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1

Applying statistics for nonsequential yield component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, an application of the methodology for analyzing yield as affected by its components that develop at the same ontogenetic level is discussed; it may also be applied to any model in which several traits developing non-sequentially affect their product. The methodology is called \\

M. Kozak; S. Samborski; M. S. Kang; J. Rozbicki

2007-01-01

2

Genetic variability and interrelationships of seed yield and yield components in switchgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the genetic variability of seed yield and yield components is limited and no information is available on correlations\\u000a among seed yield and yield components and direct and indirect effects of the yield components on seed yield in switchgrass,\\u000a Panicum\\u000a virgatum L. Accordingly, we conducted replicated experiments at Chickasha and Perkins, OK, in 1998 involving 11 lowland type switchgrass

Modan K. Das; Charles M. Taliaferro

2009-01-01

3

Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry  

SciTech Connect

The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield responded linearly to B and quadratically to P. At pH 6.5, P interacted with B and Zn. Fruit count per inflorescence was the yield component most strongly associated with yield, followed by individual fruit weight. However, these two yield components responded differently to soil-applied nutrients. Foliar nutrient levels generally did not increase with the amount of applied nutrient, but often an applied nutrient had a strong effect on the level of another nutrient. Leaf nutrient levels were often correlated with fruit levels, but foliar and fruit levels at harvest were not related to reproductive performance. The study identifies some of the problems inherent in using foliar nutrient levels to predict a yield response and demonstrates how plant responses to single nutrients depend on soil chemistry and the presence of other nutrients.

May, G.M.; Pritts, M.P. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

1993-01-01

4

Ontogenetic analysis of yield components and yield stability of durum wheat in water-limited environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

One main reason for the slow improvement of durum wheat in water-limited environments is the lack of clear understanding of the interrelationships among yield components and their compensatory changes under low and erratic moisture availability. Five cultivars, varying in many physiological attributes, were tested under different drought-stress conditions in field and greenhouse experiments. The cause-effect relationships of duration of vegetative

B. Simane; P. C. Struik; M. M. Nachit; J. M. Peacock

1993-01-01

5

The light yield nonproportionality component of scintillator energy resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scintillator energy resolution component which is due to light yield nonproportionality has been characterized for NaI(Tl) and LSO. Results are based on a discrete convolution of measured electron response data and the electron energy distribution resulting from full-energy absorption events. The behavior of this energy resolution component as a function of energy is observed to be strongly dependent on

J. D. Valentine; B. D. Rooney; J. Li

1998-01-01

6

Acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulose - acid yield and conversion of components  

SciTech Connect

Corn stover was fermented with a mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms to form simple (C2-C6), volatile organic acids. Alkaline pretreatment allowed a greater fermentation of the pectin and hemicellulose than of the cellulose and lignin, but all components were utilized. The percent fermentation of the soluble fraction, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin was 79.6, 74.1, 36.9, and 20.9%, respively. The yield of acid (as acetate) with respect to material fermented was 84%.

Datta, R.

1981-01-01

7

Seed Yields, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Selected Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three coriander lines which were developed by Ankara University were tested under east Mediterranean conditions for two years to determine the best yielding lines in winter season. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.During this study, the plant height (cm), branch number\\/plant, umbel number\\/plant, seed number\\/umbel, 1000 seed weight (g), seed yield (kg\\/da),

Filiz Ayano?lu; Ahmet Mert; Ne?et Aslan; Bilal Gürbüz

2002-01-01

8

Molecular markers for yield components in Brassica juncea – do these assist in breeding for high seed yield?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 112 F1-derived doubled haploid lines was produced from a reciprocal cross of Brassica juncea. The parents differed for seed quality, seed color and many agronomic traits. A detailed RFLP linkage map of this population, comprising 316 loci, had been constructed, and was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed yield and yield components, viz. siliqua

Tariq Mahmood; Muhammad H. Rahman; Gary R. Stringam; Francis Yeh; Allen Good

2005-01-01

9

Grease Yields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is directed to lubricating grease compositions, more particularly to the use of certain agents to improve the yield of calcium base greases. The yields of grease compositions are increased by incorporating therein an oil-soluble polyglycol p...

D. W. Criddle

1965-01-01

10

QTL analysis of seed yield components in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).  

PubMed

Cultivars of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), an important forage crop in temperate regions, are often characterised by an unsatisfactory level of seed yield, leading to high production costs. This complex trait is influenced by many components and negatively correlated with other important traits, such as forage yield or persistence. Therefore, seed yield has proven to be difficult to improve. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess association among seed yield components and to provide the basis for identifying molecular markers linked to QTLs for seed yield components to assist breeding for improved red clover cultivars. A total of 42 SSR and 216 AFLP loci were used to construct a molecular linkage map with a total map length of 444.2 cM and an average distance between loci of 1.7 cM. A total of 38 QTLs were identified for eight seed yield components. The traits seed number per plant, seed yield per head, seed number per head, head number per plant and percent seed set were highly correlated with seed yield per plant, and QTLs for several of these traits were often detected in the same genome region. Head number per plant may present a particularly useful character for the improvement of seed yield since it can easily be determined before seed maturity. In addition, two genome regions containing four or five QTLs for different seed yield components, respectively, were identified representing candidate regions for further characterisation of QTLs. This study revealed several key components which may facilitate further improvement of seed yield. The QTLs identified represent an important first step towards marker-assisted breeding in red clover. PMID:16331477

Herrmann, Doris; Boller, Beat; Studer, Bruno; Widmer, Franco; Kölliker, Roland

2006-02-01

11

Effect of between and on row distance of first development, tillering, yield and yield components in wheat cultivars (Triticum sp.).  

PubMed

This study was carried out at the University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Haymana Research and Application Farm, Haymana County, Ankara, Turkey during 1987/1990 with the aim of to determine the effect of between and on row distances (B(rd) and O(rd), respectively) on the first development, tillering, yield and yield components in wheat cultivars (Triticum sp.). Five wheat cultivars (Bezostaja-I, Gerek 79, Haymana 79; Triticum aestivum L., Cakmak 79 and Kunduru 1149; Triticum durum Desf.) were used and experimental design was arranged in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) in split plots with four replications. The cultivars were allocated to the main plots at three different B(rd) (5, 10 and 17.5 cm) and six various O(rd) (4.7, 2.2, 1.2 cm in commons and 3.8, 1.8, 1.0 cm in durums) values. B(rd) and O(rd) distances were not affected from emergency date; the number of plant m(-2) was varied between 173-326; the number of tillering was m(-2) was determined between 12-86; the number of the first root was changed 3-4; the length of the adventitious root was happened between 89-116 mm; the number of the adventitious root was varied between 2-3 mm; the length of the adventitious root was realized between 42-74 mm; the number of the downy brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) was changed between 7-16; plant height was measured between 45-73 cm; spike length was recorded between 62-81 mm; the number of spikelet was determined between 16-23; the number of grain was found between 19-30; grain weight per plant was calculated between 1-2 g plant(-1); 1000-kernel weight was varied between 18-44 g and grain yield per m2 was fixed between 119-208 g m(-2). Increasing in the B(rd) and O(rd) were negatively effected the adventitious root development so to ensure a long and fertile spike, narrow B(rd) and O(rd) distances should be used. Spikelet and grain number, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield per m2 were increased by narrowing either between nor on row distances. In addition, all the B(rd) parameters were not significantly effected to seedling traits in commons but not in durums. B(rd) = 17.5 cm was found the most beneficial distance in durums. On the other hand, to avoid reducing of the yield components, between row distance should not be increase and in all circimcustances, that value always must be adjusted wide otherwise control of the weeds, diseases and pest could be a great problem during the cultivation. PMID:19093497

Ulukan, Hakan; Kün, Ekrem

2007-12-15

12

Gene Action and Combining Ability for Grain Yield and Its Components in Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an effort was made to identify good parents and nature of gene action governing different characters of rice by line (4 restorers) × tester (2 cytoplasmic male sterile lines) analysis. The trial comprising 8 hybrids and their parents were laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and characterized for yield and nine yield component traits.

M. Allahgholipour; A. J. Ali

2006-01-01

13

Adaptation of faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) to dryland Mediterranean-type environments I. Seed yield and yield components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) was thought unsuitable for commercial dryland production in short-season Mediterranean-type environments because of its susceptibility to moisture and high temperature stresses. Faba bean cv. Fiord was sown at four dates ranging from early May to early July at 7 sites in 1993 and 5 sites in 1994 in south western Australia. In 1993, seed yields

S. P. Loss; K. H. M. Siddique

1997-01-01

14

Effects of Tillage Methods and Sowing Rates on the Grain Yields and Yield Components of Rain Fed Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted on the effect of four primary tillage implements and three seed densities on the grain yield of rain fed wheat (Tajan cultivar), using a drill planting machine with the end wheels. The experimental design was a split plot design in a 4×3 factorial with three replications. In this study, the main plots were the tillage

H. T. Shamsabadi; A. Biabani; Desa Ahmad

2009-01-01

15

Comparative Study of Inorganic Fertilizers and Organic Manures on Yield and Yield Components of Mungbean (Vigna radiat L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). Experiment comprised of two varieties (NM-98 & M-1) and four fertility levels as NPK @ 25 - 50 - 50 kg ha-1, poultry manure @ 3.5 t ha-1, FYM @ 5 t ha-1 and Bio-fertilizer

MUHAMMAD NAEEM; JAVAID IQBAL

16

Effect of bio-phosphate and chemical phosphorus fertilizer accompanied with micronutrient foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of maize (Single Cross 704)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of bio-phosphate, chemical phosphorus fertilizer and micronutrient foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.) were studied in a field experiment at Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre (Iran). A split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with four replications was followed in the study. The micronutrient foliar application

Khatoon Yosefi; Mohammad Galavi; Mahmod Ramrodi; Sayed Roholla Mousavi

2011-01-01

17

Path and Ridge Regression Analysis of Seed Yield and Seed Yield Components of Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2 were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components.

Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, Rene

2011-01-01

18

Partitioning Yield Loss on Yellow Squash into Nematode and Insect Components  

PubMed Central

The effect of a contplex of several insect and nematode pests on yield of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) was examined in two field tests in southern Florida. Applications of permethrin for insect control and oxamyl primarily for nematode control plus some insect control were made alone and in combination to achieve differential reduction of various insect and nematode components contributing to yield loss. The effect of these components on yield was further analyzed by multiple regression. Yield losses in weight of small fruit to nematode and insect pests together were estimated at 23.4% and 30.4% in each of the two tests, respectively. In the first test, this loss was attributed to the melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata, while in the second test, it was attributed to D. hyalinata and the nematodes Quinisulcius acutus and particularly Rotylenchulus reniforrnis. D. hyalinata accounted for further losses of 9.0% and 10.3%, respectively, from direct damage to the fruit. Despite the presence of low levels of Diabrotica balteata, Liriomyza sativae, and Myzus persicae, yields were little affected by these pests. Prediction of yield loss by multiple regression analysis was more accurate when both insect and nematode populations were present in the plots than when nematodes alone were present.

McSorley, R.; Waddill, V. H.

1982-01-01

19

Partitioning yield loss on yellow squash into nematode and insect components.  

PubMed

The effect of a contplex of several insect and nematode pests on yield of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) was examined in two field tests in southern Florida. Applications of permethrin for insect control and oxamyl primarily for nematode control plus some insect control were made alone and in combination to achieve differential reduction of various insect and nematode components contributing to yield loss. The effect of these components on yield was further analyzed by multiple regression. Yield losses in weight of small fruit to nematode and insect pests together were estimated at 23.4% and 30.4% in each of the two tests, respectively. In the first test, this loss was attributed to the melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata, while in the second test, it was attributed to D. hyalinata and the nematodes Quinisulcius acutus and particularly Rotylenchulus reniforrnis. D. hyalinata accounted for further losses of 9.0% and 10.3%, respectively, from direct damage to the fruit. Despite the presence of low levels of Diabrotica balteata, Liriomyza sativae, and Myzus persicae, yields were little affected by these pests. Prediction of yield loss by multiple regression analysis was more accurate when both insect and nematode populations were present in the plots than when nematodes alone were present. PMID:19295683

McSorley, R; Waddill, V H

1982-01-01

20

Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration. PMID:24783784

Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

2014-01-01

21

[Molecular mapping and identification of quantitative trait loci for yield components in rapeseed (Brasscia napus L.)].  

PubMed

A F2 segregating population for genetic map construction and identification of QTL for seed yield in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), was developed via crossing a conventional rapeseed line 04-1139 with a high yielding multiple silique rapeseed line 05-1054. A genetic map including 19 linkage groups was constructed with 200 SSR (Simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (Sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers. This map covers a total length of 1 700.23 cM with an average distance between two adjacent makers of 8.50 cM. Using this map, QTL for the components of yield per plant, such as number of silique per plant (SNP), number of seeds per silique (SS) were analyzed. A total of 12 putative QTL for the traits were detected. Four of them were associated with SNP, which explained 35.64%, 12.96%, 28.71%, and 34.02% of the variation, respectively. Five QTL, which explained 8.41%, 7.87%, 24.37%, 8.57%, and 14.31% of the variation, were responsible for SS. Three QTL for 1 000-seed weight explained 1.81%-2.33% of the variation. The additional effects of the alleles for a trait may originate from both parents. The markers associated with the main QTL can be a good tool for marker associated selection and pyramiding breeding. PMID:20233705

Wang, Feng; Guan, Chun-Yun

2010-03-01

22

Yield and Response Functions of the Baksan EAS-Array Andyrchy for Single Component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significant increases (>3 st.dev.) were recorded at two Baksan EAS-arrays Andyrchy and Carp et in 6 events from 10 Ground Level Enhancements (GLE), which were registered in current cycle of solar activity. It signifies, that the Solar Cosmic Rays (SCR) of high energy are observed approximately in 50% of GLE. It is necessary to take into account a difference of the response functions of EASarrays and neutron monitors to prolong the SCR spectra up to 5.8 GeV (Baksan geomagnetic cut-off ). With this purpose the account of the yield and response functions was executed for single component of the Andyrchy.

Karpov, S. N.; Alekseenko, V.V.; Karpova, Z.M.; Khaerdinov, N.S.; Petkov, V.B.

2003-07-01

23

To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan  

SciTech Connect

Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E. [Department of Agronomy, Plant breeding and genetic, Faculty of Agricutlure, Zabol University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-01-30

24

Growth parameter and yield component response of field corn to simulated acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yield changes the study examined the effect of simulated acid rain on parameters associated with corn yield. Cultivars B73 x Mo17 and Pioneer 3377 were shielded from ambient rain by two movable rain exclusion shelters. Six simulated rain treatments were applied biweekly within these shelters through the use of a nozzle distribution system. For the most part, growth and yield parameters were unaffected by simulated rain treatment. While the only significant yield reduction was a contrast of pH 3.0 and the average of all other treatments for B73 x Mo17, the reduction appears to be the result both of slightly fewer ears and slightly less successful ear fill.

Banwart, W.L.; Porter, P.M.; Ziegler, E.L.; Hassett, J.J.

1988-01-01

25

QTL and epistatic analyses of heterosis for seed yield and three yield component traits using molecular markers in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).  

PubMed

Aiming to explore the basis of heterosis in rapeseed, QTLs for yield and three yield component traits were mapped and the digenic interactions were detected in an F2 population derived from a cross between two elite rapeseed lines, SI-1300 and Eagle, in this study. Twenty-eight QTLs were detected for the four yield traits, with only two of them detected simultaneously in the Wuhan and Jingmen environments. Additive, partial dominance, dominance, and overdominance effects were all identified for the investigated traits. Dominance (including partial dominance) was shown by 55% of the QTLs, which suggests that dominance is a major genetic basis ofheterosis in rapeseed. At the P < or = 0.01 level with 1000 random permutations, 108 and 104 significant digenic interactions were detected in Wuhan and Jingmen, respectively, for the four yield-related traits using all possible locus pairs of molecular markers. Digenic interactions, including additive by additive, additive by dominance, and dominance by dominance, were frequent and widespread in this population. In most cases (78.3%), the interactions occurred among marker loci for which significant effects were not detected by single-locus analysis. Some QTLs (57.1%) detected by single-locus analysis were involved in epistatic interactions. It was concluded that epistasis, along with dominance (including partial dominance), is responsible for the expression of heterosis in rapeseed. PMID:23270265

Li, Y; Zhang, X; Ma, C; Shen, J; Chen, Q; Wang, T; Fu, T; Tu, J

2012-10-01

26

Evaluation of Grain Yield and Its Components in Durum Wheat under Mediterranean Conditions: An Ontogenic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

the number of spikes per square meter predominantly influenced grain drought stress, with respect to grain yield, is from double production in the warmer environments. The number of kernels per ridge to anthesis due to its negative impact on spikelet spike had a significant contribution to grain yield, especially under number and kernels per spike (Shpiler and Blum, 1991). drought

L. F. Garcia del Moral; Y. Rharrabti; D. Villegas; C. Royo

27

An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.  

PubMed

In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. PMID:20128501

Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

2009-10-15

28

Relationships between growing season rainfall, grain yield and yield components suggest that wheat requires one ear\\/m2 per millimetre of rainfall to achieve its water-limited potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between grain yield of wheat and its yield components in the wheatbelt of southwestern Australia. It was found that grain yield of wheat in southwestern Australia was largely determined by the number of grains per unit area. The number of grains per unit area was highly related to the number of ears\\/m2 across the rainfall

Heping Zhang; Narelle Simpson; Steve Milroy; Michael Poole; Neil Turner

29

Spatial and temporal precipitation variability as a component of site-specific crop yield variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine spatial and temporal precipitation variability, and the effect of this variability on yield and profitability. On-farm precipitation data is currently being measured by site- specific farmers. One potential use of the data is to provide inputs for corn yield modeling, which has been performed with neural networks and simulation. Profitability of measuring on-farm data depends on spatial precipitation variability and its effect on yield. Precipitation and air temperature from corn silking to dent stages, scale of yield data, and a technology factor were used to model corn yield in east central Indiana at farm (250 ha), county, and state scales, using backpropagation neural networks with five data coding schemes. The best net gave a root-mean-squared error of 11.9% overall (10.9% farm, 10.5% county, 7.9% state yield), with maximum-value interval coding. Four rain gauges on the same farm, spaced apart 1.02 to 3.04 km, gave a median absolute deviation of precipitation among gauges, by corn and soybean phenological phase, of 0.25 to 1.73 mm.day-1 (spatial variability). Median absolute deviation from a reference year was 0.17 to 3.40 mm.day-1 (temporal/year-to- year variability). Spatial variability was less than temporal variability, and frequently less than 1 mm. Three precipitation data sources-a National Weather Service (NWS) station on the same farm, the nearest non- urban NWS station, and a weighted mean of three nearest non-urban NWS stations (27-35 km distance)-were used to simulate corn yield by 1-ha grid cells with CERES-Maize. The percent absolute difference of simulated yield among the three sources (effect of spatial precipitation variability) was 15.8%. The percent absolute difference from long-term mean (temporal variability) was 21.5%, of the same order as spatial variability. A choice among nitrogen application strategies-variable-rate versus whole-field application, starter versus no starter-was made for the same farm, using probability of profit from simulated corn yield based on the three precipitation data sources. The most profitable strategy was not dependent on the data source. Using data from the nearest NWS station was more profitable than measuring precipitation on-site.

O'Neal, Monte Ray

30

Effects of different water regimes on field-grown determinate and indeterminate faba bean ( Vicia faba L.). II. Yield, yield components and harvest index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faba bean yields are highly sensitive to variations of water availability. For indeterminate faba bean, high levels of water could promote excessive vegetative growth at the expense of pod growth. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objective of comparing the yield and harvest index of determinate and indeterminate faba bean under different water regimes and finding how the

M. D. Dennett; U. Ratnaweera; K. Nyalemegbe

1997-01-01

31

Yield, Quality Components, and Nitrogen Levels of Silage Corn Fertilized with Urea and Zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zeolite and urea mixture may be use to improve nitrogen (N)–use efficiency of silage corn. The objective of this study was to evaluate dry-matter yield and nutritional levels of N of silage corn fertilized with urea and zeolite mixture. The experimental design was a 2 × 4 × 4 factorial randomized block design with three replications. Treatments included two

Alberto C. de Campos Bernardi; Gilberto Batista de Souza; José Carlos Polidoro; Paulo Renato Perdigão Paiva; Marisa Bezerra de Mello Monte

2011-01-01

32

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

33

Reckoning wheat yield trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat yields have increased approximately linearly since the mid-twentieth century across the globe, but stagnation of these trends has now been suggested for several nations. We present a new statistical test for whether a yield time series has leveled off and apply it to wheat yield data from 47 different regions to show that nearly half of the production within our sample has transitioned to level trajectories. With the major exception of India, the majority of leveling in wheat yields occurs within developed nations—including the United Kingdom, France and Germany—whose policies appear to have disincentivized yield increases relative to other objectives. The effects of climate change and of yields nearing their maximum potential may also be important.

Lin, M.; Huybers, P.

2012-06-01

34

Energy use efficiency is characterized by an epigenetic component that can be directed through artificial selection to increase yield  

PubMed Central

Quantitative traits, such as size and weight in animals and seed yield in plants, are distributed normally, even within a population of genetically identical individuals. For example, in plants, various factors, such as local soil quality, microclimate, and sowing depth, affect growth differences among individual plants of isogenic populations. Besides these physical factors, also epigenetic components contribute to differences in growth and yield. The network that regulates crop yield is still not well understood. Although this network is expected to have epigenetic elements, it is completely unclear whether it would be possible to shape the epigenome to increase crop yield. Here we show that energy use efficiency is an important factor in determining seed yield in canola (Brassica napus) and that it can be selected artificially through an epigenetic feature. From an isogenic canola population of which the individual plants and their self-fertilized progenies were recursively selected for respiration intensity, populations with distinct physiological and agronomical characteristics could be generated. These populations were found to be genetically identical, but epigenetically different. Furthermore, both the DNA methylation patterns as well as the agronomical and physiological characteristics of the selected lines were heritable. Hybrids derived from parent lines selected for high energy use efficiencies had a 5% yield increase on top of heterosis. Our results demonstrate that artificial selection allows the increase of the yield potential by selecting populations with particular epigenomic states.

Hauben, Miriam; Haesendonckx, Boris; Standaert, Evi; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Akpo, Herve; Van Breusegem, Frank; Guisez, Yves; Bots, Marc; Lambert, Bart; Laga, Benjamin; De Block, Marc

2009-01-01

35

High Yield Neutron Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high yield neutron source comprising a plasma focus device in combination with a structured target is described. The plasma focus device generates a plasma sheath which focuses on a structured target in a predetermined focal region. The structured targe...

H. L. Sahlin J. H. Brownell B. L. Freeman

1978-01-01

36

Argentina corn yield model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

1984-01-01

37

The effect of moisture stress at three growth stages on the yield, components of yield and processing quality of eight potato varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted over a three year period in southern Alberta to establish the yield and quality responses of eight potato\\u000a varieties-Atlantic, Conestoga, Norchip, Niska, Shepody, Ranger Russet (Idaho clone), Ranger Russet (Amisk clone) and Russet\\u000a Burbank to a single transient moisture stress (-80 kPa) at three growth stages in crop development (early, midseason and late).\\u000a Early and midseason

D. R. Lynch; N. Foroud; G. C. Kozub; B. C. Farries

1995-01-01

38

FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON BABY CORN YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fertilizer application effect being studied to evaluate the quality, yield and yield components of baby corn was conducted at the TOP\\/AVRDC field of Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng San Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Its purpose was to evaluate the effect of third fertilizer application on yield and third ear yield of baby corn. Application of different chemical fertilizer as basal and

CHALERM MALASAM

39

Material component to non-linear relation between sediment yield and drainage network development: an flume experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the experimental study on influence of material component to non-linear relation between sediment yield\\u000a and drainage network development completed in the Lab. The area of flume drainage system is 81.2 m2, the longitudinal gradient and cross section slope are from 0.0348 to 0.0775 and from 0.0115 to 0.038, respectively. Different\\u000a model materials with a medium diameter of

Jin De-sheng; Chen Hao; Guo Qing-wu

2001-01-01

40

Screening and optimization of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees for total andrographolide content, yield and its components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees (Acanthaceae), commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines for a number of ailments related to digestion, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, and as anti-bacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vermicidal and antiacene. Ten accessions of A. paniculata from different sources were screened to assess the yield and its components besides andrographolides on three harvesting dates

M. K. Bhan; A. K. Dhar; S. Khan; S. K. Lattoo; K. K. Gupta; D. K. Choudhary

2006-01-01

41

Estimates of explosive yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive yield as a function of propellant type and accident conditions was discussed along with the characteristics of propellant explosions. Three types of fuel-hypergolic, liquid oxygen-hydrocarbon, and liquid oxygen-liquid-hydrogen were considered. Data are also given on three modes (failure modes) of mixing: confinement by missile, confinement by ground surface, and high velocity impact.

1977-01-01

42

Yielding steel posts  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a yielding steel post for underground mine support. The report covers concept development, laboratory tests, modifications, and field evaluations. The objective of this work was to develop a stiff support member capable of both supporting high loads and yielding when excessive amounts of mine entry closure were present. The 6- to 7-ft steel post was designed to yield three-piece unit consisting of top and bottom telescoping legs and a separate foot bracket. It develops its load-carrying characteristics when the lower pipe, with an attached interference ring, is forced into the larger top pipe. Laboratory tests were used to determine critical loads and post performance for various post lengths. Field tests showed that the posts could perform in actual mining conditions. The post has the ability to provide support in highly yielding ground and also, because of its slender profile, enhance ventilation and provide more area for travelways and escapeways. The design is simple enough to allow for fabrication at most mine shop facilities.

Dunford, J.P.; Henton, L.N.

1989-01-01

43

Yield Physiology of Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for more than 50% of the world's population, including regions of high population density and rapid growth. Rice is produced under both upland and lowland ecosystems with about 76% of the global rice produced from irrigated lowland rice systems. The objective of this article is to discuss growth and formation of yield

N. K. Fageria

2007-01-01

44

Impact of brown stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on corn grain yield components and quality.  

PubMed

Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), damage on developing corn, Zea mays L., ears was examined in 2005 and 2006 by using eight parameters related to its yield and kernel quality. Stink bug infestations were initiated when the corn plants were at tasseling (VT), mid-silking (R1), and blister (R2) stages by using zero, three, and six in 2005 or zero, one, two, and four bugs per ear in 2006, and maintained for 9 d. The percentage of discolored kernels was affected by stink bug number in both years, but not always affected by plant growth stage. The growth stage effect on the percentage of discolored kernels was significant in 2006, but not in 2005. The percentage of aborted kernels was affected by both stink bug number and plant growth stage in 2005 but not in 2006. Kernel weight was significantly reduced when three E. sercus adults were confined on a corn ear at stage VT or R1 for 9 d in 2005, whereas one or two adults per ear resulted in no kernel weight loss, but four E. servus adults did cause significant kernel weight loss at stage VT in 2006. Stink bug feeding injury at stage R2 did not affect kernel damage, ear weight or grain weight in either year. The infestation duration (9 or 18 d) was positively correlated to the percentage of discolored kernels but did not affect kernel or ear weight. Based on the regression equations between the kernel weight and stink bug number, the gain threshold or economic injury level should be 0.5 bugs per ear for 9 d at stage VT and less for stage R1. This information will be useful in developing management guidelines for stink bugs in field corn during ear formation and early grain filling stages. PMID:21309227

Ni, Xinzhi; Da, Kedong; Buntin, G David; Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn; Olson, Dawn M; Powell, Robert; Lee, R Dewey; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Scully, Brian T

2010-12-01

45

Variance components for test-day milk, fat, and protein yield, and somatic cell score for analyzing management information.  

PubMed

Test-day (TD) models are used in most countries to perform national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle. The TD models estimate lactation curves and their changes as well as variation in populations. Although potentially useful, little attention has been given to the application of TD models for management purposes. The potential of the TD model for management use depends on its ability to describe within- or between-herd variation that can be linked to specific management practices. The aim of this study was to estimate variance components for milk yield, milk component yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) of dairy cows in the Ragusa and Vicenza areas of Italy, such that the most relevant sources of variation can be identified for the development of management parameters. The available data set contained 1,080,637 TD records of 42,817 cows in 471 herds. Variance components were estimated with a multilactation, random-regression, TD animal model by using the software adopted by NRS for the Dutch national genetic evaluation. The model comprised 5 fixed effects [region x parity x days in milk (DIM), parity x year of calving x season of calving x DIM, parity x age at calving x year of calving, parity x calving interval x stage of pregnancy, and year of test x calendar week of test] and random herd x test date, regressions for herd lactation curve (HCUR), the animal additive genetic effect, and the permanent environmental effect by using fourth-order Legendre polynomials. The HCUR variances for milk and protein yields were highest around the time of peak yield (DIM 50 to 150), whereas for fat yield the HCUR variance was relatively constant throughout first lactation and decreased following the peak around 40 to 90 DIM for lactations 2 and 3. For SCS, the HCUR variances were relatively small compared with the genetic, permanent environmental, and residual variances. For all the traits except SCS, the variance explained by random herd x test date was much smaller than the HCUR variance, which indicates that the development of management parameters should focus on between-herd parameters during peak lactation for milk and milk components. For SCS, the within-herd variance was greater than the between-herd variance, suggesting that the focus should be on management parameters explaining variances at the cow level. The present study showed clear evidence for the benefits of using a random regression TD model for management decisions. PMID:18650304

Caccamo, M; Veerkamp, R F; de Jong, G; Pool, M H; Petriglieri, R; Licitra, G

2008-08-01

46

Explicit Analysis of Transversely Anisotropic and Axisymmetric Sheet Metal Forming Process Using 6-component Barlat Yield Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most FEM codes, the isotropic-elastic & transversely anisotropic-elastoplastic model using Hill's yield function has been widely adopted in 3D shell elements (modified to meet the plane-stress condition) and 3D solid elements. However, when the 4-node quadrilateral axisymmetric element is used for 2D sheet metal forming simulation, the above transversely anisotropic model is not available in FEM code LS-DYNA3D. A novel approach for the explicit analysis of transversely anisotropic and axisymmetric sheet metal forming using 6-component Barlat yield function is elaborated in detail in this paper. The related formula and parameters are derived directly. Numerical results obtained using the new model fit well with the Hill solution.

Wang, Jin-Yan; Sun, Ji-Xian; Chen, Jun

2005-08-01

47

Explicit Analysis of Transversely Anisotropic and Axisymmetric Sheet Metal Forming Process Using 6-component Barlat Yield Function  

SciTech Connect

In most FEM codes, the isotropic-elastic and transversely anisotropic-elastoplastic model using Hill's yield function has been widely adopted in 3D shell elements (modified to meet the plane-stress condition) and 3D solid elements. However, when the 4-node quadrilateral axisymmetric element is used for 2D sheet metal forming simulation, the above transversely anisotropic model is not available in FEM code LS-DYNA3D. A novel approach for the explicit analysis of transversely anisotropic and axisymmetric sheet metal forming using 6-component Barlat yield function is elaborated in detail in this paper. The related formula and parameters are derived directly. Numerical results obtained using the new model fit well with the Hill solution.

Wang Jinyan; Sun Jixian; Chen Jun [National Die and Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2005-08-05

48

Atmospheric Fluorescence Yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric fluorescence from these showers. Accurate knowledge of the conversion from atmospheric fluorescence to energy loss by ionizing particles in the atmosphere is key to this technique. In this paper we discuss a small balloon-borne instrument to make the first in situ measurements versus altitude of the atmospheric fluorescence yield. The instrument can also be used in the lab to investigate the dependence of the fluorescence yield in air on temperature, pressure and the concentrations of other gases that present in the atmosphere. The results can be used to explore environmental effects on and improve the accuracy of cosmic ray energy measurements for existing ground-based experiments and future space-based experiments.

Adams, James H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

49

Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (<315nm), UV-A+B (<400nm), transmitted all the UV (280-400nm) or without filters. All the four plant species responded to UV exclusion by a significant increase in plant height, leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. PMID:24041852

Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

2013-10-01

50

Effect of source/sink ratios on yield components, growth dynamics and structural characteristics of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bunches.  

PubMed

Source/sink ratios are known to be one of the main determinants of oil palm growth and development. A long-term experiment (9 years) was conducted in Indonesia on mature oil palms subjected to continuous bunch ablation and partial defoliation treatments to artificially modify source/sink ratios. During the experiment, all harvested bunches were dissected and phenological measurements were carried out to analyse the effect of source/sink ratios on yield components explaining variations in bunch number, the number of fruits per bunch and oil dry weight per fruit. An integrative variable (supply/demand ratio) describing the ratio between the assimilate supply from sources and the growing organ demand for carbohydrate was computed for each plant on a daily basis from observations of the number of developing organs and their sink strength, and of climate variables. Defoliation and bunch ablation affected the bunch number and the fruit number per bunch. Variations in bunch number per month were mainly due to variations in the fraction of aborted inflorescence and in the ratio between female and male inflorescences. Under fluctuating trophic conditions, variations in fruit number per bunch resulted both from changes in fruit-set and in the number of branches (rachillae) per inflorescence. For defoliated plants, the decrease in the number of developing reproductive sinks appeared to be sufficient to maintain fruit weight and oil concentration at the control level, without any major decrease in the concentration of non-structural carbohydrate reserves. Computation of the supply/demand ratio revealed that each yield component had a specific phase of sensitivity to supply/demand ratios during inflorescence development. Establishing quantitative relationships between supply/demand ratios, competition and yield components is the first step towards a functional model for oil palm. PMID:23532136

Pallas, Benoît; Mialet-Serra, Isabelle; Rouan, Lauriane; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Dingkuhn, Michael

2013-04-01

51

Unattended Exposure to Components of Speech Sounds Yields Same Benefits as Explicit Auditory Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning a second language as an adult is particularly effortful when new phonetic representations must be formed. Therefore the processes that allow learning of speech sounds are of great theoretical and practical interest. Here we examined whether perception of single formant transitions, that is, sound components critical in speech perception,…

Seitz, Aaron R.; Protopapas, Athanassios; Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Vlahou, Eleni L.; Gori, Simone; Grossberg, Stephen; Watanabe, Takeo

2010-01-01

52

Unattended exposure to components of speech sounds yields same benefits as explicit auditory training  

PubMed Central

Learning a second language as an adult is particularly effortful when new phonetic representations must be formed. Therefore the processes that allow learning of speech sounds are of great theoretical and practical interest. Here we examined whether perception of single formant transitions, that is, sound components critical in speech perception, can be enhanced through an implicit task-irrelevant learning procedure that has been shown to produce visual perceptual learning. The single-formant sounds were paired at sub-threshold levels with the attended targets in an auditory identification task. Results showed that task-irrelevant learning occurred for the unattended stimuli. Surprisingly, the magnitude of this learning effect was similar to that following explicit training on auditory formant transition detection using discriminable stimuli in an adaptive procedure, whereas explicit training on the subthreshold stimuli produced no learning. These results suggest that in adults learning of speech parts can occur at least partially through implicit mechanisms.

Seitz, Aaron R.; Protopapas, Athanassios; Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Vlahou, Eleni L.; Gori, Simone; Grossberg, Stephen; Watanabe, Takeo

2010-01-01

53

Crop Yield Convergence: How Russia's Yield Performance Has Compared to Global Yield Leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether there has been cross-country convergence among yields for selected crops important to Russia and the New Independent States. The only crop that showed yield convergence globally was wheat, although several crops in sub-samples displayed convergence. In the reform era, Russian yields for several crops declined, leading to gaps between Russia and the global yield leaders that

Michael A Trueblood; Carlos Arnade

2001-01-01

54

Crop Yield Convergence: How Russia's Yield Performance Has Compared to Global Yield Leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether there has been cross-country convergence among yields for selected crops important to Russia and the New Independent States. The only crop that showed yield convergence globally was wheat, although several crops in sub-samples displayed convergence. In the reform era, Russian yields for several crops declined, leading to gaps between Russia and the global yield leaders that

Michael A Trueblood; Carlos Arnade

55

Yield enhancement with DFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

2012-03-01

56

Yield stresses in electrorheological fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and determine the static and dynamic (Bingham) yield stresses in an electrorheological (ER) fluid from a microstructural model. The model relates both these yield stresses to the electrostatic energy determined from the suspension capacitance matrix, which we developed previously for the dynamic simulation of an ER fluid. The static yield stress is determined from nonlinear elasticity strain-energy theory

J. F. Brady

1992-01-01

57

Improving photosynthesis and yield potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop yield is fundamentally related to the (a) amount of solar radiation absorbed; (b) efficiency of solar energy use in photosynthesis;\\u000a (c) translocation of photosynthate to sinks, especially sinks later harvested; (d) capacity for growth in sinks; (e) efficiency\\u000a of converting photosynthate to new biomass; and (f) metabolic cost of maintenance. Yield potential has been defined as the yield of

Jeffrey S. Amthor

58

The effect of milk-based foliar sprays on yield components of field pumpkins with powdery mildew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that foliar applications of mixtures of cow's milk and water are effective in preventing powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) of zucchini on greenhouse grown plants. Our own work on field-grown pumpkins indicated that the efficacy of such foliar sprays is highly variable. This study is an attempt to measure the effect of milk-based sprays on the yield

Francis J. Ferrandino; Victoria L. Smith

2007-01-01

59

Methane yield of oat husks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogas yield of solid manure from dairy cattle depends on its quality and the proportion of excreta and organic litter material contained within. The biogas yield of both faeces and straw is available in literature. Straw is a common litter material of mixed farms. However, straw is scarcely available on dairy farms. Oat husks are appropriate to replace or supplement straw

Sigrid Kusch; Britt Schumacher; Hans Oechsner; Winfried Schäfer

2011-01-01

60

Plastic Yielding at Crack Tips.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small scale plastic yielding at crack tips is studied by means of nonlocal elasticity. Plastic lines along the crack line of Mode III crack are modelled by an array of dislocations. It is shown that plastic yield begins after a definite value of load, as ...

S. B. Altan A. C. Eringen

1988-01-01

61

Association of growth dynamics, yield components and seed quality in long-term trials covering rapeseed cultivation history at high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brassica oilseed yield trend has declined in Finland by over 20% during the last 15 years. Improved genetic yield potential of turnip rape (B. rapa L.) and oilseed rape (B. napus L.) can be better realised with increased understanding of yield determining processes under northernmost growing conditions. This study aimed at (1) determining the genetic improvements in seed yield, yield

Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio; Lauri Jauhiainen

2008-01-01

62

The Effect of High Concentrations of Glufosinate Ammonium on the Yield Components of Transgenic Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Constitutively Expressing the bar Gene  

PubMed Central

We present an experiment done on a bar+ wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium—an effective component of nonselective herbicides—during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose was not enough to inhibit the germination of transgenic plants expressing the bar gene. Extremely high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium caused a bushy phenotype, significantly lower numbers of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weights. Concerning the productivity, we observed that concentrations of glufosinate ammonium 64 times the lethal dose did not lead to yield depression. Our results draw attention to the possibilities implied in the transgenic approaches.

Ay, Zoltan; Mihaly, Robert; Cserhati, Matyas; Kotai, Eva; Pauk, Janos

2012-01-01

63

Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

1982-01-01

64

Effect of yellow rust on yield components of barley cultivars with race-specific and slow rusting resistance to yellow rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei is an important disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in some parts of the world. We compared the effectiveness of different types of resistance in field plots at Ardabil Agricultural Research Station (Iran) during 2010–2011. Yield components along with slow rusting parameters including final rust severity (FRS), apparent infection rate (r),

Safar Ali Safavi; Assadollah Babai-Ahari; Farzad Afshari; Mahdi Arzanlou

2012-01-01

65

RELACIÓN ENTRE VIGOR INICIAL, RENDIMIENTO Y SUS COMPONENTES EN POBLACIONES DE MAÍZ CHALQUEÑO * RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INITIAL VIGOR, YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN CHALQUEÑO MAIZE POPULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial vigor and its relationship with grain yield and its components were evaluated in 28 maize (Zea mays L.) populations of the Chalqueño race. Fourteen were collected from the Purepecha Mountain Range, in the state of Michoacan, nine from the Chalco Valley, in the State of Mexico, and fi ve from other states. Vigor was measured through the accelerated aging

Felipe de Jesús; Leobigildo Córdova Téllez; Amalio Santacruz Varela; Fernando Castillo González; Elizabeth Cárdenas Soriano; Adriana Delgado Alvarado

2007-01-01

66

Slifer Measurement for Explosive Yield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests. (ERA citation 01:017194)

B. C. Benjamin D. R. Breding H. M. Miller R. C. Bass

1976-01-01

67

Multiaxial yield behaviour of polypropylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to characterize the yield behavior of polypropylene as a function of pressure and to verify the applicability of the Drucker-Prager yield function, various tests were conducted to cover a wide range of stress states from uniaxial tension and compression to multiaxial tension and confined compression. Tests were performed below and above the glass transition temperature, to study the combined effect of pressure and temperature. The pressure sensitivity coefficient as an intrinsic material parameter was determined as a function of temperature. Increasing pressure sensitivity values were found with increasing temperature, which can be related to the change in the free volume and thus, to the enhanced molecular mobility. A best-fit Drucker-Prager yield function was applied to the experimental yield stresses and an average error between the predictions and the measurements of 7 % was obtained.

Jerabek, M.; Tscharnuter, D.; Major, Z.; Ravi-Chandar, K.; Lang, R.

2010-06-01

68

Pyramidal yield criteria for epoxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile, compressive and shear yield strengths of two epoxides were measured under superposed hydrostatic pressure extending to 300 MN m-2. For both materials, the ratio of the moduli of the tensile,sT, to compressive,sC, yield stress at atmospheric pressure was approximately 3:4, as has been reported previously for a number of thermoplastics. Thes2=s3 envelope in stress space was plotted according

A. S. Wronski; M. Pick

1977-01-01

69

Short communication: comparison of the effects of heat stress on milk and component yields and somatic cell score in Holstein and Jersey cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of this retrospective study were to (1) investigate the effects of heat stress (HS) climatic conditions and breed on milk and component yield for Holstein and Jersey cows on the same farm and (2) determine the effects of breed on udder health as measured by somatic cell score during HS climatic conditions. Data were collected from Dairy Herd Improvement Association records of 142 Jersey and 586 Holstein cows from the Bearden Dairy Research Center at Mississippi State University (Mississippi State). Heat stress climatic conditions were determined using a temperature-humidity index (THI) to combine dry bulb temperature and relative humidity into one measure. Two analyses were conducted to determine the effects of HS. Heat stress was defined as THI ? 72, and reported as HS+ for the first analysis and HS for the second analysis. The first analysis compared breeds during HS+ and non-heat-stress (HS-) conditions. Holstein milk yield decreased during HS+, whereas Jersey milk yield increased. Milk fat percentage for Holstein and Jersey cows declined during HS+. Holstein fat-corrected milk yield decreased during HS+, whereas Jersey fat-corrected milk yield during HS+ did not differ from that during HS-. During HS+, somatic cell score increased in milk from Holstein and Jersey cows compared with HS-. In the second analysis, HS was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. The corresponding THI values were THI ? 72 but <79, THI ? 79 but <90, and THI ? 90. Holstein milk yield declined during moderate and severe HS, whereas Jersey milk yield declined during severe HS. Holstein milk fat percentage was less during moderate and severe HS compared with milk fat percentage during mild HS. Jersey milk fat percentage did not differ with regard to HS category. Jersey cows appeared to be more heat tolerant than Holstein cows; however, Holstein cows still produced larger volumes of milk. PMID:23498016

Smith, D L; Smith, T; Rude, B J; Ward, S H

2013-05-01

70

Corn Yield Prediction Using Climatology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of car growth and the beginning of grain fill.The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme.

Duchon, Claude E.

1986-05-01

71

Increasing crude tall oil yield  

SciTech Connect

In the kraft pulping process for softwoods and hardwood, tall oil recovery is an important part of making profit. During the past 10 years, crude tall oil (CTO) production in the U.S. and Canada has dropped. Estimated CTO yield from fresh Canadian pine is 36-40 lb/a.d. ton and from Southern U.S. 70-80 lb/a.d. ton, while the average yield of CTO is approximately 40% of available tall oil in pine wood. Besides low yield, many pulp mills fail to achieve a CTO quality that lives up to market expectations. The moisture content of CTO is reported to vary widely (1.5-3.5%), whereas it should not exceed 1.5% for marketable quality. The acid number of CTO varies in the range of 135 to 150, whereas industry standards are 145-150. At present the average sale price of CTO is approximately $150/ton. By upgrading existing plants, the yield can be increased, resulting in additional revenues. Thus, if a batch acidulation plant is replaced by a continuous acidulation plant, the yield will increase by approximately 15-50%. The capital required for installing a continuous system is approximately $1.1-1.5 million for a 500-a.d. ton/day pulp mill, requiring a payback period of approximatley 5-7 years. 7 references.

Gupta, J.

1983-10-01

72

Electromagnetic pulses from low-yield bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave forms of the electromagnetic pulse received from low-yield detonations were recorded for use in improving methods of estimating yields of such devices. Also, display components of the det onation locator central AN\\/GSS-5(XE-1) were evaluated. The wave forms were measured over frequency bands of 1 kc to 10 Mc and 0 to 250 kc, at a regge of about 100

G. Cantor; A. Farnochi

1960-01-01

73

44Sc Isomeric Yield Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

44Sc isomeric yield ratios have been measured for the three reactions 45Sc(gamma,n)44Sc, 46Ti(gamma,np)44Sc, and 45Sc(n,2n)44Sc. Scandium oxide and titanium samples were irradiated with 48-MeV bremsstrahlung to obtain the photo-induced reactions. For the (n,2n) reaction 14-MeV neutrons were used. The yields of 44Sc in the ground and isomeric states were determined by the measurement of the residual gamma activity. A statistical-model

J. R. Tatarczuk; H. A. Medicus

1966-01-01

74

FISSION GAS YIELD IN URANIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield of xenon and krypton in irradiated uranium was found to vary ; with neutron flux from 4.8 cm³(STP)\\/cm³ uranium-atom percent burnup ; at 10¹² neut\\/cm²-sec to neut\\/cm²-sec as a result of neutron ; capture by the unstable isotopes Xe¹³³ and Xe¹³⁵. These results are ; applicable only to uranium irradiated in a thermal flux The fission gas yields

1962-01-01

75

Effects of varying forage particle size and fermentable carbohydrates on feed sorting, ruminal fermentation, and milk and component yields of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Ration sorting is thought to affect ruminal fermentation in such a manner that milk yield milk and components are often decreased. However, the influence of ruminally degradable starch on ration sorting has not been studied. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interactions between forage particle size (FPS) and ruminally fermentable carbohydrates (RFC) for dry matter intake (DMI), ration sorting, ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and milk yield and components. In this study, 12 (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were fed a total mixed ration that varied in FPS and RFC. Two lengths of corn silage were used to alter FPS and 2 grind sizes of corn grain were used to alter RFC. It was determined that increasing RFC increased ruminating time and did not affect eating time, whereas increasing FPS increased eating time and did not affect ruminating time. Ruminal fermentation did not differ by altering either FPS or RFC. However, increasing FPS tended to increase mean and maximum ruminal pH and increasing RFC tended to decrease minimum ruminal pH. Particle size distribution became more diverse and neutral detergent fiber content of refusals increased over time, whereas starch content decreased, indicating that cows were sorting against physically effective neutral detergent fiber and for RFC. Selection indices determined that virtually no interactions occurred between FPS and RFC and that despite significant sorting throughout the day, by 24h after feeding cows had consumed a ration very similar to what was offered. This theory was reinforced by particle fraction intakes that very closely resembled the proportions of particle fractions in the offered total mixed ration. An interaction between FPS and RFC was observed for DMI, as DMI decreased with increasing FPS when the diet included low RFC and did not change when the diet included high RFC. Dry matter intake increased with RFC for long diets and did not change with RFC on short diets. Increasing RFC was found to increase milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and lactose content and yield but decrease milk fat content. Increasing FPS did not have as great an effect on milk production as RFC. This study found no significant interaction between FPS and RFC for ration sorting, although an interaction between FPS and RFC for DMI was observed. Neither FPS nor RFC affected ruminal fermentation, whereas RFC had a greater influence on milk yield and components than FPS. PMID:23477824

Maulfair, D D; Heinrichs, A J

2013-05-01

76

Winter triticale grain yield, a comparative study of 15 genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, we studied genotypic differences in the process of winter triticale grain yield formation, in terms of yield determination by its components. We applied yield component analysis on four dwarf and 11 traditional (conventional stature) genotypes; an ontogenetic approach was employed to provide the appropriate view of this process. Using the k-means clustering procedure, the genotypes were grouped

Marcin Kozak; Stanislaw Samborski; Jan Rozbicki; Wieslaw Madry

2007-01-01

77

High char yield epoxy curing agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Class of imide-amine curing agents preserves structural integrity, prevents fiber release, and is fully compatible with conventional epoxy resins; agents do not detract from composite properties while greatly reducing char yield. Materials utilizing curing are used in aerospace, automotive, and other structural components where deterioration must be minimized and fiber release avoided in event of fire.

Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Vanucci, R. D.

1981-01-01

78

Energy yield of black locust biomass fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed analysis of 2 to 10-year-old black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L). biomass components provided an accurate energy content and energy yield determinationa as well as an index defining a relative ceiling on the delivered cost for black locust biomass in comparison with other fuels such as coal and forest residues. Total energy content of individual biomass components ranged from 20.97

J. W. Stringer; S. B. Carpenter

1986-01-01

79

Improving efficiency of breeding for higher crop yield.  

PubMed

Exclusive selection for yield raises, the harvest index of self-pollinated crops with little or no gain in total bipmass. In addition to selection for yield, it is suggested that efficient breeding for higher yield requires simultaneous selection for yield's three major, genetically controlled physiological components. The following are needed: (1) a superior rate of biomass accumulation. (2) a superior rate of actual yield accumulation in order to acquire a high harvest index, and (3) a time to harvest maturity that is neither shorter nor longer than the duration of the growing season. That duration is provided by the environment, which is the fourth major determinant of yield. Simultaneous selection is required because genetically established interconnections among the three major physiological components cause: (a) a correlation between the harvest index and days to maturity that is usually negative; (b) a correlation between the harvest index and total biomass that is often negative, and (c) a correlation between biomass and days to maturity that is usually positive. All three physiological components and the correlations among them can be quantified by yield system analysis (YSA) of yield trials. An additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) statistical analysis can separate and quantify the genotype × environment interaction (G × E) effect on yield and on each physiological component that is caused by each genotype and by the different environment of each yield trial. The use of yield trials to select parents which have the highest rates of accumulation of both biomass and yield, in addition to selecting for the G × E that is specifically adapted to the site can accelerate advance toward the highest potential yield at each geographical site. Higher yield for many sites will raise average regional yield. Higher yield for multiple regions and continents will raise average yield on a world-wide basis. Genetic and physiological bases for lack of indirect selection for biomass from exclusive selection for yield are explained. PMID:24193380

Wallace, D H; Baudoin, J P; Beaver, J; Coyne, D P; Halseth, D E; Masaya, P N; Munger, H M; Myers, J R; Silbernagel, M; Yourstone, K S; Zobel, R W

1993-03-01

80

The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays  

SciTech Connect

The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

Achasov, N. N., E-mail: achasov@math.nsc.ru [Russina Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15

81

Impact of Defoliation on Corn Forage Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

yield. Forage yield reductions from 75% defoliation at the 7- and 11-leaf stages averaged 6 and 23%, respec- Farmers, agronomists, and crop insurance adjusters question tively. The standard industry hail damage corn leaf loss whether leaf defoliation damage caused by hail or other factors affects corn (Zea mays L.) forage yield the same as grain yield. Our objective chart (National

J. G. Lauer; G. W. Roth; M. G. Bertram

2004-01-01

82

Strategy and tools for yield enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview on yield enhancement in a semiconductor manufacturing environment. We discuss about the technical and strategic aspects of this field. On the technical side we deal with yield metrics definitions and yield analysis tools. The strategic side includes the work of quantifying and prioritize yield loss issues. Communication of yield to other organizations, that will be involved in the team work for the search of root cause identification and corrective and preventative action plans, is a key to a successful and sustained yield enhancement. The importance of moving from end-of-line yield enhancement standpoint to a more in-line view is also outlined.

Recio, Miguel

1999-04-01

83

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-10-01

84

Crop diversity for yield increase.  

PubMed

Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand. PMID:19956624

Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

2009-01-01

85

Crop Diversity for Yield Increase  

PubMed Central

Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean – either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

2009-01-01

86

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Yield Response to Plant Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) in response to changes in plant density was monitored to estimate the economic optimum planting density and to identify the plant component with the greatest impact on final yield, In growth trials near Buenos Aires, Argentina, biomass and grain yield varied asymptotically with plant density for both Argentinean and European land races. The

Alejandra Gil; Elba de la Fuente; Adriana Lenardis; Sergio Lorenzo; Jorge Marengo

1999-01-01

87

Morphophysiological Basis of Variation in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determinate morphological and physiological traits associated with yield improvement in rapeseed, field experiments were conducted on 16 cultivars. The traits, grain yield, yield components, harvest index, plant height, days to flowering and from flowering to physiological maturity, photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gs) in flowering and pod formation were measured. The results indicated that harvest index,

HAMID REZA MIRI

88

Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not well defined in the suspension rheology we tested three types of measurement in determination of yield stress. Two methods utilized cone-plate geometry performing creep test (stress controlled) and variable shear rate test and one utilized narrow-gap concentric cylinder geometry with variable shear rate. Herschel-Bulckley model can be successfully applied to variable shear-rate tests to determine yield stress. Creep test and H-B model give almost identical yield stress, for instance 45±5Pa at 2.5wt%. At the gel volume fraction of 50% yield stress emerges and it increases with the increase of the concentration of gel powder. This critical value roughly corresponds to the random loose packing fraction while the viscosity begins to increase at lower fraction.

Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

2012-04-01

89

Effects of subsoil compaction on yield and yield attributes of wheat in the sub-humid region of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolonged use of vehicular traffic for farming creates subsoil compaction, which reduces crop yield and deteriorates the physical conditions of the soil. Field experiments were conducted during 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 in Pakistan to study subsoil compaction effects on soil bulk density, total porosity, yield and yield components of wheat. Soil compaction was artificially created at the start of the

F. U. Hassan; M. Ahmad; N. Ahmad; M. Kaleem Abbasi

2007-01-01

90

Monte Carlo sampling and principal component analysis of flux distributions yield topological and modular information on metabolic networks.  

PubMed

The work presented here uses Monte Carlo random sampling combined with flux balance analysis and linear programming to analyse the steady-state flux distributions on the surface of the glucose-ammonia phenotypic phase plane of an Escherichia coli system grown on glucose-minimal medium. The distribution of allowable glucose and ammonia uptake rates showed a triangular shape, the apex corresponding to maximum growth rate. The exact shape, e.g. the diagonal boundary is determined by the relative amounts of nutrients required for growth. The logarithm of flux values has a normal distribution, e.g. there is a log normal distribution, and most of the reactions have an order of magnitude between 10(-1) and 1. The increase in the number of blocked reactions as growth switched from aerobic to micro-aerobic phase and the presence of alternate networks for a single optimal solution were both reflections of the variability of pathway utilization for survival and growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) provided us with significant clues on the correlations between individual reactions and correlations between sets of reactions. Furthermore, PCA identified the most influential reactions of the system. The PCA score plots clearly distinguish two different growth phases, micro-aerobic and aerobic. The loading plots for each growth phase showed both the impact of the reactions on the model and the clustering of reactions that are highly correlated. These results have proved that PCA is a promising way to analyse correlations in high-dimensional solution spaces and to detect modular patterns among reactions in a network. PMID:16860341

Sariyar, Berna; Perk, Sinem; Akman, U?ur; Hortaçsu, Amable

2006-09-21

91

Determinants of the Yield Curve - a Model for the Relationship Between Risk and Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model explaining the level and structure of bond yields and the yield curve based upon three principles. 1) Across different maturities along the yield curve, bond yields change with the proportional change in the risk or potential volatility of the bonds. 2) The incremental yield required as a bond's volatility increases by an infinitesimal amount is

Douglas H. Carr

2009-01-01

92

Dynamics of yield components and essential oil production in a commercial hybrid sage (Salvia officinalis x Salvia fruticosa cv. Newe Ya'ar no. 4).  

PubMed

The fresh yields, the essential oil content, and the quality of a sage hybrid (Salvia officinalis x Salvia fruticosa, cv. Newe Ya'ar No. 4, Lamiaceae) as affected by development and harvest time were determined. Marked increases in plant height and in the number of nodes developed per plant together with a modest increase in leaf size were accompanied by dramatic increases (more than 20-fold) in the fresh yields throughout a 50-day growth period. No major changes in the essential oil content per fresh weight and its composition were detected throughout the growth period. In contrast, the compositions of the essential oils obtained from stems, as compared to leaves and leaf-primordia, had marked differences. Developmentally controlled changes in the extractives from individual leaf pairs from the same plant were also noted. In upper young leaves, the oxygenated diterpene manool and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene constituted up to 20%, 8%, and 4% of the total extractives, respectively. In older leaves, the abundance of these components steadily dropped to roughly half their levels in young leaves. Conversely, the proportions of the monoterpenes, particularly the ketones camphor and alpha-thujone, steadily increased with leaf position. Minor changes in the levels of other extractives were also recorded. These studies imply independent regulatory patterns for di-, sesqui-, and monoterpenes in this sage hybrid, and suggest possible agrotechnical means to obtain preferred chemical compositions of its essential oil. PMID:10552813

Dudai, N; Lewinsohn, E; Larkov, O; Katzir, I; Ravid, U; Chaimovitsh, D; Sa'adi, D; Putievsky, E

1999-10-01

93

Refinery Yield Model Spreadsheet System (RYMSS) Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a description of the model logic and database associated with Version 1 of the Refinery Yield Model Spreadsheet System (RYMSS). The database consists of data tables which describe model input and yield data, including the definition...

1989-01-01

94

Yield model development project implementation plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

Ambroziak, R. A.

1982-01-01

95

Yield function development for aluminum alloy sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, yield surfaces were measured for binary aluminum-magnesium sheet samples which were fabricated by different processing paths to obtain different microstructures. The yielding behavior was measured using biaxial compression tests on cubic specimens made from laminated sheet samples. The yield surfaces were also predicted from a polycrystal model using crystallographic texture data as input and from a phenomenological

F. Barlat; Y. Maeda; K. Chung; M. Yanagawa; J. C. Brem; Y. Hayashida; D. J. Lege; K. Matsui; S. J. Murtha; S. Hattori; R. C. Becker; S. Makosey

1997-01-01

96

FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

ALDEN R. HIBBERT

97

Systematics of Fission-Product Yields  

SciTech Connect

Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

A.C. Wahl

2002-05-01

98

Productivity of high-yielding- crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using high-yielding varieties (lines) of several crops or applying coated urea, which releases nitrogen slowly, it was possible to achieve a very high yield corresponding to that recorded in Hokkaido, Japan. In this report, the accumulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco) and chlorophyll was investigated in leaves in relation to the productivity of high-yielding crops, including rice, winter wheat, maize,

Mitsuru Osaki; Kazuhiko Morikawa; Mika Matsumoto; Takuro Shinano; Makoto Iyoda; Toshiaki Tadano

1993-01-01

99

Efficient prediction of (p,n) yields  

SciTech Connect

In the continuous deceleration approximation, charged particles decelerate without any spread in energy as they traverse matter. This approximation simplifies the calculation of the yield of nuclear reactions, for which the cross-section depends on the particle energy. We calculated (p,n) yields for a LiF target, using the Bethe-Bloch relation for proton deceleration, and predicted that the maximum yield would be around 0.25% neutrons per incident proton, for an initial proton energy of 70 MeV or higher. Yield-energy relations calculated in this way can readily be used to optimize source and (p,n) converter characteristics.

Swift, D C; McNaney, J M; Higginson, D P; Beg, F

2009-09-09

100

Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods  

SciTech Connect

Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1991-06-01

101

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

Haun, J. R.

1976-01-01

102

Crop yield prediction using a CMAC neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a short study to investigate the use of a fast cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) neural network for crop yield prediction. It goes on to explore the possibility of combining crop classification and yield prediction into a single network component, suitable for large-scale crop management. In the first part of the work, a small

George Simpson

1994-01-01

103

Detecting temporal change in watershed nutrient yields.  

PubMed

Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act. PMID:18446405

Wickham, James D; Wade, Timothy G; Riitters, Kurt H

2008-08-01

104

Genetic algorithm based new sequence of principal component regression (GA-NSPCR) for feature selection and yield prediction using hyperspectral remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, hyperspectral images are used to estimate the yield of food crops. The images consist of a large number of bands which requires sophisticated method for its analysis. One approach to reduce computational cost and to accelerate knowledge discovery is by eliminating bands that do not add value to the analysis. In this paper, a genetic algorithm based new sequence

S. Mulyono; M.I. Fanany; T. Basaruddin

2012-01-01

105

Yield stress of alumina-zirconia suspensions  

SciTech Connect

The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of alumina, zirconia, and mixed alumina-zirconia powders was measured by the vane technique as a function of solids loading, relative amounts of alumina and zirconia, and pH. At the isoelectric point (IEP), the yield stress varied as the fourth power of the solids loading. The relative ratio of alumina and zirconia particles was important in determining the yield stress of the suspension at the IEP. The yield stress of single and mixed suspensions showed a marked variation with pH. The maximum value occurred at or near the IEP of the suspension. The effect of electrical double-layer forces on the yield stress can be described on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. A normalized yield stress--that is, the ratio of the yield stress at a given pH to the yield stress at the IEP predicted by this model--showed good correlation with experimental data.

Ramakrishnan, V.; Pradip [Tata Research Development and Design Centre, Pune (India); Malghan, S.G. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

106

NEUTRON YIELDS FROM TARGETS BOMBARDED BY ELECTRONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total neutron yields from thick targets bembarded by electrons were ; measured as a function of electron energy for the range 10 to 36 Mev. Targets ; ranging in thickness from one to six radiation lengths of C, Al, Cu, Ta, Pb, and ; U were used. The yields for 1- and 6radiation-length targets of Pb at 34 Mev

W. C. Barber; W. D. George

1959-01-01

107

Pollinator shortage and global crop yield  

PubMed Central

A pollinator decline caused by environmental degradation might be compromising the production of pollinator-dependent crops. In a recent article, we compared 45 year series (1961–2006) in yield, production and cultivated area of pollinator-dependent and nondependent crop around the world. If pollinator shortage is occurring globally, we expected a lower annual growth rate in yield for pollinator-dependent than nondependent crops, but a higher growth in cultivated area to compensate the lower yield. We have found little evidence for the first “yield” prediction but strong evidence for the second “area” prediction. Here, we present an additional analysis to show that the first and second predictions are both supported for crops that vary in dependency levels from nondependent to moderate dependence (i.e., up to 65% average yield reduction without pollinators). However, those crops for which animal pollination is essential (i.e., 95% average yield reduction without pollinators) showed higher growth in yield and lower expansion in area than expected in a pollination shortage scenario. We propose that pollination management for highly pollinator-dependent crops, such us renting hives or hand pollination, might have compensated for pollinator limitation of yield.

Aizen, Marcelo A; Cunningham, Saul A; Klein, Alexandra M

2009-01-01

108

Yield Stress in Foods: Measurements and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the presence of true yield stress has been debated, it has been accepted as an engineering reality. Now, yield stress is routinely measured and used in the food industry not only for basic process calculations and manufacturing practices, but also as a test for sensory and quality indices and to determine the effect of composition and manufacturing procedures on

Adriano Sun; Sundaram Gunasekaran

2009-01-01

109

Microplastic deformation and yield strength of polycrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus, the theory considered above permits a unified description of the behavior of pure metals and certain classes of alloys in the transition stage from elastic to homogeneous macroplastic deformation. Tt accurately reflects the law of accumulation of plastic deformation up to the physical yield point and the form of the extension curve above the yield point. Its predictions as

E. F. Dudarev; E. E. Deryugin

1982-01-01

110

Design of a high yield position source  

SciTech Connect

The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) requires a positron source with a yield large enough to give equal number of positrons and electrons at the interaction point. In addition, the colliding positrons must have an emittance and bunch length similar to the electron beam. This report describes the design of a high yield positron source to give these characteristics.

Bulos, F.; DeStaebler, H.; Ecklund, S.; Helm, R.; Hoag, H.; Le Boutet, H.; Lynch, H.L.; Miller, R.; Moffeit, K.C.

1985-04-01

111

Yield prediction by sampling IC layout  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a survey sampling-based methodology for critical area and other property estimates of IC layout. A software implementation of the method, Edinburgh yield estimator sampling (EYES) is presented. The EYES tool implements the survey sampling-based methodology for critical area estimation enabling the yield prediction of ULSI chips. The method requires an analysis of only a small fraction of

Gerard A. Allan

2000-01-01

112

Porphyrins XIII: Fluorescence spectra and quantum yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence spectra, quantum yields, natural radiative lifetimes, and absorption oscillator strengths are reported for a number of porphyrins in benzene solution. Emission yields for free base, Mg-, and Zn-phthalocyanine in 1-chloronaphthalene solution are also reported. The phthalocyanines are considerably more fluorescent than the porphyrins, and this is attributed mainly to their shorter radiative lifetimes. The heavy atom effect on fluorescence

Paul G. Seybold; Martin Gouterman

1969-01-01

113

How Does Liquidity Affect Government Bond Yields?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the determinants of yield differentials between sovereign bonds in the Euro area. There is a common trend in yield differentials, which is correlated with a measure of aggregate risk. In contrast, liquidity differentials display sizeable heterogeneity and no common factor. We propose a simple model with endogenous liquidity demand, where a bond's liquidity premium depends both on

Carlo Favero; Marco Pagano; Ernst-Ludwig von Thadden

2010-01-01

114

Partitioning potential fish yields from the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We proposed and implemented procedures for partitioning future fish yields from the Great Lakes into taxonomic components. These projections are intended as guidelines for Great Lakes resource managers and scientists. Attainment of projected yields depends on restoration of stable fish communities containing some large piscivores that will use prey efficiently, continuation of control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and restoration of high-quality fish habitat. Because Great Lakes fish communities were harmonic before their collapse, we used their historic yield properties as part of the basis for projecting potential yields of rehabilitated communities. This use is qualified, however, because of possible inaccuracies in the wholly commercial yield data, the presence now of greatly expanded sport fisheries that affect yield composition and magnitude, and some possibly irreversible changes since the 1950s in the various fish communities themselves. We predict that total yields from Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario will be increased through rehabilitation, while those from Lakes Michigan and Erie will decline. Salmonines and coregonines will dominate future yields from the upper lakes. The Lake Erie fishery will continue to yield mostly rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the relative importance of percids, especially of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) will increase. In Lake Ontario, yields of salmonines will be increased. Managers will have to apply the most rigorous management strictures to major predator species.

Loftus, D. H.; Olver, C. H.; Brown, Edward H.; Colby, P. J.; Hartman, Wilbur L.; Schupp, D. H.

1987-01-01

115

Yielding behavior of dense microgel glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the yielding behavior of dense suspensions of stimuli-responsive poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel particles studied by performing oscillatory shear measurements. At a volume fraction of ? = 0.6 (labeled as sample S1) the suspension is characterized to be repulsive glass by dynamic light scattering technique and showed one step yielding. Quite interestingly higher volume fraction sample (S2) prepared by osmotically compressing sample S1, showed yielding occurring in two steps. Such one step yielding behavior turning into two step yielding was reported by Pham et al [Europhys. Lett., 75, 624 (2006)] in hard-sphere repulsive colloidal glass when transformed into an attractive glass by inducing depletion attraction. We confirm the repulsive interparticle interaction between PNIPAM microgel particles turning into attractive upon osmotic compression by static light scattering measurements.

Joshi, R. G.; Tata, B. V. R.; Karthickeyan, D.

2013-02-01

116

Optimization of printed circuit board design assembly using yield prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with optimization of printed circuit board design using yield prediction. Yield prediction of PCB assembly process can be obtained from the below presented yield model. The model is based on a combination of elements from two most used yield prediction methodologies, namely: process yield and board design yield. Due to PCB assembly process yield prediction is possible

Radek Soukup

2008-01-01

117

Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV)], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

Greenland, David

2005-11-01

118

Size matters for liquidity: Evidence from EMU sovereign yield spreads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective is to study the relative importance of domestic components of EMU sovereign yield spreads since the start of Monetary Integration. The results indicate a change in the market value of liquidity, as measured by market size, after EMU.

Marta Gómez-Puig

2006-01-01

119

Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.  

PubMed

To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565

Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

2014-05-01

120

Yield loci for an anisotropic granular assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield loci of a granular material are derived in case of triaxial compression carried out at constant pressure. The theory is based upon a simple micromechanical model in which particles move according to an average, homogeneous deformation. We show how the presence of an inherent anisotropy in the aggregate (typical of laboratory samples due to depositional processes) produces a deviation of the yield loci in the stress space from the expected Mohr-Coulomb prediction. That is, when the compaction pressure in an anisotropic aggregate is increased, irreversibility associated with sliding between particles occurs and this will influence the yield function in the subsequent triaxial test. Numerical simulations support the theoretical result.

La Ragione, Luigi; Oger, Luc

2012-10-01

121

Carbon monoxide yields of cigarettes and their relation to nicotine yield and type of filter.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) yields of 11 popular brands of British cigarette, two types of cigarette containing tobacco-substitute, and one brand of cigar were measured under standardized conditions. Yields of the conventional cigarettes ranged from 5.0 to 20.2 mg per cigarette (1.3 to 4.7% by volume). The cigar yielded 81.7 mg (10.0%) CO and the two semi-synthetic cigarettes 17.2 (4.2%) and 28.2 mg (6.2%) CO. Puff-by-puff analysis showed an increase in CO concentration as a cigarette is smoked. In brands with nicotine yields over 1.0 mg no relationship was apparent between nicotine yield and CO yield, and the filters of cigarettes in this category did not appear to reduce the CO yield. In the low nicotine cigarettes with ventilated filters there appeared to be some correlation between nicotine yield and CO yield, and these filters were highly effective in reducing CO yield, owing mainly to the ventilation. We suggest that official publication of CO yields might motivate manufacturers to produce cigarettes with lower yields.

Russell, M A; Cole, P V; Idle, M S; Adams, L

1975-01-01

122

Absolute Quantum Yield Measurement of Powder Samples  

PubMed Central

Measurement of fluorescence quantum yield has become an important tool in the search for new solutions in the development, evaluation, quality control and research of illumination, AV equipment, organic EL material, films, filters and fluorescent probes for bio-industry. Quantum yield is calculated as the ratio of the number of photons absorbed, to the number of photons emitted by a material. The higher the quantum yield, the better the efficiency of the fluorescent material. For the measurements featured in this video, we will use the Hitachi F-7000 fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with the Quantum Yield measuring accessory and Report Generator program. All the information provided applies to this system. Measurement of quantum yield in powder samples is performed following these steps: Generation of instrument correction factors for the excitation and emission monochromators. This is an important requirement for the correct measurement of quantum yield. It has been performed in advance for the full measurement range of the instrument and will not be shown in this video due to time limitations. Measurement of integrating sphere correction factors. The purpose of this step is to take into consideration reflectivity characteristics of the integrating sphere used for the measurements. Reference and Sample measurement using direct excitation and indirect excitation. Quantum Yield calculation using Direct and Indirect excitation. Direct excitation is when the sample is facing directly the excitation beam, which would be the normal measurement setup. However, because we use an integrating sphere, a portion of the emitted photons resulting from the sample fluorescence are reflected by the integrating sphere and will re-excite the sample, so we need to take into consideration indirect excitation. This is accomplished by measuring the sample placed in the port facing the emission monochromator, calculating indirect quantum yield and correcting the direct quantum yield calculation. Corrected quantum yield calculation. Chromaticity coordinates calculation using Report Generator program. The Hitachi F-7000 Quantum Yield Measurement System offer advantages for this application, as follows: High sensitivity (S/N ratio 800 or better RMS). Signal is the Raman band of water measured under the following conditions: Ex wavelength 350 nm, band pass Ex and Em 5 nm, response 2 sec), noise is measured at the maximum of the Raman peak. High sensitivity allows measurement of samples even with low quantum yield. Using this system we have measured quantum yields as low as 0.1 for a sample of salicylic acid and as high as 0.8 for a sample of magnesium tungstate. Highly accurate measurement with a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude allows for measurements of both sharp scattering peaks with high intensity, as well as broad fluorescence peaks of low intensity under the same conditions. High measuring throughput and reduced light exposure to the sample, due to a high scanning speed of up to 60,000 nm/minute and automatic shutter function. Measurement of quantum yield over a wide wavelength range from 240 to 800 nm. Accurate quantum yield measurements are the result of collecting instrument spectral response and integrating sphere correction factors before measuring the sample. Large selection of calculated parameters provided by dedicated and easy to use software. During this video we will measure sodium salicylate in powder form which is known to have a quantum yield value of 0.4 to 0.5.

Moreno, Luis A.

2012-01-01

123

Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

Manatt, S. L.

1978-01-01

124

Yield Enhancement by Fault Tolerant Systolic Arrays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper interstitial fault tolerance (IFT), a technique for incorporating fault tolerance into systolic arrays in a natural manner, is discussed. IFT can be used for reliable computation or for yield enhancement. Here the author compares IFT used fo...

R. H. Kuhn

1983-01-01

125

Solar Telescope Yields Striking New Sunspot Images  

NSF Publications Database

... Yields Striking New Sunspot Images This sunspot image shows what the new camera and adaptive ... times wider than Earth, was made possible by a new high-resolution CCD camera working in conjunction ...

126

Repeated Discontinuous Yielding of 2024 Aluminum Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The repeated discontinuous yielding characteristics of 2024 aluminum alloy were determined for different conditions of solution and heat treatment and age hardening. The results are interpreted with reference to microscopic deformation mechanisms and the ...

A. Rosen S. R. Bodner

1968-01-01

127

Yields of US and Soviet nuclear tests  

SciTech Connect

Failure to account properly for geological and seismological differences between the US and Soviet test sites has led to overestimates of the yields of Soviet tests and to incorrect claims of Soviet cheating on the treaty limit of 150 kilotons.

Evernden, J.F.; Marsh, G.E.

1987-08-01

128

Spectral behavior of wheat yield variety trials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Little variation between varieties is seen at jointing, but the variability is found to increase during grain filling and decline again at maturity. No relationship is found between spectral response and yield, and when yields are segregated into various classes the spectral response is the same. Spring and winter nurseries are found to separate during the reproductive stage because of differences in dates of heading and maturity, but they exhibit similar spectral responses. The transformed normalized difference is at a minimum after the maximum grain weight occurs and the leaves begin to brown and fall off. These data of 100% ground cover demonstrate that it is not possible to predict grain yield from only spectral data. This, however, may not apply when reduced yields are caused by less-than-full ground cover

Hatfield, J. L.

1981-01-01

129

Ocklawaha River Basin Rainfall Yield Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this technical memorandum (TM) is to report the results of an investigation of the relationship between total annual rainfall and total annual yield of the Ocklawaha River Basin. This investigation was performed to support discussio...

2008-01-01

130

Breeding Improvement of Rubber Yield in Guayule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summarized are recent studies in the breeding improvements of rubber yield in guayule. Breeders working for the Emergency Rubber Project developed a number of cultivars from which seed was preserved and stored by USDA. These activars, augmented by new col...

G. P. Hanson

1980-01-01

131

LACIE: Wheat yield models for the USSR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative model determining the relationship between weather conditions and wheat yield in the U.S.S.R. was studied to provide early reliable forecasts on the size of the U.S.S.R. wheat harvest. Separate models are developed for spring wheat and for winter. Differences in yield potential and responses to stress conditions and cultural improvements necessitate models for each class.

Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

1977-01-01

132

Neutron Yields from Targets Bombarded by Electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total neutron yields from thick targets bombarded by electrons were measured as a function of electron energy for the range 10 to 36 Mev. Targets ranging in thickness from one to six radiation lengths of C, Al, Cu, Ta, Pb, and U were used. The yields for 1- and 6-radiation-length targets of Pb at 34 Mev are 2.1×10-3 and

W. C. Barber; W. D. George

1959-01-01

133

Upconversion yield in glass ceramics containing silver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small silver particles are known to increase the fluorescence yield in rare-earth-doped glasses. These particles can be grown easily in glass ceramics of general composition (PbF2, GeO2, YbF3, ErF3). The authors have studied the effect of the addition of silver on the up-conversion yield due to sequential energy transfer between YbT and ErT ions. The origin and the information that

O. L. Malta; P. A. Santa-Cruz; G. Desa; F. Auzel

1987-01-01

134

Modeling sediment yields in Italian catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment yield observations, derived from 40 long-term sedimentation records in Italian reservoirs, were used to calibrate and validate the spatially distributed sediment delivery model WaTEM\\/SEDEM using the best data available at national scale. The sediment yield data set includes records from semi-natural catchments in northern Italy as well as agricultural and semi-natural basins in central and southern Italy. The average

Anton Van Rompaey; Paolo Bazzoffi; Robert J. A. Jones; Luca Montanarella

2005-01-01

135

Genotype × environment interactions for tea yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods were used to evaluate phenotypic stability in 20 tea (Camellia sinensis) genotypes, many of which are cultivated widely in East Africa. The genotypes were evaluated for annual yields at two sites\\u000a over a six year period. Data obtained were used to compare methods of analysis of G × E interactions and yield stability in\\u000a tea. A standard multi-factor

Francis Wachira; Wilson Ng'etich; Joseph Omolo; George Mamati

2002-01-01

136

Lactation Persistency as a Component Trait of the Selection Index and Increase in Reliability by Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Net Merit Defined as the First Five Lactation Milk Yields and Herd Life  

PubMed Central

We first sought to clarify the effects of discounted rate, survival rate, and lactation persistency as a component trait of the selection index on net merit, defined as the first five lactation milks and herd life (HL) weighted by 1 and 0.389 (currently used in Japan), respectively, in units of genetic standard deviation. Survival rate increased the relative economic importance of later lactation traits and the first five lactation milk yields during the first 120 months from the start of the breeding scheme. In contrast, reliabilities of the estimated breeding value (EBV) in later lactation traits are lower than those of earlier lactation traits. We then sought to clarify the effects of applying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on net merit to improve the reliability of EBV of later lactation traits to maximize their increased economic importance due to increase in survival rate. Net merit, selection accuracy, and HL increased by adding lactation persistency to the selection index whose component traits were only milk yields. Lactation persistency of the second and (especially) third parities contributed to increasing HL while maintaining the first five lactation milk yields compared with the selection index whose only component traits were milk yields. A selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency accounted for 99.4% of net merit derived from a selection index whose components were identical to those for net merit. We consider that the selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency is a practical method for increasing lifetime milk yield in the absence of data regarding HL. Applying SNP to the second- and third-lactation traits and HL increased net merit and HL by maximizing the increased economic importance of later lactation traits, reducing the effect of first-lactation milk yield on HL (genetic correlation (rG) = ?0.006), and by augmenting the effects of the second- and third-lactation milk yields on HL (rG = 0.118 and 0.257, respectively).

Togashi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Osawa, T.; Nakanishi, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Lin, C.Y.; Matsumoto, S.; Aihara, M.; Hayasaka, K.

2012-01-01

137

Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components  

PubMed Central

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time.

Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

2014-01-01

138

Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components.  

PubMed

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time. PMID:24987398

Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

2014-01-01

139

Architectural yield analysis of random defects in wafer scale integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer-scale integration yield concepts are examined. New models of yield are defined and their utility is shown by analyzing the architectural and topological yield of some regular structures. Yield concepts are reviewed, the idea of architectural yield is defined, a mathematical framework for studying such yield is established, and assumptions are discussed. These are applied to architectural goals involving binary

J. Czechowski; E. H. Rogers; M.-J. Chung

1989-01-01

140

Particle mass yield from ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of second-generation products on the particle mass yield of ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis was systematically tested and quantified. The approach was to vary the relative concentrations of first- and second-generation products by controlling ozone concentration, while observing the change in particle mass yield. For all organic particle mass concentrations Morg of this study (0.5 < Morg < 230 ?g m-3), the data show that particle-phase organic material was in large part composed of second-generation products. For 0.5 < Morg <10 ?g m-3, a range which overlaps with atmospheric concentrations, the particle mass yield was not sensitive to ozone exposure, implying that the constituent molecules were rapidly produced at all investigated ozone exposures. In contrast, for Morg > 10 ?g m-3 the particle mass yield increased with ozone exposure. These different dependencies on ozone exposure with M org are explained by a combination of the ozonolysis lifetimes of the first-generation products and the volatility distribution of the resulting second-generation products. First-generation products that have short lifetimes produce low-volatility second-generation products whereas first-generation products that have long lifetimes produce high-volatility second-generation products. The ultimate particle mass yield was defined by mass-based stoichiometric yields ?0 = 0.17 ± 0.05, ?1 = 0.11 ± 0.17, and ?2 = 1.03 ± 0.30 for corresponding saturation concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ?g m-3. Terms ?0 and ?1 had low sensitivity to the investigated range of ozone exposure whereas term ?2 increased from 0.32 ± 0.13 to 1.03 ± 0.30 as the ozone exposure was increased. These findings potentially allow for simplified yet nevertheless accurate parameterizations in air quality and climate models that seek to represent the ozonolysis particle mass yield of certain classes of biogenic compounds.

Chen, Q.; Li, Y. J.; McKinney, K. A.; Kuwata, M.; Martin, S. T.

2011-11-01

141

Automated yield forecasting in a high product mix ASIC facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield forecasting is a key component in running a successful semiconductor fab. It is also a significant challenge for facilities such as ASIC houses, which fabricate a wide range of devices using multiple technologies. Yield forecasting takes on increased significance in these environments, with new products introduced frequently and many products running only in small numbers. An accurate yield prediction system can greatly accelerate the process of identifying design bugs, test program issues and process integration problems. To this end, we have constructed a forecasting model geared for our ASIC manufacturing line. The model will accommodate an arbitrary number of design and/or process elements, each with an associated defectivity term. In addition, we have automated the generation of the yield forecast through passively linking to the already existing EDA design tools and scripts used by LSI Logic. Once the model is constructed, an automated query engine can extract the design and process parameters for any requested device, insert the data into the forecasting model, and deliver the resulting yield prediction. The actual yield for any lot or group of lots may thus be compared to the forecast, greatly assisting yield enhancement activities. This is especially useful for prototype lots and low-volume devices, for which it eliminates a great deal of manual computation and searching of design files. Using the model in conjunction with the query engine, any deviations from expected yield performance are generated automatically, quickly and efficiently highlighting opportunities for improvement.

Barber, Duane; Giewont, Mark; Hanson, Jeff; Shen, Jun

2005-05-01

142

Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

Bignell, Lindsey J.; Jackson, Timothy W. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)] [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Mume, Eskender [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia) [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Lee, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

2013-05-27

143

Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

Bignell, Lindsey J.; Mume, Eskender; Jackson, Timothy W.; Lee, George P.

2013-05-01

144

The ozone component of global change: potential effects on agricultural and horticultural plant yield, product quality and interactions with invasive species.  

PubMed

The productivity, product quality and competitive ability of important agricultural and horticultural plants in many regions of the world may be adversely affected by current and anticipated concentrations of ground-level ozone (O3). Exposure to elevated O3 typically results in suppressed photosynthesis, accelerated senescence, decreased growth and lower yields. Various approaches used to evaluate O3 effects generally concur that current yield losses range from 5% to 15% among sensitive plants. There is, however, considerable genetic variability in plant responses to O3. To illustrate this, we show that ambient O3 concentrations in the eastern United States cause substantially different levels of damage to otherwise similar snap bean cultivars. Largely undesirable effects of O3 can also occur in seed and fruit chemistry as well as in forage nutritive value, with consequences for animal production. Ozone may alter herbicide efficacy and foster establishment of some invasive species. We conclude that current and projected levels of O3 in many regions worldwide are toxic to sensitive plants of agricultural and horticultural significance. Plant breeding that incorporates O3 sensitivity into selection strategies will be increasingly necessary to achieve sustainable production with changing atmospheric composition, while reductions in O3 precursor emissions will likely benefit world food production and reduce atmospheric concentrations of an important greenhouse gas. PMID:21452584

Booker, Fitzgerald; Muntifering, Russell; McGrath, Margaret; Burkey, Kent; Decoteau, Dennis; Fiscus, Edwin; Manning, William; Krupa, Sagar; Chappelka, Arthur; Grantz, David

2009-04-01

145

Genes that influence yield in tomato  

PubMed Central

Yield is the most important breeding trait of crops. For fruit-bearing plants such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), fruit formation directly affects yield. The final fruit size depends on the number and volume of cell layers in the pericarp of the fruit, which is determined by the degree of cell division and expansion in the fertilized ovaries. Thus, fruit yield in tomato is predominantly determined by the efficiency of fruit set and the final cell number and size of the fruits. Through domestication, tomato fruit yield has been markedly increased as a result of mutations associated with fruit size and genetic studies have identified the genes that influence the cell cycle, carpel number and fruit set. Additionally, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that plant hormones control fruit set and size through the delicate regulation of genes that trigger physiological responses associated with fruit expansion. In this review, we introduce the key genes involved in tomato breeding and describe how they affect the physiological processes that contribute to tomato yield.

Ariizumi, Tohru; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Ezura, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

146

Radioluminescence yield of alpha particles in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpha particles can be detected by measuring the radioluminescence light which they induce when absorbed in air. The light is emitted in the near ultraviolet region by nitrogen molecules excited by secondary electrons. The accurate knowledge of the radioluminescence yield is of utmost importance for novel radiation detection applications utilizing this secondary effect. Here, the radioluminescence yield of an alpha particle is investigated as a function of energy loss in air for the first time. Also, the total radioluminescence yield of the particle is measured with a carefully calibrated ^{239}Pu emitter used in the experiments. The obtained results consistently indicate that alpha particles generate 19±3 photons per one MeV of energy released in air at normal pressure (temperature 22°C, relative humidity 43%) and the dependence is found to be linear in the studied energy range from 0.3 MeV to 5.1 MeV. The determined radioluminescence yield is higher than previously reported for alpha particles and similar to the radioluminescence yield of electrons at comparable energies. This strengthens the evidence that the luminescence induced by charged particles is mostly proportional to the energy loss in the media and not very sensitive to the type of primary particle.

Sand, J.; Ihantola, S.; Peräjärvi, K.; Toivonen, H.; Toivonen, J.

2014-05-01

147

Stellar yields for chemical evolution modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar yields are a key ingredient in chemical evolution models. Stars with masses as low as 0.9M?, which have an age less than that of our Galaxy at low metallicity, can contribute to the chemical evolution of elements. Stars less than about 8-10M? experience recurrent mixing events that can significantly change the surface composition of the envelope. Evolved stars are observed with surface enrichment in carbon, nitrogen, fluorine, and heavy elements synthesized by the slow neutron capture process (the s-process). These stars release their nucleosynthesis products through stellar outflows or winds, in contrast to massive stars that explode as core-collapse supernovae. Here I review stellar yields for stars up to 10M?, including a brief discussion of their uncertainties and shortcomings. Finally, I discuss efforts by various groups to address these issues and to provide homogeneous yields for low and intermediate-mass stars covering a broad range of metallicities.

Karakas, Amanda I.

2014-01-01

148

Evaluation of trends in wheat yield models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trend terms in models for wheat yield in the U.S. Great Plains for the years 1932 to 1976 are evaluated. The subset of meteorological variables yielding the largest adjusted R(2) is selected using the method of leaps and bounds. Latent root regression is used to eliminate multicollinearities, and generalized ridge regression is used to introduce bias to provide stability in the data matrix. The regression model used provides for two trends in each of two models: a dependent model in which the trend line is piece-wise continuous, and an independent model in which the trend line is discontinuous at the year of the slope change. It was found that the trend lines best describing the wheat yields consisted of combinations of increasing, decreasing, and constant trend: four combinations for the dependent model and seven for the independent model.

Ferguson, M. C.

1982-01-01

149

Supernova Yields for Chemical Evolution Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the recent results of the nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars. We examine how those yields are affected by some hydrodynamical effects during the supernova explosions, namely, explosion energies from those of hypernovae to faint supernovae, mixing and fallback of processed materials, asphericity, etc. Those parameters in the supernova nucleosynthesis models are constrained from observational data of supernovae and metal-poor stars. The elemental abundance patterns observed in extremely metal-poor stars show some peculiarities relative to the solar abundance pattern, which suggests the important contributions of hypernovae and faint supernovae in the early chemical enrichment of galaxies. These constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis are taken into account in the latest yield table for chemical evolution modeling.

Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Tomoharu

2014-01-01

150

Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of USDA quality and yield grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.  

PubMed

This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

2014-08-01

151

Historical Weather Conditions and Maize Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projections of maize crops response to climate based on empirical models generally show a negative response to warmer temperatures. These models typically use monthly averages of temperature or assume that the response to a high frequency warming event is independent of when it occurs in the growing season. Biophysical modeling and experimental studies indicate that crop yields are dependent on high frequency warming events and that the timing of the event can also play a significant role in crop development. This research looks to the historical record of maize yields in the United States paired with daily station data to categorize high, low, and normal yield years with the particular high frequency patterns in maximum and minimum temperature as well as precipitation that led to such yields. A multiple linear regression model is used with these patterns to predict yields. These results expand on prior empirical modeling by incorporating high frequency temporal sensitivity into the regression model. The United States is the training region for the model because of high quality weather station and crop data. The weather data are taken from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and provide daily records of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation at 1218 sites across the lower 48 states, with some records extending into the mid-19th century. The United States Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS) provides data on maize yields at the county level back to 1910, and provides state level planting and harvest time data back to 1981, at it's peak maize was produced in 2821 counties offering a wide range of different climates. The study is limited by restricting itself to the United States and maize, but could provide the basis for similar studies on a wider range of crops, geographic regions and future projections of climate change.

Butler, E.; Huybers, P.

2010-12-01

152

Stellar yields of rotating first stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First stars, also called population III stars, are born in the earliest universe without any heavy elements. These stars are the first nuclear reactor in the universe and affect their circumstances emitting synthesized materials. Not only the stellar evolution, but also their chemical yields have many distinctive characteristics. We have modeled evolution of population III stars including effect of stellar rotation. Internal mixing induced by rotation naturally results in primary nitrogen production. Evolution of rotating massive stars is followed until the core collapse phase. The new Pop III yield model will consistently explain the observed abundances of metal-poor systems.

Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

2014-05-01

153

Particle mass yield from ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of second-generation products on the particle mass yield of ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis was systematically tested and quantified. The approach was to vary the relative concentrations of first- and second-generation products by adjusting the concentration of ozone while observing changes in particle mass yield. For all wall-loss corrected organic particle mass concentrations Morg of this study (0.5 < Morg < 230 ?g m-3), the data show that the particle-phase organic material was composed for the most part of second-generation products. For 0.5< Morg < 10 ?g m-3, a range which overlaps with atmospheric concentrations, the particle mass yield was 10 to 20% and was not sensitive to ozone exposure, implying that the constituent molecules were rapidly produced at all investigated ozone exposures. In contrast, for Morg > 10 ?g m-3 the particle mass yield increased to as high as 70% for the ultimate yield corresponding to the greatest ozone exposures. These differing dependencies on ozone exposure under different regimes of Morg are explained by a combination of the ozonolysis lifetimes of the first-generation products and the volatility distribution of the resulting second-generation products. First-generation products that have short lifetimes produce low-volatility second-generation products whereas first-generation products that have long lifetimes produce high-volatility second-generation products. The ultimate particle mass yield was defined by mass-based stoichiometric yields ?i of ?0 = 0.17 ± 0.05, ?1 = 0.11 ± 0.17, and ?2 = 1.03 ± 0.30 for corresponding saturation concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ?g m-3. Terms ?0 and ?1 had low sensitivity to the investigated range of ozone exposure whereas term ?2 increased from 0.32 ± 0.13 to 1.03 ± 0.30 as the ozone exposure was increased. These findings potentially allow for simplified yet accurate parameterizations in air quality and climate models that seek to represent the ozonolysis particle mass yields of certain classes of biogenic compounds.

Chen, Q.; Li, Y. L.; McKinney, K. A.; Kuwata, M.; Martin, S. T.

2012-04-01

154

Managing declining yields from ageing tea plantations.  

PubMed

Strong growth in the demand for tea requires further increases in the productivity of plantations. Declining or stagnant yields are commonly observed in older plantations. Possible controlling factors for yield decline are reviewed including ageing of plants, chronic disease and sub-optimal soil conditions such as excess soil acidity and low soil organic matter. Management options for addressing these factors are evaluated, including replanting. A systematic approach to decision-making about replanting is presented. Practice for replanting is reviewed and it is concluded that evidence to support a general case for replanting is limited, unless based on the introduction of more productive clones and/or better plant spacing. PMID:24464583

Kibblewhite, Mark G; Prakash, Sudhir; Hazarika, Mridul; Burgess, Paul J; Sakrabani, Ruben

2014-06-01

155

High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds  

PubMed Central

A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

2009-01-01

156

Erosion of a yield-stress fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bed erosion induced by rapid gravity flows of complex fluids, such as mudflows or avalanches, remains still poorly understood. A specificity of these natural flows is that, mostly, the material forming the static bed has mechanical properties similar to those of the flowing material (mud/mud, snow/snow). In this experimental study, yield-stress fluids are implemented to model both the eroding flow and the eroded bed with an original approach that captures the process of erosion in terms of solid-fluid transition. The hydrodynamics of erosion is studied in an inclined channel configuration, where a yield-stress fluid flows on a thick layer of the same fluid having an equal or a greater yield stress. In this work, we chose to use a micro-gel polymer (Carbopol) because of its elasto-viscoplastic rheology and its transparency, which is exploited for internal visualization techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Our approach aims to investigate the dominant physical mechanisms of erosion by combining an accurate rheological characterization of the yield-stress fluid using a rheometer (Hershel-Bulkley law), with the observation of the morphological evolution of the system substratum / flow and the local measurement of related hydrodynamic parameters. The main goal is to relate the erosion law at the substrate/flow interface with the constitutive law of the complex fluid involved, in order to refine this latter in the vicinity of the transition between the quasi-static and the liquid regimes.

Luu, Li-Hua; Philippe, Pierre; Chambon, Guillaume

2013-04-01

157

Tool commonality analysis for yield enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ULSI semiconductor processing today involves hundreds of process steps through various semiconductor processing tools. Any tool excursion could lead to serious and costly yield problems. Tool commonality among bad lots is a proven technique to identify the root cause of the problem. As the complexity of process and the number of process steps increase, it is a very challenging task

George Kong

2002-01-01

158

Mulching Effects on Plant Climate and Yield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of mulching - the covering of the soil surface with crop residue or other material such as paper or plastic - on temperature, soil moisture, erosion and soil physics, pests and diseases, growth and yield of plants, and weed suppression are rev...

J. W. Davies

1975-01-01

159

?-Pinene Nitrates: synthesis, yields and atmospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogenic volatile organic compound ?-pinene is one of the dominant monoterpenes emitted to the Earth's atmosphere at an estimated rate of ~50 Tg yr-1. Its atmospheric oxidation products in the presence of NO can lead to ozone production, as well as production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The major oxidation pathway of ?-pinene is reaction with OH, which in the presence of NO can form either ?-pinene nitrates or convert NO to NO2, which can photolyze to form ozone. In this work, we successfully synthesized four ?-pinene hydroxy nitrates through three different routes, and have identified the 4 individual isomers in ?-pinene/OH/NO reaction chamber experiments. From the experiments, we determined their individual production yields, estimated the total RONO2 yield, and calculated the relative branching ratios of the nitrate precursor peroxy radicals (RO2). The combined yield of the four ?-pinene nitrates was found to be 13.0 (±0.7) % at atmospheric pressure and 296 K, and the total organic nitrate yield was estimated to be 0.19 (+0.10/-0.06). We also determined the OH rate constants for two of the isomers, and have calculated their overall atmospheric lifetimes, which range between 22 and 38 h.

Ma, S. X.; Rindelaub, J. D.; McAvey, K. M.; Gagare, P. D.; Nault, B. A.; Ramachandran, P. V.; Shepson, P. B.

2011-02-01

160

?-Pinene nitrates: synthesis, yields and atmospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogenic volatile organic compound ?-pinene is one of the dominant monoterpenes emitted to the Earth's atmosphere at an estimated rate of ~50 Tg C yr-1. Its atmospheric oxidation products in the presence of NO can lead to ozone production, as well as production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The major oxidation pathway of ?-pinene is reaction with OH, which in the presence of NO can form either ?-pinene nitrates or convert NO to NO2, which can photolyze to form ozone. In this work, we successfully synthesized four ?-pinene hydroxy nitrates through three different routes, and have identified these 4 individual isomers in ?-pinene/OH/NO reaction chamber experiments. From the experiments, we determined their individual production yields, estimated the total RONO2 yield, and calculated the relative branching ratios of the nitrate precursor peroxy radicals (RO2). The combined yield of the four ?-pinene nitrates was found to be 0.130 (±0.035) at atmospheric pressure and 296 K, and the total organic nitrate yield was estimated to be 0.19 (+0.10/-0.06). We also determined the OH rate constants for two of the isomers, and have calculated their overall atmospheric lifetimes, which range between 22 and 38 h.

Ma, S. X.; Rindelaub, J. D.; McAvey, K. M.; Gagare, P. D.; Nault, B. A.; Ramachandran, P. V.; Shepson, P. B.

2011-07-01

161

K-shell fluorescence yield of Cs  

SciTech Connect

A new technique has been developed in the measurement of the K-shell fluorescence yield of cesium from the analysis of the sum peaks observed with a high resolution intrinsic Ge detector. The value found is ..omega../sub k/(Cs) = 0.896(16), which is in good agreement with the fitted value of Bambynek et al.

Singh, K.; Singh, G.; Sharma, R.K.; Sahota, H.S.

1983-11-01

162

What Your Yield Says about You  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recession has turned Americans into numbers addicts. Seemingly endless supplies of statistics--stock prices, retail sales, and the gross domestic product--offer various views about the health of the nation's economy. Higher education has its own economic indicators. Among the most important is "yield," the percentage of admitted students who…

Hoover, Eric

2009-01-01

163

Testing the Predictive Power of Dividend Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reexamines the ability of dividend yields to predict long-horizon stock returns. The authors use the bootstrap methodology, as well as simulations, to examine the distribution of test statistics under the null hypothesis of no forecasting ability. These experiments are constructed so as to maintain the dynamics of regressions with lagged dependent variables over long horizons. They find that

William Nelson Goetzmann; Philippe Jorion

1993-01-01

164

OSSY (On Site Seismic Yield) source characterization  

SciTech Connect

The On Site Seismic Yield (OSSY) experiment was performed during September 1989. It was a collaborative effort between scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the Seismographic Stations at UC Berkeley. It was performed in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The general objective of the OSSY experiment was to investigate techniques for using seismic measurements to estimate the yield of nuclear explosions. The basic idea is to use chemical explosions of known size to calibrate source coupling and wave propagation effects near the site of a nuclear explosion. Once calibrated in this way, seismic measurements, obtained at locations sufficiently far from the source to be in the region of linear elastic response but sufficiently close to provide accurate registration, can be used to estimate the yield of the nuclear explosion. If such a technique can be shown to be sufficiently accurate, it has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, flexible in experimental design, and applicable to either large or small yields. This investigation has proceeded in a two-stage process. The first stage is to develop and test the calibration procedure. The second stage is to apply the method to actual nuclear explosions. Partly because it was considered desirable to preform a complete analysis of the calibration procedure before applying it to a nuclear explosion and partly because no convenient nuclear explosion tests were available at the time, the OSSY experiment was concentrated on the calibration stage of the process. 9 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

Johnson, L.R.; McEvilly, T.V.

1990-09-01

165

MOS VLSI reliability and yield trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield and reliability capability of an MOS technology are shown to be the product of at least six different technological trends; namely those towards: 1) more complex device structures, 2) scaled down feature sizes, 3) increased wafer sizes, 4) factory automation, 5) increased die size and package lead counts, and 6) increasingly sophisticated computer-aided design tools. The capabilities of

M. H. Woods

1986-01-01

166

Integrated DFM Framework for Dynamic Yield Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an abstract of the following article. Users may request access to the full article via the website, and a direct link will be emailed to them. We present a new methodology for a balanced yield optimization and a new DFM (design for manufacturability) framework which implements it. Our approach allows designers to dynamically balance multiple factors contributing to yield loss and select optimal combination of DFM enhancements based on the current information about the IC layout, the manufacturing process, and known causes of failures. We bring together the information gained from layout analysis, layout aware circuit analysis, resolution enhancement and optical proximity correction tools, parasitics extraction, timing estimates, and other tools, to suggest the DFM solution which is optimized within the existing constraints on design time and available data. The framework allows us to integrate all available sources of yield information, characterize and compare proposed DFM solutions, quickly adjust them when new data or new analysis tools become available, fine tune DFM optimization for a particular design and process and provide the IC designer with a customized solution which characterizes the manufacturability of the design, identifies and classifies areas with the most opportunities for improvement, and suggests DFM improvements. The proposed methodology replaces the ad hoc approach to DFM which targets one yield loss cause at a time at the expense of other factors with a comprehensive analysis of competing DFM techniques and trade offs between them.

2010-07-19

167

Global Soil Nutrient Depletion and Yield Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient depletion in soils adversely affects soil quality and reduces crop yield and consequently poses a potential threat to global food security and agricultural sustainability. With an emphasis on human-induced nutrient depletion, this paper described the causality among soil nutrient depletion, soil quality, crop production, socio-economic variables, and environmental condition. Then, global soil nutrient budgets of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P),

Z. X. Tan; R. Lal; K. D. Wiebe

2005-01-01

168

Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review  

SciTech Connect

It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

1982-01-01

169

Effects of geoengineering on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as market shares of agricultural output may change with the different spatial pattern of climate change. More importantly, geoengineering by SRM does not address a range of other detrimental consequences of climate change, such as ocean acidification, which could also affect food security via effects on marine food webs. Finally, SRM poses substantial anticipated and unanticipated risks by interfering with complex, not fully understood systems. Therefore, despite potential positive effects of SRM on crop yields, the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2011-12-01

170

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

171

Wafer yield prediction by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of yield from the production lines is concentrated at a high-yield area and tapers down to the lower-yield area. Production management would find it useful if the yield of individual wafers could be forecast. The yield is determined by the variability of electrical characteristics and dust. In this study, only the variability of electrical characteristics was discussed. One

M. Asada

2001-01-01

172

Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups  

PubMed Central

Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers.

Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

173

Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups.  

PubMed

Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

Dar, Manzoor H; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

174

?-Pinene Nitrates: Synthesis, Identification and Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?-Pinene emitted by vegetation is the dominant monoterpene emitted in Earth’s atmosphere with estimated annual global emissions of ~50 Tg yr-1. Its oxidation products and reaction mechanism is an important consideration in tropospheric chemistry. The major oxidation pathway of ?-pinene is reaction with OH in the presence of NO which can form either a-pinene nitrates or convert NO to NO2 which can photolyze to form ozone. To date, there is little experimental knowledge of the relative importance of the individual a-pinene nitrate isomers, each of which has a different fate and reactivity. In this work, we synthesized 4 a-pinene multifunctional nitrates through four different routes and have identified the 4 individual isomers in a-pinene/NOx chamber experiments and determined their individual production yields, and the total RONO2 yield, and calculated the relative branching ratios of nitrate precursor peroxy radical (RO2).

Ma, S.; Shepson, P. B.; Rindelaub, J.; Nault, B.

2010-12-01

175

Artifacts in Secondary Electron Emission Yield Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of secondary electron yields and electron energy distributions appears straightforward--simple equipment, simple electronics, easy-to-acquire data, at least in a laboratory setting. Unfortunately, the low secondary electron energy (2-5 eV) and the extreme sensitivity of the yield to surface condition and surrounding environment make the measurement details anything but simple. These problems affect the accuracy and interpretation of the experimental results, often in a subtle way. Most troublesome is the production of unwanted (and unexpected) secondary electrons from within the electron sources and detectors, and tertiary electrons from the surrounding vacuum chamber environment. In addition, the sample surface condition can change during measurement, for example, through electron damage or enhanced oxidation/carburization. Electron source, analyzer, and sample effects will be discussed with examples for oxidized Al, niobium, graphite, gold and, also, TiN coatings.

Kirby, R

2004-07-06

176

Overview of tritium fast-fission yields  

SciTech Connect

Tritium production rates are very important to the development of fast reactors because tritium may be produced at a greater rate in fast reactors than in light water reactors. This report focuses on tritium production and does not evaluate the transport and eventual release of the tritium in a fast reactor system. However, if an order-of-magnitude increase in fast fission yields for tritium is confirmed, fission will become the dominant production source of tritium in fast reactors.

Tanner, J.E.

1981-03-01

177

Correlation complementarity yields bell monogamy relations.  

PubMed

We present a method to derive Bell monogamy relations by connecting the complementarity principle with quantum nonlocality. The resulting monogamy relations are stronger than those obtained from the no-signaling principle alone. In many cases, they yield tight quantum bounds on the amount of violation of single and multiple qubit correlation Bell inequalities. In contrast with the two-qubit case, a rich structure of possible violation patterns is shown to exist in the multipartite scenario. PMID:21635070

Kurzy?ski, P; Paterek, T; Ramanathan, R; Laskowski, W; Kaszlikowski, D

2011-05-01

178

Chemical Yields from Supernovae and Hypernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the final stages of stellar evolution, supernova properties, and chemical yields as a function of the progenitor's mass. (1) 8 - 10 M&sun; stars are super-AGB stars when the O+Ne+Mg core collapses due to electron capture. These AGB-supernovae may constitute an SN 2008S-like sub-class of Type IIn supernovae. These stars produce little alpha-elements and Fe-peak elements, but are

Ken'ichi Nomoto; Shinya Wanajo; Yasuomi Kamiya; Nozomu Tominaga; Hideyuki Umeda

2009-01-01

179

Viscoelasticity and shear yielding onset in amorphous glassy polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the effect of viscoelasticity on the yield behaviour of a polycarbonate, PC, was studied and the identification of a yield criterion which takes into account the effects of the mechanical history on the onset of plastic strain, was attempted. The attention was focused on the shear yielding plastic deformation process and different loading histories were performed under uniaxial compression: constant strain rate at different rates, stress relaxation at different applied strain levels, creep under different stress levels. Some tests were also carried out under shear loading, in which the hydrostatic stress component is equal to zero and its effect on the yield onset can be considered. For the definition of a yield criterion, different quantities, some already proposed in an analogous work on a styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), were considered and determined at yield onset for each of the applied loading histories. The results obtained in this work show that the relative ratios of the viscoelastic strain over the overall strain and of viscoelastic energy over the deformation work are fairly constant irrespective of both loading history and stress state. The re-elaboration of the data previously obtained on SAN is consistent with these results. Discussing the experimental data, differences between the mechanical behaviour of the two glassy polymers were pointed out and a more difficult activation of the plastic deformation process of PC than SAN was generally observed.

Marano, C.; Rink, M.

2006-09-01

180

Mapping and candidate genes associated with saccharification yield in sorghum.  

PubMed

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a high-yielding, stress tolerant energy crop for lignocellulosic-based biofuel production. Saccharification is a process by which hydrolytic enzymes break down lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars for biofuel production, and mapping and identifying genes underlying saccharification yield is an important first step to genetically improve the plant for higher biofuel productivity. In this study, we used the ICRISAT sorghum mini core germplasm collection and 14?739 single nucleotide polymorphism markers to map saccharification yield. Seven marker loci were associated with saccharification yield and five of these loci were syntenic with regions in the maize genome that contain quantitative trait loci underlying saccharification yield and cell wall component traits. Candidate genes from the seven loci were identified but must be validated, with the most promising candidates being ?-tubulin, which determines the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in plant secondary cell walls, and NST1, a master transcription factor controlling secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fibers. Other candidate genes underlying the different saccharification loci included genes that play a role in vascular development and suberin deposition in plants. The identified loci and candidate genes provide information into the factors controlling saccharification yield and may facilitate increasing biofuel production in sorghum. PMID:24299105

Wang, Yi-Hong; Acharya, Aniruddha; Burrell, A Millie; Klein, Robert R; Klein, Patricia E; Hasenstein, Karl H

2013-11-01

181

Second Generation Crop Yield Models Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Second generation yield models, including crop growth simulation models and plant process models, may be suitable for large area crop yield forecasting in the yield model development project. Subjective and objective criteria for model selection are defined and models which might be selected are reviewed. Models may be selected to provide submodels as input to other models; for further development and testing; or for immediate testing as forecasting tools. A plant process model may range in complexity from several dozen submodels simulating (1) energy, carbohydrates, and minerals; (2) change in biomass of various organs; and (3) initiation and development of plant organs, to a few submodels simulating key physiological processes. The most complex models cannot be used directly in large area forecasting but may provide submodels which can be simplified for inclusion into simpler plant process models. Both published and unpublished models which may be used for development or testing are reviewed. Several other models, currently under development, may become available at a later date.

Hodges, T. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

182

EVIDENCE FOR K+ YIELDS P+ VV-.  

SciTech Connect

The first observation of the decay K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{ovr {nu}} has been reported. The E787 experiment presented evidence for the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{ovr {nu}} decay, based on the observation of a single clean event from data collected during the 1995 run of the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The branching ratio indicated by this observation, B(K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{ovr {nu}}) = 4.2{sub -3.5}{sup +9.7} x 10{sup -10}, is consistent with the Standard Model expectation although the central experimental value is four times larger. The final E7878 data sample, from the 1995-98 runs, should reach a sensitivity of about five times that of the 1995 run alone. A new experiment, E949, has been given scientific approval and should start data collected in 2001. It is expected to achieve a sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude below the prediction of the Standard Model.

KETTELL,S.

1998-12-18

183

Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

2003-01-01

184

Statistical Analysis of Yield Trials by AMMI and GGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model, Genotype main effects and Genotype 3 Environment inter- action (GGE) model, and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are singular value decomposition (SVD) based statistical analyses often applied to yield-trial data. This paper presents a systematic compar- ison, using both statistical theory and empirical investigations, while considering both current practices and best practices.

Hugh G. Gauch

2006-01-01

185

Search for B{sup 0}{yields}pp, B{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{lambda}, and B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda} at Belle  

SciTech Connect

We report results of a search for the charmless two-body baryonic decays B{sup 0}{yields}pp, B{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{lambda}, and B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda} based on the analysis of a 140 fb{sup -1} data sample. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on their branching fractions: B(B{sup 0}{yields}pp)<4.1x10{sup -7}, B(B{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{lambda})<6.9x10{sup -7}, and B(B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda})<4.9x10{sup -7}.

Chang, M.-C. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Gershon, T.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nishida, S.; Ozaki, H.; Sagawa, H.; Sakai, Y.; Stamen, R.; Suzuki, S.Y.; Tajima, O.; Takasaki, F. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)] [and others

2005-04-01

186

Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

1994-01-01

187

The yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and analytical evaluation was made of the yield and post-yield behavior of high-density polyethylene, a semi-crystalline thermoplastic. Polyethylene was selected for study because it is very inexpensive and readily available in the form of thin-walled tubes. Thin-walled tubular specimens were subjected to axial loads and internal pressures, such that the specimens were subjected to a known biaxial loading. A constant octahederal shear stress rate was imposed during all tests. The measured yield and post-yield behavior was compared with predictions based on both isotropic and anisotropic models. Of particular interest was whether inelastic behavior was sensitive to the hydrostatic stress level. The major achievements and conclusions reached are discussed.

Semeliss, M. A.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M. E.

1990-01-01

188

Spatio-temporal evolution of the L {yields} I {yields} H transition  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dynamics of the low(L) {yields} high(H) transition using a time-dependent, one dimensional (in radius) model which self-consistently describes the time evolution of zonal flows (ZFs), mean flows (MFs), poloidal spin-up, and density and pressure profiles. The model represents the physics of ZF and MF competition, turbulence suppression via E Multiplication-Sign B shearing, and poloidal flows driven by turbulence. Numerical solutions of this model show that the L{yields}H transition can occur via an intermediate phase (I-phase) which involves oscillations of profiles due to ZF and MF competition. The I-phase appears as a nonlinear transition wave originating at the edge boundary and propagates inward. Locally, I-phase exhibits the characteristics of a limit-cycle oscillation. All these observations are consistent with recent experimental results. We examine the trigger of the L{yields}H transition, by defining a ratio of the rate of energy transfer from the turbulence to the zonal flow to the rate of energy input into the turbulence. When the ratio exceeds order unity, ZF shear gains energy, and a net decay of the turbulence is possible, thus triggering the L{yields}H transition. Numerical calculations indicate that the L{yields}H transition is triggered by this peak of the normalized ZF shearing. Zonal flows act as 'reservoir,' in which to store increasing fluctuation energy without increasing transport, thus allowing the mean flow shear to increase and lock in the transition. A counterpart of the L {yields} I{yields}H transition, i.e., an L{yields}H transition without I-phase, is obtained in a fast power ramp, for which I-phase is compressed into a single burst of ZF, which triggers the transition. Effects of neutral charge exchange on the L{yields}H transition are studied by varying ZF damping and neoclassical viscosity. Results show that the predicted L{yields}H transition power increases when either ZF damping or viscosity increase, suggesting a link between recycling, ZF damping, and the L{yields}H threshold. Studies of fueling effects on the transition and pedestal structure with an emphasis on the particle pinch are reported.

Miki, K. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Guercan, Oe. D. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS (France); Tynan, G. R. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Estrada, T. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Schmitz, L. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Xu, G. S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)

2012-09-15

189

Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield  

PubMed Central

Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%), 0.15% gave the highest success (86%) of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2n = 19). Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2n = 38) was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

Malek, M. A.; Ismail, M. R.; Rafii, M. Y.; Rahman, M.

2012-01-01

190

Yield and post-yield behavior of mussel byssal thread: a self-healing biomolecular material.  

PubMed

Byssal threads provide marine mussels with the tenacity to remain sessile in habitats of high flow. Under uniaxial tension, byssal threads are typical of other biological and synthetic fibers in exhibiting an initial linear region followed by yield. They differ, however, in their capacity to recover or "self-heal" following yield. We have examined the effect of urea, dithiothreitol (DTT), and metal-chelating agents such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in perturbing the modulus, yield point, and energy dissipated in distal byssal threads stretched cyclically in seawater to a strain of 0.7. Threads stretched in the presence of 8 M urea or DTT show a complete abolition of yield point, while those washed clean of urea and DTT prior to stretching approach native controls. Threads stretched in the presence of EDTA show no effect; however, preincubation of distal threads in EDTA for 24 h results in a loss of yield point if stretched in metal-deficient seawater and normal behavior in natural seawater. The results indicate that while protein unfolding and disruption of disulfide linkages or chelate complexes compromises the yield strength of distal byssal fibers, there is typically a rapid recovery in natural sea water. PMID:11710048

Vaccaro, E; Waite, J H

2001-01-01

191

Energy yield of black locust biomass fuel. [Robinia pseudoacacia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed analysis of 2- and 10-year-old black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) biomass components provided an accurate energy content and energy yield determination as well as an index defining relative ceiling on the delivered cost for black locust biomass in comparison with other fuels such as coal and forest residues. Total energy content of individual biomass components ranged from 20.97 x

J. W. Stringer; S. B. Carpenter

1986-01-01

192

Constraining the symmetry energy from fragment yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of extraction of the symmetry energy coefficient to temperature ratio from isobaric and isotopic yields of fragments produced in Fermi-energy heavy-ion collisions are discussed. Consistent results are obtained when the hot fragmenting source is well characterized and its excitation energy and isotopic composition are properly taken into account. The results, independent of the mass number of the detected fragments, suggest that their fate is decided very early in the reaction. A comparison to the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM) predictions is also presented.

Marini, P.; Bonasera, A.

2012-07-01

193

Upgrade and yields of the IGISOL facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The front end of the Jyväskylä IGISOL facility was upgraded in 2003 by increasing its pumping capacity and by improving the radiation shielding. In late 2005, the skimmer electrode of the mass separator was replaced by a sextupole ion guide, which improved the mass separator efficiency up to an order of magnitude. The current design of the facility is described. The updated yield data, achieved with and without the additional JYFLTRAP purification, using both fusion evaporation reactions and particle induced fission is presented to give an overview of the capability of the facility. These data have been determined either by radioactivity measurements or by direct ion counting after the Penning trap system.

Karvonen, P.; Penttilä, H.; Äystö, J.; Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kessler, T.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Peräjärvi, K.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Ronkainen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Tordoff, B.; Weber, C.

2008-10-01

194

Synergistic yields in the wood plastic composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood plastic composites formation has been studied with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4 g/cm 3) and butylmethacrylate (BA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. The effect of additives like sulfuric acid, multifunctional monomers (NVP, TPGDA, TMPTA) and oligomers (PEA, UA and EA) has been investigated using 1-3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic polymer yields have been achieved in presence of the additives. The tensile properties of the composite are alsi reported.

Khan, Mubarak A.; Ali, K. M. Idriss

195

Neutron yield of medical electron accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Shielding calculations for medical electron accelerators above about 10 MeV require some knowledge of the neutron emission from the machine. This knowledge might come from the manufacturer's specifications or from published measurements of the neutron leakage of that particular model and energy of accelerator. In principle, the yield can be calculated if details of the accelerator design are known. These details are often not available because the manufacturer considers them proprietary. A broader knowledge of neutron emission would be useful and it is the purpose of this paper to present such information. 5 refs., 1 tab.

McCall, R.C.

1987-11-01

196

Yield Predictive Model Characterization In Analog Circuit Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique is presented that produces a characterized yield-predictive model by incorporating yield into the goal function directly. We explore the trade off between performance functions and yield estimation during the design optimization process. Through the integration of yield into the optimization process, the trade off between the performance functions can be better treated that able to produce a

S. H. M. Ah; P. R. Wilson; Andrew D. Brown

2007-01-01

197

Information on tar and nicotine yields on cigarette packages.  

PubMed Central

We examined information on tar and nicotine yields on the packages of 160 cigarette brands, 58 percent of the 275 brands for which tar and nicotine yields were listed in a recent Federal Trade Commission report. The tar yield was indicated on 14 percent, the nicotine yield was indicated on 11 percent. As tar yield increased among brands, the yield was progressively less likely to be shown on the package and was not disclosed on the package of any cigarette yielding 11 mg or more of tar.

Davis, R M; Healy, P; Hawk, S A

1990-01-01

198

Yield and Nutritional Quality of Cabbage as Affected by Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted in field condition to study the effect of nitrogen- phosphorus fertilization on growth, yield and nutrient content of cabbage. The experiment was laid out in randomize block design with three replications. The yield and yield components were maximized by N3P2 fertilizer treatment. Nutrient content of cabbage varied with fertilizer treatment. The maximum amount of reducing sugar,

K. M. F. Haque; A. A. Jahangir; M. E. Haque; R. K. Mondal; M. A. A. Jahan; M. A. M. Sarker

2006-01-01

199

Effect of Harvest Timing on Yield and Mineral Nutritional Value of Kabuli Type Chickpea Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds are a good source of protein and mineral nutrients. However, there is no information regarding harvest timing on yield and mineral composition of chickpea seeds. The effect of harvest timing on seed yield, some yield components and mineral nutritional value of seeds of field grown chickpea plants in two different sites were studied. The mineral

M. Sait Adak; N. Kayan; A. Gunes; A. Inal; M. Alpaslan; N. Cicek; T. Guzelordu

2007-01-01

200

Infrasound Propagation Modeling for Explosive Yield Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on developing methods of estimating the size or yield of HE surface explosions from local and regional infrasound measurements in the southwestern United States. A munitions disposal facility near Mina, Nevada provides a repeating ground-truth source for this study, with charge weights ranging from 870 - 3800 lbs. Detonation logs and GPS synchronized videos were obtained for a sample of shots representing the full range of weights. These are used to calibrate a relationship between charge weight and spectral level from seismic waveforms recorded at the Nevada Seismic Array (NVAR) at a distance of 36 km. Origin times and yields for the remaining shots are inferred from the seismic recordings at NVAR. Infrasound arrivals from the detonations have been continuously recorded on three four-element, small aperture infrasound arrays since late 2009. NVIAR is collocated with NVAR at a range of approximately 36 km to the northeast. FALN and DNIAR are located at ranges of 154 km to the north, and 293 km to the southeast respectively. Travel times and amplitudes for stratospheric arrivals at DNIAR show strong seasonal variability with the largest amplitudes and celerities occurring during the winter months when the stratospheric winds are favorable. Stratospheric celerities for FNIAR to the north are more consistent as they are not strongly affected by the predominantly meridional stratospheric winds. Tropospheric arrivals at all three arrays show considerable variability that does not appear to be a seasonal effect. Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space (NRL-G2S) Mesoscale models are used to specify the atmosphere along the propagation path for each detonation. Ray-tracing is performed for each source/receiver pair to identify events for which the models closely match the travel-time observations. This subset of events is used to establish preliminary wind correction formulas using wind values from the G2S profile for the entire propagation path. These results are then compared with results for the entire data set to analyze the performance of the formulas. Full-wave hydrodynamic calculations are carried out to investigate the effects of finite-amplitude propagation, attenuation, and wind velocity on the amplitude and spectral content of the observed signals. Relationships are explored between the yields of the explosions and the period and wind corrected amplitudes of the signals recorded at various distances. The atmospheric specifications combined with propagation modeling techniques may allow propagation path effects to be better removed so that source characteristics can be extracted from the signals.

Howard, J. E.; Golden, P.; Negraru, P.

2013-12-01

201

A novel quadratic yield model to describe the feature of multi-yield-surface of rolled sheet metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Hill’s quadratic yield model [Hill, R., 1948. A theory of the yielding and plastic flow of anisotropic metals. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A193, 281–297] cannot address enough experimental results for fairly describing the “anomalous” yield behavior as observed in some of rolled sheet metals, a new quadratic yield model is proposed. As the concept of multiple yielding systems is

Weilong Hu

2007-01-01

202

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

Haun, J. R.

1975-01-01

203

Gas breakdown and secondary electron yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a systematic study of the gas breakdown potentials. An analysis of the key elementary processes in low-current low-pressure discharges is given, with an aim to illustrate how such discharges are used to determine swarm parameters and how such data may be applied to modeling discharges. Breakdown data obtained in simple parallel-plate geometry are presented for a number of atomic and molecular gases. Ionization coefficients, secondary electron yields and their influence on breakdown are analyzed, with special attention devoted to non-hydrodynamic conditions near cathode. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Electron and Positron Induced Processes", edited by Michael Brunger, Radu Campeanu, Masamitsu Hoshino, Oddur Inglfsson, Paulo Limo-Vieira, Nigel Mason, Yasuyuki Nagashima and Hajime Tanuma.

Mari?, Dragana; Savi?, Marija; Sivoš, Jelena; Škoro, Nikola; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, Marija; Malovi?, Gordana; Petrovi?, Zoran Lj.

2014-06-01

204

Crop yield model validation for Cameroon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crop simulation model must first be capable of representing the actual performance of crops grown in any region before it can be applied to the prediction of climate variability and change impacts. A cropping systems model (CropSyst) simulations of crop productivity in the sub-Saharan Central African (using Cameroon as the case study) region, under the current climate were compared with observed yields of maize, sorghum, groundnut, bambara groundnut and soybean from eight sites. The model produced both over-and-under estimates, but with a mean percentage difference of only -2.8%, ranging from -0.6% to -4.5%. Based on these results, we judged the CropSyst simulations sufficiently reliable to justify use of the model in assessing crop growth vulnerability to climatic changes in Cameroon and else where.

Tingem, Munang; Rivington, Mike; Bellocchi, Gianni; Colls, Jeremy

2009-05-01

205

Diode laser welding of high yield steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following article describes results of investigations on influence of laser welding parameters on the weld shape, quality and mechanical properties of 2.5 mm thick butt joints of thermo-mechanically rolled, high yield strength steel for cold forming S420MC (according to EN 10149 - 3 and 060XLK according to ASTM) welded with high power diode laser HPDL ROFIN SINAR DL 020 with rectangular laser beam spot and 2.2 kW output power, and 808 nm wavelength. The investigations at the initial stage were focused on detailed analysis of influence of the basic laser welding parameters such as laser power and welding speed on the shape and quality of single bead produced during bead-on-plate welding. Then the optimal parameters were chosen for laser welding of 2.5 mm thick butt joints of the thermo-mechanically rolled, high yield strength steel sheets for cold forming S420MC. The test joints were prepared as single square groove and one-side laser welded without an additional material, at a flat position. Edges of steel sheets were melted in argon atmosphere by the laser beam focused on the top joint surface. The test welded joints were investigated by visual inspection, metallographic examinations, mechanical tests such as tensile tests and bending tests. It was found that the high power diode laser may be applied successfully for one-side welding of the S420MC steel butt joints. Additionally it was found that in the optimal range of laser welding parameters the high quality joint were produced.

Lisiecki, Aleksander

2013-01-01

206

Primary Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Yield of Diagnostic Angiography and Clinical Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), bleeding in the ventricular system without a discernable parenchymal component,\\u000a is a rare neurological disorder. To better define the features of primary IVH and the yield of diagnostic angiography in this\\u000a condition, we retrospectively analyzed all cases of primary IVH evaluated at a tertiary referral hospital over a 6-year period\\u000a and performed a systematic review of

Alexander C. Flint; Ashley Roebken; Vineeta Singh

2008-01-01

207

YIELD STABILITY OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) GENOTYPES ACROSS LOCATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize genotypes vary in their response to variable environmental conditions. Twenty genotypes were tested at nine locations in Ethiopia (1,100-2,240 masl) in the 1998 cropping season to study their phenotypic yield stability. Analysis of variance and stability analysis were computed. Variances due to genotypes, environments, and G x E interaction were significant. Linear and non-linear components of G x E

Mosisa Worku; Habtamu Zelleke; Girma Taye; Benti Tolessa; Legesse Wolde; Wende Abera; Aschalew Guta; Hadji Tuna

208

Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species  

PubMed Central

Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species.

Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

2013-01-01

209

Quantitative trait loci mapping in Brassica rapa revealed the structural and functional conservation of genetic loci governing morphological and yield component traits in the A, B, and C subgenomes of Brassica species.  

PubMed

Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

2013-02-01

210

Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and Spain in both considered drought events, however slightly less severe for 2012 than for 2005. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor droughts' impacts on crops productions and yields in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno, 2010: A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J. Climate, 23, 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45.

Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

2014-05-01

211

Theoretical Lifetimes and Fluorescence Yields for Multiply-Ionized Fluorine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical lifetimes and multiplet partial fluorescence yields for various fluorine ions with a single K-shell vacancy were calculated. For few-electron systems, the lifetimes and line fluorescence yields were computed in the intermediate coupling scheme...

T. W. Tunnell C. Can C. P. Bhalla

1978-01-01

212

Distribution of Independent Fission-Product Yields to Isomeric States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple one-parameter model is presented for calculating the distribution of independent yield strength between ground and isomeric states of primary fission products formed by neutron-induced fission of actinide nuclei. Yield branching ratios are calcul...

D. G. Madland T. R. England

1976-01-01

213

Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notc...

P. A. Allen C. D. Wilson

2002-01-01

214

Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

215

Climate change influence on catchment sediment yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a change in climate are expected to be recognizable in many environmental aspects even at small spatial scales: atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, air temperature, precipitation pattern (days of snowfall translate in days of rainfall), rainfall intensity and erosivity. As a consequence, strong modifications may affect the rate of evapo-transpiration, infiltration and plant biomass production, but also of the soil erosion. To which extent climate change may affect runoff production, soil erosion and sediment transport in upland catchments is investigated here by combining data of long term precipitation, sediment yield and future climate change provided by Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with a spatially distributed modeling approach to flow generation and surface erosion. The model accounts for changes in the structure and properties of soil and vegetation cover by combining the tube-flux approach to the topographic watershed partitioning through a parsimonious parametrization of the main hydrological processes. This model is used to predict hydrological and sediment fluxes for three small catchments in Saint Gabriel mountains of Southern California under control and climate change conditions. Simulation runs using a 45 years long record of hourly precipitation, both observed and referred to a future scenario, show that climate change may induce a significant modification in the catchment response to storms, with major effects on erosion and flood flows.

Rulli, Maria Cristina; Grossi, Giovanna

2010-05-01

216

Brassinosteroid signaling network: implications on yield and stress tolerance.  

PubMed

The steroidal hormone brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in plant growth and development. Genetic, genomic and proteomic studies in Arabidopsis have identified major BR signaling components and elucidated the signal transduction pathway from the cell surface receptor kinase BRI1 to the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors. BRs interact with other plant hormones in coordinating gene expression and plant growth and development. In this review, we provide an update on the latest progress in characterizing the BR signaling network and discuss its interactions with other hormone pathways in determining yield component traits and in regulating stress responses. PMID:23568410

Hao, Jingjie; Yin, Yanhai; Fei, Shui-zhang

2013-07-01

217

Low-Fluence Electron Yields of Highly Insulating Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-induced electron yields of high-resistivity high-yield materials - ceramic polycrystalline aluminum oxide and polymer polyimide (Kapton HN) - were made by using a low-fluence pulsed incident electron beam and charge neutralization electron source to minimize charge accumulation. Large changes in the energy-dependent total yield curves and yield decay curves were observed, even for incident electron fluences of < 3 fC\\/mm2.

Ryan Hoffmann; John R. Dennison; Clint D. Thomson; Jennifer Albretsen

2008-01-01

218

Temperature dependence of absolute CsI(Tl) scintillation yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1 cm×1 cm right cylindrical CsI(Tl) crystal was mounted on a 1 cm×1 cm square photodiode to measure the absolute scintillation yield of CsI(Tl) between -80°C and 50°C. A maximum yield of 65900±3300 photons\\/MeV was measured at 36°C. While the scintillation yield at -80°C is about 57% of the maximum, the yield is approximately constant in the range of

J. Valentine; D. Wehe; G. Knoll; C. Moss

1991-01-01

219

Wheat growth and yield under different depth film-bottomed cultivation in sandy land  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crop cultivation with film-bottomed tillage may benefit more, but little is known about the yield and the relationships among the last yield components under different depth film-bottomed tillage. We conducted a field study on sandy land to quantify response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and its components under 60, 70 and 90cm depth film-bottomed tillage. Morphological measurements included

Ling Tao; Jun Ren

2004-01-01

220

Modelling the effects of sprinkler irrigation uniformity on crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the development and testing of a model which relates yield to irrigation amount and uniformity. Required input data are the Christiansen uniformity coefficient (CUC) and a parameter describing the sensitivity of crop yield to water deficits obtained from empirical relationships between evapotranspiration and crop yield.The model was used to determine optimum irrigation amounts for corn at Cordoba

E. C. Mantovani; F. J. Villalobos; F. Organ; E. Fereres

1995-01-01

221

Yield estimation in vineyards by visual grape detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harvest yield in vineyards can vary signifi- cantly from year to year and also spatially within plots due to variations in climate, soil conditions and pests. Fine grained knowledge of crop yields can allow viticulturists to better manage their vineyards. The current industry practice for yield prediction is destructive, expensive and spatially sparse - during the growing season sparse

Stephen Nuske; Supreeth Achar; Terry Bates; Srinivasa Narasimhan; Sanjiv Singh

2011-01-01

222

Characteristics in milk influencing the cheese yield and cheese quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will give a short introduction to the principles of cheesemaking and some definitions of cheese yield, and the characteristics in milk influencing the cheese yield and cheese quality will be discussed. Good quality milk, giving an optimal cheese yield and cheese quality, originate from healthy animals, has good flavour, has been cold stored for a limited amount of

S. Skeie

223

Intelligent yield prediction models for high-speed microprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural network based yield prediction models are developed to optimize high-speed microprocessor manufacturing processes. Based on measured sixty ET (electrical test) data, wafer level parametric yield prediction models are developed. In this work, manufacturing yield was considered as a manufacturing performance index because it is very critical to overall manufacturing cost and product quality. The prediction results show 41.09% improvement

Tae Seon Kim; Se Hwan Ahn; Young Gyun Jang; Jeong In Lee; Kil Jae Lee; Byeong Yun Kim; Chang Hyun Cho

2000-01-01

224

Rice yield prediction using a Support Vector Regression method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice yield prediction is the procedure to predict the rice grain weight. The objectives of the procedure are finding out whether the location is appropriate to grow rice, and reducing any risk in the investment of rice yield production. There were many researchers trying to find the precise results of rice yield prediction, however, the proposed methods are complicated and

Ratchaphum Jaikla; Sansanee Auephanwiriyakul; Attachai Jintrawet

2008-01-01

225

Yielding Torque-Tube System Reduces Crash Injuries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yielding torque-tube system minimizes injuries by limiting load transferred to occupant in crash. When properly integrated into seat structure, torque tube yields in plastic deformation stage of material and maintains a relatively constant resistance to applied torque for many degrees of rotation. Yielding torque-tube system is expected to find application in aircraft and automobile industries.

Mcsmith, D. G.

1982-01-01

226

Empirical Modeling of Relationships Between Sorghum Yield and Soil Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial part of any site-specific management is the identification of causes of yield variability and assessment of crop requirements. Therefore, relationships between yield and soil properties must be identified. In this study, relationships between sorghum yield and soil properties on a verbosols within a field located in Moree, in northern NSW, Australia, were examined. Measured soil properties included pH;

T. M. Shatar; A. B. Mcbratney

1999-01-01

227

Assessing Crop Yield Simulations with Various Seasonal Climate Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive evaluation of crop yield simulations with various seasonal climate data is performed to improve the current practice of crop yield projections. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-based historical data are commonly used to predict the upcoming season crop yields over the southeast United States. In this study, eight different seasonal climate data are generated using the combinations of

D. W. Shin; G. A. Baigorria; Y.-K. Lim; S. Cocke; T. E. LaRow; James J. O'Brien; James W. Jones

228

Anomalous DD and TT yields relative to the DT yield in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the D(d,p)T (DD), T(t,2n)^4He (TT) and D(t,n)^4He (DT) reactions have been conducted using deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In these experiments, which were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility, absolute spectral measurements of the DD protons and TT neutrons were conducted and compared to neutron-time-of-flight measured DT-neutron yields. From these measurements, it is concluded that the DD yield is anomalously low and the TT yield is anomalously high relative to the DT yield, an effect that is enhanced with increasing ion temperature. These results can be explained by an enrichment of tritium in the core of an ICF implosion, which may be present in ignition experiments planned on the National Ignition Facility. In addition, the spectral measurements of the TT-neutron spectrum were conducted for the first time at reactant central-mass energies in the range of 15-30 keV. The results from these measurements indicate that the TT reaction proceeds primarily through the direct three-body reaction channel, producing a continuous TT-neutron spectrum in the range 0 -- 9.5 MeV. This work was conducted in collaboration with J. A. Frenje, M. Gatu Johnson, M. J.-E. Manuel, H. G. Rinderknecht, N. Sinenian, F. H. Seguin, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, P. B. Radha, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, D. P. McNabb, P. A. Amendt, R. N. Boyd, J. R. Rygg, H. W. Herrmann, Y. H. Kim, G. P. Grim and A. D. Bacher.

Casey, Daniel T.

2011-11-01

229

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity  

PubMed Central

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N?ha?1) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m3 ha?1). Although energy inputs (30 GJ?ha?1) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg?ha?1 and 159 GJ?ha?1, respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO2e?Mg?1 of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N2O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals.

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

230

Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

2013-12-01

231

Assessment of Floor Accelerations in Yielding Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The large investment in nonstructural components in buildings and severe damage to these components in recent earthquakes necessitates improved design provisions for these components. The present study uses the OpenSees finite element framework to develop...

A. E. Zaghi A. M. Itani E. Maragakis G. Pekcan J. D. Wieser

2012-01-01

232

On the effective sputter yield during magnetron sputter deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective sputter yield during magnetron sputtering of elemental targets was measured by weighing the target before and after sputtering at constant discharge voltage. During the experiment, the pressure and discharge current were logged. The effective sputter yield is compared with a set of published semi-empirical equations to calculate the sputter yield for ion/solid interactions. The differences between both yields are discussed based on different contributions which affect the effective sputter yield such as redeposition, the target roughness and the contribution of high energetic neutrals.

Depla, D.

2014-06-01

233

A versatile detector for total fluorescence and electron yield experiments  

SciTech Connect

The combination of a non-coated silicon photodiode with electron repelling meshes makes a versatile detector for total fluorescence yield and electron yield techniques highly suitable for x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In particular, a copper mesh with a bias voltage allows to suppress or transmit the electron yield signal. The performance of this detection scheme has been characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure studies of thermal oxidized silicon and sapphire. The results show that the new detector probes both electron yield and for a bias voltage exceeding the maximum photon energy the total fluorescence yield.

Thielemann, N. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, P. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foehlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

2012-09-15

234

Comparison of Statistical Models for Analyzing Wheat Yield Time Series  

PubMed Central

The world's population is predicted to exceed nine billion by 2050 and there is increasing concern about the capability of agriculture to feed such a large population. Foresight studies on food security are frequently based on crop yield trends estimated from yield time series provided by national and regional statistical agencies. Various types of statistical models have been proposed for the analysis of yield time series, but the predictive performances of these models have not yet been evaluated in detail. In this study, we present eight statistical models for analyzing yield time series and compare their ability to predict wheat yield at the national and regional scales, using data provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and by the French Ministry of Agriculture. The Holt-Winters and dynamic linear models performed equally well, giving the most accurate predictions of wheat yield. However, dynamic linear models have two advantages over Holt-Winters models: they can be used to reconstruct past yield trends retrospectively and to analyze uncertainty. The results obtained with dynamic linear models indicated a stagnation of wheat yields in many countries, but the estimated rate of increase of wheat yield remained above 0.06 t ha?1 year?1 in several countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, and the estimated values were highly uncertain for several major wheat producing countries. The rate of yield increase differed considerably between French regions, suggesting that efforts to identify the main causes of yield stagnation should focus on a subnational scale.

Michel, Lucie; Makowski, David

2013-01-01

235

Weather-based forecasts of California crop yields  

SciTech Connect

Crop yield forecasts provide useful information to a range of users. Yields for several crops in California are currently forecast based on field surveys and farmer interviews, while for many crops official forecasts do not exist. As broad-scale crop yields are largely dependent on weather, measurements from existing meteorological stations have the potential to provide a reliable, timely, and cost-effective means to anticipate crop yields. We developed weather-based models of state-wide yields for 12 major California crops (wine grapes, lettuce, almonds, strawberries, table grapes, hay, oranges, cotton, tomatoes, walnuts, avocados, and pistachios), and tested their accuracy using cross-validation over the 1980-2003 period. Many crops were forecast with high accuracy, as judged by the percent of yield variation explained by the forecast, the number of yields with correctly predicted direction of yield change, or the number of yields with correctly predicted extreme yields. The most successfully modeled crop was almonds, with 81% of yield variance captured by the forecast. Predictions for most crops relied on weather measurements well before harvest time, allowing for lead times that were longer than existing procedures in many cases.

Lobell, D B; Cahill, K N; Field, C B

2005-09-26

236

Model-independent Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC using the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape  

SciTech Connect

We show that combining a direct measurement of the Higgs total width from the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape with Higgs signal rate measurements allows Higgs couplings to be extracted in a model-independent way from CERN LHC data. Using existing experimental studies with 30 fb{sup -1} at one detector of the 14 TeV LHC, we show that the couplings squared of a 190 GeV Higgs to WW, ZZ, and gg can be extracted with statistical precisions of about 10%, and a 95% confidence level upper limit on an unobserved component of the Higgs decay width of about 22% of the standard model Higgs width can be set. The method can also be applied for heavier Higgs masses.

Logan, Heather E. [Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Salvail, Jeff Z. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

2011-10-01

237

FISSION: A computer code for calculating fission yields and delayed-neutron yields using the model proposed by Waldo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the many available models that describe fission yields, the one proposed by R. Waldo seems to best reproduce the total delayed neutron yeilds obtained in fission by thermal or fission spectrum neutrons. A computer code was written to calculate fission product yields and beta-delayed neutron yields using his model. A description of the model is given. A comparison of calculated fission product yields to experimental yields as well as calculations using other models for both 235U(n/sub t/,f) and 239Pu(n/sub t/,f) is included.

Kusnezov, D. F.; Henry, E. A.

1981-11-01

238

High Yield Production Process for Shigella Outer Membrane Particles  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacteria naturally shed particles that consist of outer membrane lipids, outer membrane proteins, and soluble periplasmic components. These particles have been proposed for use as vaccines but the yield has been problematic. We developed a high yielding production process of genetically derived outer membrane particles from the human pathogen Shigella sonnei. Yields of approximately 100 milligrams of membrane-associated proteins per liter of fermentation were obtained from cultures of S. sonnei ?tolR ?galU at optical densities of 30–45 in a 5 L fermenter. Proteomic analysis of the purified particles showed the preparation to primarily contain predicted outer membrane and periplasmic proteins. These were highly immunogenic in mice. The production of these outer membrane particles from high density cultivation of bacteria supports the feasibility of scaling up this approach as an affordable manufacturing process. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of using this process with other genetic manipulations e.g. abolition of O antigen synthesis and modification of the lipopolysaccharide structure in order to modify the immunogenicity or reactogenicity of the particles. This work provides the basis for a large scale manufacturing process of Generalized Modules of Membrane Antigens (GMMA) for production of vaccines from Gram-negative bacteria.

Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Colucci, Anna Maria; Maggiore, Luana; Sanzone, Silvia; Rossi, Omar; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Pesce, Isabella; Caboni, Mariaelena; Norais, Nathalie; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

2012-01-01

239

Ultimate capacity evaluation of reinforced concrete slabs using yield line analysis  

SciTech Connect

Yield line theory offers a simplified nonlinear analytical method that can determine the ultimate bending capacity of flat reinforced concrete planes subject to distributed and concentrated loads. Alternately, yield line theory, combined with hinge rotation limits can determine the energy absorption capacity of plates subject to impulsive and impact loads. This method is especially useful in evaluating existing structures that cannot be qualified using conservative simplifying analytical assumptions. Typical components analyzed by yield line theory are basements, floor and roof slabs subject to vertical loads along with walls subject to out of plant wall loads. One limitation of yield line theory is that it is difficult to evaluate some mechanisms; this is aggravated by the complex geometry and reinforcing layouts commonly found in practice. A yield line evaluation methodology is proposed to solve computationally tedious yield line mechanisms. This methodology is implemented in a small PC based computer program that allows the engineer to quickly evaluate multiple yield line mechanisms.

Mertz, G.E.

1995-12-31

240

Seed yield and its components of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Digitaria milanjiana cv. Jarra and Andropogon gayanus cv. Kent in north-east Thailand under different rates of nitrogen application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of seed yields of pasture grasses in Thailand, pure seed yields of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Andropogon gayanus cv. Kent and Digitaria milanjiana cv. Jarra in one season were 81-123 kg\\/ha, 326-569 kg\\/ha and 48-97 kg\\/ha, respectively. Corresponding thousand-seed weights were 4.68, 3.35 and 0.42 g. Germination rates were 36, 73 and 17% at 4-6 months post

N. R. GOBIUS; C. PHAIKAEW

241

Maximizing DNA yield for epidemiologic studies: no more buffy coats?  

PubMed

Some molecular analyses require microgram quantities of DNA, yet many epidemiologic studies preserve only the buffy coat. In Frederick, Maryland, in 2010, we estimated DNA yields from 5 mL of whole blood and from equivalent amounts of all-cell-pellet (ACP) fraction, buffy coat, and residual blood cells from fresh blood (n = 10 volunteers) and from both fresh and frozen blood (n = 10). We extracted DNA with the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, Maryland) for silica spin column capture and measured double-stranded DNA. Yields from frozen blood fractions were not statistically significantly different from those obtained from fresh fractions. ACP fractions yielded 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 66, 97) of the yield of frozen whole blood and 99.3% (95% confidence interval: 86, 100) of the yield of fresh blood. Frozen buffy coat and residual blood cells each yielded only half as much DNA as frozen ACP, and the yields were more variable. Assuming that DNA yield and quality from frozen ACP are stable, we recommend freezing plasma and ACP. Not only does ACP yield twice as much DNA as buffy coat but it is easier to process, and its yield is less variable from person to person. Long-term stability studies are needed. If one wishes to separate buffy coat before freezing, one should also save the residual blood cell fraction, which contains just as much DNA. PMID:23857774

Gail, Mitchell H; Sheehy, Tim; Cosentino, Mark; Pee, David; Diaz-Mayoral, Norma A; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Caporaso, Neil E; Pitt, Karen; Ziegler, Regina G

2013-10-01

242

Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

1990-09-01

243

Experimental Techniques Verified for Determining Yield and Flow Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural components in aircraft engines are subjected to multiaxial loads when in service. For such components, life prediction methodologies are dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive models that determine the elastic and inelastic portions of a loading cycle. A threshold surface (such as a yield surface) is customarily used to differentiate between reversible and irreversible flow. For elastoplastic materials, a yield surface can be used to delimit the elastic region in a given stress space. The concept of a yield surface is central to the mathematical formulation of a classical plasticity theory, but at elevated temperatures, material response can be highly time dependent. Thus, viscoplastic theories have been developed to account for this time dependency. Since the key to many of these theories is experimental validation, the objective of this work (refs. 1 and 2) at the NASA Lewis Research Center was to verify that current laboratory techniques and equipment are sufficient to determine flow surfaces at elevated temperatures. By probing many times in the axial-torsional stress space, we could define the yield and flow surfaces. A small offset definition of yield (10 me) was used to delineate the boundary between reversible and irreversible behavior so that the material state remained essentially unchanged and multiple probes could be done on the same specimen. The strain was measured with an off-the-shelf multiaxial extensometer that could measure the axial and torsional strains over a wide range of temperatures. The accuracy and resolution of this extensometer was verified by comparing its data with strain gauge data at room temperature. The extensometer was found to have sufficient resolution for these experiments. In addition, the amount of crosstalk (i.e., the accumulation of apparent strain in one direction when strain in the other direction is applied) was found to be negligible. Tubular specimens were induction heated to determine the flow surfaces at elevated temperatures. The heating system induced a large amount of noise in the data. By reducing thermal fluctuations and using appropriate data averaging schemes, we could render the noise inconsequential. Thus, accurate and reproducible flow surfaces (see the figure) could be obtained.

Lerch, Brad A.; Ellis, Rod; Lissenden, Cliff J.

1998-01-01

244

Boosting Crop Yields with Plant Steroids[W  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols and steroid hormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs), are compounds that exert a wide range of biological activities. They are essential for plant growth, reproduction, and responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Given the importance of sterols and BRs in these processes, engineering their biosynthetic and signaling pathways offers exciting potentials for enhancing crop yield. In this review, we focus on how alterations in components of sterol and BR metabolism and signaling or application of exogenous steroids and steroid inhibitors affect traits of agronomic importance. We also discuss areas for future research and identify the fine-tuning modulation of endogenous BR content as a promising strategy for crop improvement.

Vriet, Cecile; Russinova, Eugenia; Reuzeau, Christophe

2012-01-01

245

[Fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions]. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In keeping with the statement of work, I have examined the fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions. In co-authorship with the UTR (University Technical Representative) Talmadge R. England ``Evaluation and Compilation of Fission Product Yields 1993,`` LA-UR-94-3106(ENDF-349) October, (1994) was published. This is an evaluated set of fission product Yields for use in calculation of decay heat curves with improved accuracy has been prepared. These evaluated yields are based on all known experimental data through 1992. Unmeasured fission product yields are calculated from charge distribution, pairing effects, and isomeric state models developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The current evaluation has been distributed as the ENDF/B-VI fission product yield data set.

Rider, B.F.

1995-05-01

246

Relationship of spectral data to grain yield variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-band hand-held radiometer data from a winter wheat field, collected on 21 dates during the spring growing season, were correlated with within-field final grain yield. Significant linear relationships were found between various combinations of the red and photographic infrared radiance data collected and the grain yield. The spectral data explained about 64 percent of the within-field grain yield variation. This variation in grain yield could not be explained using meteorological data as these were similar for all areas of the wheat field. Most importantly, data collected early in the spring were highly correlated with grain yield, a five-week time window existed from stem elongation through anthesis in which the spectral data were most highly correlated with grain yield, and manifestations of wheat canopy water stress were readily apparent in the spectral data.

Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

1980-01-01

247

Impacts of variability in cellulosic biomass yields on energy security.  

PubMed

The practice of modeling biomass yields on the basis of deterministic point values aggregated over space and time obscures important risks associated with large-scale biofuel use, particularly risks related to drought-induced yield reductions that may become increasingly frequent under a changing climate. Using switchgrass as a case study, this work quantifies the variability in expected yields over time and space through switchgrass growth modeling under historical and simulated future weather. The predicted switchgrass yields across the United States range from about 12 to 19 Mg/ha, and the 80% confidence intervals range from 20 to 60% of the mean. Average yields are predicted to decrease with increased temperatures and weather variability induced by climate change. Feedstock yield variability needs to be a central part of modeling to ensure that policy makers acknowledge risks to energy supplies and develop strategies or contingency plans that mitigate those risks. PMID:24941019

Mullins, Kimberley A; Matthews, H Scott; Griffin, W Michael; Anex, Robert

2014-07-01

248

The Impact of Microstructure on Yield Strength Anisotropy in Linepipe Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe here the effect of microstructure on the yield strength anisotropy in high-strength microalloyed linepipe steels. The anisotropy in steel with ferrite-bainite microstructure was lower compared to the steel with ferrite-pearlite microstructure and is attributed to the significant difference in their transformation texture components, {112}<110> and {332}<113>. The yield strength anisotropy is discussed in terms of crystal plasticity concept involving estimation of average orientation factor and its relation to yield strength.

Venkatsurya, P. K. C.; Misra, R. D. K.; Mulholland, M. D.; Manohar, M.; Hartmann, J. E.

2014-05-01

249

Oil convenience yields estimated under demand\\/supply shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the call option model of Milonas and Thomadakis (1997) to estimate oil convenience yields with futures\\u000a prices. We define the business cycle of a seasonal commodity with demand\\/supply shocks and find that the convenience yield\\u000a for crude oil exhibits seasonal behavior. The convenience yield for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil is the highest\\u000a in the summer,

William T. Lin; Chang-Wen Duan

2007-01-01

250

Unused Natural Variation Can Lift Yield Barriers in Plant Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural biodiversity is an underexploited sustainable resource that can enrich the genetic basis of cultivated plants with novel alleles that improve productivity and adaptation. We evaluated the progress in breeding for increased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) yield using genotypes carrying a pyramid of three independent yield-promoting genomic regions introduced from the drought-tolerant green-fruited wild species Solanum pennellii. Yield of hybrids parented

Amit Gur; Dani Zamir

2004-01-01

251

Response surfaces of hazelnut oil yield in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response Surface Methodology was used to determine the effects of solvent flow rate (1, 3 and 5 g\\/min), pressure (300, 375 and 450 bar) and temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) on hazelnut oil yield in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2). Oil yield was represented by a second order response surface equation (R 2=0.997) using Box-Bhenken design of experiments. Oil yield increased with

S. G. Özkal; M. E. Yener; U. Salg?n; Ü. Mehmeto?lu

2005-01-01

252

Yield prediction by analysis of multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary model describing the growth and grain yield of wheat was developed. The modeled growth characteristics of the wheat crop were used to compute wheat canopy reflectance using a model of vegetation canopy reflectance. The modeled reflectance characteristics were compared with the corresponding growth characteristics and grain yield in order to infer their relationships. It appears that periodic wheat canopy reflectance characteristics potentially derivable from earth satellites will be useful in forecasting wheat grain yield.

Colwell, J. E.; Suits, G. H.

1975-01-01

253

Let dependence of scintillation yields in liquid argon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scintillation yields (scintillation intensity per unit absorbed energy) in liquid argon for ionizing particles are reviewed as a function of LET for the particles. The maximum scintillation yield, which is obtained for relativistic heavy ions from Ne to La, is about 1.2 times larger than that for gamma rays in NaI(Tl) crystal. In the low LET region, the scintillation yields

Tadayoshi Doke; Henry J. Crawford; Akira Hitachi; Jun Kikuchi; Peter J. Lindstrom; Kimiaki Masuda; Eido Shibamura; Tan Takahashi

1988-01-01

254

Possible exit channel effect on isomer yield ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isomer yield ratio measurements in fission are important in understanding the fission process. With the development of new instrumental techniques, a large number of yield data are now available. The experimental data on isomer yield ratios in the thermal neutron induced fission of235U are compared with those calculated from the simple statistical model byMadland andEngland. The method of calculation has

M. Kildir; Z. Morel; Z. Biiyiikmumcu; H. N. Erten

1997-01-01

255

Trends in sputter yield data in the film deposition regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the fundamental trends of sputter yield in the sputtering regime used for film deposition is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of sputter deposition, interpreting yield data, and predicting the results of experiments. One source of experimental yield data is the comprehensive compilation [N. Matsunami, Y. Yamamura, Y. Itikawa, N. Itoh, Y. Kazomata, S. Miyagawa, K. Morita, R. Shimizu, and H. Tawara, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 31, 1 (1984)]. They published graphical yield-energy curves based on empirical parameters which were best fits to nearly all the projectile-target combinations available in 1983. We interpret this experimental data using theoretical results from a ``simplified collisional model'' of sputtering. For 1-keV noble gas projectiles, several trends show forth (some old and some new): First, there is a repeating pattern in the dependence of yield on target atomic number, with the period being each row of the Periodic Table. Second, surface binding energy is the single most important target parameter; the yield varies roughly as 1/U1.3sb for the empirical data, but as 1/U0.5sb for the pure linear cascade sputtering mechanism. Third, while the principal mechanism is the linear cascade, the nonlinear cascade makes a detectable contribution to the experimental yield for yield values above ~1. Fourth, for target atomic numbers above ~35, the yield increases monotonically with projectile mass; for lighter targets the yield exhibits a maximum at an intermediate projectile mass. Fifth, the energy dependence of yield for a given projectile-target combination from ~0.5 to 2 keV is, to a good approximation, Y(E)~E0.5. Scatter due to experimental error is evident in the data: Matsunami et al.'s approach of combining the results of different experiments, resulting in their empirical yield curves, is useful for compensating for this.

Mahan, John E.; Vantomme, André

2000-03-01

256

Acid rain and seed yields reductions in corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yields were significantly reduced on corn (Zea mays L.) plants where the silks had been exposed to an episode of simulated acid rain at pH 3.6 as compared with yields on plants with silks exposed to simulated rain of pH 5.6. The reduction in yield appeared related to a decrease in pollen germination and tube elongation associated with acidic

L. E. Craker; P. F. Waldron

2009-01-01

257

Yielding in dense suspensions: cage, bond, and rotational confinements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of weak particle anisotropy on the onset of fluidity in dense suspensions of glasses of repulsive, weakly attractive and strongly attractive spherical and dumbbell shaped particles is explored. Yield stresses are found to scale with volume fraction showing a divergence at random close packing for all systems. However the onsets of yielding in suspensions of spherical and dumbbell shaped particles are shown to display qualitatively different behaviors. Suspensions of hard spheres exhibit a single yield stress (strain) while suspensions of spheres experiencing short range attractions in dense gels display two yielding events. Double yielding occurs when attractions between particles are only a few kT and the suspensions are sufficiently dense. For dumbbell suspensions, single yielding is observed for hard dumbbell glasses in a region where the glasses are expected to be plastic while double yielding is observed when the particles are expected to have localized centers of mass and localized orientations. Double yielding is also observed for dense dumbbell suspensions that experience attractions while only single yielding events are observed in strongly attractive gels for both dumbbells and spheres. These results are discussed in the light of recent theories and simulations of mechanisms of localization in suspensions of spherical and weakly anisotropic particles.

Kramb, Ryan C.; Zukoski, Charles F.

2011-01-01

258

Uncertainty in Simulating Wheat Yields Under Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments1,2. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change has been increasingly described in the literature3,4 while assessments of the uncertainty in crop responses to climate change are very rare. Systematic and objective comparisons across impact studies is difficult, and thus has not been fully realized5. Here we present the largest coordinated and standardized crop model intercomparison for climate change impacts on wheat production to date. We found that several individual crop models are able to reproduce measured grain yields under current diverse environments, particularly if sufficient details are provided to execute them. However, simulated climate change impacts can vary across models due to differences in model structures and algorithms. The crop-model component of uncertainty in climate change impact assessments was considerably larger than the climate-model component from Global Climate Models (GCMs). Model responses to high temperatures and temperature-by-CO2 interactions are identified as major sources of simulated impact uncertainties. Significant reductions in impact uncertainties through model improvements in these areas and improved quantification of uncertainty through multi-model ensembles are urgently needed for a more reliable translation of climate change scenarios into agricultural impacts in order to develop adaptation strategies and aid policymaking.

Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J.W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Ruane, Alex; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, Peter; Rotter, R.P.; Cammarano, D.; Brisson, N.; Basso, B.; Martre, P.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, AJ; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grant, Robert; Heng, L.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Mueller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.O.; Olesen, JE; Osborne, T.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Travasso, M.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

2013-09-01

259

Comprehensive Cost Planning Yields Successful Tech Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author calls for librarians to find ways to implement technology projects with very limited budgets and to consider all the cost components of a technology project amidst the economic pressures. The author offers some perspective on what is involved in trying to accomplish important work with limited resources while…

Breeding, Marshall

2006-01-01

260

EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON YIELD RESPONSE OF TWO SOYBEAN CULTIVARS  

EPA Science Inventory

An important component of the effects of acid rain on our ecosystem is its impact on the yield of agricultural crops. ield experiments were conducted for 3 yr to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on seed yield of two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. 'Amsoy 7...

261

Estimating Biophysical and Biochemical Parameters and Yield of Winter Wheat Based on Landsat TM Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents of crop biophysical and biochemical components influence its yield and seed quality. If farmers can know crop biophysical and biochemical information, they may implement exact field management. This advanced agriculture cultivation method not only increases crop yield and improves seed quality, but also utilizes fertilizer and water more effectively. Therefore, monitoring crop biophysical and biochemical parameters is very important

Yansong Bao; Liangyun Liu; Jihua Wang

2008-01-01

262

Mid-Season Prediction of Wheat-Grain Yield Potential Using Plant, Soil, and Sensor Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The components that define cereal-grain yield potential have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to collect many differing biological measurements from a long-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) study in an attempt to better define yield potential. Four treatments were sampled that annually received 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg N ha at fixed rates of

K. Girma; K. L. Martin; R. H. Anderson; D. B. Arnall; K. D. Brixey; M. A. Casillas; B. Chung; B. C. Dobey; S. K. Kamenidou; S. K. Kariuki; E. E. Katsalirou; J. C. Morris; J. Q. Moss; C. T. Rohla; B. J. Sudbury; B. S. Tubana; W. R. Raun

2006-01-01

263

Genetic improvement effects on yield stability in durum wheat genotypes grown in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) the improvement of yield stability represents an important component for agricultural progress worldwide. This work reports on the evaluation of the yield performance of 65 durum wheat genotypes (landraces, old and new cultivars with different years of release and advanced breeding lines), in a range of Italian environments to assess the changes in adaptation

P. De Vita; A. M. Mastrangelo; L. Matteu; E. Mazzucotelli; N. Virzì; M. Palumbo; M. Lo Storto; F. Rizza; L. Cattivelli

2010-01-01

264

Process Yields Strong, Void-Free Laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Need for lightweight materials as structural components for future space transportation systems stimulated development of systematic method for manufacturing a polyimide/graphite composite. Laminates manufactured by process are void-free, exhibit excellent thermo-oxidative stability up to 315 degrees C (600 degrees F) and are 40 percent lighter than aluminum. Process is precise, repeatable, and ideally suited for researchers and small-lot producers of composite materials.

Bryant, L. E.; Covington, E. W., III; Dale, W. J.; Hall, E. T., Jr; Justice, J. E.; Taylor, E. C.; Wilson, M. L.

1983-01-01

265

Response of switchgrass yield to future climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climate envelope approach was used to model the response of switchgrass, a model bioenergy species in the United States, to future climate change. The model was built using general additive models (GAMs), and switchgrass yields collected at 45 field trial locations as the response variable. The model incorporated variables previously shown to be the main determinants of switchgrass yield, and utilized current and predicted 1 km climate data from WorldClim. The models were run with current WorldClim data and compared with results of predicted yield obtained using two climate change scenarios across three global change models for three time steps. Results did not predict an increase in maximum switchgrass yield but showed an overall shift in areas of high switchgrass productivity for both cytotypes. For upland cytotypes, the shift in high yields was concentrated in northern and north-eastern areas where there were increases in average growing season temperature, whereas for lowland cultivars the areas where yields were projected to increase were associated with increases in average early growing season precipitation. These results highlight the fact that the influences of climate change on switchgrass yield are spatially heterogeneous and vary depending on cytotype. Knowledge of spatial distribution of suitable areas for switchgrass production under climate change should be incorporated into planning of current and future biofuel production. Understanding how switchgrass yields will be affected by future changes in climate is important for achieving a sustainable biofuels economy.

Tulbure, Mirela G.; Wimberly, Michael C.; Owens, Vance N.

2012-12-01

266

Diagnostics of Shiva Nova produced high yield thermonuclear events  

SciTech Connect

Experiments with the Shiva Nova laser facility which produce yield levels of scientific breakeven and above will result in neutron, x-ray and particle fluxes which will require specific attention to the survivability of diagnostic instrumentation. These yield levels will also allow the utilization of new diagnotics techniques which can provide detailed information on the state of the imploded fuel and pusher shells.

Ahlstrom, H.G.; Banner, D.L.; Boyle, M.J.; Campbell, E.M.; Coleman, L.W.; Koppel, L.N.; Kornblum, H.N. Jr.; Rienecker, F.; Severyn, J.R.; Slivinsky, V.W.

1978-01-01

267

Yield estimation of sugarcane based on agrometeorological-spectral models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work has the objective to assess the performance of a yield estimation model for sugarcane (Succharum officinarum). The model uses orbital gathered spectral data along with yield estimated from an agrometeorological model. The test site includes the sugarcane plantations of the Barra Grande Plant located in Lencois Paulista municipality in Sao Paulo State. Production data of four crop years were analyzed. Yield data observed in the first crop year (1983/84) were regressed against spectral and agrometeorological data of that same year. This provided the model to predict the yield for the following crop year i.e., 1984/85. The model to predict the yield of subsequent years (up to 1987/88) were developed similarly, incorporating all previous years data. The yield estimations obtained from these models explained 69, 54, and 50 percent of the yield variation in the 1984/85, 1985/86, and 1986/87 crop years, respectively. The accuracy of yield estimations based on spectral data only (vegetation index model) and on agrometeorological data only (agrometeorological model) were also investigated.

Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; Batista, Getulio Teixeira

1990-01-01

268

Etiologic yield of single domain developmental delay: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the etiologic yield in young children with single domain developmental delay (either developmental language disorder or isolated motor delay) after a specialty diagnostic evaluation. Methods: During an 18-month period, all children <5 years of age, who were consecutively referred to pediatric neurology or developmental pediatric clinics at a single tertiary pediatric center, were prospectively enrolled. Etiologic yield

Michael I. Shevell; Annette Majnemer; Peter Rosenbaum; Michal Abrahamowicz

2000-01-01

269

Experimental measurements of hypervelocity impact plasma yield and energetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion yields and their characteristic energies have been measured experimentally in the plasma produced by hypervelocity impacts of iron rrmicroparticles on rhodium in the range 1.2 to 87 km s'. The ion yield shows a greater velocity dependence than has generally been reported in the literature, though the difference is attributed to experimental and analytical effects. The higher value derived

Paul R. Ratcliff; Mark J. Burchell; Mike J. Cole; Tom W. Murphy; Firooz Alladfadi

1997-01-01

270

Calculation of forming limit diagrams using Hill's 1993 yield criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the analysis proposed by Jones and Gillis (JG), forming limit diagrams (FLDs) are calculated from idealization of sheet deformation into three stages: (I) homogeneous deformation up to maximum load, (II) deformation localization under constant load, and (III) local necking with precipitous drop in load. In the calculation, Hill's 1993 yield criterion is used. Using this yield criterion and

A. Rezaee-Bazzaz; H. Noori; R. Mahmudi

2011-01-01

271

Effects of drip irrigation scheduling on muskmelon yield and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of drip (trickle) irrigation for muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) production has become commonplace but the impact of preharvest drip irrigation management on fruit yield and quality has not been well documented. The effects of drip irrigation regimes on the yield and quality of cv. Challenger, Mission and Vera Cruz were investigated at Davis, California in 1993 and 1994.

T. K. Hartz

1997-01-01

272

Nutrient availability and cocoyam yield under different tillage practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research information on the effect of tillage systems on cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott) growth, nutrient status and yield is lacking in Africa. The effects of zero tillage with mulch, zero tillage without mulch, manual mounding, manual ridging and conventional tillage on cocoyam yield, growth and nutrient availability were compared during 2 years on an Alfisol (Oxic Tropuldaf) at Owo

T. M. Agbede

2008-01-01

273

A CONSISTENT YIELD-BASED CAPITAL BUDGETING METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a yield-based capital budgeting method that is consistent in maximizing shareholder wealth in six out of seven preconditioned environments. Academic studies surveying corporate management consistently conclude that corporate management prefers a yield-based capital budgeting method, such as the IRR, to a discount cash flow model, such as the NPV. This preference is strong with the NPV and

David A. Volkman

274

Crops Yield Increase Under Water-Limited Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to future requirements for more crop production there will be greater needs to increase yields for crops subjected to water deficits. In recent years, substantial progress has been made with soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in understanding the water deficit limitation on yield using model assessments, physiological investigations, and plant breeding. This knowledge has been applied in developing higher

Walid Sadok; Thomas R. Sinclair

2011-01-01

275

County-Level Crop Yield Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early estimates of crop yield, particularly at a fine scale, can inform precision agriculture efforts. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) currently provides estimates of yield on a monthly basis for each state. These estimates are based on phone interviews with farmers and in-situ examination of randomly selected plots. We seek to provide predictions at a much higher spatial

K. L. Wagstaff; A. Roper

2007-01-01

276

Cellular decompositions of 3-manifolds that yield 3-manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction. The purpose of this note is to announce several results concerning cellular decompositions of 3-manifolds for which the associated decomposition space is a 3-manifold. In (6), Bing raised the question of whether each point like decom­ position of Ez that yields a 3-manifold yields E3. This question leads naturally to the following one : Suppose M is a

Steve Armentrout

1969-01-01

277

Estimating fuelwood yields from overstocked pine regeneration areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overstocked stands of small, young pines are immediately available sources of biomass in some areas. Biomass yield data are needed to evaluate the economic potential of thinning swaths in dense stands for harvest of fuelwood. This note describes results of inventories of dense stands and presents a method for estimating potential biomass yields from thinning. The method requires relatively few

W. H. McNab; M. B. Edwards

1982-01-01

278

Predicting Rice Yield Using Canopy Reflectance Measured at Booting Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

grain flow dynamics and accurate logging of geographic position) associated with combine yield monitors, as Abilities to estimate rice (Oryza sativa L.) yields within fields from suggested by Lark et al. (1997) and Arslan and Colvin remote sensing images is not only fundamental to applications of

Kuo-Wei Chang; Yuan Shen; Jeng-Chung Lo

2005-01-01

279

Seed Number and Yield Determination in Sulfur Deficient Soybean Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In soybean, seed number and yield is largely determined by the environmental conditions between initial bloom and the beginning of seed filling. Four field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of two sources of sulfur (S) on crop growth during the critical period of seed number determination and yield. Ammonium sulfate and gypsum were applied at a rate of

Flavio H. Gutierrez Boem; Pablo Prystupa; Gustavo Ferraris

2007-01-01

280

Analysis Methodology for Semiconductor Yield by Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional semiconductor yield analysis is a hypothesis verification process, which heavily depends on engineers' knowledge. Data mining methodology, on the other hand, is a hypothesis discovery process that is free from this constraint. This paper proposes a data mining method for semiconductor yield analysis, which consists of the following two phases: discovering hypothetical failure causes by regression tree analysis

Hidetaka Tsuda; Hidehiro Shirai; Masahiro Terabe; Kazuo Hashimoto; Ayumi Shinohara

2009-01-01

281

CONVENIENCE YIELD MODEL WITH PARTIAL OBSERVATIONS AND EXPONENTIAL UTILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of hedging and pricing claims for delivery of crude oil or natural gas to a given location. We work with a three factor model for the asset spot, the convenience yield and the loca- tional basis. The convenience yield is taken to be unobserved and must be filtered. We study the value function corresponding to utility

E CARMONA; MICHAEL LUDKOVSKI

282

Time resolved neutron yield measurements on FT device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of four BF3 proportional chambers for time resolved neutron yield measurements is operative on the FT (Frascati Torus) device. The determination of plasma parameters from neutron yield measurements is a relatively new field of investigation subjected to continuous improvements, also in view of feasible application to the control of future fusion reactors. The absolute calibration of neutron detectors

S. Podda

1987-01-01

283

Sputtering Yield Measurements on HCP and FCC Cobalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Single crystals of cobalt with the 0001 axis normal to the surface were used. When heated above the transition temperature, the 0001 axis transforms to a 111 axis in the fcc structure. Both the total sputtering yield and the angular distribution in yield ...

V. S. Chernysh A. Johansen L. Sarholt-kristensen

1980-01-01

284

Physiological causes of yield variation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive cassava research programme was started at CIAT (Colombia). One of its aims was

H. J. Veltkamp

1985-01-01

285

tau polarisation measurement in the tau yields pi nu channel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A measurement of the polarisation of (tau)'s produced by Z(sup 0) yields (tau)(sup +) (tau)(sup -) using the decay mode (tau) yields (pi) (nu) (sub (tau)) is presented. The present experiment was carried out using the ALEPH detector at the LEP collider at...

F. Zomer

1991-01-01

286

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield response to simulated hail damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield loss in potato damaged by hail is mainly caused by reduced leaf area and plant stand. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated hail damage on potato yield. The treatments were six levels of defoliation (control, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) and five defoliation times (2, 5, 8, 11 and 14 weeks after

Amir Hooshang Jalali

2012-01-01

287

Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) Infestation Foci: Cotton Yield Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environ. Entomol. 16. 614-617 (1987) ABSTRACT Artificially inoculated spider mite foci increase in size at an exponential rate. Productivity was greatest on plants farthest from the center of each focus. Timing of initial infestation was shown, both experimentally and through simulation, to affect ultimate yield of cotton: the earlier the initiation of infestation, the lower the yield. These results as

L. T. WILSON; C. H. PICKETT; T. F. LEIGH; J. R. CAREY

288

Oil yield and uranium content of black shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some black shales contain as much as one hundred times more uranium than other common sedimentary rocks and they also contain organic matter that will yield oil when subjected to destructive distillation. Such shales may be referred to as uraniferous oil shales and have been considered as a potential source of both oil and uranium; oil yield and uranium determinations

1960-01-01

289

Plastic yielding of a film adhesive under multiaxial stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a study of the plastic yielding behaviour of a rubber-toughened film adhesive (FM73) subjected to triaxial stresses. Experiments were carried out using a bonded joint specimen similar to the Iosipescu specimens originally designed for use with fibre composite materials. The experimental results reveal that the plastic yielding of the FM73 adhesive exhibits a complex dependence on the

Chun H Wang; Peter Chalkley

2000-01-01

290

The Distillation Yield and Properties of Ternary Crude Oils Blending  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase of business transactions, processing blending oil is increasingly more common. Enhancing the distillation yield by optimizing the blending oils is currently one of the major challenges refineries are facing to make them profitable. Iran crude oil, Saudi crude oil, and Cabinda crude oil were selected to be studied in this article. The blending oil distillation yields and

L. Shaoping; D. Luoyong; S. Benxian; Z. Lijuan; T. Feng; X. Xinru; Y. Jingyi; Z. Beilei

2011-01-01

291

MISSISSIPPI COTTON YIELD MONITOR: THREE YEARS OF FIELD TEST RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mississippi cotton yield monitor, which is based on an optical cotton-flow sensor comprised of emitters and detectors in one unit that can be affixed to only one side of a pneumatic duct, has been under development at Mississippi State University since 1999. One prototype of the yield monitor was field tested that year in Mississippi. In 2000, three prototypes

J. A. Thomasson; R. Sui

292

Yield stability of Tartary buckwheat genotypes in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability analysis is an important step in developing cultivars for a wide range of environments or for a specific loca­ tion. The yield stability of 17 Tartary buckwheat genotypes evaluated in Nepal during the two crop seasons of 1999 and 2000 were assessed. The regression coefficient (b) and coefficient of determ ination (r2) were used for assessing yield stability and

Bal Krishna JOSHI

2004-01-01

293

Pod yield stability analysis of runner peanut lines using AMMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between genotypes and environment (GxE) can influence the selection process and recommendation of peanut cultivars. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of GxE interaction of peanut pod yield using AMMI. The yield of 18 peanut lines and the cultivars IAC Caiapo and Runner IAC 886 was assessed in 10 field trials in the

Eder Jorge de Oliveira; Ignácio José de Godoy

294

Calculation of the total electron excitation cross section in the Born approximation using Slater wave functions for the Li (2s yields 2p), Li (2s yields 3p), Na (3s yields 4p), Mg (3p yields 4s), Ca (4s yields 4p) and K (4s yields 4p) excitations. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.

Simsic, P. L.

1974-01-01

295

Selective and high-yield synthesis of higher fullerenes  

SciTech Connect

Fullerenes have been prepared by dc arc synthesis with graphite (anode) rods containing light elements such as B, Si, or Al in a series of concentrations. Furthermore, the influence of mixing N{sub 2} (g) with He(g) on the yield of higher fullerenes has been addressed. For each type of experiment, the relative fullerene yields are obtained from the relative peak areas in surface analysis by laser ionization-mass spectrometry (SALI-MS) spectra and the absolute yield of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} from calibrated HPLC; the relative yields in SALI-MS represent closely the nascent distribution in the primary soots. We determine the approximate absolute yields of higher fullerenes, for which extinction coefficients are not yet available for HPLC analysis, by scaling the absolute C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} yields with the relative concentrations from SALI-MS. The most prominent increased higher fullerene yield was obtained with a 1% B-doped graphite rod with a 2:100 volume mixture of N{sub 2}(g): He(g); the absolute yield of C{sub 60} was reduced from 8.85% to 2.75%, and the yield of higher fullerenes such as C{sub 78} and C{sub 84} was increased by a factor of 2 over the pure C, pure He(g) case. We conclude that using a B-doped graphite rod and mixing in small amounts of N{sub 2}(g) into He(g) enhances both the absolute and relative yields of higher fullerenes. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Tohji, K.; Paul, A.; Moro, L.; Malhotra, R.; Lorents, D.C.; Ruoff, R.S. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1995-12-14

296

Secondary organic aerosol yields of 12-carbon alkanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields were measured for cyclododecane, hexylcyclohexane, n-dodecane, and 2-methylundecane under high-NOx conditions, in which alkyl proxy radicals (RO2) react primarily with NO, and under low-NOx conditions, in which RO2 reacts primarily with HO2. Experiments were run until 95-100% of the initial alkane had reacted. Particle wall loss was evaluated as two limiting cases using a new approach that requires only suspended particle number-size distribution data and accounts for size-dependent particle wall losses and condensation. SOA yield differed by a factor of 2 between the two limiting cases, but the same trends among alkane precursors were observed for both limiting cases. Vapor-phase wall losses were addressed through a modeling study and increased SOA yield uncertainty by approximately 30%. SOA yields were highest from cyclododecane under both NOx conditions. SOA yields ranged from 3.3% (dodecane, low-NOx conditions) to 160% (cyclododecane, high-NOx conditions). Under high-NOx conditions, SOA yields increased from 2-methylundecane < dodecane ~ hexylcyclohexane < cyclododecane, consistent with previous studies. Under low-NOx conditions, SOA yields increased from 2-methylundecane ~ dodecane < hexylcyclohexane < cyclododecane. The presence of cyclization in the parent alkane structure increased SOA yields, whereas the presence of branch points decreased SOA yields due to increased vapor-phase fragmentation. Vapor-phase fragmentation was found to be more prevalent under high-NOx conditions than under low-NOx conditions. For different initial mixing ratios of the same alkane and same NOx conditions, SOA yield did not correlate with SOA mass throughout SOA growth, suggesting kinetically limited SOA growth for these systems.

Loza, C. L.; Craven, J. S.; Yee, L. D.; Coggon, M. M.; Schwantes, R. H.; Shiraiwa, M.; Zhang, X.; Schilling, K. A.; Ng, N. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Ziemann, P. J.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2014-02-01

297

Comparison of corn silage hybrids for yield, nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility, and milk yield by dairy cows.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to compare Novartis N29-F1, a dual-purpose 90-d relative maturity corn hybrid, and Novartis NX3018, a 90-d relative maturity leafy corn silage hybrid for dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro digestibility, plant components, nutrient composition, and lactational performance by Holstein cows. The two corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2- x 321-m plots. Plant population and DM yield were similar between the two corn hybrids. Novartis NX3018 had higher content of crude protein and ash, a higher proportion of leaves and stalks, and a lower proportion of grain compared with Novartis N29-F1. The cob, grain, and leaves of Novartis NX3018 had higher in vitro true DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearances compared with the respective plant components of Novartis N29-F1. Thirty-eight midlactation multiparous Holstein cows (78 +/- 23.0 days in milk) producing 47.2 +/- 8.9 kg of milk per cow per day were blocked and assigned randomly to one of two total mixed ration (TMR) containing (DM basis) approximately 26% Novartis N29-F1 or Novartis NX3018 corn silage. Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and group fed ad libitum. The lactation study was conducted as a crossover design with two 28-d periods. Samples and data were collected during the final 7 d of each period. The total mixed rations were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy nutrition model. Cows that were fed the total mixed rations containing Novartis NX3018 corn silage produced higher yields of milk 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM), milk crude protein, and milk lactose compared to cows that were fed the TMR containing Novartis N29-F1 corn silage. In conclusion, the Novartis NX3018 corn hybrid was leafier and more digestible in vitro, and when fed to dairy cows as silage, promoted higher milk yield compared with the Novartis N29-F1 corn hybrid. PMID:11699453

Thomas, E D; Mandebvu, P; Ballard, C S; Sniffen, C J; Carter, M P; Beck, J

2001-10-01

298

Spectral reflectance indices as a selection criterion for yield improvement in wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and methods of study. Yield in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a complex trait and influenced by many environmental factors, and yield improvement is a daunting task for wheat breeders. Spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) have been used to study different physiological traits in wheat. SRIs have the potential to differentiate genotypes for grain yield. SRIs strongly associated with grain yield can be used to achieve effective genetic gain in wheat under different environments. Three experiments (15 adapted genotypes, 25 and 36 random sister lines derived from two different crosses) under irrigated conditions, and three experiments (each with 30 advanced genotypes) under water-limited conditions were conducted in three successive years in Northwest Mexico at the CIMMYT (International Maize and wheat Improvement Center) experimental station. SRIs and different agronomic data were collected for three years, and biomass was harvested for two years. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between SRIs and grain yield, between SRIs and biomass, realized and broad sense heritability, direct and correlated selection responses for grain yield, and SRIs were calculated. Findings and conclusion. Seven SRIs were calculated, and three near infrared based indices (WI, NWI-1 and NWI-2) showed higher level of genetic and phenotypic correlations with grain yield, yield components and biomass than other SRIs (PRI, RNDVI, GNDVI, and SR) under both irrigated and water limiting environments. Moderate to high realized and broad sense heritability, and selection response were demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. High efficiency of correlated response for yield estimation was demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. The ratio between the correlated response to grain yield based on the three NIR based indices and direct selection response for grain yield was very close to one. The NIR based indices showed very high accuracy in selecting superior genotypes for grain yield under both well-watered and water-limited conditions. These results demonstrated that effective genetic gain in grain yield improvement can be achieved by making selections with the three NIR based indices.

Babar, Md. Ali

299

Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields  

SciTech Connect

Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

Lobell, D

2007-04-26

300

Organic aerosol yields from ?-pinene oxidation: bridging the gap between first-generation yields and aging chemistry.  

PubMed

Secondary organic aerosol formation from volatile precursors can be thought of as a succession of generations of reaction products. Here, we constrain first-generation SOA formation from the ?-pinene + OH reaction and also study SOA formation from ?-pinene ozonolysis carried out without an OH scavenger. SOA yields from OH oxidation of ?-pinene are significantly higher than SOA yields from ozonolysis including an OH scavenger, and the SOA mass yields for unscavenged ozonolysis generally fall within the range of mass yields for ?-pinene ozonolysis under various conditions. Taken together, first-generation product yields parametrized with a volatility basis set fit provide a starting point for atmospheric models designed to simulate both the production and subsequent aging of SOA from this important terpene. PMID:23088520

Henry, Kaytlin M; Lohaus, Theresa; Donahue, Neil M

2012-11-20

301

Ensemble approach to wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop yield forecasting is an extremely important component of the agriculture monitoring domain. In our previous study [1], we assessed relative efficiency and feasibility of using an NDVI-based empirical model for winter wheat yield forecasting at oblast level in Ukraine. Though the NDVI-based model provides minimum data requirements, it has some limitations since NDVI is indirectly related just to biomass but not meteorological conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to assess satellite-derived parameters that incorporate meteorology while maintaining the requirement of minimum data inputs. The objective of the proposed paper is several-fold: (i) to assess efficiency of using biophysical satellite-derived parameters for crop yield forecasting for Ukraine and select the optimal ones based on rigorous feature selection procedure; (ii) to assimilate predictions made by models built on various satellite-derived parameters. Two new parameters are considered in the paper: (i) vegetation health index (VHI) at 4 km spatial resolution derived from a series of NOAA satellites; (ii) Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION at 1 km spatial resolution. VHI data are provided as weekly composites and FAPAR data are provided as decadal composites. The particular advantage of using VHI is that it incorporates moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation canopy, while FAPAR is directly related to the primary productivity of photosynthesis It is required to find a day of the year for which a parameter is taken and used in the empirical model. For this purpose, a Random Forest feature selection procedure is applied. It is found that VHI and FAPAR values taken in April-May provided the minimum error value when comparing to the official statistics, thus enabling forecasts 2-3 months prior to harvest, and this corresponds to results derived from LOOCV procedure. The best timing for making reliable yield forecasts is nearly the same as it was for the NDVI-based approach (±16 days). The most accurate predictions for 2012 were achieved using the FAPAR-based approach with the RMSE value of 0.56 t ha?1 (performance of VHI-based and NDVI-based approaches was 0.7 t ha?1 and 0.68 t ha?1, respectively). Therefore, we can conclude that performance of empirical regression models based on satellite data with biophysical variables (such as VHI and FAPAR) is approximately 20% more accurate (on datasets available at the moment) comparing to the NDVI approach when producing winter wheat yield forecasts at oblast level in Ukraine 2-3 months prior to harvest. [1] F. Kogan, N. Kussul, T. Adamenko, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, O. Kryvobok, A. Shelestov, A. Kolotii, O. Kussul, and A. Lavrenyuk, "Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013.

Kussul, Nataliia; Kolotii, Andrii; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga; Kravchenko, Oleksii

2014-05-01

302

Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2002-01-01

303

Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2003-01-01

304

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming  

PubMed Central

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35°C and 1.13°C, respectively, for the period 1979–2003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1°C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming.

Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Sheehy, John E.; Laza, Rebecca C.; Visperas, Romeo M.; Zhong, Xuhua; Centeno, Grace S.; Khush, Gurdev S.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2004-01-01

305

General lower bounds for b{yields}d penguin processes  

SciTech Connect

For the exploration of flavor physics, b{yields}d penguin processes are an important aspect, with the prominent example of B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}K{sup 0}. We recently derived lower bounds for the CP-averaged branching ratio of this channel in the standard model; they were found to be very close to the corresponding experimental upper limits, thereby suggesting that B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}K{sup 0} should soon be observed. In fact, the BABAR Collaboration subsequently announced the first signals of this transition. Here we point out that it is also possible to derive lower bounds for B{yields}{rho}{gamma} decays, which are again surprisingly close to the current experimental upper limits. We show that these bounds are realizations of a general bound that holds within the standard model for b{yields}d penguin processes, allowing further applications to decays of the kind B{sup {+-}}{yields}K{sup (}*{sup ){+-}}K{sup (}*{sup )} and B{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}l{sup +}l{sup -}, {rho}{sup {+-}}l{sup +}l{sup -}.

Fleischer, Robert [Theory Division, Department of Physics, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Recksiegel, Stefan [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2005-03-01

306

EMPIRICALLY DERIVED INTEGRATED STELLAR YIELDS OF Fe-PEAK ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We present here the initial results of a new study of massive star yields of Fe-peak elements. We have compiled from the literature a database of carefully determined solar neighborhood stellar abundances of seven iron-peak elements, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and then plotted [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] to study the trends as functions of metallicity. Chemical evolution models were then employed to force a fit to the observed trends by adjusting the input massive star metallicity-sensitive yields of Kobayashi et al. Our results suggest that yields of Ti, V, and Co are generally larger as well as anticorrelated with metallicity, in contrast to the Kobayashi et al. predictions. We also find the yields of Cr and Mn to be generally smaller and directly correlated with metallicity compared to the theoretical results. Our results for Ni are consistent with theory, although our model suggests that all Ni yields should be scaled up slightly. The outcome of this exercise is the computation of a set of integrated yields, i.e., stellar yields weighted by a slightly flattened time-independent Salpeter initial mass function and integrated over stellar mass, for each of the above elements at several metallicity points spanned by the broad range of observations. These results are designed to be used as empirical constraints on future iron-peak yield predictions by stellar evolution modelers. Special attention is paid to the interesting behavior of [Cr/Co] with metallicity-these two elements have opposite slopes-as well as the indirect correlation of [Ti/Fe] with [Fe/H]. These particular trends, as well as those exhibited by the inferred integrated yields of all iron-peak elements with metallicity, are discussed in terms of both supernova nucleosynthesis and atomic physics.

Henry, R. B. C.; Cowan, John J. [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer, E-mail: henry@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: jsobeck@uchicago.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2010-02-01

307

Quantitative Generalizations for Catchment Sediment Yield Following Plantation Logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a reasonably clear qualitative understanding of the impact of forest plantations on sediment yield, there is a lack of quantitative generalizations. Such generalizations would be helpful for estimating the impacts of proposed forestry operations and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. This study therefore analyzed data from the literature to determine the extent to which quantitative statements can be established. The research was restricted to the impact of plantation logging on catchment sediment yield as a function of ground disturbance in the years immediately following logging, in temperate countries, and does not consider landslides consequent upon tree root decay. Twelve paired catchment studies incorporating pre- and post-logging measurements of sediment yield were identified, resulting in forty-three test catchments (including 14 control catchments). Analysis yielded the following principal conclusions: 1) Logging generally provokes maximum annual sediment yields of less than a few hundred t km-2 yr-1; best management practice can reduce this below 100 t km-2 yr-1. 2) At both the annual and event scales, the sediment yield excess of a logged catchment over a control catchment is within one order of magnitude, except with severe ground disturbance. 3) There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield impact and the proportion of catchment logged. The effect depends on which part of the catchment is altered and on its connectivity to the stream network. 4) The majority of catchments delivered their maximum sediment yield in the first two years after logging. The logging impacts were classified in terms of the absolute values of specific sediment yield, the values relative to those in the control catchments for the same period and the values relative both to the control catchment and the pre-logging period. Most studies have been for small catchments (< 10 km2) and temperate regions; the impact at large catchment scales and in tropical regions requires further research.

Bathurst, James; Iroume, Andres

2014-05-01

308

Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.  

PubMed

In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. PMID:22932270

Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

2012-10-11

309

High-Yield D-T Neutron Generator  

SciTech Connect

A high-yield D-T neutron generator has been developed for neutron interrogation in homeland security applications such as cargo screening. The generator has been designed as a sealed tube with a performance goal of producing 5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} n/s over a long lifetime. The key generator components developed are a radio-frequency (RF) driven ion source and a beam-loaded neutron production target that can handle a beam power of 10 kW. The ion source can provide a 100 mA D{sup +}/T{sup +} beam current with a high fraction of atomic species and can be pulsed up to frequencies of several kHz for pulsed neutron generator operation. Testing in D-D operation has been started.

Ludewigt, B.A.; Wells, R.P.; Reijonen, J.

2006-11-15

310

Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels  

PubMed Central

Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. It functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. Despite its low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted.

Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T.

2013-01-01

311

Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels.  

PubMed

Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. It functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. Despite its low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted. PMID:23543255

Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T

2013-01-01

312

Resistance of titanium diboride to high-temperature plastic yielding  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline TiB2 specimens of 3 microns average grain size but free of lamellar precipitates were compression-tested to 1900/sup 0/C and 500 MPa. No plastic yielding was detected. Under such conditions, most other structural ceramics do exhibit yield behavior. The results suggest the existence of a high Peierls stress, presumably related to Ti-B bonding. This finding contrasts with a report on ZrB2 in which resistance to yielding was attributed to lamellar precipitates. 13 references.

Ramberg, J.R.; Wolfe, C.F.; Williams, W.S.

1985-03-01

313

Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

2003-03-01

314

Fission Yield Measurements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Correct prediction of the fission products inventory in irradiated nuclear fuels is essential for accurate estimation of fuel burnup, establishing proper requirements for spent fuel transportation and storage, materials accountability and nuclear forensics. Such prediction is impossible without accurate knowledge of neutron induced fission yields. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the fission yields reported in the ENDF/B-VII.0 library is not uniform across all of the data and much of the improvement is desired for certain isotopes and fission products. We discuss our measurements of cumulative fission yields in nuclear fuels irradiated in thermal and fast reactor spectra using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

Irina Glagolenko; Bruce Hilton; Jeffrey Giglio; Daniel Cummings; Karl Grimm; Richard McKnight

2009-11-01

315

A study to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on yield of field-grown soybeans ( Glycine max. cv. Hodgson)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted in 1985 and 1986, using a fully automated rain exclusion canopy system, to investigate the impact of simulated acidic rain (SAR) on yield of soybean (Glycine max cv. Hodgson). Treatment effects were determined for various yield components: seed yield (kg ha-1), pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight (g 100 seeds-1). Plant

Allen Kuja; Murray Dixon

1989-01-01

316

Associated strangeness production in the pp{yields}pK{sup +}K{sup -}p and pp{yields}pK{sup +{pi}0{Sigma}0} reactions  

SciTech Connect

The total and differential cross sections for associated strangeness production in the pp{yields}pK{sup +}K{sup -}p and pp{yields}pK{sup +{pi}0{Sigma}0} reactions have been studied in a unified approach using an effective Lagrangian model. It is assumed that both the K{sup -}p and {pi}{sup 0{Sigma}0} final states originate from the decay of the {Lambda}(1405) that was formed in the production chain pp{yields}p(N*(1535){yields}K{sup +{Lambda}}(1405)). The available experimental data are well reproduced, especially the ratio of the two total cross sections, which is much less sensitive to the particular model of the entrance channel. The significant coupling of the N*(1535) to {Lambda}(1405)K is further evidence for large ss-bar components in the quark wave function of the N*(1535).

Xie Jujun [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptd. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Department of Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001 (China); Wilkin, Colin [Physics and Astronomy Department, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2010-08-15

317

Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments.  

PubMed

A large proportion of the worlds' wheat growing regions suffers water and/or heat stress at some stage during the crop growth cycle. With few exceptions, there has been no utilisation of managed environments to screen mapping populations under repeatable abiotic stress conditions, such as the facilities developed by the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). Through careful management of irrigation and sowing date over three consecutive seasons, repeatable heat, drought and high yield potential conditions were imposed on the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population to identify genetic loci for grain yield, yield components and key morpho-physiological traits under these conditions. Two of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located on chromosome 3B and had a large effect on canopy temperature and grain yield, accounting for up to 22 % of the variance for these traits. The locus on chromosome arm 3BL was detected under all three treatments but had its largest effect under the heat stress conditions, with the RAC875 allele increasing grain yield by 131 kg ha(-1) (or phenotypically, 7 % of treatment average). Only two of the eight yield QTL detected in the current study (including linkage groups 3A, 3D, 4D 5B and 7A) were previously detected in the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population; and there were also different yield components driving grain yield. A number of discussion points are raised to understand differences between the Mexican and southern Australian production environments and explain the lack of correlation between the datasets. The two key QTL detected on chromosome 3B in the present study are candidates for further genetic dissection and development of molecular markers. PMID:22772727

Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Mullan, Daniel; Izanloo, Ali; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2012-11-01

318

Development of JENDL Decay and Fission Yield Data Libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decay and fission yield data of fission products have been developed for decay heat calculations to constitute one of the special purpose files of JENDL (Japanese Nuclear Data Library). The decay data in the previous JENDL decay data file have been updated based on the data extracted from ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) and those by Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (TAGS) measurements reported recently. Fission yield data have also been updated in order to maintain consistency between the decay and yield data files. Decay heat calculations were performed using the updated decay and yield data, and the results were compared with measured decay heat data to demonstrate their applicability. The uncertainties of the calculated results were obtained by sensitivity analyses. The resulting JENDL calculations and their uncertainty were compared with those from the ENDF and JEFF evaluated files.

Katakura, J.

2014-04-01

319

Unused Natural Variation Can Lift Yield Barriers in Plant Breeding  

PubMed Central

Natural biodiversity is an underexploited sustainable resource that can enrich the genetic basis of cultivated plants with novel alleles that improve productivity and adaptation. We evaluated the progress in breeding for increased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) yield using genotypes carrying a pyramid of three independent yield-promoting genomic regions introduced from the drought-tolerant green-fruited wild species Solanum pennellii. Yield of hybrids parented by the pyramided genotypes was more than 50% higher than that of a control market leader variety under both wet and dry field conditions that received 10% of the irrigation water. This demonstration of the breaking of agricultural yield barriers provides the rationale for implementing similar strategies for other agricultural organisms that are important for global food security.

2004-01-01

320

The yield of experimental yeast populations declines during selection.  

PubMed

The trade-off between growth rate and yield can limit population productivity. Here we tested for this life-history trade-off in replicate haploid and diploid populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae propagated in glucose-limited medium in batch cultures for 5000 generations. The yield of single clones isolated from the haploid lineages, measured as both optical and population density at the end of a growth cycle, declined during selection and was negatively correlated with growth rate. Initially, diploid populations did not pay this cost of adaptation but haploidized after about 1000-3000 generations of selection, and this ploidy transition was associated with a decline in yield caused by reduced cell size. These results demonstrate the experimental evolution of a trade-off between growth rate and yield, caused by antagonistic pleiotropy, during adaptation in haploids and after an adaptive transition from diploidy to haploidy. PMID:22951743

Jasmin, Jean-Nicolas; Dillon, Marcus M; Zeyl, Clifford

2012-11-01

321

The yield of experimental yeast populations declines during selection  

PubMed Central

The trade-off between growth rate and yield can limit population productivity. Here we tested for this life-history trade-off in replicate haploid and diploid populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae propagated in glucose-limited medium in batch cultures for 5000 generations. The yield of single clones isolated from the haploid lineages, measured as both optical and population density at the end of a growth cycle, declined during selection and was negatively correlated with growth rate. Initially, diploid populations did not pay this cost of adaptation but haploidized after about 1000–3000 generations of selection, and this ploidy transition was associated with a decline in yield caused by reduced cell size. These results demonstrate the experimental evolution of a trade-off between growth rate and yield, caused by antagonistic pleiotropy, during adaptation in haploids and after an adaptive transition from diploidy to haploidy.

Jasmin, Jean-Nicolas; Dillon, Marcus M.; Zeyl, Clifford

2012-01-01

322

Biaxial Yield Surface Investigation of Polymer-Matrix Composites  

PubMed Central

This article presents a numerical technique for computing the biaxial yield surface of polymer-matrix composites with a given microstructure. Generalized Method of Cells in combination with an Improved Bodner-Partom Viscoplastic model is used to compute the inelastic deformation. The validation of presented model is proved by a fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain test system through uniaxial testing under two different strain rate conditions. On this basis, the manufacturing process thermal residual stress and strain rate effect on the biaxial yield surface of composites are considered. The results show that the effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial yield response is closely dependent on loading conditions. Moreover, biaxial yield strength tends to increase with the increasing strain rate.

Ye, Junjie; Qiu, Yuanying; Zhai, Zhi; He, Zhengjia

2013-01-01

323

Biaxial yield surface investigation of polymer-matrix composites.  

PubMed

This article presents a numerical technique for computing the biaxial yield surface of polymer-matrix composites with a given microstructure. Generalized Method of Cells in combination with an Improved Bodner-Partom Viscoplastic model is used to compute the inelastic deformation. The validation of presented model is proved by a fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain test system through uniaxial testing under two different strain rate conditions. On this basis, the manufacturing process thermal residual stress and strain rate effect on the biaxial yield surface of composites are considered. The results show that the effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial yield response is closely dependent on loading conditions. Moreover, biaxial yield strength tends to increase with the increasing strain rate. PMID:23529150

Ye, Junjie; Qiu, Yuanying; Zhai, Zhi; He, Zhengjia

2013-01-01

324

Improved calibration of neutron yield measurement system on FTU Tokamak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The neutron yield measurement system on FTU was initially composed of six BF3 proportional chambers for the start-up phase. The present reliable operations in deuterium, at higher plasma current, produce higher temperature discharges with higher neutron y...

L. Bertalot B. Esposito S. Podda S. Rollet

1992-01-01

325

Independent isomer yield ratio of /sup 90/Rb  

SciTech Connect

The independent isomer yield ratio for /sup 90/Rb from thermal neutron fission of /sup 235/U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from /sup 90/Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs.

Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

1985-05-01

326

b {yields} s{gamma} Decays at BABAR  

SciTech Connect

Recent BABAR results on b {yields} s{gamma} decays are reviewed. Both the branching fraction and the CP violating asymmetry in radiative penguin decays are sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model. Furthermore, the measurement of the photon energy spectrum allows the determination of the Heavy Quark Effective Theory parameters related to the b-quark mass and its motion inside the B meson. New results on the B {yields} Xs{gamma} branching fraction and CP violating asymmetry are presented, as well as the measurement of the photon energy spectrum. Also reported is the preliminary measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in the B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup *0}{gamma} (K{sup *0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) decay.

Bucci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy)

2005-10-12

327

Internal Friction During Repeated Discontinuous Yielding of Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Internal friction measurements were made on three FCC alloys, alpha-brass and 2024 and 6063 aluminum, coincident with repeated discontinuous yielding of the specimens (Portevin-Le Chatelier effect). A torsional pendulum arrangement was used to obtain low ...

J. Baruch S. R. Bodner

1973-01-01

328

High-Gum-Yielding Slash Plines Survive and Grow Well.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plantings in Georgia and Florida were established with slash pine seedlings of three genetic types: selections improved for high gum yield (IHGY), selections with improved growth and form (IGF), and commercial stock (CS). Under adverse environmental condi...

C. R. Gansel S. V. Kossuth W. J. Peters

1982-01-01

329

Procedures for Determining Support of Excavations in Highly Yielding Ground.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines report describes the results of an investigation for developing and applying procedures for stabilizing excavations openings in highly yielding ground. The approach developed in the report involves nonlinear modeling of the progressive...

J. D. Dixon M. A. Mahtab T. W. Smelser

1985-01-01

330

Calculating phases between B{yields}K*{pi} amplitudes  

SciTech Connect

A phase {Delta}{Phi} between amplitudes for B{sup 0{yields}}K*{sup 0{pi}0} and B{sup 0{yields}}K*{sup +{pi}-} plays a crucial role in a method for constraining Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters. We present a general argument for destructive interference between amplitudes for B{sup 0{yields}}K*{sup +{pi}-} and B{sup 0{yields}}K*{sup 0{pi}0} forming together a smaller I(K*{pi})=3/2 amplitude. Applying flavor SU(3) and allowing for conservative theoretical uncertainties, we obtain lower limits on |{Delta}{Phi}| and its charge conjugate. Values of these two phases favored by the BABAR collaboration are in good agreement with our bounds.

Gronau, Michael; Pirjol, Dan; Rosner, Jonathan L. [Physics Department, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Department of Particle Physics, National Institute for Physics and Engineering, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2010-05-01

331

Challenging defect repair techniques for maximizing mask repair yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's economic climate it is critical to improve mask yield as materials, processes and tools are more time and cost involved than ever. One way to directly improve mask yield is by reducing the number of masks scrapped due to defects which is one of the major mask yield reducing factors. The MeRiTTM MG 45, with the ability to repair both clear and opaque defects on a variety of masks, is the most comprehensive and versatile repair tool in production today. The cost of owning multiple repair tools can be reduced and time is saved when fast turnaround is required, especially when more than one defect type is present on a single mask. This paper demonstrates the ability to correct repair errors due to human mistakes and presents techniques to repair challenging production line defects with the goal of maximizing mask repair yield and cycle time reduction.

Garetto, Anthony; Oster, Jens; Waiblinger, Markus; Edinger, Klaus

2009-10-01

332

Modelling Changes to Crop Yield Under Climate Change Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two sets of quantitative predictions for global soy and maize yields under changes to temperature and precipitation. The climatic changes considered are based on IPCC scenarios A1B and B1 as calculated with a variety of GCMs. One set of crop yield predictions is calculated with the process-based PEGASUS model, the other is based on an empirical climate-analog

J. S. Gerber; D. Deryng; D. K. Ray; N. D. Mueller; J. A. Foley; N. Ramankutty

2010-01-01

333

PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCES THEIR FABRICATION AND THEIR YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigntion of the plutonium-beryllium phase diagram demonstrates ;\\u000a the suitability of these alloys and most particularly the intermetallic compound ;\\u000a PuBeââ for stable neutron sources. These sources are superior to polonium-;\\u000a beryllium sources in respect to sthbility of neutron yield as a iunction of time ;\\u000a and the prediotability of neutroc yield as a function of mass. The gamma-ray

R. E. Tate; A. S. Coffinberry

1958-01-01

334

Z{gamma}{gamma}{gamma} {yields} 0 Processes in SANC  

SciTech Connect

We describe the analytic and numerical evaluation of the {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}Z process cross section and the Z {yields} {gamma}{gamma}{gamma} decay rate within the SANC system multi-channel approach at the one-loop accuracy level with all masses taken into account. The corresponding package for numeric calculations is presented. For checking of the results' correctness we make a comparison with the other independent calculations.

Bardin, D. Yu., E-mail: bardin@nu.jinr.ru; Kalinovskaya, L. V., E-mail: kalinov@nu.jinr.ru; Uglov, E. D., E-mail: corner@nu.jinr.ru [JINR, Dzhelepov Laboratory for Nuclear Problems (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15

335

Surface instability of binary compounds caused by sputter yield amplification  

SciTech Connect

It is demonstrated that the flat surface of a binary material that is subjected to normal-incidence ion bombardment can be unstable even if the curvature dependence of the sputter yields is negligibly small. This unforeseen instability is brought about by sputter yield amplification, and it results in the formation of a disordered array of nanodots with the lighter of the two atomic species concentrated at the peaks of the dots.

Mark Bradley, R. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

2012-06-01

336

Yield losses caused by leaf roll of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The data presented confirm the opinion that the healthy hills adjoined by leaf roll plants on one or on both sides, compensate,\\u000a in part, for the low yield of the leaf roll plants.\\u000a \\u000a The gain in yield of a healthy plant adjoined on both sides by leaf roll plants is approximately double the gain of such plants\\u000a adjoined by a

H. C. Kirkpatrick; F. M. Biodgett

1943-01-01

337

Yield stress of SiC reinforced aluminum alloy composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a constitutive model for the yield stress of SiC reinforced aluminum alloy composites based on the modified\\u000a shear lag model, Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion approach, and Weibull statistics. The SiC particle debonding and cracking\\u000a during deformation have been incorporated into the model. It has been shown that the yield stress of the composites increases\\u000a as the volume fraction

Min Song; Yuehui He; Shanfeng Fang

2010-01-01

338

A measurement of the light yield of common inorganic scintillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light yield in photons\\/MeV of some common inorganic scintillating crystals has been measured with silicon photodiodes. Incident particles are gammas in the 1-MeV region. The light signal was calibrated against 60-keV gammas converted directly in the photodiode depletion layer. Among the tested materials CsI(Tl) gave the highest light yield of 52,000 photons\\/MeV deposited energy.

I. Holl; E. Lorenz; G. Mageras

1988-01-01

339

Quantum yield of photolytic degradation of poly(l-butene)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of isotatic poly(l-butene) irradiated with a monochromatic light of 253.7 nm undergo random chain-scission in air in the temperature range of 267.0–313.0 °K. Quantum yields in the absence and presence of different stabilizers have been determined using a potassium ferrioxalate actinometer from 0.0188 to 0.00027 scissions per absorbed photon. Quantum yields for scission were independent of intensity. Light

R. P. Singh

1981-01-01

340

Atomic radiative and radiationless yields for K and L shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available body of information on (a) fluorescence, Auger, and Coster-Kronig yields, (b) radiative and radiationless transition rates, (c) level widths, (d) x-ray and Auger line widths, (e) x-ray and Auger spectra, and (f) Coster-Kronig energies has been used to generate an internally consistent set of values of atomic radiative and radiationless yields for the K shell (5 ?Z?110) and

M. O. Krause

1979-01-01

341

Estimating the uncertainty in long-term photovoltaic yield predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncertainty in long-term photovoltaic (PV) system yield predictions was examined by statistical modeling of a hypothetical 10MW AC, c-Si photovoltaic system in Toronto, Canada. The goal of this research was to develop a methodology for estimating the uncertainty in PV yield predictions and to identify avenues for reducing this uncertainty. In this case study, uncertainties were estimated to be

Didier Thevenard; Sophie Pelland

342

Expanded thermodynamic true yield prediction model: adjustments and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial yield prediction is critical for bioprocess optimization and modeling of natural biological systems. In previous\\u000a work, an expanded thermodynamic true yield prediction model was developed through incorporating carbon balance and nitrogen\\u000a balance along with electron balance and energy balance. In the present work, the application of the expanded model is demonstrated\\u000a in multiple growth situations (aerobic heterotrophs, anoxic, anaerobic

Jinghua Xiao; Jeanne M. VanBriesen

2008-01-01

343

Estimating fuelwood yields from overstocked pine regeneration areas  

SciTech Connect

Overstocked stands of small, young pines are immediately available sources of biomass in some areas. Biomass yield data are needed to evaluate the economic potential of thinning swaths in dense stands for harvest of fuelwood. This note describes results of inventories of dense stands and presents a method for estimating potential biomass yields from thinning. The method requires relatively few measurements and provides reasonably accurate estimates. (Refs. 6).

McNab, W.H.; Edwards, M.B.

1982-10-01

344

Fast pyrolysis of soybean cake: Product yields and compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an investigation of the role of important parameters influencing pyrolysis yields from soybean cake. Experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 400 to 700°C, for various nitrogen flow rates, heating rates and particle sizes. The maximum liquid yield was 42.83% at a pyrolysis temperature of 550°C with a sweeping gas rate of 200cm3min?1 and heating rate

Basak Burcu Uzun; Ayse Eren Pütün; Ersan Pütün

2006-01-01

345

Memory yield improvement - SoC design perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-chip memories are a major source of yield loss in SoC designs. Currently, redundancy is the only available option to improve memory yield. However, other techniques - e.g., DFM-based bit-cell design, flexibility in bit-cell choice, and ability to choose the number of metal layers - can be more effective. The availability of such techniques allow designers to tailor memories to

J. B. Khare

2004-01-01

346

Consistent shakedown theorems for materials with temperature dependent yield functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The (elastic) shakedown problem for structures subjected to loads and temperature variations is addressed in the hypothesis of elastic–plastic rate-independent associative material models with temperature-dependent yield functions. Assuming the yield functions convex in the stress\\/temperature space, a thermodynamically consistent small-deformation thermo-plasticity theory is provided, in which the set of state and evolutive variables includes the temperature and the plastic entropy

Guido Borino

2000-01-01

347

Measuring the yield stress in magnetorheological fluids using ultrasounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose a method to accurately determine the yield stress in magnetorheological (MR) fluids using ultrasounds. The setup is constructed, and experimental data are obtained on a model conventional MR fluid under steady shear stress ramp-up tests. By using video-microscopy, ultrasonic techniques, and rheometry simultaneously, it is possible to precisely determine the yield stress at experimentally accessible times.

Rodríguez-López, Jaime; Elvira, Luis; Montero de Espinosa Freijo, Francisco; Bossis, Georges; de Vicente, Juan

2013-02-01

348

Disinfection byproduct yields from the chlorination of natural waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Yields for the formation of trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide disinfection byproducts were determined as a function of pH and initial free-chlorine concentration for the chlorination of water from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected at 12 sites on the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, MN, to New Orleans. LA, and on the Missouri and Ohio Rivers 1.6 km above their confluences with the Mississippi during the summer, fall, and spring seasons of the year. Yields varied little with distance along the Mississippi River, although the dissolved organic-carbon concentration decreased considerably with distance downstream. Yields for the Missouri and Ohio were comparable to yields for the Mississippi, despite much higher bromide concentrations for the Missouri and Ohio. Trihalomethane yields increased as the pH and initial free- chlorine concentration increased. Nonpurgeable total organic-halide yields also increased as the initial free-chlorine concentration increased, but decreased as the pH increased.

Rathbun, R. E.

1996-01-01

349

Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement.  

PubMed

Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Global soybean production and yield per hectare increased steadily over the past century with improved agronomy and development of cultivars suited to a wide range of latitudes. In order to meet the needs of a growing world population without unsustainable expansion of the land area devoted to this crop, yield must increase at a faster rate than at present. Here, the historical basis for the yield gains realized in the past 90 years are examined together with potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Optimization of investment in photosynthetic enzymes, bypassing photorespiratory metabolism, engineering the electron transport chain and engineering a faster recovery from the photoprotected state are different strategies to improve photosynthesis in soybean. These potential improvements in photosynthetic carbon gain will need to be matched by increased carbon and nitrogen transport to developing soybean pods and seeds in order to maximize the benefit. Better understanding of control of carbon and nitrogen transport along with improved knowledge of the regulation of flower initiation and abortion will be needed to optimize sink capacity in soybean. Although few single targets are likely to deliver a quantum leap in yields, biotechnological advances in molecular breeding techniques that allow for alteration of the soybean genome and transcriptome promise significant yield gains. PMID:21689112

Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Yendrek, Craig R; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Long, Stephen P

2012-01-01

350

Cosmic-ray yield and response functions in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the middle 1950s, neutron monitors have provided a continuous record of the intensity of secondary atmospheric particles produced by the primary cosmic radiation above the atmosphere. The number of counts due to these secondary particles is related to the primary spectrum above the atmosphere through the so-called atmospheric yield function. This yield function includes the secondary particles produced in the atmosphere, as well as inside the particular detector. In this paper the primary focus is to recalculate the yield function for neutron monitors. The motivation for this study is that the quality of the experimental observations has increased to such an extent that it has become possible to reduce uncertainties in the yield function down to approximately 10%. It thus becomes possible to refine our knowledge of the atmospheric cascade process considerably. We parameterize the yield functions in a simple way; we also make reference to the yield and response functions of muon, Cherenkov and stratospheric balloon detectors, and we compare their response to that of the neutron monitors.

Caballero-Lopez, R. A.; Moraal, H.

2012-12-01

351

Calculation of Delayed Neutron Yields for Various Libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the comparison between the total delayed neutron yields (?dbar) calculated and the recommended values proposed by Tuttle, the experimental data of Waldo and those of Benedetti. These data are given for thermal, fast, and high energy fission ranges. The calculation of total delayed neutron yields is performed either by the NJOY nuclear data processing system or by the summation method. The decay data found in the various evaluations as the delayed neutron branching ratios (Pn) and the cumulative fission yields (CY) can also be validated by delayed neutron yield calculation using the summation method. In the first method, where the treatment is performed by the NJOY system, the general purpose evaluation files (JEFF-3, JEF-2, ENDF/B-VII.0 and ENDF/B-VI.4 were considered. In the summation calculation, the data used are the delayed neutron branching ratios (also called delayed neutron emission probabilities) and the cumulative fission yields that are given for thermal, fast, high energy fission and spontaneous fission. These data are found in the Radioactive Decay Data and Fission Yield Data files (File 8) of nuclear data evaluations. In this study, we also perform a benchmark calculation with various libraries: JEF-2.2, JEFF3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL/FP-2011.

Huynh, T. D.; Jouanne, C.

2014-04-01

352

High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction  

SciTech Connect

A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 {mu}s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi technology, 2003 E. Bayshore Rd. 94061, Redwood City, CA (United States); Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jones, G. [G and J Enterprise, 1258 Quary Ln, Suite F, Pleasanton California 94566 (United States)

2013-04-19

353

Synthesis of (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan in the Golgi apparatus of maize coleoptiles  

SciTech Connect

Membranes of the Golgi apparatus from maize (Zea mays L.) were used to synthesize in vitro the (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan (MG) that is unique to the cell wall of the Poaceae. The MG was about 250 kDa and was separated from a much larger (1 [yields] 3)-[beta]-D-glucan (callose) by gel-permeation chromatography. Diagnostic oligosaccharides, released by a sequence-dependent endoglucanase from Bacillus subtilis, were separated by HPLC and GLC. The trisaccharide [beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, the tetrasaccharide [[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)][sub 2]-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, and longer cellodextrin-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc oligosaccharides were synthesized in proportions similar to those found in purified MG. Activated charcoal added during homogenization enhanced synthesis of MG, presumably by removing inhibitory compounds. The Golgi apparatus was determined as the site of synthesis by a combination of downward and flotation centrifugations on sucrose step gradients. The rate of synthesis did not reach saturation at up to 10 mM UDP-Glc. Chelators completely abolished synthesis, but synthase activity was restored by addition of either MgCl[sub 2] or, to a lesser extent, MnCl[sub 2]. Synthesis continued for well over 1 h; addition of KOH to raise the pH from 7.2 to 8.0 during the reaction increased the rate of synthesis, which indicates that a transmembrane pH gradient may facilitate synthesis of MG. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

1993-05-01

354

Pre-harvest wheat yield prediction using agromet-spectral-trend-yield models for hoshiarpur and rupnagar districts of punjab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat yield prediction using different agrometeorological indices, spectral index (NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation\\u000a Index) and trend predicted yield (TPY) were developed in Hoshiarpur and Rupnagar districts of Punjab. On the basis of examination\\u000a of Correlation Coefficients (R), Standard Error of Estimate (SEOE) and Relative Deviation (RD) values resulted from different\\u000a agromet models, the best agromet subset were selected as Minimum

S. Bazgeer; R. K. Mahey; P. K. Sharma; A. Sood; S. S. Sidhu

2006-01-01

355

Action of some micronutrients on the infestation and yield components of faba bean by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera).  

PubMed

Field experiments were carried out in the two growing seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 on faba bean (Vicia faba) plants in the Experimental Farm of Agriculture Research Station at Nubaria region, Alexandria, which is considered as a newly reclaimed calcareous soil. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of spraying faba bean plants with certain micronutrients, i.e. Iron, Manganese and Zinc either in single double or triple combinations on the infestation by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trfolü (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera). The infestation by these insects was assessed using the parameters of Infestation grades as well as the injury indices. Faba bean plants cv. Giza Blanca were sprayed twice (45 and 66 days) after planting with the above-mentioned micronutrients. However, results of this investigation showed, with no doubt, that Mn, Zn and Fe individually or in double or triple combinations have increased to varied extents the infestation rates (%) of faba bean plants compared to the untreated ones. Such varied increases were mainly due to the metabolic roles of the used foliar sprays and their interactions, which indirectly affect the physio-biological actions of plants that may render them suitable for either A. craccivora or L. trifoii reproduction. This phenomenon might be also due to the different environmental factors. In both seasons, the relationship between nutrients applications and pests Infestation followed the same trend of increase in the percentages of infested plants. This assures and confirms the constant metabolic roles of such micronutrients. The biological seed weight (ton/fed.) was positively affected by the application of the used micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the maximum response was observed in case of the triple treatment followed by the double and single treatments in a descending order. Application of the investigated micronutrients alone or in mixtures resulted in significant increases in yield and its components. Such increases were due to the fact that ions of Zn, Fe and Mn are cofactors of several enzymes, but rarely if ever with a high degree of specificity. PMID:15759427

Mourad, A K; Hammad, S A; Guirguis, G Z; Zaghloul, O A; Sadek, Hanan A

2004-01-01

356

QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT) based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for days to 50% flowering (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?14.3), panicles per plant (R2?=?19%, LOD?=?9.74), flag leaf length (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?3.05), flag leaf width (R2?=?53%, LOD?=?46.5), spikelets per panicle (R2?=?16%, LOD?=?13.8), filled grains per panicle (R2?=?22%, LOD?=?15.3), percent spikelet sterility (R2?=?18%, LOD?=?14.24), thousand grain weight (R2?=?25%, LOD?=?12.9) and spikelet setting density (R2?=?23%, LOD?=?15) expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2) ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709) on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits were distributed among two subspecies of rice and QTLs were co-localized in different genomic regions. QTL hotspots will be useful for understanding the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits and selection for beneficial allele at these loci will result in a cumulative increase in yield due to the integrative positive effect of various QTLs. The information generated in the present study will be useful to fine map and to identify the genes underlying major robust QTLs and to transfer all favourable QTLs to one genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield for sustained food security.

2012-01-01

357

Particle structuring and yield stress in magnetofluidized beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel experimental technique to measure the tensile yield stress of fluidized beds of magnetic powders stabilized by an externally applied cross-flow magnetic field is shown. Basically, the tensile yield stress of the magnetically stabilized bed (MSB) is measured by means of the pressure drop of a gas flow that puts the bed under tension. A first relevant result is that the yield stress depends strongly on the field operation mode. In the H off/on operation mode, the bed was driven to bubbling by imposing a high gas velocity in the absence of magnetic field. Once the gas velocity was decreased below the bubbling onset and the bed was stabilized by the natural cohesive forces alone, the field was applied. The yield stress of the naturally stabilized bed is not essentially changed by application of the field a posteriori (H off/on), which can be attributed to the inability of the field to alter the arrangement of the particles once they were jammed in the stable fluidization state. In the H on/on mode, the field was kept during the whole process of bubbling and stabilization at reduced gas velocities. In this operation mode, the field was the main stabilizing source. In contrast with the H off/on mode results, the yield stress in the H on/on mode was observed to be appreciably increased, which is a consequence of the formation of particle chains as the gas velocity is decreased in the presence of the magnetic field. The influence of other parameters such as particle size distribution reveals also a correlation between the microstructure of the MSB and its yield stress. In analogy with structured magneto-and electro-rheological fluids, it is found that the yield stress increases as the average particle size is increased. Moreover, the microstructure of the MSB is relevantly affected by the natural cohesiveness of the powder due to van der Waals forces, which leads to the formation of large-scale branched chains when the field is applied, thus enhancing the yield stress. Our work shows therefore that it is the microstructure of the MSB as affected by the presence of the magnetic field what essentially determines its yield stress.

Valverde, J. M.; Espin, M. J.; Quintanilla, M. A. S.; Castellanos, A.

2010-05-01

358

Nitrogen utilization and biomass yield in trickle bed air biofilters.  

PubMed

Nitrogen utilization and subsequent biomass yield were investigated in four independent lab-scale trickle bed air biofilters (TBABs) fed with different VOCs substrate. The VOCs considered were two aromatic (toluene, styrene) and two oxygenated (methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)). Long-term observations of TBABs performances show that more nitrogen was required to sustain high VOC removal, but the one fed with a high loading of VOC utilized much more nitrogen for sustaining biomass yield. The ratio N(consumption)/N(growth) was an effective indicator in evaluating nitrogen utilization in the system. Substrate VOC availability in the system was significant in determining nitrogen utilization and biomass yield. VOC substrate availability in the TBAB system was effectively identified by using maximum practical concentrations in the biofilm. Biomass yield coefficient, which was driven from the regression analysis between CO(2) production rate and substrate consumption rate, was effective in evaluating the TBAB performance with respect to nitrogen utilization and VOC removal. Biomass yield coefficients (g biomass/g substrate, dry weight basis) were observed to be 0.668, 0.642, 0.737, and 0.939 for toluene, styrene, MEK, and MIBK, respectively. PMID:20609512

Kim, Daekeun; Sorial, George A

2010-10-15

359

Estimation of rice yield per unit using MODIS spectral index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first 19 bands of MODIS, covering visible to shortwave infrared spectral wavelength, were simulated by the ground-level reflectance spectra. All Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-like and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI)-like spectral indices formed by every two bands were calculated to obtain their determinate coefficients with theoretical and real yield. Results showed that combinative NIR-infrared index (b2, b19) and (b16, b19) of MODIS were strongly correlated with rice yield, specially the correlative coefficient exceeded the significant level in maturing stage, but combinative visible light index were strongly correlated with rice yield in early stage and poorly in late stage. The best spectral index were the combination of (b2, b19) and (b16, b19) in predicting rice yield in whole rice growth, if considering the spatial resolution, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was better than the two band combination of (b2, b19) and (b16, b19) and was best suitable for monitoring rice yield.

Cheng, Qian; Wu, Xiuju; Mao, Zhihua

2006-12-01

360

The Implicit Stochastic Model for Reservoir Yield Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implicit stochastic model is aimed at solving the specific problem of the optimal reservoir yield when the demand is not known. The model is created to assist in the long-term comprehensive water management planning. The presented treatment of the reservoir as a water resource for satisfying demand differs from the present practice. Knowing the character of different water demands, represented by relative demand coefficients, the implicit stochastic model provides planners with the optimal value of reservoir yield. The lack of strong and reliable economic criteria, which is common for development countries, is in this approach replaced by optimizing the reliability of satisfying water demand from the reservoir. A three-level algorithm is proposed for the reservoir yield computation. At the first level, the simulation is used for computing the value of objective function. At the second level, computation of the seasonal reservoir operating rules is presented. The approach used for deriving the reservoir operating rules is based on the nonlinear unconstrained multivariable search of M.J.D. Powell. The third level is used for estimating the single multipurpose reservoir yield. The Fibonacci search procedure is used for the optimization of the reservoir yield at this level. The model is used in reservoir analysis for the water resources master plan of the Republic of Serbia, Yugoslavia. In this case, 49 reservoirs Were analyzed.

Simonovic, Slobodan

1987-12-01

361

Metabolism and growth yields in Bacteroides ruminicola strain b14.  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of D-glucose by Bacteroides ruminicola subsp. brevis, strain B14, has been examined. Growth yield studies gave molar growth yields, corrected for storage polysaccharide, of approximately 66 g (dry weight)/mol of glucose fermented. The storage polysaccharide amounted to about 14% of the total dry weight, or 55% of the total cellular carbohydrate, at full growth. After correcting glucose utilization for incorporation into cellular carbohydrate, measurement of product formation showed that 1.1 succinate, 0.8 acetate, and 0.35 formate are produced and 0.5 CO2 net is taken up during the fermentation of 1 glucose under the conditions used. The implication of these results with respect to adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) molar growth yield calculations is discussed. If substrate-level phosphorylation reactions alone are responsible for ATP generation, then the ATP molar growth yield must be about 23 g (dry weight)/mol of ATP. Alternatively, if anaerobic electron transfer-linked phosphorylation also occurs, the ATP molar growth yield will be lower. Images

Howlett, M R; Mountfort, D O; Turner, K W; Roberton, A M

1976-01-01

362

Yield stress anomaly in B2 FeAl  

SciTech Connect

The studies on yield stress anomaly of B2 FeAl single crystals are reviewed in this paper. A positive temperature dependence of yield stress, so-called yield stress anomaly, is observed in B2 FeAl in which excess vacancies are fully annealed out. Associated with the anomaly, characteristic asymmetry is found between tension and compression. While the strain-rate sensitivity is almost zero in the temperature range of the yield stress anomaly, the stress relaxation becomes significant with increasing temperature, indicating that a recovery process is thermally activated. It is ascertained by the two-surface trace analysis that slip transition from <111> direction at intermediate temperature to <100> at high temperature occurs around the peak temperature. Even at the peak temperature, in addition, operative slip vector for yielding is confirmed to be predominantly <111> by TEM. Also, it is observed that <111>-type superdislocations are frequently climb-dissociated in the temperature range of the anomaly. APB formation on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is energetically favorable, which is in agreement with the Flinn`s calculation for the B2 superlattice that APB energy on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is lower than that on {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane. Such an anisotropy of APB energy would offer specific driving force for the climb dissociation on <111> superdislocations. On the basis of the observed results, the anomalous strengthening behavior of B2 FeAl single crystals is discussed.

Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1996-12-31

363

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2010-01-15

364

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

PubMed Central

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost.

Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R.; Turner, Glenn W.; Davis, Edward M.; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C.; Boydston, Rick A.; Croteau, Rodney B.

2011-01-01

365

Heme Proteins: Quantum Yield Determined by the Pulse Method  

PubMed Central

We report results of the application of the “pulse method” to the study of photodissociation of various ligands from several heme proteins. By use of this technique, which allows the determination of the quantum yield of photodissociation accurately and rapidly, several ligands (CO, O2, isocyanides) have been investigated for sperm-whale myoglobin and trout hemoglobin I. In agreement with previous results, the new data lead to the conclusion that no simple relationship exists between the quantum yield and the affinity constant in the ground state. For trout hemoglobin I, the experiments were extended to measure the quantum yield of the CO photodissociation as a function of the initial degree of saturation, from fully saturated down to the initial values of about 1.5%. The results yield additional information to that obtained by the “steady-state” method, and in particular exclude the idea that the photochemical yield is in any way dependent on the fractional saturation of the molecule with carbon monoxide.

Brunori, Maurizio; Giacometti, Giorgio M.; Antonini, Eraldo; Wyman, Jeffries

1973-01-01

366

Growth yields in bacterial denitrification and nitrate ammonification.  

PubMed

Denitrification and nitrate ammonification are considered the highest-energy-yielding respiration systems in anoxic environments after oxygen has been consumed. The corresponding free energy changes are 7 and 35% lower than that of aerobic respiration, respectively. Growth yield determinations with pure cultures of Paracoccus denitrificans and Pseudomonas stutzeri revealed that far less energy is converted via ATP into cell mass than expected from the above calculations. Denitrification with formate or hydrogen as electron donor yielded about 2.4 to 3.0 g dry matter per mol formate or hydrogen and 15 to 18 g dry matter per mol acetate. Similar yields with acetate were obtained with Pseudomonas stutzeri. Wolinella succinogenes and Sulfurospirillum deleyianum, which reduce nitrate to ammonia, both exhibited similar yield values with formate or H2 plus nitrate. The results indicate that ATP synthesis in denitrification is far lower than expected from the free energy changes and even lower than in nitrate ammonification. The results are discussed against the background of our present understanding of electron flow in denitrification and with respect to the importance of denitrification and nitrate ammonification in the environment. PMID:17209072

Strohm, Tobin O; Griffin, Ben; Zumft, Walter G; Schink, Bernhard

2007-03-01

367

Seasonal Variation of Essential Oil Yield and Composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) from South Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. collected from Caxias do Sul (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil) were isolated by hydrodistillation with an average oil yield of 0.25%. Twenty-two components were identified by GC and GC\\/MS analysis. Thymol was found to be the most abundant constituent (31.5–52.4%), followed by p-cymene (17.1–34.4%). Thyme possessed a higher oil yield

A. C. Atti-Santos; M. R. Pansera; N. Paroul; L. Atti-Serafini; P. Moyna

2004-01-01

368

Yield condition for circular cylindrical shells made of a fiber-reinforced composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yield condition is obtained for circular cylindrical shells made of a definite class of fiber-reinforced composite material\\u000a whose components possess plastic properties. It is shown that, in the plane of generalized stresses — the axial bending moment\\u000a and the circumferential force (when the axial force is absent) — the yield curve consists of two linear and four curvilinear\\u000a sections.

E. A. Movsumov; F. H. Shamiev

2006-01-01

369

LDEF's map experiment foil perforations yield hypervelocity impact penetration parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space exposure of LDEF for 5.75 years, forming a host target in low earth orbit (LEO) orbit to a wide distribution of hypervelocity particulates of varying dimensions and different impact velocities, has yielded a multiplicity of impact features. Although the projectile parameters are generally unknown and, in fact not identical for any two impacts on a target, the great number of impacts provides statistically meaningful basis for the valid comparison of the response of different targets. Given sufficient impacts for example, a comparison of impact features (even without knowledge of the project parameters) is possible between: (1) differing material types (for the same incident projectile distribution); (2) differing target configurations (e.g., thick and thin targets for the same material projectiles; and (3) different velocities (using LDEF's different faces). A comparison between different materials is presented for infinite targets of aluminum, Teflon, and brass in the same pointing direction; the maximum finite-target penetration (ballistic limit) is also compared to that of the penetration of similar materials comprising of a semi-infinite target. For comparison of impacts on similar materials at different velocities, use is made of the pointing direction relative to LDEF's orbital motion. First, however, care must be exercised to separate the effect of spatial flux anisotropies from those resulting from the spacecraft velocity through a geocentrically referenced dust distribution. Data comprising thick and thin target impacts, impacts on different materials, and in different pointing directions is presented; hypervelocity impact parameters are derived. Results are also shown for flux modeling codes developed to decode the relative fluxes of Earth orbital and unbound interplanetary components intercepting LDEF. Modeling shows the west and space pointing faces are dominated by interplanetary particles and yields a mean velocity of 23.5 km/s at LDEF, corresponding to a V(infinity) Earth approach velocity = 20.9 km/s. Normally resolved average impact velocities on LDEF's cardinal point faces are shown. As 'excess' flux on the east, north, and south faces is observed, compatible with an Earth orbital component below some 5 microns in particle diameter.

McDonnell, J. A. M.

1992-06-01

370

LDEF's map experiment foil perforations yield hypervelocity impact penetration parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space exposure of LDEF for 5.75 years, forming a host target in low earth orbit (LEO) orbit to a wide distribution of hypervelocity particulates of varying dimensions and different impact velocities, has yielded a multiplicity of impact features. Although the projectile parameters are generally unknown and, in fact not identical for any two impacts on a target, the great number of impacts provides statistically meaningful basis for the valid comparison of the response of different targets. Given sufficient impacts for example, a comparison of impact features (even without knowledge of the project parameters) is possible between: (1) differing material types (for the same incident projectile distribution); (2) differing target configurations (e.g., thick and thin targets for the same material projectiles; and (3) different velocities (using LDEF's different faces). A comparison between different materials is presented for infinite targets of aluminum, Teflon, and brass in the same pointing direction; the maximum finite-target penetration (ballistic limit) is also compared to that of the penetration of similar materials comprising of a semi-infinite target. For comparison of impacts on similar materials at different velocities, use is made of the pointing direction relative to LDEF's orbital motion. First, however, care must be exercised to separate the effect of spatial flux anisotropies from those resulting from the spacecraft velocity through a geocentrically referenced dust distribution. Data comprising thick and thin target impacts, impacts on different materials, and in different pointing directions is presented; hypervelocity impact parameters are derived. Results are also shown for flux modeling codes developed to decode the relative fluxes of Earth orbital and unbound interplanetary components intercepting LDEF. Modeling shows the west and space pointing faces are dominated by interplanetary particles and yields a mean velocity of 23.5 km/s at LDEF, corresponding to a V(infinity) Earth approach velocity = 20.9 km/s. Normally resolved average impact velocities on LDEF's cardinal point faces are shown. As 'excess' flux on the east, north, and south faces is observed, compatible with an Earth orbital component below some 5 microns in particle diameter.

Mcdonnell, J. A. M.

1992-01-01

371

Specific Yield--Column drainage and centrifuge moisture content  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The specific yield of a rock or soil, with respect to water, is the ratio of (1) the volume of water which, after being saturated, it will yield by gravity to (2) its own volume. Specific retention represents the water retained against gravity drainage. The specific yield and retention when added together are equal to the total interconnected porosity of the rock or soil. Because specific retention is more easily determined than specific yield, most methods for obtaining yield first require the determination of specific retention. Recognizing the great need for developing improved methods of determining the specific yield of water-bearing materials, the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Department of Water Resources initiated a cooperative investigation of this subject. The major objectives of this research are (1) to review pertinent literature on specific yield and related subjects, (2) to increase basic knowledge of specific yield and rate of drainage and to determine the most practical methods of obtaining them, (3) to compare and to attempt to correlate the principal laboratory and field methods now commonly used to obtain specific yield, and (4) to obtain improved estimates of specific yield of water-bearing deposits in California. An open-file report, 'Specific yield of porous media, an annotated bibliography,' by A. I. Johnson, D. A. Morris, and R. C. Prill, was released in 1960 in partial fulfillment of the first objective. This report describes the second phase of the specific-yield study by the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Laboratory at Denver, Colo. Laboratory research on column drainage and centrifuge moisture equivalent, two methods for estimating specific retention of porous media, is summarized. In the column-drainage study, a wide variety of materials was packed into plastic columns of 1- to 8-inch diameter, wetted with Denver tap water, and drained under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The effects of cleaning the porous media; of different column diameters; of dye and time on drainage; and of different methods of drainage, wetting, and packing were all determined. To insure repeatability of porosity in duplicate columns, a mechanical technique of packing was developed. In the centrifuge moisture-content study, the centrifuge moisture-equivalent (the moisture content retained by a soil that has been first saturated and then subjected to a force equal to 1,000 times the force of gravity for 1 hour) test was first reviewed and evaluated. It was determined that for reproducible moisture-retention results the temperature and humidity should be controlled by use of a controlled-temperature centrifuge. In addition to refining this standard test, the study determined the effect of length of period of centrifuging and of applied tension on the drainage results. The plans for future work require the continuation of the laboratory standardization study qith emphasis on investigation of soil-moisture tension and unsaturated-permeability techniques. A detailed study in the field then will be followed by correlation and evaluation of laboratory and field methods.

Johnson, A. I.; Prill, R. C.; Morris, D. A.

1963-01-01

372

Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission  

SciTech Connect

The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of {sup 235}U nuclei.

Grudzevich, O. T., E-mail: ogrudzevich@ippe.ru; Klinov, D. A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15

373

Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests.  

PubMed

Local and landscape-scale agricultural intensification is a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Controversially discussed solutions include wildlife-friendly farming or combining high-intensity farming with land-sparing for nature. Here, we integrate biodiversity and crop productivity data for smallholder cacao in Indonesia to exemplify for tropical agroforests that there is little relationship between yield and biodiversity under current management, opening substantial opportunities for wildlife-friendly management. Species richness of trees, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates did not decrease with yield. Moderate shade, adequate labor, and input level can be combined with a complex habitat structure to provide high biodiversity as well as high yields. Although livelihood impacts are held up as a major obstacle for wildlife-friendly farming in the tropics, our results suggest that in some situations, agroforests can be designed to optimize both biodiversity and crop production benefits without adding pressure to convert natural habitat to farmland. PMID:21536873

Clough, Yann; Barkmann, Jan; Juhrbandt, Jana; Kessler, Michael; Wanger, Thomas Cherico; Anshary, Alam; Buchori, Damayanti; Cicuzza, Daniele; Darras, Kevin; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Erasmi, Stefan; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Schmidt, Carsten; Schulze, Christian H; Seidel, Dominik; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stenchly, Kathrin; Vidal, Stefan; Weist, Maria; Wielgoss, Arno Christian; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-05-17

374

Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate  

PubMed Central

Agricultural intensification has increased crop yields, but at high economic and environmental cost. Harnessing ecosystem services of naturally occurring organisms is a cheaper but under-appreciated approach, because the functional roles of organisms are not linked to crop yields, especially outside the northern temperate zone. Ecosystem services in soil come from earthworms in these cooler and wetter latitudes; what may fulfill their functional role in agriculture in warmer and drier habitats, where they are absent, is unproven. Here we show in a field experiment that ants and termites increase wheat yield by 36% from increased soil water infiltration due to their tunnels and improved soil nitrogen. Our results suggest that ants and termites have similar functional roles to earthworms, and that they may provide valuable ecosystem services in dryland agriculture, which may become increasingly important for agricultural sustainability in arid climates.

Evans, Theodore A.; Dawes, Tracy Z.; Ward, Philip R.; Lo, Nathan

2011-01-01

375

Sputtering yield of Pu bombarded by fission Fragments from Cf  

SciTech Connect

We present results on the yield of sputtering of Pu atoms from a Pu foil, bombarded by fission fragments from a {sup 252}Cf source in transmission geometry. We have found the number of Pu atoms/incoming fission fragments ejected to be 63 {+-} 1. In addition, we show measurements of the sputtering yield as a function of distance from the central axis, which can be understood as an angular distribution of the yield. The results are quite surprising in light of the fact that the Pu foil is several times the thickness of the range of fission fragment particles in Pu. This indicates that models like the binary collision model are not sufficient to explain this behavior.

Danagoulian, Areg [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcneil, Wendy V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yuan, Vincent W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

376

Nonlocal rheology of granular flows across yield conditions.  

PubMed

The rheology of dense granular flows is studied numerically in a shear cell controlled at constant pressure and shear stress, confined between two granular shear flows. We show that a liquid state can be achieved even far below the yield stress, whose flow can be described with the same rheology as above the yield stress. A nonlocal constitutive relation is derived from dimensional analysis through a gradient expansion and calibrated using the spatial relaxation of velocity profiles observed under homogeneous stresses. Both for frictional and frictionless grains, the relaxation length is found to diverge as the inverse square root of the distance to the yield point, on both sides of that point. PMID:24476308

Bouzid, Mehdi; Trulsson, Martin; Claudin, Philippe; Clément, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno

2013-12-01

377

Universality in fragment inclusive yields from Au+Au collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusive light fragment (Z<=7) yield data in Au+Au reactions, measured by the EOS Collaboration at the LBNL Bevalac, are presented and discussed. For peripheral collisions the measured charge distributions develop progressively according to a power law which can be fitted by a single ? exponent independently of the bombarding energy in the range 250-1200 A MeV. In addition to this universal feature, we observe that the location of the maximum in the individual yields of different charged fragments shift towards lower multiplicity as the fragment charge increases from Z=3 to Z=7. This trend is common to all six measured beam energies. Moments of charge distributions and correlations among different moments are reported. Finally, the THe,DT thermometer has been constructed for central and peripheral collisions using the double yield ratios of He and D, T projectile fragments. The measured nuclear temperatures are in agreement with experimental findings in other fragmentation reactions. .

Insolia, A.; Tuvè, C.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M. L.; Wang, S.; Warren, P. G.; Wieman, H. H.; Wolf, K. L.

2001-11-01

378

Growth Yields of Bacteria on Selected Organic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Cell yields were determined for two bacterial soil isolants grown aerobically in minimal media on a variety of synthetic organic compounds. 1-Dodecanol, benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, phenylglyoxylic acid, and diethylene, triethylene, and tetraethylene glycols were tested. Two “biochemicals,” succinate and acetate, were also tested for comparison. Yields were calculated on the basis of grams of cells obtained per mole of substrate utilized, gram atom of carbon utilized, mole of oxygen consumed, and equivalent of “available electrons” in the substrates. This latter value appears to be nearly constant at 3 g of cells per equivalent of “available electrons.” Yields predicted on this basis for other bacteria and for yeasts on other substrates are in fair agreement with reported values.

Mayberry, W. R.; Prochazka, G. J.; Payne, W. J.

1967-01-01

379

Kill ratio calculation for in-line yield prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for better yields in IC manufacturing calls for a smarter use of the vast amount of data that can be generated by a world class production line.In this scenario, in-line inspection processes produce thousands of wafer maps, number of defects, defect type and pictures every day. A step forward is to correlate these with the other big data- generator area: test. In this paper, we present how these data can be put together and correlated to obtain a very useful yield predicting tool. This correlation will first allow us to calculate the kill ratio, i.e. the probability for a defect of a certain size in a certain layer to kill the die. Then we will use that number to estimate the cosmetic yield that a wafer will have.

Lorenzo, Alfonso; Oter, David; Cruceta, Sergio; Valtuena, Juan F.; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Mata, Carlos

1999-04-01

380

Relationship between SCS-CN and Sediment Yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimation of runoff and sediment yield amount is not only an important task in physiographic but also important for proper watershed management. This paper proposes a seasonal relationship between Soil Conservation Services, runoff curve number (CN) and sediment yield (SY). Short-term sediment yield value of duration range from 1 to 30 day was correlated with the runoff CN derived for the respective duration from observed rainfall-runoff data. It is derived empirically from short-term (10 years) daily rainfall-runoff data of the Shakkar watershed of Narmada Basin falling in Madhya Pradesh (India). The resulting coefficient of determination (R 2) values range (0.76-0.79) strongly support the versatility of the derived relationship and invokes determination of SY from the available National Engineering Handbook (NEH-4) CN values.

Gajbhiye, Sarita; Mishra, S. K.; Pandey, Ashish

2014-01-01

381

Factors that determine the level of the yield strength and the return of the yield-point elongation in low-alloy ferrite-martensite steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of laboratory investigations of dual-phase steels with different contents of carbon and alloying elements after the controlled cooling from the two-phase field and the final low-temperature tempering are presented. It is shown that the ratio of the yield strength to the tensile strength of dual-phase steels, just as the return of the yield-point elongation, depends on the volume fraction of martensite, temperature of the martensite transformation of the austenite component, quenching stresses, concentration of carbon in ferrite, and the temperature of the final tempering.

Fonstein, N.; Kapustin, M.; Pottore, N.; Gupta, I.; Yakubovsky, O.

2007-09-01

382

Effects of Fatty Acid Supplements on Milk Yield and Energy Balance of Lactating Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a

K. J. Harvatine; M. S. Allen

2006-01-01

383

How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker & Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2012) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Kinney & Graham, 1985). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.

2012-04-01

384

How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker and Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2011) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Glasstone & Dolan, 1977). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.

2011-12-01

385

Impact of strobilurins on physiology and yield formation of wheat.  

PubMed

Strobilurin fungicides have a broad spectrum activity against all major foliar pathogens of wheat. In addition to this extraordinary fungicidal activity side-effects have been reported which result in higher yields of cereals, e.g. the reduction of respiration, delayed leaf senescence, activation of nitrogen metabolism as well as increased tolerance against abiotic stress factors. In the vegetation period 2000/2001 field trials were carried out at three sites in North Rhine-Westphalia to study the effects of three strobilurin fungicides on the yield formation of six winter wheat varieties. The strobilurins were applied two times as the commercial products Stratego (trifloxystrobin + propiconazole), Amistar/Pronto Plus (azoxystrobin/spiroxamine + tebuconazole) and Juwel Top (kresoxim-methyl + epoxiconazole + fenpropimorph. Fungicide-treated plants were kept disease-free by an initial azole-application in GS 31 in order to exclude disease effects on physiological parameters relevant to yield formation. Photosynthetic electron transport of strobilurin-treated wheat, was improved as early as at GS 65 compared to azole-treated plants. Differences often increased with growth stage and were closely related to a delay in leaf senescence. A higher photosynthetic activity of strobilurin-treated plants was confirmed by gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements under field conditions. The yield benefit of wheat from strobilurin treatments varied from 2% to 9% depending on an improved photosynthetic capacity due to a higher and/or prolonged activity. Neither yield potential nor disease susceptibility of the cultivar had an effect on the height of the extra yield which, in contrast was modified by location and wheat genotype. PMID:12701421

Beck, C; Oerke, E C; Dehne, H W

2002-01-01

386

Climate change: implications for the yield of edible rice.  

PubMed

Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980-2009 at IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy. PMID:23776635

Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa

2013-01-01

387

Effects of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage on sugarcane yield.  

PubMed

Feeding by lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), larvae on sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) causes leaf damage, dead hearts, and dead plants that can result in stand and yield loss. A 2-yr greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine sugarcane variety and plant age-specific feeding responses to E. lignosellus. Plants growing from single-eye setts of three varieties were exposed to a single generation of E. lignosellus larvae beginning at the three-, five-, and seven-leaf stages. Results indicated that the physical damage and resulting yield loss of plants attacked by E. lignosellus larvae were dependent on the variety and leaf stage at which they were infested. Significantly more plant damage was observed in all three varieties when infested at the three- than at the seven-leaf stage. Larvae caused significantly more plant damage and reduced yield in CP 89-2143 than in CP 78-1628. Tiller production increased in CP78-1628 and CP 88-1762 when infested at the three-leaf stage, whereas tiller production, biomass and sugar yield decreased in CP 89-2143 when infested at all leaf stages, compared with the untreated control. There was no reduction in yield when CP 78-1628 was infested at the three- or five-leaf stages. Biomass was reduced in CP 88-1762 when plants were infested at any of the leaf stages, but sugar yield was reduced only when infested at the seven-leaf stage. These results indicate that compensation in response to E. lignosellus damage was variety dependent and declined with the delay in infestation time. PMID:21510195

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A; Webb, Susan E

2011-04-01

388

Evaluation and compilation of fission product yields 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document is the latest in a series of compilations of fission yield data. Fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been used to produce a recommended set of yields for the fission products. The original data with reference sources, and the recommended yields axe presented in tabular form. These include many nuclides which fission by neutrons at several energies. These energies include thermal energies (T), fission spectrum energies (F), 14 meV High Energy (H or HE), and spontaneous fission (S), in six sets of ten each. Set A includes U235T, U235F, U235HE, U238F, U238HE, Pu239T, Pu239F, Pu241T, U233T, Th232F. Set B includes U233F, U233HE, U236F, Pu239H, Pu240F, Pu241F, Pu242F, Th232H, Np237F, Cf252S. Set C includes U234F, U237F, Pu240H, U234HE, U236HE, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, Cm242F. Set D includes Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242MT, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, Es254T. Set E includes Cf250S, Cm244S, Cm248S, Es253S, Fm254S, Fm255T, Fm256S, Np237H, U232T, U238S. Set F includes Cm243T, Cm246S, Cm243F, Cm244F, Cm246F, Cm248F, Pu242H, Np237T, Pu240T, and Pu242T to complete fission product yield evaluations for 60 fissioning systems in all. This report also serves as the primary documentation for the second evaluation of yields in ENDF/B-VI released in 1993.

England, T.R.; Rider, B.F.

1995-12-31

389

Drug Yield and Essential Oil of Thymus vulgaris L. as in Influenced by Ecological and Ontogenetical Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug yield and volatile oil content and its components of Thymus vulgaris were investigated during the different growing periods under both lowland and mountainous conditions. The highest drug yields were obtained from lowland conditions during the post flowering stage. Also, it has been determined that environmental conditions have significantly influenced the harvest dates. The 17 components were identified in the

Sezen TANSI

390

Multivariate multilevel nonlinear mixed effects models for timber yield predictions.  

PubMed

Nonlinear mixed effects models have become important tools for growth and yield modeling in forestry. To date, applications have concentrated on modeling single growth variables such as tree height or bole volume. Here, we propose multivariate multilevel nonlinear mixed effects models for describing several plot-level timber quantity characteristics simultaneously. We describe how such models can be used to produce future predictions of timber volume (yield). The class of models and methods of estimation and prediction are developed and then illustrated on data from a University of Georgia study of the effects of various site preparation methods on the growth of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.). PMID:15032769

Hall, Daniel B; Clutter, Michael

2004-03-01

391

High yield method of producing pure rebaudioside A  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides a high throughput, high purity, high yield system and method of isolating and purifying rebaudioside A ("Reb A"), with acceptable water solubility for all commercial uses, from commercially available Stevia rebaudiana starting material. The invention also provides a means of maximizing yields of 99+% purity Reb A based on the attributes of a given batch of Stevia starting material. The Reb A produced by the invention is water soluble, devoid of bitterness heretofore associated with rebaudioside sweeteners, non-caloric, and suitable for use as a reagent and as an ingredient in orally consumed products, e.g., as a sweetener, flavor enhancer, and flavor modifier.

2011-04-12

392

Up-conversion yield in glass ceramics containing silver  

SciTech Connect

Small silver particles are known to increase the fluorescence yield in rare-earth-doped glasses. These particles can be grown easily in glass ceramics of general composition (PbF2, GeO2, YbF3, ErF3). The authors have studied the effect of the addition of silver on the up-conversion yield due to sequential energy transfer between YbT and ErT ions. The origin and the information that can be obtained from this effect are discussed.

Malta, O.L.; Santa-Cruz, P.A.; De Sa, G.F.; Auzel, F.

1987-06-01

393

Yield of fission fragments from the photofission of actinide nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yields of the 101Mo, 135I, and 135 m Cs isotopes from the photofission of the actinide nuclei 232Th 238U, and 237Np are measured. These fission fragments have specific nuclear structure features or are of practical use. The measurements are performed in the bremsstrahlung from the microtron of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) at an electron energy of 22 MeV. The yields of the fragments are measured by the activation method using a ? radiation HPGe detector.

Gangrskii, Yu. P.; Zuzaan, P.; Belov, A. G.; Blaszchak, Z.; Zhemenik, V. I.; Markov, B. N.; Myshinskii, G. V.

2013-09-01

394

Light yield measurement method for milled nanosize inorganic crystals.  

PubMed

Composite scintillators consisting of nanosize inorganic crystals embedded in an organic matrix have been actively pursued in recent years. One method of producing nanosize crystals is through wet milling; however, since milling is known to introduce defects, the light yield of the milled crystals must be characterized. In this work, a new method of characterizing the light yield of milled inorganic crystals will be explored and discussed; this method will take into account explicitly the concentration of the inorganic crystals and the difference in stopping power between the crystals and the solvent. PMID:22014890

Li, Andy; Smith, N; Hehlen, M P; McKigney, E A; Gardner, R

2012-07-01

395

Spatial Variable Importance Assessment for Yield Prediction in Precision Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Precision Agriculture applies state-of-the-art GPS technology in connection with site-specific, sensor-based crop management. It can also be described\\u000a as a data-driven approach to agriculture, which is strongly connected with a number of data mining problems. One of those\\u000a is also an inherently important task in agriculture: yield prediction. Given a yield prediction model, which of the predictor\\u000a variables are the

Georg Ruß; Alexander Brenning

2010-01-01

396

County-Level Crop Yield Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early estimates of crop yield, particularly at a fine scale, can inform precision agriculture efforts. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) currently provides estimates of yield on a monthly basis for each state. These estimates are based on phone interviews with farmers and in-situ examination of randomly selected plots. We seek to provide predictions at a much higher spatial resolution, on a more frequent basis, using remote sensing observations. We use publicly available data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft. These observations have a spatial resolution of 250 m and consist of two spectral bands (red and infra-red) with a repeat period of 8 days. As part of the HARVIST (Heterogeneous Agricultural Research Via Interactive, Scalable Technology) project, we have created statistical crop yield models using historical MODIS data combined with the per-county yield reported by the USDA at the end of the growing season. In our approach, we analyze 100 randomly selected historical pixels from each county to generate a yield prediction for the county as a whole. We construct a time series for each pixel that consists of its NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) value observed during each 8-day time period to date. We then cluster all pixels together to identify groups of distinct elements (different crops, bodies of water, urban areas, desert, etc.) and create a regression model for each one. For each crop of interest, the model that best predicts that crop's historical yield is selected. These models can then be applied to data from subsequent years to generate predictions for the future. We applied this approach to data from California and Kansas for corn and wheat. We found that, in general, the yield prediction error decreased as the harvest time approached. In California, distinctly different models were selected to predict corn and wheat, permitting specialization for each crop type. The best models from 2001 predicted yield for 2002 with a 10% (corn) and 23% (wheat) relative error three months before harvest. In Kansas, the 2001 models for corn and wheat were not well distinguished, providing good predictions for wheat (19% error three months before harvest) but poor predictions for corn (55% error three months before harvest). In post-analysis, we found that the 2001 pixel NDVI time series for Kansas are much more homogeneous than those for California, making it difficult to select crop-specific models. We are currently working on incorporating historical data from additional years, which will provide more diversity and potentially better predictions. We are also in the process of applying this technique to additional crops.

Wagstaff, K. L.; Roper, A.; Lane, T.

2007-12-01

397

Zero yield at minimum (ZYAM) method and v{sub 2}: Underestimating jet yields from dihadron azimuth correlations  

SciTech Connect

Dihadron azimuth correlations can provide combinatoric access to jet structure in nuclear collisions. To isolate true jet yields a combinatoric background must be subtracted, including a constant offset and a contribution from 'elliptic flow' (azimuth quadrupole measured by v{sub 2}{sup 2}). The principle of zero yield at minimum (ZYAM) has been introduced to determine the constant offset. Separate measurements determine v{sub 2}{sup 2}. This analysis suggests that the ZYAM offset is usually substantially overestimated, and v{sub 2}{sup 2} is overestimated by conventional analysis methods. Therefore, jet yields may be substantially underestimated in more-central A-A collisions, and the 'away-side' azimuth peak (back-to-back jet correlations) may be distorted leading to questionable inferences of 'Mach shocks'.

Trainor, Thomas A. [CENPA 354290, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2010-01-15

398

Yield-related QTLs and their applications in rice genetic improvement.  

PubMed

Grain yield is one of the most important indexes in rice breeding, which is governed by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Different mapping populations have been used to explore the QTLs controlling yield related traits. Primary populations such as F(2) and recombinant inbred line populations have been widely used to discover QTLs in rice genome-wide, with hundreds of yield-related QTLs detected. Advanced populations such as near isogenic lines (NILs) are efficient to further fine-map and clone target QTLs. NILs for primarily identified QTLs have been proposed and confirmed to be the ideal population for map-based cloning. To date, 20 QTLs directly affecting rice grain yield and its components have been cloned with NIL-F(2) populations, and 14 new grain yield QTLs have been validated in the NILs. The molecular mechanisms of a continuously increasing number of genes are being unveiled, which aids in the understanding of the formation of grain yield. Favorable alleles for rice breeding have been 'mined' from natural cultivars and wild rice by association analysis of known functional genes with target trait performance. Reasonable combination of favorable alleles has the potential to increase grain yield via use of functional marker assisted selection. PMID:22463712

Bai, Xufeng; Wu, Bi; Xing, Yongzhong

2012-05-01

399

{mu} {yields} e{gamma} decay versus the {mu} {yields} eee bound and lepton flavor violating processes in supernova  

SciTech Connect

Even tiny lepton flavor violation (LFV) due to some New Physics is able to alter the conditions inside a collapsing supernova core and probably to facilitate the explosion. LFV emerges naturally in a see-saw type-II model of neutrino mass generation. Experimentally, the LFV beyond the Standard Model is constrained by rare lepton decay searches. In particular, strong bounds are imposed on the {mu} {yields} eee branching ratio and on the {mu}-e conversion in muonic gold. Currently, the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} is under investigation in the MEG experiment that aims at a dramatic increase in sensitivity in the next three years. We seek a see-saw type-II LFV pattern that fits all the experimental constraints, leads to Br({mu} {yields}e{gamma}) Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu}{mu} {yields}eee), and ensures a rate of LFV processes in supernova high enough to modify the supernova physics. These requirements are sufficient to eliminate almost all freedom in the model. In particular, they lead to the prediction 0.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu} {yields} e{gamma}) Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}, which will be testable by MEG in the nearest future. The considered scenario also constrains the neutrino mass-mixing pattern and provides lower and upper bounds on {tau}-lepton LFV decays. We also briefly discuss a model with a single bilepton in which the {mu} {yields} eee decay is absent at the tree level.

Lychkovskiy, O. V., E-mail: lychkovskiy@itep.ru; Vysotsky, M. I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

400

A new route to improved glucose yields in cellulose hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

An unusual inverse temperature-dependent pathway was discovered for cellulose decrystallization in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Cellulose was completely decrystallized by TFA at 0 °C in less than 2 hours, a result not achieved in 48 hours at 25°C in the same medium. The majority of TFA used in cellulose decrystallization was recycled via a vacuum process. The small remaining amount of TFA was diluted with water to make a 0.5% TFA solution and used as a catalyst in dilute acid hydrolysis. After one minute, under batch conditions at 185 °C, the glucose yield reached 63.5% without production of levulinic acid. In comparison, only 15.0% glucose yield was achieved in the hydrolysis of untreated cellulose by 0.5% H2SO4 under the same condition. Further improvement of glucose yield is possible by optimizing reaction conditions. Alternatively, the remaining TFA can be completely removed by water while keeping the regenerated cellulose in a highly amorphous state. This regenerated cellulose is much more reactive than untreated cellulose in hydrolysis reactions, but still less reactive than corn starch. The lower temperatures and shorter reaction times with this activated cellulose makes it possible to reduce operating costs and decrease byproduct yields such as HMF and levulinic acid.

Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2007-08-01

401

Multilevel Full-Chip Routing With Testability and Yield Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a multilevel full-chip routing algorithm that improves testability and diagnosability, manufacturability, and signal integrity for yield enhancement. Two major issues are addressed. 1) The oscillation ring test (ORT) and its diagnosis scheme for interconnects based on the popular IEEE Standard 1500 are integrated into the multilevel routing framework to achieve testability enhancement. We augment the traditional multilevel framework

Katherine Shu-min Li; Yao-wen Chang; Chung-len Lee; Chauchin Su; Jwu E. Chen

2007-01-01

402

What does the yield curve tell us about GDP growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot, including a few things you may not expect. Previous studies find that the term spread forecasts GDP but these regressions are unconstrained and do not model regressor endogeneity. We build a dynamic model for GDP growth and yields that completely characterizes expectations of GDP. The model does not permit arbitrage. Contrary to previous findings, we predict that the

Andrew Ang; Monika Piazzesi; Min Wei

2006-01-01

403

21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...yield. 211.103 Section 211.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.103 Calculation of...

2013-04-01

404

Vacuum Pumping Increases Sap Yields from Sugar Maple Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vacuum pumping was installed in plastic tubing systems for collecting sugar maple sap. An individual-tree study demonstrated that vacuum pumping increases sap yield and that the increased sap volume is drawn from the tree. A large-scale study (171 trees) ...

B. M. Blum M. R. Koelling

1968-01-01

405

NEURO-FUZZY MODELING FOR CROP YIELD PREDICTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamics of neural networks in forecasting crop (wheat) yield using remote sensing and other data. We use the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The input to ANFIS are several parameters derived from the crop growth simulation model (CGMS) including soil moisture content, above ground biomass, and storage organs biomass. In addition

D. Stathakis; I. Savin; T. Nègre

2006-01-01

406

Process produces chlorinated aromatic isocyanate in high yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tetrachloreterephthaloyl chloride reacts with sodium azide in an atmosphere of nitrogen to form a high yield of tetrachloro-p-phenylene diisocyanate. The chlorinated diisocyanate should have application as an intermediate in the preparation of polyurethane foams. The high halogen content would impart added flame resistance to these foams.

Trischler, F.

1966-01-01

407

Improving yield of PZT piezoelectric devices on glass substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed SMART-X telescope includes adaptive optics systems that use piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. Several processing constraints are imposed by current designs: the crystallization temperature must be kept below 550 °C, the total stress in the film must be minimized, and the yield on 1 cm2 actuator elements should be < 90%. For this work, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit films since chemical solution deposition (CSD) led to warping of large area flexible glass substrates. A PZT 52/48 film that wasdeposited at 4 mTorr and annealed at 550 °C for 24 hours showed no detectable levels of either PbO or pyrochlore second phases. Large area electrodes (1cm x 1 cm) were deposited on 4" glass substrates. Initially, the yield of the devices was low, however, two methods were employed to increase the yield to near 100 %. The first method included a more rigorous cleaning to improve the continuity of the Pt bottom electrode. The second method was to apply 3 V DC across the capacitor structure to burn out regions of defective PZT. The result of this latter method essentially removed conducting filaments in the PZT but left the bulk of the material undamaged. By combining these two methods, the yield on the large area electrodes improved from < 10% to nearly 100%.

Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

2012-10-01

408

Rigid particle revisited: Extrinsic curvature yields the Dirac equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reexamine the model of relativistic particle with higher-derivative linear term on the first extrinsic curvature (rigidity). The passage from classical to quantum theory requires a number of rather unexpected steps which we report here. We found that, contrary to common opinion, quantization of the model in terms of so(3.2)-algebra yields massive Dirac equation.

Deriglazov, Alexei; Nersessian, Armen

2014-03-01

409

Impact of Location on Cotton Yields and Profitability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to test the success of the Ministry of Agriculture's policy for replacing deteriorating cotton varieties in improving yields. Two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed in which the variation in each of three dependent...

H. A. Khedr H. Kheir-El-Din

1982-01-01

410

Pasture yield response to precipitation and high temperature in Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal-available pasture biomass has been observed and recorded for the past few decades to assess the crucial impact of pasture conditions on pastoral livestock husbandry, which is one of the major industries in Mongolia. This database provided a unique, useful basis for the present correlation analysis between seasonal measures of meteorological variables and pasture yield at three sites in southern

E. Munkhtsetseg; R. Kimura; J. Wang; M. Shinoda

2007-01-01

411

Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

Brahinsky, Josh

2013-01-01

412

Quantum yield of conversion of the photoinitiator camphorquinone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary absorber in dental resins is the photoinitiator, which starts the photo polymerization process. We studied the quantum yield of conversion of camphorquinone (CQ), a blue light photoinitiator, in dental resin composites using a LED lamp (3M FreeLight) and a Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH) lamp (VIP) as the light curing units at five different irradiances. The molar extinction coefficient,

Yin-Chu Chen; Jack L. Ferracane; Scott A. Prahl

2007-01-01

413

Quantum Yield of Conversion of The Dental Photoinitiator Camphorquinone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary absorber in dental resins is the photoinitiators, which start the photo polymerization process. We studied the quantum yield of conversion of camphorquinone (CQ), a blue light photoinitiator, using 3M FreeLight LED lamp as the light curing unit. The molar extinction coecient, \\

Yin-Chu Chen; Jack L. Ferracane; Scott A. Prahl

414

Breeding for Yield Potential and Stress Adaptation in Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to accelerate breeding for increased yield potential and better adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses is an issue of increasing urgency. As the population continues to grow rapidly, the pressure on resources (mainly untouched land and water) is also increasing, and potential climate change poses further challenges. We discuss ways to improve the efficiency of crop breeding

José Luis Araus; Gustavo A. Slafer; Conxita Royo; M. Dolores Serret

2008-01-01

415

Baby corn, green ear, and grain yield of corn cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most maize cultivars have been developed for grain production. Because superior cultivars may differ in their exploiting purposes, interest has been demonstrated for the evaluation of corn cultivars with regard to their baby corn, green ear, and grain yields production ability. In the present work ten corn cultivars (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080,

Itala Paula de C. Almeida; Paulo Sérgio L. e Silva; Maria Z. de Negreiros; Zenaide Barbosa

2005-01-01

416

High energy ionization in liquids: The free ion yield  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers some recent experimental results (n-hexane, neopentane, 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) which show how G{sub fi}(number of ion pairs or free ions per 100 eV absorbed) depends on conditions. The results provide insight into factors which determine free ion yield: molecular structure, field, temperature, tracks, density.

Holroyd, R.

1993-09-01

417

Scintillation light yield of BaF 2:Ce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BaF 2:Ce scintillator is a well-known, reasonably fast and efficient scintillator characterized by a decent stopping power and availability of large size crystals. In this communication we report scintillation light yield measurements on a number of BaF 2:Ce samples cut from one larger boule. We interpret these measurements in a frame of a simple one-dimensional model developed and first tested on LuAP and LuYAP samples. The model is expected to reproduce the observed strong dependence of the effective scintillation light yield against the height of the sample. The fit to experimental points provides a value of the "intrinsic" light yield LY(0), as well as a value of the "loss" parameter ? (scattering and absorption of scintillation light in the sample). Although the value of the loss parameter ?, at around 0.5 cm -1, found from the fit for BaF 2:Ce is clearly lower than a typical value in LuAP and LuYAP, it is, nevertheless, much higher than the value of about 0.05-0.07 cm -1 measured in Delft for LaBr 3:Ce. We have also measured the absorption spectra of BaF 2:Ce crystals. The corrected spectra have been used to estimate contributions from scattering, self-absorption (by Ce-ions) and parasitic absorption from unidentified centers in order to establish physical limits imposed on the light yield from these crystals.

Janus, Sebastian; Wojtowicz, Andrzej J.

2009-01-01

418

Agents to Improve Yields of Hydroxy Stearate Greases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Greases containing lithium or calcium 12-hydroxy stearate thickeners are obtained in greater yield and with an increase in dropping point by incorporating a minor amount of azelaic or sebacic acid. From 0.5 to 4 percent by weight of the acid is added to m...

D. W. Criddle

1965-01-01

419

Reduced yield detonation characteristics in large failure diameter materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made detailed measurements of the approach to steady, self-supported propagating shock waves at greatly reduced yield in composite propellants. Propa- gation velocities are less than one half the theoretical value expected for full reac- tion at the sonic plane. Previous experimental studies 1 have given evidence of similar behavior. Also, previous theoretical work 2 in an analytic form

R R Lambert; E L Lee; J L Maienschein; C I Merill; J E Reaugh

1998-01-01

420

LESS KNOWN EDIBLE FRUIT - YIELDING PLANTS OF NILGIRIS  

PubMed Central

The present paper is concerned with 27 species belonging to 22 generate and 18 families, which yield wild edible fruits. They are arranged in alphabetical order followed by their local names and habit. An attempt has been also made to indicate the nutritive values of edible portions on the basis of documented literature. Brief illustration is furnished wherever necessary.

Nayagam, M. Cyril; Pushparaj, M.S.; Rajan, S.

1993-01-01

421

What Causes Runoff and Sediment Yields to Increase After Wildfires?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff and sediment yields can increase by several orders or magnitude after high severity wildfires. These increases have been attributed to soil water repellency, loss of surface cover, and soil sealing by either mineral or ash particles, but the relative effects of these factors have rarely been isolated. The objectives of this study were hillslopes burned in high-severity wildfires, 13-34

I. J. Larsen; L. H. MacDonald; E. Brown; D. Rough; M. J. Welsh; J. H. Pietraszek; Z. Libohova; K. Schaffrath

2007-01-01

422

Apportioning Program Evaluation Resources to Maximize Information Yield.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not all data for a program evaluation may be equally valuable, and costs of collection may vary when using several methods to obtain data from several sources. An approach to maximize information yield for a fixed, limited budget using a mathematical technique known as linear programming is described and generalized. (Author/CM)

Sadler, D. Royce

1982-01-01

423

On pyrolysis of waste tire: Degradation rate and product yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A promising and realistic alternative for the reuse of waste tire is the energy and resource technology, pyrolysis, which converts the polymer waste to useful chemical products or fuels. For general engineering purposes, this paper presents studies on the degradation rate and product yields of waste tire during pyrolysis without a catalyst. A thermal gravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to

Yu-Min Chang

1996-01-01

424

Soybean yields and soil water status in Argentina: Simulation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent changes in management of soybean production in Argentina may have large impacts on the soil water balance and on crop yield response. Changes in this system have included widespread adoption of a no-till management leaving crop residue on the soil surface, intensive cropping rotations (e.g. double cropping of wheat and soybean) so that the soil may not be fully

T. R. Sinclair; L. R. Salado-Navarro; Graciela Salas; L. C. Purcell

2007-01-01

425

Two-Stage Stratified Sampling to Estimate Herbage Yield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two-stage stratified procedure for sampling herbage yield is described. In stage one, plots are stratified; in stage two, selected plots are clipped, and the clippings are weighed. Equations were developed to calculate the mean and variance of the mean....

C. E. Conrad W. G. O'Regan

1973-01-01

426

Competition, growth and yield of faba bean ( Vicia faba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current knowledge regarding the influence of plant density on the growth and yield of the faba bean crop (Vicia faba L.). An analysis is also made of sowing rate and other factors that may modify optimum plant density, including environmental conditions; in this sense, should be made a differentiation between faba crops grown in temperate conditions and

F. J. López-Bellido; L. López-Bellido; R. J. López-Bellido

2005-01-01

427

Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Fertilizer Timing and Deficiency Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

and positively impact water quality. Understanding the effect of delayed N application on yield is critical to the Nitrogen fertilizer is typically applied to corn (Zea mays L.) shortly use of any of these management tools. before planting, but there are several reasons why later N applications may be of interest: to spread work away from the busy planting season,

Peter C. Scharf; William J. Wiebold; John A. Lory

2002-01-01

428

Photoisomerization Quantum Yields of Naphthacenequinones Embedded into Polymeric Matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential photoisomerization quantum yield (QY) behavior of four derivatives of naphthacenequinone in toluene solution and in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyvinyl butirale (PVB) and polybutyl methacrylate (PBM-5) polymer films during direct and reverse reactions has been investigated. It was discovered that in all cases the initial QY in polymer matrices is higher than the QY in toluene solution.

Binyukov, Vladimir; Koroteev, Nikolay; Krikunov, Sergei; Magnitskii, Sergei; Malakhov, Dmitriy; Shubin, Vladimir; Sokolyuk, Nataliya

1998-04-01

429

Fluorescent nanopigments: Quantitative assessment of their quantum yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, an intense research effort has focused on the synthesis of fluorescent nanopigments for functional inks, light harvesting, tagging, tracing, (bio)labeling, imaging, and lighting applications. Moreover, combined with dielectric matrices, these fluorescent nanoparticles may open the way to the realization of novel optophotonic devices. In particular, due to the large variety of available organic fluorescent dyes, their encapsulation into either an inorganic or an organic host is a very promising approach to synthesize a large palette of new fluorescent nanopigments. However, since the dye encapsulation may affect the fluorescence efficiency, measuring the quantum yield of fluorescent nanopigments is of paramount importance for the development of any connected application. In this article, we present a diffuse reflectance (DR) technique that enables the quantitative assessment of the quantum yield of fluorescent nanoparticles such as zeolite L nanocrystals and poly(methyl methacrylate) nanospheres both loaded with fluorescent perylene molecules. Our method is validated by measuring a well known fluorescence standard and by comparing the results obtained for a model zeolite nanopigment with those provided by an alternative DR technique. Reliable and reproducible quantum yield values are obtained for both low- and high-efficiency fluorescent nanoparticles. Our technique can thus enable systematic and quantitative studies that may yield an important insight in the mechanisms affecting the fluorescence efficiency of a large variety of nanopigments.

Ferrini, R.; Nicolet, O.; Huber, S.; Zuppiroli, L.; Chappellet, S.; Lovey, C.; Perrenoud, J.; Pauchard, M.

2010-06-01

430

Evaluation of oil yield from Jordanian oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the influences of particle size, grade and pyrolysis temperature on the oil yield have been evaluated in a laboratory scale reactor. Five categories of particle sizes from two different oil shale samples were pyrolyzed by employing a fixed bed retorting system. The reactor and the oil shale sample were heated at a constant rate and nitrogen gas

J. O. Jaber; S. D. Probert; P. T. Williams

1999-01-01

431

Conditions that Influence Drivers' Yielding Behavior for Uncontrolled Crossings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pedestrians with visual impairments need to cross streets where traffic signals and traffic signage are not present. This study examined the influences of several interventions, including a pedestrian's use of a mobility cane, on the behavior of drivers when they were expected to yield to a pedestrian crossing at an uncontrolled crossing.…

Bourquin, Eugene; Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

2011-01-01

432

Photoperiod shift effects on yield characteristics of rice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Edible yield must be maximized for each crop species selected for inclusion in the Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) proposed by NASA to support long-term manned space missions. In a greenhouse study aimed at increasing biomass partitioning to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain, plants of the high yielding semi-dwarf rice cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao were started in pots under 8-h photoperiods at a density of 212 plants m-2. After different periods of time under 8-h photoperiods, pots were switched to continuous light for the remainder of the cropping cycle. Continuous light did not delay time to first panicle emergence (60 d) or time to harvest (83 d). There was a positive correlation between the length of continuous light treatments and nongrain biomass. Grain yield (1.6 +/- 0.2 g plant-1) did not increase in continuous light. Yield-efficiency rate (grain weight per length of cropping cycle, canopy volume, and weight of nongrain shoot biomass) was used to compare treatments. Small Ai-Nan-Tsao rice canopies grown under 8-h photoperiods were more efficient producers of grain than canopies grown under continuous light for a portion of the rice cropping cycle.

Volk, G. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

1995-01-01

433

Yield and Quality of Seed from Yellow Birch Progenies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seed yield in 8- and 9-year-old yellow birch varied among families and years but averaged more than 1,500 seeds per tree. Long catkins contained more seed than short ones. Seed quality was poor due to insufficient pollination and to differences among tree...

K. E. Clausen

1980-01-01

434

Predicting Lumber Grade Yields for Standing Hardwood Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method was developed for estimating lumber grade yields for hardwood trees using selected tree stem characteristics. The method was tested on sugar maple trees from four National Forests. When tested on trees from the Ottawa National Forest (near the ar...

C. L. Stayton R. M. Marden G. L. Gammon

1971-01-01

435

Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators  

SciTech Connect

Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a {gamma}-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909 (Australia)

2011-07-15

436

IMPACT OF OZONE AND SULPHUR DIOXIDE ON SOYBEAM YIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

Little dose-response information exists on the effects of chronic ozone (O3) and intermittent sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposures on the yield of important agricultural crops. Such information is needed for refinement of estimates of air pollution induced crop losses. Field-grown plan...

437

Microplastic yield condition for a periodic stacking of hollow spheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method to derive a macroscopic yield criterion for the microplasticity of a porous metallic material. The method is applied to a model material made of hollow spheres, stacked in a regular FCC packing and bonded by soldering necks.

S. Gasser; F. Paun; L. Riffard; Y. Bréchet

2004-01-01

438

Sediment Yields and Sediment Sources in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine-grained sediment is having an adverse effect on the living resources and habitat of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. In order to reduce sediment inputs to the Bay, it is necessary to quantify erosion rates and sediment yields and identify the significant sources of fine-grained sediment. Sediment sources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed were identified using different methods at

A. C. Gellis; J. M. Landwehr; M. J. Pavich; C. R. Hupp; J. C. Ritchie; J. M. Reuter

2005-01-01

439

High-yield cell separations using magnetic nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferromagnetic nanowires are demonstrated as a new tool in performing high-yield, single step cell separations on cultures of mammalian cells. The nanowires are made by electrochemical deposition in nanoporous templates, and when added to cultures of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, the nanowires can readily bind to the cells. The effectiveness in cell separations of Ni nanowires 350 nm in diameter

Anne Hultgren; Monica Tanase; Christopher S. Chen; Daniel H. Reich

2004-01-01

440

Modelling biomass production and yield of horticultural crops: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptive and explanatory modelling of biomass production and yield of horticultural crops is reviewed with special reference to the simulation of leaf area, light interception, dry matter (DM) production, DM partitioning and DM content. Most models for prediction of harvest date (timing of production) are descriptive. For DM production many descriptive and explanatory models have been developed. Most explanatory models

L. F. M. Marcelis; E. Heuvelink; J. Goudriaan

1998-01-01

441

Predicting Thymine Dimerization Yields from Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

PubMed Central

It was recently shown that thymine dimers in the all-thymine oligonucleotide (dT)18 are fully formed in <1 ps after ultraviolet excitation. The speed and low quantum yield of this reaction suggest that only a small fraction of the conformers of this structurally disordered oligonucleotide are in a position to react at the instant of photon absorption. In this work, we explore the hypothesis that conventional molecular dynamics simulations can be used to predict the yield of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Conformations obtained from simulations of thymidylyl-(3?-5?)-thymidine in various cosolvents were classified as dimerizable or nondimerizable depending on the distance between the C5-C6 double bonds of the adjacent thymine bases and the torsion angle between them. The quantum yield of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation was calculated as the number of dimerizable conformations divided by the total number of conformations. The experimental quantum yields measured in the different solvents were satisfactorily reproduced using physically reasonable values for the two parameters. The mean dimerizable structure computed by averaging all of the dimerizable cis-syn conformations is structurally similar to the actual cis-syn dimer. Compared to the canonical B-form TT step, the most important structural property of a dimerizable conformation is its reduced helical twist angle of 22°.

Law, Yu Kay; Azadi, Javad; Crespo-Hernandez, Carlos E.; Olmon, Eric; Kohler, Bern

2008-01-01

442

Second generation insect pest problems on high yielding rices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional lowland rices of Asia are photoperiod sensitive and ripen at the end of the monsoon rainy season, producing stable but low yields even under environmental extremes. The dry season fallow of these single rice crop systems breaks insect and plant virus disease cycles limiting pest buildup. Modern rices developed in the sixties to feed a growing human population attain

James A. Litsinger

1989-01-01

443

Rain-fed fig yield as affected by rainfall distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable annual rainfall and its uneven distribution are the major uncontrolled inputs in rain-fed fig production and possibly the main cause of yield fluctuation in Istahban region of Fars Province, I.R. of Iran. This introduces a considerable risk in rain-fed fig production. The objective of this study was to find relationships between seasonal rainfall distribution and rain-fed fig production in Istahban region to determine the critical rainfall periods for rain-fed fig production and supplementary irrigation water application. Further, economic analysis for rain-fed fig production was considered in this region to control the risk of production. It is concluded that the monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall indices are able to show the effects of rainfall and its distribution on the rain-fed fig yield. Fig yield with frequent occurrence of 80 % is 374 kg ha-1. The internal rates of return for interest rate of 4, 8 and 12 % are 21, 58 and 146 %, respectively, that are economically feasible. It is concluded that the rainfall in spring especially in April and in December has negatively affected fig yield due to its interference with the life cycle of Blastophaga bees for pollination. Further, it is concluded that when the rainfall is limited, supplementary irrigation can be scheduled in March.

Bagheri, Ensieh; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza

2013-09-01

444

Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.  

PubMed

A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers. PMID:15092277

Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

1990-01-01

445

Artificial neural networks for corn and soybean yield prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998 requires mandatory nutrient management planning on all agricultural land in Maryland. Nutrient management specialists need simple and accurate estimation techniques to relate crop yields and nutrient utilization in the planning process. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate if artificial neural network (ANN) models could effectively predict Maryland corn and

Monisha Kaul; Robert L. Hill; Charles Walthall

2005-01-01

446

Stem Cells Yield Lab-Grown Skin, Researchers Say  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stem Cells Yield Lab-Grown Skin, Researchers Say Finding might ... April 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Skin Conditions Stem Cells FRIDAY, April 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Skin that ...

447

Light yield from a scintillator tile with embedded readout fibers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have studied the light yield in two straight fibers embedded in a square scintillator tile by means of computer simulation. The tile and fiber dimensions are taken in the ballpark of interest for the SDC main calorimeter. A fairly flat total response a...

H. J. Trost J. I. Tonnison V. E. Barnes

1991-01-01

448

Early Childhood Investment Yields Big Payoff. Policy Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have found that investing in high-quality early childhood development (ECD) programs can positively impact children, their families, taxpayers, and the government. Studies suggest that one critical form of education, early childhood development is grossly under-funded and managed, investment in ECD yields an extraordinary return on…

Lynch, Robert G.

2005-01-01

449

A Biological Approach to Lactation Curve Analysis for Milk Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactation records of milk yield are commonly ana- lyzed with empirical mathematical models. A family of new models is described based on the known biology of the mammary gland during pregnancy and lacta- tion. The new models fit two logistic curves represent- ing secretory cell differentiation and cell death (apoptosis) throughout lactation. A further function describes secretion rate changes. Both

G. E. Pollott

2000-01-01

450

Comparative study of two crop yield simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SWATRER-SUCROS and CERES-MAIZE models were compared in terms of their performance in predicting biomass yield, leaf area index and soil water content during the growing season of 1988 at the Rogers farm (University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA). Five statistics often used to compare the quality of simulation results were used in the comparison. The comparison was performed based

E. Xevi; J. Gilley; J. Feyen

1996-01-01

451