F2 plants derived from crosses between germplasm lines and high yielding cultivars were analyzed to determine the contributions of withi...

20

Effect of planting pattern and planting density on grain yield and grain yield components of winter wheat genotypes  

E-print Network

. When row spacing was decreased from 17. 8 to 12. 7 cm, grain yields increased by an average of 8. 2/ and the primary contributing component was an increased number of tillers per unit area. Increasing planting depth to 3. 8 cm reduced the number..., tillering, floral initiati. on, and maturation, extend over tne life span of the plant and are directly related to the three primary components of yield, i. e. , number of tillers per unit area, number of seed per spike, and weight per seed...

Paliwal, Sarvesh

1985-01-01

21

Increasing Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize yield improvement in the 20th century represents one of the great success stories of plant breeding and agronomy. Maize grain yield in the United States has increased on average by 0.122 metric tons per hectare per year since 1945 (Figure 1). This is in sharp contrast to essentially zero gain ...

22

Yield and Yield Components of Spring Wheat and Field Pea in Diversified Dryland Cropping Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Available water, decreased soil quality, weed competition and plant diseases constrain dryland crop production in the northern Great Plains. We initiated a field trial in 2004 comparing four crop rotations, with each component in a two-by-two matrix of tillage (conventional vs. zero tillage) and ma...

23

Mapping QTL for Biomass Yield and Its Components in Rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addicive effects, additive by additive epistatic effects, and their environmental interactions of QTLs are important genetic components of quantitative traits. Genetic architecture underlying rice biomass yield and its two component traits (straw yield and grain yield) were analyzed for a population of 125 DH lines from an inter-subspecific cross of IR64\\/Azucena. The mixed-model based composite interval mapping approach (MCIM) was

Gui-Fu LIU; Jian YANG; Jun ZHU

2006-01-01

24

QTL analysis of seed yield components in red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivars of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), an important forage crop in temperate regions, are often characterised by an unsatisfactory level of seed yield, leading\\u000a to high production costs. This complex trait is influenced by many components and negatively correlated with other important\\u000a traits, such as forage yield or persistence. Therefore, seed yield has proven to be difficult to improve.

Doris Herrmann; Beat Boller; Bruno Studer; Franco Widmer; Roland Kölliker

2006-01-01

25

Development of gene-tagged markers for quantitative trait loci underlying rice yield components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher yields of rice have always been a predominant goal in rice breeding techniques. However, the inheritances of rice yield\\u000a and its components are still unknown, and no information regarding suitable alleles can be directly provided for improving\\u000a the rice yield level until three major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been cloned and functionally characterized. These\\u000a QTLs contain Gn1a for

Chang-Jie Yan; Song Yan; Ya-Chun Yang; Xiu-Hong Zeng; Yu-Wei Fang; Sheng-Yuan Zeng; Chun-Yan Tian; Ya-Wei Sun; Shu-Zhu Tang; Ming-Hong Gu

2009-01-01

26

EFFECT OF RATOON STUNTING DISEASE ON THE YIELD AND COMPONENTS OF YIELD OF SUGARCANE UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field trial conducted with eight varieties in the north coast area of Natal ratoon stunting disease (RSD) caused increasing lossesin yieldsof cane and sucrosefrom the plant to the second ratoon crop. All the varieties suffered losses in yield but the degree of loss differed markedly among the varieties. The total yield of sugar from the three crops was

R. A. BAILEY; G. R. BECHET

27

Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with yield and yield components under reproductive stage salinity stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Salinity tolerance in rice is critical at reproductive stage because it ultimately determines grain yield. An F2 mapping population derived from a Sadri/FL478 cross was exposed to saline field conditions (6-8 dS m(-1)) after the active tillering stage to identify reproductive stage specific QTLs for salinity tolerance. Genetic linkage map was constructed using 123 microsatellite markers on 232 F2 progenies. Totally 35 QTLs for 11 traits under salinity stress were detected with LOD > 3, out of which 28 QTLs that explained from 5.9 to 30.0% phenotypic variation were found to be significant based on permutation test. Three major QTL clusters were found on chromosomes 2 (RM423-RM174), 4 (RM551-RM518) and 6 (RM20224-RM528) for multiple traits under salinity stress. Both parental lines contributed additively for QTLs identified for the yield components. A majority of the QTLs detected in our study are reported for the first time for reproductive stage salinity stress. Fine-mapping of selected putative QTLs will be the next step to facilitate marker-assisted backcrossing and to detect useful genes for salinity tolerance at the reproductive stage in rice. PMID:24371165

Mohammadi, Reza; Mendioro, Merlyn S; Diaz, Genaleen Q; Gregorio, Glenn B; Singh, Rakesh K

2013-12-01

28

Conditional genetic analysis on quantitative trait loci for yield and its components in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional mapping method was used to analyze QTLs for rice yield and its components: number of productive panicles, number of full-filled grains, and kilo-grain weight. By unconditional mapping, some pleiotropic or closely linked QTLs were detected; by conditional mapping, QTL number of yield decreased greatly after excluding the ef- fect from full grain, which indicated that full grain gave the

Gangqiang Caol; Jun Zhu

29

Effect of laser priming on canola yield and its components under salt stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of laser priming at different irradiation times on canola yield and its components under saline conditions were investigated. The results showed that laser priming had a positive effect on yield and its components and caused yield increase under saline conditions. Increase in salt levels had a negative and significant effect on seed yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, pod length and plant height. The results showed that 45-min laser priming had the strongest effect on yield and yield components and reduced significantly the adverse effects of salinity. By contrast, laser radiation applied for 60 and 75 min, resulted in a dramatic decrease in yield and its components. Correlation coefficients between the attributes showed that canola yield had a positive and significant correlation with plant height, number of seeds, pod per main branch and lateral branches, length of pod and number of lateral branches. Effects of laser and salinity were significant on lateral branch pod length but not on main branch pods.

Mohammadi, S.; Shekari, F.; Fotovat, R.; Darudi, A.

2012-02-01

30

Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (...

31

Yield Components and Nutritive Value of Black Locust and Mimosa in Arkansas.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (b...

32

Cotton Response to 1-Methylcyclopropene Under Different Light Regimes and Growth Stages: Lint Yield and Yield Components  

E-print Network

imposed at four developmental stages of growth: pinhead square (PHS), first flower (FF), peak flower (PF), and boll development (BD). Data pooled over both years indicated that there were no significant differences in yield for 1-MCP treatments; however...

Carden, Charles Warren

2010-10-12

33

DUAL-COMPONENT VIDEO IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM (VIASCANTM) AS A PREDICTOR OF BEEF RED MEAT YIELD PERCENTAGE AND FOR AUGMENTING APPLICATION OF USDA YIELD GRADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCANTM: (a) to predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and (b) to augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving

R. C. Cannell; J. D. Tatum; K. E. Belk; J. W. Wise; R. P. Clayton; G. C. Smith

34

Genetic analysis of drought tolerance in maize by molecular markersI. Yield components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain yield is a complex trait, strongly influenced by the environment: severe losses can be caused by drought, a stress common\\u000a in most maize-growing areas, including temperate climatic zones. Accordingly, drought tolerance is one of the main components\\u000a of yield stability, and its improvement is a major challenge to breeders. The aim of the present work was the identification,\\u000a in

C. Frova; P. Krajewski; N. di Fonzo; M. Villa; M. Sari-Gorla

1999-01-01

35

Identifi cation of Quantitative Trait Loci in Rice for Yield, Yield Components, and Agronomic Traits across Years and Locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 164 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) derived from a cross between Milyang23 and Gihobyeo was evaluated for nine phenotypic characters over three years and two regions in Korea. The pop- ulation had been previously mapped using 414 molecular markers. Genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was analyzed for six grain yield- related

Yong-Gu Cho; Hyeon-Jung Kang; Jeom-Sig Lee; Young-Tae Lee; Sang-Jong Lim; Hugh Gauch; Moo-Young Eun; Susan R. McCouch

2007-01-01

36

Association Between Yield, Yield Components, and Fiber Properties Exotic Germplasm Derived from Multiple Crosses Between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Broadening genetic base is essential for genetic improvement of lint yield and fiber quality in upland cotton. An exotic germplasm population derived from multiple crosses between Gossypium barbadense L. and Acala 1517 types was obtained from USDA-ARS at Las Cruces, NM, USA. This germplasm was desi...

37

Path and Ridge Regression Analysis of Seed Yield and Seed Yield Components of Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2 were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components. PMID:21533153

Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, René

2011-01-01

38

Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration. PMID:24783784

Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

2014-01-01

39

QTL ANALYSIS FOR YIELD COMPONENTS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) UNDER DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield components were identified based on an RFLP map from a double haploid population. The 123 DH lines with their parents IR64 and Azucena were evaluated in the field in two different environments (Hangzhou and Hainan). The study revealed that individual QTLs showed a range of sensibility to environments as some QTLs were detected only

Mebrouk Benmoussa; Abderrahmane Achouch; Jun Zhu

40

Epistasis for Three Grain Yield Components in Rice (Oryxa sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic basis for three grain yield components of rice, 1000 kernel weight (KW), grain number per panicle (GN), and grain weight per panicle (GWP), was investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism markers and F4 progeny testing from a cross between rice subspecies japonica (cultivar Lemont from USA) and indica (cv. Teqing from China). Following identification of 19 QTL affecting

Zhikang Li; Shannon R. M. Pinson; Andrew H. Paterson; James W. Stanselt

1997-01-01

41

Mapping quantitative trait loci for yield, yield components and morphological traits in an advanced backcross population between Oryza rufipogon and the Oryza sativa cultivar Jefferson  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced backcross population between an accession of Oryza rufipogon (IRGC 105491) and the U.S. cultivar Jefferson ( Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) was developed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield, yield components and morphological traits. The genetic linkage map generated for this population consisted of 153 SSR and RFLP markers with an average interval size of 10.3 cM. Thirteen

M. J. Thomson; T. H. Tai; A. M. McClung; X. H. Lai; M. E. Hinga; K. B. Lobos; Y. Xu; C. P. Martinez; S. R. McCouch

2003-01-01

42

Effects of a short-term p-hydroxybenzoic acid application on grain yield and yield components in different tiller categories of spring barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of these experiments was to evaluate how thresholds for phytotoxic substances obtained in seedling bioassays relate to yield losses or changes in yield components of mature barley crops after a short-term exposure to p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Under laboratory conditions a treatment with 1.81 mM p-hydroxybenzoic acid significantly reduced the radicle length of barley, whereas coleoptile elongation was less sensitive.

O. Christen; J. V. Lovett

1993-01-01

43

Dissecting the components of hybrid vigor associated lint yield in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Use of heterosis to increase yield of cotton has long been a breeding objective. A previous study suggests that mid-parent heterosis is negatively correlated with environment mean yield thus suggesting lint yield is higher in hybrids compared to parents in low yielding environments. We present here ...

44

Long-Term Tillage, Cover Crop, and Nitrogen Rate Effects on Cotton: Plant Growth and Yield Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield is influenced by tillage, no-till and cover crops are useful for soil moisture con- cover crop, and N fertility, but the plant growth and yield component servation in the southeastern USA. responses related to these yield responses have not been well defined. A field study was conducted from 1991 through 2001 on Gigger silt Undoubtedly,

Donald J. Boquet; Robert L. Hutchinson; Gary A. Breitenbeck

45

Analysis of QTL×environment interaction for yield components and plant height in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An F2 and two equivalent F3 populations of an indica-indica cross of rice, Tesanai 2\\/CB, were constructed and grown in different environments. The identification of quantitative trait\\u000a loci (QTL) for yield components and plant height and an analysis of QTL?environment interaction were conducted for three trials.\\u000a Interval mapping of QTL for eight traits was employed with a threshold of LOD=2

J.-Y. Zhuang; H.-X. Lin; J. Lu; H.-R. Qian; S. Hittalmani; N. Huang; K.-L. Zheng

1997-01-01

46

Relationships among Biomass Yield Components within and between Subspecies of Alfalfa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosses between Medicago sativa subsp. sativa and subsp. falcata show a heterotic pattern for total biomass yield, with inter-subspecific crosses outperforming intra- subspecific crosses. Little is known about relationships among agronomic traits in sativa-falcata hybrids. The objective of this study was to examine correlations among twenty traits including total biomass yield, total biomass yield heterosis, agronomic traits and forage nutritive

Heathcliffe Riday; E. Charles Brummer

47

Relationship between physiological traits and yield components of peanut genotypes with different levels of terminal drought resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationships between physiological traits related to drought tolerance and yield components of peanut genotypes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between physiological traits related to drought tolerance and yield components of peanut gen...

48

To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan  

SciTech Connect

Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E. [Department of Agronomy, Plant breeding and genetic, Faculty of Agricutlure, Zabol University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-01-30

49

QTL consistency and meta-analysis for grain yield components in three generations in maize.  

PubMed

Grain yield is the most important and complex trait in maize. In this study, a total of 258 F(9) recombinant inbred lines (RIL), derived from a cross between dent corn inbred Dan232 and popcorn inbred N04, were evaluated for eight grain yield components under four environments. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their epistatic interactions were detected for all traits under each environment and in combined analysis. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps and detected QTL across three generations (RIL, F(2:3) and BC(2)F(2)) derived from the same cross. In total, 103 QTL, 42 pairs of epistatic interactions and 16 meta-QTL (mQTL) were detected. Twelve out of 13 QTL with contributions (R(2)) over 15% were consistently detected in 3-4 environments (or in combined analysis) and integrated in mQTL. Only q100GW-7-1 was detected in all four environments and in combined analysis. 100qGW-1-1 had the largest R(2) (19.3-24.6%) in three environments and in combined analysis. In contrast, 35 QTL for 6 grain yield components were detected in the BC(2)F(2) and F(2:3) generations, no common QTL across three generations were located in the same marker intervals. Only 100 grain weight (100GW) QTL on chromosome 5 were located in adjacent marker intervals. Four common QTL were detected across the RIL and F(2:3) generations, and two between the RIL and BC(2)F(2) generations. Each of five important mQTL (mQTL7-1, mQTL10-2, mQTL4-1, mQTL5-1 and mQTL1-3) included 7-12 QTL associated with 2-6 traits. In conclusion, we found evidence of strong influence of genetic structure and environment on QTL detection, high consistency of major QTL across environments and generations, and remarkable QTL co-location for grain yield components. Fine mapping for five major QTL (q100GW-1-1, q100GW-7-1, qGWP-4-1, qERN-4-1 and qKR-4-1) and construction of single chromosome segment lines for genetic regions of five mQTL merit further studies and could be put into use in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:21063866

Li, J Z; Zhang, Z W; Li, Y L; Wang, Q L; Zhou, Y G

2011-03-01

50

Yield Factors Lithography-  

E-print Network

Yield Factors Parametric Lithography- based Defect Density 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0.35 micron 0.25 micron 0.18 micron 0.13 micron 0.09 micron Process Technology NominalYields Defect Density Lithography-based Parametric Yield Yield-Aware Cache Architectures Serkan Ozdemir Debjit

Zhou, Hai

51

Yield Advances in Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Average yields of peanut in the U.S. set an all time record of 4,695 kg ha-1 in 2012. This far exceeded the previous record yield of 3,837 kg ha-1 in 2008. Favorable weather conditions undoubtedly contributed to the record yields in 2012; however, these record yields would not have been achievable...

52

Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

53

Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes  

E-print Network

(SBOLL) , f ibers per seed (FS), lint yield per seed (LYS), fibers per unit seed surface area (FSA) , and lint yield per unit seed surface area (LYSA) . Parents and Fi I s from a diallel mating scheme, excluding reciprocals, were space planted in 1989...

Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

1993-01-01

54

An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.  

PubMed

In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. PMID:20128501

Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

2009-10-15

55

[Tagging and mapping of QTLs controlling lint yield and yield components in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using SSR and RAPD markers].  

PubMed

Using interval mapping and marker simple regression methods, the QTLs of yield and its components in (Simian 3 x TM-1) F2 and F2:3, were tagged and Mapped with 39 SSR and 10 RAPD markers having polymorphism between parents screened from 301 pair SSR primers and 1040 RAPD primers. Simian 3 is being grown extensively in Yangtze River cotton-growing valley characterized as high productivity with more bolls and higher lint percent, whereas TM-1, Genetic standard in Upland cotton with more heavy boll weight. In the present report, two QTLs controlling boll size with 18.2% and 21.0% phenotype variance explained in F2:3 generation, one QTL controlling lint percent with 24.9% phenotype variance explained in F2 generation and 5.9% in F2:3 generation and one QTL controlling 100-seed weight with 15.6% phenotype variance explained in F2:3 generation were mapped in Chromosome 9. Additionally, another QTL responsible for 100-seed weight was identified and mapped at the same position in Chromosome 9 in F2:3 generation. It is worth for further to be studied whether it is one QTL for pleiotrophism or two closely linked QTLs. The molecular markers mapped and tagged closely with main QTLs of yield traits in this paper can be used for MAS in cotton high-yield breeding program. PMID:12148276

Yin, Jian-Mei; Wu, Yao-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Guo, Wang-Zhen; Zhu, Xie-Fei

2002-01-01

56

Quantitative trait loci(qtl) analysis of yield components and heat tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum)  

E-print Network

temperature stress are likely quantitatively inherited. A transgressive segregation pattern compared to the two parents was observed in several yield traits. This suggests that genetic variation from optimal recombination from the two parents have occurred...

Do, Jung Hwa

2009-05-15

57

The yield stress myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New experimental data obtained from constant stress rheometers are used to show that the yield stress concept is an idealization, and that, given accurate measurements, no yield stress exists. The simple Cross model is shown to be a useful empiricism for many non-Newtonian fluids, including those which have hitherto been thought to possess a yield stress.

H. A. Barnes; K. Walters

1985-01-01

58

Ideotype Population Exploration: Growth, Photosynthesis, and Yield Components at Different Planting Densities in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.).  

PubMed

Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×104, 37.5×104, 48.0×104, 58.5×104, 69.0×104 plants ha-1) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×104 plants ha-1 in ZS11 and 48.0×104 plants ha-1 in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×104 plants ha-1for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×104 (n m-2) and ?1×104 (n m-2), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m-2) and ?300 (n m-2), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

2014-01-01

59

Ideotype Population Exploration: Growth, Photosynthesis, and Yield Components at Different Planting Densities in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)  

PubMed Central

Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×104, 37.5×104, 48.0×104, 58.5×104, 69.0×104 plants ha–1) during 2010–2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011–2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×104 plants ha–1 in ZS11 and 48.0×104 plants ha–1 in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×104 plants ha–1for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×104 (n m–2) and ?1×104 (n m-2), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m–2) and ?300 (n m–2), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

2014-01-01

60

Spatial and temporal precipitation variability as a component of site-specific crop yield variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine spatial and temporal precipitation variability, and the effect of this variability on yield and profitability. On-farm precipitation data is currently being measured by site- specific farmers. One potential use of the data is to provide inputs for corn yield modeling, which has been performed with neural networks and simulation. Profitability of measuring on-farm data depends on spatial precipitation variability and its effect on yield. Precipitation and air temperature from corn silking to dent stages, scale of yield data, and a technology factor were used to model corn yield in east central Indiana at farm (250 ha), county, and state scales, using backpropagation neural networks with five data coding schemes. The best net gave a root-mean-squared error of 11.9% overall (10.9% farm, 10.5% county, 7.9% state yield), with maximum-value interval coding. Four rain gauges on the same farm, spaced apart 1.02 to 3.04 km, gave a median absolute deviation of precipitation among gauges, by corn and soybean phenological phase, of 0.25 to 1.73 mm.day-1 (spatial variability). Median absolute deviation from a reference year was 0.17 to 3.40 mm.day-1 (temporal/year-to- year variability). Spatial variability was less than temporal variability, and frequently less than 1 mm. Three precipitation data sources-a National Weather Service (NWS) station on the same farm, the nearest non- urban NWS station, and a weighted mean of three nearest non-urban NWS stations (27-35 km distance)-were used to simulate corn yield by 1-ha grid cells with CERES-Maize. The percent absolute difference of simulated yield among the three sources (effect of spatial precipitation variability) was 15.8%. The percent absolute difference from long-term mean (temporal variability) was 21.5%, of the same order as spatial variability. A choice among nitrogen application strategies-variable-rate versus whole-field application, starter versus no starter-was made for the same farm, using probability of profit from simulated corn yield based on the three precipitation data sources. The most profitable strategy was not dependent on the data source. Using data from the nearest NWS station was more profitable than measuring precipitation on-site.

O'Neal, Monte Ray

61

Influence of pressure on pyrolysis of black liquor: 2. Char yields and component release.  

PubMed

This is the second in a series of papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis at elevated pressures. Two industrial black liquors were pyrolyzed under pressurized conditions in two laboratory-scale devices, a pressurized single-particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater. Temperatures ranging between 650 and 1100 degrees C and pressures in the range 1-20 bar were studied. Char yields were calculated and based on analysis of some of the chars the fate of carbon, sodium, potassium and sulfur was determined as a function of pyrolysis pressure. At temperatures below 800 degrees C little variation in char yield was observed at different pressures. At higher temperatures char yield increased with pressure due to slower decomposition of sodium carbonate. For the same reason, sodium release decreased with pressure. Sulfur release, however, increased with pressure primarily because there was less opportunity for its capture in the less-swollen chars. PMID:17349787

Whitty, Kevin; Kullberg, Mika; Sorvari, Vesa; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko

2008-02-01

62

Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

63

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

64

Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers on yield components and specific gravity of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Netted Gem potatoes were grown at four levels of N, three of P, and two of K fertilizer in metal lysimeters protected from\\u000a rain by an automatic shelter. The first two increments of N fertilizer, 200 and 400lb\\/acre (224 and 448 kg\\/ha), successively\\u000a increased yields by increasing the number of tubers produced. The first increment also increased the average tuber

S. Dubetz; J. B. Bole

1975-01-01

65

Overdominant Epistatic Loci Are the Primary Genetic Basis of Inbreeding Depression and Heterosis in Rice. II. Grain Yield Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic basis underlying inbreeding depression and heterosis for three grain yield components of rice was investigated in five interrelated mapping populations using a complete RFLP linkage map, replicated phenotyping, and the mixed model approach. The populations included 254 F10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Lemont ( japonica) and Teqing (indica), two backcross (BC) and two

L. J. Luo; Z.-K. Li; H. W. Mei; Q. Y. Shu; R. Tabien; D. B. Zhong; C. S. Ying; J. W. Stansel; G. S. Khush; A. H. Paterson

66

Identification of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield components in an advanced backcross population derived from the Oryza sativa variety IR64 and the wild relative O. rufipogon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BC 2F 2 population developed from an interspecific cross between Oryza sativa (cv IR64) and O. rufipogon (IRGC 105491) was used in an advanced backcross QTL analysis to identify and introduce agronomically useful genes from this wild relative into the cultivated gene pool. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify putative yield and yield component QTLs that

E. M. Septiningsih; J. Prasetiyono; E. Lubis; T. Tjubaryat; S. Moeljopawiro; S. R. McCouch

2003-01-01

67

Combining ability analysis for within-boll yield components in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Cotton is an important cash crop worldwide, accounting for a large percentage of world agricultural exports; however, yield per acre is still poor in many countries, including Pakistan. Diallel mating system was used to identify parents for improving within-boll yield and fiber quality parameters. Combining ability analysis was employed to obtain suitable parents for this purpose. The parental genotypes CP-15/2, NIAB Krishma, CIM-482, MS-39, and S-12 were crossed in complete diallel mating under green house conditions during 2009. The F? seed of 20 hybrids and five parents were planted in the field in randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010. There were highly significant differences among all F? hybrids and their parents. Specific combining ability (SCA) variance was greater than general combining ability (GCA) variance for bolls per plant (9.987), seeds per boll (0.635), seed density (5.672), lint per seed (4.174), boll size (3.69), seed cotton yield (0.315), and lint percentage (0.470), showing predominance of non-additive genes; while seed volume (3.84) was controlled by additive gene action based on maximum GCA variance. Cultivar MS-39 was found to be the best general combiner for seed volume (0.102), seeds per boll (0.448), and lint per seed (0.038) and its utilization produced valuable hybrids, including MS-39 x NIAB Krishma and MS-39 x S-12. The parental line CIM-482 had high GCA effects for boll size (0.33) and seeds per boll (0.90). It also showed good SCA with S-12 and NIAB Krishma for bolls per plant, with CP- 15/2 for boll size, and with MS-39 for seeds per boll. The hybrids, namely, CP-15/2 x NIAB Krishma, NIAB Krishma x S-12, NIAB Krishma x CIM-482, MS-39 x NIAB Krishma, MS-39 x CP-15/2, and S-12 x MS-39 showed promising results. Correlation analysis revealed that seed cotton yield showed significant positive correlation with bolls per plant, boll size and seeds per boll while it showed negative correlation with lint percentage and lint per seed. Seed volume showed significant negative correlation with seed density. Seeds per boll were positively correlated with boll size and negatively correlated with bolls per plant lint percentage and lint per seed. Similarly, lint per seed exhibited positive correlation with lint percentage and boll size showed significantly negative correlation with bolls per plant. Presence of non-additive genetic effects in traits like bolls per plant, seeds per boll, lint per seed, seed cotton yield, and lint percentage is indicative of later generation selection or heterosis breeding may be adopted. For boll size, seed volume and seed density early generation selection may be followed because of the presence of additive gene action. The parental material used in this study and cross combinations obtained from these parents may be exploited in future breeding endeavors. PMID:23007974

Imran, M; Shakeel, A; Azhar, F M; Farooq, J; Saleem, M F; Saeed, A; Nazeer, W; Riaz, M; Naeem, M; Javaid, A

2012-01-01

68

SEED YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS RESPONSE OF RAPE (B. NAPUS) VERSUS MUSTARD (B. JUNCEA) TO SULFUR AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN NORTHWEST PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improper sulfur (S) and potassium (K) fertilizer management, particularly with continued soil nutrient mining, is one of the major factors contributing to low seed yield of canola in northwestern Pakistan. A field experiment was conducted in 2007?2008 on a S and K deficient clay loam soil at the Research Farm of NWFP (Northwest Frontier Province) Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan, with

Amanullah; Muhammad Hassan; Sukhdev S. Malhi

2011-01-01

69

Argentina corn yield model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

1984-01-01

70

Argentina soybean yield model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

1984-01-01

71

Carcass and non-carcass component yields of crossbred Boer and Brazilian semiarid indigenous goats subjected to different feeding levels.  

PubMed

The effect of different feeding levels (ad libitum, 25 and 50 % restriction) and genotypes (½ Boer?×?½ nondescript breed goats, Canindé, and Moxotó) on carcass quantitative characteristics and non-carcass components (NCC) were evaluated. Forty-five intact male goats were distributed in a 3 × 3 factorial design with five replicates. There was no effect of genotype on carcass weights and yields and retail cuts weights and yields (P > 0.05). Compared to Moxotó, ½ Boer presented better carcass conformation and higher weights (P < 0.01) and yields of viscera from gastrointestinal tract (P < 0.05), and compared to the other genotypes (P < 0.01), ½ Boer presented larger carcass compactness. Carcass weights and yields, retail cuts weights and NCC, and soft tissues yields were higher (P < 0.01) in goats fed ad libitum. The two restriction levels did not differ (P > 0.05) for these variables. There were interactions of genotype and feeding level. At ad libitum feeding, ½ Boer had higher weights of breast and shank, leg, soft tissues, and gastrointestinal viscera compared to the Moxotó (P < 0.05). The crossing of nondescript breed goats with Boer may be a strategy for increasing the efficiency of goat meat production in the Brazilian semiarid. Moreover, in times of feed scarcity, farmers may use higher feed restriction levels to keep animals, since for most of the parameters evaluated, there were no differences between the restriction levels. PMID:24492978

Martins, Samara Rodrigues; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Yamamoto, Sandra Mari; Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Tiago Santos

2014-04-01

72

Combining ability of yield components and agronomic characteristics among selected Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench inbreds  

E-print Network

showed large positive results fo" the female parent ATx623 and he male parer. ts RTx430, 77CS1, 77CS286, and 77CS3. The hybrids ATx399 x 77CS1, A x623 x RTx415, A x399 x R x7000, ATx378 x 77CS2, ano A1388 x 77CS256 had large positive SCA effec...CS2 77CS1 77CS3 RTx430 RTx09 RTx415 RTx431(Ts) 77CS256(Ts) RTx7000 77CSZ 77CS1 77CS3 RTx 430 RTx09 RTx415 RTx431(Ts) 77CSZ56(Ts) 12 Experimental Procedures In order to characterize the relet:ons)-ips among variables in yield...

Smith, Leslie Kay

1986-01-01

73

Effect of kinetin concentration and methods of application on seed germination, yield components, yield and fiber properties of the Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense).  

PubMed

Two field experiments in 1993 and 1994 as well as a laboratory germination experiment were conducted on the Egyptian cotton cultivar Giza 75 (Gossypium barbadense) to determine the effect of six concentrations of kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) ranging from 0 to 10.0 mg l(-1) and three different methods of application: (A) seeds were soaked for 24 h before germination (laboratory experiment) or sowing (field experiment) in solutions of different kinetin concentration, (B) cotton plants were sprayed twice with different kinetin concentrations at 60 and 75 days after sowing (DAS) during the square initiation and the beginning of bolling stages, at volume solution of 480 l ha(-1). (C) Seeds were soaked in kinetin solutions before sowing as method A. In addition cotton plants were sprayed twice as method B with the same kinetin concentrations. Kinetin application improved seed viability and seedling vigour as shown by lengths of the hypocotyl, radicle and the entire seedling, as well as seedling fresh weight. Moreover, significant increases were recorded in the number of open bolls/plant, boll weight, lint and seed indices, seed cotton yield/plant, and seed cotton and lint yields/plot. The highest means were obtained at 5 mg kinetin l(-1) concentration and under method C of application. Treatments generally, had no significant effects on lint percentage, yield earliness and fiber properties. These results show that, the use of kinetin at 5 mg l(-1) for pre-soaking seeds before planting and spraying cotton plants at 60 and 75 DAS with the same concentration could improve cotton germination, seed cotton and lint yields. PMID:10927129

Sawan; Mohamed; Sakr; Tarrad

2000-08-01

74

Yield gaps and yield relationships in US soybean production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The magnitude of yield gaps (YG) (potential yield – farmer yield) provides some indication of the prospects for increasing crop yield to meet the food demands of future populations. Quantile regression analysis was applied to county soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yields (1971 – 2011) from Kentuc...

75

Ecosystem Viable Yields  

E-print Network

The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

2011-01-01

76

Super-AGB yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first simulations of the full evolution of super-AGB stars through the entire thermally pulsing AGB phase. We analyse their structural and evolutionary properties and determine the first SAGB yields. Owing to their massive oxygen-neon core, SAGB stars suffer weak thermal pulses, have very short interpulse periods and develop very high temperatures at the base of their convective envelope leading to very efficient hot bottom burning. SAGB stars are consequently heavy manufacturers of 4He, 13C and 14N. They are also able to inject significant amounts of 7Li, 17O, 25Mg and 26,27Al in the interstellar medium. The 3DUP mainly affects the CNO yields, especially at low metallicity. This study also reveals that changes in the temperature at the base of the convective envelope have a dramatic impact on the yields and represents another major source of uncertainty.

Siess, Lionel

77

Decomposing global crop yield variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961–2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key aspect of global food availability.

Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

2014-11-01

78

Biotechnology of Forest Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural and genetic manipulation of Douglas fir and loblolly pine plantations have increased their productivity 70 and 300 percent, respectively, over natural forests on the same sites. Yet these intensively managed plantations are achieving less than 50 percent of their potential productivity. Future increases in yield will result from optimization of nutritional treatments, control of noncrop vegetation, and advances in

Peter Farnum; Roger Timmis; J. Laurence Kulp

1983-01-01

79

Influence on Grain Yields and Yield Components of Leaf Rust of Wheat and Crown Rust of Oats as Measured by Isogenic Resistant and Susceptible Lines.  

E-print Network

OF WEAT Leaf rust of wheat, Pucciniu reconditu RO~. ex Desm., and crown rust of oats, Puccinia cornonata Cda. var. Avenae AND CROWN RUST OF OATS Fraser and Led. Eriks, are the most destructive diseases of wheat and oats, respectively, in Texas. Owing... 54-2 56. 15. Mains, E. B. 1959. Effect of leaf rust (Puccinid triticiana) Eriks. on yield of wheat. Phytopathology 49:254-256. 16. Murphy, H. C. 1939. Effect of crown rust and stem rus:s on the relative cold resistance of varieties and selections...

Atkins, I. M.; Alcala de Stephano, Maximino; Merkle, O. G.; Kilpatrick, R. A.

1966-01-01

80

Favorable QTL alleles for yield and its components identified by association mapping in Chinese Upland cotton cultivars.  

PubMed

Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping is a powerful tool for dissecting the genetic basis underlying complex traits. In this study, an association mapping panel consisting of 356 representative Upland cotton cultivars was constructed, evaluated in three environments and genotyped using 381 SSRs to detect molecular markers associated with lint yield and its components. The results showed that abundant phenotypic and moderate genetic diversities existed within this germplasm panel. The population could be divided into two subpopulations, and weak relatedness was detected between pair-wise accessions. LD decayed to the background (r(2) = 0.1182, P ? 0.01), r(2) = 0.1 and r(2) = 0.2 level within 12-13 cM, 17-18 cM and 3-4 cM, respectively, providing the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in Chinese Upland cotton. A total of 55 marker-trait associations were detected between 26 SSRs and seven lint yield traits, based on a mixed linear model (MLM) and Bonferroni correction (P ? 0.05/145, -log10 P ? 3.46). Of which 41 could be detected in more than one environment and 17 markers were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Many associations were consistent with QTLs identified by linkage mapping in previous reports. Phenotypic values of alleles of each loci in 41 stably detected associations were compared, and 23 favorable alleles were identified. Population frequency of each favorable allele in historically released cultivar groups was also evaluated. The QTLs detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of lint yield and its components, and the favorable alleles may facilitate future high-yield breeding by genomic selection in Upland cotton. PMID:24386089

Mei, Hongxian; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

2013-01-01

81

Favorable QTL Alleles for Yield and Its Components Identified by Association Mapping in Chinese Upland Cotton Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping is a powerful tool for dissecting the genetic basis underlying complex traits. In this study, an association mapping panel consisting of 356 representative Upland cotton cultivars was constructed, evaluated in three environments and genotyped using 381 SSRs to detect molecular markers associated with lint yield and its components. The results showed that abundant phenotypic and moderate genetic diversities existed within this germplasm panel. The population could be divided into two subpopulations, and weak relatedness was detected between pair-wise accessions. LD decayed to the background (r2?=?0.1182, P?0.01), r2?=?0.1 and r2?=?0.2 level within 12–13 cM, 17–18 cM and 3–4 cM, respectively, providing the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in Chinese Upland cotton. A total of 55 marker-trait associations were detected between 26 SSRs and seven lint yield traits, based on a mixed linear model (MLM) and Bonferroni correction (P?0.05/145, ?log10P?3.46). Of which 41 could be detected in more than one environment and 17 markers were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Many associations were consistent with QTLs identified by linkage mapping in previous reports. Phenotypic values of alleles of each loci in 41 stably detected associations were compared, and 23 favorable alleles were identified. Population frequency of each favorable allele in historically released cultivar groups was also evaluated. The QTLs detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of lint yield and its components, and the favorable alleles may facilitate future high-yield breeding by genomic selection in Upland cotton. PMID:24386089

Mei, Hongxian; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

2013-01-01

82

Atmospheric Fluorescence Yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric fluorescence from these showers. Accurate knowledge of the conversion from atmospheric fluorescence to energy loss by ionizing particles in the atmosphere is key to this technique. In this paper we discuss a small balloon-borne instrument to make the first in situ measurements versus altitude of the atmospheric fluorescence yield. The instrument can also be used in the lab to investigate the dependence of the fluorescence yield in air on temperature, pressure and the concentrations of other gases that present in the atmosphere. The results can be used to explore environmental effects on and improve the accuracy of cosmic ray energy measurements for existing ground-based experiments and future space-based experiments.

Adams, James H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

83

Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (<315nm), UV-A+B (<400nm), transmitted all the UV (280-400nm) or without filters. All the four plant species responded to UV exclusion by a significant increase in plant height, leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. PMID:24041852

Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

2013-10-01

84

UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR YIELD IMPROVEMENT  

E-print Network

/average casting weight (yield decreases with its increase). VARIABLES IMPACTING YIELD IN STEEL CASTING of Iowa researchers are conducting a casting yield survey to deter- mine the average metal yield in steel techniques for decreasing the size and number of risers re- quired to produce quality castings

Beckermann, Christoph

85

Defining and managing sustainable yield.  

PubMed

Ground water resource management programs are paying increasing attention to the integration of ground water and surface water in the planning process. Many plans, however, show a sophistication in approach and presentation that masks a fundamental weakness in the overall analysis. The plans usually discuss issues of demand and yield, yet never directly address a fundamental issue behind the plan--how to define sustainable yield of an aquifer system. This paper points out a number of considerations that must be addressed in defining sustainable yield in order to make the definition more useful in practical water resource planning studies. These include consideration for the spatial and temporal aspects of the problem, the development of a conceptual water balance, the influence of boundaries and changes in technology on the definition, the need to examine water demand as well as available supply, the need for stakeholder involvement, and the issue of uncertainty in our understanding of the components of the hydrologic system. PMID:15584295

Maimone, Mark

2004-01-01

86

Yield components and nutritive value of Robinia pseudoacacia and Albizia julibrissin in Arkansas, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ranchers need alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. Our objectives were to determine: 1) leaf and stem biomass components, 2) nutritive value (in vitro dry matter digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N and N digestibility) of leaves ...

87

Unattended Exposure to Components of Speech Sounds Yields Same Benefits as Explicit Auditory Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning a second language as an adult is particularly effortful when new phonetic representations must be formed. Therefore the processes that allow learning of speech sounds are of great theoretical and practical interest. Here we examined whether perception of single formant transitions, that is, sound components critical in speech perception,…

Seitz, Aaron R.; Protopapas, Athanassios; Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Vlahou, Eleni L.; Gori, Simone; Grossberg, Stephen; Watanabe, Takeo

2010-01-01

88

Modeling of Milling Yield Components and Their Relationship to Grain Quality QTLs in Long Grain japonica Rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milling yield, also called "head rice recovery", is defined as the percentage of head rice obtained from rough rice. Milling yield is a critically important trait to the commercialization of rice cultivars because it largely determines the economic value of the farmer's crop. To investigate the inh...

89

Effects of Different Plant Growth Regulators and Time of Pruning on Yield Components of Rosa damascena Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) is an important essential oil yielding crop in Iran. In order to determine the best pruning time and effect of different plant growth regulators, three different times of pruning with seven types of growth hormones were assessed. Pruning time at 1st week of March significantly affected on plant height and flower yield but not on

VAHID REZA SAFFARI; AHMAD KHALIGHI; HOSSEIN LESANI; MESBAH BABALAR; JULIUS F. OBERMAIER

90

Unattended exposure to components of speech sounds yields same benefits as explicit auditory training  

PubMed Central

Learning a second language as an adult is particularly effortful when new phonetic representations must be formed. Therefore the processes that allow learning of speech sounds are of great theoretical and practical interest. Here we examined whether perception of single formant transitions, that is, sound components critical in speech perception, can be enhanced through an implicit task-irrelevant learning procedure that has been shown to produce visual perceptual learning. The single-formant sounds were paired at sub-threshold levels with the attended targets in an auditory identification task. Results showed that task-irrelevant learning occurred for the unattended stimuli. Surprisingly, the magnitude of this learning effect was similar to that following explicit training on auditory formant transition detection using discriminable stimuli in an adaptive procedure, whereas explicit training on the subthreshold stimuli produced no learning. These results suggest that in adults learning of speech parts can occur at least partially through implicit mechanisms. PMID:20346448

Seitz, Aaron R.; Protopapas, Athanassios; Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Vlahou, Eleni L.; Gori, Simone; Grossberg, Stephen; Watanabe, Takeo

2010-01-01

91

A Novel Role of the Potyviral Helper Component Proteinase Contributes To Enhance the Yield of Viral Particles  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The helper component proteinase (HCPro) is an indispensable, multifunctional protein of members of the genus Potyvirus and other viruses of the family Potyviridae. This viral factor is directly involved in diverse steps of viral infection, such as aphid transmission, polyprotein processing, and suppression of host antiviral RNA silencing. In this paper, we show that although a chimeric virus based on the potyvirus Plum pox virus lacking HCPro, which was replaced by a heterologous silencing suppressor, caused an efficient infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, its viral progeny had very reduced infectivity. Making use of different approaches, here, we provide direct evidence of a previously unknown function of HCPro in which the viral factor enhances the stability of its cognate capsid protein (CP), positively affecting the yield of virions and consequently improving the infectivity of the viral progeny. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the ability of HCPro to stabilize CP and enhance the yield of infectious viral particles is not linked to any of its previously known activities and helped us to delimit the region of HCPro involved in this function in the central region of the protein. Moreover, the function is highly specific and cannot be fulfilled by the HCPro of a heterologous potyvirus. The importance of this novel requirement in regulating the sorting of the viral genome to be subjected to replication, translation, and encapsidation, thus contributing to the synchronization of these viral processes, is discussed. IMPORTANCE Potyviruses form one of the most numerous groups of plant viruses and are a major cause of crop loss worldwide. It is well known that these pathogens make use of virus-derived multitasking proteins, as well as dedicated host factors, to successfully infect their hosts. Here, we describe a novel requirement for the proper yield and infectivity of potyviral progeny. In this case, such a function is performed by the extensively studied viral factor HCPro, which seems to use an unknown mechanism that is not linked to its previously described activities. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a factor different from capsid protein (CP) has been shown to be directly involved in the yield of potyviral particles. Based on the data presented here, we hypothesize that this capacity of HCPro might be involved in the coordination of mutually exclusive activities of the viral genome by controlling correct assembly of CP in stable virions. PMID:24942578

Gallo, Araíz; Calvo, María; Pérez, José de Jesús

2014-01-01

92

Parsimonious Modeling of Yield Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a parametrically parsimonious model for yield curves that has the ability to represent the shapes generally associated with yield curves: monotonic, humped, and S-shaped. The authors find that the model explains 96 percent of the variation in bill yields across maturities during the period 1981-83. The movement of the parameters through time reflects and confirms a change

Charles R. Nelson; Andrew F. Siegel

1987-01-01

93

Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.  

PubMed

Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients. PMID:23925855

Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

2014-03-01

94

Genotype X environment interactions over seven years for yield yield components fiber quality and gossypol traits in the regional high quality tests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the 1960s, many changes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar tests have been made. This study partitions the total variation for 26 traits into environments (E), genotype (G) and GE variance components for the 2001 through 2007 Regional High Quality (RHQ) tests with 98 genotypes. It e...

95

Detection and integration of quantitative trait loci for grain yield components and oil content in two connected recombinant inbred line populations of high-oil maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement in grain yield is an important objective in high-oil maize breeding. In this study, one high-oil maize inbred\\u000a was crossed with two normal maize inbreds to produce two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations with 282 and\\u000a 263 F7:8 families, respectively. The field experiments were conducted under four environments, and eight grain yield components and\\u000a grain oil content were

Guohu Yang; Yuling Li; Qilei Wang; Yuguang Zhou; Qiang Zhou; Bingtao Shen; Feifei Zhang; Xiaojie Liang

96

The Problem Multiple Yield Surfaces  

E-print Network

The Problem Multiple Yield Surfaces Examples Visit us at: "www-civil.eng.ox.ac.uk" G.T. Houlsby &&& A model is defined in terms of multiple yield surfaces. The inner surfaces can move around and exhibit an infinite number of yield surfaces. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Shear strain Shearstress 0 0

Houlsby, Guy T.

97

[Effects of asymmetric warming on the growth characteristics and yield components of winter wheat under free air temperature increased].  

PubMed

In 2007-2009, a field warming experiment was performed in Nanjing of Jiangsu Province, China to investigate the effects of asymmetric warming (all-day warming, AW; daytime warming from 6:00 to 18:00, DW; and nighttime warming from 18:00 to 6:00, NW) on the growth and development of winter wheat under free air temperature increase (FATI). Asymmetric warming increased the effective tillers and decreased the ineffective tillers. In CK plot, the ineffective tillers were 2.6, 1.7 and 3.5 times of those in AW, DW and NW plots, while the effective tillers were decreased by 13.7%, 3.2%, and 0.5%, respectively. Asymmetric warming also increased the plant height, flag leaf area, and the total green leaf area and green leaf ratio at flowing stage. In treatments AW, DW, and NW, the plant height was increased by 5.6%, 4.5%, and 1.3%, flag leaf area increased by 45.7%, 39.4% and 26.1%, total green leaf area increased by 25.1%, 29.8%, and 17.3%, and green leaf ratio increased by 37.7%, 43.3%, and 38.7%, respectively, compared with CK. As for the yield components, the spikelet number per panicle and the filled grain number per panicle in treatments AW, DW and NW were increased by 4.1%, 5.7%, and 1.7%, and by 2.2%, 5.3%, and 2.6%, respectively. Though the grain/leaf ratio in treatments AW, DW, and NW was decreased by 15.3%, 8.5%, and 11.3%, the thousand-grain mass in the treatments was increased by 6.9%, 6.2% and 11.8%, and thus, the yield per unit was increased by 27.0%, 40.1%, and 18.3%, respectively, compared to the CK. Our results suggested that under anticipated warming, the winter wheat productivity in eastern China would be further enhanced. PMID:21657024

Tian, Yun-lu; Chen, Jin; Deng, Ai-xing; Zheng, Jian-chu; Zhang, Wei-jian

2011-03-01

98

Genetic dissection of yield and its component traits using high-density composite map of wheat chromosome 3A: bridging gaps between QTLs and underlying genes.  

PubMed

Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield component QTLs, and to map QTLs for biomass-related traits. Many of the previously identified QTLs for yield and its component traits were confirmed and were localized to narrower intervals. Four novel QTLs one each for shoot biomass (Xcfa2262-Xbcd366), total biomass (wPt2740-Xcfa2076), kernels/spike (KPS) (Xwmc664-Xbarc67), and Pseudocercosporella induced lodging (PsIL) were also detected. The major QTLs identified for grain yield (GY), KPS, grain volume weight (GVWT) and spikes per square meter (SPSM) respectively explained 23.2%, 24.2%, 20.5% and 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of the genetic map with the integrated physical map allowed estimation of recombination frequency in the regions of interest and suggested that QTLs for grain yield detected in the marker intervals Xcdo549-Xbarc310 and Xpsp3047-Xbarc356 reside in the high-recombination regions, thus should be amenable to map-based cloning. On the other hand, QTLs for KPS and SPSM flanked by markers Xwmc664 and Xwmc489 mapped in the low-recombination region thus are not suitable for map-based cloning. Comparisons with the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA sequence identified 11 candidate genes (CGs) for yield and yield related QTLs of which chromosomal location of two (CKX2 and GID2-like) was confirmed using wheat aneuploids. This study provides necessary information to perform high-resolution mapping for map-based cloning and for CG-based cloning of yield QTLs. PMID:23894667

Rustgi, Sachin; Shafqat, Mustafa N; Kumar, Neeraj; Baenziger, P Stephen; Ali, M Liakat; Dweikat, Ismail; Campbell, B Todd; Gill, Kulvinder Singh

2013-01-01

99

Genetic Dissection of Yield and Its Component Traits Using High-Density Composite Map of Wheat Chromosome 3A: Bridging Gaps between QTLs and Underlying Genes  

PubMed Central

Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield component QTLs, and to map QTLs for biomass-related traits. Many of the previously identified QTLs for yield and its component traits were confirmed and were localized to narrower intervals. Four novel QTLs one each for shoot biomass (Xcfa2262-Xbcd366), total biomass (wPt2740-Xcfa2076), kernels/spike (KPS) (Xwmc664-Xbarc67), and Pseudocercosporella induced lodging (PsIL) were also detected. The major QTLs identified for grain yield (GY), KPS, grain volume weight (GVWT) and spikes per square meter (SPSM) respectively explained 23.2%, 24.2%, 20.5% and 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of the genetic map with the integrated physical map allowed estimation of recombination frequency in the regions of interest and suggested that QTLs for grain yield detected in the marker intervals Xcdo549-Xbarc310 and Xpsp3047-Xbarc356 reside in the high-recombination regions, thus should be amenable to map-based cloning. On the other hand, QTLs for KPS and SPSM flanked by markers Xwmc664 and Xwmc489 mapped in the low-recombination region thus are not suitable for map-based cloning. Comparisons with the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA sequence identified 11 candidate genes (CGs) for yield and yield related QTLs of which chromosomal location of two (CKX2 and GID2-like) was confirmed using wheat aneuploids. This study provides necessary information to perform high-resolution mapping for map-based cloning and for CG-based cloning of yield QTLs. PMID:23894667

Rustgi, Sachin; Shafqat, Mustafa N.; Kumar, Neeraj; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Ali, M. Liakat; Dweikat, Ismail; Campbell, B. Todd; Gill, Kulvinder Singh

2013-01-01

100

Brazil soybean yield covariance model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

1984-01-01

101

Genetic dissection of a modern sugarcane cultivar ( Saccharum spp.).II. Detection of QTLs for yield components.  

PubMed

The genetics of current sugarcane cultivars ( Saccharum spp.) is outstandingly complex, due to a high ploidy level and an interspecific origin which leads to the presence of numerous chromosomes belonging to two ancestral genomes. In order to analyse the inheritance of quantitative traits, we have undertaken an extensive Quantitative Trait Allele (QTA) mapping study based on a population of 295 progenies derived from the selfing of cultivar R570, using about 1,000 AFLP markers scattered on about half of the genome. The population was evaluated in a replicated trial for four basic yield components, plant height, stalk number, stalk diameter and brix, in two successive crop-cycles. Forty putative QTAs were found for the four traits at P = 5 x 10(-3), of which five appeared in both years. Their individual size ranged between 3 and 7% of the whole variation. The stability across years was improved when limiting threshold stringency. All these results depict the presence in the genome of numerous QTAs, with little effects, fluctuating slightly across cycles, on the verge to being perceptible given the experimental resolution. Epistatic interactions were also explored and 41 independent di-genic interactions were found at P = (5 x 10(-3))(2). Altogether the putative genetic factors revealed here explain from 30 to 55% of the total phenotypic variance depending on the trait. The tentative assignment of some QTAs to the ancestral genomes showed a small majority of contributions as expected from the ancestral phenotypes. This is the first extensive QTL mapping study performed in cultivated sugarcane. PMID:12582930

Hoarau, J.-Y.; Grivet, L.; Offmann, B.; Raboin, L.-M.; Diorflar, J.-P.; Payet, J.; Hellmann, M.; D'Hont, A.; Glaszmann, J.-C.

2002-11-01

102

The impact of supplemental L-threonine in laying hen diets on egg component yield, composition, and functionality  

E-print Network

of the jaw like the GFT (Bourne 1978), extensive research across many food types has yielded similar results to sensory evaluation. Common texture parameters include hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness (Bourne 1978). Chart force...-distance curves for each cake core were measured for hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness as defined by Bourne (1978). Hardness correlates to the ?first bite? or force that is required to deform a food particle (Bourne 1978...

Niemeyer, Paige Reynolds

2005-11-01

103

Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

1982-01-01

104

Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends  

E-print Network

Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends Marena Lin and Peter Huybers Department decomposition of wheat yields 5 4.1 U.S. county-level wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2 French departmental wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5

Huybers, Peter

105

Brazil wheat yield covariance model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

1984-01-01

106

Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections  

PubMed Central

Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

2015-01-01

107

Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections.  

PubMed

Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1-2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

2015-01-01

108

Short communication: comparison of the effects of heat stress on milk and component yields and somatic cell score in Holstein and Jersey cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of this retrospective study were to (1) investigate the effects of heat stress (HS) climatic conditions and breed on milk and component yield for Holstein and Jersey cows on the same farm and (2) determine the effects of breed on udder health as measured by somatic cell score during HS climatic conditions. Data were collected from Dairy Herd Improvement Association records of 142 Jersey and 586 Holstein cows from the Bearden Dairy Research Center at Mississippi State University (Mississippi State). Heat stress climatic conditions were determined using a temperature-humidity index (THI) to combine dry bulb temperature and relative humidity into one measure. Two analyses were conducted to determine the effects of HS. Heat stress was defined as THI ? 72, and reported as HS+ for the first analysis and HS for the second analysis. The first analysis compared breeds during HS+ and non-heat-stress (HS-) conditions. Holstein milk yield decreased during HS+, whereas Jersey milk yield increased. Milk fat percentage for Holstein and Jersey cows declined during HS+. Holstein fat-corrected milk yield decreased during HS+, whereas Jersey fat-corrected milk yield during HS+ did not differ from that during HS-. During HS+, somatic cell score increased in milk from Holstein and Jersey cows compared with HS-. In the second analysis, HS was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. The corresponding THI values were THI ? 72 but <79, THI ? 79 but <90, and THI ? 90. Holstein milk yield declined during moderate and severe HS, whereas Jersey milk yield declined during severe HS. Holstein milk fat percentage was less during moderate and severe HS compared with milk fat percentage during mild HS. Jersey milk fat percentage did not differ with regard to HS category. Jersey cows appeared to be more heat tolerant than Holstein cows; however, Holstein cows still produced larger volumes of milk. PMID:23498016

Smith, D L; Smith, T; Rude, B J; Ward, S H

2013-05-01

109

Stellar Yields and Chemical Evolution  

E-print Network

Several speakers at IAU Symposium #187 (Cosmic Chemical Evolution) alluded to the zeroth-order agreement between Type II supernovae (SNe) stellar yield compilations, as predicted by the models of those most responsible for driving progress in the field - i.e., Arnett (1991,1996); Maeder (1992); Woosley & Weaver (1995); Langer & Henkel (1995); Thielemann et al. (1996). It is important though for those entering (or indeed, already involved in!) the chemical evolution field to be cognizant of the fact that there are important first- and second-order differences between these compilations. In the next few pages, I provide a qualitative comparison of the currently available Type II SNe yield grids. The strengths and weaknesses of a given grid, demonstrated by comparing against relevant observations, are noted. Some simple chemical evolution models are shown which graphically demonstrate the effect of yield grid selection.

Brad K. Gibson

1997-12-31

110

The Air-Fluorescence Yield  

E-print Network

Detection of the air-fluorescence radiation induced by the charged particles of extensive air showers is a well-established technique for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Fluorescence telescopes provide a nearly calorimetric measure of the primary energy. Presently the main source of systematic uncertainties comes from our limited accuracy in the fluorescence yield, that is, the number of fluorescence photons emitted per unit of energy deposited in the atmosphere by the shower particles. In this paper the current status of our knowledge on the fluorescence yield both experimental an theoretical will be discussed.

F. Arqueros; F. Blanco; D. Garcia-Pinto; M. Ortiz; J. Rosado

2008-07-30

111

Evaluation of a cotton stripper yield monitor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of a microwave sensor based yield monitor for measuring yield on a cotton stripper harvester and determine if the yield monitor can discriminate differences in yield to the same level as a reference scale system. A new yield monitor was instal...

112

Yield Analysis and Optimization Puneet Gupta  

E-print Network

Yield Analysis and Optimization Puneet Gupta Blaze DFM Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA puneet@watson.ibm.com In this chapter, we are going to discuss yield loss mechanisms, yield analysis and common physical design methods to improve yield. Yield is defined as the ratio of the number of products that can be sold to the number

Papadopoulou, Evanthia

113

Estimation of components of genetic variance and heritability for flowering time and yield in gerbera using Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood (DFRML).  

PubMed

Additive genetic components of variance and narrow-sense heritabilities were estimated for flowering time (FT) and cut-flower yield (Y) for six generations of the Davis Population of gerbera using Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood (DFRML). Additive genetic variance accounted for 54% of the total variability for FT and 30% of the total variability for Y. The heritability of FT (0.54) agreed with previous ANOVA-based estimates. However, the heritability of Y (0.30) was substantially lower than estimates using ANOVA. The advantages of DFRML and its applications in the estimation of components of genetic variance and heritabilities of plant populations are discussed. PMID:24193465

Yu, Y; Harding, J; Byrne, T; Famula, T

1993-04-01

114

Impact of various storage conditions on enzymatic activity, biomass components and conversion to ethanol yields from sorghum biomass used as a bioenergy crop.  

PubMed

With increased mandates for biofuel production in the US, ethanol production from lignocellulosic substrates is burgeoning, highlighting the need for thorough examination of the biofuel production supply chain. This research focused on the impact storage has on biomass, particularly photoperiod-sensitive sorghum biomass. Biomass quality parameters were monitored and included biomass components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, along with extra-cellular enzymatic activity (EEA) responsible for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation and conversion to ethanol yields. Analyses revealed dramatic decreases in uncovered treatments, specifically reduced dry matter content from 88% to 59.9%, cellulose content from 35.3% to 25%, hemicellulose content from 23.7% to 16.0% and ethanol production of 0.20 to 0.02gL(-1) after 6months storage along with almost double EEA activities. In contrast, biomass components, EEA and ethanol yields remained relatively stable in covered treatments, indicating covering of biomass during storage is essential for optimal substrate retention and ethanol yields. PMID:23411458

Rigdon, Anne R; Jumpponen, Ari; Vadlani, Praveen V; Maier, Dirk E

2013-03-01

115

Yields from the Primordial Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first stars were formed from matter fresh from the Big Bang, and the evidence of their nucleosynthesis should be evident in extremely metal-poor Population II stars. Estimates of these yields are sensitive to poorly understood features of convective mixing. The yields from H to Ni from a primordial star of 25 M_sun are discussed. The effective helium core is significantly smaller than in Population I stars. Significant amounts of primary nitrogen may be produced. The ratio of helium to ``metal'' production is relatively high, dY/dZ ~ 3.4. A significant neutron excess develops during hydrostatic carbon burning which places lower limits of the ratios of Na/Mg and Al/Mg, as well as for heavier odd-Z/even-Z pairs. Li and (3He) are produced, but weakly.

Arnett, David

1996-04-01

116

Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL  

E-print Network

1 Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL Versions and Lattices X. Ding Front End, Nov. 23, 2010 of Running MARS #12;4 Muon Yield from Different Versions of ICOOL with ST2a-BNL Input Deck #12;5 Muon Yield from Different Versions of ICOOL with ST2a-ISS Input Deck #12;6 Muon Yield from Different Versions

McDonald, Kirk

117

Incorporating Yield Enhancement into the Floorplanning Process  

E-print Network

Incorporating Yield Enhancement into the Floorplanning Process Israel Koren, Fellow, IEEE the yield of the chip as well. Consequently, it becomes desirable to consider the expected yield the two seemingly unrelated, and often conflicting, objectives of yield enhancement and routing complexity

Koren, Israel

118

Genetic and molecular bases of rice yield.  

PubMed

Grain yield in rice is a complex trait multiplicatively determined by its three component traits: number of panicles, number of grains per panicle, and grain weight; all of which are typical quantitative traits. The developments in genome mapping, sequencing, and functional genomic research have provided powerful tools for investigating the genetic and molecular bases of these quantitative traits. Dissection of the genetic bases of the yield traits based on molecular marker linkage maps resolved hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits. Mutant analyses and map-based cloning of QTLs have identified a large number of genes required for the basic processes underlying the initiation and development of tillers and panicles, as well as genes controlling numbers and sizes of grains and panicles. Molecular characterization of these genes has greatly advanced the mechanistic understanding of the regulation of these rice yield traits. These findings have significant implications in crop genetic improvement. PMID:20192739

Xing, Yongzhong; Zhang, Qifa

2010-01-01

119

Neutrino yield from Galactic cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the neutrino yield from collisions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with gas using the event generator QGSJET-II. We present first the general characteristics and numerical results for the neutrino yield assuming power-law fluxes for the primary CR nuclei. Then we use three parametrizations for the Galactic CR flux to derive the neutrino yield for energies around and above the knee. The shape and the normalization of the resulting neutrino flux above ˜1014 eV depends on the composition of the Galactic CR flux employed, but is generally dominated by its proton component. The spectral shape and magnitude of the neutrino flux suggest that the IceCube excess is not connected to interactions of Galactic sea CRs.

Kachelrieß, M.; Ostapchenko, S.

2014-10-01

120

Automated yield map delay identification using phase correlation methodology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop yield data is a key component of precision agriculture, critical for both development and evaluation of precision management strategies. Ideally, software that generates grain yield maps from raw yield monitor data should automatically correct errors associated with machine and operating charac...

121

Yield learning model for integrated circuit package  

E-print Network

from chronic yield loss. . 5 Yield due to chronic yield loss. . 6 Time series model. . 7 Estimation of regression coefficients. . . 14 . 16 . 17 . 18 8 Impact of excursions. . . . 19 9 Effect of volume in line. . . . . . 20 10 Impact... of experience level. 11 Final spreadsheet model. . 12 Values for factors. . 21 . . . . 22 . . . . . 23 13 Final yield. . . . . . 24 14 Predicted yield - chronic and excursions. . . 25 15 Percentage rating for PQFP - absolute metric model. . . . . 16...

Balasubramaniam, Gaurishankar

1996-01-01

122

Crop Diversity for Yield Increase  

PubMed Central

Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean – either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand. PMID:19956624

Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

2009-01-01

123

Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not well defined in the suspension rheology we tested three types of measurement in determination of yield stress. Two methods utilized cone-plate geometry performing creep test (stress controlled) and variable shear rate test and one utilized narrow-gap concentric cylinder geometry with variable shear rate. Herschel-Bulckley model can be successfully applied to variable shear-rate tests to determine yield stress. Creep test and H-B model give almost identical yield stress, for instance 45±5Pa at 2.5wt%. At the gel volume fraction of 50% yield stress emerges and it increases with the increase of the concentration of gel powder. This critical value roughly corresponds to the random loose packing fraction while the viscosity begins to increase at lower fraction.

Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

2012-04-01

124

Influence of surface morphology on sputtering yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the variation of sputtering yields with surface morphologies under the assumption of a specially prescribed surface shape. Compared with a flat surface, we show that surface morphology can cause a decrease in the sputtering yield and an increase in the incident angle where sputtering yield is maximum. Based on Sigmund's theory, an analytical formula for the morphology dependent sputtering yield is developed by averaging the curvature dependent sputtering yield. The predicted dependence of sputtering yield on surface morphology is in good agreement with experimental observations.

Wei, Qiangmin; Eddy, Michaela; Li, Kun-Dar; Wang, Lumin

2009-08-01

125

Effects of Mycorrhizal Inoculation and Phosphorus Application on the Nodulation, Mycorrhizal Infection and Yield Components of Faba Bean Grown Under Two Different Watering Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted in the 1994\\/95 and 1995\\/96 growing seasons to investigate the effects of mycorrhizal ino culation and phosphorus application on infection, symbiotic activity and yield of faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) grown under two watering regimes. Water stress significantly decreased nodule number, flower set, pod production and seed yield in both seasons. Sub stantial mycorrhizal

Faisal E. Ahmed; Elsiddig A. E. Elsheikh

126

Yield EnhancementYield Enhancement Sai N. LwinSai N. Lwin  

E-print Network

ITRSITRS Yield EnhancementYield Enhancement ByBy Sai N. LwinSai N. Lwin #12;What is [Process] Yield?What is [Process] Yield? The fraction (or percentage) of acceptableThe fraction (or percentage) of acceptable parts per wafer is called wafer yieldwafer yield.. Y = (1 + Ad/Y = (1 + Ad/))-- A = area of the chipA = area

Patel, Chintan

127

Yield surface approximation for lower and upper bound yield design of 3D composite frame structures  

E-print Network

Yield surface approximation for lower and upper bound yield design of 3D composite frame structures of composite beams. The resolution of an auxiliary yield design problem leads to the determination of a yield the numerically computed yield surface by a sum of several ellipsoids is developed. The so-obtained analytical

Boyer, Edmond

128

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields.  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

129

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

130

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2011-01-01

131

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2012-01-01

132

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2010-01-01

133

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2014-01-01

134

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2013-01-01

135

Meta-analysis of quantitative trait loci for grain yield and component traits under reproductive-stage drought stress in an upland rice population.  

PubMed

A recombinant inbred population developed from a cross between high-yielding lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies indica cv. IR64 and upland tropical rice subspecies japonica cv. Cabacu was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield (GY) and component traits under reproductive-stage drought stress. One hundred fifty-four lines were grown in field trials in Indonesia under aerobic conditions by giving surface irrigation to field capacity every 4 days. Water stress was imposed for a period of 15 days during pre-flowering by withholding irrigation at 65 days after seeding. Leaf rolling was scored at the end of the stress period and eight agronomic traits were evaluated after recovery. The population was also evaluated for root pulling force, and a total of 201 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used to construct the molecular genetic linkage map and QTL mapping. A QTL for GY under drought stress was identified in a region close to the sd1 locus on chromosome 1. QTL meta-analysis across diverse populations showed that this QTL was conserved across genetic backgrounds and co-localized with QTLs for leaf rolling and osmotic adjustment (OA). A QTL for percent seed set and grains per panicle under drought stress was identified on chromosome 8 in the same region as a QTL for OA previously identified in three different populations. PMID:25076836

Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R; Supriyanta; Prasetiyono, Joko; Thomson, Michael J; Vera Cruz, Casiana M; Moeljopawiro, Sugiono; Pereira, Andy

2014-01-01

136

Yield model development project implementation plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

Ambroziak, R. A.

1982-01-01

137

Modeling the Yield Curve Statistics Department, Wharton  

E-print Network

Modeling the Yield Curve Bob Stine Statistics Department, Wharton Choong Tze Chua, Singapore Mgmt Univ Krishna Ramaswamy, Finance Department #12;Plan for Talk Background What is the yield curve? What among products 2 #12;Background #12;What is the yield curve? Interest rates earned on treasury bills

Stine, Robert A.

138

Yield, the Control Operator Exploring Session Types  

E-print Network

Yield, the Control Operator Exploring Session Types Roshan P. James and Amr Sabry Indiana, Bloomington)Yield, the Control Operator Exploring Session TypesCW -- September 24, 2011 1 / 28 #12 it is interacting. Roshan P. James and Amr Sabry (Indiana University, Bloomington)Yield, the Control Operator

Sabry, Amr

139

MARS Target Yield Studies University of Warwick  

E-print Network

1 MARS Target Yield Studies John Back University of Warwick 1st May 2008 John Back Oxford target yields · 10 GeV parabolic proton beam hitting cylindrical tungsten rod in 20 T field ­ Rod lengths: 15 to estimate particle acceptance in cooling channel: K.E. yields in ISS analysis) · Hg

McDonald, Kirk

140

Consistent Yield Curve Prediction Josef Teichmann  

E-print Network

Consistent Yield Curve Prediction Josef Teichmann Mario V. W¨uthrich February 6, 2013 Abstract We present an arbitrage-free, non-parametric yield curve prediction model which takes the full discretized yield curve data as input state variable. The absence of arbitrage is a particular important model

Wüthrich, Mario

141

Yield: Mainstream Delimited Continuations Roshan P. James  

E-print Network

Yield: Mainstream Delimited Continuations Roshan P. James Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana@indiana.edu Abstract Many mainstream languages have operators named yield that share common semantic roots but differ significantly in their details. We present the first known formal study of these mainstream yield operators

Sabry, Amr

142

FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

ALDEN R. HIBBERT

143

7, 1792717965, 2007 SOA yield from  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 17927­17965, 2007 SOA yield from -pinene ozonolysis J. E. Shilling et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Particle mass yield in secondary organic aerosol formed by the dark yield from -pinene ozonolysis J. E. Shilling et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Yield function development for aluminum alloy sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, yield surfaces were measured for binary aluminum-magnesium sheet samples which were fabricated by different processing paths to obtain different microstructures. The yielding behavior was measured using biaxial compression tests on cubic specimens made from laminated sheet samples. The yield surfaces were also predicted from a polycrystal model using crystallographic texture data as input and from a phenomenological

F. Barlat; Y. Maeda; K. Chung; M. Yanagawa; J. C. Brem; Y. Hayashida; D. J. Lege; K. Matsui; S. J. Murtha; S. Hattori; R. C. Becker; S. Makosey

1997-01-01

145

Yielding description for solution strengthened aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, yield surfaces were measured for binary aluminum-magnesium sheet samples which were fabricated by different processing paths to obtain different microstructures. The yielding behavior was measured using biaxial compression tests on cubic specimens made from laminated sheet samples. The yield surfaces were also predicted from a polycrystal model using crystallographic texture data as input and from a phenomenological

F. Barlat; R. C. Becker; Y. Hayashida; Y. Maeda; M. Yanagawa; K. Chung; J. C. Brem; D. J. Lege; K. Matsui; S. J. Murtha; S. Hattori

1997-01-01

146

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. Finally, spatial factor

Cook, Di

147

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. 1 Introduction

Cook, Di

148

SOME QUESTIONS OF EVALUATION OF YIELD MAPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ultimate goal for the application of yield maps is to provide profitable crop output in farming systems. Recently, several methods and tools have been developed for the evaluation of yield maps. It is based on crisp and fuzzy modeling. However, the process of evaluation of yield maps is full o...

149

Heterois in Switchgrass: Biomass Yield in Swards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving the biomass yield of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) will improve its utility as a dedicated energy crop by increasing energy yield per acre. In a previous space-transplanted study, mid-parent heterosis for biomass yield was reported for population and specific F1 hybrids of the lowland-...

150

Yield estimation and mantle Q  

SciTech Connect

Spectral analysis of P waves crossing the mantle under various test sites has revealed considerable variations in the attenuative properties of the mantle which must be considered when computing yields of nuclear explosions. The t* bias between the NTS and Kazakh test sites must be in the range 0.2 to .3 sec. There are indications of anomalous zones of attenuation under the French test sites in the Sahara and near some suspected nuclear explosions in the Baykal area. Mantle attenuation under the Sahara test sites appears to be intermediate between a shield and the western United States. Other test sites for which we have relevant results seem to be in areas of low mantle attenuation. Patterns of attenuation found by analyses of nuclear explosion data fit roughly in the worldwide patterns found in more general studies of plate tectonics. No test sites are located in areas of extremely low Q zones in the mantle, such as those found under some back-arc basins. Empirical analyses and synthetic simulations give the formula: delta m(sub b) = approx. 1.35 delta t*(sub p) for deriving the m(sub b) bias from a t* differential. Regional patterns of lateral Q variations found by spectral analyses are well correlated with several other relevant geophysical parameters, such as P (sub n) velocities, travel time variations of P and S waves, heat flow, and upper mantle conductivity.

Der, Z.A.

1983-04-29

151

Capillary rise of yield-stress fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter the capillary rise of yield-stress fluids is investigated experimentally. Contrary to the case of simple fluids, the final height reached by yield-stress fluids weakly depends on the gap and is strongly affected by the yield stress and the hydrodynamic boundary conditions. Such dependences suggest that the capillary rise of yield-stress fluids results from a dynamical arrest rather than from a thermodynamic equilibrium. To rationalize these results, we propose and validate an extension of Jurin's law to such complex systems. Finally we show that measuring the final height allows for the determination of both the surface tension and the yield stress.

Géraud, Baudouin; Jørgensen, Loren; Petit, Laure; Delanoë-Ayari, Hélène; Jop, Pierre; Barentin, Catherine

2014-09-01

152

2010 Forage Variety Yield2010 Forage Variety Yield SummarySummary  

E-print Network

2010 Forage Variety Yield2010 Forage Variety Yield SummarySummary Cornell University J. Hansen, 1 E C T I O N #12;2010 Forage Variety Yield Summary Cornell University Dept. of Plant Tool www.forages.org/ Forage yield trial results for NY Cornell Published results of forage trials http

Pawlowski, Wojtek

153

Distinguishing between yield advances and yield plateaus in historical crop production trends  

PubMed Central

Food security and land required for food production largely depend on rate of yield gain of major cereal crops. Previous projections of food security are often more optimistic than what historical yield trends would support. Many econometric projections of future food production assume compound rates of yield gain, which are not consistent with historical yield trends. Here we provide a framework to characterize past yield trends and show that linear trajectories adequately describe past yield trends, which means the relative rate of gain decreases over time. Furthermore, there is evidence of yield plateaus or abrupt decreases in rate of yield gain, including rice in eastern Asia and wheat in northwest Europe, which account for 31% of total global rice, wheat and maize production. Estimating future food production capacity would benefit from an analysis of past crop yield trends based on a robust statistical analysis framework that evaluates historical yield trajectories and plateaus. PMID:24346131

Grassini, Patricio; Eskridge, Kent M.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2013-01-01

154

Genomic distribution of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield-related traits in common wheat.  

PubMed

A major objective of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is to find genes/markers that can be used in breeding programs via marker assisted selection (MAS). We surveyed the QTLs for yield and yield-related traits and their genomic distributions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the available published reports. We then carried out a meta-QTL (MQTL) analysis to identify the major and consistent QTLs for these traits. In total, 55 MQTLs were identified, of which 12 significant MQTLs were located on wheat chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2D, 3B, 4A, 4B, 4D and 5A. Our study showed that the genetic control of yield and its components in common wheat involved the important genes such as Rht and Vrn. Furthermore, several significant MQTLs were found in the chromosomal regions corresponding to several rice genomic locations containing important QTLs for yield related traits. Our results demonstrate that meta-QTL analysis is a powerful tool for confirming the major and stable QTLs and refining their chromosomal positions in common wheat, which may be useful for improving the MAS efficiency of yield related traits. PMID:20977657

Zhang, Li-Yi; Liu, Dong-Cheng; Guo, Xiao-Li; Yang, Wen-Long; Sun, Jia-Zhu; Wang, Dao-Wen; Zhang, Aimin

2010-11-01

155

Systematics of Fission-Product Yields  

SciTech Connect

Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

A.C. Wahl

2002-05-01

156

Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods  

SciTech Connect

Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1991-06-01

157

Yield stress of stearically stabilized colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk property, yield stress has been modeled by Larson in the past for spherical colloidal particles with dependence on volume fraction of solids particle diameter and interaction potential (sum of van der Waals potential and electrostatic potential. In our organic pigment dispersions polymer stabilized followed Herschel-Bulkley equation with yield stress which was non-linearly dependent on pigment surface area measured by BET. Stability of dispersions changed with time in terms of particle size and yield stress as well as on the type of deformation, shear applied to the dispersion. The results of yield stress are compared with models in terms of interaction potential, particle size and zeta potential..

Ahuja, Suresh; Bluhm, Terry

2007-03-01

158

Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials  

E-print Network

A new yield/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materals. This is a fundamental key to model the behaviour of materials which become cohesive during hardening (so that the shape of the yield surface evolves from that typical of a granular material to that typical of a dense material), or which decrease cohesion due to damage accumulation. The proposed yield function is shown to agree with a variety of experimental data relative to soil, concrete, rock, metallic and composite powders, metallic foams, porous metals, and polymers. The yield function represents a single, convex and smooth surface in stress space approaching as limit situations well-known criteria and the extreme limits of convexity in the deviatoric plane. The yield function is therefore a generalization of several criteria, including von Mises, Drucker-Prager, Tresca, modified Tresca, Coulomb-Mohr, modified Cam-clay, and --concerning the deviatoric section-- Rankine and Ottosen. Convexity of the function is proved by developing two general propositions relating convexity of the yield surface to convexity of the corresponding function. These propositions are general and therefore may be employed to generate other convex yield functions.

Davide Bigoni; Andrea Piccolroaz

2010-10-09

159

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

Haun, J. R.

1976-01-01

160

Rainfall Energy as Related to Sediment Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mixed-cover agricultural watersheds yielded data for an evaluation of the relationship of the kinetic energy of a rainstorm to suspended sediment yields. The relation is developed on the hypothesis that the cultivated acres are the only source of sediment. This statistical analysis is extended to cover the interaction effects of rainfall energy as a function of factors such as

Frank J. Dragoun

1962-01-01

161

Sputter yield determination for binary alloys  

SciTech Connect

Desorption cross sections and sputter yields for a 10 at% Pt to 90 at% Rh alloy have been measured for He/sup 3/ and Ne/sup 20/ ions in the energy range of 500 eV to 5000 eV. The energy dependence and magnitude of the sputter yields are consistent with what is predicted for the bulk material.

Nelson, G.C.

1980-01-01

162

Defect density distribution for LSI yield calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental determination of defect density distributions is described. These distributions are needed for calculating LSI yields. The defect densities appear to be distributed according to gamma distributions. An expression for the average yield for a semiconductor process is derived based on the results.

C. H. Stapper

1973-01-01

163

Yield function development for aluminum alloy sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, yield surfaces were measured for binary aluminum-magnesium sheet samples which were fabricated by different processing paths to obtain different microstructures. The yielding behavior was measured using biaxial compression tests on cubic specimens made from laminated sheet samples. The yield surfaces were also predicted from a polycrystal model using crystallographic texture data as input and from a phenomenological yield function usually suitable for polycrystalline materials. The experimental yield surfaces were found to be in good agreement with the polycrystal predictions for all materials and with the phenomenological predictions for most materials. However, for samples processed with high cold rolling reduction prior to solution heat treatment, a significant difference was observed between the phenomenological and the experimental yield surfaces in the pure shear region. In this paper, a generalized phenomenological yield description is proposed to account for the behavior of the solute strengthened aluminum alloy sheets studied in this work. It is subsequently shown that this yield function is suitable for the description of the plastic behavior of any aluminum alloy sheet.

Barlat, F.; Maeda, Y.; Chung, K.; Yanagawa, M.; Brem, J. C.; Hayashida, Y.; Lege, D. J.; Matsui, K.; Murtha, S. J.; Hattori, S.; Becker, R. C.; Makosey, S.

1997-11-01

164

Uranium235 Thermal Neutron Fission Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute yields of six nuclides in the thermal neutron fission of U235 have been determined to better than 6 percent, using fission counting and radiochemical techniques. The results are in good agreement with earlier determinations of lower accuracy. They support mass spectrometric indications of fine structure in the yield-mass curve in low-energy nuclear fission.

George W. Reed; Anthony Turkevich

1953-01-01

165

Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

166

Carbon sputtering yield measurements at grazing incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, carbon sputtering yields were measured experimentally at varying angles of incidence under Xe+ bombardment. The measurements were obtained by etching a coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with a low energy ion beam. The material properties of the carbon targets were characterized with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. C sputtering yields measured under Ar+ and

Robert D. Kolasinski; James E. Polk; Dan Goebel; Lee K. Johnson

2008-01-01

167

Scaling of honeycomb compressive yield stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the compressive yield stresses of phenolic-dipped Nomex® rings were scaled and correlated to honeycomb core. A honeycomb-scaling factor and geometric end constraint factor were found to relate the rings and core through the relative yield stresses and their physical dimensions and properties of the honeycomb materials. The compressive properties of the Nomex rings were also investigated using

J. E. Shafizadeh; J. C. Seferis

2000-01-01

168

Microplastic deformation and yield strength of polycrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus, the theory considered above permits a unified description of the behavior of pure metals and certain classes of alloys in the transition stage from elastic to homogeneous macroplastic deformation. Tt accurately reflects the law of accumulation of plastic deformation up to the physical yield point and the form of the extension curve above the yield point. Its predictions as

E. F. Dudarev; E. E. Deryugin

1982-01-01

169

Improved Yield Estimation by Trellis Tension Monitoring  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most yield estimation practices for commercial vineyards rely on hand-sampling fruit on one or a small number of dates during the growing season. Limitations associated with the static yield estimates may be overcome with Trellis Tension Monitors (TTMs), systems that measure dynamically changes in t...

170

Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

171

Yielding behavior of dense microgel glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the yielding behavior of dense suspensions of stimuli-responsive poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel particles studied by performing oscillatory shear measurements. At a volume fraction of ? = 0.6 (labeled as sample S1) the suspension is characterized to be repulsive glass by dynamic light scattering technique and showed one step yielding. Quite interestingly higher volume fraction sample (S2) prepared by osmotically compressing sample S1, showed yielding occurring in two steps. Such one step yielding behavior turning into two step yielding was reported by Pham et al [Europhys. Lett., 75, 624 (2006)] in hard-sphere repulsive colloidal glass when transformed into an attractive glass by inducing depletion attraction. We confirm the repulsive interparticle interaction between PNIPAM microgel particles turning into attractive upon osmotic compression by static light scattering measurements.

Joshi, R. G.; Tata, B. V. R.; Karthickeyan, D.

2013-02-01

172

MAPPING COTTON YIELD VARIABILITY USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY AND YIELD MONITOR DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased availability of airborne hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acqui...

173

Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.  

PubMed

To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565

Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

2014-05-01

174

Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. × G. barbadense L.) RIL population.  

PubMed

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). One hundred and fifty-nine genomic regions were identified on a saturated genetic map of more than 2,500 SSR and SNP markers, constructed with an interspecific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the genetic standards of the respective cotton species (G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 × G. barbadense acc. 3-79). Using the single nonparametric and MQM QTL model mapping procedures, we detected 428 putative loci in the 159 genomic regions that confer 24 cotton traits in three diverse production environments [College Station F&B Road (FB), TX; Brazos Bottom (BB), TX; and Shafter (SH), CA]. These putative QTL loci included 25 loci for PA, 60 for YC, and 343 for FP, of which 3, 12, and 60, respectively, were strongly associated with the traits (LOD score ? 3.0). Approximately 17.7 % of the PA putative QTL, 32.9 % of the YC QTL, and 48.3 % of the FP QTL had trait associations under multiple environments. The At subgenome (chromosomes 1-13) contributed 72.7 % of loci for PA, 46.2 % for YC, and 50.4 % for FP while the Dt subgenome (chromosomes 14-26) contributed 27.3 % of loci for PA, 53.8 % for YC, and 49.6 % for FP. The data obtained from this study augment prior evidence of QTL clusters or gene islands for specific traits or biological functions existing in several non-homoeologous cotton chromosomes. DNA markers identified in the 159 genomic regions will facilitate further dissection of genetic factors underlying these important traits and marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25314923

Yu, John Z; Ulloa, Mauricio; Hoffman, Steven M; Kohel, Russell J; Pepper, Alan E; Fang, David D; Percy, Richard G; Burke, John J

2014-12-01

175

Human plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM antibodies associate with secretory component to yield biologically active secretory-like antibodies.  

PubMed

Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ?15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins. PMID:23250751

Longet, Stéphanie; Miled, Sarah; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia M; Zuercher, Adrian W; Corthésy, Blaise

2013-02-01

176

Yield drag associated with resistance to root-knot nematodes in high-yielding cotton germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...

177

Yield drag associated with resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in high-yielding cotton germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...

178

MAIZE YIELD POTENTIAL: CRITICAL PROCESSES AND SIMULATION MODELING IN A HIGH-YIELDING ENVIRONMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate parameters describing processes of maize (Zea mays L.) growth and grain yield production in high-yielding, irrigated conditions provide a system for studying grain yield potential in different environments. In this study we measured maize leaf area index (LAI), the light extinction coeffic...

179

High-yield D T neutron generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-yield D-T neutron generator has been developed for neutron interrogation in homeland security applications such as cargo screening. The generator has been designed as a sealed tube with a performance goal of producing 5 × 10 11 n/s over a long lifetime. The key generator components developed are a radio-frequency (RF) driven ion source and a beam-loaded neutron production target that can handle a beam power of 10 kW. The ion source can provide a 100 mA D +/T + beam current with a high fraction of atomic species and can be pulsed up to frequencies of several kilohertz for pulsed neutron generator operation. Testing in D-D operation has been started.

Ludewigt, B. A.; Wells, R. P.; Reijonen, J.

2007-08-01

180

Effect of direct nitrogen and potassium and residual phosphorus fertilizers on soil chemical properties, microbial components and maize yield under long-term crop rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in a long-term field experiment initiated in 1939 at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. The aim was to assess the long-term effect of direct N and K and residual P fertilizers on chemical and microbial properties of soil and grain yield of maize in rotation with field pea. Long-term fertilization resulted in decreased total organic

A. Belay; A. Claassens; F. Wehner

2002-01-01

181

21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of yield. 211.103 Section 211.103 Food and Drugs...and Process Controls § 211.103 Calculation of yield. Actual yields and percentages of theoretical yield shall...

2010-04-01

182

21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of yield. 211.103 Section 211.103 Food and Drugs...and Process Controls § 211.103 Calculation of yield. Actual yields and percentages of theoretical yield shall...

2014-04-01

183

21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of yield. 211.103 Section 211.103 Food and Drugs...and Process Controls § 211.103 Calculation of yield. Actual yields and percentages of theoretical yield shall...

2013-04-01

184

21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of yield. 211.103 Section 211.103 Food and Drugs...and Process Controls § 211.103 Calculation of yield. Actual yields and percentages of theoretical yield shall...

2011-04-01

185

21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of yield. 211.103 Section 211.103 Food and Drugs...and Process Controls § 211.103 Calculation of yield. Actual yields and percentages of theoretical yield shall...

2012-04-01

186

Lactation Persistency as a Component Trait of the Selection Index and Increase in Reliability by Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Net Merit Defined as the First Five Lactation Milk Yields and Herd Life  

PubMed Central

We first sought to clarify the effects of discounted rate, survival rate, and lactation persistency as a component trait of the selection index on net merit, defined as the first five lactation milks and herd life (HL) weighted by 1 and 0.389 (currently used in Japan), respectively, in units of genetic standard deviation. Survival rate increased the relative economic importance of later lactation traits and the first five lactation milk yields during the first 120 months from the start of the breeding scheme. In contrast, reliabilities of the estimated breeding value (EBV) in later lactation traits are lower than those of earlier lactation traits. We then sought to clarify the effects of applying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on net merit to improve the reliability of EBV of later lactation traits to maximize their increased economic importance due to increase in survival rate. Net merit, selection accuracy, and HL increased by adding lactation persistency to the selection index whose component traits were only milk yields. Lactation persistency of the second and (especially) third parities contributed to increasing HL while maintaining the first five lactation milk yields compared with the selection index whose only component traits were milk yields. A selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency accounted for 99.4% of net merit derived from a selection index whose components were identical to those for net merit. We consider that the selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency is a practical method for increasing lifetime milk yield in the absence of data regarding HL. Applying SNP to the second- and third-lactation traits and HL increased net merit and HL by maximizing the increased economic importance of later lactation traits, reducing the effect of first-lactation milk yield on HL (genetic correlation (rG) = ?0.006), and by augmenting the effects of the second- and third-lactation milk yields on HL (rG = 0.118 and 0.257, respectively). PMID:25049665

Togashi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Osawa, T.; Nakanishi, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Lin, C.Y.; Matsumoto, S.; Aihara, M.; Hayasaka, K.

2012-01-01

187

Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

Manatt, S. L.

1978-01-01

188

Radiation chemical yields of electrons in alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Nanosecond pulse radiolysis was used to investigate the dependence of electron capture yields on the concentrations of electron scavengers (benzyl chloride, anthracene, diphenyl) and scavengers of R/sub 2/CHOH/sup +/ and R/sub 2/CHOH/sub 2//sup +/ ions (R isH or alkyl) in methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, and n-butyl alcohols at room temperature. From these relationships it was found that in the series from methanol to n-butanol the yields of free electrons per 100 eV of absorbed energy fall from 1.9 to 1.2 while the yields of electrons disappearing in ''spurs'' rise from 2.7 to 3.2. The initial yields of electrons (solvated and ''dry''), found by summing these quantities, lie in the range 4.4-4.6.

Ponomarev, A.V.; Likaev, A.K.

1986-11-01

189

Absolute quantum yield measurement of powder samples.  

PubMed

Measurement of fluorescence quantum yield has become an important tool in the search for new solutions in the development, evaluation, quality control and research of illumination, AV equipment, organic EL material, films, filters and fluorescent probes for bio-industry. Quantum yield is calculated as the ratio of the number of photons absorbed, to the number of photons emitted by a material. The higher the quantum yield, the better the efficiency of the fluorescent material. For the measurements featured in this video, we will use the Hitachi F-7000 fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with the Quantum Yield measuring accessory and Report Generator program. All the information provided applies to this system. Measurement of quantum yield in powder samples is performed following these steps: 1. Generation of instrument correction factors for the excitation and emission monochromators. This is an important requirement for the correct measurement of quantum yield. It has been performed in advance for the full measurement range of the instrument and will not be shown in this video due to time limitations. 2. Measurement of integrating sphere correction factors. The purpose of this step is to take into consideration reflectivity characteristics of the integrating sphere used for the measurements. 3. Reference and Sample measurement using direct excitation and indirect excitation. 4. Quantum Yield calculation using Direct and Indirect excitation. Direct excitation is when the sample is facing directly the excitation beam, which would be the normal measurement setup. However, because we use an integrating sphere, a portion of the emitted photons resulting from the sample fluorescence are reflected by the integrating sphere and will re-excite the sample, so we need to take into consideration indirect excitation. This is accomplished by measuring the sample placed in the port facing the emission monochromator, calculating indirect quantum yield and correcting the direct quantum yield calculation. 5. Corrected quantum yield calculation. 6. Chromaticity coordinates calculation using Report Generator program. The Hitachi F-7000 Quantum Yield Measurement System offer advantages for this application, as follows: High sensitivity (S/N ratio 800 or better RMS). Signal is the Raman band of water measured under the following conditions: Ex wavelength 350 nm, band pass Ex and Em 5 nm, response 2 sec), noise is measured at the maximum of the Raman peak. High sensitivity allows measurement of samples even with low quantum yield. Using this system we have measured quantum yields as low as 0.1 for a sample of salicylic acid and as high as 0.8 for a sample of magnesium tungstate. Highly accurate measurement with a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude allows for measurements of both sharp scattering peaks with high intensity, as well as broad fluorescence peaks of low intensity under the same conditions. High measuring throughput and reduced light exposure to the sample, due to a high scanning speed of up to 60,000 nm/minute and automatic shutter function. Measurement of quantum yield over a wide wavelength range from 240 to 800 nm. Accurate quantum yield measurements are the result of collecting instrument spectral response and integrating sphere correction factors before measuring the sample. Large selection of calculated parameters provided by dedicated and easy to use software. During this video we will measure sodium salicylate in powder form which is known to have a quantum yield value of 0.4 to 0.5. PMID:22617474

Moreno, Luis A

2012-01-01

190

Suspended sediment yield mapping of Northern Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mapping of river sediment yields at continental or global scale involves a number of technical difficulties that have largely been ignored. The maps need to show the large zonal peculiarities of river sediment yields, as well as the level (smoothed) local anomalies. This study was carried out to create a map of river sediment yields for Northern Eurasia (within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union, 22 × 106 km2) at a scale of 1:1 500 000. The data for preparing the map were taken from the long-term observations recorded at more than 1000 hydrological stations. The data have mostly been collected during the 20th century by applying a single method. The creation of this map from the study of river sediment yield is a major step towards enhancing international research on understanding the mechanical denudation of land due mainly to erosion.

Maltsev, K. A.; Yermolaev, O. P.; Mozzherin, V. V.

2015-03-01

191

Some factors governing rice-ratoon yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Studies on rice ratooning showed that the height of cutting the main crop affected the maturity period and the yield of the\\u000a ratoon. The ratoon yield was significantly higher when the main crop was cut at ground level versus cutting at 4,8 and 12\\u000a cm high, but the maturity period was lower with a higher cutting. Delaying first watering for

C. R. K. Prashar

1970-01-01

192

Acid hydrolysis of cellulose to yield glucose  

DOEpatents

A process to yield glucose from cellulose through acid hydrolysis. Cellulose is recovered from cellulosic materials, preferably by pretreating the cellulosic materials by dissolving the cellulosic materials in Cadoxen or a chelating metal caustic swelling solvent and then precipitating the cellulose therefrom. Hydrolysis is accomplished using an acid, preferably dilute sulfuric acid, and the glucose is yielded substantially without side products. Lignin may be removed either before or after hydrolysis.

Tsao, George T. (West Lafayette, IN); Ladisch, Michael R. (West Lafayette, IN); Bose, Arindam (West Lafayette, IN)

1979-01-01

193

LACIE: Wheat yield models for the USSR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative model determining the relationship between weather conditions and wheat yield in the U.S.S.R. was studied to provide early reliable forecasts on the size of the U.S.S.R. wheat harvest. Separate models are developed for spring wheat and for winter. Differences in yield potential and responses to stress conditions and cultural improvements necessitate models for each class.

Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

1977-01-01

194

Growth and yield models for improved Sitka spruce  

E-print Network

and yield models for improved SS · Electronic presentation of Booklet 48 · Stand-level estimates Yield Lookup (Forest Yield) · Static yield tables · Extended to later stand ages than in Booklet 48 · Includes and yield models for improved SS M3 growth model (Dynamic Forest Yield) · Dynamic representation of tree

195

Association of puroindoline b-2 variants with grain traits, yield components and flag leaf size in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of Yellow and Huai Valley of China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 169 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (landraces and cultivars) were used to asses the relationship between Puroindoline D1 alleles and Puroindoline b-B2 variants and grain hardness, other grain traits, grain yield components, and flag leaf size. Results indicated that the average SK...

196

Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components.  

PubMed

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time. PMID:24987398

Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

2014-01-01

197

Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components  

PubMed Central

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time. PMID:24987398

Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

2014-01-01

198

Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

Bignell, Lindsey J.; Jackson, Timothy W. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)] [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Mume, Eskender [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia) [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Lee, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

2013-05-27

199

Regional crop yield forecasting: a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the outlook on yield and production of crops over large regions is essential for government services dealing with import and export of food crops, for agencies with a role in food relief, for international organizations with a mandate in monitoring the world food production and trade, and for commodity traders. Process-based mechanistic crop models are an important tool for providing such information, because they can integrate the effect of crop management, weather and soil on crop growth. When properly integrated in a yield forecasting system, the aggregated model output can be used to predict crop yield and production at regional, national and continental scales. Nevertheless, given the scales at which these models operate, the results are subject to large uncertainties due to poorly known weather conditions and crop management. Current yield forecasting systems are generally deterministic in nature and provide no information about the uncertainty bounds on their output. To improve on this situation we present an ensemble-based approach where uncertainty bounds can be derived from the dispersion of results in the ensemble. The probabilistic information provided by this ensemble-based system can be used to quantify uncertainties (risk) on regional crop yield forecasts and can therefore be an important support to quantitative risk analysis in a decision making process.

de Wit, A.; van Diepen, K.; Boogaard, H.

2009-04-01

200

Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter  

E-print Network

We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.

Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville

2015-02-18

201

Monitoring 2005 Corn Belt Yields From Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. corn belt, centered on Illinois, suffered extreme drought conditions during the 2005 growing season (Figure 1). The April-September rainfall ranked 10th lowest of the past 113 years (see http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/monitoring.html#state). Throughout Illinois, counties were declared agricultural disaster areas and corn yields were predicted to be 30 percent less than the record year of 2004, which had the highest corn yields in the last 50 years [Christian Science Monitor, 2005]. However, the Illinois Agricultural Statistics Service estimated the overall corn yield was 145 bushels per acre, or just seven percent below the previous five-year average, with `many farmers. . .surprised by the better than expected yields after the drought conditions' (see http://www.agstats.state.il.us/releases/crop.pdf and http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/reports/nassr/field/pcp-bb/2005/crop1005.pdf). This better-than-expected yield has been attributed to advancements in seed genetics, equipment, and water-management practices [Barrionuevo and Bradsher, 2005].

Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce T.; Myneni, Ranga

2006-04-01

202

Radioluminescence yield of alpha particles in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpha particles can be detected by measuring the radioluminescence light which they induce when absorbed in air. The light is emitted in the near ultraviolet region by nitrogen molecules excited by secondary electrons. The accurate knowledge of the radioluminescence yield is of utmost importance for novel radiation detection applications utilizing this secondary effect. Here, the radioluminescence yield of an alpha particle is investigated as a function of energy loss in air for the first time. Also, the total radioluminescence yield of the particle is measured with a carefully calibrated ^{239}Pu emitter used in the experiments. The obtained results consistently indicate that alpha particles generate 19±3 photons per one MeV of energy released in air at normal pressure (temperature 22°C, relative humidity 43%) and the dependence is found to be linear in the studied energy range from 0.3 MeV to 5.1 MeV. The determined radioluminescence yield is higher than previously reported for alpha particles and similar to the radioluminescence yield of electrons at comparable energies. This strengthens the evidence that the luminescence induced by charged particles is mostly proportional to the energy loss in the media and not very sensitive to the type of primary particle.

Sand, J.; Ihantola, S.; Peräjärvi, K.; Toivonen, H.; Toivonen, J.

2014-05-01

203

Genes that influence yield in tomato  

PubMed Central

Yield is the most important breeding trait of crops. For fruit-bearing plants such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), fruit formation directly affects yield. The final fruit size depends on the number and volume of cell layers in the pericarp of the fruit, which is determined by the degree of cell division and expansion in the fertilized ovaries. Thus, fruit yield in tomato is predominantly determined by the efficiency of fruit set and the final cell number and size of the fruits. Through domestication, tomato fruit yield has been markedly increased as a result of mutations associated with fruit size and genetic studies have identified the genes that influence the cell cycle, carpel number and fruit set. Additionally, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that plant hormones control fruit set and size through the delicate regulation of genes that trigger physiological responses associated with fruit expansion. In this review, we introduce the key genes involved in tomato breeding and describe how they affect the physiological processes that contribute to tomato yield. PMID:23641176

Ariizumi, Tohru; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Ezura, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

204

Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of USDA quality and yield grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.  

PubMed

This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

2014-08-01

205

Yield and Solidification of Yield-Stress Materials in Rigid Networks and Porous Structures  

E-print Network

In this paper, we address the issue of threshold yield pressure of yield-stress materials in rigid networks of interconnected conduits and porous structures subject to a pressure gradient. We compare the results as obtained dynamically from solving the pressure field to those obtained statically from tracing the path of the minimum sum of threshold yield pressures of the individual conduits by using the threshold path algorithms. We refute criticisms directed recently to our previous findings that the pressure field solution generally produces a higher threshold yield pressure than the one obtained by the threshold path algorithms. Issues related to the solidification of yield stress materials in their transition from fluid phase to solid state have also been investigated and assessed as part of the investigation of the yield point.

Sochi, Taha

2013-01-01

206

Study of B{yields}ppK* and B{yields}pp{rho}  

SciTech Connect

We study the three-body baryonic B decays of B{yields}pp(K*,{rho}) in the standard model. The baryonic matrix elements are calculated in terms of the SU(3) flavor symmetry and the QCD power counting rules within the perturbative QCD. We find that the decay branching ratios, angular, and direct CP asymmetries of (B{sup -}{yields}ppK*{sup -}, B{sup 0}{yields}ppK*{sup 0}, B{sup -}{yields}pp{rho}{sup -}) are around (6,1,30)x10{sup -6}, (13,-27,11)%, and (22,1,-3)%, which are consistent with the current BABAR and Belle data, respectively. The large values of the branching ratio in B{sup -}{yields}pp{rho}{sup -} and the direct CP asymmetry in B{sup {+-}}{yields}ppK*{sup {+-}} are useful to test the standard model and search for new physics.

Geng, C. Q.; Hsiao, Y. K. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Theory group, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada); Ng, J. N. [Theory group, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada)

2007-05-01

207

Evaluation of trends in wheat yield models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trend terms in models for wheat yield in the U.S. Great Plains for the years 1932 to 1976 are evaluated. The subset of meteorological variables yielding the largest adjusted R(2) is selected using the method of leaps and bounds. Latent root regression is used to eliminate multicollinearities, and generalized ridge regression is used to introduce bias to provide stability in the data matrix. The regression model used provides for two trends in each of two models: a dependent model in which the trend line is piece-wise continuous, and an independent model in which the trend line is discontinuous at the year of the slope change. It was found that the trend lines best describing the wheat yields consisted of combinations of increasing, decreasing, and constant trend: four combinations for the dependent model and seven for the independent model.

Ferguson, M. C.

1982-01-01

208

Biogas production from boreal herbaceous grasses--specific methane yield and methane yield per hectare.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the specific methane yields of four grass species (cocksfoot, tall fescue, reed canary grass and timothy) cultivated under boreal conditions as well as how harvesting time and year of cultivation affects the specific methane yields per ha. The specific methane yields of all grasses and all harvests varied from 253 to 394 Nl CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) added. The average specific methane yield of the 1st harvest of all grasses was higher than the 2nd harvests. In this study the methane and energy yields from different harvest years were ranged from 1200 to 3600 Nm(3) CH4/ha/a, corresponding from 12 to 36 MWh(CH4)/ha/a. The methane yield per hectare of the 1st harvest was always higher than that of the 2nd harvest per hectare because of the higher dry matter yield and specific methane yield. High biomass yield per hectare, good digestibility and regrowth ability after harvesting are important factors when choosing grass species for biogas production. If 30% of fallow and the second harvest of grassland were cultivated grasses and harvested for biogas production in Finland, the energy produced could be 4.9 TWh(CH4). PMID:19261471

Seppälä, Mari; Paavola, Teija; Lehtomäki, Annimari; Rintala, Jukka

2009-06-01

209

Analyzing Landscape Effects on Corn and Soybean Yield and Yield Risk from a Large Yield Monitor Dataset  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop yield variability is due to a variety of factors including many manageable variables such as genetics, weeds and pests, drainage, irrigation, and nutrient supply, but many factors cannot be managed and/or they have un-manageable interactions with climate. Therefore climate and it’s interaction...

210

Managing declining yields from ageing tea plantations.  

PubMed

Strong growth in the demand for tea requires further increases in the productivity of plantations. Declining or stagnant yields are commonly observed in older plantations. Possible controlling factors for yield decline are reviewed including ageing of plants, chronic disease and sub-optimal soil conditions such as excess soil acidity and low soil organic matter. Management options for addressing these factors are evaluated, including replanting. A systematic approach to decision-making about replanting is presented. Practice for replanting is reviewed and it is concluded that evidence to support a general case for replanting is limited, unless based on the introduction of more productive clones and/or better plant spacing. PMID:24464583

Kibblewhite, Mark G; Prakash, Sudhir; Hazarika, Mridul; Burgess, Paul J; Sakrabani, Ruben

2014-06-01

211

Operation of the yield estimation subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization and products of the yield estimation subsystem (YES) are described with particular emphasis on meteorological data acquisition, yield estimation, crop calendars, weekly weather summaries, and project reports. During the three phases of LACIE, YES demonstrated that it is possible to use the flow of global meteorological data and provide valuable information regarding global wheat production. It was able to establish a capability to collect, in a timely manner, detailed weather data from all regions of the world, and to evaluate and convert that data into information appropriate to the project's needs.

Mccrary, D. G.; Rogers, J. L.; Hill, J. D. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

212

Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are directly related to year-end yield. During 2012 (a drier-than-normal growing season) corn in parts of the field with shallow groundwater had significantly higher yields than the rest of the field, indicating that groundwater can provide significant yield benefits during drought. In contrast, during 2013 (a wetter-than-normal growing season) areas with the shallowest groundwater experienced total yield losses due to early-season groundwater flooding and oxygen stress. This demonstrates that the optimal DTGW for agricultural production is variable and depends on growing season weather conditions. The presence or absence of shallow groundwater is an important and dynamic feature of many agroecosystems, and should be considered when making both field- and watershed-scale management decisions.

Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

2013-12-01

213

High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds  

PubMed Central

A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties. PMID:19451687

Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

2009-01-01

214

Stellar yields of rotating first stars  

SciTech Connect

First stars, also called population III stars, are born in the earliest universe without any heavy elements. These stars are the first nuclear reactor in the universe and affect their circumstances emitting synthesized materials. Not only the stellar evolution, but also their chemical yields have many distinctive characteristics. We have modeled evolution of population III stars including effect of stellar rotation. Internal mixing induced by rotation naturally results in primary nitrogen production. Evolution of rotating massive stars is followed until the core collapse phase. The new Pop III yield model will consistently explain the observed abundances of metal-poor systems.

Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2014-05-02

215

Yield and yield components of winter-type safflower  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a minor yet widely grown oil seed crop adapted to semi-arid regions. The nascent development of winter adapted safflower, allowing fall planting,could substantially increase seed production over spring planting. In this study four winter type safflower accessi...

216

Wafer yield prediction by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of yield from the production lines is concentrated at a high-yield area and tapers down to the lower-yield area. Production management would find it useful if the yield of individual wafers could be forecast. The yield is determined by the variability of electrical characteristics and dust. In this study, only the variability of electrical characteristics was discussed. One

M. Asada

2001-01-01

217

The plastic yield and flow behavior in metallic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic glasses have vast potential applications as components in microelectronics- and nanoelectronics-type devices. The design of such components through computer simulations requires the input of a faithful set of continuum-based constitutive equations. However, one long-standing controversial issue in modeling the plastic behavior of metallic glasses at the continuum level is the use of the most appropriate plastic yield criterion and flow rule. Guided by a series of molecular dynamics simulations conducted at low-homologous temperatures under homogeneous deformations, we quantitatively prove that the continuum plastic behavior in metallic glasses is most accurately described by a von Mises-type plastic yield criterion and flow rule.

Thamburaja, Prakash; Klusemann, Benjamin; Adibi, Sara; Bargmann, Swantje

2015-02-01

218

YIELD IMPROVEMENT CASE STUDY: STACKED SPRING CAPS  

E-print Network

), and the total height is 1.7". The cap is cast from WCB steel in a no-bake sand mold, with a final casting weight mold box stacking arrangements. In this paper, `yield' is defined as the total weight of the castings produced by a mold assembly divided by the total weight of the melt poured to produce the castings

Beckermann, Christoph

219

Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review  

SciTech Connect

It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

1982-01-01

220

Parametric yield estimation considering leakage variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakage current has become a stringent constraint in modern processor designs in addition to traditional constraints on frequency. Since leakage current exhibits a strong inverse correlation with circuit delay, effective parametric yield prediction must consider the dependence of leakage current on frequency. In this paper, we present a new chip-level statistical method to estimate the total leakage current in the

Rajeev R. Rao; Anirudh Devgan; David Blaauw; Dennis Sylvester

2004-01-01

221

Yielding elastic tethers stabilize robust cell adhesion.  

PubMed

Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding elasticity. Here we address the function of yielding elastic adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether elasticity was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding elasticity is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, strain-hardening and linear elastic tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds. PMID:25473833

Whitfield, Matt J; Luo, Jonathon P; Thomas, Wendy E

2014-12-01

222

Yield stress measurements with the vane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield stress measurements were performed on a TiO2 pigment suspension with the vane in both a rate controlled and a stress controlled mode. In the rate controlled mode, a constant rotational speed is applied to the vane immersed in the suspension, and the resulting stress is measured as a function of time. In the stress controlled mode, a constant stress

Petra V. Liddel; David V. Boger

1996-01-01

223

DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

224

What Your Yield Says about You  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recession has turned Americans into numbers addicts. Seemingly endless supplies of statistics--stock prices, retail sales, and the gross domestic product--offer various views about the health of the nation's economy. Higher education has its own economic indicators. Among the most important is "yield," the percentage of admitted students who…

Hoover, Eric

2009-01-01

225

Defining sustainable yields for rainwater harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the special characteristics of rainfall, runoff and groundwater recharge in arid areas and identifies the challenges to define sustainable yields for rainwater harvesting systems. Rainfall is commonly highly variable in space and time, which has led, for example, to the use of dispersed surface water storage systems to support nomadic agriculture. Many rainwater harvesting systems rely on

Howard S. Wheater

226

Integrated DFM Framework for Dynamic Yield Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an abstract of the following article. Users may request access to the full article via the website, and a direct link will be emailed to them. We present a new methodology for a balanced yield optimization and a new DFM (design for manufacturability) framework which implements it. Our approach allows designers to dynamically balance multiple factors contributing to yield loss and select optimal combination of DFM enhancements based on the current information about the IC layout, the manufacturing process, and known causes of failures. We bring together the information gained from layout analysis, layout aware circuit analysis, resolution enhancement and optical proximity correction tools, parasitics extraction, timing estimates, and other tools, to suggest the DFM solution which is optimized within the existing constraints on design time and available data. The framework allows us to integrate all available sources of yield information, characterize and compare proposed DFM solutions, quickly adjust them when new data or new analysis tools become available, fine tune DFM optimization for a particular design and process and provide the IC designer with a customized solution which characterizes the manufacturability of the design, identifies and classifies areas with the most opportunities for improvement, and suggests DFM improvements. The proposed methodology replaces the ad hoc approach to DFM which targets one yield loss cause at a time at the expense of other factors with a comprehensive analysis of competing DFM techniques and trade offs between them.

227

Independent Isotopic Fission Yield Studies with Jyfltrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique to determine the independent isotopic fission yields utilizing the ability of a Penning trap to unambiguously identify the isotopes based on their mass has recently been developed at the IGISOL facility in the University of Jyväskylä. The analysis of proton induced fission of 238U at 25 MeV energy has been finalized. The results will be compared with theoretical models.

Penttilä, H.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Gorelov, D.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Moore, I. D.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Rubchenya, V.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Äystö, J.

2014-09-01

228

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam April 21- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model

229

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam November the appli- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Quasi-Biennial Corn Yield Cycles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quasi-biennial cycles are commonly observed in climate studies. The interannual El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are two phenomena containing quasi-periodicities of approximately 2.5 years and 2.2 years. It is known that ENSO affects corn yield; NAO affects su...

231

Predicting collector well yields with MODFLOW.  

PubMed

Groundwater flow models are commonly used to design new wells and wellfields. As the spatial scale of the problem is large and much local-scale detail is not needed, modelers often utilize two-dimensional (2D) or quasi three-dimensional models based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption. Dupuit models offer a robust set of tools for simulating regional groundwater flow including interactions with surface waters, the potential for well interference, and varying aquifer properties and recharge rates. However, given an assumed operating water level or drawdown at a well screen, Dupuit models systematically overpredict well yields. For design purposes, this discrepancy is unacceptable, and a method for predicting accurate well yields is needed. While published methods exist for vertical wells, little guidance is available for predicting yields in horizontal screens or collector wells. In plan view, a horizontal screen has a linear geometry, and will likely extend over several neighboring cells that may not align with rows or columns in a numerical model. Furthermore, the model must account for the effects of converging three-dimensional (3D) flow to the well screens and hydraulic interference among the well screens; these all depend on the design of a specific well. This paper presents a new method for simulating the yield of angled or horizontal well screens in numerical groundwater flow models, specifically using the USGS code MODFLOW. The new method is compared to a detailed, 3D analytic element model of a collector well in a field of uniform flow. PMID:22339406

Kelson, Vic

2012-01-01

232

Aluminum Yield Strength on Quasi-isentropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the functionally graded density impactors (FGDI) have made it possible to carry out dynamic experiments at previously inaccessible regions of the phase diagram. We employed these advances in recent tailored dynamic experiments to gain insight into the yield strength of aluminum along ``hot'' quasi-isentropes. The impactor was specifically designed to deliver a triangular compression wave into a sample

Jeffrey H. Nguyen; J. Reed Patterson; Daniel Orlikowski; L. Peter Martin; Ryan Krone; Roger Minich; Neil C. Holmes

2008-01-01

233

Study Yields Genetic Insights into Pancreatic Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Study Yields Genetic Insights Into Pancreatic Cancer Multiple gene mutations identified that could be targets ... 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Genes and Gene Therapy Pancreatic Cancer THURSDAY, April 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Most pancreatic ...

234

Enhancing yield management with customer profitability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that in order to sustain the long-term profitability and growth of hotel organizations, yield management decisions must incorporate two critical constraints: the cost implications of the customer mix and guest ancillary spend. Proposes that customer profitability analysis (CPA), which reports revenues, costs and profit by customer group, will give management the ancillary spend and cost information that will enhance

Breffni Noone; Peter Griffin

1997-01-01

235

Impossible Bean Burrito Bake Yield: 6 servings  

E-print Network

Impossible Bean Burrito Bake Yield: 6 servings 1- 16 ounce can refried beans 1 cup MASTER MIX ¼ cup over medium heat, brown ground meat. Drain fat. Remove from heat. 3. Mix refried beans, MASTER MIX and water in a mixing bowl. Spread mixture in bottom and halfway up sides of pie pan. 4. On top of bean

Florida, University of

236

WATERSHED SEDIMENT YIELD AND RANGELAND HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the western United States is considered to be rangeland. Rangeland areas produce a diverse mix of benefits and products, and their overall health, in an ecosystem context, is of national importance. Because sediment yield from a watershed is an integrated expression of all soil erosion and sedimentation processes occurring within it, it is logical that we seek to

Mary R. Kidwell; Mark A. Weltz

237

Yielding Elastic Tethers Stabilize Robust Cell Adhesion  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding elasticity. Here we address the function of yielding elastic adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether elasticity was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding elasticity is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, strain-hardening and linear elastic tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds. PMID:25473833

Whitfield, Matt J.; Luo, Jonathon P.; Thomas, Wendy E.

2014-01-01

238

The Relationship Between Grain Yield and Silage Yield in Field Corn in Northern Illinois INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

1 The Relationship Between Grain Yield and Silage Yield in Field Corn in Northern Illinois INTRODUCTION Corn silage is an important ingredient in dairy and beef rations. Acres of Illinois corn harvested Annual Summary). Determining a fair price for corn silage is difficult due to the many variable factors

Laughlin, Robert B.

239

Dynamics of mean-variance-skewness of cumulative crop yield impact temporal yield variance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Production risk associated with cropping systems influences farmers’ decisions to adopt a new management practice or a production system. Cumulative yield (CY), temporal yield variance (TYV) and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to assess the risk associated with adopting combinations of new m...

240

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

241

Yield stress and elastic modulus of suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids  

E-print Network

We study experimentally the behavior of isotropic suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids. This problem has been poorly studied in the literature, and only on specific materials. In this paper, we manage to develop procedures and materials that allow us to focus on the purely mechanical contribution of the particles to the yield stress fluid behavior, independently of the physicochemical properties of the materials. This allows us to relate the macroscopic properties of these suspensions to the mechanical properties of the yield stress fluid and the particle volume fraction, and to provide results applicable to any noncolloidal particle in any yield stress fluid. We find that the elastic modulus-concentration relationship follows a Krieger-Dougherty law, and we show that the yield stress-concentration relationship is related to the elastic modulus-concentration relationship through a very simple law, in agreement with results from a micromechanical analysis.

Fabien Mahaut; Xavier Chateau; Philippe Coussot; Guillaume Ovarlez

2008-10-20

242

Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups  

PubMed Central

Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

243

7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400...Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. ...practice, type, or variety requiring an APH yield will not be considered a break in...

2010-01-01

244

7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400...Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. ...practice, type, or variety requiring an APH yield will not be considered a break in...

2014-01-01

245

24 CFR 320.8 - Excess Yield Securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excess Yield Securities. 320.8 Section 320.8 ...Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.8 Excess Yield Securities. (a) Definition. Excess Yield Securities are securities backed by...

2013-04-01

246

7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Determining payments for low yield. 1437.105 Section 1437.105 Agriculture...DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.105 Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the extent...

2010-01-01

247

24 CFR 320.8 - Excess Yield Securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excess Yield Securities. 320.8 Section 320.8 ...Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.8 Excess Yield Securities. (a) Definition. Excess Yield Securities are securities backed by...

2012-04-01

248

24 CFR 320.8 - Excess Yield Securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excess Yield Securities. 320.8 Section 320.8 ...Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.8 Excess Yield Securities. (a) Definition. Excess Yield Securities are securities backed by...

2011-04-01

249

7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Determining payments for low yield. 1437.105 Section 1437.105 Agriculture...DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.105 Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the extent...

2013-01-01

250

24 CFR 320.8 - Excess Yield Securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excess Yield Securities. 320.8 Section 320.8 ...Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.8 Excess Yield Securities. (a) Definition. Excess Yield Securities are securities backed by...

2014-04-01

251

7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Determining payments for low yield. 1437.105 Section 1437.105 Agriculture...DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.105 Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the extent...

2011-01-01

252

7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400...Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. ...practice, type, or variety requiring an APH yield will not be considered a break in...

2013-01-01

253

7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Determining payments for low yield. 1437.105 Section 1437.105 Agriculture...DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.105 Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the extent...

2012-01-01

254

7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400...Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. ...practice, type, or variety requiring an APH yield will not be considered a break in...

2012-01-01

255

7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400...Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. ...practice, type, or variety requiring an APH yield will not be considered a break in...

2011-01-01

256

24 CFR 320.8 - Excess Yield Securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Yield Securities. 320.8 Section 320.8 ...Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.8 Excess Yield Securities. (a) Definition. Excess Yield Securities are securities backed by...

2010-04-01

257

7 CFR 1437.105 - Determining payments for low yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Determining payments for low yield. 1437.105 Section 1437.105 Agriculture...DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.105 Determining payments for low yield. (a) Except to the extent...

2014-01-01

258

Viscoelasticity and shear yielding onset in amorphous glassy polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the effect of viscoelasticity on the yield behaviour of a polycarbonate, PC, was studied and the identification of a yield criterion which takes into account the effects of the mechanical history on the onset of plastic strain, was attempted. The attention was focused on the shear yielding plastic deformation process and different loading histories were performed under uniaxial compression: constant strain rate at different rates, stress relaxation at different applied strain levels, creep under different stress levels. Some tests were also carried out under shear loading, in which the hydrostatic stress component is equal to zero and its effect on the yield onset can be considered. For the definition of a yield criterion, different quantities, some already proposed in an analogous work on a styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), were considered and determined at yield onset for each of the applied loading histories. The results obtained in this work show that the relative ratios of the viscoelastic strain over the overall strain and of viscoelastic energy over the deformation work are fairly constant irrespective of both loading history and stress state. The re-elaboration of the data previously obtained on SAN is consistent with these results. Discussing the experimental data, differences between the mechanical behaviour of the two glassy polymers were pointed out and a more difficult activation of the plastic deformation process of PC than SAN was generally observed.

Marano, C.; Rink, M.

2006-09-01

259

No steady state flows below the yield stress. A true yield stress at last?  

E-print Network

For more than 20 years it has been debated if yield stress fluids are solid below the yield stress or actually flow; whether true yield stress fluids exist or not. Advocates of the true yield stress picture have demonstrated that the effective viscosity increases very rapidly as the stress is decreased towards the yield stress. Opponents have shown that this viscosity increase levels off, and that the material behaves as a Newtonian fluid of very high viscosity below the yield stress. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally (on four different materials, using three different rheometers, five different geometries, and two different measurement methods) that the low-stress Newtonian viscosity is an artifact that arises in non steady state experiments. For measurements as long as 10,000 seconds we find that the value of the 'Newtonian viscosity' increases indefinitely. This proves that the yield stress exists and marks a sharp transition between flowing states and states where the steady state viscosity is infinite -a solid!

Peder CF Moller; Abdoulaye Fall; Daniel Bonn

2009-04-09

260

Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

2003-01-01

261

Stress and yielding studies using critical refracted longitudinal wave  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents some of the recent work on stress evaluation using the L{sub CR} ultrasonic technique. A sample of 4140 steel, typically used for turbine components, was tested. The acoustoelastic phenomenon was evaluated using probe sets of three different frequencies, 1MHz, 2.25MHz and 5MHz. Slightly different acoustoelastic constants for each frequency were obtained in the elastic region, at up to 80% yield strength. Data obtained past yield on the same specimen using 5 MHz probe set provided some very interesting results. For all of the tests with loading below the yield point, the return to no-load L{sub CR} travel time variations were within {+-}2 ns, (0.026%). When the load passed the yield point, the return to no-load L{sub CR} travel-time showed a distinct change. A 12.8% residual strain resulted in a 15 ns (0.198%) change in the no-load travel time. These results indicate that the L{sub CR} ultrasonic technique can not only provide the applied and residual stress information, but also may be capable of predicting the prior yield situation in the components.

Tang, W.; Bray, D.E. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1996-12-31

262

Monitoring 2005 Corn Belt Yields From Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. corn belt, centered on Illinois, suffered extreme drought conditions during the 2005 growing season (Figure 1). The April-September rainfall ranked 10th lowest of the past 113 years (see http:\\/\\/www.ncdc.noaa.gov\\/oa\\/climate\\/research\\/monitoring.html#state). Throughout Illinois, counties were declared agricultural disaster areas and corn yields were predicted to be 30 percent less than the record year of 2004, which had the highest corn

Ping Zhang; Bruce T. Anderson; Ranga Myneni

2006-01-01

263

Deep enteroscopy - indications, diagnostic yield and complications  

PubMed Central

Since its introduction in 2001 capsule endoscopy opened up the small bowel for diagnostic approaches followed by double balloon enteroscopy which enabled the endoscopic community to perform therapeutic interventions in the whole small intestine. In this review the scientific developments related to indications, diagnostic yield and complications of the last years between the competing devices double ballon enteroscopy, single balloon enteroscopy and spiral enteroscopy are illustrated. PMID:25663758

Moeschler, Oliver; Mueller, Michael Karl

2015-01-01

264

Timing Yield Estimation from Static Timing Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a means for estimating parametric timing yield and guiding robust design for-quality in the presence of manufacturing and operating environment variations. Dual emphasis is on computational efficiency and providing meaningful robust-design guidance. Computational efficiency is achieved by basing the proposed methodology on a post-processing step applied to the report generated as a by-product of static timing analysis.

Anne E. Gattiker; Sani R. Nassif; Rashmi Dinakar; Chris Long

2001-01-01

265

Bulk yields of nucleosynthesis from massive stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary estimates are made of the absolute yields of abundant nuclei synthesized in observed stars. The compositions of nine helium stars of mass 3< or =M\\/sub b\\/sun< or =48 are presented, taken at o r near the instant of instability. These stars of mass M\\/sub b\\/are identified with stars of mainsequence mass M. The amount of synthesized matter for each

W. D. Arnett

1978-01-01

266

MERLOT VINE WATER STATUS IMPACTS YIELD, BERRY AND WINE QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives of this research were to determine how severity and phenological timing of vine water stress impacts yield components and berry and wine composition. Vines in a 1-acre trial established in southern Idaho within a commercial, 30-acre block of own-rooted, five-year-old ‘Merlot’ were irriga...

267

Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...

268

Element Yields of Intermediate-mass Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermediate-mass stars occupy the mass range between 0.8 and 8 suns. In this contribution, evolutionary models of these stars from numerous sources are compared in terms of their input physics and predicted yields. In particular, the results of Renzini & Voli, van den Hoek & Groenewegen, and Marigo are discussed. Generally speaking, it is shown that yields of 4He, 12C, and 14N decrease with increasing metallicity, reduced mass loss rate, and increased rotation rate. Integrated yields and recently published chemical evolution model studies are used to assess the relative importance of intermediate-mass and massive stars in terms of their contributions to universal element build-up. Intermediate-mass stars appear to play a major role in the chemical evolution of 14N, a modest role in the case of 12C, and a small role for 4He. Furthermore, the time delay in their release of nuclear products appears to play an important part in explaining the apparent bimodality in the distribution of damped Ly? systems in the N/?--?/H plane.

Henry, Richard B. C.

269

Second Generation Crop Yield Models Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Second generation yield models, including crop growth simulation models and plant process models, may be suitable for large area crop yield forecasting in the yield model development project. Subjective and objective criteria for model selection are defined and models which might be selected are reviewed. Models may be selected to provide submodels as input to other models; for further development and testing; or for immediate testing as forecasting tools. A plant process model may range in complexity from several dozen submodels simulating (1) energy, carbohydrates, and minerals; (2) change in biomass of various organs; and (3) initiation and development of plant organs, to a few submodels simulating key physiological processes. The most complex models cannot be used directly in large area forecasting but may provide submodels which can be simplified for inclusion into simpler plant process models. Both published and unpublished models which may be used for development or testing are reviewed. Several other models, currently under development, may become available at a later date.

Hodges, T. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

270

Total radical yields from tropospheric ethene ozonolysis.  

PubMed

The gas-phase reactions of ozone with alkenes can be significant sources of free radicals (OH, HO(2) and RO(2)) in the Earth's atmosphere. In this study the total radical production and degradation products from ethene ozonolysis have been measured, under conditions relevant to the troposphere, during a series of detailed simulation chamber experiments. Experiments were carried out in the European photoreactor EUPHORE (Valencia, Spain), utilising various instrumentation including a chemical-ionisation-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS) measuring volatile organic compounds/oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs/OVOCs), a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system for measuring HO(2) radical products and a peroxy radical chemical amplification (PERCA) instrument measuring HO(2) + ?RO(2). The ethene + ozone reaction system was investigated with and without an OH radical scavenger, in order to suppress side reactions. Radical concentrations were measured under dry and humid conditions and interpreted through detailed chemical chamber box modelling, incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1) degradation scheme for ethene, which was updated to include a more explicit representation of the ethene-ozone reaction mechanism.The rate coefficient for the ethene + ozone reaction was measured to be (1.45 ± 0.25) × 10(-18) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, and a stabilised Criegee intermediate yield of 0.54 ± 0.12 was determined from excess CO scavenger experiments. An OH radical yield of 0.17 ± 0.09 was determined using a cyclohexane scavenger approach, by monitoring the formation of the OH-initiated cyclohexane oxidation products and HO(2). The results highlight the importance of knowing the [HO(2)] (particularly under alkene limited conditions and high [O(3)]) and scavenger chemistry when deriving radical yields. An averaged HO(2) yield of 0.27 ± 0.07 was determined by LIF/model fitting. The observed yields are interpreted in terms of branching ratios for each channel within the postulated ethene ozonolysis mechanism. PMID:21487601

Alam, Mohammed S; Camredon, Marie; Rickard, Andrew R; Carr, Timo; Wyche, Kevin P; Hornsby, Karen E; Monks, Paul S; Bloss, William J

2011-06-21

271

Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

1994-01-01

272

Yields of hawthorn Crataegus monogyna berries under different hedgerow management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yields of hawthorn berries under different hedgerow management treatments were examined in experimental hedgerows at Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire, UK. Statistically significant differences existed between the management treatments with yields per unit area of hedgerows unmanaged for more than a decade out-yielding managed hedgerows by an order of magnitude. These differences were further inflated if yields were considered per unit length

T. H Sparks; T Martin

1999-01-01

273

OPTIMUM ECONOMIC YIELD OF AN INTERNATIONALLY UTILIZED COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCEl  

E-print Network

OPTIMUM ECONOMIC YIELD OF AN INTERNATIONALLY UTILIZED COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCEl LEE G. ANOERSON2 possibility curves is used to describe the open·access equilibrium yield, local maximum economic yields, and a true international maximum economic yield. Finally a complete description of the conditions necessary

274

CONVENIENCE YIELD MODEL WITH PARTIAL OBSERVATIONS AND EXPONENTIAL UTILITY  

E-print Network

CONVENIENCE YIELD MODEL WITH PARTIAL OBSERVATIONS AND EXPONENTIAL UTILITY REN´E CARMONA AND MICHAEL yield and the loca- tional basis. The convenience yield is taken to be unobserved and must be filtered of the full information case. convenience yield, filtering, partial observations, stochastic control, utility

Carmona, Rene

275

SELECTING CUTTING SCHEDULES- THE YIELD AND QUALITY TRADEOFF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of cutting schedule is the primary technique by which growers can affect forage yield and quality .However, it is not always clear what alfalfa growth stage will produce dairy- quality hay without unduly sacrificing yield. Field research was conducted to quantify the relationship between alfalfa maturity and yield and forage quality under intermountain conditions. First cutting yield increased 80

Steve B. Orloff

276

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

1978-01-01

277

ON-LINE PREDICTION OF YIELD GRADE, LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE AREA, PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, ADJUSTED PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, AND MARBLING SCORE USING THE MARC BEEF CARCASS IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the MARC Beef Carcass Image Analysis System to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commerci...

278

Can Naked Singularities Yield Gamma Ray Bursts?  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray bursts are believed to be the most luminous objects in the Universe. There has been some suggestion that these arise from quantum processes around naked singularities. The main problem with this suggestion is that all known examples of naked singularities are massless and hence there is effectively no source of energy. It is argued that a globally naked singularity coupled with quantum processes operating within a distance of the order of Planck length of the singularity will probably yield energy burst of the order of M_pc^2\\approx2\\times 10^{16} ergs, where M_p is the Planck mass.

H. M. Antia

1998-07-09

279

Neutron yield of medical electron accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Shielding calculations for medical electron accelerators above about 10 MeV require some knowledge of the neutron emission from the machine. This knowledge might come from the manufacturer's specifications or from published measurements of the neutron leakage of that particular model and energy of accelerator. In principle, the yield can be calculated if details of the accelerator design are known. These details are often not available because the manufacturer considers them proprietary. A broader knowledge of neutron emission would be useful and it is the purpose of this paper to present such information. 5 refs., 1 tab.

McCall, R.C.

1987-11-01

280

Inclusive hadron yields from Ds+ decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the inclusive decays of Ds+ mesons, using data collected near the Ds*±Ds? peak production energy Ecm=4170MeV by the CLEO-c detector. We report the inclusive yields of Ds+ decays to K+X, K-X, KS0X, ?+X, ?-X, ?0X, ?X, ?'X, ?X, ?X, and f0(980)X, and also decays into pairs of kaons, Ds+?K Kmacr X. Using these measurements, we obtain an overview of Ds+ decays.

Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tan, B. J. Y.; Tomaradze, A.; Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Thomas, C.; Wilkinson, G.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Mountain, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Smith, M. J.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, J.; Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Robichaud, A. N.; Tatishvili, G.; White, E. J.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Hunt, J. M.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Ledoux, J.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Kornicer, M.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Tarbert, C.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Xavier, J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Zweber, P.

2009-06-01

281

The Journey from Safe Yield to Sustainability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Safe-yield concepts historically focused attention on the economic and legal aspects of ground water development. Sustainability concerns have brought environmental aspects more to the forefront and have resulted in a more integrated outlook. Water resources sustainability is not a purely scientific concept, but rather a perspective that can frame scientific analysis. The evolving concept of sustainability presents a challenge to hydrologists to translate complex, and sometimes vague, socioeconomic and political questions into technical questions that can be quantified systematically. Hydrologists can contribute to sustainable water resources management by presenting the longer-term implications of ground water development as an integral part of their analyses.

Alley, W.M.; Leake, S.A.

2004-01-01

282

Genetic Improvement of Mentha arvensis Based on Essential Oil Yield and Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic divergence among 38 genotypes of Japanese mint Mentha arvensis, studied under the climatic conditions of northern India, could be grouped into eight clusters based on essential oil yield and quality components. Genotypes with relatively high essential oil yields could be identified and suggest the possibility of developing high-yielding, Japanese mint plants having good oil quality. Identification of genotype performance

S. P. Singh; Srikant Sharma; R. K. Tewari

1998-01-01

283

agronomie: agriculture and environment Dry matter accumulation and seed yield in faba bean  

E-print Network

agronomie: agriculture and environment Dry matter accumulation and seed yield in faba bean ( Vicia; Fifteen genotypes of spring faba bean, differing in flowering earliness, in growth habit (one determinate = faba bean / genetic variability / dry matter accumulation / yield / yield components / early indicator

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Identification of expressed genes in the mapped QTLs for yield related traits in rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improvement of grain yield is a perpetual goal in rice breeding. Yield and its component traits are quantitatively inherited and controlled by many genes. To identify the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) involved in yield, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 259 progeny was devel...

285

Examining the roles that changing harvested areas, closing yield-gaps, and increasing yield ceilings have had on crop production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, there has been tremendous effort to examine strategies for sustainably increasing agricultural production to meet this surging global demand. Before developing new solutions from scratch, though, we believe it is important to consult our recent agricultural history to see where and how agricultural production changes have already taken place. By utilizing the newly created temporal M3 cropland datasets, we can for the first time examine gridded agricultural yields and area, both spatially and temporally. This research explores the historical drivers of agricultural production changes, from 1965-2005. The results will be presented spatially at the global-level (5-min resolution), as well as at the individual country-level. The primary research components of this study are presented below, including the general methodology utilized in each phase and preliminary results for soybean where available. The complete assessment will cover maize, wheat, rice, soybean, and sugarcane, and will include country-specific analysis for over 200 countries, states, territories and protectorates. Phase 1: The first component of our research isolates changes in agricultural production due to variation in planting decisions (harvested area) from changes in production due to intensification efforts (yield). We examine area/yield changes at the pixel-level over 5-year time-steps to determine how much each component has contributed to overall changes in production. Our results include both spatial patterns of changes in production, as well as spatial maps illustrating to what degree the production change is attributed to area and/or yield. Together, these maps illustrate where, why, and by how much agricultural production has changed over time. Phase 2: In the second phase of our research we attempt to determine the impact that area and yield changes have had on agricultural production at the country-level. We calculate a production-weighted result of area and yield contributions for each country, at each time-step. As part of our research we will generate historic figures and tabular data for every country-crop combination. Phase 3: In the final phase of our research, we attempt to demonstrate how different yield performers (for example, those growing crops at the yield floor vs. the yield ceiling) have utilized different area/yield strategies to increase agricultural production. To group individual pixels into performance quintiles, we utilize binning strategies from previous spatial yield-gap assessments. The results from this step will illustrate how the yield ceiling has improved over time vis-à-vis improvements in the yield floor. As we look forward to a more sustainable and productive agricultural future, we hope the results of this global analysis of our agricultural past can be utilized to identify both optimal and adverse strategies for agricultural growth.

Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

2011-12-01

286

Aluminum Yield Strength on Quasi-isentropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the functionally graded density impactors (FGDI) have made it possible to carry out dynamic experiments at previously inaccessible regions of the phase diagram. We employed these advances in recent tailored dynamic experiments to gain insight into the yield strength of aluminum along ``hot'' quasi-isentropes. The impactor was specifically designed to deliver a triangular compression wave into a sample where the strain rates on the compression and release isentropes were nearly identical. The aluminum samples were initially shocked to a fixed state on the Hugoniot, then quasi-isentropically compressed, and finally allowed to release isentropically. Here, we will discuss the details of the experiments and error analysis in deriving the yield strength of aluminum on a ``hot'' quasi-isentrope. We will also discuss recent advances in the FGDI technology that made these experiments possible with significantly reduced uncertainties. Methods to characterize these advances will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in part under Contract W-7405-Eng-48 and in part under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Nguyen, Jeffrey H.; Reed Patterson, J.; Orlikowski, Daniel; Martin, L. Peter; Krone, Ryan; Minich, Roger; Holmes, Neil C.

2008-03-01

287

On-line prediction of yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score using the MARC beef carcass image analysis system.  

PubMed

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center's beef carcass image analysis system to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commercial beef-processing facilities, image analysis was conducted on 800 carcasses on the beef-grading chain immediately after the conventional USDA beef quality and yield grades were applied. Carcasses were blocked by plant and observed calculated yield grade. The carcasses were then separated, with 400 carcasses assigned to a calibration data set that was used to develop regression equations, and the remaining 400 carcasses assigned to a prediction data set used to validate the regression equations. Prediction equations, which included image analysis variables and hot carcass weight, accounted for 90, 88, 90, 88, and 76% of the variation in calculated yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score, respectively, in the prediction data set. In comparison, the official USDA yield grade as applied by online graders accounted for 73% of the variation in calculated yield grade. The technology described herein could be used by the beef industry to more accurately determine beef yield grades; however, this system does not provide an accurate enough prediction of marbling score to be used without USDA grader interaction for USDA quality grading. PMID:12597385

Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

2003-01-01

288

Computed barrier heights for H + CH2O yields CH3O yields CH2OH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The barrier heights (including zero-point effects) for H + CH2O yields CH3O and CH3O yields CH2OH have been computed using complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF)/gradient calculations to define the stationary point geometries and harmonic frequencies and internally contracted configuration-interaction (CCI) to refine the energetics. The computed barrier heights are 5.6 kcal/mol and 30.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The former barrier height compares favorably to an experimental activation energy of 5.2 kcal/mol.

Walch, Stephen P.

1993-01-01

289

Diallel analysis of within-boll seed yield components and fiber properties in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and breeding potential for heat tolerance  

E-print Network

. (Walp.)] (Ismail and Hall, 1998; Ismail and Hall, 1999), maize (Klueva et al., 2001; Wilhelm et al., 1999), peanut [Arachis hypogaea L.] (Vara Prasad et al., 1999), soybean (addressed in Klueva et al., 2001), tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum L.] (Crafts...). Physiological components that are sensitive to high temperature stress include membrane properties in Arabidopsis and tobacco (Murakami et al., 2000), cowpea (Ismail and Hall, 1999), and cotton (Rikin et al., 1993 ), boll maturation period (Yfoulis...

Ragsdale, Paul Irwin

2004-09-30

290

Genetic combining ability estimates in the F 1 and F 2 generations for yield, its component traits and alkaloid content in opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The F\\u000a 1 and F\\u000a 2 generations of a twenty parent fractional diallel cross of opium poppy (P. somniferum L.) were analyzed for combining ability for ten quantitative and five quality (alkaloids) traits. The results indicated significant\\u000a differences among the parents for combining ability for all the traits. The GCA and SCA components of variances were significant\\u000a for all the

H. K. Yadav; Sudhir Shukla; S. P. Singh

2009-01-01

291

An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang [Mechanical Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2011-08-22

292

Estimation of yield and ultimate strengths of bolted timber joints by nonlinear analysis and yield theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element nonlinear analysis was conducted on bolted timber joints under lateral loads parallel and perpendicular to the grain. The results obtained from this analysis were compared with the experimental results and calculated values based on the yield theory. The analysis and experiment were performed on double shear bolted joints parallel and perpendicular to the grain with steel side

Kei Sawata; Motoi Yasumura

2003-01-01

293

Shakedown limits for a general yield condition: implementation and application for a Von Mises yield condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the generalisation of the programming method for the determination of optimal upper bound shakedown limits for an elastic\\/perfectly plastic solid given by Ponter and Carter (1997). The method is based on similar principles to the `Elastic Compensation' method which has been used in design calculations for a number of years. A convergence proof for a general yield

Alan R. S. Ponter; Markus Engelhardt

2000-01-01

294

Identification and mapping of yield and yield related QTLs from an Indian accession of Oryza rufipogon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is endowed with a rich genetic variability. In spite of such a great diversity, the modern rice cultivars have narrow genetic base for most of the agronomically important traits. To sustain the demand of an ever increasing population, new avenues have to be explored to increase the yield of rice. Wild progenitor species present

Pradeep Reddy Marri; Sarla N; Laxminarayana V Reddy; EA Siddiq

2005-01-01

295

QTL Analysis for Flag Leaf Characteristics and Their Relationships with Yield and Yield Traits in Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis of carbohydrate is the primary source of grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). It is important to genetically analyze the morphological and the physiological characteristics of functional leaves, especially flag leaf, in rice improvement. In this study, a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between an indica (O. sativa L. ssp. indica) cultivar and a japonica (O.

Bing YUE; Wei-Ya XUE; Li-Jun LUO; Yong-Zhong XING

2006-01-01

296

The effects of climate change on United States rice yields and California wheat yields  

SciTech Connect

The USA produces 7.9 million tons of rice (Oryza sativa L.), 28% of which is exported to developing countries. Rice is one of the most important grain crops both in the USA and the world. Therefore it is important to understand the impact of weather and climate change on rice yields and production. In the USA rice is produced in California and the Gulf Coast states. It is anticipated that global climate change will have a major influence on agricultural practices and crop selection in these states. This study uses simulation techniques to quantify the potential magnitude of this influence. In addition, the impact of climate change on fall planted dryland spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in California is evaluated. Results indicate that rice yields decrease by between 14 and 24% in the Gulf Coast states and between 11 and 21% in California. In both regions the decrease in rice yields were due primarily to the large increase in summer temperatures. On the other hand, dryland fall planted spring wheat yields in California increase by 62 and 125%. This is because of the increased rainfall and temperatures during the winter months in California.

Barry, T.A.; Geng, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

297

When does this cortical area drop off? Principal component structuring of the EEG spectrum yields yes-or-no criteria of local sleep onset.  

PubMed

The traditional sleep scoring approach has been invented long before the recognition of strictly local nature of the sleep process. It considers sleep as a whole-organism behavior state, and, thus, it cannot be used for identification of sleep onset in a separate brain region. Therefore, this paper was aimed on testing whether the practically useful, simple and reliable yes-or-no criterion of sleep onset in a particular cortical region might be developed through applying principal component analysis to the electroencephalographic (EEG) spectra. The resting EEG was recorded with 2-hour intervals throughout 43-61-hour prolongation of wakefulness, and during 12 20-minute attempts to nap in the course of 24-hour wakefulness (15 and 18 adults, respectively). The EEG power spectra were averaged on 1-min intervals of each resting EEG record and on 1-min intervals of each napping attempt, respectively. Since we earlier demonstrated that scores on the first and second principal components of the EEG spectrum exhibit dramatic changes during the sleep onset period, a zero-crossing buildup of the first score and a zero-crossing decline of the second score were examined as possible yes-or-no markers of regional sleep onsets. The results suggest that, irrespective of electrode location, sleep onset criterion and duration of preceding wakefulness, a highly significant zero-crossing decline of the second principal component score always occurred within 1-minute interval of transition from wakefulness to sleep. Therefore, it was concluded that such zero-crossing decline can serve as a reliable, simple, and practically useful yes-or-no marker of drop off event in a given cortical area. PMID:24878318

Putilov, Arcady A

2014-06-22

298

Does engagement with exposure yield better outcomes? Components of presence as a predictor of treatment response for virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia  

PubMed Central

Virtual reality exposure (VRE) has been shown to be effective for treating a variety of anxiety disorders, including social phobia. Presence, or the level of connection an individual feels with the virtual environment, is widely discussed as a critical construct both for the experience of anxiety within a virtual environment and for a successful response to VRE. Two published studies show that whereas generalized presence relates to fear ratings during VRE, it does not relate to treatment response. However, presence has been conceptualized as multidimensional, with three primary factors (spatial presence, involvement, and realness). These factors can be linked to other research on the facilitation of fear during exposure, inhibitors of treatment response (e.g., distraction), and more recent theoretical discussions of the mechanisms of exposure therapy, such as Bouton’s description of expectancy violation. As such, one or more of these components of presence may be more strongly associated with the experience of fear during VRE and treatment response than the overarching construct. The current study (N = 41) evaluated relations between three theorized components of presence, fear ratings during VRE, and treatment response for VRE for social phobia. Results suggest that total presence and realness subscale scores were related to in-session peak fear ratings. However, only scores on the involvement subscale significantly predicted treatment response. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21515027

Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Tone, Erin B.; Anderson, Page L.

2012-01-01

299

Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid  

E-print Network

Field-induced static and dynamic yield stresses are explored for magnetorheological (MR) suspensions in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid composed of an aqueous dispersion of Laponite® clay. Using a custom-built ...

Rich, Jason P.

300

Framework for the determination of yield limits In pharmaceutical operations  

E-print Network

The manufacturing production of active pharmaceutical ingredients often involve a series of processing stages in which yield limits are prescribed to ensure that the target yield has been achieved for a batch and that the ...

Liow, Yuh Han John

2010-01-01

301

Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and Spain in both considered drought events, however slightly less severe for 2012 than for 2005. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor droughts' impacts on crops productions and yields in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno, 2010: A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J. Climate, 23, 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45.

Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

2014-05-01

302

Internal stress and yield strength of copper films on substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal stress and yield strength of pure copper films on substrates were characterized by x-ray diffraction and thermal-cycle substrate curvature methods. The internal stress was of tension and decreased with increasing working-gas (argon) pressure and increased with increasing film thickness. Tensile yield strength of copper films on steel substrate was reciprocal to the film thickness. Similarly, the compressive yield strength depended strongly on the film thickness: the thinner the film thickness, the larger the compressive yield strength.

Zhang, Jian-Min; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Ke-Wei

2005-05-01

303

Genetic analysis for F1 yield traits with conditional approach in island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.).  

PubMed

A genetic model with additive, dominance and genotype x environment interaction effect was employed to analyze the 3-year data of F(1) hybrids from 5 x 4 diallel cross, whose parents were Island cotton and had different fruit branch types. Unconditional and conditional genetic variances were conducted for analyze genetic impacts of yield components on yield. Results of unconditional genetic variances showed that there were no additive variance of total lint yield. But conditional additive effects of total lint yield, when excluding the phenotype of boll weight, boll number at prefrost, boll number at postfrost, and lint yield at prefrost, indicated that improving the additive effects of the total lint yield was still possible. Crossing and selecting component traits with high contributive additive effects could obtain good offsprings. Yield components contributed large dominance effects to the heterosis of lint yield at prefrost and total lint yield in crosses. Yield component traits were controlled with each other. The traits having positive contributive effects could be applied to further improve target traits. PMID:16980131

Mei, Yong-Jun; Ye, Zi-Hong; Zhang, Li-Li

2006-09-01

304

Yield Trait Variation and QTL Mapping in a DH Population of Rice Under Phosphorus Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the differences of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield and its component traits under different phosphorus applications, a double haploid (DH) population consisting of 116 lines was evaluated for yield per plant (YP) and its components including 1000-grain weight (GW), seed-setting percentage (SP), panicle number per plant (PN), and grain number per panicle (GN)

Ping MU; Chao HUANG; Jun-Xia LI; Li-Feng LIU; Zi-Chao LI

2008-01-01

305

In-line Inspection Impact on Cycle Time and Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semiconductor industry constantly drives for high yield and low cycle time (CT), while most current manufacturing practices consider them separately. This research investigates and exhibits the relationship between CT and yield as affected by in-line metrology inspections of production lots. Among the various factors that impact the tradeoff between CT and yield, we focus on single operation monitors and

Israel Tirkel; Noam Reshef; Gad Rabinowitz

2009-01-01

306

In-line inspection impact on Cycle Time and Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductors industry constantly drives for high Yield and low Cycle Time (CT), while most current manufacturing practices consider them separately. This research investigates the relationship between CT and Yield as impacted by in-line metrology inspections of production lots. It reduces the CT accumulated due to inspections, while considering the impact on Yield as a result. The research assumes a simple

Israel Tirkel; Noam Reshef; Gad Rabinowitz

2008-01-01

307

In-line inspection impact on Cycle Time and Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor industry constantly drives for high yield and low cycle time (CT), while most current manufacturing practices consider them separately. This research investigates the relationship between CT and yield as impacted by in-line metrology inspections of production lots. It reduces the CT accumulated due to inspections, while considering the impact on yield as a result. The research assumes a simple

Israel Tirkel; Noam Reshef; G. Rabinowitz

2009-01-01

308

Characterization of yield stress fluids with concentric cylinder viscometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods normally employed for shear rate calculations from concentric cylinder viscometer data generally are not applicable for fluids with a yield stress. In cylindrical systems with large radius ratios, as usually is the case with suspensions, the yield stress induces two possible flow regimes in the annulus. Unless the yield value is exceeded everywhere in the gap only part

Q. D. Nguyen; D. V. Boger

1987-01-01

309

Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid  

E-print Network

1 Magnetorheology in an aging, yield stress matrix fluid Jason P. Rich,a Patrick S. Doyle,a Gareth@mit.edu Abstract Field-induced static and dynamic yield stresses are explored for magnetorheological (MR Magnetorheology, Yield Stress, Aging, Clay, Suspensions Introduction Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are field

310

Raising yield potential in wheat: increasing photosynthesis capacity and efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing wheat yields to help to ensure food security is a major challenge. Meeting this challenge requires a quantum improvement in the yield potential of wheat. Past increases in yield potential have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index not through increased biomass. Further large...

311

Study on ARM Processor based Embedded Intelligent Yield System Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to generalize yield detection system, an ARM processor s3c 2440 was used to develop an embedded intelligent yield controller. In this thesis, we extended the ports of s3c 2440 circuit board, and compiled the development of corresponding drivers. Developed the internet applications of the yield distribution detection system, which can run in the embedded controller, and accomplish the

Yuan Yanwei; Zhang Xiaochao; Zhao Huaping

2009-01-01

312

Bell pepper yield response to carbonated irrigation water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were conducted to determine the influence of carbonated irrigation water on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yield, plant nutrient status, canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, and soil pH. Marketable yield, early yield, marketable fruit size distribution, and plant nutrient status were unaffected by carbonated irrigation water. Air CO2 concentration in the lowest portion of the canopy increased during

Craig A. Storlie; Joseph R. Heckman

1996-01-01

313

Spot Convenience Yield Models for Energy Michael Ludkovski  

E-print Network

Spot Convenience Yield Models for Energy Assets Michael Ludkovski and Ren´e Carmona August 2003 1 is a class of the so-called "convenience yield models". Such models introduce a new unobserved quan- tity related to physical ownership of the asset. In turn, convenience yield models can be broadly split

Ludkovski, Mike

314

7 CFR 760.638 - Determination of SURE yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Determination of SURE yield. 760.638 Section 760.638 ...§ 760.638 Determination of SURE yield. (a) Except for value loss crops as specified in § 760.634, a SURE yield will be determined for each...

2014-01-01

315

7 CFR 760.638 - Determination of SURE yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Determination of SURE yield. 760.638 Section 760.638 ...§ 760.638 Determination of SURE yield. (a) Except for value loss crops as specified in § 760.634, a SURE yield will be determined for each...

2012-01-01

316

7 CFR 760.638 - Determination of SURE yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Determination of SURE yield. 760.638 Section 760.638 ...§ 760.638 Determination of SURE yield. (a) Except for value loss crops as specified in § 760.634, a SURE yield will be determined for each...

2013-01-01

317

Optimal Linear Static Control with Moment and Yield Objectives  

E-print Network

Optimal Linear Static Control with Moment and Yield Objectives Anders Hansson, Stephen Boyd, Lieven moments and yield objectives for Gaussian dis- tributions. These problems can be cast as second-order cone Introduction Yield is of importance in many manufacturing processes. The pro t can be directly proportional

318

MODELING PRECIPITATION-RUNOFF RELATIONSHIPS TO DETERMINE WATER YIELD  

E-print Network

MODELING PRECIPITATION-RUNOFF RELATIONSHIPS TO DETERMINE WATER YIELD FROM A PONDEROSA PINE FOREST YIELD FROM ARIZONA'S PONDEROSA PINE FORESTS ASSEFA S. DESTA A stochastic precipitation-runoff modeling is used to estimate a cold and warm- seasons water yield from a ponderosa pine forested watershed

319

Polar-Molecule-Dominated Electrorheological Fluids Featuring High Yield Stresses  

E-print Network

Polar-Molecule-Dominated Electrorheological Fluids Featuring High Yield Stresses By Rong Shen of the external electric field, and the yield stress displays a quadratic dependence on the field strength been made to improve the performance of ER fluids, however, the yield stresses available were still

Zexian, Cao

320

Yield to maturity modelling and a Monte Carlo Technique for  

E-print Network

Yield to maturity modelling and a Monte Carlo Technique for pricing Derivatives on Constant rate function, yield to maturity, CMS, CMT, volatility, convexity adjustment, martingale Abstract This paper proposes a Monte Carlo technique for pricing the for- ward yield to maturity, when the volatility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

Defect Tolerance in VLSI Circuits: Techniques and Yield Analysis  

E-print Network

Defect Tolerance in VLSI Circuits: Techniques and Yield Analysis ISRAEL KOREN, FELLOW, IEEE. However, imperfections in the fabrication process result in yield-reducing manufacturing defects, whose of yield-enhancement techniques at the design stage, to complement existing efforts at the manufacturing

Koren, Israel

322

7 CFR 760.638 - Determination of SURE yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Determination of SURE yield. 760.638 Section 760.638 ...§ 760.638 Determination of SURE yield. (a) Except for value loss crops as specified in § 760.634, a SURE yield will be determined for each...

2011-01-01

323

7 CFR 760.638 - Determination of SURE yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Determination of SURE yield. 760.638 Section 760.638 ...§ 760.638 Determination of SURE yield. (a) Except for value loss crops as specified in § 760.634, a SURE yield will be determined for each...

2010-01-01

324

Unsupervised linear unmixing of hyperspectral image for crop yield estimation  

E-print Network

Unsupervised linear unmixing of hyperspectral image for crop yield estimation Bin Luo GIPSA are often used for estimating crop yield. This paper describes an unsu- pervised unmixing scheme of hyperspectral images on field in order to estimate the crop yield. From the hyperspectral images, the endmembers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Intelligent yield prediction models for high-speed microprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural network based yield prediction models are developed to optimize high-speed microprocessor manufacturing processes. Based on measured sixty ET (electrical test) data, wafer level parametric yield prediction models are developed. In this work, manufacturing yield was considered as a manufacturing performance index because it is very critical to overall manufacturing cost and product quality. The prediction results show 41.09% improvement

Tae Seon Kim; Se Hwan Ahn; Young Gyun Jang; Jeong In Lee; Kil Jae Lee; Byeong Yun Kim; Chang Hyun Cho

2000-01-01

326

A hybrid optimization model for hotel yield management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays yield management is a strategic and tactical tool for hotels to improving its revenues and profitability under the global competitive environment. Compared to the airline industry, hotel yield management has some unique characteristics. A central reservation system is urgently needed to be built up for a hotel to use yield management in China. In this paper, we use the

Chanyuan Liu; Jinpeng Lu

2005-01-01

327

Observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice is developed based on the characteristic analysis of the stress field within the pack ice. The analysis shows that the slope of the yield curve is associated with the angle between intersecting linear kinematic features; thus by measuring the intersection angles we can inversely estimate the yield curve. Applying

Keguang Wang

2007-01-01

328

STUDYING THE INHERITANCE OF HIGH MILLING YIELD IN CYPRESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milling yield, also called ‘head rice yield’, is the percentage of whole grain obtained from rough rice (paddy rice) after milling. Milling yield is a critically important trait in rice because it is a major factor determining the price farmers are paid for their crop. Developing genetic markers t...

329

Pulse Radiolysis of Gases H atom yields, OH reactions,  

E-print Network

mechanisms: 1) The hydrogen atom yield in the pulse radiolysis of H2 was measured by four independentRisø-R-480 Pulse Radiolysis of Gases H atom yields, OH reactions, and kinetics of H2O systems Ole PULSE RADIOLYSIS OP GASES H atom yields, OH reactions, and kinetics of H2S systems Ole John Nielsen

330

A new yield optimization algorithm and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a novel yield optimization algorithm for IC design. To design a practical yield optimization system, two efforts must be made. One is to get a suitable convergence criterion, the other is to propose an efficient optimization method, by which one can reach the maximum yield point as soon as possible. A convergence criterion based on sequential tests

Zhihua Wang; Huazhong Yang; Rensheng Liu; Chongzhi Fan

1991-01-01

331

Boosting investor yields through bond insurance  

SciTech Connect

The market for utility securities generally tends to be fairly static. Innovative financing techniques are rarely used because of the marketability of utility securities stemming from the companies' generally strong financial credit and the monopoly markets most utilities serve. To many people, utility securities are considered the pillars of the financial world, and innovation is not needed. Further, plain vanilla utility issues are easily understood by investors, as well as by regulators and customers. Over the past several years, however, a new utility bond product has crept into the world of utility securities - insured secondary utility bonds. These insured bonds may possibly be used as an alternative financing technique for newly issued debt. Individual investors often tend to rely on insurance as a tool for reducing credit risk and are willing to take the lower yields as a tradeoff. Insured utility bonds are created by brokerage firms through the acqusition of a portion of an outstanding utility bond issue and subsequent solicitation of the insurance companies for bids. The insurance company then agrees to insure that portion of the issue until maturity for a fee, and the brokerage firm sells those bonds to their customers as a AAA-insured bond. Issuers are encouraged to explore the retail market as a financing alternative. They may find a most cost-effective means of raising capital.

Mosbacher, M.L.; Burkhardt, D.A.

1993-02-01

332

Solution measurements yield atomic scale resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional measure on a solution of identical non-interacting particles (e.g. a dilute solution of proteins) is the scattering averaged over all particle orientations. Such scattering results in a 1-D profile, e.g. the standard powder diffraction rings. Here, we aim to recover information that is averaged out in such a measurement. By recording many short, bright X-ray pulses one can obtain the scattering fluctuation, i.e. the 2-photon correlation function. Intensity correlations arise from double scattering events in which two photons from an incoming beam scatter off the same particle, belonging to an ensemble of randomly oriented particles. The double scattering must occur during a single exposure, and before the scatterer has undergone significant diffusion. At wide angles, such correlations have the potential to yield å-scale single-particle structural information. The problem is to extract correlated events from a background of uncorrelated single-photon scattering events. This is done by forming statistics over an ensemble of correlation measurements and comparing to correlations between uncorrelated pairs of exposures. Samples range from naturally occurring nano-minerals measured using focused synchrotron X-rays, to biomolecules measured using a free electron laser.

Mendez, Derek; Sung, Jongmin; Ratner, Daniel; Levard, Clement; Michel, Marc; Brown, Gordon; Doniach, Sebastian

2013-03-01

333

On Strength at Yield in Condensed Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the lower of a range of thresholds that control the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient laboratory state to the point at which the bond strength is overcome and warm dense matter is formed. One oft-used term is yield stress and its variation with the rise time of the loading pulse are considered in this first paper. This threshold shows a correlation between the length scale swept by the rise of the pulse and the defect distribution within the target for a range of materials. Strain rate is also a useful term that reflects the evolution of the stress state within a target but must be defined for a particular volume element containing a particular defect distribution to reflect continuum conditions acting within and thus applies to a defined length scale within a target. This overview of behavior suggests concepts borrowed from rate-independent plasticity have served the community well but that to advance it may be necessary to use viscoplastic concepts in constitutive descriptions for the future.

Bourne, Neil K.

2014-10-01

334

The Two-Component Regulators GacS and GacA Positively Regulate a Nonfluorescent Siderophore through the Gac/Rsm Signaling Cascade in High-Siderophore-Yielding Pseudomonas sp. Strain HYS  

PubMed Central

Siderophores, which are produced to overcome iron deficiency, are believed to be closely related to the adaptability of bacteria. The high-siderophore-yielding Pseudomonas sp. strain HYS simultaneously secretes the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdine and another nonfluorescent siderophore that is a major contributor to the high siderophore yield. Transposon mutagenesis revealed siderophore-related genes, including the two-component regulators GacS/GacA and a special cluster containing four open reading frames (the nfs cluster). Deletion mutations of these genes abolished nonfluorescent-siderophore production, and expression of the nfs cluster depended on gacA, indicating that gacS-gacA may control the nonfluorescent siderophore through regulation of the nfs cluster. Furthermore, regulation of the nonfluorescent siderophore by GacS/GacA involved the Gac/Rsm pathway. In contrast, inactivation of GacS/GacA led to upregulation of the fluorescent pyoverdine. The two siderophores were secreted under different iron conditions, probably because of differential effects of GacS/GacA. The global GacS/GacA regulatory system may control iron uptake by modulating siderophore production and may enable bacteria to adapt to changing iron environments. PMID:24982309

Yu, Xinyan; Chen, Min; Jiang, Zhen; Hu, Yi

2014-01-01

335

PXAMS -- Projectile X ray AMS: X ray yields and applications  

SciTech Connect

Characteristic x rays have recently been explored as a method for the detection and identification of ions in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions stop in an appropriately chosen target and the induced x rays identify the ions by atomic number. For the application of AMS to higher mass isotopes, characteristic x rays allow significantly better discrimination of competing atomic isobars than is possible using energy loss detectors. Characteristic x rays also show promise as a convenient component in hybrid detection systems. Measurements of x ray yields are presented for Si, Fe, Ni, Se, Mo, and Pd ions of 0.5--2 MeV/AMU. The yields rise by more than a factor of 10 over this energy range, and approach 1 x-ray per incident ion at 2 MeV/AMU for the lighter ions. Preliminary work on the application of PXAMS to the detection of {sup 79}Se is described.

McAninch, J.E.; Bench, G.S.; Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Roberts, M.L.; Southon, J.R.; Vogel, J.S.; Proctor, I.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

1994-10-07

336

Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

2013-12-01

337

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity  

PubMed Central

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N?ha?1) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m3 ha?1). Although energy inputs (30 GJ?ha?1) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg?ha?1 and 159 GJ?ha?1, respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO2e?Mg?1 of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N2O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

338

The Effect of Sulphur on Yield of Certain Crops.  

E-print Network

1754 1870 1552 Bushels of corn Average 25.2 23.4 24.0 1925 34.3 33.8 37.4 1928 24.5 18.6 17.0 1926 23.5 25.2 21.7 1927 ----- 18.6 16.0 20.0 16 BULLETIN NO. 408, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION Yield of Cotton: In 1926... pounds more than the yield of the land which received no sulphur. Large yields resulted in 192'7, the untreated land producing the highest yield, 508 pounds of lint per acre, which is significantly larger than the yield of 451 pounds produced...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1930-01-01

339

A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments  

SciTech Connect

The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

Thielemann, N. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, P. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foehlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

2012-09-15

340

FastYield: Variation-Aware, Layout-Driven Simultaneous Binding and Module Selection for Performance Yield Optimization  

E-print Network

FastYield: Variation-Aware, Layout-Driven Simultaneous Binding and Module Selection for Performance Yield Optimization Gregory Lucas, Scott Cromar, Deming Chen Department of Electrical and Computer bind- ing/module selection algorithm, named FastYield, which takes into consideration multiplexers

Chen, Deming

341

This is the documentation for the yield strength neural network, as described in Program MAP_NEURAL_AUSTENITIC_YIELD  

E-print Network

Appendix B This is the documentation for the yield strength neural network, as described in chapter 8. Program MAP_NEURAL_AUSTENITIC_YIELD 1. Provenance of code. 2. Purpose of code. 3. Specification 2002 #12; Purpose To estimate the yield strength of austenitic stainless steels at particular

Cambridge, University of

342

Genetic dissection of developmental behavior of crop growth rate and its relationships with yield and yield related traits in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop growth rate is a dynamic character that determines the final yield in cereal crops. The objective of the current study is to reveal its genetic basis and to genetically understand its relationships with grain yield and yield related traits like heading date, grain-filling duration, 1000-grain weight and plant height in rice (Oryza sativa L.). With 258 recombinant inbred lines

Shao-Bo Li; Zhi-Hong Zhang; Ying Hu; Chen-Yu Li; Xuan Jiang; Ting Mao; Yang-Sheng Li; Ying-Guo Zhu

2006-01-01

343

Weather-based forecasts of California crop yields  

SciTech Connect

Crop yield forecasts provide useful information to a range of users. Yields for several crops in California are currently forecast based on field surveys and farmer interviews, while for many crops official forecasts do not exist. As broad-scale crop yields are largely dependent on weather, measurements from existing meteorological stations have the potential to provide a reliable, timely, and cost-effective means to anticipate crop yields. We developed weather-based models of state-wide yields for 12 major California crops (wine grapes, lettuce, almonds, strawberries, table grapes, hay, oranges, cotton, tomatoes, walnuts, avocados, and pistachios), and tested their accuracy using cross-validation over the 1980-2003 period. Many crops were forecast with high accuracy, as judged by the percent of yield variation explained by the forecast, the number of yields with correctly predicted direction of yield change, or the number of yields with correctly predicted extreme yields. The most successfully modeled crop was almonds, with 81% of yield variance captured by the forecast. Predictions for most crops relied on weather measurements well before harvest time, allowing for lead times that were longer than existing procedures in many cases.

Lobell, D B; Cahill, K N; Field, C B

2005-09-26

344

Calculation of neutron yield from a dense Z pinch  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of neutron yield from a Z pinch formed from a solid deuterium fiber have been reported recently. The scaling of yield with applied current was a surprising I/sup 10/. Although the neutrons were believed to result from a plasma instability, no explanation for the magnitude or scaling of the yield with current was suggested. A model of a sausage, or m = 0, instability has been generated which gives the observed yield to a multiplicative constant and the scaling of yield with current. It is predicted that the yield can be increased by increasing the applied current, but the model indicates that yields from this mechanism may be limited to 10/sup 12/ unless tritium is added to the pinch.

McCall, G.H.

1989-04-24

345

Low and intermediate mass star yields.II: The evolution of nitrogen abundances  

E-print Network

We analyze the impact on the Galactic nitrogen abundances of using a new set of low and intermediate mass star yields. These yields have a significant yield of primary nitrogen from intermediate mass stars. We use these yields as an input to a Galactic Chemical Evolution model and study the nitrogen abundances in the halo and in the disc, and compare them with models obtained using other yield sets and with a large amount of observational data. We find that, using these new yields, our model adequately reproduce the observed trends. In particular, these yields solve the historical problem of the evolution of nitrogen, giving the right level of relative abundance N/O by the production of a primary component in intermediate mass stars. Moreover, using different evolutionary rates in each radial region of the Galaxy, we may explain the observed N dispersion.

Marta Gavilan; Mercedes Molla; James F. Buell

2006-01-16

346

HVM die yield improvement as a function of DRSEM ADC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the current manufacturing technology roadmap and the competitiveness of the global semiconductor manufacturing environment in conjunction with the semiconductor manufacturing market dynamics, the market place continues to demand a reduced die manufacturing cost. This continuous pressure on lowering die cost in turn drives an aggressive yield learning curve, a key component of which is defect reduction of manufacturing induced anomalies. In order to meet and even exceed line and die yield targets there is a need to revamp defect classification strategies and place a greater emphasize on increasing the accuracy and purity of the Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM) Automated Defect Classification (ADC) results while placing less emphasis on the ADC results of patterned/un-patterned wafer inspection systems. The increased emphasis on DRSEM ADC results allows for a high degree of automation and consistency in the classification data and eliminates variance induced by the manufacturing staff. This paper examines the use of SEM based Auto Defect Classification in a high volume manufacturing environment as a key driver in the reduction of defect limited yields.

Maheshwary, Sonu; Haas, Terry; McGarvey, Steve

2010-03-01

347

Combining regional forecast and crop yield models for the USDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides the risk of different economic and market conditions, large agricultural interests face the risk of crop losses from a number of weather-related perils including drought and heat, excess moisture, hail, frost and freeze, and wind. In a joint project, AIR Worldwide and Agrilogic are teamed with the RMA(Risk Management Agency) component of the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) in developing InsuranceVision, a tool to support the producer in crop insurance decision-making. The tool will use available climatic, agronomic and econometric models to analyze likely scenarios over the growing season and project probable yields and prices by harvest. The tool will ultimately assist growers in deciding what insurance products will best minimize their market risk. This presentation focuses on the weather/climate related models based on the NCAR-NCEP Global Reanalysis Project data set, the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM 3.6) and the 5th generation NCAR-Penn State University Mesoscale Model (MM5). A method will be discussed that derives crop yield probability distributions from historical detrended yield data, numerical weather model climatologies, climate projections and locally refined forecasts.

Zuba, G.; Gibbas, M.; Lee, M.; Dailey, P.; Keller, J.

2003-04-01

348

Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

Increasing agricultural productivity to 'close yield gaps' creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms. PMID:24535392

Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

2014-04-01

349

Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation  

PubMed Central

Increasing agricultural productivity to ‘close yield gaps’ creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms. PMID:24535392

Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

2014-01-01

350

Experimental Techniques Verified for Determining Yield and Flow Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural components in aircraft engines are subjected to multiaxial loads when in service. For such components, life prediction methodologies are dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive models that determine the elastic and inelastic portions of a loading cycle. A threshold surface (such as a yield surface) is customarily used to differentiate between reversible and irreversible flow. For elastoplastic materials, a yield surface can be used to delimit the elastic region in a given stress space. The concept of a yield surface is central to the mathematical formulation of a classical plasticity theory, but at elevated temperatures, material response can be highly time dependent. Thus, viscoplastic theories have been developed to account for this time dependency. Since the key to many of these theories is experimental validation, the objective of this work (refs. 1 and 2) at the NASA Lewis Research Center was to verify that current laboratory techniques and equipment are sufficient to determine flow surfaces at elevated temperatures. By probing many times in the axial-torsional stress space, we could define the yield and flow surfaces. A small offset definition of yield (10 me) was used to delineate the boundary between reversible and irreversible behavior so that the material state remained essentially unchanged and multiple probes could be done on the same specimen. The strain was measured with an off-the-shelf multiaxial extensometer that could measure the axial and torsional strains over a wide range of temperatures. The accuracy and resolution of this extensometer was verified by comparing its data with strain gauge data at room temperature. The extensometer was found to have sufficient resolution for these experiments. In addition, the amount of crosstalk (i.e., the accumulation of apparent strain in one direction when strain in the other direction is applied) was found to be negligible. Tubular specimens were induction heated to determine the flow surfaces at elevated temperatures. The heating system induced a large amount of noise in the data. By reducing thermal fluctuations and using appropriate data averaging schemes, we could render the noise inconsequential. Thus, accurate and reproducible flow surfaces (see the figure) could be obtained.

Lerch, Brad A.; Ellis, Rod; Lissenden, Cliff J.

1998-01-01

351

Boosting Crop Yields with Plant Steroids[W  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols and steroid hormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs), are compounds that exert a wide range of biological activities. They are essential for plant growth, reproduction, and responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Given the importance of sterols and BRs in these processes, engineering their biosynthetic and signaling pathways offers exciting potentials for enhancing crop yield. In this review, we focus on how alterations in components of sterol and BR metabolism and signaling or application of exogenous steroids and steroid inhibitors affect traits of agronomic importance. We also discuss areas for future research and identify the fine-tuning modulation of endogenous BR content as a promising strategy for crop improvement. PMID:22438020

Vriet, Cécile; Russinova, Eugenia; Reuzeau, Christophe

2012-01-01

352

Engineering design automation tool for yield learning model for IC packaging  

E-print Network

using time series model. . . . . Predicted yield due to chronic yield loss. . . . . . Predicted yield - chronic and excursions. . . . . . Actual vs predicted. Predicted yield for change in experience level. . . . PBGA - chronic yield. PBGA - yield... with excursions. CBGA - chronic yield. . CBGA ? yield with excursions. . . . . . CBGA - tuning (yield prediction) with 4 weeks of data. . . . . . Yield prediction navigation window of "Pack Tool" . . Factor window for value assignment. 26 28 28 29 32 33...

Sarwar, Abul Kalam

1996-01-01

353

Will current trends close major crop yield gaps by 2025?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have projected a need to double global agricultural production by 2050 to meet the demands posed by population growth, increased dairy and meat consumption, and biofuel use. However, recent work shows many regions where there are shortfalls in production compared to the regions with the highest yield. While these "yield gaps" could be closed through more intensive and advanced management, already between 24% and 39% of the global crop growing regions are witnessing yield stagnation. In this presentation we will identify the areas across the globe where yield gaps (as quantified circa the year 2000) are projected to either close or persist given observed rates of yield increases. Major investments in better management are needed in areas where yield gaps are projected to persist.

Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Johnston, M.; Foley, J. A.

2012-12-01

354

Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability  

PubMed Central

Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

2015-01-01

355

Yield scalings of clusters with fewer than 100 nucleons  

E-print Network

This document gives a historical review of the scaling of particles yields emitted from excited nuclei. The focus will be on what scaling is, what can be learned from scaling, the underlying theory of why one might expect particle yields to scale, how experimental particle yields have been observed to scale, model systems where particle (cluster) yields do scale and finally scaling observed in the particle yields of various low and medium energy nuclear reaction experiments. The document begins with a basic introduction to scaling in the study of critical phenomena and then reviews Fisher's theory which has all the aspects of scaling and can be directly applied to the counting of clusters, the most reliable measurement accessible to the experimental study of nuclear reactions. Also this document gives a history of the various scalings observed in nuclear reaction experiments and culminates with an estimate of the nuclear liquid-vapor phase boundary based upon measured particle yields.

James B. Elliott; Kyrill A. Bugaev; Luciano G. Moretto; Larry Phair

2006-08-14

356

Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability.  

PubMed

Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32-39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

Ray, Deepak K; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C

2015-01-01

357

Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability.

Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

2015-01-01

358

Size effects in dislocation depinning models for plastic yield  

E-print Network

Typically, the plastic yield stress of a sample is determined from a stress-strain curve by defining a yield strain and reading off the stress required to attain it. However, it is not a priori clear that yield strengths of microscale samples measured this way should display the correct finite size scaling. Here we study plastic yield as a depinning transition of a 1+1 dimensional interface, and consider how finite size effects depend on the choice of yield strain, as well as the presence of hardening and the strength of elastic coupling. Our results indicate that in sufficiently large systems, the choice of yield strain is unimportant, but in smaller systems one must take care to avoid spurious effects.

Zoe Budrikis; Stefano Zapperi

2013-01-24

359

Impacts of variability in cellulosic biomass yields on energy security.  

PubMed

The practice of modeling biomass yields on the basis of deterministic point values aggregated over space and time obscures important risks associated with large-scale biofuel use, particularly risks related to drought-induced yield reductions that may become increasingly frequent under a changing climate. Using switchgrass as a case study, this work quantifies the variability in expected yields over time and space through switchgrass growth modeling under historical and simulated future weather. The predicted switchgrass yields across the United States range from about 12 to 19 Mg/ha, and the 80% confidence intervals range from 20 to 60% of the mean. Average yields are predicted to decrease with increased temperatures and weather variability induced by climate change. Feedstock yield variability needs to be a central part of modeling to ensure that policy makers acknowledge risks to energy supplies and develop strategies or contingency plans that mitigate those risks. PMID:24941019

Mullins, Kimberley A; Matthews, H Scott; Griffin, W Michael; Anex, Robert

2014-07-01

360

Implication of the B{yields}{rho}{rho} data on the B{yields}{pi}{pi} puzzle  

SciTech Connect

We point out that the B{yields}{rho}{rho} data have seriously constrained the possibility of resolving the B{yields}{pi}{pi} puzzle from the large observed B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} branching ratio in the available theoretical approaches. The next-to-leading-order (NLO) contributions from the vertex corrections, the quark loops, and the magnetic penguin evaluated in the perturbative QCD (PQCD) approach have saturated the experimental upper bound of the B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{rho}{sup 0} branching ratio and do not help. The NLO PQCD predictions for the B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup {+-}}{rho}{sup {+-}} and B{sup {+-}}{yields}{rho}{sup {+-}}{rho}{sup 0} branching ratios are consistent with the data. The inclusion of the NLO jet function from the soft-collinear effective theory into the QCD-improved factorization approach, though enhancing the B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} branching ratio sufficiently, overshoots the bound of the B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{rho}{sup 0} branching ratio and deteriorates the predictions for the B{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup {+-}} and B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}K{sup {+-}} direct CP asymmetries.

Li Hsiangnan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China) and Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Mishima, Satoshi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2006-06-01

361

Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.  

PubMed

Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

2014-04-01

362

Unused Natural Variation Can Lift Yield Barriers in Plant Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural biodiversity is an underexploited sustainable resource that can enrich the genetic basis of cultivated plants with novel alleles that improve productivity and adaptation. We evaluated the progress in breeding for increased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) yield using genotypes carrying a pyramid of three independent yield-promoting genomic regions introduced from the drought-tolerant green-fruited wild species Solanum pennellii. Yield of hybrids parented

Amit Gur; Dani Zamir

2004-01-01

363

Growth yield increase linked to caffeate reduction in Acetobacterium woodii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth yields were determined with Acetobacterium woodii strain NZva 16 on hydrogen and CO2, formate, methanol, vanillate, ferulate and fructose in mineral medium in the absence and presence of 0.05% yeast extract. Yeast extract was not essential for growth but enhanced growth yields by 25–100% depending on the substrate fermented. Comparison of yields on formate or methanol allowed calculation of

Andreas Tschech; Norbert Pfennig

1984-01-01

364

Acid rain and seed yields reductions in corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yields were significantly reduced on corn (Zea mays L.) plants where the silks had been exposed to an episode of simulated acid rain at pH 3.6 as compared with yields on plants with silks exposed to simulated rain of pH 5.6. The reduction in yield appeared related to a decrease in pollen germination and tube elongation associated with acidic

L. E. Craker; P. F. Waldron

2009-01-01

365

2001-2002 UNIFORM WINTER OAT YIELD NURSERY REPORT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Uniform Winter Oat Yield Nursery was grown at 14 stations in 10 states. There were 30 entries including 20 that were new in 2001-02 Nursery. The average yield over lines and stations was 79.8 bu/A with line average ranging from 21.9 bu/A to 139.9 bu/A. FL9708-P37 was the top yielding experime...

366

Yield prediction by analysis of multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary model describing the growth and grain yield of wheat was developed. The modeled growth characteristics of the wheat crop were used to compute wheat canopy reflectance using a model of vegetation canopy reflectance. The modeled reflectance characteristics were compared with the corresponding growth characteristics and grain yield in order to infer their relationships. It appears that periodic wheat canopy reflectance characteristics potentially derivable from earth satellites will be useful in forecasting wheat grain yield.

Colwell, J. E.; Suits, G. H.

1975-01-01

367

Yield and Price Forecasting for Stochastic Crop Decision Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this paper is to develop yield and price forecasting models employed in informed crop decision planning—a\\u000a key aspect of effective farm management. For yearly yield prediction, we introduce a weather-based regression model with time-dependent\\u000a varying coefficients. In order to allow for within-year climate variations, we predict yearly crop yield using weekly temperature\\u000a and rainfall summaries resulting

Nantachai Kantanantha; Nicoleta Serban; Paul Griffin

2010-01-01

368

Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding in model cohesive suspensions  

E-print Network

An experimental system has been found recently, a coagulated CaCO3 suspension system, which shows very variable yield behaviour depending upon how it is tested and, specifically, at what rate it is sheared. At P\\'eclet numbers Pe > 1 it behaves as a simple Herschel Bulkley liquid, whereas at Pe stress testing it shows hysteresis and shear banding and in the usual type of stress scan, used to measure flow curves in controlled stress mode routinely, it can show very erratic and irreproducible behaviour. All of these features will be attributed here to a dependence of the solid phase, or, yield stress, on the prevailing rate of shear at the yield point. Stress growth curves obtained from step strain-rate testing showed that this rate-dependence was a consequence of P\\'eclet number dependent strain softening. At very low Pe, yield was cooperative and the yield strain was order-one, whereas as Pe approached unity, the yield strain reduced to that needed to break interparticle bonds, causing the yield stress to be greatly reduced. It is suspected that rate-dependent yield could well be the rule rather than the exception for cohesive suspensions more generally. If so, then the Herschel-Bulkley equation can usefully be generalized to read (in simple shear). The proposition that rate-dependent yield might be general for cohesive suspensions is amenable to critical experimental testing by a range of means and along lines suggested.

Richard Buscall; Peter J. Scales; Anthony D. Stickland; Hui-En Teo; Tiara E. Kusuma; Daniel R. Lester

2015-02-02

369

Direct laboratory tensile testing of select yielding rock bolt systems  

SciTech Connect

Yielding rock bolt support systems have been developed to accommodate ground movement in shifting ground such as in coal operations; in creeping ground such as salt, trona, and potash; and in swelling ground associated with some clays. These systems, designed to remain intact despite ground movement, should enhance mine safety and help contain costs in areas where rebolting of rigid non-yielding systems is typically required. Four such systems were tested in straight tensile pulls in the laboratory. They include the Slip Nut System from Dywidag Systems International USA, Inc., Ischebeck`s bolt mounted Titan Load Indicator, Rocky Mountain Bolt Company`s Yielding Cable Bolt, and a rock bolt installed variation of the yielding steel post developed by RE/SPEC Inc. The first two systems are currently marketed products and the latter two are prototype systems. Each system responds to load and displacement by yielding in an unique manner. All are designed to yield at predetermined loads. A description of each system and its yield function is provided. Each system was tested over its prescribed yield range in a test machine. At least five tests were performed on each system. Each system yielded and continued to provide support according to its design. Each shows promise for ground control use in shifting or creeping rock. This work helps to illustrate the comparative differences in performance between these specialized systems and the applications where they may be most useful.

VandeKraats, J.D.; Watson, S.O.

1996-08-01

370

High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

2011-01-01

371

Optimization of multi-layer ceramic capacitor geometry for maximum yield during binder burnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield during binder burnout of barium titanate multi-layer ceramic capacitors with poly(vinyl) butyral as a binder and platinum as the electrode material depends on the side length and height of the devices. In general, the yield decreases with increasing volume of the capacitor and depends on the aspect ratio of the component. For capacitors of square parallelepiped geometry, the

B. Peters; S. J. Lombardo

2001-01-01

372

Biomass Yield and Biofuel Quality of Switchgrass Harvested in Fall or Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal time of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) harvest affects yield and biofuel quality and balancing these two components may vary depending on conversion system. A field study compared fall and spring harvest measuring biomass yield, element concentration, carbo- hydrate characterization, and total synthetic gas production as indi- cators of biofuel quality for direct combustion, ethanol production, and gasification systems for

Paul R. Adler; Matt A. Sanderson; Akwasi A. Boateng; Paul J. Weimer; Hans-Joachim G. Jung

2006-01-01

373

MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH A QTL FOR GRAIN YIELD IN WHEAT UNDER DROUGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Drought is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects wheat production in many regions of the world. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling grain yield and yield components under reduced moisture. A cross between common wheat cultivars ‘Dharwar Dry’ ...

374

Identification and physiological analyses of a locus for rice yield potential across the genetic background  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new locus responsible for increased yield potential across the genetic background in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was identified and evaluated. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were analysed for the ratio of filled grains, a yield component, in backcrossed inbred lines of a japonica 'Nipponbare'3indica 'Kasalath' cross for 3 years. Only one QTL (rg5 ), with a positive Kasalath allele, was

Ken Ishimaru; Takayuki Kashiwagi; Naoki Hirotsu; Yuka Madoka

2005-01-01

375

EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON YIELD RESPONSE OF TWO SOYBEAN CULTIVARS  

EPA Science Inventory

An important component of the effects of acid rain on our ecosystem is its impact on the yield of agricultural crops. ield experiments were conducted for 3 yr to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on seed yield of two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. 'Amsoy 7...

376

Effects From A Corn Rotation on Cotton Dry Matter Partitioning and Lint Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing input costs combined with low prices for lint have caused some cotton producers to consider rotating a portion of their acreage to other crops in search of the elusive increased profits. This study investigated how cotton lint yield, yield components, dry matter partitioning and fiber qu...

377

Uncertainty in Simulating Wheat Yields Under Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments1,2. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change has been increasingly described in the literature3,4 while assessments of the uncertainty in crop responses to climate change are very rare. Systematic and objective comparisons across impact studies is difficult, and thus has not been fully realized5. Here we present the largest coordinated and standardized crop model intercomparison for climate change impacts on wheat production to date. We found that several individual crop models are able to reproduce measured grain yields under current diverse environments, particularly if sufficient details are provided to execute them. However, simulated climate change impacts can vary across models due to differences in model structures and algorithms. The crop-model component of uncertainty in climate change impact assessments was considerably larger than the climate-model component from Global Climate Models (GCMs). Model responses to high temperatures and temperature-by-CO2 interactions are identified as major sources of simulated impact uncertainties. Significant reductions in impact uncertainties through model improvements in these areas and improved quantification of uncertainty through multi-model ensembles are urgently needed for a more reliable translation of climate change scenarios into agricultural impacts in order to develop adaptation strategies and aid policymaking.

Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J.W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Ruane, Alex; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, Peter; Rotter, R.P.; Cammarano, D.; Brisson, N.; Basso, B.; Martre, P.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, AJ; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grant, Robert; Heng, L.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Mueller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.O.; Olesen, JE; Osborne, T.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Travasso, M.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

2013-09-01

378

Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability  

PubMed Central

Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

2015-01-01

379

Potential for improving crop yields through better water management in rainfed regions.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the effect of water supply at critical growth stage of sorghum in Arid Zone Research Institute, D.I. Khan. The results indicated that the yield components and grain yield were significantly affected by water supply. Irrigation applied at heading stage of the crop significantly increased plant height, maturity period, fresh and dry weight of heads plot(-1), 1000 grain weight and grain yield of sorghum irrespective to cultivars. Maximum grain yield of 3319 kg ha(-1) was obtained with irrigation as against 2206 kg ha(-1) obtained from un-irrigated treatments. The plant height, fresh and dry weight of heads plot(-1), 1000 grain weight and grain yield of different cultivars were also different significantly irrespective to irrigation. Maximum grain yield of 2976 kg ha(-1) was produced by the cultivar DS-2000 compared to 2550 kg ha(-1) by DS-97 Yarik. The interaction between irrigation and cultivar as regards yield and yield components of sorghum was non significant. The findings of this study suggested that the grain yield of sorghum can be increased by 50% with irrigation applied at the heading of sorghum. PMID:19090224

Khan, Rahmat Ullah; Rashid, Abdur; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Muhammad Sohail

2007-09-01

380

Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond (Prunus dulcis), pistachio (Pistacia vera), and walnut (Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

2014-08-01

381

Search for the decays J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{rho}{phi} and J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{rho}{omega}  

SciTech Connect

Using 58x10{sup 6} J/{psi} events collected with the Beijing Spectrometer (BESII) at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider, the decays J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{phi}{rho} and J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{omega}{rho} are searched for, and upper limits on their branching fractions are reported at the 90% C.L. No clear structures are observed in the {gamma}{rho}, {gamma}{phi}, or {rho}{phi} mass spectra for J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{phi}{rho} nor in the {gamma}{rho}, {gamma}{omega}, or {rho}{omega} mass spectra for J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{omega}{rho}.

Ablikim, M.; Bai, J. Z.; Cai, X.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. X.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Deng, Z. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Gao, C. S.; Gu, S. D.; Guo, Y. N.; He, K. L.; Heng, Y. K.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China)] (and others)

2008-01-01

382

Comprehensive Cost Planning Yields Successful Tech Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author calls for librarians to find ways to implement technology projects with very limited budgets and to consider all the cost components of a technology project amidst the economic pressures. The author offers some perspective on what is involved in trying to accomplish important work with limited resources while…

Breeding, Marshall

2006-01-01

383

The results of a world-wide study on yield improvement are presented. Die yields col-lected from 21 fabs are transformed via a logit formula and compared. The die yields and  

E-print Network

Abstract The results of a world-wide study on yield improvement are presented. Die yields col- lected from 21 fabs are transformed via a logit formula and compared. The die yields and die yield improvement rates of the fabs are compared, and manufacturing yield improve- ment practices are evaluated

California at Berkeley, University of

384

Response of switchgrass yield to future climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climate envelope approach was used to model the response of switchgrass, a model bioenergy species in the United States, to future climate change. The model was built using general additive models (GAMs), and switchgrass yields collected at 45 field trial locations as the response variable. The model incorporated variables previously shown to be the main determinants of switchgrass yield, and utilized current and predicted 1 km climate data from WorldClim. The models were run with current WorldClim data and compared with results of predicted yield obtained using two climate change scenarios across three global change models for three time steps. Results did not predict an increase in maximum switchgrass yield but showed an overall shift in areas of high switchgrass productivity for both cytotypes. For upland cytotypes, the shift in high yields was concentrated in northern and north-eastern areas where there were increases in average growing season temperature, whereas for lowland cultivars the areas where yields were projected to increase were associated with increases in average early growing season precipitation. These results highlight the fact that the influences of climate change on switchgrass yield are spatially heterogeneous and vary depending on cytotype. Knowledge of spatial distribution of suitable areas for switchgrass production under climate change should be incorporated into planning of current and future biofuel production. Understanding how switchgrass yields will be affected by future changes in climate is important for achieving a sustainable biofuels economy.

Tulbure, Mirela G.; Wimberly, Michael C.; Owens, Vance N.

2012-12-01

385

A simple model for chickpea growth and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a major crop in cool and cold semi-arid environments of Iran, where yield is limited by climatic factors, water availability and genotype. A robust crop model can assist in evaluation of biophysical limitations in crop yield. The objective of this study was, therefore, to develop a simple mechanistic model for chickpea to be used in

A Soltani; K Ghassemi-Golezani; F. R Khooie; M Moghaddam

1999-01-01

386

Trellis Tension Monitor for Continuous Growth and Yield Information  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 'Trellis Tension Monitor' (TTM) can be used for continuous monitoring of growth and development in trellised crops and for automatically predicting yield. The technology was developed initially for vineyards because juice processors and wineries require yield predictions and an indication of the...

387

Fact Sheet: Accurately measuring forage yield in pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers have a few options for measuring pasture yield. These include pasture rulers, plate meters, and electronic gauges. Pasture rulers simply measure canopy height and assume that forage yield is directly related to height. Plate meters improve accuracy by measuring compressed height. Electronic ...

388

CENTRAL GREAT PLAINS YIELD CALCULATOR, CD VERSION 2.2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Central Great Plains Yield Calculator is a simple Excel spreadsheet(distributed on CD) that calculates crop yield (for 16 crops: cereal grains, seed legumes, oilseeds, forages) based on user-selected values for available starting soil water at planting and expected growing season precipitation (...

389

ESTIMATING CORN GRAIN YIELD FROM TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF SOIL MOISTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil moisture is often sited as the principal factor controlling yield response in rain-fed agricultural production systems. During the past two decades, a great deal of research has been conducted that attempts to describe the spatial and temporal variability of crop yield as a function of soil pr...

390

Unsupervised linear unmixing of hyperspectral image for crop yield estimation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery are often used for estimating crop yield. This paper describes an unsupervised unmixing scheme of hyperspectral images to estimate crop yield. From the hyperspectral images, the endmembers and their abundance maps are computed by unsupervised unmixing. The abu...

391

Metabolic Engineering for Improved Biofuel Yield in a Marine  

E-print Network

Metabolic Engineering for Improved Biofuel Yield in a Marine Cyanobacterium/conclusion · future work that will be done to increase biofuel yield #12;Problems? · Many na@al renewable source of energy -Biofuel produc@on from aqua@c photoautotroph

Petta, Jason

392

Evaluating YieldTracker forecast for maize in western Kansas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We seek to predict in-season land productivity to guide irrigation management decisions designed to optimize water utilization in the Ogallala Aquifer region. YieldTracker is a mathematical model that simulates growth and yield of graminoid crops using weather and leaf area index (LAI) as inputs, wh...

393

USING REMOTE SENSING TO IMPROVE OUR UNDERSTANDING OG YIELD VARIABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The increased availability of yield monitor data has demonstrated that crop production can vary significantly within a single field; however, identifying the source(s) of this variability is often a challenge. One noted advantage of remotely sensed data over yield-monitor mapping is that patterns in...

394

Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a gamma-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield

Jai Singh

2011-01-01

395

Estimating Shrub Forage Yield and Utilization Using a Photographic Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed a photographic technique to estimate shrub yield and utilization of common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake), snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Douglas ex Hook.), and firmleaf willow ( Salix rigida Muhl.) found in mixed-conifer rangelands. We determined the correlation between green leaf area size (LA) and forage yield (Y) and compared plant utilization estimated by photographic technique (ULA) to actual

Daalkhaijav Damiran; Timothy DelCurto; Douglas E. Johnson; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

2006-01-01

396

Primary radical yields in pulse irradiated alkaline aqueous solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primary radical yields of hydrated electrons, H atoms, and OH radicals are determined by measuring hydrated electron formation following a 4 microsecond pulse of X rays. The pH dependence of free radical yields beyond pH 12 is determined by observation of the hydrated electrons.

Fielden, E. M.; Hart, E. J.

1969-01-01

397

Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

398

Critical Review Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas  

E-print Network

Critical Review Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led

399

BUTTERBEAN SEED YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENT ARE AFFECTED BY PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yield and seed protein content of edible beans are important to growers and consumers. We hypothesized that some colors of light reflected to growing bean plants could affect photomorphogenesis enough to result in greater seed yield and protein content. Speckled butterbean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) was...

400

PROGRESS IN MAPPING QTL CONTROLLING YIELD IN SOYBEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed yield is the most important trait for both breeders and producers and is controlled by a complex set of factors including the physiological efficiency of the plant, the environment, disease, seed composition, and plant maturity. The economic importance of yield is the impetus to understand the ...

401

QTLS FOR MILLING YIELD IN TROPICAL JAPONICA LONG GRAIN RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milling yield, defined as the percentage of whole rice kernels recovered after de-hulling rough rice and milling, is a critically important trait in rice. Milling yields vary considerably between cultivars, with low milling cultivars being rejected by rice growers. The cultivar Cypress, well-known...

402

50 CFR 648.20 - Maximum optimum yield (OYs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum optimum yield (OYs). 648.20 Section 648.20 Wildlife and Fisheries...Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.20 Maximum optimum yield (OYs). The OYs specified pursuant to § 648.21...

2010-10-01

403

Tillage effects on soil physical properties, sugarbeet yield and quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage influences the soil-water-plant ecosystem thereby affecting crop yield and quality. The effects of tillage on soil physical properties, sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) yield and quality were evaluated. A field study comprises of three tillage practices: no tillage (NT) shallow (ST) of 10-cm and...

404

7 CFR 760.811 - Rates and yields; calculating payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FSA that show there is a significant difference in yield or value based on a distinct...use of the crop. Despite potential differences in yield or values, separate rates...established for crops with different cultural practices, such as those grown...

2014-01-01

405

7 CFR 760.811 - Rates and yields; calculating payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FSA that show there is a significant difference in yield or value based on a distinct...use of the crop. Despite potential differences in yield or values, separate rates...established for crops with different cultural practices, such as those grown...

2012-01-01

406

7 CFR 760.811 - Rates and yields; calculating payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FSA that show there is a significant difference in yield or value based on a distinct...use of the crop. Despite potential differences in yield or values, separate rates...established for crops with different cultural practices, such as those grown...

2010-01-01

407

7 CFR 760.811 - Rates and yields; calculating payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FSA that show there is a significant difference in yield or value based on a distinct...use of the crop. Despite potential differences in yield or values, separate rates...established for crops with different cultural practices, such as those grown...

2013-01-01

408

7 CFR 760.811 - Rates and yields; calculating payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FSA that show there is a significant difference in yield or value based on a distinct...use of the crop. Despite potential differences in yield or values, separate rates...established for crops with different cultural practices, such as those grown...

2011-01-01

409

LIGHT-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE FLUORESCENCE YIELD OF  

E-print Network

LIGHT-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE FLUORESCENCE YIELD OF CHLOROPHYLL a IN VIVO II. CHLORELLA PYRENOIDOSA in Chlorella pyrenoidosa consists of a fast rise of the fluorescence yield from the level S (of the first wave photophosphorylation. INTRODUCTION The long-term fluorescence induction in Chlorella pyrenoidosa (second wave

Govindjee

410

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

411

Image Furnace for Low Yield Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of the Naval Applied Science Laboratory for direct simulation of thermal effects due to nuclear weapons has been extended to low yield devices [as small as 10 kilotons (kt)] by the installation of a high performance servo-driven shutter in a carbon arc imaging furnace. The system can simulate thermal radiation pulses from atmospheric detonations with yields of from

Neil Griff; Robert J. Heilferty; Willard L. Derksen

1967-01-01

412

Energy Yield and Cost Analysis of Small Scale Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore the attractiveness of small-scale wind turbines in the current economic climate. In order to do this, three pieces of information must be known: (1) the cost of the system; (2) the annual energy yield of the system; (3) the value of that energy yield. An Internet based search was conducted to establish current market prices

N. J. Stannard; J. R. Bumby

2006-01-01

413

Genetic Diversity and Soybean Yield: Finding the Balance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Based on national production statistics since 1924, average soybean yield in the U.S. has increased at a nearly steady rate of 22 kg ha-1 year-1. It is possible to show some changes in this rate depending on how these past 85 years are divided, but two conclusions seem evident. Soybean yield has not...

414

ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN CROP YIELD PREDICTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using a small experimental field and common management practices, we develop a framework to incorporate the variability and correlation inherent in field properties to predict potato yield. Specifically, we focus on spatial variability which has proven to be problematic to crop yield prediction. Is...

415

Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onfarm field trials carried out with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton in different states of India show that the technology substantially reduces pest damage and increases yields. The yield gains are much higher than what has been reported for other countries where genetically modified crops were used mostly to replace and enhance chemical pest control. In many developing countries, small-scale farmers

Matin Qaim; David Zilberman

2003-01-01

416

The alfalfa yield gap: A review of the evidence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of feasibly attainable crop yields is needed for many purposes, from field-scale management to national policy decisions. For alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most widely used estimates of yield in the US are whole-farm reports from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, which are b...

417

What's holding us back? Raising the alfalfa yield bar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Measuring yield of commodity crops is easy – weight and moisture content are determined on delivery. Consequently, reports of production or yield for grain crops can be made reliably to the agencies that track crop production, such as the USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). The s...

418

Rate of yield and quality change in alfalfa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

419

The crop yield gap between organic and conventional agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue in the debate on the contribution of organic agriculture to the future of world agriculture is whether organic agriculture can produce sufficient food to feed the world. Comparisons of organic and conventional yields play a central role in this debate. We therefore compiled and analyzed a meta-dataset of 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields. Our results show

Ponti de T; H. C. A. Rijk; Ittersum van M. K

2012-01-01

420

Airline price discrimination: A practice of yield management or customer  

E-print Network

Airline price discrimination: A practice of yield management or customer profiling? Rasha H.h.j.dierckx@student.utwente.nl ABSTRACT Prices of airline tickets frequently change, which is traditionally caused by yield management as price discrimination practice. In more recent times however, customer information is easily obtainable

Twente, Universiteit

421

CHANGES IN CROP PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY WITH HIGH YIELD PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increases in crop yield are due to changes in the genetic efficiency in the use of inputs. However, there are constraints on efficient use of resources, e.g., water, nitrogen, solar radiation, that limit consistent high yield response. The interactions of water, nitrogen, and light form a basis fo...

422

Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Continuous maize yields are limited by the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous year’s maize residue decomposes. We tested the hypothesis that soil biochar applications could help mitigate maize autotoxicity and the associated yield depression. Eighteen small field plots (23.7 m2) were es...

423

YIELD AND ECONOMIC RESPONSES OF PEANUT TO CROP ROTATION SEQUENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of all crops in, or potentially in, the crop rotation ...

424

Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producers using no-till practices have observed that crop yields can greatly exceed expectations based on nutrient and water supply. For example, Ralph Holzwarth, who farms near Gettysburg, SD, has averaged 150 bu/ac of corn on his farm for the past 6 years. We were surprised with this yield, as c...

425

Year patterns of climate impact on wheat yields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rainfall, temperature, and solar radiation are defining factors for crop production. Due to the close correlation among these factors, it is difficult to evaluate their individual impact on crop yield. We propose to identify year patterns of climate impact on yield on the basis of rain and non-rain ...

426

Nitrogen fertilization affects corn cellulosic biomass and ethanol yields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research results on the effects of N management on corn (Zea mays L.) grain production in high-yielding cropping systems are widely available, but information on its effects on cellulosic ethanol potential from corn stover and cobs is limited. Stover and cob biomass and respective ethanol yields all...

427

Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful post-harvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (...

428

HOTEL YIELD MANAGEMENT AS A PRICE CONTROL PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small hotel yield management is presented as a sequential decision problem, which can be transformed into an optimal control problem. The yield management can therefore be understood as a new application field for the model based prediction control, MPC. The future demand is estimated and the optimal pricing policy controls the demand but maximizing the hotel profit at the

Daniel Pachner; Tomas Vitek

429

Yield strength of zirconia and glass fibre-reinforced posts.  

PubMed

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the yield strengths of glass fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and zirconia dioxide ceramic (ZDC) posts. Tapered glass FRC posts (DentinPost) and ZDC posts (Cerapost) of three sizes in diameter (ISO 50, 90, 110) were used for bending tests. Conventional prefabricated titanium posts of the same sizes served as control groups. The 0.2% yield strengths (R(0.2)) were tested on a universal testing machine. As zirconia posts fractured before they were yielded 0.2%, the fracture strength instead of the yield strength was recorded for these posts. One-way and two-way anova and Bonferroni-Dunn's multiple comparison tests were performed for the statistical analysis. The mean 0.2% yield strengths of the posts were 27 +/- 1 N for glass fibre-reinforced posts and 58 +/- 4 N for zirconia posts of ISO 50 (control group: 54 +/- 3 N). For ISO 90 yield strengths of 52 +/- 4 N for glass fibre-reinforced posts, 117 +/- 20 N for zirconia posts and 117 +/- 11 N for the control group were obtained. For ISO 110 mean yield strengths amounted to 73 +/- 5 N for glass fibre-reinforced posts, 166 +/- 23 N for zirconia posts and 141 +/- 12 N for the control group. Significantly higher yield strength was recorded for the zirconia and the titanium posts compared with the glass fibre-reinforced posts for the tested ISO sizes. PMID:16409520

Pfeiffer, P; Schulz, A; Nergiz, I; Schmage, P

2006-01-01

430

Temporal Yield Variability under Conventional and Alternative Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Year to year variation in yield is an inherent risk associated with crop production and many growers rely on intensive mechanical or chemical inputs to preserve crop yield in the face of fluctuating envi- ronmental conditions. However, as interest grows in alternative crop management systems which depend less on external inputs, determin- ing the degree to which management systems can

Richard G. Smith; Fabian D. Menalled; G. P. Robertson

2007-01-01

431

Linking land use, erosion and sediment yields in river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained from erosion plots and catchment experiments provide clear evidence of the sensitivity of erosion rates to land use change and related human activity. Evidence for the impact of land use on the sediment yields of world rivers is less clear, although examples of rivers where sediment yields have both increased and decreased in recent decades can be identified.

D. E. Walling

1999-01-01

432

PERSISTENCE AND YIELD STABILITY OF INTERSUBSPECIFIC ALFALFA HYBRIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longer term persistence and sustained biomass yields of alfalfa (M. sativa) stands are important for producers. Yield performance and persistence of intrasubspecific crosses between alfalfa subsp. sativa and falcata after the first post-establishment year are unknown. The objectives of this study ...

433

TOWARDS STANDARDIZATION OF CSP YIELD ASSESSMENTS Richard Meyer  

E-print Network

. Three main fields are identified, which have significant impact on accuracy of potential electricity are relevant for energy yields. This includes the definition of appropriate rules for plant operation. A quasi-static of electricity yields ­ in contrast to the fossil power sector ­ still is challenging. For the more established

Heinemann, Detlev

434

Resolution to the B{yields}{pi}K puzzle  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the important next-to-leading-order contributions to the B{yields}{pi}K, {pi}{pi} decays from the vertex corrections, the quark loops, and the magnetic penguins in the perturbative QCD approach. It is found that the latter two reduce the leading-order penguin amplitudes by about 10% and modify only the B{yields}{pi}K branching ratios. The main effect of the vertex corrections is to increase the small color-suppressed tree amplitude by a factor of 3, which then resolves the large difference between the direct CP asymmetries of the B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}K{sup {+-}} and B{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup {+-}} modes. The puzzle from the large B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} branching ratio still remains.

Li Hsiangnan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China) and Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Mishima, Satoshi [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sanda, A.I. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

2005-12-01

435

Recent patterns of crop yield growth and stagnation.  

PubMed

In the coming decades, continued population growth, rising meat and dairy consumption and expanding biofuel use will dramatically increase the pressure on global agriculture. Even as we face these future burdens, there have been scattered reports of yield stagnation in the world's major cereal crops, including maize, rice and wheat. Here we study data from ?2.5 million census observations across the globe extending over the period 1961-2008. We examined the trends in crop yields for four key global crops: maize, rice, wheat and soybeans. Although yields continue to increase in many areas, we find that across 24-39% of maize-, rice-, wheat- and soybean-growing areas, yields either never improve, stagnate or collapse. This result underscores the challenge of meeting increasing global agricultural demands. New investments in underperforming regions, as well as strategies to continue increasing yields in the high-performing areas, are required. PMID:23250423

Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Foley, Jonathan A

2012-01-01

436

Climate change impacts on crop yield: evidence from China.  

PubMed

When estimating climate change impact on crop yield, a typical assumption is constant elasticity of yield with respect to a climate variable even though the elasticity may be inconstant. After estimating both constant and inconstant elasticities with respect to temperature and precipitation based on provincial panel data in China 1980-2008, our results show that during that period, the temperature change contributes positively to total yield growth by 1.3% and 0.4% for wheat and rice, respectively, but negatively by 12% for maize. The impacts of precipitation change are marginal. We also compare our estimates with other studies and highlight the implications of the inconstant elasticities for crop yield, harvest and food security. We conclude that climate change impact on crop yield would not be an issue in China if positive impacts of other socio-economic factors continue in the future. PMID:25181045

Wei, Taoyuan; Cherry, Todd L; Glomrød, Solveig; Zhang, Tianyi

2014-11-15

437

THE BIOPHYSICAL BASIS FOR SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND QUALITY IN A COTTON PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canopy microenvironment is dependant on external environmental conditions, and is modified geospatially by soil and crop properties. This study was undertaken to explore the spatial variability of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) yield and quality, and delineate the underlying biophysical components cont...

438

Calculation of the total electron excitation cross section in the Born approximation using Slater wave functions for the Li (2s yields 2p), Li (2s yields 3p), Na (3s yields 4p), Mg (3p yields 4s), Ca (4s yields 4p) and K (4s yields 4p) excitations. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.

Simsic, P. L.

1974-01-01

439

Atomistic simulations of the yielding of gold nanowires.  

SciTech Connect

We performed atomistic simulations to study the effect of free surfaces on the yielding of gold nanowires. Tensile surface stresses on the surfaces of the nanowires cause them to contract along the length with respect to the bulk face-centered cubic lattice and induce compressive stress in the interior. When the cross-sectional area of a (100) nanowire is less than 2.45 nm x 2.45 nm, the wire yields under its surface stresses. Under external forces and surface stresses, nanowires yield via the nucleation and propagation of the {l_brace}111{r_brace}<112> partial dislocations. The magnitudes of the tensile and compressive yield stress of (100) nanowires increase and decrease, respectively, with a decrease of the wire width. The magnitude of the tensile yield stress is much larger than that of the compressive yield stress for small (100) nanowires, while for small <111> nanowires, tensile and compressive yield stresses have similar magnitudes. The critical resolved shear stress (RSS) by external forces depends on wire width, orientation and loading condition (tension vs. compression). However, the critical RSS in the interior of the nanowires, which is exerted by both the external force and the surface-stress-induced compressive stress, does not change significantly with wire width for same orientation and same loading condition, and can thus serve as a 'local' criterion. This local criterion is invoked to explain the observed size dependence of yield behavior and tensile/compressive yield stress asymmetry, considering surface stress effects and different slip systems active in tensile and compressive yielding.

Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Dunn, Martin L. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gall, Ken (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)

2004-07-01

440

Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture.  

PubMed

Numerous reports have emphasized the need for major changes in the global food system: agriculture must meet the twin challenge of feeding a growing population, with rising demand for meat and high-calorie diets, while simultaneously minimizing its global environmental impacts. Organic farming—a system aimed at producing food with minimal harm to ecosystems, animals or humans—is often proposed as a solution. However, critics argue that organic agriculture may have lower yields and would therefore need more land to produce the same amount of food as conventional farms, resulting in more widespread deforestation and biodiversity loss, and thus undermining the environmental benefits of organic practices. Here we use a comprehensive meta-analysis to examine the relative yield performance of organic and conventional farming systems globally. Our analysis of available data shows that, overall, organic yields are typically lower than conventional yields. But these yield differences are highly contextual, depending on system and site characteristics, and range from 5% lower organic yields (rain-fed legumes and perennials on weak-acidic to weak-alkaline soils), 13% lower yields (when best organic practices are used), to 34% lower yields (when the conventional and organic systems are most comparable). Under certain conditions—that is, with good management practices, particular crop types and growing conditions—organic systems can thus nearly match conventional yields, whereas under others it at present cannot. To establish organic agriculture as an important tool in sustainable food production, the factors limiting organic yields need to be more fully understood, alongside assessments of the many social, environmental and economic benefits of organic farming systems. PMID:22535250

Seufert, Verena; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

2012-05-10

441

Infrared scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid argon  

E-print Network

The study of primary and secondary scintillations in noble gases and liquids is of paramount importance to rare-event experiments using noble gas media. In the present work, the scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid Ar has for the first time been measured in the near infrared (NIR) and visible region, both for primary and secondary (proportional) scintillations, using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs) and pulsed X-ray irradiation. The primary scintillation yield of the fast component was measured to be 17000 photon/MeV in gaseous Ar in the NIR, in the range of 690-1000 nm, and 510 photon/MeV in liquid Ar, in the range of 400-1000 nm. Proportional NIR scintillations (electroluminescence) in gaseous Ar have been also observed; their amplification parameter at 163 K was measured to be 13 photons per drifting electron per kV. Possible applications of NIR scintillations in high energy physics experiments are discussed.

A. Buzulutskov; A. Bondar; A. Grebenuk

2011-04-19

442

General results for the decays D {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} and B {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu}  

SciTech Connect

Results are given for the two form factors for D {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} and B {yields} {pi}{ell}{nu} at the soft pion limit. The deriviation depends only on pion PCAC and heavy quark spin symmetry. The usefulness of these results is discussed.

Wolfenstein, L. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1992-09-01

443

Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields  

SciTech Connect

Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

Lobell, D

2007-04-26

444

Water and Sediment Yields for Wala Dam Catchment Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wala Watershed occupies the upper part of Al-Mujib Basin, Jordan, with Mediterranean climate, sparse inhabitants and moderate agriculture. The area, in spite of its limited water resources, is considered as an important water supply as it encompasses Al-Heidan springs and pumping wells, which supply Amman city with a considerable amount of water, it also includes Wala Dam that has been constructed for groundwater recharge purposes. Recognizing the threats of water and soil loss with the consequent sedimentation problems, and the benefits of watershed modeling techniques in studying such topics, this study comprised an application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), associated with the Geographic Information System (GIS) to simulate the hydrology, soil erosion and sedimentation of Wala Dam Catchment Area. A set of hydrological techniques was utilized to simulate various components such as the Curve Number Method, the Rational Method and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and modified USLE models. The use of such techniques in a GIS environment required certain types of data, which were collected and prepared either as database files such as the daily rainfall records, or as analytical GIS layers of soil, landuse/cover, drainage pattern and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). A weather generator was incorporated to generate any missed weather data. The area was discretized into 43 subbasins and 82 hydrologic response units. Two simulation series were performed using annual and monthly printout frequency. Several results were obtained including water and sediment yields at Wala Dam location with the respective delivery ratios, and spatial representation of precipitation, surface runoff, soil erosion, sediment and water yield on subbasin level. Model calibration and verification were carried out using flow rate and sediment yield data observed at Wala flow station and the results were satisfactory, indicating that this model can represent well the climatic and physical conditions of the area. Two prediction scenarios were performed, both indicated that the western and northern subbasins yield more water to the dam and are more susceptible to soil erosion and sediment generation. The study resulted in some recommendations to enhance the built model and suggest soil conservation and sediment reduction measures to control soil loss and maintain storage in Wala Dam reservoir, in addition to protecting its bottom against clogging through which the process of groundwater recharge might malfunction.

Tarawneh, E.

2009-04-01

445

Ensemble approach to wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop yield forecasting is an extremely important component of the agriculture monitoring domain. In our previous study [1], we assessed relative efficiency and feasibility of using an NDVI-based empirical model for winter wheat yield forecasting at oblast level in Ukraine. Though the NDVI-based model provides minimum data requirements, it has some limitations since NDVI is indirectly related just to biomass but not meteorological conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to assess satellite-derived parameters that incorporate meteorology while maintaining the requirement of minimum data inputs. The objective of the proposed paper is several-fold: (i) to assess efficiency of using biophysical satellite-derived parameters for crop yield forecasting for Ukraine and select the optimal ones based on rigorous feature selection procedure; (ii) to assimilate predictions made by models built on various satellite-derived parameters. Two new parameters are considered in the paper: (i) vegetation health index (VHI) at 4 km spatial resolution derived from a series of NOAA satellites; (ii) Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION at 1 km spatial resolution. VHI data are provided as weekly composites and FAPAR data are provided as decadal composites. The particular advantage of using VHI is that it incorporates moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation canopy, while FAPAR is directly related to the primary productivity of photosynthesis It is required to find a day of the year for which a parameter is taken and used in the empirical model. For this purpose, a Random Forest feature selection procedure is applied. It is found that VHI and FAPAR values taken in April-May provided the minimum error value when comparing to the official statistics, thus enabling forecasts 2-3 months prior to harvest, and this corresponds to results derived from LOOCV procedure. The best timing for making reliable yield forecasts is nearly the same as it was for the NDVI-based approach (±16 days). The most accurate predictions for 2012 were achieved using the FAPAR-based approach with the RMSE value of 0.56 t ha-1 (performance of VHI-based and NDVI-based approaches was 0.7 t ha-1 and 0.68 t ha-1, respectively). Therefore, we can conclude that performance of empirical regression models based on satellite data with biophysical variables (such as VHI and FAPAR) is approximately 20% more accurate (on datasets available at the moment) comparing to the NDVI approach when producing winter wheat yield forecasts at oblast level in Ukraine 2-3 months prior to harvest. [1] F. Kogan, N. Kussul, T. Adamenko, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, O. Kryvobok, A. Shelestov, A. Kolotii, O. Kussul, and A. Lavrenyuk, "Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013.

Kussul, Nataliia; Kolotii, Andrii; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga; Kravchenko, Oleksii

2014-05-01

446

Associations between Grain Crop Yields in Central-Eastern Argentina and El Niño-Southern Oscillation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Associations are investigated between yields of major crops in the Argentine Pampas (central-eastern Argentina) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase. For maize and sorghum, higher (lower) yield anomalies occur more frequently than expected by chance alone during warm (cold) ENSO events. For both crops, the depression of yields during cold events is, on average, larger and less variable than yield increases are during warm events. A yield decrease during cold events also is observed in soybean yields, although the effect of warm events is not statistically significant. There is a marginally significant tendency for low sunflower yields to occur less frequently than expected during cold events. Wheat, the only winter crop considered, did not show an association with ENSO. Precipitation anomalies during October-February (the period with strongest ENSO signal in the Pampas) are summarized through principal component analysis. Precipitation anomalies during November-January are significantly correlated with maize, sorghum, and soybean yield anomalies. In turn, those precipitation anomalies show a distinct ENSO signal. Late spring-early summer precipitation, then, appears to mediate associations between ENSO phase and yields of maize, sorghum, and soybean in the Pampas.

Podestá, Guillermo P.; Messina, Carlos D.; Grondona, Martín O.; Magrin, Graciela O.

1999-10-01

447

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming  

PubMed Central

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35°C and 1.13°C, respectively, for the period 1979–2003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1°C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming. PMID:15226500

Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Sheehy, John E.; Laza, Rebecca C.; Visperas, Romeo M.; Zhong, Xuhua; Centeno, Grace S.; Khush, Gurdev S.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2004-01-01

448

Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2003-01-01

449

Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2002-01-01

450

The limits of crop productivity: validating theoretical estimates and determining the factors that limit crop yields in optimal environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant scientists have sought to maximize the yield of food crops since the beginning of agriculture. There are numerous reports of record food and biomass yields (per unit area) in all major crop plants, but many of the record yield reports are in error because they exceed the maximal theoretical rates of the component processes. In this article, we review the component processes that govern yield limits and describe how each process can be individually measured. This procedure has helped us validate theoretical estimates and determine what factors limit yields in optimal environments.

Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.

1992-01-01

451

Numerical Modeling for Yield Pillar Design: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two single-entry gateroad systems employing a yield pillar for bump control in a Chinese coal mine were introduced. The overburden depth of the longwall panels was approximately 390 m. When the width/height (W/H) ratio of the yield pillar was 2.67, coal bumps in the tailgate occurred in front of the longwall retreating face. However, in another panel, the coal bump was eliminated because the W/H ratio was reduced to 1.67. Under this condition, instrumentation results indicated that the roof-to-floor and rib-to-rib convergences reached 1,050 and 790 mm, respectively, during longwall retreat. The numerical model was used to back-analyze the two cases of yield pillar application in the hope to find the principle for yield pillar design. In order to improve the reliability of the numerical model, the strain-hardening gob and strain-softening pillar materials were meticulously calibrated, and the coal/rock interface strength was determined by laboratory direct shear tests. The results of the validated model indicate that if the W/H ratio of the yield pillar equals 1.67, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (37.7 MPa) is much larger than that in the yield pillar (21.1 MPa); however, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (30.87 MPa) is smaller than that in the yield pillar (36 MPa) when the W/H ratio of yield pillar is 2.67. These findings may be helpful to the design of yield pillars for bump control.

Li, Wenfeng; Bai, Jianbiao; Peng, Syd; Wang, Xiangyu; Xu, Ying

2015-01-01

452

Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.  

PubMed

In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. PMID:22932270

Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

2012-10-11

453

Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels  

PubMed Central

Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. It functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. Despite its low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted. PMID:23543255

Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T.

2013-01-01

454

Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments.  

PubMed

A large proportion of the worlds' wheat growing regions suffers water and/or heat stress at some stage during the crop growth cycle. With few exceptions, there has been no utilisation of managed environments to screen mapping populations under repeatable abiotic stress conditions, such as the facilities developed by the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). Through careful management of irrigation and sowing date over three consecutive seasons, repeatable heat, drought and high yield potential conditions were imposed on the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population to identify genetic loci for grain yield, yield components and key morpho-physiological traits under these conditions. Two of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located on chromosome 3B and had a large effect on canopy temperature and grain yield, accounting for up to 22 % of the variance for these traits. The locus on chromosome arm 3BL was detected under all three treatments but had its largest effect under the heat stress conditions, with the RAC875 allele increasing grain yield by 131 kg ha(-1) (or phenotypically, 7 % of treatment average). Only two of the eight yield QTL detected in the current study (including linkage groups 3A, 3D, 4D 5B and 7A) were previously detected in the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population; and there were also different yield components driving grain yield. A number of discussion points are raised to understand differences between the Mexican and southern Australian production environments and explain the lack of correlation between the datasets. The two key QTL detected on chromosome 3B in the present study are candidates for further genetic dissection and development of molecular markers. PMID:22772727

Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Mullan, Daniel; Izanloo, Ali; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2012-11-01

455

Self sputtering yields of silver under bombardment with polyatomic projectiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics (MD) have been employed to model self sputtering yields of an Ag(1 1 1) surface under bombardment with Ag m ( m = 1, 2, 3, 4) projectiles. It is shown that the effect of projectile orientation on the sputter yield decreases strongly with increasing m and becomes practically negligible under Ag 4 impact. For polyatomic projectiles we observe a nonlinear yield enhancement which is discussed in terms of the collisional spike model of Sigmund and Claussen. It is shown that the MD simulation provides a unique method to determine the essential input parameters T0 and entering that model.

Duvenbeck, A.; Lindenblatt, M.; Wucher, A.

2005-01-01

456

Yield stress and shear-banding in granular suspensions  

E-print Network

We study the emergence of a yield stress in dense suspensions of non-Brownian particles, by combining local velocity and concentration measurements using Magnetic Resonance Imaging with macroscopic rheometric experiments. We show that the competition between gravity and viscous stresses is at the origin of the development of a yield stress in these systems at relatively low volume fractions. Moreover, it is accompanied by a shear banding phenomenon that is the signature of this competition. However, if the system is carefully density matched, no yield stress is encountered until a volume fraction of 62.7 0.3%.

Abdoulaye Fall; Francois Bertrand; Guillaume Ovarlez; Daniel Bonn

2009-07-13

457

Nonlocal Rheology of Granular Flows across Yield Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rheology of dense granular flows is studied numerically in a shear cell controlled at constant pressure and shear stress, confined between two granular shear flows. We show that a liquid state can be achieved even far below the yield stress, whose flow can be described with the same rheology as above the yield stress. A nonlocal constitutive relation is derived from dimensional analysis through a gradient expansion and calibrated using the spatial relaxation of velocity profiles observed under homogeneous stresses. Both for frictional and frictionless grains, the relaxation length is found to diverge as the inverse square root of the distance to the yield point, on both sides of that point.

Bouzid, Mehdi; Trulsson, Martin; Claudin, Philippe; Clément, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno

2013-12-01

458

Eclipsing thermal lens spectroscopy for fluorescence quantum yield measurement.  

PubMed

A modified spatial filtering method that improves the sensitivity of single-beam and mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) for fluorescence quantum yield measurement is presented. The method is based on the detection of the external part of a laser beam transmitted by the fluorescent sample (eclipsing detection mode). The experimental results show that the signal/noise (S/N) ratio of the absolute quantum yield of Rh6G can be enhanced up to ~1400% using the eclipsing detection mode on the TLS experimental setup. The method was evaluated by measuring the fluorescence quantum yield of varying concentration of ethanolic solutions of Rhodamine 6G. PMID:23938731

Estupiñán-López, C; Tolentino Dominguez, C; de Araujo, R E

2013-07-29

459

Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of yield for comparison was an effective method of avoiding autocorrelation of data while better representing impacts within a field. Occasional yield increases, ranging from 1 to 5 percent, were recorded following goose grazing. Goose grazing generally resulted in seed yield reductions, ranging up to 20 percent. Later and more intensive grazing tended to increase yield reductions. Newly seeded tall fescue tended to be the most sensitive to grazing. Established perennial ryegrass tended to be more resilient.

Louhaichi, Mounir

460

Optimizing Production of Hydroquinone Achieves Increased Yield and Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Y i e l d ? ( % ) P r o d u c t i o n ? R a t e Week HQ?Production:?2008?and?2009 2008?Prod?Rate 2009?Prod?Rate 2008?Yield 2009?Yield Results ? Basis of comparison ? Yield Improvement: compared... Saved in 2008 (MMBtu/Yr.) Annualized Net CO2 And Other GHG Emissions Reduction (Tons CO2 or CO2 Equiv) Jan 2009 16% 105,758 11,000 ? Control plan ? Strong control plan essential for holding the gain and retaining knowledge. ? Documented...

Gross, S.

461

A nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation - Yield predictions in multiaxial deformations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yield stress predictions of a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation for amorphous polymer solids have been obtained and are compared with the phenomenological von Mises yield criterion. Linear viscoelasticity theory has been extended to include finite strains and a material timescale that depends on the instantaneous temperature, volume, and pressure. Results are presented for yield and the correct temperature and strain-rate dependence in a variety of multiaxial deformations. The present nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation can be formulated in terms of either a Cauchy or second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, and in terms of either atmospheric or hydrostatic pressure.

Shay, R. M., Jr.; Caruthers, J. M.

1987-01-01

462

Fission Yield Measurements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Correct prediction of the fission products inventory in irradiated nuclear fuels is essential for accurate estimation of fuel burnup, establishing proper requirements for spent fuel transportation and storage, materials accountability and nuclear forensics. Such prediction is impossible without accurate knowledge of neutron induced fission yields. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the fission yields reported in the ENDF/B-VII.0 library is not uniform across all of the data and much of the improvement is desired for certain isotopes and fission products. We discuss our measurements of cumulative fission yields in nuclear fuels irradiated in thermal and fast reactor spectra using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

Irina Glagolenko; Bruce Hilton; Jeffrey Giglio; Daniel Cummings; Karl Grimm; Richard McKnight

2009-11-01

463

CAUSATIVE FACTORS AND VARIATION OF SEDIMENT YIELDS IN KENTUCKY.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Precipitation, topography, runoff, soils, and land use are the major causative factors of sediment yield in Kentucky. The variability and interaction of these factors directly affects the amount and type of sediment yields. Sediment yield and size data were collected during 1942-45 and 1951-81 throughout the five major physiographic regions of Kentucky and at selected stations on the main stem of the Ohio River. The highest average annual suspended-sediment discharge, the average percent sand in suspended sediment, and the bedload discharge for selected stations were noted in the article.

Sholar, Clyde J.

1984-01-01

464

High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.  

PubMed

Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400MPa/60°C pressure for 15min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content. PMID:25794725

Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

2015-08-15

465

REGULAR PAPER Modulation of the fluorescence yield in heliobacterial cells  

E-print Network

REGULAR PAPER Modulation of the fluorescence yield in heliobacterial cells by induction of charge), or conversion to heat. When photosynthetic systems are operating efficiently, photochemistry dominates of reasons, energy is emitted as fluorescence or heat. Although the latter i

466

Doctors Often Yield to Parents' Requests to Delay Kids' Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Doctors Often Yield to Parents' Requests to Delay Kids' Vaccines But most believe ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors commonly get requests from parents to delay young children's vaccinations -- and despite their ...

467

Yield Enhancement of Reconfigurable Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using  

E-print Network

Yield Enhancement of Reconfigurable Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Interstitial Redundancy FEI SU and KRISHNENDU CHAKRABARTY Duke University Microfluidics-based biochips for biochemical analysis cumbersome equipment with minia- turized and integrated systems. As these microfluidics-based microsystems

Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

468

A YIELD-FACTOR MODEL OF INTEREST RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a consistent and arbitrage-free multifactor model of the term structure of interest rates in which yields at selected fixed maturities follow a parametric muitivariate Markov diffusion process with \\

Darrell Duffie; Rui Kan

1996-01-01

469

Influence of Vegetation Management on Yield and Quality Surface Runoff  

E-print Network

. To meet future demands water will have to come from other sources (Runkles, 1972). A possible source is increased water yield from watersheds. The quantity and quality of this surface runoff is influenced by many factors which include precipitation pattern...

Smeins, F. E.

470

Biaxial Yield Surface Investigation of Polymer-Matrix Composites  

PubMed Central

This article presents a numerical technique for computing the biaxial yield surface of polymer-matrix composites with a given microstructure. Generalized Method of Cells in combination with an Improved Bodner-Partom Viscoplastic model is used to compute the inelastic deformation. The validation of presented model is proved by a fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain test system through uniaxial testing under two different strain rate conditions. On this basis, the manufacturing process thermal residual stress and strain rate effect on the biaxial yield surface of composites are considered. The results show that the effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial yield response is closely dependent on loading conditions. Moreover, biaxial yield strength tends to increase with the increasing strain rate. PMID:23529150

Ye, Junjie; Qiu, Yuanying; Zhai, Zhi; He, Zhengjia

2013-01-01

471

Agriculture and Bioactives: Achieving Both Crop Yield and Phytochemicals  

PubMed Central

Plants are fundamental elements of the human diet, either as direct sources of nutrients or indirectly as feed for animals. During the past few years, the main goal of agriculture has been to increase yield in order to provide the food that is needed by a growing world population. As important as yield, but commonly forgotten in conventional agriculture, is to keep and, if it is possible, to increase the phytochemical content due to their health implications. Nowadays, it is necessary to go beyond this, reconciling yield and phytochemicals that, at first glance, might seem in conflict. This can be accomplished through reviewing food requirements, plant consumption with health implications, and farming methods. The aim of this work is to show how both yield and phytochemicals converge into a new vision of agricultural management in a framework of integrated agricultural practices. PMID:23429238

García-Mier, Lina; Guevara-González, Ramón G.; Mondragón-Olguín, Víctor M.; Verduzco-Cuellar, Beatriz del Rocío; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo

2013-01-01

472

Calculated secondary yields for proton broadband using DECAY TURTLE  

SciTech Connect

The calculations for the yields were done by Al Sondgeroth and Anthony Malensek. The authors used the DECAY deck called PBSEC{_}E.DAT from the CMS DECKS library. After obtaining the run modes and calibration modes from the liaison physicist, they made individual decay runs, using DECAY TURTLE from the CMS libraries and a production spectrum subroutine which was modified by Anthony, for each particle and decay mode for all particle types coming out of the target box. Results were weighted according to branching ratios for particles with more than one decay mode. The production spectra were produced assuming beryllium as the target. The optional deuterium target available to broadband will produce slightly higher yields. It should be noted that they did not include pion yields from klong decays because they could not simulate three body decays. Pions from klongs would add a very small fraction to the total yield.

Sondgeroth, A.

1995-02-01

473

Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress  

PubMed Central

Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulatory network and identified a transcription factor HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) associated with PCM, which on expression in rice enhances photosynthesis under multiple environmental conditions, determining a morpho-physiological programme leading to higher grain yield under normal, drought and high-temperature stress conditions. We show HYR is a master regulator, directly activating photosynthesis genes, cascades of transcription factors and other downstream genes involved in PCM and yield stability under drought and high-temperature environmental stress conditions. PMID:25358745

Ambavaram, Madana M. R.; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

2014-01-01

474

Potential yields and properties of oil from the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae with different biochemical content.  

PubMed

A range of model biochemical components, microalgae and cyanobacteria with different biochemical contents have been liquefied under hydrothermal conditions at 350 °C, ?200 bar in water, 1M Na(2)CO(3) and 1M formic acid. The model compounds include albumin and a soya protein, starch and glucose, the triglyceride from sunflower oil and two amino acids. Microalgae include Chlorella vulgaris,Nannochloropsis occulata and Porphyridium cruentum and the cyanobacteria Spirulina. The yields and product distribution obtained for each model compound have been used to predict the behaviour of microalgae with different biochemical composition and have been validated using microalgae and cyanobacteria. Broad agreement is reached between predictive yields and actual yields for the microalgae based on their biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude are 5-25 wt.% higher than the lipid content of the algae depending upon biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude follow the trend lipids>proteins>carbohydrates. PMID:20599375

Biller, P; Ross, A B

2011-01-01

475

31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in... Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions...

2010-07-01

476

31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in... Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions...

2013-07-01

477

31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in... Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions...

2011-07-01

478

31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in... Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions...

2014-07-01

479

31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in... Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions...

2012-07-01

480

Venom yields from Australian and some other species of snakes.  

PubMed

The wet and dry venom yields for most Australian native dangerous snakes and a number of non-Australian species are presented. Snakes from the Pseudonaja genus yielded higher than previously published amounts and suggest reconsideration be given to increasing the volume of antivenom in each vial. Higher percentage solids were obtained from venoms from the 4 cobra species (Naja) and Pseudechis genus included in this series. PMID:16937075

Mirtschin, Peter J; Dunstan, Nathan; Hough, Ben; Hamilton, Ewan; Klein, Sharna; Lucas, Jonathan; Millar, David; Madaras, Frank; Nias, Timothy

2006-08-01

481

EFFECTS OF PEDESTRIAN PROMPTS ON MOTORIST YIELDING AT CROSSWALKS  

PubMed Central

Pedestrian safety is a serious concern at busy intersections and pedestrian campuses across the nation. Although crosswalks and signs inform pedestrians where to cross, there is no standard protocol for pedestrians to signal drivers that they wish to use the crosswalks, except to stand in or at the crosswalk. We examined the effects of two pedestrian prompts, a raised hand and extended arm, on motorist yielding at uncontrolled crosswalks. The two prompts were effective at increasing yielding. PMID:21541107

Crowley-Koch, Brian J; Van Houten, Ron; Lim, Eunyoung

2011-01-01

482

Atomic radiative and radiationless yields for K and L shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available body of information on (a) fluorescence, Auger, and Coster-Kronig yields, (b) radiative and radiationless transition rates, (c) level widths, (d) x-ray and Auger line widths, (e) x-ray and Auger spectra, and (f) Coster-Kronig energies has been used to generate an internally consistent set of values of atomic radiative and radiationless yields for the K shell (5 ?Z?110) and

M. O. Krause

1979-01-01

483

Z{gamma}{gamma}{gamma} {yields} 0 Processes in SANC  

SciTech Connect

We describe the analytic and numerical evaluation of the {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}Z process cross section and the Z {yields} {gamma}{gamma}{gamma} decay rate within the SANC system multi-channel approach at the one-loop accuracy level with all masses taken into account. The corresponding package for numeric calculations is presented. For checking of the results' correctness we make a comparison with the other independent calculations.

Bardin, D. Yu., E-mail: bardin@nu.jinr.ru; Kalinovskaya, L. V., E-mail: kalinov@nu.jinr.ru; Uglov, E. D., E-mail: corner@nu.jinr.ru [JINR, Dzhelepov Laboratory for Nuclear Problems (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15

484

The prediction of sediment yields from small blackland watersheds  

E-print Network

objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of' the factors that cause sediment to bs dis- charged Prom watersheds. Another major objective was to develop a means of predicting sediment yields from small black- land watersheds that is more... accurate than the methods presently used. These objectives can be divided into the following secondary objectives: 1, To relate watershed and storm characteristics, and land use and treatment to sediment yields in order to produce an equation Por...

Williams, Jimmy Ray

1969-01-01

485

Nitrogen and potassium fertilization of potatoes: Yield and specific gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium and N fertilization is often required for maximum potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production. Nitrogen, K, and K-sources (KCl, K2SO4 are known to affect yield and quality of potatoes but N and K interactions as affected by K-source have not been defined.\\u000a This study evaluated the N*K and K-source interactions on Russet Burbank tuber yields and specific gravity (SG) in

D. T. Westermann; T. A. Tindall; D. W. James; R. L. Hurst

1994-01-01

486

Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.  

PubMed

Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions. PMID:25621333

Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

2015-01-22

487

Grain Size Dependence of Yield Stress in Marble  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data collected indicate that the yield stress of marble increases linearly with the inverse square root of the mean grain size. Increased confin. ing pressure to 2 kbars causes the grain size effect to become more pronounced, whereas increased temperature to 300øC causes this effect to become less important. The Petch [1953] theory of the yield stress-grain size relationship,

William A. Olsson

1974-01-01

488

PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCES THEIR FABRICATION AND THEIR YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigntion of the plutonium-beryllium phase diagram demonstrates ;\\u000a the suitability of these alloys and most particularly the intermetallic compound ;\\u000a PuBeââ for stable neutron sources. These sources are superior to polonium-;\\u000a beryllium sources in respect to sthbility of neutron yield as a iunction of time ;\\u000a and the prediotability of neutroc yield as a function of mass. The gamma-ray

R. E. Tate; A. S. Coffinberry

1958-01-01

489

Hydrated electron yields in the heavy ion radiolysis of water.  

PubMed

Experimental measurements coupled with Monte Carlo track simulations have been used to examine the yields of hydrated electrons in the radiolysis of water with protons, helium ions, and carbon ions. Glycylglycine, in concentrations ranging from 10(-4) to 1 M, was employed as a scavenger and the production of the ammonium cation used as a probe of hydrated electron yields from about 2 ns to 20 mus. Monte Carlo track simulations employing diffusion-kinetic calculations of product yields are found to reproduce experimental observations satisfactorily. Model details are used to elucidate the heavy ion track physics and chemistry. Comparison of the heavy ion results with those found in gamma radiolysis shows intratrack reactions are significant on the nanosecond to microsecond time scale as the ion track relaxes, and that a constant (escape) yield is never attained on this time scale. Numerical interpolation techniques are used to obtain both track average and track segment yields for use in practical applications or comparison with other models. The model results give the first hints that initial ( approximately 5 ps) hydrated electron yields, and possibly other water decomposition products, are dependent on the type and energy of the incident radiation. PMID:16866387

Laverne, Jay A; Stefani?, Igor; Pimblott, Simon M

2005-10-27

490

Calculation of Delayed Neutron Yields for Various Libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the comparison between the total delayed neutron yields (?dbar) calculated and the recommended values proposed by Tuttle, the experimental data of Waldo and those of Benedetti. These data are given for thermal, fast, and high energy fission ranges. The calculation of total delayed neutron yields is performed either by the NJOY nuclear data processing system or by the summation method. The decay data found in the various evaluations as the delayed neutron branching ratios (Pn) and the cumulative fission yields (CY) can also be validated by delayed neutron yield calculation using the summation method. In the first method, where the treatment is performed by the NJOY system, the general purpose evaluation files (JEFF-3, JEF-2, ENDF/B-VII.0 and ENDF/B-VI.4 were considered. In the summation calculation, the data used are the delayed neutron branching ratios (also called delayed neutron emission probabilities) and the cumulative fission yields that are given for thermal, fast, high energy fission and spontaneous fission. These data are found in the Radioactive Decay Data and Fission Yield Data files (File 8) of nuclear data evaluations. In this study, we also perform a benchmark calculation with various libraries: JEF-2.2, JEFF3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL/FP-2011.

Huynh, T. D.; Jouanne, C.

2014-04-01

491

Statewide potential crop yield losses from ozone exposure. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Past efforts to model crop losses on a regional scale used plant losses at the county level. The work reported not only employs this traditional approach (important for long-term trend analysis), but also expands the methodological basis of the Crop Loss-Assessment Program by using GIS technology to estimate yield losses at the county level. The work reported not only employs this traditional approach (important for long-term trend analysis), but also expands the methodological basis of the Crop Loss Assessment Program by using GIS technology to estimate the yield loss based on interpolated 1/d(sup 2) ozone exposure indices. Analytical procedures used 7-hour and 12-hour seasonal mean models, and SUM 06 Wiebull functions for estimating the yield losses in several crops. Interpolated yield loss contours are graphically represented and enhanced by color-coded altitudinal ramping. Ozone concentratons on a monthly basis were interpolated within the state air basins using ARB air quality statistics and an imposed 2,000-ft altitudinal barrier to transport. Monthly 7-hour means, a widely used exposure index for plant response functions, were used for the statewide interpolations. The severity of potential yield loss was determined using ARB 1993 air quality data and published yield response functions.

Mutters, R.; Soret, S.

1998-03-01

492

Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.  

PubMed

Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:24465657

Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

2014-01-01

493

Ecoinformatics Reveals Effects of Crop Rotational Histories on Cotton Yield  

PubMed Central

Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:24465657

Meisner, Matthew H.; Rosenheim, Jay A.

2014-01-01

494

Development of weather-yield function for winter wheat  

SciTech Connect

Crop models require detailed knowledge of weather relationships for estimating and predicting yields. Objectives of this research were to develop a weather-yield function (WYF) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that had stable coefficients and minimal bias over a wide range of climates. The WYF was derived by regressing 966 location-years of plot yields, adjusted for genetic gain, on candidate sets of weather-related variables, applied N, location-related variables and time. Applied N, location, and time variables were included to reduce bias in coefficients of weather-related variables. The portion of the regression function that included only weather-related variables became the WYF. Observations used for regression came from a wide range of climates with high interannual variance. Values of WYF ranged from 546 to 2765 kg ha/sup /minus/1/; they reflected deleterious effects of high and low temperatures and of inadequate and excessive moisture during the crop yield. Besides estimating the impact of weather on yields, the WYF can be applied to identifying yield-limiting factors and managing wheat for increased productivity. 24 refs., 4 tabs.

Feyerherm, A.M.; Paulsen, G.M.

1986-01-01

495

Quantitative generalizations for catchment sediment yield following forest logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published data for temperate forests across the world are analyzed to investigate the potential for generalized quantitative expressions of catchment sediment yield impact in the years immediately following logging. Such generalizations would be useful in a variety of forestry and engineering tasks and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. Data were assembled for paired catchment studies (51 catchments including 16 controls) that enabled the postlogging sediment yield impact to be compared with both the prelogging period and an undisturbed control catchment, using a specially defined relative response factor. Three categories of impact were derived: low-moderate, high, and very high, defined by specific ranges in the maximum value of the relative response factor. The maximum increase in specific sediment yield (in t km-2 yr-1) following logging is 1 order of magnitude above the control sediment yield at both the annual and storm event scales, at least under normal circumstances of Best Management Practice. There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield and the proportion of catchment logged, at least at the general scale. A cumulative probability distribution for the year in which the maximum postlogging sediment yield occurs, shows the majority of cases falling in the first 2 years. These generalizations refer to the broad response to logging as a function of ground disturbance, for example, by logging technique, roads, and burning. Although limited to order of magnitude quantification, they provide a basis for first estimates and for a general appreciation of an impact problem.

Bathurst, James C.; Iroumé, Andrés.

2014-11-01

496

A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global data