Science.gov

Sample records for yielded significant findings

  1. Finding Statistically Significant Communities in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lancichinetti, Andrea; Radicchi, Filippo; Ramasco, José J.; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Community structure is one of the main structural features of networks, revealing both their internal organization and the similarity of their elementary units. Despite the large variety of methods proposed to detect communities in graphs, there is a big need for multi-purpose techniques, able to handle different types of datasets and the subtleties of community structure. In this paper we present OSLOM (Order Statistics Local Optimization Method), the first method capable to detect clusters in networks accounting for edge directions, edge weights, overlapping communities, hierarchies and community dynamics. It is based on the local optimization of a fitness function expressing the statistical significance of clusters with respect to random fluctuations, which is estimated with tools of Extreme and Order Statistics. OSLOM can be used alone or as a refinement procedure of partitions/covers delivered by other techniques. We have also implemented sequential algorithms combining OSLOM with other fast techniques, so that the community structure of very large networks can be uncovered. Our method has a comparable performance as the best existing algorithms on artificial benchmark graphs. Several applications on real networks are shown as well. OSLOM is implemented in a freely available software (http://www.oslom.org), and we believe it will be a valuable tool in the analysis of networks. PMID:21559480

  2. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

  3. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

  4. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

  5. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

  6. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

  7. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

  8. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

  9. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

  10. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

  11. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

  12. 76 FR 68260 - Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ....S. Maritime Administration Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Maritime... interested parties the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the United States Merchant Marine Academy... hours. A copy of the Final EA and Finding of No Significant Impact can be obtained or viewed online...

  13. 16 CFR 1021.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1021.13 Section 1021.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.13 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant impact shall cite and...

  14. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508.13 Section 1508.13 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.13 Finding of no significant impact. Finding of no significant impact means a document by a Federal agency briefly presenting the reasons...

  15. 32 CFR 651.21 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Finding of no significant impact. 651.21 Section 651.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.21 Finding of no significant impact. A Finding of...

  16. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Responsible Official may issue a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR 1508.13) only if the EA... before taking action on the proposed action. (b) Consistent with 40 CFR 1508.13, a FONSI must include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Findings of no significant impact....

  17. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

  18. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

  19. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

  20. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

  1. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

  2. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact...

  3. 46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 504.6 Section 504.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.6 Finding of no significant impact. (a) If upon completion of an environmental assessment, it is determined that a...

  4. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration will review the EA and any...

  5. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... impact. (a) As defined by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1508.13), a FONSI is a document prepared by a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  6. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... impact. (a) As defined by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1508.13), a FONSI is a document prepared by a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  7. Genetic Diversity and Soybean Yield: Finding the Balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on national production statistics since 1924, average soybean yield in the U.S. has increased at a nearly steady rate of 22 kg ha-1 year-1. It is possible to show some changes in this rate depending on how these past 85 years are divided, but two conclusions seem evident. Soybean yield has not...

  8. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g (Earth's gravity), and the emergence of face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals late in the coarsening process (as small crystallites lost particles to the slow ripening of large crystallites). Significant quantitative findings from the microgravity experiments have been developed describing complex interactions among crystallites during the growth process, as concentration fields overlap in the surrounding disordered phase. Time-resolved Bragg scattering under microgravity captures one effect of these interactions quite conclusively for the sample at a volume fraction of 0.528. From the earliest time until the sample is almost fully crystalline, the size and overall crystallinity grow monotonically, but the number of crystallites per unit volume (number density) falls. Apparently nucleation is slower than the loss of crystallites because of the transfer of particles from small to large crystals. Thus, coarsening occurs simultaneously with growth, rather than following the completion of nucleation and growth as is generally assumed. In the same sample, an interesting signature appears in the apparent number density of crystallites and the volume fraction within the crystallites shortly before full crystallinity is reached. A brief upturn in both indicates the creation of more domains of the size of the average crystallite simultaneous with the compression of the crystallites. Only the emergence of dendritic arms offers a reasonable explanation. The arms would be "seen" by the light scattering as separate domains whose smaller radii of curvature would compress the interior phase. In fiscal year 1999, numerous papers, a doctoral dissertation, and the PHaSE final report were produced. Although this flight project has been completed, plans are in place for a follow-on colloid experiment by Chaikin and Russel that employs a light microscope within Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. PHaSE is providing us with a deeper understanding of the nure of phase transitions. The knowledge derived has added to the understandin

  9. 16 CFR 1021.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...refer to anticipated effects upon the environment identified in the...reason(s) why those effects will not be significant...overall impact on the environment is not regarded...

  10. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FONSI (40 CFR 1508.13) briefly describes why an action would not have a significant effect on the... the action (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)): (i) When the proposed action is, or is closely similar to, one that... the magnitude of the proposed action and its potential for controversy. The greater the magnitude...

  11. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FONSI (40 CFR 1508.13) briefly describes why an action would not have a significant effect on the... the action (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)): (i) When the proposed action is, or is closely similar to, one that... the magnitude of the proposed action and its potential for controversy. The greater the magnitude...

  12. 10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

  13. 10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

  14. 10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

  15. 10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

  16. 10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

  17. 10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

  18. 10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

  19. 10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

  20. 10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

  1. 10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

  2. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

  3. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

  4. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

  5. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

  6. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

  7. Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Gu, Qiang; Zhang, Junling; Sun, Li; Kuppu, Sundaram; Zhang, Yizheng; Burow, Mark; Payton, Paxton; Blumwald, Eduardo; Zhang, Hong

    2011-11-01

    Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot plants. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance in both laboratory and field conditions. Transgenic peanut plants maintained higher photosynthetic rates, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration than wild-type control plants under reduced irrigation conditions. More importantly, transgenic peanut plants produced significantly higher yields than wild-type control plants in the field, indicating a great potential for the development of crops with improved performance and yield in water-limited areas of the world. PMID:21920877

  8. 75 FR 11946 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...will have no significant environmental impact. Environmental Assessment Identification...additional time to complete. Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action The NRC has...

  9. 77 FR 76050 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... a new animal drug application (NADA) concerning a genetically engineered (GE) Atlantic salmon....

  10. 76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0782...ER-FRL-9000-7] Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding...Significant Impact (FONSI) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  11. 10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of...

  12. 10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of...

  13. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  14. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

  15. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

  16. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

  17. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

  18. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

  19. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge. PMID:26586114

  20. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge. PMID:26586114

  1. THE TEN MOST SIGNIFICANT EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FINDINGS IN THE PAST TEN YEARS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAVIES, DANIEL R.; GRIFFITHS, DANIEL E.

    TO ASCERTAIN THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH IN EDUCATION, THREE QUESTIONS MAY BE ASKED--(1) TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUALS IN EDUCATION BEEN CHANGED. (2) HOW MANY ARTICLES HAVE BEEN WRITTEN AS A RESULT OF THE FINDINGS. (3) TO WHAT EXTENT DO EDUCATORS TALK ABOUT OR USE THE CONCEPTS GENERATED BY THE RESEARCH IN DISCUSSING THEIR OWN…

  2. 77 FR 66874 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... in evaluating sites for new nuclear power reactors to characterize ground motions in accordance with... COMMISSION Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Environmental Assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts that may arise as a result of...

  3. 77 FR 21594 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, Oconee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... pressure boundary of light-water nuclear power reactors provide adequate margins of safety during any... Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, Oconee...) 50.12. Therefore, as required by 10 CFR 51.21, the NRC performed an environmental assessment....

  4. 75 FR 70707 - Detroit Edison Company; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Environmental Statement for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, NUREG-0769, dated August 1981, as... Detroit Edison Company; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear... County, Michigan. Therefore, as required by 10 CFR 51.21, the NRC performed an environmental...

  5. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact... Environmental Statement for the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Docket No. 50-333, dated March 1973... Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979,'' issued to Entergy...

  6. 76 FR 74069 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ...On September 27, 2011, the Department of the Interior signed a Finding of No Significant Impact which documents the selection of the Proposed Action as presented in the Final Environmental Assessment for the Block Notice 1A Heber Sub-Area Agricultural Water to Municipal & Industrial Water...

  7. 78 FR 65607 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... safe and efficient agricultural production methods and by conserving natural resources and protecting... Agricultural Research Service Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) of the Kika de la Garza Subtropical Research Center (KSARC) AGENCY:...

  8. 78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... modifying or adding EP requirements in Section 50.47, Section 50.54, and Appendix E of 10 CFR part 50 (76 FR... La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact... of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) for the La Crosse Boiling Water...

  9. 77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY... Assessment (EA) associated with a solar generation project. The EA was prepared in accordance with the... associated with a potential loan or loan guarantee to Turning Point Solar LLC (Turning Point Solar) for...

  10. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in KienGiang. The greenhouse gas reductions in Kien Giang are the highest reductions we have been able to find in the literature. Both methane and nitrous oxide emissions were measured using chambers, on a weekly basis for methane and for 5 or more days for nitrous oxide following critical events, such as fertilizer application or soil dry down periods.

  11. Counseling Challenges with Variants of Uncertain Significance and Incidental Findings in Prenatal Genetic Screening and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Westerfield, Lauren; Darilek, Sandra; van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal genetic screening and testing provides prospective parents information about the health of their fetus. It is offered to find or address an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities or other genetic conditions in the fetus or to identify the cause of fetal structural abnormalities detected by prenatal imaging. Genome-wide tests, such as the already widely-used chromosomal microarray analysis and emerging diagnostic whole exome and whole genome sequencing, have improved the ability to detect clinically significant findings, but have also increased the chance of detecting incidental findings and variants of uncertain significance. There is an extensive ongoing discussion about optimal strategies for diagnostic laboratories to report such findings and for providers to communicate them with patients. While consensus opinions and guidelines are beginning to appear, they often exclude the prenatal setting, due to its unique set of challenging considerations. These include more limited knowledge of the impact of genetic variants when prospectively detected in an ongoing pregnancy, the absence or limitations of detecting clinically recognizable phenotypes at the time of testing and the different decision-making processes that will ensue from testing. In this review, we examine these challenges within the medical ethical framework unique to prenatal care. PMID:26237491

  12. FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus Milling

    2004-09-23

    Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

  13. Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant activity against Leishmania spp.

    E-print Network

    Coley, Phyllis

    Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant conducted additional isolation efforts on the minor alkaloids of this species. A standard alkaloid on the identification of alkaloids 1±9 from G. dumetorum (Fig.1). All nine of these metabolites were tested against

  14. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. {section}4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  17. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  18. The relationship between specific event sediment yields and runoff depth and its significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P.; Nearing, M.; Hicks, M.; Commons, M.

    2012-12-01

    Although the dynamics of suspended sediment transport are complex, they may become less complex and hence easier to quantify as the time scale increases from instantaneous to event-lumped transport. To test this hypothesis, we collected suspended sediment data from watersheds with contrasting transport behavior (supply-limited and transport-limited), together with those reported in Loess areas of China. Supply-limited watersheds (type I) included four Australia watersheds with various land use and land cover (LULC) conditions and a central New York watershed. Transport-limited watersheds (type II) contained twelve watersheds from Walnut Gulch, Arizona and an Italy watershed. Type III watersheds involved fourteen watersheds in Loess area of upstream Yellow River, China. They are different from the others in that they have hyperconcentrated flows most of time during events due to the finer grain size of loess. We calculated specific event sediment yield (SSYe, t/km2) and runoff depth (h, mm) of various rainfall events in each watershed, and statistically established a proportional relationship, SSYe = Ch where C is a constant for a given watershed, which is equivalent to the discharge-weighted event mean sediment concentration. The coefficient of determination ranges from 0.64 to 0.99, with the median of 0.95 indicating that the proportional model generally holds. Furthermore, values of C showed distinct ranges for the three types of watersheds: 0.32 - 1.93 for type I watersheds, 7.17-34.39 for type II watersheds, and 680-861 for type III watersheds. These values correctly reflect the different nature of sediment transport in three types of watersheds. We further found that C begins to decrease at different threshold values of watershed area for types I and II watersheds, whereas C remains constant for type III watersheds. These results suggest that a simple proportional model may be used to describe event-lumped behavior of suspended sediment transport.

  19. 75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...significant impact on the quality of the human or natural environment and has issued a Finding of No Significant Impact...significant impact on the quality of the human or natural environment. Prior to release of construction funding for...

  20. Finding of no significant impact resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0887, for the proposed thermal stabilization (controlled oxidation) of plutonium, to take place in Building 707, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. The stabilization action would include post-stabilization characterization and on-site movement of stabilized material. Public meetings were held on July 7 and October 6, 1993, to discuss the scope and analyses in the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of stabilization, stabilization in other buildings at Rocky Flats, shipping off-site for stabilization, and no action. The public and the State were provided 60 days to comment on the EA, and comments received were responded to as needed in the final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  1. 76 FR 12212 - Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact for the Klingle Valley Trail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact for the Klingle Valley Trail AGENCIES...; in cooperation with the National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability of the Finding of No... the National Park Service (NPS), announce the availability of the Finding of No Significant...

  2. 75 FR 50036 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Availability of Finding...findings of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) August 2009...the EA). The FAA (Office of Commercial Space Transportation) participated as a...

  3. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1–T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20–30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  4. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  5. 78 FR 7850 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed NOVA Chemicals Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed NOVA Chemicals Inc. Line 20 Facility... Department of State's Finding of No Significant Impact on the proposed NOVA Chemicals Inc. Line 20 Facilities... fuels to or from a foreign country. NOVA Chemicals Inc. (NOVA) has applied to the Department of...

  6. Seduction of Finding Universality in Sputtering Yields Due to Cluster Bombardment of Solids.

    PubMed

    Paruch, Robert J; Postawa, Zbigniew; Garrison, Barbara J

    2015-09-15

    Universal descriptions are appealing because they simplify the description of different (but similar) physical systems, allow the determination of general properties, and have practical applications. Recently, the concept of universality has been applied to the dependence of the sputtering (ejection) yield due to energetic cluster bombardment versus the energy of the incident cluster. It was observed that the spread in data points can be reduced if the yield Y and initial projectile cluster kinetic energy E are expressed in quantities scaled by the number of cluster atoms n, that is, Y/n versus E/n. The convergence of the data points is, however, not perfect, especially when the results for molecular and atomic solids are compared. In addition, the physics underlying the apparent universal dependence in not fully understood. For the study presented in this Account, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of Arn cluster bombardment of molecular (benzene, octane, and ?-carotene) and atomic (Ag) solids in order to address the physical basis of the apparent universal dependence. We have demonstrated that the convergence of the data points between molecular and atomic solids can be improved if the binding energy of the solid U0 is included and the dependence is presented as Y/(E/U0) versus (E/U0)/n. As a material property, the quantity U0 is defined per the basic unit of material, which is an atom for atomic solids and a molecule for molecular solids. Analogously, the quantity Y is given in atoms and molecules, respectively. The simulations show that, for almost 3 orders of magnitude variation of (E/U0)/n, there are obvious similarities in the ejection mechanisms between the molecular and atomic solids, thus supporting the concept of universality. For large (E/U0)/n values, the mechanism of ejection is the fluid flow from a cone-shaped volume. This regime of (E/U0)/n is generally accessed experimentally by clusters with hundreds of atoms and results in the largest yields. For molecular systems, a large fraction of the total energy E is consumed by internal excitation and molecular fragmentation, which are energy loss channels not present in atomic solids. For small (E/U0)/n values, the cluster deforms the surface and the ejection occurs from a ring-shaped ridge of the forming crater rim. This regime of (E/U0)/n is generally accessed experimentally by clusters with thousands of atoms and results in the smallest yields. For the molecular systems, there is little or no molecular fragmentation. The simulations indicate, however, that the representation which includes U0 as the only material property cannot be completely universal, because there are other material properties which influence the sputtering efficiency. Furthermore, neither the Y/n nor Y/(E/U0) representation includes the energy loss physics associated with molecular fragmentation in the high (E/U0)/n regime. The analysis of the universal concept implies for practical applications that if the objective of the experiment is large material removal, then the high energy per cluster atom regime is applicable. If the objective is little or no molecular fragmentation in organic materials, then the low energy per atom regime is appropriate. PMID:26248727

  7. 76 FR 67229 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    .... SNM-33; Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Hematite Decommissioning Project, Hematite, MO AGENCY... (76 FR 60557), that noticed the availability of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On page 60558 of the Federal Register published September 29, 2011 (76 FR 60557),...

  8. 78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ..., published in the Federal Register September 2, 1981, (46 FR 44083); the USIBWC hereby gives notice that the... WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...; Notice of Availability AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission...

  9. 77 FR 77118 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...at the Site were primarily tritium and carbon-14, with significantly lesser quantities of chlorine-36, nickel-63, strontium-90, cesium-137, lead-210, and radium-226. In addition to the radioactive materials disposed as waste,...

  10. 75 FR 34774 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... CFR 20.1402. These DCGLs define the maximum amount of residual radioactivity on building surfaces... radioactivity at the Facility and concluded that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  11. 75 FR 36701 - Issuance of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...hotter,'' and that climatic events might ``scatter...assessing environmental impact and concluded under...Conclusion The environmental impacts of the proposed action...will not significantly impact the quality of the human environment. As...

  12. What is the clinical significance of finding cells from a primary tumor at another site? — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops What is the clinical significance of finding cells from a primary

  13. 75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ..., 2009, we published a notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register (74 FR 61319-61321, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0087... of no significant impact relative to oral rabies vaccination programs in several States. The... vaccination program to include the States of New Mexico and Arizona, which is necessary to effectively...

  14. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.6 as follows: (1) When the proposed action is the subject of a notice of proposed... be made available to the public upon request according to the procedures in 40 CFR 1506.6. (3) For...

  15. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.6 as follows: (1) When the proposed action is the subject of a notice of proposed... be made available to the public upon request according to the procedures in 40 CFR 1506.6. (3) For...

  16. 78 FR 70529 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer...transferring the land and real estate at the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) in Clemson...10 acres of land and facilities at the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS)...

  17. 78 FR 10620 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... animal drug application (NADA) concerning a genetically engineered (GE) Atlantic salmon and a preliminary.... Background In the Federal Register of December 26, 2012 (77 FR 76050), FDA published a notice of...

  18. Finding the Intersection of the Learning Organization and Learning Transfer: The Significance of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jun Hee; Callahan, Jamie L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to develop a conceptual framework delineating the key dimension of the learning organization which significantly influences learning transfer. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing previous studies and synthesizing the results associated with the following four relationships:…

  19. 78 FR 70529 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer AGENCY: Agricultural Research... the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) in Clemson, SC, to Clemson University. The FONSI document... transfer of approximately 10 acres of land and facilities at the Cotton Quality Research Station...

  20. 75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...necessary to effectively combat the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. The environmental assessment provides a basis for our conclusion that the expansion of the oral rabies vaccination program will not have a significant impact on the quality of the human...

  1. Initial bone marrow findings in multiple myeloma. Significance of plasma cell nodules.

    PubMed

    Buss, D H; Prichard, R W; Hartz, J W; Cooper, M R; Feigin, G A

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective review of bone marrow specimens from 235 patients with multiple myeloma and 148 patients with reactive plasmacytosis was performed in an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of bone marrow sections in distinguishing between these conditions. Although the presence of large homogeneous nodules and/or infiltrates of plasma cells in bone marrow sections remains the best criterion for the diagnosis of myeloma, a few specimens (2%) from patients with reactive plasmacytosis also showed this feature. In addition, 26% of the patients with myeloma had bone marrow sections that were considered nondiagnostic in that they lacked recognizable homogeneous nodules and/or infiltrates of plasma cells. Finally, distinguishing multiple myeloma from bone marrow involvement by lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas can be very difficult, if not impossible, based on findings in the sections alone. PMID:3753566

  2. Wharton's Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Future of Regenerative Medicine? Recent Findings and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kalaszczynska, Ilona; Ferdyn, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Around 5 million annual births in EU and 131 million worldwide give a unique opportunity to collect lifesaving Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC). Evidences that these cells possess therapeutic properties are constantly accumulating. Collection of WJ-MSC is done at the time of delivery and it is easy and devoid of side effects associated with collection of adult stem cells from bone marrow or adipose tissue. Likewise, their rate of proliferation, immune privileged status, lack of ethical concerns, nontumorigenic properties make them ideal for both autologous and allogeneic use in regenerative medicine applications. This review provides an outline of the recent findings related to WJ-MSC therapeutic effects and possible advantage they possess over MSC from other sources. Results of first clinical trials conducted to treat immune disorders are highlighted. PMID:25861624

  3. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  4. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  5. Scientists Find X Rays from Stellar Winds That May Play Significant Role in Galactic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Colorful star-forming regions that have captivated stargazers since the advent of the telescope 400 years ago contain gas thousands of times more energetic than previously recognized, powered by colliding stellar winds. This multimillion-degree gas radiated as X rays is one of the long-sought sources of energy and elements in the Milky Way galaxy's interstellar medium. A team led by Leisa Townsley, a senior research associate in astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State University, uncovered this wind phenomenon in the Rosette Nebula, a stellar nursery. With the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the team found that the most massive stars in the nebula produce winds that slam into each other, create violent shocks, and infuse the region with 6-million-degree gas. The findings are presented in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra." "A ghostly glow of diffuse X-ray emission pervades the Rosette Nebula and perhaps many other similar star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy," said Townsley. "We now have a new view of the engine lighting the beautiful Rosette Nebula and new evidence for how the interstellar medium may be energized." Townsley and her colleagues created a striking X-ray panorama of the Rosette Molecular Cloud from four images with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This is a swath of the sky nearly 100 light years across sprayed with hundreds of X-ray-emitting young stars. In one corner of the Rosette Molecular Cloud lies the Rosette Nebula, called an "H II region" because the hydrogen gas there has been stripped of its electrons due to the strong ultraviolet radiation from its young stars. This region, about 5,000 light years away in the constellation Monoceros, the Unicorn, has long been a favorite among amateur astronomers. The wispy, colorful display is visible with small telescopes. The Chandra survey reveals, for the first time, 6-million-degree gas at the center of the Rosette Nebula, occupying a volume of about 3,000 cubic light years. Fueling the fury are a handful of massive type-O and type-B stars at the core of the nebula, the most massive members of a populous "OB association" that also includes hundreds of lower- mass stars. Rosette Nebula Optical/X-ray Composite Press Image and Caption "Until this observation, no one really knew where the energy of the powerful OB stellar winds goes," said Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State and a co-investigator in the study. "Theorists have speculated about this for decades, and we now see with Chandra the heat from the winds slamming into the cooler gas." Earlier X-ray telescopes did not have the resolution to differentiate between point sources and diffuse emission in the Rosette Nebula to the extent that Chandra has. Chandra imaged over 300 individual young stars in the Rosette Nebula, plus hundreds more in the Rosette Molecular Cloud. "We were able to identify the faint, diffuse radiation by subtracting out these point sources and looking at what was left over," explains team member Patrick Broos, a research assistant in astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State. The diffuse emission is not likely to be from supernova remnants left over from exploded stars because the Rosette Nebula is too young to have produced these, according to You- Hua Chu, of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Rather, the diffuse emission must be related to the way the stellar winds from OB associations dissipate their energy. Understanding the detailed processes involved will rely on front-line research done in the laboratory on energy transport in very hot gases, according to Thierry Montmerle, of the Centre d'Etudes de Saclay in France. Chu and Montmerle have joined the research team to help interpret the Chandra results. The observations were made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the lead

  6. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  7. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  8. Frequency and Clinical Significance of Previously Undetected Incidental Findings Detected on Computed Tomography Simulation Scans for Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Naoki; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Takahashi, Osamu; Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Akahane, Keiko; Sekiguchi, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: All CT simulation images were first interpreted prospectively by radiation oncologists and then double-checked by diagnostic radiologists. The official reports of CT simulation images for 881 consecutive postoperative breast cancer patients from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Potentially important incidental findings (PIIFs) were defined as any previously undetected benign or malignancy-related findings requiring further medical follow-up or investigation. For all patients in whom a PIIF was detected, we reviewed the clinical records to determine the clinical significance of the PIIF. If the findings from the additional studies prompted by a PIIF required a change in management, the PIIF was also recorded as a clinically important incidental finding (CIIF). Results: There were a total of 57 (6%) PIIFs. The 57 patients in whom a PIIF was detected were followed for a median of 17 months (range, 3-26). Six cases of CIIFs (0.7% of total) were detected. Of the six CIIFs, three (50%) cases had not been noted by the radiation oncologist until the diagnostic radiologist detected the finding. On multivariate analysis, previous CT examination was an independent predictor for PIIF (p = 0.04). Patients who had not previously received chest CT examinations within 1 year had a statistically significantly higher risk of PIIF than those who had received CT examinations within 6 months (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.50; p = 0.01). Conclusions: The rate of incidental findings prompting a change in management was low. However, radiation oncologists appear to have some difficulty in detecting incidental findings that require a change in management. Considering cost, it may be reasonable that routine interpretations are given to those who have not received previous chest CT examinations within 1 year.

  9. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 64984-64985, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0078) a notice \\1... Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal... subterminalis, into the continental United States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity...

  10. 76 FR 37842 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach Bottom Atomic... requirements in 10 CFR part 73 and 10 CFR 50.54(p) for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) Unit...

  11. 24 CFR 58.43 - Dissemination and/or publication of the findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissemination and/or publication of the findings of no significant impact. 58.43 Section 58.43 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  12. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. 51.35 Section 51.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  13. 78 FR 64001 - Finding of No Significant Impact for the Renewal and Amendment to the Barton Springs Pool Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), make available the final Environmental Assessment (EA), Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), and the final amendment to the Barton Springs Pool Habitat Conservation Plan (BSP HCP) under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The City of Austin (applicant) applied for a renewal of their existing Endangered Species Act incidental......

  14. 75 FR 14637 - James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, (March 27, 2009). The NRC staff's safety... James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located in Oswego...

  15. 78 FR 146 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...of the Final Environmental Assessment (FEA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...Project (Project). PHMSA has posted the FEA and FONSI online at http://www.regulations...circumstances. Accordingly, PHMSA has issued an FEA in order to analyze the impacts of the...

  16. 78 FR 146 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Assessment (FEA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Longhorn Pipeline Reversal Project (Project). PHMSA has posted the FEA and FONSI online at http://www.regulations.gov in docket number PHMSA... Longhorn Pipeline than it would have under normal circumstances. Accordingly, PHMSA has issued an FEA...

  17. Findings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  18. Finding of no significant impact proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. Yields of biologically significant damage produced in mammalian DNA by irradiation associated with radon decay. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the difference between damage to DNA caused by alpha particles and by low LET radiation. Estimation of the risk posed by exposure to high LET radiation (such as that from radon) relies at present on epidemiological data, and is therefore largely empirical. This empiricism is evident from the concepts of quality factor or RBE that find use for describing the biological effects of high LET radiation. The author argues that some effort should be made to address the mechanisms of DNA damage by high and low LET forms of radiation, and how these mechanisms might relate to the biological endpoints. This report summarizes the results of the author`s investigations and the current understanding of these mechanisms.

  20. A Significant Proportion of Pediatric Morphea En Coup De Sabre and Parry-Romberg Syndrome Patients Have Neuroimaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yvonne E.; Vora, Sheetal; Kwon, Eun-Kyung M.; Maheshwari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives En coup de sabre (ECDS) and Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) are variants of linear morphea on the head and neck that can be associated with neurologic manifestations. Intracranial abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be present in a significant proportion of patients. Methods We describe 32 pediatric patients from our institution with ECDS or PRS, in whom neuroimaging was performed in 21 cases. We also review 51 additional patients from the literature. Results Nineteen percent of the children at our institution had intracranial abnormalities on MRI, half of whom were asymptomatic. Hyperintensities on T2-weighted sequences were the most common finding, present in all patients who had intracranial abnormalities on MRI. Seizures and headaches were the most common neurologic symptom, affecting 13% and 9% of our population, respectively. The presence of neurologic symptoms was not correlated with neuroimaging abnormalities as 2 asymptomatic patients had marked MRI findings, while the MRI was abnormal in only 2/9 symptomatic patients. Similarly, the severity of the superficial disease did not predict neurologic involvement; a patient with subtle skin involvement had striking MRI findings and seizures while another patient with a bony defect had no brain parenchymal involvement. Conclusions Neurologic symptoms and neuroimaging abnormalities are found in a surprisingly substantial percentage of children with ECDS and PRS. Early recognition of neurologic involvement is necessary as it affects treatment choices. As clinical predictors of intracranial abnormalities are poor, strong consideration should be given to obtaining an MRI prior to treatment initiation to assist in management decisions and establish a baseline examination. PMID:23106674

  1. Clinical significance of discordant findings between pre-therapy 123I and post-therapy 131I whole body scan in patients with thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Paco E; Goudarzi, Behnaz; Rana, Uzma; Filho, Paulo Togni; Castillo, Raymond; Rababy, Christopher; Ewertz, Marjorie; Ziessman, Harvey A; Cooper, David S; Ladenson, Paul W; Wahl, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive therapy with 131I (RAI) is commonly used during the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of discordant findings between pre-RAI whole body scan (WBS) with 123I and post-RAI WBS in the management of DTC. We retrospectively evaluated 342 individuals between 2002 and 2008 who had a diagnosis of DTC and underwent RAI. All had WBS one day before RAI and WBS one week after RAI. Patients were divided into 3 groups: 1) RAI-naive subjects without known distant metastatic disease (M1); 2) patients with history of prior RAI and persistent disease (except M1); and 3) patients with known M1. In Group 1 (n=311), 7% of patients (n=22) had discordant scans, but in only 4 of these cases did this represent true disease (3 unsuspected lung and 1 mediastinal node metastasis). In the remaining 18 patients, discordant findings corresponded to physiologic or other benign causes. In group 2 (n=23), 7 subjects (30%) had discordant findings and all of the discrepant sites consisted of loco-regional nodal disease in the neck/upper mediastinum (n=6) and M1 in lung (n=1). In group 3 (n=8), 5 patients (62%) showed discordant uptake in lung and bone which corresponded to the locations of known M1. A total of 12 patients with iodine-avid M1 were identified on post-RAI WBS (3.5% of entire cohort). Pre-RAI WBS was only concordant in 3 of these cases (25%). In conclusion, the significance of pre and post-RAI WBS is highly influenced by the clinical setting. Unsuspected distant metastatic disease is infrequent in RAI-naive patients without known M1, where most discordant findings are usually due to benign explanations, and represent false positive findings in this group. In contrast, in patients with history of previous RAI or known M1, discordant results likely correspond to true disease. In our study, pre-RAI scans showed a low yield to detect iodine-avid distant metastatic disease when compared to post-RAI scans. PMID:23724150

  2. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-15

    The proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project is a 21-megawatt (MW) wind generation project proposed by Florida Power and Light (FPL) Energy North Dakota Wind LLC (Dakota Wind) and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin). The proposed windfarm would be located in La Moure County, south central North Dakota, near the rural farming communities of Kulm and Edgeley. The proposed windfarm is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2003. Dakota Wind and other project proponents are seeking to develop the proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project to provide utilities and, ultimately, electric energy consumers with electricity from a renewable energy source at the lowest possible cost. A new 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line would be built to transmit power generated by the proposed windfarm to an existing US Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration (Western) substation located near Edgeley. The proposed interconnection would require modifying Western's Edgeley Substation. Modifying the Edgeley Substation is a Federal proposed action that requires Western to review the substation modification and the proposed windfarm project for compliance with Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332, and Department of Energy NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR Part 1021). Western is the lead Federal agency for preparation of this Environmental Assessment (EA). The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is a cooperating agency with Western in preparing the EA. This document follows regulation issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for implementing procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and is intended to disclose potential impacts on the quality of the human environment resulting from the proposed project. If potential impacts are determined to be significant, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement would be required. If impacts are determined to be insignificant, Western would complete a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). Environmental protection measures that would be included in the design of the proposed project are included.

  3. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. PMID:25845935

  4. 76 FR 50170 - Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Pohick...Significant Impact AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA...40 CFR part 1500]; and the Natural Resources Conservation Service...

  5. 78 FR 7850 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed NOVA Chemicals Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...No Significant Impact for the Proposed NOVA Chemicals Inc. Line 20 Facility Conversion...of No Significant Impact on the proposed NOVA Chemicals Inc. Line 20 Facilities Conversion...non-gaseous fuels to or from a foreign country. NOVA Chemicals Inc. (NOVA) has applied...

  6. Pursuit of the “truth” about mental illness: the significance of findings in neuropsychiatric research, and lessons from the past

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    Technology in genetics and brain imaging has advanced so rapidly that it is difficult to be knowledgeable about all the new tools being used in the pursuit of progress toward understanding and treating mental illness. While findings from new studies remain promising, caution is needed with regard to their current applicability to clinical use, both to predict who is likely to become ill and who is likely to respond to medication. A perspective on the past, using schizophrenia as an example, illustrates important findings that were published, had much visibility, and caused a flurry of new related studies, but then slowly disappeared, either to be abandoned as an artifact of the assay or study design, an epiphenomenon, or as simply nonreplicated findings not leading to further progress. Remembering that good science is “the pursuit of the truth” and not joining the latest “bandwagon fad” of “believers” is an important principle to adhere to when participating in the politics of science. PMID:25733950

  7. 76 FR 50170 - Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding... Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John A. Bricker... Assistance under 10.904, Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention, and is subject to the provisions...

  8. 78 FR 58517 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) and Findings of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project AGENCY: Natural...) entitled: ``General Reevaluation Report and Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Prairie...: ``Environmental Assessment Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project, Post General Reevaluation Design...

  9. 78 FR 58517 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Bayou Meto Basin Project, Arkansas AGENCY: Natural Resources...: ``General Reevaluation Report and Environmental Impact Statement for the Bayou Meto Basin project dated... ] also adopted the Environmental Assessment (EA) entitled ``Final Environmental Assessment Bayou...

  10. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  11. 76 FR 4859 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    .... On May 20, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28233- 28234, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0028... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Asian citrus...

  12. 76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae, HWA) infestations. On January 19, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28232-28233, Docket No. APHIS-2010... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  13. 76 FR 15935 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... biological control agent to reduce the severity of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) infestations. On January 19, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 3076-3077, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0115) a notice... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  14. 75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... hyacinth infestations. On November 16, 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 58939-58940... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based...

  15. 78 FR 14508 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    .... On August 3, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 46373, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0061) a... Significant Impact for the Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid... Aphelinus glycinis for the biological control of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the continental...

  16. Rectal cancer staging: focus on the prognostic significance of the findings described by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool for multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) addressing rectal cancer. It provides anatomic information for surgical planning and allows patients to be stratified into different groups according to the risk of local and distant recurrence. One of the objectives of the MDT is the preoperative identification of high-risk patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant treatment. For this reason, the correct evaluation of the circumferential resection margin (CRM), the depth of tumor spread beyond the muscularis propria, extramural vascular invasion and nodal status is of the utmost importance. Low rectal tumors represent a special challenge for the MDT, because decisions seek a balance between oncologic safety, in the pursuit of free resection margins, and the patient’s quality of life, in order to preserve sphincter function. At present, the exchange of information between the different specialties involved in dealing with patients with rectal cancer can rank the contribution of colleagues, auditing their work and incorporating knowledge that will lead to a better understanding of the pathology. Thus, beyond the anatomic description of the images, the radiologist’s role in the MDT makes it necessary to know the prognostic value of the findings that we describe, in terms of recurrence and survival, because these findings affect decision making and, therefore, the patients’ life. In this review, the usefulness of HR MRI in the initial staging of rectal cancer and in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment, with a focus on the prognostic value of the findings, is described as well as the contribution of HR MRI in assessing patients with suspected or confirmed recurrence of rectal cancer. PMID:23876415

  17. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Sold residue treatment, repackaging, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    From its founding in 1952 through the cessation of production in 1989, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (now the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site [the Site]) produced components for nuclear weapons. Some of those components were made of plutonium. As a result of the processes used to recover and purify plutonium and manufacture the components, a variety of materials became contaminated with plutonium. If the level of contamination were low, the material was considered waste. However, if the concentration of plutonium in the material exceeded the {open_quotes}economic discard limit,{close_quotes} the materials were classified as {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} rather than{open_quotes}Waste{close_quotes} and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. While large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, accumulated at the Site in storage. Two important events regarding residues have occurred at the Site since production activities ceased. One event was the end of the Cold War in 1991, which made the return to production of nuclear weapons, with their Rocky Flats-made components, unnecessary. This event led to DOE`s decision to permanently cease production at the Site, clean up and remove radioactive and chemical contamination at the Site, and find alternative uses for the Site. This document describes methods for processing of the wastes for safe interim storage. Environmental impacts from the processing and storage are discussed.

  18. 75 FR 68021 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Tier-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Draft Finding of No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start... FR 28545, May 26, 1999), the FRA and the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) and the Ohio Rail... impacts of the 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Project. Based on the Tier-1 EA, the FRA has prepared a...

  19. Predictive significance of the overvaluation of shape/weight in obese patients with binge eating disorder: findings from a randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Gueorguieva, R.; Wilson, G. T.; Masheb, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Undue influence of body shape or weight on self-evaluation – referred to as overvaluation – is considered a core feature across eating disorders, but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined the concurrent and predictive significance of overvaluation of shape/weight in obese patients with BED participating in a randomized clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method A total of 90 participants were randomly assigned to 6-month group treatments of CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout- and post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups after completing treatments with reliably administered semi-structured interviews and established measures. Results Participants categorized with overvaluation (n=52, 58%) versus without overvaluation (n=38, 42%) did not differ significantly in demographic features (age, gender and ethnicity), psychiatric co-morbidity, body mass index or binge eating frequency. The overvaluation group had significantly greater levels of eating disorder psychopathology and poorer psychological functioning (higher depression and lower self-esteem) than the non-overvaluation group. Overvaluation of shape/weight significantly predicted non-remission from binge eating and higher frequency of binge eating at the 12-month follow-up, even after adjusting for group differences in depression and self-esteem levels. Conclusions Our findings suggest that overvaluation does not simply reflect concern commensurate with being obese or more frequent binge eating, but also is strongly associated with heightened eating-related psychopathology and psychological distress, and has negative prognostic significance for longer-term treatment outcomes. Overvaluation of shape/weight warrants consideration as a diagnostic specifier for BED as it provides important information about severity and treatment outcome. PMID:22967857

  20. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  2. Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  3. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  4. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative, as required by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This section provides a brief description of the locale in which the Proposed Action would take place. (5) Environmental Impacts. This section describes the range of environmental impacts, beneficial and adverse, of the Proposed Action. Impacts of alternatives briefly are discussed. (6) Permits and Regulatory Requirements. This section provides a brief description of permits and regulatory requirements for the Proposed Action. (7) Organizations Consulted. This section lists any outside groups, agencies, or individuals contacted as part of the environmental assessment preparation and/or review. (8) References. This section provides a list of documents used to contribute information or data in preparation of this environmental assessment.

  5. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  6. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-31

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

  7. Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A.

    1996-10-02

    A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Recent Findings Regarding Maintenance of Enzootic Variants of Yersinia pestis in Sylvatic Reservoirs and Their Significance in the Evolution of Epidemic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Despite the widespread presence of bubonic plague in sylvatic reservoirs throughout the world, the causative agent (Yersinia pestis) evolved in its present form within the last 20,000 years from enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Comparison of the genomes from the two species revealed that Y. pestis possesses only a few unique plasmid-encoded genes that contribute to acute disease, whereas this organism has lost about 13% of the chromosomal genes that remain active in Y. pseudotuberculosis. These losses reflect readily detectable additions, deletions, transpositions, inversions, and acquisition of about 70 insertion sequence (IS) inserts, none of which are likely to promote increased virulence. In contrast, major enzymes of intermediary metabolism, including glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf?) and aspartase, are present but not catalytically functional due to the presence of missense mutations. The latter are generally not detectable by the technology of bioinformatics and, in the case of Y. pestis, result in radical changes in the metabolic flow of carbon. As an important consequence, plague bacilli exhibit a stringent low-calcium response characterized by conversion of L-glutamate (and metabolically related amino acids) to L-aspartate with secretion of the latter into supernatant fluid at 37°C in culture media containing Na+ but lacking added Ca2+. This phenomenon also occurs in vivo and likely adversely affects the bioenergetics of host amino acid pools. Curiously, aspartase is functional in all tested enzootic (pestoides) strains of Y. pestis. These isolates are typically restricted to the ancient plague reservoirs of Central Asia and Africa and are fully virulent in members of the rodent Superfamily Muroidea but avirulent in guinea pigs and man. The implications of these findings for the distribution and ecology of Y. pestis could be significant. PMID:20158336

  9. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment Yields Significant Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Koudelka, John M.; Vergilii, Franklin

    1999-01-01

    The spread of a flame over solid fuel is not only a fundamental textbook combustion phenomenon, but also the central element of destructive fires that cause tragic loss of life and property each year. Throughout history, practical measures to prevent and fight fires have been developed, but these have often been based on lessons learned in a costly fire. Since the 1960 s, scientists and engineers have employed powerful tools of scientific research to understand the details of flame spread and how a material can be rendered nonflammable. High-speed computers have enabled complex flame simulations, whereasand lasers have provided measurements of the chemical composition, temperature, and air velocities inside flames. The microgravity environment has emerged as the third great tool for these studies. Spreading flames are complex combinations of chemical reactions and several physical processes including the transport of oxygen and fuel vapor to the flame and the transfer of heat from the flame to fresh fuel and to the surroundings. Depending on its speed, air motion in the vicinity of the flame can affect the flame in substantially different ways. For example, consider the difference between blowing on a campfire and blowing out a match. On Earth, gravity induces air motion because of buoyancy (the familiar rising hot gases); this process cannot be controlled experimentally. For theoreticians, buoyant air motion complicates the problem modeling of flame spread beyond the capacity of modern computers to simulate. The microgravity environment provides experimental control of air motion near spreading flames, with results that can be compared with detailed theory. The Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) was designed to obtain benchmark flame spreading data in quiescent test atmospheres--the limiting case of flames spreading. Professor Robert Altenkirch, Vice President for Research at Mississippi State University, proposed the experiment concept, and the NASA Lewis Research Center designed, built, and tested the SSCE hardware. It was the first microgravity science experiment built by Lewis for the space shuttle and the first combustion science experiment flown in space.

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the release of tritium from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch between 25 to 35 percent. If this proposed action is undertaken and its effectiveness is demonstrated, it may become a component of the final action in the CAP. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or prepare an environmental impact statement (EM).

  11. From Bayes through Marginal Utility to Effect Sizes: A Guide to Understanding the Clinical and Statistical Significance of the Results of Autism Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Koenig, Kathy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.; Paul, Rhea; Sparrow, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this report are: (a) to trace the theoretical roots of the concept clinical significance that derives from Bayesian thinking, Marginal Utility/Diminishing Returns in Economics, and the "just noticeable difference", in Psychophysics. These concepts then translated into: Effect Size (ES), strength of agreement, clinical…

  12. Prognostic significance of prevalent and incident atrial fibrillation among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome: findings from the Gulf RACE-2 Registry.

    PubMed

    Hersi, Ahmad; Alhabib, Khalid F; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Alfaleh, Hussam F; Alsaif, Shukri; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Asaad, Nidal; Haitham, Amin; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Suwaidi, Jassim; Shehab, Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    There is a paucity of data on atrial fibrillation (AF) complicating acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Arabian Gulf countries. Thus, we assessed the incidence of AF in patients with ACS in these countries and examined the associated in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year adverse outcomes. The population comprised 7930 patients enrolled in the second Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Of 7930 patients with ACS, 217 (2.7%) had AF. Compared with patients without AF, patients with AF were less likely to be male (65.9 vs 79.1%) and were older (mean age 64.6 vs 56.6 years). Compared with patients without AF, in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality were significantly higher in patients with any AF (odds ratio [OR]: 2.7, 2.2, 1.9, respectively; P < .001) and in patients with new-onset AF (OR: 5.2, 3.9, 3.1, respectively; P < .001. In conclusion, AF in patients with ACS was associated with significantly higher short- and long-term mortality. PMID:22144666

  13. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

  14. Changes in Normal Liver and Spleen Volume after Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y-Resin Microspheres in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Findings and Clinical Significance

    SciTech Connect

    Paprottka, Philipp M. Schmidt, G. P.; Trumm, C. G.; Hoffmann, R. T.; Reiser, M. F.; Jakobs, T. F.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: In clinical trials with yttrium-90-resin-microspheres for the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases, it was observed that radioembolization might result in splenomegaly and an increase in portal vein size. Subclinical hepatitis in normal liver tissue as well as the effects of radioembolization and prior chemotherapy are suspected to be responsible for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter after radioembolization. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with liver-dominant metastatic disease from breast cancer who had not responded to chemotherapy or had to abandon chemotherapy because of its toxic effects were evaluated. Changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter as well as liver tumor volume and diameter were quantified using computed tomography scans. Results: Radioembolization was associated with a significant mean decrease in the whole liver volume of 10.2% (median 16.7%; P = 0.0024), mainly caused by a reduction in the right lobe volume (mean 16.0%; P < 0.0001). These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the diameter of the main portal vein (mean 6.8%; P < 0.0001) as well as splenic volume (mean 50.4%; P < 0.0001). Liver-tumor volume and diameter decreased by a median of 24 and 39.7%. Conclusions: Radioembolization is an effective treatment for tumor size reduction in patients with breast cancer liver metastases. Treatment is associated with changes of hepatic parenchymal volume, splenic volume, and portal vein size that appear not to represent clinically important sequelae in this patient cohort.

  15. Significant Findings: Tracking the SeaWiFS Record with a Coupled Physical/Biogeochemical/Radiative Model of the Global Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Gregg W.

    2000-01-01

    The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has observed 2.5 years of routine global chlorophyll observations from space. The mission was launched into a record El Nino event, which eventually gave way to one of the most intensive and longest-lasting La Nina events ever recorded. The SeaWiFS chlorophyll record captured the response of ocean phytoplankton to these significant events in the tropical Indo-Pacific basins, but also indicated significant interannual variability unrelated to the El Nino/La Nina events. This included large variability in the North Atlantic and Pacific basins, in the North Central and equatorial Atlantic, and milder patterns in the North Central Pacific. This SeaWiFS record was tracked with a coupled physical/biogeochemical/radiative model of the global oceans using near-real-time forcing data such as wind stresses, sea surface temperatures, and sea ice. This provided an opportunity to offer physically and biogeochemically meaningful explanations of the variability observed in the SeaWiFS data set, since the causal mechanisms and interrelationships of the model are completely understood. The coupled model was able to represent the seasonal distributions of chlorophyll during the SeaWiFS era, and was capable of differentiating among the widely different processes and dynamics occurring in the global oceans. The model was also reasonably successful in representing the interannual signal, especially when it was large, such as, the El Nino and La Nina events in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. The model provided different phytoplankton group responses for the different events in these regions: diatoms were predominant in the tropical Pacific during the La Nina but other groups were predominant during El Nino. The opposite condition occurred in the tropical Indian Ocean. Both situations were due to the different responses of the basins to El Nino. The interannual variability in the North Atlantic, which was exhibited in SeaWiFS data as a decline in the spring/summer bloom in 1999 relative to 1998, resulted in the model from a more slowly shoaling mixed layer, allowing herbivore populations to keep pace with increasing phytoplankton populations. However, several aspects of the interannual cycle were not well-represented by the model. Explanations ranged from inherent model deficiencies, to monthly averaging of forcing fields, to biases in SeaWiFS atmospheric correction procedures.

  16. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  17. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Construction and Operation of the Molecular Foundry at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-03-07

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) proposes to build a six-story, approximately 86,500 gross square foot (gsf) Molecular Foundry building; and an adjacent 8,000 gsf, partly below-grade Central Utility Plant building (for a combined 94,500 gsf), to be funded and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The buildings would be located on an approximately 2 1/2-acre site in the southeastern portion of the LBNL facility in the Oakland-Berkeley hills. The site is on mostly undeveloped slopes between Building 72, which is the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Building 66, which is the Surface Science and Catalysis Laboratory (SSCL). The Molecular Foundry building would include laboratories, offices, and conference and seminar rooms; the Central Utility Plant would also serve as the foundation for 16 surface parking spaces. A new plaza and pedestrian bridges would connect or provide ready access between the proposed Molecular Foundry building and adjacent scientific buildings. The Proposed Action would extend Lee Road approximately 350 feet, and widen a portion of the road to accommodate two-way traffic. The Molecular Foundry would be staffed and/or used by an estimated 137 persons, of whom an estimated 59 would be staff persons, 36 would be students, and 42 would be visitors (i.e., visiting scientists) to the Center. The Proposed Action would require removal of an existing paved 18-space parking lot and retaining walls, as well as excavation into an undeveloped hillside. Approximately two-dozen mature trees would be removed along with approximately one-dozen saplings. The Proposed Action would replant or replace trees, generally in-kind and in or around the site. LBNL anticipates it would reuse all soil excavated for the Molecular Foundry to construct the new Lee Road extension and widen the existing roadway. This Proposed Action would be a resource for the Department of Energy's participation in the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). Nanotechnology is the design, fabrication, characterization, and use of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter at the nanometer-length scale. Nanoscience will develop the understanding of building blocks at the nanometer-length scale and the methods by which they are assembled into multi-component devices. Alternatives to the Proposed Action include a reduced size building configuration, location of the building on a different on-site location, and a No Action alternative. Several off-site alternatives were considered but were not found to reasonably meet the purpose and need for the Proposed Action. Of the reasonable alternatives analyzed, the Proposed Action is found to best meet DOE's purpose and need for action. Although the Proposed Action would take place on a partially developed site that is generally surrounded by existing buildings and roads, the site is near to designated Critical Habitat of the Federally-listed Alameda Whipsnake. To minimize any potential but unexpected impact to the Alameda whipsnake, several mitigation measures are proposed. In addition, the Proposed Action would result in minor increases in stormwater runoff, air pollutant emissions, visual quality impacts, noise impacts, and the potential to disturb unanticipated archaeological resources. It would produce marginal increases in traffic and parking demand, as well as incremental demand increases for water, energy, wastewater treatment, waste disposal, and public services. The following impact is found to be potentially significant without mitigation in this Environmental Assessment: Although the site is not located in USFWS-designated critical habitat, due to the potential for Alameda whipsnake movement into the project area, mitigation measures would be implemented to ensure that whipsnakes are protected to the greatest extent possible during project construction.

  18. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-05-27

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action regarding an upgrade of the Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). Potential environmental consequences associated with the proposed action and alternative actions are provided. DOE proposes to design, build, and operate a new WWTF, consistent with the requirements of Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 317, ''Design Criteria for Sewage Systems,'' capable of supporting current and future wastewater treatment requirements of the Plant. Wastewater treatment at Pantex must provide sufficient operational flexibility to meet Pantex Plant's anticipated future needs, including potential Plant mission changes, alternative effluent uses, and wastewater discharge permit requirements. Treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water maybe used for irrigation on DOE-owned agricultural land. Five factors support the need for DOE action: (1) The current WWTF operation has the potential for inconsistent permit compliance. (2) The existing WWTF lies completely within the 100-year floodplain. (3) The Pantex Plant mission has the potential to change, requiring infrastructure changes to the facility. (4) The life expectancy of the existing facility would be nearing its end by the time a new facility is constructed. (5) The treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water would have a beneficial agricultural use through irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following factors are present and of concern at the proposed action site on Pantex Plant: (1) Periodic wastewater effluent permit exceedances; (2) Wetlands protection and floodplain management; (3) Capability of the existing facility to meet anticipated future needs of Pantex (4) Existing facility design life; and (5) Use of treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water for irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and no further analysis was conducted: (1) State or national parks, forests, or other conservation areas; (2) Wild and scenic rivers; (3) Natural resources, such as timber, range, soils, minerals; (4) Properties of historic, archeological, or architectural significance; (5) Native American concerns; (6) Minority and low-income populations; and (7) Prime or unique farmland. In this document, DOE describes the proposed action and a reasonable range of alternatives to the proposed action, including the ''No-Action'' alternative. The proposed action cited in the ''U.S. Department of Energy Application for a Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Modifying Permit to Dispose of Waste, No. 02296,'' December 1998, included the construction of a new wastewater treatment facility, a new irrigation storage pond, and the conversion of the current wastewater treatment facility into an irrigation storage pond. Although a permit modification application has been filed, if a decision on this EA necessitates it, an amendment to the permit application would be made. The permit application would be required for any of the alternatives and the filing does not preclude or predetermine selection of an alternative considered by this EA. This permit change would allow Pantex to land-dispose treated wastewater by irrigating agricultural land. This construction for the proposed action would include designing two new lagoons for wastewater treatment. One of the lagoons could function as a facultative lagoon for treatment of wastewater. The second lagoon would serve as an irrigation storage impoundment (storage pond), with the alternative use as a facultative lagoon if the first lagoon is out of service for any reason. The new facultative lagoon and irrigation water storage pond would be sited outside of the 100-year flood plain. The existing WWTF lagoon would be used as a storage pond for treated wastewater effluent for irrigation water, as needed. The two new lagoons would be li

  19. 800-COCAINE: origin, significance, and findings.

    PubMed Central

    Roehrich, H.; Gold, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    1-800 COCAINE has provided assistance to over two million callers to date. It has supplied epidemiologic data regarding cocaine use, with increasing proportions of female users since 1983, decrease in average age and income of callers since 1983, and numerous social and medical consequences of use. In addition, it has provided data regarding timing of the progression of cocaine abuse and confirmation that cocaine abuse is an addictive illness for those calling to seek help. It has corroborated other studies in documenting the psychosocial and medical consequences of addiction and has been a source of insight into trends in cocaine addiction. 800-COCAINE is, by its existence and name recognition, a primary prevention project. PMID:3407211

  20. Increasing Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize yield improvement in the 20th century represents one of the great success stories of plant breeding and agronomy. Maize grain yield in the United States has increased on average by 0.122 metric tons per hectare per year since 1945 (Figure 1). This is in sharp contrast to essentially zero gain ...

  1. Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.

    2009-05-01

    We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

  2. Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

  3. How to Use SNP_TATA_Comparator to Find a Significant Change in Gene Expression Caused by the Regulatory SNP of This Gene's Promoter via a Change in Affinity of the TATA-Binding Protein for This Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Mikhail; Rasskazov, Dmitry; Arkova, Olga; Ponomarenko, Petr; Suslov, Valentin; Savinkova, Ludmila; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomedical SNP markers of diseases can improve effectiveness of treatment. Genotyping of patients with subsequent searching for SNPs more frequent than in norm is the only commonly accepted method for identification of SNP markers within the framework of translational research. The bioinformatics applications aimed at millions of unannotated SNPs of the “1000 Genomes” can make this search for SNP markers more focused and less expensive. We used our Web service involving Fisher's Z-score for candidate SNP markers to find a significant change in a gene's expression. Here we analyzed the change caused by SNPs in the gene's promoter via a change in affinity of the TATA-binding protein for this promoter. We provide examples and discuss how to use this bioinformatics application in the course of practical analysis of unannotated SNPs from the “1000 Genomes” project. Using known biomedical SNP markers, we identified 17 novel candidate SNP markers nearby: rs549858786 (rheumatoid arthritis); rs72661131 (cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis); rs562962093 (stroke); rs563558831 (cyclophosphamide bioactivation); rs55878706 (malaria resistance, leukopenia), rs572527200 (asthma, systemic sclerosis, and psoriasis), rs371045754 (hemophilia B), rs587745372 (cardiovascular events); rs372329931, rs200209906, rs367732974, and rs549591993 (all four: cancer); rs17231520 and rs569033466 (both: atherosclerosis); rs63750953, rs281864525, and rs34166473 (all three: malaria resistance, thalassemia). PMID:26516624

  4. Proper patient selection yields significant and sustained reduction in systolic blood pressure following renal artery stenting in patients with uncontrolled hypertension: long-term results from the HERCULES trial.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Bates, Mark C; Sullivan, Timothy M; Bachinsky, William B; Popma, Jeffrey J; Peng, Lei; Omran, Hend L; Jaff, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    The Safety and Effectiveness Study of the Herculink Elite Renal Stent to Treat Renal Artery Stenosis (HERCULES) trial is a prospective, multicenter trial evaluating the safety, effectiveness, and durability of the RX Herculink Elite renal stent system (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Park, IL) in select patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and uncontrolled hypertension. A total of 202 patients were enrolled between August 2007 and October 2009. The primary endpoint, 9-month binary restenosis, was 10.5% determined by core laboratory adjudicated duplex ultrasound and/or angiography. Additional analyses included changes in blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, renal function (RF), major adverse events (MAEs) (death, ipsilateral nephrectomy, and embolic events resulting in kidney damage), and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) between baseline and 36 months. Freedom from MAE was 98.5% at 30 days. At 36 months, freedom from death, nephrectomy, and CD-TLR were 90.1%, 100%, and 91.8%, respectively. After 30 days there were no site-reported embolic events resulting in kidney damage. The mean baseline systolic blood pressure of 162±18 mm Hg significantly decreased postprocedure and through 36 months (mean systolic blood pressure 141 mm Hg [P<.0001] and 146 mm Hg [P<.0001], respectively). No differences were noted in antihypertensive medications or RF compared with baseline. The HERCULES trial demonstrated sustained clinically and statistically significant reduction in SBP in patients with uncontrolled HTN. Coupled with the low core laboratory-adjudicated in-stent restenosis, acceptable procedural complication rates (1.5%), and <10% CD-TLR, the study suggests that there may be a role for renal artery stenting using contemporary stent technology. PMID:24909590

  5. Maximizing the Exoearth Candidate Yield from a Future Direct Imaging Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagraph contrast noise floor. We find a surprisingly weak dependence of exoEarth candidate yield on exozodi level. Additionally, we provide a quantitative approach to defining a yield goal for future exoEarth-imaging missions.

  6. Maximizing the ExoEarth candidate yield from a future direct imaging mission

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2014-11-10

    ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagraph contrast noise floor. We find a surprisingly weak dependence of exoEarth candidate yield on exozodi level. Additionally, we provide a quantitative approach to defining a yield goal for future exoEarth-imaging missions.

  7. Evidence for X(3872){yields}{psi}(2S){gamma} in B{sup {+-}}{yields}X(3872)K{sup {+-}} Decays and a Study of B{yields}cc{gamma}K

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.

    2009-04-03

    In a search for B{yields}cc{gamma}K decays with the BABAR detector, where cc includes J/{psi} and {psi}(2S), and K includes K{sup {+-}}, K{sub S}{sup 0}, and K*(892), we find evidence for X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{gamma} and X(3872){yields}{psi}(2S){gamma} with 3.6{sigma} and 3.5{sigma} significance, respectively. We measure the product of branching fractions B(B{sup {+-}}{yields}X(3872)K{sup {+-}})xB(X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{gamma})=[2.8{+-}0.8(stat){+-}0.1(syst)]x10{sup -6} and B(B{sup {+-}}{yields}X(3872)K{sup {+-}})xB(X(3872){yields}{psi}(2S){gamma})=[9.5{+-}2.7(stat){+-}0.6(syst)]x10{sup -6}.

  8. An Innovative Approach to Plant Utility Audits Yields Significant Results 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, J. E.; Moore, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents innovative methods to conduct powerhouse audits when applying advanced energy management to utility systems. Specifically, a new class of Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) applied to plant wide utility control...

  9. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  10. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P?yield. PMID:26541972

  11. Lens solutions which increase manufacturing yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szapiel, Stan; Greenhalgh, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    The classic method of design centering commonly used to increase the yield of electronic circuits is employed to improve manufacturability of complex lens designs. The approach uses the results of Monte Carlo (MC) statistics to iteratively center the nominal design on a new point that shows an improved yield. Rather than just employing the MC lens run for routine as-built performance forecast, the results of the simulation are re-used to find the changes in the nominal design parameters values which will increase the yield. The centers-of-gravity (COG) algorithm is selected as a quick and easy method of shifting the nominal design point in the multidimensional parameter space to the new location. The classic COG algorithm is modified to avoid situations when the position of either "pass" or "fail" center of gravity is difficult to determine. Examples of application, which include a wide-angle IR lens and a plan-apochromat objective for a digital microscope show that such method of lens design centering is promising, and even a single iteration may result in significantly improved yield.

  12. Origin of apparent viscosity in yield stress fluids below yielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, P. C. F.; Fall, A.; Bonn, D.

    2009-08-01

    For more than 20 years it has been debated if yield stress fluids are solid below the yield stress or actually flow; whether true yield stress fluids exist or not. Advocates of the true yield stress picture have demonstrated that the effective viscosity increases very rapidly as the stress is decreased towards the yield stress. Opponents have shown that this viscosity increase levels off, and that the material behaves as a Newtonian fluid of very high viscosity below the yield stress. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally (on four different materials, using three different rheometers, five different geometries, and two different measurement methods) that the low-stress Newtonian viscosity is an artifact that arises in non-steady-state experiments. For measurements as long as 104 seconds we find that the value of the "Newtonian viscosity" increases indefinitely. This proves that the yield stress exists and marks a sharp transition between flowing states and states where the steady-state viscosity is infinite —a solid!

  13. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  14. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  15. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2015-11-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  16. Age matters in the prevalence and clinical significance of ultra-high-risk for psychosis symptoms and criteria in the general population: Findings from the BEAR and BEARS-kid studies.

    PubMed

    Schimmelmann, Benno G; Michel, Chantal; Martz-Irngartinger, Alexandra; Linder, Caroline; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2015-06-01

    Early detection of psychosis is an important topic in psychiatry. Yet, there is limited information on the prevalence and clinical significance of high-risk symptoms in children and adolescents as compared to adults. We examined ultra-high-risk (UHR) symptoms and criteria in a sample of individuals aged 8-40 years from the general population of Canton Bern, Switzerland, enrolled from June 2011 to May 2014. The current presence of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and brief intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) and the fulfillment of onset/worsening and frequency requirements for these symptoms in UHR criteria were assessed using the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes. Additionally, perceptive and non-perceptive APS were differentiated. Psychosocial functioning and current non-psychotic DSM-IV axis I disorders were also surveyed. Well-trained psychologists performed assessments. Altogether, 9.9% of subjects reported APS and none BLIPS, and 1.3% met all the UHR requirements for APS. APS were related to more current axis I disorders and impaired psychosocial functioning, indicating some clinical significance. A strong age effect was detected around age 16: compared to older individuals, 8-15-year olds reported more perceptive APS, that is, unusual perceptual experiences and attenuated hallucinations. Perceptive APS were generally less related to functional impairment, regardless of age. Conversely, non-perceptive APS were related to low functioning, although this relationship was weaker in those below age 16. Future studies should address the differential effects of perceptive and non-perceptive APS, and their interaction with age, also in terms of conversion to psychosis. PMID:26043337

  17. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

  18. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.

    PubMed

    Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-22

    Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions. PMID:25621333

  19. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  20. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  1. Detecting Temporal Change in Watershed Nutrient Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickham, James D.; Wade, Timothy G.; Riitters, Kurt H.

    2008-08-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act.

  2. Detecting temporal change in watershed nutrient yields.

    PubMed

    Wickham, James D; Wade, Timothy G; Riitters, Kurt H

    2008-08-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act. PMID:18446405

  3. The fingerprint of climate trends on European crop yields

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Frances C.; Lobell, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Europe has experienced a stagnation of some crop yields since the early 1990s as well as statistically significant warming during the growing season. Although it has been argued that these two are causally connected, no previous studies have formally attributed long-term yield trends to a changing climate. Here, we present two statistical tests based on the distinctive spatial pattern of climate change impacts and adaptation, and explore their power under a range of parameter values. We show that statistical power for the identification of climate change impacts is high in many settings, but that power for identifying adaptation is almost always low. Applying these tests to European agriculture, we find evidence that long-term temperature and precipitation trends since 1989 have reduced continent-wide wheat and barley yields by 2.5% and 3.8%, respectively, and have slightly increased maize and sugar beet yields. These averages disguise large heterogeneity across the continent, with regions around the Mediterranean experiencing significant adverse impacts on most crops. This result means that climate trends can account for ?10% of the stagnation in European wheat and barley yields, with likely explanations for the remainder including changes in agriculture and environmental policies. PMID:25691735

  4. The fingerprint of climate trends on European crop yields.

    PubMed

    Moore, Frances C; Lobell, David B

    2015-03-01

    Europe has experienced a stagnation of some crop yields since the early 1990s as well as statistically significant warming during the growing season. Although it has been argued that these two are causally connected, no previous studies have formally attributed long-term yield trends to a changing climate. Here, we present two statistical tests based on the distinctive spatial pattern of climate change impacts and adaptation, and explore their power under a range of parameter values. We show that statistical power for the identification of climate change impacts is high in many settings, but that power for identifying adaptation is almost always low. Applying these tests to European agriculture, we find evidence that long-term temperature and precipitation trends since 1989 have reduced continent-wide wheat and barley yields by 2.5% and 3.8%, respectively, and have slightly increased maize and sugar beet yields. These averages disguise large heterogeneity across the continent, with regions around the Mediterranean experiencing significant adverse impacts on most crops. This result means that climate trends can account for ? 10% of the stagnation in European wheat and barley yields, with likely explanations for the remainder including changes in agriculture and environmental policies. PMID:25691735

  5. Significant findings concerning the production of Italian Renaissance lustred majolica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper the main results obtained, over a period of more than ten years, from a series of studies concerning the characterization of Italian Renaissance lustred majolicas (from Gubbio and Deruta, Umbria, Italy) are presented. Lustre decoration is a well-known technique, consisting in the application of a thin metallic iridescent film, containing silver and copper nanoparticles, over a previously glazed ceramic object. The technique had its origin in Persia (IX century), was imported by Moorish in Spain, and then developed in central Italy during the Renaissance period. Numerous analytical techniques (among which, ETASS, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM-EDX) have been employed for the characterization of lustred ceramic shards, allowing one to acquire information on both lustre chemical composition and nanostructure. In this way it was shown how some technological parameters, such as the firing conditions, are mandatory to obtain the final result. The presence of a specific marker of the lustre Italian production, i.e., cosalite (Pb2Bi2S5), has been also highlighted. From the study of the ceramic body composition (by means of XRD and ICP-OES and in particular of chemometric techniques) acquired on more than 50 ceramic shards it was possible to discriminate between Deruta and Gubbio production, in this way allowing one to assign objects of uncertain provenance to a specific site. Finally, the most interesting results obtained studying excellent lustred masterpieces from Renaissance belonging to important museums are here presented. In particular, with the use of nondestructive techniques (PIXE, RBS, and portable XRD), the production of Mastro Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio was investigated. By means of the same analytical approach, one of the first examples of lustre in Italy (the famous Baglioni's albarello) was examined, and the controversial question of its attribution to Italian production was scientifically faced.

  6. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...much time will be allowed for public review. In all cases, other than classified actions, a public review period should be the norm unless clearly unnecessary due to the lack of potential controversy. (2) In the following circumstances, the EA and...

  7. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...much time will be allowed for public review. In all cases, other than classified actions, a public review period should be the norm unless clearly unnecessary due to the lack of potential controversy. (2) In the following circumstances, the EA and...

  8. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...much time will be allowed for public review. In all cases, other than classified actions, a public review period should be the norm unless clearly unnecessary due to the lack of potential controversy. (2) In the following circumstances, the EA and...

  9. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...much time will be allowed for public review. In all cases, other than classified actions, a public review period should be the norm unless clearly unnecessary due to the lack of potential controversy. (2) In the following circumstances, the EA and...

  10. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...much time will be allowed for public review. In all cases, other than classified actions, a public review period should be the norm unless clearly unnecessary due to the lack of potential controversy. (2) In the following circumstances, the EA and...

  11. 76 FR 68260 - Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...is to evaluate the potential environmental impacts from replacement of a 600 foot section of timber pile supported pier with concrete pile supports and decking. The timber pile pier section to be replaced comprises a total area of 13,400 square feet....

  12. Finding Statistically Significant Communities in Andrea Lancichinetti1,2

    E-print Network

    Ramasco, José Javier

    Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided interactions), society (e. g., people and their acquaintance- ships). Other noteworthy examples include

  13. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  14. Quantifying Significance of MHC II Residues.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Lu, Ruoshui; Wang, Lusheng; Andreatta, Massimo; Li, Shuai Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a cell-surface protein mediating immune recognition, plays important roles in the immune response system of all higher vertebrates. MHC molecules are highly polymorphic and they are grouped into serotypes according to the specificity of the response. It is a common belief that a protein sequence determines its three dimensional structure and function. Hence, the protein sequence determines the serotype. Residues play different levels of importance. In this paper, we quantify the residue significance with the available serotype information. Knowing the significance of the residues will deepen our understanding of the MHC molecules and yield us a concise representation of the molecules. In this paper we propose a linear programming-based approach to find significant residue positions as well as quantifying their significance in MHC II DR molecules. Among all the residues in MHC II DR molecules, 18 positions are of particular significance, which is consistent with the literature on MHC binding sites, and succinct pseudo-sequences appear to be adequate to capture the whole sequence features. When the result is used for classification of MHC molecules with serotype assigned by WHO, a 98.4 percent prediction performance is achieved. The methods have been implemented in java (http://code.google.com/p/quassi/). PMID:26355503

  15. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

  16. Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

  17. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  18. 76 FR 16838 - Finding of No Significant Impact; Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Contractor To House Approximately 1,000 Federal, Low-Security, Adult Male, Non-US Citizen, Criminal Aliens at... contracts to house approximately, 1,000 federal, low-security, adult males, criminal aliens within one... services with non-federal facilities to house federal inmates. This approach provides the BOP...

  19. 76 FR 16838 - Finding of No Significant Impact; Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...Adult Male, Non-US Citizen, Criminal Aliens at a Contractor-Owned, Contractor-Operated...low-security, adult males, criminal aliens within one existing contractor owned...regarding sentenced and unsentenced criminal aliens. In response, the BOP is seeking...

  20. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches.

    PubMed

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J; Geruschat, Duane R; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the "yield to pedestrian" sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds), and can feasibly be incorporated into microsimulation algorithms to model driver yielding at roundabouts. PMID:24619314

  1. Soybean Yield and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed yield is both the most important soybean breeding objective and the most challenging. The increase in the number of breeders and the increasing application of technology has done little to increase the rate of yield improvement over the past 20 years, but current rapid changes in technology and...

  2. Weed competition and dry bean yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

  3. Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

  4. The Fingerprint of Climate Trends on European Crop Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Lobell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Europe has experienced a stagnation of some crop yields since the early-1990s as well as statistically-significant warming during the growing-season. While it has been argued that these two are causally connected, no previous studies have formally attributed long-term European yield trends to a changing climate. Here we present two statistical tests based on the distinctive spatial pattern of climate change impacts and adaptation, and explore their power under a range of parameter values. We show that statistical power for the identification of climate change impacts is high in many settings, but that power for identifying adaptation is almost always low. Applying these test to European agriculture, we find evidence that long-term temperature and precipitation trends have reduced continent-wide wheat, maize, and barley yields by 2.7%, 1.1%, and 3.9% respectively, and have increased sugarbeet yields by 1.0%. This can account for approximately 10% of the yield stagnation in Europe, with changes in agricultural and environmental policies likely explaining the remainder.

  5. Predicting Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: "Non-Significant" Findings with the Potential for Significant Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Becker-Blease, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    In the March 2003 issue of "Psychological Science", the flagship journal of the American Psychological Society, Goodman et al. (2003) reported on a prospective study that examined memory for childhood sexual abuse. The authors interviewed adolescents and young adults who had been victims of documented childhood sexual abuse that led to criminal…

  6. Is Yield Increase Sufficient to Achieve Food Security in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  7. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  8. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  9. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  10. Search for b{yields}u transitions in B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup 0}K*{sup 0} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.

    2009-08-01

    We present a study of the decays B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup 0}K*{sup 0} and B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup 0}K*{sup 0} with K*{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The D{sup 0} and the D{sup 0} mesons are reconstructed in the final states f=K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and their charge conjugates. Using a sample of 465x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC, we measure the ratio R{sub ADS}{identical_to}[{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}[f]{sub D}K*{sup 0})+{gamma}(B{sup 0} {yields}[f]{sub D}K*{sup 0})]/[{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}[f]{sub D}K*{sup 0})+{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}[f]{sub D}K*{sup 0})] for the three final states. We do not find significant evidence for a signal and set the following limits at 95% probability: R{sub ADS}(K{pi})<0.244, R{sub ADS}(K{pi}{pi}{sup 0})<0.181, and R{sub ADS}(K{pi}{pi}{pi})<0.391. From the combination of these three results, we find that the ratio r{sub S} between the b{yields}u and the b{yields}c amplitudes lies in the range [0.07,0.41] at 95% probability.

  11. Observation of CP Violation in B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.

    2007-07-13

    We report observations of CP violation in the decays B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} in a sample of 383x10{sup 6} {upsilon}(4S){yields}BB events. We find 4372{+-}82 B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays and measure the direct CP-violating charge asymmetry A{sub K{pi}}=-0.107{+-}0.018(stat){sub -0.004}{sup +0.007}(syst), which excludes the CP-conserving hypothesis with a significance of 5.5 standard deviations. In the same sample, we find 1139{+-}49 B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays and measure the CP-violating asymmetries S{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}}=-0.60{+-}0.11(stat){+-}0.03(syst) and C{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}}=-0.21{+-}0.09(stat){+-}0.02(syst). CP conservation in B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} (S{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}}=C{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}}=0) is excluded at a confidence level 1-C.L.=8x10{sup -8}, corresponding to 5.4 standard deviations.

  12. Yield gaps and yield relationships in US soybean production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of yield gaps (YG) (potential yield – farmer yield) provides some indication of the prospects for increasing crop yield to meet the food demands of future populations. Quantile regression analysis was applied to county soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yields (1971 – 2011) from Kentuc...

  13. Stellar yields - models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Amanda

    2015-08-01

    The chemical evolution of the Universe is governed by the chemical yields from stars, which in turn is determined primarily by the initial stellar mass. Even stars as low as 0.9 solar mass can, at low metallicity, contribute to the chemical evolution of elements. Stars less massive than about 10 solar mass experience recurrent mixing events on the giant branches that can significantly change the surface composition of the envelope, with observed enrichments in carbon, nitrogen, fluorine, and heavy elements synthesised by the slow neutron capture process (the s-process). Low and intermediate mass stars release their nucleosynthesis products through stellar outflows or winds, in contrast to massive stars that explode as core-collapse supernovae.Here I review the stellar yields available for single stars up to about 10 solar mass, which includes stars that go through carbon burning before ascending the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). I discuss the main uncertainties affecting the theoretical calculations and recent observations that can be used to constrain models. I also mention efforts by various groups to address these issues and provide homogeneous yields for low and intermediate-mass stars covering a broad range of metallicities. Finally, I discuss the role that AGB stars play in the broader picture of the chemical evolution of galaxies and stellar systems, noting that observations of low-metallicity stars can provide important insights into nucleosynthesis in the early Universe.

  14. Yield and Solidification of Yield-Stress Materials in Rigid Networks and Porous Structures

    E-print Network

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of threshold yield pressure of yield-stress materials in rigid networks of interconnected conduits and porous structures subject to a pressure gradient. We compare the results as obtained dynamically from solving the pressure field to those obtained statically from tracing the path of the minimum sum of threshold yield pressures of the individual conduits by using the threshold path algorithms. We refute criticisms directed recently to our previous findings that the pressure field solution generally produces a higher threshold yield pressure than the one obtained by the threshold path algorithms. Issues related to the solidification of yield stress materials in their transition from fluid phase to solid state have also been investigated and assessed as part of the investigation of the yield point.

  15. Atmospheric Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric fluorescence from these showers. Accurate knowledge of the conversion from atmospheric fluorescence to energy loss by ionizing particles in the atmosphere is key to this technique. In this paper we discuss a small balloon-borne instrument to make the first in situ measurements versus altitude of the atmospheric fluorescence yield. The instrument can also be used in the lab to investigate the dependence of the fluorescence yield in air on temperature, pressure and the concentrations of other gases that present in the atmosphere. The results can be used to explore environmental effects on and improve the accuracy of cosmic ray energy measurements for existing ground-based experiments and future space-based experiments.

  16. How Big Was It? Getting at Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M.; Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most coveted pieces of information in the wake of a nuclear test is the explosive yield. Determining the yield from remote observations, however, is not necessarily a trivial thing. For instance, recorded observations of seismic amplitudes, used to estimate the yield, are significantly modified by the intervening media, which varies widely, and needs to be properly accounted for. Even after correcting for propagation effects such as geometrical spreading, attenuation, and station site terms, getting from the resulting source term to a yield depends on the specifics of the explosion source model, including material properties, and depth. Some formulas are based on assumptions of the explosion having a standard depth-of-burial and observed amplitudes can vary if the actual test is either significantly overburied or underburied. We will consider the complications and challenges of making these determinations using a number of standard, more traditional methods and a more recent method that we have developed using regional waveform envelopes. We will do this comparison for recent declared nuclear tests from the DPRK. We will also compare the methods using older explosions at the Nevada Test Site with announced yields, material and depths, so that actual performance can be measured. In all cases, we also strive to quantify realistic uncertainties on the yield estimation.

  17. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  18. FISCAL YEAR 2011 REPETITIVE OR SIGNIFICANT

    E-print Network

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    services. In accordance with appropriations law, a contract for nonseverable services must be fully fundedFISCAL YEAR 2011 REPETITIVE OR SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE NIH BOARD OF CONTRACT AWARDS #12;FISCAL YEAR 2011 REPETITIVE OR SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE NIH BOARD OF CONTRACT AWARDS 2 The following report

  19. Drilling ban yields verdict

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews a lawsuit which is under appeal by the State of Michigan regarding a takings claim filed over a petroleum exploration site. The dispute arose as a result of a 1987 decision by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources forbidding the property owners from developing the mineral rights leased to Miller Brothers in the Huron/Manistee National Forest. This area is bisected by a trend of Silurian Niagaran reef complexes which has a known production history throughout the State. The dunes area of the national forest has been deemed a wilderness area. As a result of the State's decision, the courts have awarded a sum of 71 million dollars to the developer to cover damages and lost resources. The reserve estimates were taken from adjacent areas which showed that the Niagaran reefs are relatively consistent in their yield.

  20. Beyond extreme temperatures: soil water supply and yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, D.; Lobell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme weather events have profound consequences for both the mean and interannual variability of agricultural production, but while the role of extreme heat has been convincingly demonstrated, soil water supply has received less attention. In particular, there is debate over the extent to which damages attributed to extreme heat are confounded with drought conditions. In a pair of studies, we examine the effect of extreme moisture conditions, both wet and dry, on maize and soybean yields in the U.S. We find significant effects of waterlogging during the planting season, when crops are most vulnerable to excess moisture, as well as evidence for a strong interaction between high temperatures and low moisture during during the critical stages of the summer growing season. Using both precipitation and model-derived soil moisture data, our results suggest that considering temperature and moisture independently will underestimate yield damages during hot, dry conditions. Many warming scenarios project increases in both extreme summer temperatures and soil dryness, and considering these effects jointly can be important in estimating future yield variability.

  1. Ideotype Population Exploration: Growth, Photosynthesis, and Yield Components at Different Planting Densities in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×104, 37.5×104, 48.0×104, 58.5×104, 69.0×104 plants ha–1) during 2010–2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011–2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×104 plants ha–1 in ZS11 and 48.0×104 plants ha–1 in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×104 plants ha–1for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×104 (n m–2) and ?1×104 (n m-2), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m–2) and ?300 (n m–2), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  2. Reexamining charmless B{yields}PV decays in the QCD factorization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinqiang; Yang Yadong

    2006-06-01

    Using the QCD factorization approach, we reexamine the two-body hadronic charmless B-meson decays to final states involving a pseudoscalar (P) and a vector (V) meson, with inclusion of the penguin contractions of spectator-scattering amplitudes induced by the b{yields}Dg*g* (where D=d or s, and g* denotes an off-shell gluon) transitions, which are of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}. Their impacts on the CP-averaged branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries are examined. We find that these higher order penguin contraction contributions have significant impacts on some specific decay modes. Since B{yields}{pi}K*, K{rho} decays involve the same electroweak physics as B{yields}{pi}K puzzles, we present a detailed analysis of these decays and find that the five R-ratios for the B{yields}{pi}K*, K{rho} system are in agreement with experimental data except for R({pi}K*). Generally, these new contributions are found to be important for penguin-dominated B{yields}PV decays.

  3. Sustainable Management in Crop Monocultures: The Impact of Retaining Forest on Oil Palm Yield

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Felicity A.; Edwards, David P.; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ?23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

  4. Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

  5. Defect reduction methodologies: pellicle yield improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Susan V.

    1993-03-01

    The pelliclization process at Intel during the first half of 1991 was not in control. Weekly process yield was trending downward, and the range of the weekly yield during that time frame was greater than 40%. A focused effort in process yield improvement, that started in the second half of 1991 and continued through 1992, brought process yield up an average of 20%, and reduced the range of the process yield to 20 - 25%. This paper discusses the continuous process improvement guidelines that are being followed to reduce variations/defects in the pelliclization process. Teamwork tools, such as Pareto charts, fishbone diagrams, and simple experiments, prioritize efforts and help find the root cause of the defects. Best known methods (BKM), monitors, PMs, and excursion control aid in the elimination and prevention of defects. Monitoring progress and repeating the whole procedure are the final two guidelines. The benefits from the use of the continuous process improvement guidelines and tools can be seen in examples of the actions, impacts, and results for the last half of 1991 and the first half of 1992.

  6. Finding overlapping images Finding overlapping images

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Finding overlapping images #12;Finding overlapping images · Close-range image sets are often unordered · no "natural" order of acquisition · no systematic block structure · How to find images to match? · obvious idea: try all pairs - does not scale to big projects · 1'000 images 499'500 pairs · 10'000 images

  7. Finding overlapping images Finding overlapping images

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Finding overlapping images #12;Finding overlapping images · Close-range image sets are often unordered · no "natural" order of acquisition · no systematic block structure · How to find images to match internet #12;TF-IDF weighting · Term frequency ­ inverse document frequency · Describe image by frequency

  8. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  9. A field study to unravel factors that are significantly associated with the secretory activity of the corpus luteum during the first three postpartum cycles in high yielding dairy cows, based on the amount of steroidogenic and endothelial cells present in the luteal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-12-01

    Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3?-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations. PMID:25147002

  10. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  11. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  12. The yield surface of textured polycrystals†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canova, G. R.; Kocks, U. F.; Tomé, C. N.; Jonas, J. J.

    T HE PLASTIC anisotropy of a material is characterized in part by its yield surface. It is shown that conventional descriptions, based on extensions of the von Mises hypothesis for isotropic materials, are experimentally and theoretically inadequate in many instances. Symmetry arguments are used to derive the dimensionality and extent of the space necessary for representing the yield surface under various conditions of anisotropy. A useful concept is introduced: "closed" subspaces, in which sections and projections of the yield surface are identical and in which, therefore, normality is complete. Yield surfaces of heavily rolled or sheared sheets are derived from a computer simulation of polycrystal plasticity. It is found that even mild textures give rise to significant departures from "oval" yield surfaces: they develop sharp ridges and extensive flats. The anisotropy coefficients for in-plane tension of rolled sheets have been calculated. For torsion testing under fixed and free end conditions, respectively, the axial force and the length change have been calculated, as well as the change in the ratio of wall thickness to diameter.

  13. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding. PMID:25911836

  14. Tensile Yielding of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Srivastava, Deepak; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The tensile yielding of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been studied using Molecular Dynamics simulations and a Transition State Theory based model. We find a strong dependence of the yielding on the strain rate. A critical strain rate has been predicted above/below which yielding strain of a MWCNT is larger/smaller than that of the corresponding single-wall carbon nanotubes. At experimentally feasible strain rate of 1% /hour and T = 300K, the yield strain of a MWCNT is estimated to be about 3-4 % higher than that of an equivalent SWCNT (Single Wall Carbon Nanotube), in good agreement with recent experimental observations.

  15. List of significant publications

    E-print Network

    Barnard, Eric

    2012-01-01

    of the most significant publications: I The histidine residue in the active center of ribonuclease. II .The position of this residue in the primary protein chain. Stein WD and Barnard EA, J.Molec. Biol. 1, 350-358 (1959). Biological function... . , Barnard EA. Neuron 1, 773-781 (1988 ). Analysis of the full set of 19 GABAA receptor genes in the human genome. Simon J, Wakimoto H, Fujita N.,Lalande M , Barnard,EA. J. Biol. Chem ,279, 41422-41435(2004). V Cloning and functional expression of a...

  16. Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures.

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures. Thanks to improvements in treatment and early detection, more and more women are surviving breast cancer. In fact, the five-year survival rate for women with breast cancer today is 90%, up from only 63% in the 1960s. While progress has clearly been

  17. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are directly related to year-end yield. During 2012 (a drier-than-normal growing season) corn in parts of the field with shallow groundwater had significantly higher yields than the rest of the field, indicating that groundwater can provide significant yield benefits during drought. In contrast, during 2013 (a wetter-than-normal growing season) areas with the shallowest groundwater experienced total yield losses due to early-season groundwater flooding and oxygen stress. This demonstrates that the optimal DTGW for agricultural production is variable and depends on growing season weather conditions. The presence or absence of shallow groundwater is an important and dynamic feature of many agroecosystems, and should be considered when making both field- and watershed-scale management decisions.

  18. CROP WATER USE AND YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the various factors that affect dryland crop yields, including water availability, rooting patterns, length of growing season, time of year, and crop type (C3 vs C4, cereals, legumes, oilseeds). Crop yield/water production functions have slopes that range from 582 lb/a/inch for ...

  19. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  20. Reexamining B{yields}{pi}{pi}, {pi}K decays in QCD factorization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinqiang; Yang Yadong

    2005-10-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental data, we have revisited the B{yields}{pi}K,{pi}{pi} decays in the framework of QCD factorization, with inclusion of the important strong penguin corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2} induced by b{yields}Dg*g* (D=d or s and g* denotes an off-shell gluon) transitions. We find that these higher order strong penguin contributions can provide {approx}30% enhancement to the penguin-dominated B{yields}{pi}K decay rates, and such an enhancement can improve the consistency between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data significantly, while for the tree-dominated B{yields}{pi}{pi} decays, these higher order contributions play only a minor role. When these strong penguin contributions are summed, only a small strong phase remains and the direct CP asymmetries get small corrections. We also find that patterns of the ratios between the CP-averaged branching fractions remain nearly unaffected even after including these higher order corrections and the {pi}K puzzle still persists. Our results may indicate that to resolve the puzzle one would have to resort to new physics contributions in the electroweak penguin sector as found by Buras et al.

  1. Uncertainties in Supernova Yields I: 1D Explosions

    E-print Network

    Patrick A. Young; Chris L. Fryer

    2006-12-22

    Theoretical nucleosynthetic yields from supernovae are sensitive to both the details of the progenitor star and the explosion calculation. We attempt to comprehensively identify the sources of uncertainties in these yields. In this paper we concentrate on the variations in yields from a single progenitor arising from common 1-dimensional methods of approximating a supernova explosion. Subsequent papers will examine 3-dimensional effects in the explosion and the progenitor, and trends in mass and composition. For the 1-dimensional explosions we find that both elemental and isotopic yields for Si and heavier elements are a sensitive function of explosion energy. Also, piston-driven and thermal bomb type explosions have different yields for the same explosion energy. Yields derived from 1-dimensional explosions are non-unique.

  2. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the... have a notice published which informs the public of the RUS finding and the availability of the EA...

  3. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the... have a notice published which informs the public of the RUS finding and the availability of the EA...

  4. Some short-term effects of changing to lower yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, B.D.; Royston, D.; Jones, J.G.

    1985-10-01

    The rate of clearance from the lung of the hydrophilic tracer molecule /sup 99m/Tc DTPA was used to investigate the short-term effects on lung epithelial function when smokers switched to cigarettes with lower yields of tobacco smoke constituents. Two separate studies were performed. In the first study, subjects smoked conventional mid- and low-tar cigarettes. The second study used two specially manufactured cigarettes with similar tar and nicotine yields, but differing carbon monoxide yields. Neither study demonstrated any significant improvement in /sup 99m/Tc DTPA clearance. The yields of carbon monoxide determined under standard machine smoking conditions implied that there would be a 44 percent reduction in exposure to carbon monoxide when subjects switched from smoking conventional mid-tar to low-tar cigarettes. However, measurements of carboxyhemoglobin showed that the smokers compensated for the lower yields and their exposure was reduced by only 11 percent. Similarly, in the second study, the subjects reduced their exposure by 7 percent instead of the expected 44 percent. Urine nicotine/cotinine excretion measurements in this study indicated that there was no complimentary increase in nicotine absorption suggesting the possibility that subjects may be able to regulate their intake of individual components of the cigarette smoke. Thus, the unexpected result from this study was the finding that cigarette smokers could, in some way, regulate their intake of smoke from cigarettes of different composition so as to maintain a constant exposure of smoke constituents.

  5. Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Robert S.

    1964-01-01

    Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

  6. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  7. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  8. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

  9. Effect of Damping and Yielding on the Seismic Response of 3D Steel Buildings with PMRF

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Achintya; Rodelo-López, Ramon Eduardo; Bojórquez, Eden

    2014-01-01

    The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases. The results show the limitations of the commonly used static equivalent lateral force procedure where local and global response parameters are reduced in the same proportion. It is concluded that estimating the effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of steel buildings by using simplified models may be a very crude approximation. Moreover, the effect of yielding should be explicitly calculated by using complex 3D MDOF models instead of estimating it in terms of equivalent viscous damping. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions. PMID:25097892

  10. Designing a high-yielding maize ideotype for a changing climate in Lombardy plain (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Perego, Alessia; Sanna, Mattia; Giussani, Andrea; Chiodini, Marcello Ermido; Fumagalli, Mattia; Pilu, Salvatore Roberto; Bindi, Marco; Moriondo, Marco; Acutis, Marco

    2014-11-15

    The expected climate change will affect the maize yields in view of air temperature increase and scarce water availability. The application of biophysical models offers the chance to design a drought-resistant ideotype and to assist plant breeders and agronomists in the assessment of its suitability in future scenarios. The aim of the present work was to perform a model-based estimation of the yields of two hybrids, current vs ideotype, under future climate scenarios (2030-2060 and 2070-2100) in Lombardy (northern Italy), testing two options of irrigation (small amount at fixed dates vs optimal water supply), nitrogen (N) fertilization (300 vs 400 kg N ha(-1)), and crop cycle durations (current vs extended). For the designing of the ideotype we set several parameters of the ARMOSA process-based crop model: the root elongation rate and maximum depth, stomatal resistance, four stage-specific crop coefficients for the actual transpiration estimation, and drought tolerance factor. The work findings indicated that the current hybrid ensures good production only with high irrigation amount (245-565 mm y(-1)). With respect to the current hybrid, the ideotype will require less irrigation water (-13%, p<0.01) and it resulted in significantly higher yield under water stress condition (+15%, p<0.01) and optimal water supply (+2%, p<0.05). The elongated cycle has a positive effect on yield under any combination of options. Moreover, higher yields projected for the ideotype implicate more crop residues to be incorporated into the soil, which are positively correlated with the SOC sequestration and negatively with N leaching. The crop N uptake is expected to be adequate in view of higher rate of soil mineralization; the N fertilization rate of 400 kg N ha(-1) will involve significant increasing of grain yield, and it is expected to involve a higher rate of SOC sequestration. PMID:24913890

  11. Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends

    E-print Network

    Huybers, Peter

    Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends Marena Lin and Peter Huybers Department decomposition of wheat yields 5 4.1 U.S. county-level wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2 French departmental wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5

  12. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  13. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

  14. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32-39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability.

  15. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability.

    PubMed

    Ray, Deepak K; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32-39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

  16. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

  17. High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

  18. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high-yield plantations could be further analyzed by considering whether they help depress global prices, reducing incentives to expand elsewhere (Angelsen and Kaimowitz 2001). The significance of the study goes well beyond the bounds of Ucayli, and highlights risks to Amazonian forests from oil palm expansion (Butler and Laurance 2010). Oil palm is an astoundingly profitable and productive crop, with typical oil yields more than ten times that of soy. Some have even argued that oil palm is innately land sparing because it would take substantially more land for all other oil-bearing crops to provide the same output. However, most production gains from oil palm have occurred through increased area rather than increased yield, and in many cases expansion has been through forest clearing (Koh and Wilcove 2008, Gibbs et al 2010). The findings of Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) are particularly significant considering that the booming palm oil sectors in Indonesia and Malaysia, which currently produce over 80% of the world's product, are facing a host of pressures that constrain future area expansion. Malaysia has little remaining land suited for plantations and Indonesia faces intensifying international scrutiny over the future of their forestlands. Consequently, the Amazon basin is widely considered the new frontier, with more than half of its forest area suitable for palm oil cultivation (Butler and Laurance 2010) and growing incentives from Brazil's Program for the Sustainable Production of Oil Palm, which aims to utilize degraded lands and spur reforestation efforts. Their results also illuminate another key issue, namely the constraints faced by large-scale producers when they seek to expand plantation area. Emerging demand-side conservation efforts, such as the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), assume that already cleared and non-forested lands are freely available. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) hint at the obstacles to using such cleared lands, which is that they are inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these c

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  20. Corn yield prediction using climatology

    SciTech Connect

    Duchon, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of ear growth and the beginning of grain fill. The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  1. Search for the decays B{sup 0}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}{gamma} and B{sup 0}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present results of a search for the decays B{sup 0}{yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}{gamma} (l=e or {mu}). The search is performed using 320x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. We find no significant signal and set the following branching fraction upper limits at the 90% confidence level: B(B{sup 0}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}{gamma})<1.2x10{sup -7} and B(B{sup 0}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{gamma})<1.6x10{sup -7}.

  2. Regressions by leaps and bounds and biased estimation techniques in yield modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquina, N. E. (principal investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was observed that OLS was not adequate as an estimation procedure when the independent or regressor variables were involved in multicollinearities. This was shown to cause the presence of small eigenvalues of the extended correlation matrix A'A. It was demonstrated that the biased estimation techniques and the all-possible subset regression could help in finding a suitable model for predicting yield. Latent root regression was an excellent tool that found how many predictive and nonpredictive multicollinearities there were.

  3. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  4. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985–2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September?May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  5. Multiple exciton generation in nano-crystals revisited: Consistent calculation of the yield based on pump-probe spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Khadga J.; Ma, Fei; Zheng, Kaibo; Zidek, Karel; Mousa, Abdelrazek; Abdellah, Mohamed A.; Messing, Maria E.; Wallenberg, L. Reine; Yartsev, Arkadi; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2013-01-01

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) is a process in which more than one exciton is generated upon the absorption of a high energy photon, typically higher than two times the band gap, in semiconductor nanocrystals. It can be observed experimentally using time resolved spectroscopy such as the transient absorption measurements. Quantification of the MEG yield is usually done by assuming that the bi-exciton signal is twice the signal from a single exciton. Herein we show that this assumption is not always justified and may lead to significant errors in the estimated MEG yields. We develop a methodology to determine proper scaling factors to the signals from the transient absorption experiments. Using the methodology we find modest MEG yields in lead chalcogenide nanocrystals including the nanorods. PMID:23887181

  6. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  7. The Air-Fluorescence Yield

    E-print Network

    F. Arqueros; F. Blanco; D. Garcia-Pinto; M. Ortiz; J. Rosado

    2008-07-30

    Detection of the air-fluorescence radiation induced by the charged particles of extensive air showers is a well-established technique for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Fluorescence telescopes provide a nearly calorimetric measure of the primary energy. Presently the main source of systematic uncertainties comes from our limited accuracy in the fluorescence yield, that is, the number of fluorescence photons emitted per unit of energy deposited in the atmosphere by the shower particles. In this paper the current status of our knowledge on the fluorescence yield both experimental an theoretical will be discussed.

  8. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  9. Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

    Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

  10. Estimating R-Process Yields from Abundances of the Metal-Poor Stars

    E-print Network

    Li, Hongjie; Cui, Wenyuan; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars provide important clues to explore stellar formation history and set significant constraints on models of the r-process. In this work, we find that the abundance patterns of the light and iron group elements of the main r-process stars are very close to those of the weak r-process stars. Based on a detailed abundance comparison, we find that the weak r-process occurs in supernovae with a progenitor mass range of $\\sim11-26M_{\\odot}$. Using the SN yields given by Heger & Woosley and the abundances of the weak r-process stars, the weak r-process yields are derived. The SNe with a progenitor mass range of $15M_{\\odot}yields of the main r-process are estimated. The observed correlations of the [neutron-capture/Eu] versus [Eu/Fe] can be explained by mixing o...

  11. Relations for Direct CP asymmetries in B {yields} PP and B {yields} PV decays

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, T. N.

    2006-01-12

    The presence of additional strong phase from power corrections and other chirally enhanced terms makes it more difficult to predict direct CP asymmetries in two-body charmless B decays. In this talk, I would like to report on a recent work on QCD Factorisation and Power Corrections in Charmless B Decays. Using the measured branching ratios for B {yields} PV, it is shown that power corrections in charmless B decays are probably large, at least for penguin dominated PV channels. Since the tree-penguin interference responsible for direct CP asymmetries in two-body charmless B decays are related by CKM factors and SU(3) symmetry, we find that, if power corrections other than the chirally enhanced power corrections and annihilation topology were negligible, QCD Factorisation would predict the direct CP asymmetry of B {yields} {pi}+{pi}- to be about 3 times larger than that of B {yields} {pi}{+-}K{+-}, with opposite sign, in agreement with the latest measurement from Belle. Similar relations are also given for direct CP asymmetries in B {yields} PV.

  12. Drops of Yield-Stress Liquid Impacting a Solid Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2012-02-01

    We use high-speed video to investigate the drop impact process for yield-stress fluids under different initial conditions. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the impact dynamics of yield-stress liquids are greatly affected by the their viscoelasticity, which can be attributed to either a surface stress or bulk material properties. To explore these two different mechanisms, we perform impact experiments for two model fluids: liquid metals and particle suspensions, which both exhibit significant yield-stress in rheology. By controlling surface oxidation (for liquid metals) and packing density (for suspensions), we quantitatively vary the yield-stress within several orders of magnitude. In this way, we draw a direct comparison between the two fluids at various impact velocities to clarify the role of different sources of yield stress. Also, we build up an approach to bridge impact dynamics with rheological measurements.

  13. Numerical Modeling for Yield Pillar Design: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenfeng; Bai, Jianbiao; Peng, Syd; Wang, Xiangyu; Xu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Two single-entry gateroad systems employing a yield pillar for bump control in a Chinese coal mine were introduced. The overburden depth of the longwall panels was approximately 390 m. When the width/height (W/H) ratio of the yield pillar was 2.67, coal bumps in the tailgate occurred in front of the longwall retreating face. However, in another panel, the coal bump was eliminated because the W/H ratio was reduced to 1.67. Under this condition, instrumentation results indicated that the roof-to-floor and rib-to-rib convergences reached 1,050 and 790 mm, respectively, during longwall retreat. The numerical model was used to back-analyze the two cases of yield pillar application in the hope to find the principle for yield pillar design. In order to improve the reliability of the numerical model, the strain-hardening gob and strain-softening pillar materials were meticulously calibrated, and the coal/rock interface strength was determined by laboratory direct shear tests. The results of the validated model indicate that if the W/H ratio of the yield pillar equals 1.67, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (37.7 MPa) is much larger than that in the yield pillar (21.1 MPa); however, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (30.87 MPa) is smaller than that in the yield pillar (36 MPa) when the W/H ratio of yield pillar is 2.67. These findings may be helpful to the design of yield pillars for bump control.

  14. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ?1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m(-2)) and ?300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  15. The Significance of Adolescents' Relationships with Significant Others and School Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domagala-Zysk, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of social support from students' significant others (parents, peers and teachers) in the process of doing well at school. The main focus of the research project was to find correlations between the quality of adolescents' relationships with significant others and their school success or school failure, as…

  16. Natural variation in photosynthetic capacity, growth, and yield in 64 field-grown wheat genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Driever, S. M.; Lawson, T.; Andralojc, P. J.; Raines, C. A.; Parry, M. A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing photosynthesis in wheat has been identified as an approach to enhance crop yield, with manipulation of key genes involved in electron transport and the Calvin cycle as one avenue currently being explored. However, natural variation in photosynthetic capacity is a currently unexploited genetic resource for potential crop improvement. Using gas-exchange analysis and protein analysis, the existing natural variation in photosynthetic capacity in a diverse panel of 64 elite wheat cultivars grown in the field was examined relative to growth traits, including biomass and harvest index. Significant variations in photosynthetic capacity, biomass, and yield were observed, although no consistent correlation was found between photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf and grain yield when all cultivars were compared. The majority of the variation in photosynthesis could be explained by components related to maximum capacity and operational rates of CO2 assimilation, and to CO2 diffusion. Cluster analysis revealed that cultivars may have been bred unintentionally for desirable traits at the expense of photosynthetic capacity. These findings suggest that there is significant underutilized photosynthetic capacity among existing wheat varieties. Our observations are discussed in the context of exploiting existing natural variation in physiological processes for the improvement of photosynthesis in wheat. PMID:24963002

  17. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance

  18. Frequent Amyloid Deposition Without Significant Cognitive Impairment Among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Aizenstein, Howard Jay; Nebes, Robert D.; Saxton, Judith A.; Price, Julie C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Tsopelas, Nicholas D.; Ziolko, Scott K.; James, Jeffrey A.; Snitz, Beth E.; Houck, Patricia R.; Bi, Wenzhu; Cohen, Ann D.; Lopresti, Brian J.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Halligan, Edythe M.; Klunk, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the prevalence of amyloid deposition in a clinically unimpaired elderly population, as assessed by Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, and its relationship to cognitive function, measured with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Design Subjects underwent cognitive testing and PiB PET imaging (15 mCi for 90 minutes with an ECAT HR + scanner). Logan graphical analysis was applied to estimate regional PiB retention distribution volume, normalized to a cerebellar reference region volume, to yield distribution volume ratios (DVRs). Setting University medical center. Participants From a community-based sample of volunteers, 43 participants aged 65 to 88 years who did not meet diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment were included. Main Outcome Measures Regional PiB retention and cognitive test performance. Results Of 43 clinically unimpaired elderly persons imaged, 9 (21%) showed evidence of early amyloid deposition in at least 1 brain area using an objectively determined DVR cutoff. Demographic characteristics did not differ significantly between amyloid-positive and amyloid-negative participants, and neurocognitive performance was not significantly worse among amyloid-positive compared with amyloid-negative participants. Conclusions Amyloid deposition can be identified among cognitively normal elderly persons during life, and the prevalence of asymptomatic amyloid deposition may be similar to that of symptomatic amyloid deposition. In this group of participants without clinically significant impairment, amyloid deposition was not associated with worse cognitive function, suggesting that an elderly person with a significant amyloid burden can remain cognitively normal. However, this finding is based on relatively small numbers and needs to be replicated in larger cohorts. Longitudinal follow-up of these subjects will be required to support the potential of PiB imaging to identify preclinical Alzheimer disease, or, alternatively, to show that amyloid deposition is not sufficient to cause Alzheimer disease within some specified period. PMID:19001171

  19. Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

  20. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

  1. Immunological findings in autism.

    PubMed

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    The immunopathogenesis of autism is presented schematically in Fig. 1. Two main immune dysfunctions in autism are immune regulation involving pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoimmunity. Mercury and an infectious agent like the measles virus are currently two main candidate environmental triggers for immune dysfunction in autism. Genetically immune dysfunction in autism involves the MHC region, as this is an immunologic gene cluster whose gene products are Class I, II, and III molecules. Class I and II molecules are associated with antigen presentation. The antigen in virus infection initiated by the virus particle itself while the cytokine production and inflammatory mediators are due to the response to the putative antigen in question. The cell-mediated immunity is impaired as evidenced by low numbers of CD4 cells and a concomitant T-cell polarity with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 subsets toward Th2. Impaired humoral immunity on the other hand is evidenced by decreased IgA causing poor gut protection. Studies showing elevated brain specific antibodies in autism support an autoimmune mechanism. Viruses may initiate the process but the subsequent activation of cytokines is the damaging factor associated with autism. Virus specific antibodies associated with measles virus have been demonstrated in autistic subjects. Environmental exposure to mercury is believed to harm human health possibly through modulation of immune homeostasis. A mercury link with the immune system has been postulated due to the involvement of postnatal exposure to thimerosal, a preservative added in the MMR vaccines. The occupational hazard exposure to mercury causes edema in astrocytes and, at the molecular level, the CD95/Fas apoptotic signaling pathway is disrupted by Hg2+. Inflammatory mediators in autism usually involve activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Proinflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and TARC), and an anti-inflammatory and modulatory cytokine, TGF-beta1, are consistently elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:16512356

  2. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-08-22

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  3. Find a Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    Find the locations of NCI-designated cancer centers by area, region, state, or name that includes contact information to help health care providers and cancer patients with referrals to clinical trials.

  4. Finding Canadian Government Pubs.

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    States Publication CA 1 HR 315 2004 A71 Level of Gov. Identifies Department Title identifier 1 = Federal- circulating (check for barcode!) #12;Finding Canadian Documents ­ Econ 773 Electronic Resources at Mac http

  5. Find a Doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... When Traveling Military Hospitals and Clinics Multi-Service Markets Network Providers Non-Network Providers Overseas Providers Medicare ... Military Hospital or Clinic Find a Multi-Service Market * *A "network" of military hospitals and clinics. Overseas ...

  6. Find a Free Clinic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Membership Benefits Members Only Area Login Find a Free or Charitable Clinic Search for clinics near ... Within ... 7 8 9 … next › last » National Association of Free & Charitable Clinics Address 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 600 ...

  7. Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

    2014-11-01

    Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

  8. Science Yield Modeling with EXOSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Daniel; Savransky, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Accurately modeling science yield of an exoplanet direct imaging mission to build confidence in the achievement of science goals can be almost as complicated as designing the mission itself. It is challenging to compare science simulation results and systematically test the effects of changing instrument or mission designs. EXOSIMS (Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Mission Simulator) addresses this by generating ensembles of mission simulations for exoplanet direct imaging missions to estimate distributions of science yield. EXOSIMS consists of stand-alone modules written in Python which may be individually modified without requiring modifications to the code elsewhere. This structure allows for user driven systemic exploration of the effects of changing designs on the estimated science yield.The modules of EXOSIMS are classified as either input or simulation modules. Input modules contain specific mission design parameters and functions. These include Planet Population, Star Catalog, Optical System, Zodiacal Light, Planet Physical Model, Observatory, Time Keeping, and Post-Processing. Simulation modules perform tasks requiring input from one or more input modules as well as calling functions from other simulation modules. These include Completeness, Target List, Simulated Universe, Survey Simulation, and Survey Ensemble. The required parameters and functionality of each of these modules is defined in the documentation for EXOSIMS.EXOSIMS is available to the public at https://github.com/dsavransky/EXOSIMS. Included in the documentation is an interface control document which defines the required inputs and outputs to each input and simulation module. Future development of EXOSIMS is intended to be community-driven. Mission planners and instrument designers may quickly write their own modules, following the guidelines in the interface control document, and drop them directly into the code without making additional modifications elsewhere. It is expected that EXOSIMS will be highly useful for designing and planning future exoplanet direct imaging missions.

  9. Electron yields from spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, K.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Photoyields and secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics were determined under UHV conditions for a group of insulating materials used in spacecraft applications. The SEE studies were carried out with a pulsed primary beam while photoyields were obtained with a chopped photon beam from a Kr resonance source with major emission at 123.6 nm. This provides a photon flux close to that of the Lyman alpha in the space environment. Yields per incident photon are obtained relative to those from a freshly evaporated and air oxidized Al surface. Results are presented for Kapton, FEP Teflon, the borosilicate glass covering of a shuttle tile, and spacesuit outer fabric.

  10. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

  11. Topsoil Depth Effects on Crop Yields as Affected by Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott; Cruse, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topsoil (A-horizon) depth is positively correlated with crop productivity; crop roots and available nutrients are concentrated in this layer; topsoil is critical for nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Its loss or reduction can be considered an irreversible impact of soil erosion. Climatic factors such as precipitation and temperature extremes that impose production stress further complicate the relationship between soil erosion and crop productivity. The primary research objective was to determine the effects of soil erosion on corn and soybean yields of loess and till-derived soils in the rain-fed farming region of Iowa. Data collection took place from 2007 to 2012 at seven farm sites located in different major soil regions. Collection consisted of 40 to 50 randomly selected georeferenced soil probe locations across varying erosion classes in well drained landscape positions. Soil probes were done to a minimum depth of 100 cm and soil organic carbon samples were obtained in the top 10 cm. Crop yields were determined utilizing georeferenced harvest maps from yield monitoring devices and cross referenced with georeferenced field data points. Data analysis targeted relationships between crop yields versus soil organic carbon contents (SOC) and crop yields versus topsoil depths (TSD). The variation of yield and growing season rainfall across multiple years were also evaluated to provide an indication of soil resiliency associated with topsoil depth and soil organic carbon levels across varying climatic conditions. Results varied between sites but generally indicated a greater yield potential at thicker TSD's and higher SOC concentrations; an annual variation in yield response as a function of precipitation amount during the growing season; largest yield responses to both TSD and SOC occurred in the driest study year (2012); and little to no significant yield responses to TSD occurred during the wettest study year (2010). These results were not representative for all seven sites. Of the sites sampled, five showed similar yield responses while two sites did not indicate a response, and results varied between corn and soybean crops. The results indicate the potential for crop yield sensitivity and lost production due to thinning topsoil depths and lost soil organic carbon is likely associated with soil erosion. This yield sensitivity appeared to increase during drier years as thinner topsoils typically have lower water retention capacity. Minimal yield response during the wettest year further suggests that topsoil plays a critical role in plant-soil water relations.

  12. Attribution of maize yield increase in China to climate change and technological advancement between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Wu, Dingrong; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    Crop yields are affected by climate change and technological advancement. Objectively and quantitatively evaluating the attribution of crop yield change to climate change and technological advancement will ensure sustainable development of agriculture under climate change. In this study, daily climate variables obtained from 553 meteorological stations in China for the period 1961-2010, detailed observations of maize from 653 agricultural meteorological stations for the period 1981-2010, and results using an Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) model, are used to explore the attribution of maize (Zea mays L.) yield change to climate change and technological advancement. In the AEZ model, the climatic potential productivity is examined through three step-by-step levels: photosynthetic potential productivity, photosynthetic thermal potential productivity, and climatic potential productivity. The relative impacts of different climate variables on climatic potential productivity of maize from 1961 to 2010 in China are then evaluated. Combined with the observations of maize, the contributions of climate change and technological advancement to maize yield from 1981 to 2010 in China are separated. The results show that, from 1961 to 2010, climate change had a significant adverse impact on the climatic potential productivity of maize in China. Decreased radiation and increased temperature were the main factors leading to the decrease of climatic potential productivity. However, changes in precipitation had only a small effect. The maize yields of the 14 main planting provinces in China increased obviously over the past 30 years, which was opposite to the decreasing trends of climatic potential productivity. This suggests that technological advancement has offset the negative effects of climate change on maize yield. Technological advancement contributed to maize yield increases by 99.6%-141.6%, while climate change contribution was from -41.4% to 0.4%. In particular, the actual maize yields in Shandong, Henan, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia increased by 98.4, 90.4, 98.7, and 121.5 kg hm-2 yr-1 over the past 30 years, respectively. Correspondingly, the maize yields affected by technological advancement increased by 113.7, 97.9, 111.5, and 124.8 kg hm-2 yr-1, respectively. On the contrary, maize yields reduced markedly under climate change, with an average reduction of -9.0 kg hm-2 yr-1. Our findings highlight that agronomic technological advancement has contributed dominantly to maize yield increases in China in the past three decades.

  13. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

    2009-01-01

    Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand. PMID:19956624

  14. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  15. Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry

    SciTech Connect

    May, G.M.; Pritts, M.P. . Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-01-01

    The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield responded linearly to B and quadratically to P. At pH 6.5, P interacted with B and Zn. Fruit count per inflorescence was the yield component most strongly associated with yield, followed by individual fruit weight. However, these two yield components responded differently to soil-applied nutrients. Foliar nutrient levels generally did not increase with the amount of applied nutrient, but often an applied nutrient had a strong effect on the level of another nutrient. Leaf nutrient levels were often correlated with fruit levels, but foliar and fruit levels at harvest were not related to reproductive performance. The study identifies some of the problems inherent in using foliar nutrient levels to predict a yield response and demonstrates how plant responses to single nutrients depend on soil chemistry and the presence of other nutrients.

  16. Finding the engram.

    PubMed

    Josselyn, Sheena A; Köhler, Stefan; Frankland, Paul W

    2015-09-01

    Many attempts have been made to localize the physical trace of a memory, or engram, in the brain. However, until recently, engrams have remained largely elusive. In this Review, we develop four defining criteria that enable us to critically assess the recent progress that has been made towards finding the engram. Recent 'capture' studies use novel approaches to tag populations of neurons that are active during memory encoding, thereby allowing these engram-associated neurons to be manipulated at later times. We propose that findings from these capture studies represent considerable progress in allowing us to observe, erase and express the engram. PMID:26289572

  17. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content. PMID:25794725

  18. Elastoplastic transition in the material with sharp yield point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatenko, Vadim; Danilov, Vladimir; Zuev, Lev

    2015-10-01

    A study was made of the processes involved in the nucleation and propagation of Chernov-Luders bands in low carbon steels. It is found that the deformation bands are nucleated in the deforming sample at stress levels that are significantly lower relative to the upper yield limit. A sharp yield point is found to occur on the deformation curve, with its ascending and descending branches corresponding to the band nucleus "ingrowth". Following the sharp yield point, a mobile Chernov-Luders band proper is observed for the yield plateau. The rate of deformation band fronts has been determined for both the band "ingrowth" and the band propagation stage. The occurrence of mobile band front(s) is considered. Thus, the conventional assumption that the deformation front is a boundary separating deformed and non-deformed material regions represents facts only approximately.

  19. Finding Joy Art Therapy

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    Therapy includes: · Dance/Movement · Visual Arts · Writing · Visualization · Drama · Music #12;Healing vsFinding Joy through Art Therapy Presented by Kathryn Winter Russell, M.A. #12;Expressive Arts: "Art and Healing" Barbara Ganim · Drama Therapy: http://www.goodtherapy.org/drama-therapy.html# Kathryn

  20. Find a Podiatrist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Yukon Territory Zip / Postal Code: The closest podiatrist may not be in your zip code. Please use the mile radius search OR enter just the first 3 digits of your zip code to find the ...

  1. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  2. SCHOLARSHIPS FINDING SUCCESS WITH

    E-print Network

    SCHOLARSHIPS FINDING SUCCESS WITH #12;$36 MILLION in scholarships awarded annually to UNT students. This guide explains the types of scholarships available, the various eligibility requirements and how to apply. The first step in the scholarship process is to ensure you are fully admitted to UNT. It

  3. Find a Dermatologist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer screening . Use these tips to Be Sun Smart ® . Get the scoop on dermatologists' top tips. Find out more about a variety of skin conditions with Dermatology A to Z . Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Site map Home Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights ...

  4. Electrocardiographic findings in pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Boey, Elaine; Teo, Swee-Guan; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) poses a challenge to physicians, as it can be difficult to diagnose but results in significant mortality and morbidity in patients. Diagnosing PE requires an integrated approach using clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), blood investigations and imaging modalities. Abnormalities in ECG are common among patients with massive acute PE and can serve as a prognostic indicator. In this article, we describe the ECG presentations of two patients diagnosed with PE, and review the literature on the various types of ECG presentations and their role in predicting the prognosis of PE. PMID:26512143

  5. Cotton Yield Assessment Using Remotely Sensed Drought Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiros, Emmanouel; Dalezios, Nicolas R.

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural drought is a natural hazard having direct impacts to crop yield. One major application of remote sensing to agriculture is crop monitoring and assessment of vegetative stress, whereas satellite derived indices have been extensively used for identifying stress periods in crops. In this paper, two remotely sensed indices are used in order to quantify agricultural drought impact to cotton growth and estimate the final yield. In specific, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) are used to monitor agricultural drought and estimate cotton yield. VCI and TCI characterises the moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation, respectively. VCI has excellent ability to detect drought, whereas TCI can identify thermal stresses that have direct impact in vegetation's health. The two indices are computed for 20 hydrological years, from October 1981 to September 2001, from NOAA/AVHRR ten -day composite images with 8x8 Km spatial resolution. VCI and TCI are correlated with yield data in order to identify the critical ten-day showing the highest correlation coefficient with the final yield. Two approaches are tested for deriving the empirical model for estimating cotton yield. The first uses VCI values and yield for developing the empirical relationship. The second incorporates VCI and TCI values along with yield data in a multiple regression analysis. In order to test the derived models on independent dataset, the period 1981-1996 is used for developing the empirical models, whereas the years 1997-2000 are used for validation. The study area is the Prefecture of Thessaly, the largest lowland formation of Greece and the country's largest agricultural centre, located in Central Greece. The critical ten-days for cotton yield regarding the values of the two indices are the 2nd and 3rd of July for VCI and TCI, respectively, corresponding to blooming to bolls open phenological stage. The two approaches gave similar results denoting the significance of VCI to crop yield estimation and the importance of moisture conditions to the final cotton yield in Greece. In all cases, results present that model's estimating accuracy is above 95%, with a Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) of 2% between the estimated and the real yield values. The results show that an early estimation of the cotton yield is feasible by the use of the VCI, three months prior to harvest.

  6. Seduction of Finding Universality in Sputtering Yields Due to Cluster Bombardment of Solids

    E-print Network

    Zbigniew, Postawa

    kinetic energy E are expressed in quantities scaled by the number of cluster atoms n, that is, Y/n versus simulations of Arn cluster bombardment of molecular (benzene, octane, and -carotene) and atomic (Ag) solids

  7. Finding high yield genes in weedy red rice to improve new cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice (Oryza rufipogon) is a weedy, wild relative of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that is considered a major pest in rice production fields. However, researchers have found that it can be a valuable source of disease and insect resistance genes. Researchers with USDA ARS and Cornell University ...

  8. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  9. High-Yield Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water by a Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C6H10O5 (l)+7 H2O (l)?12 H2 (g)+6 CO2 (g). The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. Conclusions Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30°C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H2/glucose) of anaerobic fermentations. Significance The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30°C and atmospheric pressure), high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($?2/kg H2), and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H2-based mass%), provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy. PMID:17520015

  10. Analysis of the impacts of well yield and groundwater depth on irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Brozovi?, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has found that irrigation water demand is relatively insensitive to water price, suggesting that increased pumping costs due to declining groundwater levels will have limited effects on agricultural water management practices. However, non-linear changes in well yields as aquifer saturated thickness is reduced may have large impacts on irrigated production that are currently neglected in projections of the long-term sustainability of groundwater-fed irrigation. We conduct empirical analysis of observation data and numerical simulations for case studies in Nebraska, USA, to compare the impacts of changes in well yield and groundwater depth on agricultural production. Our findings suggest that declining well pumping capacities reduce irrigated production areas and profits significantly, whereas increased pumping costs reduce profits but have minimal impacts on the intensity of groundwater-fed irrigation. We suggest, therefore, that management of the dynamic relationship between well yield and saturated thickness should be a core component of policies designed to enhance long-term food security and support adaptation to climate change.

  11. Charmless B{yields}PP decays and new physics effects in the minimal supergravity model

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Zhenjun; Zou Wenjuan

    2004-11-01

    By employing the QCD factorization approach, we calculate the new physics contributions to the branching radios of the two-body charmless B{yields}PP decays in the framework of the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) model. Within the considered parameter space, we find that (a) the supersymmetric (SUSY) corrections to the Wilson coefficients C{sub k} (k=3-6) are very small and can be neglected safely, but the leading order SUSY contributions to C{sub 7{gamma}}(M{sub W}) and C{sub 8g}(M{sub W}) can be rather large and even change the sign of the corresponding coefficients in the standard model; (b) the possible SUSY contributions to those penguin-dominated decays in mSUGRA model can be as large as 30%-50%; (c) for the well measured B{yields}K{pi} decays, the significant SUSY contributions play an important role in improving the consistency of the theoretical predictions with the data; (d) for B{yields}K{eta}{sup '} decays, the theoretical predictions of the corresponding branching ratios become consistent with the data within 1 standard deviation after the inclusion of the large SUSY contributions in the mSUGRA model.

  12. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

  13. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment. PMID:25348886

  14. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  15. Changes in yields and their variability at different levels of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, Katelin

    2015-04-01

    An assessment of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming is crucial to inform the political discussion about mitigation targets as well as for the inclusion of climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) that generally only provide global mean temperature change as an indicator of climate change. While there is a well-established framework for the scalability of regional temperature and precipitation changes with global mean temperature change we provide an assessment of the extent to which impacts such as crop yield changes can also be described in terms of global mean temperature changes without accounting for the specific underlying emissions scenario. Based on multi-crop-model simulations of the four major cereal crops (maize, rice, soy, and wheat) on a 0.5 x 0.5 degree global grid generated within ISI-MIP, we show the average spatial patterns of projected crop yield changes at one half degree warming steps. We find that emissions scenario dependence is a minor component of the overall variance of projected yield changes at different levels of global warming. Furthermore, scenario dependence can be reduced by accounting for the direct effects of CO2 fertilization in each global climate model (GCM)/impact model combination through an inclusion of the global atmospheric CO2 concentration as a second predictor. The choice of GCM output used to force the crop model simulations accounts for a slightly larger portion of the total yield variance, but the greatest contributor to variance in both global and regional crop yields and at all levels of warming, is the inter-crop-model spread. The unique multi impact model ensemble available with ISI-MIP data also indicates that the overall variability of crop yields is projected to increase in conjunction with increasing global mean temperature. This result is consistent throughout the ensemble of impact models and across many world regions. Such a hike in yield volatility could have significant policy implications by affecting food prices and supplies.

  16. 75 FR 65294 - Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Environmental Assessment (EA) associated with the Holland Cliff to Hewitt Road 230 kV Transmission proposal in... construction of a 30-mile 230 kilovolt (kV) transmission line, a new 230/69 kV switching station, and a 230/69 kV switching station expansion. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the FONSI or EA, or for...

  17. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

  18. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  19. 76 FR 56820 - Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... safety of ERO personnel when responding to the site due to the increase in population and redistribution... the plant was first licensed. Additional delays may occur in the future based on continued population growth. Improvements have been made to equipment, procedures, and training since initial approval of...

  20. 75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Disposal Procedures for the Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit No. 3, License DPR-007, Eureka, CA AGENCY..., Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 was shut down for annual refueling and to conduct seismic... of Humboldt Bay Power Plant Waste for Disposal at US Ecology Idaho.'' [ADAMS Accession...

  1. 76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Materials Safety Branch B, Division of Nuclear Materials Safety, Region IV Office, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... considering the issuance of a license amendment to Material License No. 50-02430-07, issued to the University... dispose of biologically hazardous wastes containing low- level radioactive materials. On July 30,...

  2. 76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...tritium) and carbon-14 by incineration. The licensee also disposed of wastes containing phosphorus-32, sulfur-35, and iodine-125 via incinerator after the radioisotopes were allowed to decay in storage. The licensee's submittal included...

  3. 75 FR 6067 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...concentration limit (ACL) be set for selenium at the point of compliance wells equal to 0.05 mg/L. This requested selenium value is equal to the U.S. Environmental...maximum contaminant level (MCL) for selenium in drinking water. WNI has...

  4. 75 FR 65294 - Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...the existing Hewitt Road switching station; (4) the installation...ring bus at the Hewitt Road switching station to accommodate the...of the new Sollers Wharf switching station is located near the...10-21-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  5. 75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...and subsequent correspondence, the sponsor...cost- benefit analysis. Factors used...carried out using professional archaeological...recorded using professional archaeological...artifact sample for analysis. If any human...by subsequent correspondence....

  6. 76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...for a 10-year period to authorize Uranium One USA, Inc. to continue ISR operations...Wyoming. On May 30, 2008, COGEMA Mining, Inc. (COGEMA) submitted an application...control from COGEMA Mining, Inc. to Uranium One, Inc. (Uranium One)....

  7. 78 FR 5514 - Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...License SUA-1341 for continued uranium production operations and in-situ recovery (ISR) of uranium at the Willow Creek Project...Summary On May 30, 2008, Cogema Mining, Inc. submitted an application...control of the license and Uranium One, USA, Inc....

  8. 75 FR 61121 - Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... and animal pests and diseases. On January 19, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 2845... (75 FR 29706, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172) a notice announcing the availability of a final... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal...

  9. 78 FR 65607 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Availability of the Final Environmental...FONSI) of the Kika de la Garza Subtropical Research Center (KSARC) AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  10. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ..., RUS, Water and Environmental Programs, Engineering and Environmental Staff, 1400 Independence Avenue... rulemaking in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43723, with a 60-day comment period, for the subpart H of 7 CFR.... Remley for a hard copy. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 22, 2008, the U.S. Congress enacted the...

  11. 77 FR 77118 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...), reflect resolution of NRC staff questions. On July 11, 2012 (77 FR 40917), the NRC issued a Federal... plastic laboratory containers, metal and fiberboard drums, and decomposed small animal carcasses. The... immediate vicinity of the Site have identified migration of tritium and carbon-14 into the groundwater,...

  12. 75 FR 81316 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... required by regulations. In addition, due to a refueling outage during the fourth quarter of 2010, an alternative to schedule and conduct a biennial exercise in 2010 was ruled out by the licensee. The proposed... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  13. 75 FR 50036 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Spaceport (MARS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (WFF). As the MARS expansion... (1) licensing the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) which operates MARS as a... at MARS. The FAA has formally adopted the EA and is using the FONSI/ROD to support the...

  14. 76 FR 60557 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...Materials License No. SNM-33; Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Hematite Decommissioning...number SNM-33, issued to Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC (WEC) to authorize decommissioning...radioactively contaminated material by rail car to an offsite facility located in...

  15. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...Requirements; AREVA Enrichment Services, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility, Bonneville County...control. Excavating the site including rock blasting and removal. Installing parking...licensing decision on the proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility. Environmental...

  16. 76 FR 44374 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment to Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ...determined the maximum amount of residual radioactivity on building surfaces, equipment...exposure principally caused by residual radioactivity in soil; impacts to people working...exposure principally caused by residual radioactivity on building surfaces impacts;...

  17. 76 FR 31379 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...would allow ABB to complete the remaining Facility remediation and decommissioning activities, thereby reducing residual radioactivity at the Facility to a level that permits release of the entire property for unrestricted use and termination of the...

  18. 76 FR 8382 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact For...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...Licensee thus determined the maximum amount of residual radioactivity on building surfaces, equipment, materials and soils that...review, the staff considered the impact of the residual radioactivity at the Facility and concluded that the proposed action...

  19. 75 FR 34774 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ...1402. These DCGLs define the maximum amount of residual radioactivity on building surfaces, equipment, and materials, and in...review, the staff considered the impact of the residual radioactivity at the Facility and concluded that the proposed action...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...have an opportunity to amend its application so as to reduce, minimize, or eliminate environmental problems. See § 1.1309. If the environmental problem is not eliminated, the Bureau will publish in the Federal Register a Notice of...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...have an opportunity to amend its application so as to reduce, minimize, or eliminate environmental problems. See § 1.1309. If the environmental problem is not eliminated, the Bureau will publish in the Federal Register a Notice of...

  2. 77 FR 7610 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...EHS department currently retains the waste for decay in storage. According to the licensee, no spent nuclear fuel has been shipped from the site to date. To comply with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the...

  3. 77 FR 8903 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...the use of zircaloy or ZIRLO fuel cladding when doing calculations for energy release, cladding oxidation, and hydrogen generation after a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. Therefore, both of these regulations state or assume that...

  4. 76 FR 34273 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Special Nuclear Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... published in the Federal Register on August 15, 2007 (72 FR 45859), and the 2007 EIS was submitted to the... (ML091400067). On September 11, 2009 (74 FR at 46799), the NRC published a notice of intent to prepare a second..., including site geography, demographics, meteorology, hydrology, and geology. The proposed activity...

  5. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact - Mckay Bypass Canal Extension

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1262) to extend the McKay Bypass Canal on the east side of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. The McKay Bypass Canal Extension (Extension) is needed to route water from the existing canal around the Walnut Creek drainage, thus preventing potential co-mingling of Broomfield city water (collected from the Coal Creek drainage) with Site runoff water. The EA describes and analyzes the environmental effects of the Proposed Action (using a buried pipeline for the extension), and the alternatives of taking no action, using an open ditch for the extension, and using an aboveground pipeline for the extension. The EA was the subject of a public comment period from July 22 to August 6, 1998. Written comments regarding the EA were received from the City of Broomfield and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

  6. 75 FR 25301 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... implement NRC-approved radiation safety procedures for storing and handling radioactive materials. Thus, the... Extension of Deadline for Inventory of Special Nuclear Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Safeguards, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail...

  7. 75 FR 63519 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...occupational health, and waste management) under that alternative...environmental effects are not detectable...environmental effects are sufficient...environmental effects are clearly noticeable...Accidents. Waste...

  8. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program...FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program...authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to...

  9. 77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Turning Point Solar proposes to construct a 49.9 MW solar generating facility in Brookfield Township...high-efficiency monocrystalline photovoltaic panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment and the construction...

  10. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.6 as follows: (1) When the proposed action is the subject of a notice of proposed... be made available to the public upon request according to the procedures in 40 CFR 1506.6. (3) For a... determination whether to prepare an EIS and before the action may begin, as described in 40 CFR 1501.4(e)....

  11. 78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... in the subject line of the message. Mail: Project Manager for NEPA, DLA Installation Support for... available from: Project Manager for NEPA, DLA Installation Support for Energy, 8725 John J. Kingman Road... market, and DLA Energy's continued efforts to procure, certify, and approve alternative fuels,...

  12. 77 FR 49457 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ..., 1981, (46 FR 44083); the United States Section hereby gives notice that the Final Environmental... WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment and... States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico. ACTION: Notice...

  13. 76 FR 30639 - Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact; Giant Miscanthus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... on April 8, 2011 (76 FR 19741) and used additional inputs from the Natural Resources Conservation... on October 27, 2010 (75 FR 65995-66007) is incorporated by reference in the EA. FSA considered the... the ``Illinois Clone'' within the proposed project areas; all Illinois Clone cultivars must...

  14. 75 FR 76496 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...Measure the Uranium Element and Isotopic Content of Special Nuclear Material AGENCY: Nuclear...measure the uranium element and isotopic content of certain small amounts of strategic...system of measurements to substantiate such contents. By letter dated December 31,...

  15. 77 FR 21594 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, Oconee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...reference nil ductility temperature (RT NDT ) as described in the NRC approved topical...2-A, for determining the adjusted RT NDT of Linde 80 weld materials present in...the licensee to use alternate initial RT NDT (reference nil ductility...

  16. 76 FR 66334 - Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Small--environmental effects are not detectable or are so... Moderate--environmental effects are sufficient to alter noticeably... Large--environmental effects are clearly noticeable and...of October, 2011. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  17. 76 FR 28480 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...Division of Waste Management and...Programs, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...It does not affect non- radiological...quality of the human environment...the Division of Nuclear Safety, Illinois...and will not affect listed species...Division of Waste Management...

  18. 76 FR 65541 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...Division of Waste Management and...Programs, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...It does not affect non- radiological...quality of the human environment...the Division of Nuclear Safety, Illinois...and will not affect listed species...Division of Waste Management...

  19. Finding of no significant impact for the State Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), DOE/EA 1068, to assess the environmental impacts associated with the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). DOE previously funded SECP projects under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). The State Energy Efficiency Programs Improvements Act of 1990 (SEEPIA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) amended EPCA to broaden the range of state initiatives qualifying for Federal assistance under the SECP. The PEA presents a general analysis of the potential environmental effects associated with broad types of projects that can be funded under the SECP. It does not analyze specific environmental effects or alternatives associated with individual energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy projects. Individual actions are to be evaluated in detail on a project-by-project basis to determine whether their impacts fall within the bounding analysis of the impacts analyzed in the SECP PEA.

  20. 78 FR 21919 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ...Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment (PEA), supporting studies, and comments received during the public...will not be prepared. An electronic version of the FNSI and PEA is available for download at...

  1. 76 FR 60557 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    .... SNM-33; Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Hematite Decommissioning Project, Hematite, MO AGENCY.... Hayes, Senior Project Manager, Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery Licensing Directorate, Division of... Material (SNM) License number SNM-33, issued to Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC (WEC) to...

  2. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...Docket No. 50-333; NRC-2010-0095] James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental...the licensee), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP...the Final Environmental Statement for the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant,...

  3. 76 FR 187 - Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Final Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemptions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ...and 2 Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 1, 2 and 3 James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Joseph M. Farley Nuclear...Plant, Units 1 and 2 Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 [[Page 188

  4. 75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... public notice of the draft EA in the Federal Register, 74 FR 68906 (December 29, 2009), and invited... be required. Construction: Minimizing equipment and truck idling Recycling construction waste and... Utilizing Energy Star appliances and light fixtures/ sensors Implementing a recycling program for...

  5. Kalispell Maintenance Headquarters Project : Environmental Assessment and Findings of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    The facilities needed to maintain and repair Bonneville Power Administration (BPA`s) electrical equipment in northwest Montana are currently in two locations: A maintenance headquarters at the Kalispell Substation, and a temporary leased facility south of Kalispell. The present situation is not efficient. There is not enough space to accommodate the equipment needed at each site, and coordination and communication between the two sites is difficult. Also, two sites means duplication of equipment and facilities. BPA needs a single, centralized facility that would efficiently accommodate all the area`s maintenance activities and equipment. BPA proposes to build a maintenance headquarters facility consisting of 2 to 4 single-story buildings totaling about 35,000 square feet (office spaces and workshop areas); an open-ended vehicle storage building (carport style); a fenced-in storage year; a storage building for flammables, herbicides, and hazardous wastes; and a parking lot. The facility would require developing about 6 to 10 acres of land. Two sites are being considered for the proposed project (see the attached map for locations). This report is the environmental assessment of the two options.

  6. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... From 10 CFR 30, 40, and 70; Commencement of Construction Requirements; AREVA Enrichment Services, Eagle... Commencement of Construction Requirements. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mary Adams, Senior Project Manager... described in the license application from the ``commencement of construction'' provisions of Title 10 of...

  7. 76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Federal Register on February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6436). In response, the Oglala Delegation of the Great Sioux... Renewal for Uranium One USA Inc., Irigaray and Christensen Ranch Uranium In-Situ Recovery Projects (Willow... (Willow Creek Project). The NRC has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) in support of this...

  8. 78 FR 5514 - Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... USA, Inc., Willow Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Johnson and Campbell Counties, WY, License... at the Willow Creek Project (formally known as Irigaray and Christensen Ranch Project) in Johnson...

  9. 76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas. The Final EA was...Gregor test site in McGregor, Texas. The Grasshopper RLV is a vertical takeoff and vertical...

  10. 77 FR 48131 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Net Zero program is comprised of changes in management practices and behavior as well as multiple... returning water back to the same watershed so as not to deplete the groundwater and surface water...

  11. Fluid-electrolyte responses during prolonged space flight: A review and interpretation of significant findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    The most important results of the Skylab studies related to fluid-electrolyte regulation are summarized. These data are the starting point of a systems analysis to study adaptation to the weightlessness environment. A summary of the systems analysis study, including an interpretation of Skylab results, is included.

  12. 77 FR 66874 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...Regulatory Commission. Dated at Rockville, Maryland this 2nd day of November, 2012. Rosemary T. Hogan, Chief, Structural, Geotechnical, and Seismic Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Research. [FR Doc. 2012-27185 Filed...

  13. 75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... disposal of byproduct material at its Ambrosia Lake Mill Facility, in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The NRC... Lake Mill Facility, in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. By letter dated April 26, 2010, Rio Algom submitted a... staff, in coordination with the New Mexico Environmental Department (NMED), has prepared the EA...

  14. 76 FR 187 - Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Final Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemptions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ..., Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Brunswick Steam Electric Station, Units.... Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Fermi 2 Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1 Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit.... Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Millstone Power Station, Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3 Monticello...

  15. 77 FR 48131 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...enhance resource efficiency with a broad focus on increased sustainability. It is based on the following concepts: (1) Producing...the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Energy and Sustainability), OASA(IE&E), 110 Army Pentagon, Room 3D453,...

  16. 76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...vehicle. The McGregor test site is located within the city limits...and FONSI on the FAA/AST Web site at http://www.faa.gov...Chapter 8 of the Final EA). A paper copy of the Final EA and FONSI...Grasshopper RLV from the McGregor test site in McGregor, Texas....

  17. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... monitoring and surveillance, and to maintain administrative and engineered controls that are required to... concentrations of SNM, but in total quantities in excess of the critical mass limits in 10 CFR part 150. Part 150 provides that Agreement States may only license possession of quantities of SNM up to the critical...

  18. 76 FR 74069 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ...not automatically convert the water. The actual conversion would be completed by Central Utah Water Conservancy District and Interior...consistent with Bureau of Reclamation law over time as requests are received...and operation of a temporary water- delivery system in the...

  19. 77 FR 8903 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. FOR..., ``Acceptance Criteria for Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Light-Water Nuclear Power Reactors,'' and 10 CFR...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  20. 75 FR 63519 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 51323) of its receipt of the license renewal application and also... MODERATE. Geology & Soils SMALL (geology), SMALL SMALL (geology), SMALL SMALL (geology), to MODERATE...

  1. 76 FR 66334 - Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... provided notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 51323) of its receipt of the license renewal application and... for the proposed action on October 15, 2010 (75 FR 63519). The NRC staff accepted comments on the......... SMALL. Geology & Soils SMALL (geology) SMALL SMALL (geology) SMALL SMALL (geology) SMALL to...

  2. 77 FR 76050 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Availability AGENCY: Food...genetically engineered (GE) Atlantic salmon. Also available for comment...with AQUADVANTAGE Salmon, a GE Atlantic salmon containing the opAFP-GHc2...

  3. 76 FR 34273 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Special Nuclear Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...spontaneous fission at a very low rate, thereby generating neutrons that escape the cladding and would result in an extremely...standing close to the fuel. Although fresh fuel emits neutrons, the neutrons do not become environmental effluents. There...

  4. 75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...stabilizing the materials in accordance with NRC standards in 10 CFR part 40. The cover over the disposal area would consist of a radon/ infiltration barrier, overlain by a frost protection layer and rock erosion protection layers. Following approval by...

  5. 76 FR 30639 - Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact; Giant Miscanthus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...erosion. Use only the sterile variety of giant miscanthus cultivar known as the ``Illinois Clone'' within the proposed project areas; all Illinois Clone cultivars must be approved for planting under Aloterra's membership through the Ohio...

  6. 78 FR 4134 - Availability of the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... force structure realignments that may occur from Fiscal Years (FYs) 2013-2020. The Army must achieve... installations) was chosen for the environmental analysis to provide flexibility as future force...

  7. 76 FR 31379 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... revision to the previously approved (June 1, 2004) Decommissioning Plan (DP) for its CE Windsor Site... Action The purpose of the proposed amendment is to approve a revision, Decommissioning Plan Revision (DP) 2, to the previously approved site DP for the licensee's facility. The original DP was approved...

  8. 76 FR 44374 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment to Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... thus determined the maximum amount of residual radioactivity on building surfaces, equipment, materials... principally caused by residual radioactivity in soil; impacts to people working in site buildings after decommissioning and therefore subject to radiation exposure principally caused by residual radioactivity...

  9. 77 FR 41774 - Notice of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... designed to contain radioactivity and prevent the spread of radioactive contamination to workers, the... contain radioactivity and prevent the spread of radioactive contamination to workers, the public, and the... of airborne radioactivity and surveyed using stringent NNPP standards prior to demolition,...

  10. 76 FR 8382 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact For...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... was published in the Federal Register on December 8, 2009 (74 FR 64762). The Licensee's final status... determined the maximum amount of residual radioactivity on building surfaces, equipment, materials and soils... 20.1402. Based on its review, the staff considered the impact of the residual radioactivity at...

  11. 78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...no-action alternative. Based on the...the EA, DLA Energy has determined...of the EA. Alternatives Considered: The EA for DLA Energy's Mobility...market, and DLA Energy's continued...and approve alternative fuels,...

  12. 77 FR 41774 - Notice of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ...Construction and Operation of a Radiological Work and Storage Building AGENCY: Department...construction and operation of a radiological work and storage building at the Knolls Atomic...construction and operation of the radiological work and storage building are not...

  13. 78 FR 77722 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to an Alternative Disposal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...investigation and selection of the remedy...Operable Units at the site that are not preempted...Organic Compound Waste, and Off-site...A radioactive waste only (Utah License...RCRA) solid waste permit (Environmental...UTD982598898). The selection of this alternative...addition, this site is...

  14. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...tract area of the HDP site. Additionally impacted...come from underneath the site buildings. In 2002...the investigation and selection of the remedy for Operable Units at the site that are not preempted...leaving decommissioning waste, including waste...

  15. 75 FR 76496 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Exemption From a Requirement To Measure the Uranium Element and Isotopic Content of Special Nuclear Material... requested one-time exemption from a requirement to measure the uranium element and isotopic content of... establish and maintain a system of measurements to substantiate such contents. By letter dated December...

  16. 77 FR 7610 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... in the gaseous effluent stream is Argon-41. Licensee calculations, based on operation, indicate that annual Argon-41 releases result in a maximum concentration of less than 1.7 E-10 microCuries...

  17. 77 FR 25209 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...September 18, 1986 (25 years), including cesium-137 sealed sources, model numbers 1862...Radiation Therapy Resources, Inc. The cesium-137 sealed sources are not approved...In this case, however, use of the cesium-137 sources predates the SSD...

  18. 77 FR 71198 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Final Rule in the Federal Register on November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72560). The Final Rule amends certain...: Emergency Action Levels for Hostile Action (10 CFR Part 50, App. E, IV.B.1.) Emergency Response Organization... (MRS)'' (60 FR 32430, 32431; June 22, 1995)) The PG&E has stated that accidents cannot result...

  19. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

  20. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...is a structure over navigable waters of the United States, the proposed...locations: 1. U.S. Coast Guard Battery Bldg, 1 South Street, Building...Bayonne Bridge across navigable waters of the United States by raising...feet to 215 feet at Mean High Water. A thorough description...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...1.1308 Section 1.1308 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures...as amended, 50 CFR part 402; Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties, 36 CFR part 800. In addition, when an...

  2. 76 FR 28480 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... the Proposed Action The NRC has completed its evaluation of the proposed action and concludes that... environmental impacts. There will be minor savings of energy and vehicular use associated with the security... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] NUCLEAR...

  3. 78 FR 77722 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to an Alternative Disposal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... acceptable to begin a technical review. On August 23, 2013 (78 FR 52574), the NRC published in the Federal... over time if groundwater contamination spreads and material such as Technicium-99 (Tc-99), continues...

  4. 75 FR 6067 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Amendment for Revised Groundwater Protection Standards, Western Nuclear, Inc., Jeffrey City, WY AGENCY... Nuclear, Inc. (WNI), to authorize revised groundwater protection standards for its facility near Jeffrey... groundwater protection standards. On ] March 9, 2009, WNI submitted an additional amendment request...

  5. 75 FR 36701 - Issuance of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ..., Inc.) on May 7, 1999 (64 FR 27826; May 21, 1999). In accordance with 10 CFR 51.33, the NRC prepared a... and comment on October 7, 2009 (74 FR 51622). The public comment period closed on November 6, 2009... of Utah, Inc. on May 7, 1999 (64 FR 27826; May 21, 1999). NRC previously amended the Order on...

  6. 77 FR 77118 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... July 11, 2012 (77 FR 40917), the NRC issued a Federal Register Notice (FRN), announcing the USDA... License Amendment for the United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD AGENCY: Nuclear..., issued to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA or the licensee), to...

  7. 77 FR 25209 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... brachytherapy sources have been in its possession and use since September 18, 1986 (25 years), including cesium..., Inc. The cesium-137 sealed sources are not approved in the SSD Registry as required by the NRC... the Registry). In this case, however, use of the cesium-137 sources predates the SSD Registry....

  8. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1308 Section 1.1308 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1308 Consideration of...

  9. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...1308 Section 1.1308 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1308 Consideration of...

  10. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... of the existing bridge and ensure it conforms to modern highway and structural design standards. In... it, and announcing the dates and locations of two public meetings on the Draft EA (78 FR 740)....

  11. 78 FR 4134 - Availability of the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment AGENCY: Department...Assessment (PEA) for Army force structure realignments that may occur...Army 2020 PEA), 2450 Connell Road (Bldg 2264), Fort Sam Houston...flexibility as future force structure realignment decisions are...

  12. 75 FR 25301 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...Environmental Monitoring, Water Resources, Geology, Soils, Air Quality, Demography, Biota...environmental monitoring, water resources, geology, soils, air quality, demography, biota...environmental monitoring, water resources, geology, soils, air quality, demography,...

  13. Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields.

    E-print Network

    Harper, Thomas Lawrence

    1969-01-01

    A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

  14. Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields

    E-print Network

    Harper, Thomas Lawrence

    1969-01-01

    A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

  15. Reservations forecasting in airline yield management

    E-print Network

    Sa, Joao

    1987-01-01

    This report shows the application of Regression Analysis in reservations forecasting in airline yield management. The first three chapters highlight the need for yield management and the automation of seat inventory control. ...

  16. FPGA as the programmable tool for yield improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Tho L.; Li, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Charles; Wang, M. H.; Huang, Chih-Chung; Chang, Ching-Tsai; Lin, Hornjaan; Tseng, Yming; Tseng, Ian; Wu, You R.; Lo, Shih Chieh; Lin, Sam C. Y.

    2009-10-01

    FPGA programmability is utilized to profile the intra-field process variation through mapping of Tilo propagation delay within a reticle field. ASML DoseMapper patented technology is used to optimize poly photo exposure based on the FPGA intra-field process variation profile. As a result, significant yield and performance improvement is achieved.

  17. Yield performance of cacao propagated by somatic embryogenesis and grafting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve cacao (Theobroma cacao) clones propagated by grafting and somatic embryogenesis and grown on an Ultisol soil were evaluated for five years under intensive management at Corozal, Puerto Rico. Preliminary data showed no significant differences between propagation methods for yield of dry beans ...

  18. Yield model development project implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambroziak, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

  19. A greedy algorithm for yield surface approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleyer, Jérémy; de Buhan, Patrick

    This Note presents an approximation method for convex yield surfaces in the framework of yield design theory. The proposed algorithm constructs an approximation using a convex hull of ellipsoids such that the approximate criterion can be formulated in terms of second-order conic constraints. The algorithm can treat bounded as well as unbounded yield surfaces. Its efficiency is illustrated on two yield surfaces obtained using up-scaling procedures.

  20. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  1. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  2. Heterois in Switchgrass: Biomass Yield in Swards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the biomass yield of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) will improve its utility as a dedicated energy crop by increasing energy yield per acre. In a previous space-transplanted study, mid-parent heterosis for biomass yield was reported for population and specific F1 hybrids of the lowland-...

  3. SOME QUESTIONS OF EVALUATION OF YIELD MAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultimate goal for the application of yield maps is to provide profitable crop output in farming systems. Recently, several methods and tools have been developed for the evaluation of yield maps. It is based on crisp and fuzzy modeling. However, the process of evaluation of yield maps is full o...

  4. Aurintricarboxylic acid increases yield of HSV-1 vectors.

    PubMed

    Pechan, Peter; Ardinger, Jeffery; Ketavarapu, Jyothi; Rubin, Hillard; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Scaria, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Production of large quantities of viral vectors is crucial for the success of gene therapy in the clinic. There is a need for higher titers of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) vectors both for therapeutic use as well as in the manufacturing of clinical grade adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. HSV-1 yield increased when primary human fibroblasts were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs like dexamethasone or valproic acid. In our search for compounds that would increase HSV-1 yield, we investigated another anti-inflammatory compound, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA). Although ATA has been previously shown to have antiviral effects, we find that low (micromolar) concentrations of ATA increased HSV-1 vector production yields. Our results showing the use of ATA to increase HSV-1 titers have important implications for the production of certain HSV-1 vectors as well as recombinant AAV vectors. PMID:26015945

  5. Critical study of the B{yields}K{pi} puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.S.; Oh, Sechul; Yu, Chaehyun

    2005-10-01

    In the light of new experimental results on B{yields}K{pi} decays, we critically study the decay processes B{yields}K{pi} in a phenomenological way. Using the quark diagram approach and the currently available data, we determine the allowed values of the relevant theoretical parameters, corresponding to the electroweak (EW) penguin, the color-suppressed tree contribution, etc. In order to find the most likely values of the parameters in a statistically reliable way, we use the {chi}{sup 2} minimization technique. Our result shows that the current data for B{yields}K{pi} decays strongly indicate (large) enhancements of both the EW penguin and the color-suppressed tree contributions. In particular, the color-suppressed tree effect needs to be enhanced by about an order of magnitude to fit the present data.

  6. Sputtering yields exceeding 1000 by 80 keV Xe irradiation of Au nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinov, A.; Kuronen, A.; Nordlund, K.; Greaves, G.; Hinks, J. A.; Busby, P.; Mellors, N. J.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Using experiments and computer simulations, we find that 80 keV Xe ion irradiation of Au nanorods can produce sputtering yields exceeding 1000, which to our knowledge are the highest yields reported for sputtering by single ions in the nuclear collision regime. This value is enhanced by more than an order of magnitude compared to the same irradiation of flat Au surfaces. Using MD simulations, we show that the very high yield can be understood as a combination of enhanced yields due to low incoming angles at the sides of the nanowire, as well as the high surface-to-volume ratio causing enhanced explosive sputtering from heat spikes. We also find, both in experiments and simulations, that channeling has a strong effect on the sputtering yield: if the incoming beam happens to be aligned with a crystal axis of the nanorod, the yield can decrease to about 100.

  7. Finding the 0-- Glueball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Cong-Feng; Tang, Liang

    2014-11-01

    With appropriate interpolating currents the mass spectrum of the 0-- oddball is obtained in the framework of QCD sum rules. We find there are two stable oddballs with masses of 3.81 ±0.12 and 4.33 ±0.13 GeV , and analyze their possible production and decay modes in experiments. Noticing that these 0-- oddballs with an unconventional quantum number are attainable in BESIII, BELLEII, PANDA, Super-B, and LHCb experiments, we believe the long searched for elusive glueball could be measured shortly.

  8. Evaluation of grain yield in sorghum hybrids under water stress.

    PubMed

    Menezes, C B; Saldanha, D C; Santos, C V; Andrade, L C; Mingote Júlio, M P; Portugal, A F; Tardin, F D

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum grain yield can be significantly affected by climatic changes, especially drought and high temperature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hybrids of grain sorghum grown under normal irrigation conditions or water stress in order to select those likely to be more tolerant of drought. Forty-nine hybrids were grown in a randomized block design experiment, with three replications. The plots consisted of four rows of 5 m length. Grain yield, weight of 1000 grains, harvest index, days to flowering, and plant height were measured. All of these characteristics were affected by water stress; however, grain yield showed the largest relative reduction. Comparison of the various genotypes showed that some hybrids had an acceptable grain yield under water stress, and maintained a high average yield compared to growth without stress. Several hybrids gave better grain yield than commercial check cultivars: 1170090, 1170092, 1170064, 1167026, 1167064, 1170093, 1167008, 1167029, 0009061, 1167092, 1105647, and 1170019 stood out for their acceptable plant height, earliness, and higher productivity. PMID:26505418

  9. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005–2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers’ specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  10. Yield and quality of forages grown on mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenstler, W.F.; Henry, D.S.

    1980-12-01

    Pasture or hayland is a potential use for much of the reclaimed mined land in Kentucky. To determine the usefulness of several species for forage production, two study areas were established, one in the eastern coal fields, the second in the western coal fields. Eight species were seeded in eight different mixtures at each location. Each plot was harvested twice each year to determine yield, and samples were analyzed to determine percent protein, DMD, and sugar. Analysis of variance of the data show that there are significant differences in yield, stand, percent protein and percent DMD among the different species. There is also a significant difference in the yield of the same species between the two study areas. In eastern Kentucky, two mixtures, switchgrass-Interstate sericea lespedeza and Caucasian bluestem-Appalow sericea lespedeza yielded more hay than tall fescue-Interstate sericea, the standard of comparison. In western Kentucky, all seeding mixtures yielded more than the tall fescue Interstate mixture. There is no difference in stand among the species in eastern Kentucky. In western Kentucky, Caucasian bluestem, tall fescue, and switchgrass have better stands than other species.

  11. Comparison of the diagnostic yield and outcomes between standard 8 h capsule endoscopy and the new 12 h capsule endoscopy for investigating small bowel pathology

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Merajur; Akerman, Stuart; DeVito, Bethany; Miller, Larry; Akerman, Meredith; Sultan, Keith

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the completion rate and diagnostic yield of the PillCam SB2-ex in comparison to the PillCam SB2. METHODS: Two hundred cases using the 8-h PillCam SB2 were retrospectively compared to 200 cases using the 12 h PillCam SB2-ex at a tertiary academic center. Endoscopically placed capsules were excluded from the study. Demographic information, indications for capsule endoscopy, capsule type, study length, completion of exam, clinically significant findings, timestamp of most distant finding, and significant findings beyond 8 h were recorded. RESULTS: The 8 and 12 h capsule groups were well matched respectively for both age (70.90 ± 14.19 vs 71.93 ± 13.80, P = 0.46) and gender (45.5% vs 48% male, P = 0.69). The most common indications for the procedure in both groups were anemia and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. PillCam SB2-ex had a significantly higher completion rate than PillCam SB2 (88% vs 79.5%, P = 0.03). Overall, the diagnostic yield was greater for the 8 h capsule (48.5% for SB2 vs 35% for SB2-ex, P = 0.01). In 4/70 (5.7%) of abnormal SB2-ex exams the clinically significant finding was noted in the small bowel beyond the 8 h mark. CONCLUSION: In our study, we found the PillCam SB2-ex to have a significantly increased completion rate, though without any improvement in diagnostic yield compared to the PillCam SB2. PMID:25987777

  12. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  13. Search for the rare charmless hadronic decay B{sup +}{yields}a{sub 0}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.

    2008-01-01

    We present a search for B decays to a charged scalar meson a{sub 0}{sup +} and a {pi}{sup 0} where the a{sub 0}{sup +} decays to an {eta} meson and a {pi}{sup +}. The analysis was performed on a data sample consisting of 383x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We find no significant signal and set an upper limit on the product branching fraction B(B{sup +}{yields}a{sub 0}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0})xB(a{sub 0}{sup +}{yields}{eta}{pi}{sup +}) of 1.4x10{sup -6} at the 90% confidence level.

  14. A Case Study: Significance, Epidemiology, and Management of Hop Viruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop latent carlavirus (HpLV), Hop mosaic carlavirus (HpMV), and Apple mosaic ilarvirus (ApMV) are viruses that have been shown to have deleterious effects on cone yield and brewing organic acids in several cultivars in Australian hop gardens, and pose a significant threat to the continued production...

  15. Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

  16. Yield drag in a two-dimensional foam flow around a circular obstacle: Effect of liquid fraction

    E-print Network

    Cox, Simon

    Yield drag in a two-dimensional foam flow around a circular obstacle: Effect of liquid fraction, and determine the yield drag of the foam, that is, the force exerted on the obstacle by the foam flowing at very low velocity. We find that the yield drag is linear over a large range of the ratio of obstacle

  17. Ocular findings in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Can; Acar, Mutlu; Kaya Ak??, Havva; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Gürdal, Canan

    2015-11-01

    Alopecia areata is a T cell mediated disease with which many disorders may be associated. There are few studies reporting ocular findings in alopecia areata. The aim of the study is to assess tear function and ocular surface pathologies in alopecia areata. Thirty-two patients with alopecia areata and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Ocular surface disease index questionnaire, Schirmer, tear break-up time, and corneal staining stage tests were done. The data was analyzed using SPSS 10.0 software. One-way variance analysis and Chi-square tests were used as tests of significance. The patient group had significantly higher ocular surface disease index questionnaire and corneal staining stage test scores and lower tear break-up time test scores compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Dry eye disease (DED) was diagnosed in 27 (84%) of 32 alopecia areata patients and in only 3 (15%) of 20 controls, and there was a significant difference between the groups (P < 0.01). T cell mediated autoimmunity has a prominent role in the etiopathogenesis of alopecia areata and dry eye disease. We think that inflammatory mechanisms causing alopecia areata may trigger dry eye disease or vice versa. All patients with AA should be referred to an ophthalmologist for the evaluation of DED and other possible eye pathologies. PMID:26147700

  18. Estimation of corn and soybeans yield using remote sensing and crop yield data in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nari; Lee, Yang-Won

    2014-10-01

    The crop yield estimation is essential for the food security and the economic development of any nation. Particularly, the United States is the world largest grain exporter, and the total amount of corn exported from the U.S. accounted for 49.2% of the world corn trade in 2010 and 2011. Thus, accurate estimation of crop yield in U.S. is very significant for not only the U.S. crop producers but also decision makers of food importing countries. Estimating the crop yield using remote sensing data plays an important role in the Agricultural Sector, and it is actively discussed and studied in many countries. This is because remote sensing can observe the large areas repetitively. Consequently, the use of various techniques based on remote sensing data is steadily increasing to accurately estimate for crop yield. Therefore, the objective of this study is to estimate the accurate yield of corn and soybeans using climate dataset of PRISM climate group and Terra/MODIS products in the United States. We construct the crop yield estimation model for the decade (2001-2010) and perform predictions and validation for 2011 and 2012.

  19. Measurement of the {eta}{sup '}-Meson Mass using J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sup '}

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Ecklund, K. M.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.

    2008-10-31

    We measure the mass of the {eta}{sup '} meson using {psi}(2S){yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}J/{psi}, J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sup '} events acquired with the CLEO-c detector operating at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Using three decay modes, {eta}{sup '}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, {eta}{sup '}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta} with {eta}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}, and {eta}{sup '}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta} with {eta}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, we find M{sub {eta}{sup '}}=957.793{+-}0.054{+-}0.036 MeV, in which the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. This result is consistent with but substantially more precise than the current world average.

  20. Driver Behavior in Yielding to Sighted and Blind Pedestrians at Roundabouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geruschat, Duane R.; Hassan, Shirin E.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated drivers' behavior in yielding the right-of-way to sighted and blind pedestrians who stood at different stopping distances from the crosswalk lines at entry and exit lanes at two different roundabouts. The findings demonstrate that drivers' willingness to yield to pedestrians is affected by whether they are attempting to cross…

  1. Developing a scalable model of recombinant protein yield from Pichia pastoris: the influence of culture conditions, biomass and induction regime

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, William J; Darby, Richard AJ; Wilks, Martin DB; Smith, Rodney; Bill, Roslyn M

    2009-01-01

    Background The optimisation and scale-up of process conditions leading to high yields of recombinant proteins is an enduring bottleneck in the post-genomic sciences. Typical experiments rely on varying selected parameters through repeated rounds of trial-and-error optimisation. To rationalise this, several groups have recently adopted the 'design of experiments' (DoE) approach frequently used in industry. Studies have focused on parameters such as medium composition, nutrient feed rates and induction of expression in shake flasks or bioreactors, as well as oxygen transfer rates in micro-well plates. In this study we wanted to generate a predictive model that described small-scale screens and to test its scalability to bioreactors. Results Here we demonstrate how the use of a DoE approach in a multi-well mini-bioreactor permitted the rapid establishment of high yielding production phase conditions that could be transferred to a 7 L bioreactor. Using green fluorescent protein secreted from Pichia pastoris, we derived a predictive model of protein yield as a function of the three most commonly-varied process parameters: temperature, pH and the percentage of dissolved oxygen in the culture medium. Importantly, when yield was normalised to culture volume and density, the model was scalable from mL to L working volumes. By increasing pre-induction biomass accumulation, model-predicted yields were further improved. Yield improvement was most significant, however, on varying the fed-batch induction regime to minimise methanol accumulation so that the productivity of the culture increased throughout the whole induction period. These findings suggest the importance of matching the rate of protein production with the host metabolism. Conclusion We demonstrate how a rational, stepwise approach to recombinant protein production screens can reduce process development time. PMID:19570229

  2. Boosting investor yields through bond insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Mosbacher, M.L.; Burkhardt, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    The market for utility securities generally tends to be fairly static. Innovative financing techniques are rarely used because of the marketability of utility securities stemming from the companies' generally strong financial credit and the monopoly markets most utilities serve. To many people, utility securities are considered the pillars of the financial world, and innovation is not needed. Further, plain vanilla utility issues are easily understood by investors, as well as by regulators and customers. Over the past several years, however, a new utility bond product has crept into the world of utility securities - insured secondary utility bonds. These insured bonds may possibly be used as an alternative financing technique for newly issued debt. Individual investors often tend to rely on insurance as a tool for reducing credit risk and are willing to take the lower yields as a tradeoff. Insured utility bonds are created by brokerage firms through the acqusition of a portion of an outstanding utility bond issue and subsequent solicitation of the insurance companies for bids. The insurance company then agrees to insure that portion of the issue until maturity for a fee, and the brokerage firm sells those bonds to their customers as a AAA-insured bond. Issuers are encouraged to explore the retail market as a financing alternative. They may find a most cost-effective means of raising capital.

  3. Finding a Niche

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although I always knew I wanted to be a scientist, I didn't know I would become a cell biologist. Events in life that you would never have predicted can greatly impact your career trajectory. I have learned to let those events take me in new directions. Following a desire to investigate an understudied area of cell biology, I have found a niche. In this area, my lab is poised to contribute significantly toward understanding the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying polarized plant cell growth. PMID:21079002

  4. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard to pneumoconiosis will be..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH...

  5. Significant Enhancement of Neutralino Dark Matter Annihilation

    E-print Network

    Bringmann, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Indirect searches for the cosmological dark matter have become ever more competitive during the past years. Here, we report the first full calculation of leading electroweak corrections to the annihilation rate of supersymmetric neutralino dark matter. We find that these corrections can be huge, partially due to contributions that have been overlooked so far. Our results imply a significantly enhanced discovery potential of this well motivated dark matter candidate with current and upcoming cosmic ray experiments, in particular for models with somewhat small annihilation rates at tree level.

  6. Partial-wave analysis of p{sup {yields}}p{sup {yields}}{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0} data

    SciTech Connect

    Deepak, P.N.; Haidenbauer, J.; Hanhart, C.

    2005-08-01

    We present a partial-wave analysis of the polarization data for the reaction p{sup {yields}}p{sup {yields}}{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0}, based solely on the recent measurements at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility for this channel. Methods for an improved analysis are discussed. We compare the extracted values to those from a meson exchange model. The fit leads to a {chi}{sup 2} per degree of freedom of 1.7.

  7. The internship: some disquieting findings.

    PubMed

    Lindy, J D; Green, B L; Patrick, M

    1980-01-01

    A natural experiment in psychiatric education took place nationally between 1970 and 1976, when one group of residents entered psychiatry with an internship, and the other without one. In this study 22 psychiatry residents with an internship and 25 without one were compared during their first two years of training. Initial faculty evaluations of the two groups' responsibility, insight, teachability, and knowledge were virtually identical, as were those of their overall performance in inpatient, consultation, and emergency psychiatry. However, ratings of outpatient psychotherapy showed several significant and differences favoring the noninternship group. The authors find these results disquieting. They suggest that interferences with empathy may be an untoward side effect of the internship. PMID:7352565

  8. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  9. Late Foliar Diseases in Wheat Crops Decrease Nitrogen Yield Through N Uptake Rather than Through Variations in N Remobilization

    PubMed Central

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Roche, Romain; Bancal, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims French wheat grains may be of little value on world markets because they have low and highly variable grain protein concentrations (GPC). This nitrogen-yield to yield ratio depends on crop nitrogen (N) fertilization as well as on crop capacity to use N, which is known to vary with climate and disease severity. Here an examination is made of the respective roles that N remobilization and post-anthesis N uptake play in N yield variations; in particular, when wheat crops (Triticum aestivum) are affected by leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and Septoria tritici blotch (teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola). Methods Data from a 4-year field experiment was used to analyse N yield variations in wheat crops grown either with a third or no late N fertilization. Natural aerial epidemics ensured a range of disease severity, and fungicide ensured disease-free control plots. The data set of Gooding et al. (2005, Journal of Agricultural Science 143: 503–518) was incorporated in order to enlarge the range of conditions. Key Results Post-anthesis N uptake accounted for a third of N yield whilst N remobilization accounted for two-thirds in all crops whether affected by diseases or not. However, variations in N yield were highly correlated with post-anthesis N uptake, more than with N remobilization, in diseased and also healthy crops. Furthermore, N remobilization did not significantly correlate with N yield in healthy crops. These findings matched data from studies using various wheat genotypes under various management and climatic conditions. Leaf area duration (LAD) accurately predicted N remobilization whether or not crops were diseased; in diseased crops, LAD also accurately predicted N uptake. Conclusions Under the experimental conditions, N yield variations were closely associated with post-anthesis N uptake in diseased but also in healthy crops. Understanding the respective roles of N uptake and N remobilization in the case of diseased and healthy crops holds the promise of better modelling of variations in N yield, and thus in GPC. PMID:18660494

  10. Finding the Next Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; Kepler Team

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago, we knew of no planets orbiting other Sun-like stars, yet today, the roll call is nearly 1,000 strong. Statistical studies of exoplanet populations are possible, and words like "habitable zone" are heard around the dinner table. Theorists are scrambling to explain not only the observed physical characteristics but also the orbital and dynamical properties of planetary systems. The taxonomy is diverse but still reflects the observational biases that dominate the detection surveys. We've yet to find another planet that looks anything like home. The scene changed dramatically with the launch of the Kepler spacecraft in 2009 to determine, via transit photometry, the fraction of stars harboring earth-size planets in or near the Habitable Zone of their parent star. Early catalog releases hint that nature makes small planets efficiently: over half of the sample of 2,300 planet candidates discovered in the first two years are smaller than 2.5 times the Earth's radius. I will describe Kepler's milestone discoveries and progress toward an exo-Earth census. Humankind's speculation about the existence of other worlds like our own has become a veritable quest.

  11. Neuropathological findings in autism.

    PubMed

    Palmen, Saskia J M C; van Engeland, Herman; Hof, Patrick R; Schmitz, Christoph

    2004-12-01

    Autism is currently viewed as a largely genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder, although its underlying biological causes remain to be established. In this review, we examine the available neuropathological literature on autism and discuss the findings that have emerged. Classic neuropathological observations are rather consistent with respect to the limbic system (nine of 14 studied cases showed increased cell packing density and smaller neuronal size), the cerebellum (21 of 29 studied cases showed a decreased number of Purkinje cells, and in all of five cases that were examined for age-related morphological alterations, these changes were found in cerebellar nuclei and inferior olive) and the cerebral cortex (>50% of the studied cases showed features of cortical dysgenesis). However, all reported studies had to contend with the problem of small sample sizes, the use of quantification techniques not free of bias and assumptions, and high percentages of autistic subjects with comorbid mental retardation (at least 70%) or epilepsy (at least 40%). Furthermore, data from the limbic system and on age-related changes lack replication by independent groups. It is anticipated that future neuropathological studies hold great promise, especially as new techniques such as design-based stereology and gene expression are increasingly implemented and combined, larger samples are analysed, and younger subjects free of comorbidities are investigated. PMID:15329353

  12. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

  13. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer

    PubMed Central

    Kortei, N. K.; Dzogbefia, V. P.; Obodai, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2?cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5?m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the compost heights (0.8?m and 1.5?m). The yield on compost height of 1.5?m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of 0.8?m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1?:?1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1?:?1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5?m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1?:?1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom. PMID:25580299

  14. Biosynthesis of high yield fatty acids from Chlorella vulgaris NIES-227 under nitrogen starvation stress during heterotrophic cultivation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Chu, Fei-Fei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-09-15

    In this study the heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris NIES-227 fed with glucose was investigated systematically using six media types; combinations of nitrogen repletion/depletion and phosphorus repletion/limitation/depletion. It was found that a high yield of fatty acids (0.88 of fed glucose-COD) and a high content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) (89% of dry weight) were obtained under nitrogen starved conditions. To our knowledge it is the first report on such high COD conversion yield and FAME content in microalgae. The dominant fatty acid (>50%) was methyl oleate (C18:1), a desirable component for biodiesel synthesis. FAME content under nitrogen starved conditions was significantly higher than under nitrogen sufficient conditions, while phosphorus had no significant influence, indicating that nitrogen starvation was the real "fatty acids trigger" in heterotrophic cultivation. These findings could simplify the downstream extraction process, such as the extrusion of oil from soybeans, and could reduce operating costs by improving the fatty acid yield from waste COD. PMID:26081436

  15. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    E-print Network

    Wahl, A C

    2002-01-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z sub F = 90 thru 98, mass number A sub F = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru approx 200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from approx 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron (approx fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

  16. Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL Versions and Lattices X. Ding Front End, Nov. 23, 2010 parameters of 11 and 13GeV from interpolation) · Take the muon/pion/kaons at z=0 m from MARS output (Field of Running MARS #12;4 Muon Yield from Different Versions of ICOOL with ST2a-BNL Input Deck #12;5 Muon Yield

  17. The yield criterion of laminated media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, P. C.; Mcnamee, B. M.; Chou, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    This study examines the yield criteria for anisotropic laminated media. It will be shown that for laminated media with isotropic layers, the criterion of Tsai and Wu is a direct extension of Von Mises'. Also presented here is a set of equations governing the relative positions of the yield ellipses. Furthermore, a general expression for the yield condition of a laminated medium composed of generally anisotropic layers is obtained.

  18. Global sources and significance of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Payer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) serves as a thermally unstable reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NO and NO2, collectively termed NOx). PAN permits NOx to impact the global distribution of the two most important atmospheric oxidants, ozone (O3) and the OH radical. PAN is also a critical channel through which climate-driven changes to the biosphere will affect atmospheric composition, notably through biogenic NMVOC emissions and fires. We use a 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) constrained by a global suite of observations to evaluate the sources and significance of PAN. We quantify individual NMVOC and NOX contributions to PAN formation, and we identify where PAN has a significant impact on remote O3, OH and nitrogen deposition. We find that a simulation with improved budgets for key NMVOCs (ethane, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetone and select aromatic species) is able to reproduce the main features of the global PAN distribution. We also show that the treatment of PAN formation in fires plays an important role in determining the global impact of this PAN source. The contributions of acetaldehyde, acetone and methylglyoxal to PAN formation reflect the sources and lifetimes of these immediate precursors. Acetaldehyde, which is emitted directly from biogenic sources and formed via hydrocarbon oxidation, is the most important peroxyacetyl radical precursor globally. Methylglyoxal, an oxidation product of both isoprene and aromatic species, is responsible for about a third of peroxyactyl radical formation in the lower troposphere. Isoprene oxidation products, other than methylglyoxal, are also significant for the global PAN budget. With updated (lower) photolysis yields, acetone is less important for PAN formation than previously thought. It is responsible for less peroxyactyl radical formation globally than each of the other immediate precursors below 200 hPa. Lightning contributes to a uniform upper tropospheric PAN distribution in the southern hemisphere tropics where it is the most important NOx source for PAN formation. We estimate that PAN acts to increase lower tropospheric summertime O3 over the remote oceans by ~15% at mid-latitudes. The impact of PAN on remote OH is complex. The direction and magnitude of the impact varies geographically and vertically.

  19. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

  20. Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

    1991-06-01

    Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  2. Spectral reflectance indices for estimating yield and water content in spring wheat genotypes under well irrigated, water stress, and high temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Mario

    Scope and Method of Study. Alternative methods for selecting, detecting, and identifying higher yielding genotypes in wheat breeding programs are important for obtaining major genetic gains. The water indices can be used as an indirect selection tool because of their strong association with different physiological and yield components. Diverse spring wheat advanced lines were used, which corresponded to three international trials developed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT); 24th Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT) with 25 lines, 11th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT) with 40 lines, and 11th High Temperature Wheat Yield Trial (HTWYT) with 18 lines. Two other experiments also employed advanced lines for testing the relationship between water indices and water content parameters (10-16 lines) and for evaluating the influence of morphological traits (20 lines) over the water indices. Several water indices and other reflectance indices were estimated at three growth stages (booting, heading, and grain filling) using a field portable spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Devices, Boulder, CO). Field plots were planted in Northwest Mexico during three growing seasons (2006, 2007, and 2007). Grain yield, biomass, and some water status parameters were determined in diverse experiments. Findings and Conclusions. There were high correlations (phenotypic and genetic) between grain yield and the water indices showing high heritability, response to selection and correlated response, relative selection efficiency, and efficiency in selecting the higher yielding genotypes. Two water indices showed the strongest relationships (NWI-1 and NWI-3) for all the parameters determined in the well irrigated, water stress, and high temperature environments. In addition, the water indices were related with parameters commonly employed for assessing the crop water status ( i.e., water potential) during booting, anthesis and grain filling under water stress conditions. Finally, our results demonstrated that the relationship between the water indices and grain yield was affected mainly by erect leaves and spike orientation. The potential for employing the water indices for selecting high yielding lines represents a significant advantage in breeding programs because the top yielding lines can be selected in an accurate, inexpensive, and easy manner. In addition, the best high yielding lines maintained high canopy water content under water stress conditions.

  3. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...or findings suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  4. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...or findings suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  5. Dalitz plot analysis of the B{yields}K{eta}{gamma} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Fajfer, S.; Pham, T. N.; Kosnik, N.

    2008-10-01

    Recently B factories have published new results on the B{yields}K{eta}{gamma} decays being inspired by the theoretical suggestion to search for new physics in B{yields}P{sub 1}P{sub 2}{gamma} decays. Using heavy-meson chiral perturbation theory, we find a mechanism which governs the amplitude in parts of the Dalitz plot where either K or {eta} mesons are soft. The dominant contributions in these cases are coming from the nonresonant decay modes. We discuss also the B{yields}K{eta}{sup '}{gamma} Dalitz plot. Our partially integrated rates are in agreement with the experimental findings.

  6. Absolute 1* quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain versus absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I* quantum yields were measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The temperature yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-versus-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 +/- 2% and it falls off to 53.4 +/- 2% and 44.0 +/- 4% at 284 and 248 respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I* quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I* yields. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I* yield results.

  7. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-01-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961–2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains. PMID:26054055

  8. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-06-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961-2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains.

  9. Characteristics of water-well yields in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutphin, David M.; Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Burton, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mean yields and the numbers of wells drilled are presented for 35 rock types containing 4,115 wells in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia. Analysis of variance of the well yields shows that Harper's Formation phyllite and Catoctin Formation metabasalt have yields significantly different from those of other rock types. Preliminary variography has identified an anisotropy that roughly parallels the general compressional trend of the Blue Ridge.

  10. Remotely Sensed Rice Yield Prediction Using Multi-Temporal NDVI Data Derived from NOAA's-AVHRR

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha?1. Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly. PMID:23967112

  11. Benefit Finding and Perceived Obligations of Victims

    E-print Network

    Warner, Ruth

    2007-12-11

    a mention of physical ilnes, mental ilnes, abuse, drug addiction, or obesity. They found that participants felt more anger and les pity for the poor copers as compared to the good copers. They also offered les social support to the poor coper. How... and target of leson were used to predict victim obligations, benefit finding significantly predicted victim obligations, ? = .51, p test was significant, Z = 2...

  12. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  13. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

  14. Design of a high yield position source

    SciTech Connect

    Bulos, F.; DeStaebler, H.; Ecklund, S.; Helm, R.; Hoag, H.; Le Boutet, H.; Lynch, H.L.; Miller, R.; Moffeit, K.C.

    1985-04-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) requires a positron source with a yield large enough to give equal number of positrons and electrons at the interaction point. In addition, the colliding positrons must have an emittance and bunch length similar to the electron beam. This report describes the design of a high yield positron source to give these characteristics.

  15. Secondary electron yields of solar system ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suszcynsky, David M.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Goertz, Christoph K.

    1992-02-01

    The secondary electron yields of H2O, CO2, NH3, and CH3OH ices have been measured as a function of electron beam energy in the 2- to 30-keV energy range. The ices were produced on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cold finger and transferred under vacuum to a SEM where the yield measurements were made. The imaging capabilities of the SEM provide a means of correlating the yield measurements with the morphology of the ices and are also used to monitor charging effects. The yields were determined by measuring the amplified current from a secondary electron detector and calibrating this current signal with the amplified current signal from samples of metals with known secondary electron yields. Each of the measured yields is found to decrease with an increase in energy in the 2- to 30-keV range. Estimates are given for the maximum secondary electron yield Y(max) of each ice and the energy at which this maximum yield occurs. Implications for the charging of solar system ice grains are discussed.

  16. Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

  17. High yielding Indica germplasm from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1996, 213 rice accessions were introduced from China for enriching USDA rice germplasm collection. Evaluation for the Chinese germplasm on yield potential, disease resistances and grain quality was conducted in 2000 and 2001. Fifteen accessions yielded in excess of 10,130 kg/ha rough rice that ...

  18. Yield, Quality, and Sward Differences in Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers frequently pose the question as to which temperate grass has the greatest yield and quality potential, and whether grazing animals will consume it. Results of a study conducted in southcentral and northcentral Wisconsin indicate that greater yield can be expected in northern locations due...

  19. Systematic Optimization of Soybean Yield and Quality

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    from yield loss at lower plant populations #12;Research Methods · Conducted during 2012 and 2013 fertilizer Task Force®2 (4.7 L/ha) @ R1 ­ Antioxidant Bio-Forge® (1.2 L/ha) @ R3 ­ Foliar fungicide, Average±1 Std. Dev., Lowconducted to determine the effects of yield

  20. THE ZONES PROJECTS: UNDERSTANDING SOYBEAN YIELD VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two regional projects funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and the United Soybean Board are entitled Mapping of Soil and Field Characteristics to Understand Soybean Yield and Using Remotely Sensed Data to Diagnose Soybean Yield Limiting Factors. These projects were developed in resp...

  1. Calibrating your forage harvester's yield monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With some attention to the details, you will have a harvester that should be able to produce yield maps that will allow the same precision management that is expected in cereal crops. Forage yield maps, coupled with site-specific technologies in application of soil amendments, fertilizers, and pesti...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adjusted on an administrative county-wide basis for: (i) Yield variations due to different farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices; and (ii... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adjusted on an administrative county-wide basis for: (i) Yield variations due to different farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices; and (ii... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... adjusted on an administrative county-wide basis for: (i) Yield variations due to different farming practices in the administrative county such as irrigated, non-irrigated, and organic practices; and (ii... missing crop years actual yield. (h) If producers add land in the farming operation and do not...

  5. Measurements of branching fractions for B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, and B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.

    2008-12-01

    We present branching fraction measurements for the radiative decays B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, and B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}{gamma}. The analysis is based on a data sample of 465x10{sup 6} BB events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We find B(B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma})=(1.20{sub -0.37}{sup +0.42}{+-}0.20)x10{sup -6}, B(B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma})=(0.97{sub -0.22}{sup +0.24}{+-}0.06)x10{sup -6}, and a 90% C.L. upper limit B(B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}{gamma})<0.9x10{sup -6}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. We also measure the isospin-violating quantity {gamma}(B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma})/2{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma})-1=-0.43{sub -0.22}{sup +0.25}{+-}0.10.

  6. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-12-10

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M {sub sun}, or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  7. Increasing the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Politov, Anatoly; Golyazimova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The products of mechanical treatment are surface atoms or molecules, substances with a crystal structure different from their initial one (another polymorph, amorphous), point or linear defects, radicals and new chemical substances. It is often assumed, that to increase the yield of the products of a mechanical treatment, it is necessary to increase the treatment time and the mechanical power input. In view of the low energy yield of many mechanochemical transformations, this leads to high power consumption and contamination of the matter under treatment with the wear products of the material of a mill or reactor, in which the mechanical treatment is carried out. As a result, the technological attractiveness of mechanochemical processes is reduced, so that many mechanochemical transformations that have been discovered recently do not reach the stage of commercialization. In the present paper we describe different examples of increasing successfully the energy yield of mechanochemical processes, by a factor of several times to several orders of magnitude, for inorganic and organic substances. An increase in the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations opens new possibilities for their practical usage. In particular, the methods of preliminary treatment and the modes of conducting enzymatic processes that may find application in the production of second-generation biofuels are discussed using lignocellulose materials as examples. PMID:25406484

  8. Rain-fed fig yield as affected by rainfall distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Ensieh; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza

    2014-08-01

    Variable annual rainfall and its uneven distribution are the major uncontrolled inputs in rain-fed fig production and possibly the main cause of yield fluctuation in Istahban region of Fars Province, I.R. of Iran. This introduces a considerable risk in rain-fed fig production. The objective of this study was to find relationships between seasonal rainfall distribution and rain-fed fig production in Istahban region to determine the critical rainfall periods for rain-fed fig production and supplementary irrigation water application. Further, economic analysis for rain-fed fig production was considered in this region to control the risk of production. It is concluded that the monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall indices are able to show the effects of rainfall and its distribution on the rain-fed fig yield. Fig yield with frequent occurrence of 80 % is 374 kg ha-1. The internal rates of return for interest rate of 4, 8 and 12 % are 21, 58 and 146 %, respectively, that are economically feasible. It is concluded that the rainfall in spring especially in April and in December has negatively affected fig yield due to its interference with the life cycle of Blastophaga bees for pollination. Further, it is concluded that when the rainfall is limited, supplementary irrigation can be scheduled in March.

  9. Z{yields}bb and chiral currents in Higgsless models

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Tomohiro; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Christensen, Neil D.; Hsieh, Ken; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Matsuzaki, Shinya

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we compute the flavor-dependent chiral-logarithmic corrections to the decay Z{yields}bb in the three-site Higgsless model. We compute these corrections diagrammatically in the gaugeless limit in which the electroweak couplings vanish. We also compute the chiral-logarithmic corrections to the decay Z{yields}bb using a renormalization group equation analysis in effective field theory, and show that the results agree. In the process of this computation, we compute the form of the chiral current in the gaugeless limit of the three-site model, and consider the generalization to the N-site case. We elucidate the Ward-Takahashi identities which underlie the gaugeless limit calculation in the three-site model, and describe how the result for the Z{yields}bb amplitude is obtained in unitary gauge in the full theory. We find that the phenomenological constraints on the three-site Higgsless model arising from measurements of Z{yields}bb are relatively mild, requiring only that the heavy Dirac fermion be heavier than 1 TeV or so, and are satisfied automatically in the range of parameters allowed by other precision electroweak data.

  10. Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Khushboo; Desai, Parth; Duseja, Shilpa; Kumar, Santosh; Mahendra, Jaideep; Duseja, Sareen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present case–control study was to evaluate the association between maternal periodontitis and preeclampsia. Association studies between maternal periodontitis and elevated risk for preeclampsia have shown conflicting results. Periodontal maintenance is necessary to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: Periodontal parameters [bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)] of 1320 women were assessed, followed by retrieval of their demographic and medical data from the medical records. Based on the medical records, 80 women were excluded from the study, leaving 1240 females as the eligible sample for the study. The women were divided into control group (1120 non-preeclamptic women who gave birth to infants with adequate gestational age) and case group (120 preeclamptic women). Logistic regression analysis revealed that primiparity and maternal periodontitis were the two significant variables causing preeclampsia. Further analysis was carried out by matching the two groups for primiparity to find the significance of maternal periodontitis. Maternal periodontitis was defined as PD ?4 mm and CAL ?3 mm at the same site in at least four teeth. Results: The results showed that maternal periodontitis (odds ratio 19.8) was associated with preeclampsia. Maternal periodontitis also remained associated with preeclampsia after matching for primiparity, which was another significant confounding factor in the study (odds ratio 9.33). Conclusion: Maternal periodontitis is a risk factor associated with preeclampsia, emphasizing the importance of periodontal care in prenatal programs. PMID:25992334

  11. Optimizing Production of Hydroquinone Achieves Increased Yield and Energy Efficiency 

    E-print Network

    Gross, S.

    2010-01-01

    , build inventory, then take extended shutdowns to control inventory to acceptable levels ? Payoff: Significant energy reduction, yield improvement and optimized operating costs Project definition ? Risk assessment ? In order to move past the cultural... ? Amount of HQ produced in one year ? Year end inventory ? Energy Savings: compared 2009 electricity and steam usage to that of 2008 ? Manufacturing Cost Reporting (SAP) Results ? Energy Savings ? Reduction in steam and electricity usage: ? Steam: 88...

  12. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and Spain in both considered drought events, however slightly less severe for 2012 than for 2005. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor droughts' impacts on crops productions and yields in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno, 2010: A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J. Climate, 23, 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45.

  13. Maize yield gaps caused by non-controllable, agronomic, and socioeconomic factors in a changing climate of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijuan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Lin, Xiaomao; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Lv, Shuo; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-15

    Closing the gap between current and potential yields is one means of increasing agricultural production to feed the globally increasing population. Therefore, investigation of the geographic patterns, trends and causes of crop yield gaps is essential to identifying where yields might be increased and quantifying the contributions of yield-limiting factors that may provide us potentials to enhance crop productivity. In this study, the changes in potential yields, attainable yields, potential farmers' yields, and actual farmers' yields during the past five decades in Northeast China (NEC) were investigated. Additionally the yield gaps caused by non-controllable, agronomic, and socioeconomic factors were determined. Over the period 1961 to 2010 the estimated regional area-weighted mean maize potential yield, attainable yield, and potential farmers' yield were approximately 12.3tha(-1), 11.5tha(-1), and 6.4tha(-1) which showed a decreasing tendency. The actual farmers' yield over NEC was 4.5tha(-1), and showed a tendency to increase (p<0.01) by 1.27tha(-1) per decade. The regional mean total yield gap (YGt), weighted by the area in each county dedicated to maize crop, was 64% of potential yield. Moreover, 8, 40, and 16% reductions in potential yields were due to non-controllable factors (YGI), agronomic factors (YGII), and socioeconomic factors (YGIII), respectively. Therefore, the exploitable yield gap, considered here as the difference between the potential yield and what one can expect considering non-controllable factors (i.e. YGt-YGI), of maize in NEC was about 56%. The regional area-weighted averages of YGt, and YGIII were found to have significant decreases of 11.0, and 10.7% per decade. At the time horizon 2010, the exploitable yield gaps were estimated to equal 36% of potential yield. This led to the conclusion that the yield gap could be deeply reduced by improving local agronomic management and controlling socioeconomic factors. PMID:26437349

  14. Testing explanations of the B{yields}{phi}K* polarization puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Alakabha; Gritsan, Andrei V.; London, David; Nagashima, Makiko; Szynkman, Alejandro

    2007-08-01

    B{yields}{phi}K* (b{yields}s) is three separate decays, one for each polarization of the final-state vector mesons (one longitudinal, two transverse). It is observed that the fraction of transverse decays, f{sub T}, and the fraction of longitudinal decays, f{sub L}, are roughly equal: f{sub T}/f{sub L}{approx_equal}1, in opposition to the naive expectation that f{sub T}<yields}d decays. In B{yields}{rho}{rho} decays, only B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{rho}{sup 0} can possibly exhibit a large f{sub T}/f{sub L}. In B decays related by U-spin, we find two promising possibilities: (i) B{sup +}{yields}K*{sup 0}{rho}{sup +} (b{yields}s) and B{sup +}{yields}K*{sup 0}K*{sup +} (b{yields}d) and (ii) B{sub s}{yields}K*{sup 0}K*{sup 0} (b{yields}s) and B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K*{sup 0}K*{sup 0} (b{yields}d). The measurement of f{sub T}/f{sub L} in these pairs of decays will allow us to test penguin annihilation and rescattering. Finally, it is possible to distinguish penguin annihilation from rescattering by performing a time-dependent angular analysis of B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K*{sup 0}K*{sup 0}.

  15. Using a Rice Mini-Core Collection to Map QTLs for Improvement of Grain Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield is the most important and complex trait for genetic improvement in crops, and marker-assisted selection enhances the improvement efficiency. We phenotyped 203 O. sativa accessions for 14 agronomic traits and identified five highly and significantly correlated with grain yield per plant. Genoty...

  16. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  17. Genome-Wide Association of Rice Blast Disease Resistance and Yield-Related Components of Rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueyan; Jia, Melissa H; Ghai, Pooja; Lee, Fleet N; Jia, Yulin

    2015-12-01

    Robust disease resistance may require an expenditure of energy that may limit crop yield potential. In the present study, a subset of a United States Department of Agriculture rice core collection consisting of 151 accessions was selected using a major blast resistance (R) gene, Pi-ta, marker and was genotyped with 156 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Disease reactions to Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease, were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions, and heading date, plant height, paddy and brown seed weight in two field environments were analyzed, using an association mapping approach. A total of 21 SSR markers distributed among rice chromosomes 2 to 12 were associated with blast resistance, and 16 SSR markers were associated with seed weight, heading date, and plant height. Most noticeably, shorter plants were significantly correlated with resistance to blast, rice genomes with Pi-ta were associated with lighter seed weights, and the susceptible alleles of RM171 and RM6544 were associated with heavier seed weight. These findings unraveled a complex relationship between disease resistance and yield-related components. PMID:26284908

  18. 16 CFR 1205.8 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... security consumers are likely to experience from having a safer mower. (2) During the development of the... estimates that the retail price impact of the standard will be about $35 for the average walk-behind mower... Commission finds that the standard is not expected to have a significant impact on the availability of...

  19. MAPPING COTTON YIELD VARIABILITY USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY AND YIELD MONITOR DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased availability of airborne hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acqui...

  20. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525