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1

Finding Statistically Significant Communities in Networks  

PubMed Central

Community structure is one of the main structural features of networks, revealing both their internal organization and the similarity of their elementary units. Despite the large variety of methods proposed to detect communities in graphs, there is a big need for multi-purpose techniques, able to handle different types of datasets and the subtleties of community structure. In this paper we present OSLOM (Order Statistics Local Optimization Method), the first method capable to detect clusters in networks accounting for edge directions, edge weights, overlapping communities, hierarchies and community dynamics. It is based on the local optimization of a fitness function expressing the statistical significance of clusters with respect to random fluctuations, which is estimated with tools of Extreme and Order Statistics. OSLOM can be used alone or as a refinement procedure of partitions/covers delivered by other techniques. We have also implemented sequential algorithms combining OSLOM with other fast techniques, so that the community structure of very large networks can be uncovered. Our method has a comparable performance as the best existing algorithms on artificial benchmark graphs. Several applications on real networks are shown as well. OSLOM is implemented in a freely available software (http://www.oslom.org), and we believe it will be a valuable tool in the analysis of networks. PMID:21559480

Lancichinetti, Andrea; Radicchi, Filippo; Ramasco, José J.; Fortunato, Santo

2011-01-01

2

10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

2013-01-01

3

10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

2011-01-01

4

10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

2012-01-01

5

10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

2014-01-01

6

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 989.15 Section 989.15 National...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact. (a) The FONSI (40 CFR...

2013-07-01

7

23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

2010-04-01

8

23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

2011-04-01

9

23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

2014-04-01

10

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 989.15 Section 989.15 National...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact. (a) The FONSI (40 CFR...

2014-07-01

11

23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

2012-04-01

12

23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

2013-04-01

13

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 989.15 Section 989.15 National...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact. (a) The FONSI (40 CFR...

2011-07-01

14

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 989.15 Section 989.15 National...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact. (a) The FONSI (40 CFR...

2012-07-01

15

40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Responsible...a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR...considered in the EA, environmental factors considered, and project impacts; and (2) A brief...

2010-07-01

16

Sonocrystallization yields monoclinic paracetamol with significantly improved compaction behavior.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-assisted crystallization (sonocrystallization) was used to prepare a mixture of nano- and micrometer-sized crystals of the monoclinic form of paracetamol-a widely used analgesic known for its particularly problematic mechanical behavior under compression (i.e. poor tabletability). The nano- and micrometer-sized crystals yielded a powder which exhibits elastic moduli and bulk cohesions that are significantly higher than those observed in samples consisting of macrometer-sized crystals, thus leading to enhanced tabletability without the use of excipients, particle coating, salt, or cocrystal formation. Experimental compaction and finite element analysis were utilized to rationalize the significantly improved compaction behavior of the monoclinic form of paracetamol. PMID:25370777

Bu?ar, Dejan-Krešimir; Elliott, James A; Eddleston, Mark D; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Jones, William

2015-01-01

17

21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

2012-04-01

18

21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

2014-04-01

19

21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

2010-04-01

20

21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

2013-04-01

21

21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

2011-04-01

22

Genetic Diversity and Soybean Yield: Finding the Balance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Based on national production statistics since 1924, average soybean yield in the U.S. has increased at a nearly steady rate of 22 kg ha-1 year-1. It is possible to show some changes in this rate depending on how these past 85 years are divided, but two conclusions seem evident. Soybean yield has not...

23

Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g (Earth's gravity), and the emergence of face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals late in the coarsening process (as small crystallites lost particles to the slow ripening of large crystallites). Significant quantitative findings from the microgravity experiments have been developed describing complex interactions among crystallites during the growth process, as concentration fields overlap in the surrounding disordered phase. Time-resolved Bragg scattering under microgravity captures one effect of these interactions quite conclusively for the sample at a volume fraction of 0.528. From the earliest time until the sample is almost fully crystalline, the size and overall crystallinity grow monotonically, but the number of crystallites per unit volume (number density) falls. Apparently nucleation is slower than the loss of crystallites because of the transfer of particles from small to large crystals. Thus, coarsening occurs simultaneously with growth, rather than following the completion of nucleation and growth as is generally assumed. In the same sample, an interesting signature appears in the apparent number density of crystallites and the volume fraction within the crystallites shortly before full crystallinity is reached. A brief upturn in both indicates the creation of more domains of the size of the average crystallite simultaneous with the compression of the crystallites. Only the emergence of dendritic arms offers a reasonable explanation. The arms would be "seen" by the light scattering as separate domains whose smaller radii of curvature would compress the interior phase. In fiscal year 1999, numerous papers, a doctoral dissertation, and the PHaSE final report were produced. Although this flight project has been completed, plans are in place for a follow-on colloid experiment by Chaikin and Russel that employs a light microscope within Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. PHaSE is providing us with a deeper understanding of the nure of phase transitions. The knowledge derived has added to the understandin

Doherty, Michael P.

2000-01-01

24

Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging findings in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Staging of rectal cancer is essential to help guide clinicians to decide upon the correct type of surgery and determine whether or not neoadjuvant therapy is indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most accurate modalities on which to base treatment decisions for patients with rectal cancer. MRI can accurately detect the mesorectal fascia, assess the invasion of the mesorectum or surrounding organs and predict the circumferential resection margin. Although nodal disease remains a difficult radiological diagnosis, new lymphographic agents and diffusion weighted imaging may allow identification of metastatic nodes by criteria other then size. In light of this, we have reviewed the literature on the accuracy of specific MRI findings for staging the local extent of primary rectal cancer. The aim of this review is to establish a correlation between MRI findings, prognosis, and available treatment options. PMID:21532870

Bellows, Charles F; Jaffe, Bernard; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Gagliardi, Guiseppe

2011-01-01

25

10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01... 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...action will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment; (4) Include the...

2010-01-01

26

Fields of applications, diagnostic yields and findings of OMOM capsule endoscopy in 2400 Chinese patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To retrospectively analyze the fields of application, diagnostic yields and findings of OMOM capsule endoscopy in Chinese patients. METHODS: A database including 2400 Chinese patients who received OMOM capsule endoscopy in 27 endoscopy centers in China was retrieved from the Jianshan Science and Technology Ltd. OMOM capsule endoscopy database. The patient’s age, gender, fields of application, the potentially relevant findings, pyloric transit time (PTT), small bowel transit time (SBTT), and complete small-bowel examination rate (CSER) were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Two thousand four hundred patients aged 9-91 years (mean, 49 years), of whom 1510 were males (62.9%), underwent 2400 OMOM capsule endoscopy procedures. One thousand two hundred and thirty two (51.3%) were referred with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), 642 (26.8%) with abdominal pain, and 223 (9.3%) with chronic diarrhea. The overall diagnostic yield was 47.7% (1144/2400). The diagnostic yield of OMOM capsule endoscopy in OGIB subgroup was much higher than in the non-OGIB subgroup (62.4% vs 32.1%, P < 0.001). The most common findings of the small bowel in Chinese patients with OGIB were arteriovenous malformation (28.1%) and tumors (18.9%). There was no significant difference in the diagnostic yield between the male and female patients with OGIB. However, the diagnostic yield in patients aged more than 60 was higher than in patients aged less than 60 (69.8% vs 58.9%, P < 0.001). The median PTT was 41 min (range: 1-544 min) and the mean SBTT was 247.2 ± 88.9 min. The overall CSER was 86.8%. CONCLUSION: The OMOM capsule endoscopy is a valuable tool for small bowel evaluation with good overall diagnostic yield and CSER. PMID:20518090

Liao, Zhuan; Gao, Rui; Li, Feng; Xu, Can; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Jin-Shan; Li, Zhao-Shen

2010-01-01

27

Avulsion fractures of the knee: imaging findings and clinical significance.  

PubMed

The knee is an intricate joint with numerous tendinous, ligamentous, and meniscal attachments, which make it particularly vulnerable to complex injuries after trauma. A variety of avulsion fractures of the knee can occur, including Segond and reverse Segond fractures; avulsions of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments; arcuate complex avulsion; iliotibial band avulsion; avulsions of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and quadriceps tendons; Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome; and Osgood-Schlatter disease. These fractures often have a subtle appearance at conventional radiography, which is typically the first imaging modality performed in these cases. Advanced imaging modalities, particularly magnetic resonance imaging, are helpful and can provide valuable additional information for adequately defining the extent of damage. The onus is on the radiologist to identify the pattern of injury and to understand the substantial underlying damage that it frequently represents. Conveying this information to the referring clinician is crucial and represents the first step toward additional evaluation and probable orthopedic referral. By recognizing the significance of these injuries at initial presentation, radiologists can facilitate appropriate patient work-up and prevent the chronic morbidity associated with delayed treatment. PMID:18936034

Gottsegen, Christopher J; Eyer, Benjamin A; White, Eric A; Learch, Thomas J; Forrester, Deborah

2008-10-01

28

10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

2011-01-01

29

10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

2013-01-01

30

10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

2014-01-01

31

10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

2011-01-01

32

10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

2012-01-01

33

10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

2012-01-01

34

10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

2014-01-01

35

10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

2010-01-01

36

10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

2013-01-01

37

10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

2010-01-01

38

76 FR 65541 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain Requirements...assessment and finding of no significant impact...there is no significant construction impact; (v) there is no significant...

2011-10-21

39

Significance of smoking machine toxicant yields to blood-level exposure in waterpipe tobacco smokers  

PubMed Central

Background The global rise in tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) has made understanding its health consequences imperative. One key to developing this understanding is identifying and quantifying carcinogens and other toxicants present in waterpipe smoke. To do so, the toxicant yield of machine-generated waterpipe smoke has been measured. However, the relevance of toxicant yields of machine-generated smoke to actual human exposure has not been established. Methods In this study, we examined whether CO and nicotine yields measured using a smoking machine programmed to replicate the puffing behavior of 31 human participants who smoked a waterpipe could reliably predict these participant’s blood-level exposure. In addition to CO and nicotine, yields of PAH, volatile aldehydes, NO, and “tar” were measured. Results We found that when used in this puff-replicating manner, smoking machine yields are highly correlated with blood-level exposure (Nicotine: r>0.76, p<0.001; CO: r>0.78, p<0.001). Total drawn smoke volume was the best predictor of toxicant yield and exposure, accounting for approximately 75–100% of the variability across participants in yields of NO, CO, volatile aldehydes and “tar”, and blood-level CO and normalized nicotine. Conclusions Machine-based methods can be devised in which smoke toxicant yields reliably track human exposure. Impact This finding indicates the basic feasibility of valid analytical laboratory evaluation of tobacco products for regulatory purposes. PMID:21914836

Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

40

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

2013-04-01

41

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

2011-04-01

42

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

2012-04-01

43

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

2010-04-01

44

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

2014-04-01

45

7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940—Finding of No...

2010-01-01

46

7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940—Finding of No...

2011-01-01

47

75 FR 61121 - Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...of no significant impact...the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service prepared an environmental assessment and a finding of no significant impact relative to a...

2010-10-04

48

76 FR 66334 - Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...issuing a final environmental assessment (EA) regarding...of no significant impact (FONSI) regarding...using the following methods: NRC's...

2011-10-26

49

76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0782...ER-FRL-9000-7] Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding...Significant Impact (FONSI) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

2011-12-23

50

78 FR 65607 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding...No Significant Impact (FONSI) of...document is based on impact analysis documented...the National Environmental Policy Act...agricultural production methods and by...

2013-11-01

51

The orthopaedic trauma literature: an evaluation of statistically significant findings in orthopaedic trauma randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine posits that health care research is founded upon clinically important differences in patient centered outcomes. Statistically significant differences between two treatments may not necessarily reflect a clinically important difference. We aimed to quantify the sample sizes and magnitude of treatment effects in a review of orthopaedic randomized trials with statistically significant findings. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive

Jinsil Sung; Judith Siegel; Paul Tornetta; Mohit Bhandari

2008-01-01

52

10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

2013-01-01

53

10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

2012-01-01

54

10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

2011-01-01

55

10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

2014-01-01

56

10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

2010-01-01

57

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer significantly reduces number of yielded lymph nodes by axillary dissection  

PubMed Central

Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) is an established therapy in breast cancer, able to downstage positive axillary lymph nodes, but might hamper their detectibility. Even if clinical observations suggest lower lymph node yield (LNY) after NC, data are inconclusive and it is unclear whether NC dependent parameters influence detection rates by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Methods We analyzed retrospectively the LNY in 182 patients with ALND after NC and 351 patients with primary ALND. Impact of surgery or pathological examination and specific histomorphological alterations were evaluated. Outcome analyses regarding recurrence rates, disease free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. Results Axillary LNY was significantly lower in the NC in comparison to the primary surgery group (median 13 vs. 16; p?significant impact of the LNY on local and regional recurrence rates as well as DFS and OS, respectively. Conclusion NC significantly reduces the LNY by ALND and has profound effects on the histomorphological appearance of lymph nodes. The current recommendations for a minimum removal of 10 lymph nodes by ALND are clearly compromised by the clinically already established concept of NC. The LNY of less than 10 by ALND after NC might not be indicative for an insufficient axillary staging. PMID:24386929

2014-01-01

58

76 FR 59174 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the N.S. Savannah; License NS-1...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the N.S. Savannah; License NS-1...assessment and finding of no significant impact...there is no significant construction impact; (v) there is no significant...

2011-09-23

59

Find may yield flu early warning -The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING  

E-print Network

Find may yield flu early warning - The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING Find may yield flu early warning By Stephen Smith, Globe Staff | January 7, 2008 For a decade, disease flu to easily infect people and ignite a firestorm of human illness akin to the 1918 global flu

Sasisekharan, Ram

60

The significance of the incidental finding of basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography.  

PubMed Central

Basal ganglia calcification was found as an incidental finding in 42 out of 7000 patients who underwent computed tomography. The calcification showed on plain skull radiography when the maximum density on computed tomography exceeded 100 Hounsfield units. The 26 patients with basal ganglia calcification detected on computed tomography who were available for follow-up, were investigated with matched controls. No clinical features of basal ganglia calcification were noted. Twenty-four patients had no significant metabolic abnormality and two patients had parathyroid disorder identified. PMID:7334414

Harrington, M G; Macpherson, P; McIntosh, W B; Allam, B F; Bone, I

1981-01-01

61

76 FR 37842 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. 50-171] Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and finding of no significant...PBAPS) Unit 1. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been...

2011-06-28

62

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

1999-02-22

63

Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

1999-04-01

64

Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. {section}4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

Not Available

1995-12-31

65

Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant activity against Leishmania spp.  

E-print Network

Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant conducted additional isolation efforts on the minor alkaloids of this species. A standard alkaloid on the identification of alkaloids 1±9 from G. dumetorum (Fig.1). All nine of these metabolites were tested against

Coley, Phyllis

66

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no...Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1308 Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of...

2014-10-01

67

The relationship between specific event sediment yields and runoff depth and its significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the dynamics of suspended sediment transport are complex, they may become less complex and hence easier to quantify as the time scale increases from instantaneous to event-lumped transport. To test this hypothesis, we collected suspended sediment data from watersheds with contrasting transport behavior (supply-limited and transport-limited), together with those reported in Loess areas of China. Supply-limited watersheds (type I) included four Australia watersheds with various land use and land cover (LULC) conditions and a central New York watershed. Transport-limited watersheds (type II) contained twelve watersheds from Walnut Gulch, Arizona and an Italy watershed. Type III watersheds involved fourteen watersheds in Loess area of upstream Yellow River, China. They are different from the others in that they have hyperconcentrated flows most of time during events due to the finer grain size of loess. We calculated specific event sediment yield (SSYe, t/km2) and runoff depth (h, mm) of various rainfall events in each watershed, and statistically established a proportional relationship, SSYe = Ch where C is a constant for a given watershed, which is equivalent to the discharge-weighted event mean sediment concentration. The coefficient of determination ranges from 0.64 to 0.99, with the median of 0.95 indicating that the proportional model generally holds. Furthermore, values of C showed distinct ranges for the three types of watersheds: 0.32 - 1.93 for type I watersheds, 7.17-34.39 for type II watersheds, and 680-861 for type III watersheds. These values correctly reflect the different nature of sediment transport in three types of watersheds. We further found that C begins to decrease at different threshold values of watershed area for types I and II watersheds, whereas C remains constant for type III watersheds. These results suggest that a simple proportional model may be used to describe event-lumped behavior of suspended sediment transport.

Gao, P.; Nearing, M.; Hicks, M.; Commons, M.

2012-12-01

68

Penetrating cardiac injury and the significance of chest computed tomography findings.  

PubMed

In rare circumstances, hemodynamically stable patients can harbor serious penetrating cardiac injuries. We hypothesized that chest computed tomography (CCT) is potentially useful in evaluation. The records of all patients admitted to our center with wounds to the precordium or who sustained a hemothorax or pneumothorax after penetrating torso injuries over a 48-month period were reviewed. Those having an admission CCT were studied. The potential diagnostic value of hemopericardium (HPC) and pneumopericardium (PPC) on CCT was examined. Most of the 333 patients were male [293 (88.0 %)] with a roughly equal distribution of gunshot [189 (56.8 %)] and stab [144 (43.2 %)] wounds. Mean age was 28.7?±?12.6 years. Thirteen (3.9 %) patients had cardiac injuries that were operatively managed. Eleven (3.3 %) CCT studies demonstrated HPC and/or PPC. Ten of these patients had an injury with one false positive. Retained hemothorax and proximity findings on the three false negative CCT studies led to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or subxiphoid exploration with diagnosis of the injury. HPC and/or PPC on CCT had a sensitivity of 76.9 %, specificity of 99.7 %, positive predictive value of 90.9 %, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.1 % for cardiac injuries. However, including all findings that changed management, CCT had a sensitivity and NPV of 100 %. CCT is a potentially useful modality for the evaluation of cardiac injuries in high-risk stable patients. The presence of HPC and/or PPC on CCT after penetrating thoracic trauma is highly indicative of a significant cardiac injury. PMID:23471527

Plurad, David S; Bricker, Scott; Van Natta, Timothy L; Neville, Angela; Kim, Dennis; Bongard, Frederic; Putnam, Brant

2013-08-01

69

Department of Energy finding of no significant impact, Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator, Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As part of the DOE`s need to maintain the capability of producing tritium in support of its historic and near-term stewardship of the nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile, the agency has recently completed a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling. The Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Technical Area (TA) 53, LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico (DOE-EA-1147), March 1996, analyzes the DOE proposal to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end, low-energy section of the accelerator at LANL. LEDA would be incrementally developed and tested in five separate stages over the next seven years. LEDA would be located at an existing building at TA-53; the LEDA components would be tested in order to verify equipment and prototype design and resolve related performance and production issues for future full-scale operation at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the event the APT plant is built. Production operations would not occur at LANL under the proposed action. The US DOE finds that there would be no significant impact from proceeding with its proposal to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end, low-energy section of the accelerator, at TA-53, LANL. Based on the environmental assessment that analyses the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to design, build, and test prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action which would significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, no environmental impact statement is required for this proposal.

NONE

1996-08-01

70

(Bradfield Electric and Alaska Power Authority Presidential permit): Finding of no significant impact (FONSI)  

SciTech Connect

The Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering an application by Bradfield Electric, Inc. (Bradfield), and the Alaska Power Authority (APA) for a Presidential permit to construct, operate, maintain and connect a 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line which would extend from the APA's Tyee Lake Hydroelectric Power Project located near Wrangell, Alaska, to a point on the US-Canadian international border just east of the South Fork Craig River. The DOE has reviewed an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Forest Service (USFS) in connection with its issuance of a special use permit to construct the proposed line through the Tongass National Forest. Based on this EA, the USFS issued a decision notice and a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the proposed project on May 9, 1988. The DOE is adopting this EA as DOE/EA-0375 in partial satisfaction of its responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) regarding the issuance of a Presidential permit.

Not Available

1988-01-01

71

Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field  

E-print Network

1 Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance

Blumwald, Eduardo

72

Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional windows.

Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

2003-01-31

73

78 FR 14509 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact relative to the release of Scymnus coniferarum to control hemlock woolly adelgid. Based on its finding of no significant impact, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has determined that an environmental impact statement need not be......

2013-03-06

74

75 FR 63519 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No Significant Impact; Notice of public...comment the Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) and Draft...No Significant Impact (FONSI) for...the National Environmental Policy Act...by any of the methods described...

2010-10-15

75

75 FR 65294 - Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding...Calvert and St. Mary's Counties, Maryland. The EA was prepared pursuant to the...impacts of and alternatives to a Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative (SMECO)...

2010-10-22

76

77 FR 41774 - Notice of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Final...Department of Energy. ACTION: Finding...Department of Energy (DOE) implementing...the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program...the potential effects on the human environment associated...

2012-07-16

77

8.13 Providing Significant New Information/Findings (SNIF) to Participants  

E-print Network

Findings · Revised Informed Consent Document for New Participants: New participants must be provided with a revised informed consent document containing the new information. New participants are required to sign a copy of the approved revised informed consent, which carries, in general, the same signature

Biederman, Irving

78

76 FR 56820 - Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emergency Plan Table B-1, ``Fermi 2 Emergency Response Organization...training since initial approval of the Fermi 2 EP that have resulted in a significant...Final Environmental Statement for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2,...

2011-09-14

79

UCSF researchers find that nonsmokers in automobiles are exposed to significant secondhand smoke  

Cancer.gov

Nonsmokers sitting in an automobile with a smoker for one hour had markers of significantly increased levels of carcinogens and other toxins in their urine, indicating that secondhand smoke in motor vehicles poses a potentially major health risk.

80

77 FR 21594 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, Oconee...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Impact, Oconee Nuclear Station, Units...and 3 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...issued to Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC...operation of the Oconee Nuclear Station, Units...significant adverse effect on the probability...21595

2012-04-10

81

78 FR 5514 - Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No Significant Impact for License Renewal for Uranium One USA, Inc., Willow Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Johnson and Campbell...Source Materials License SUA-1341 for continued uranium production operations and in-situ...

2013-01-25

82

76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Significant Impact for License Renewal for Uranium One USA Inc., Irigaray and Christensen Ranch Uranium In-Situ Recovery Projects (Willow Creek...CONTACT: Ron C. Linton, Project Manager, Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch, Division...

2011-07-14

83

Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings.  

PubMed

Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical-maybe even a legal-obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

McGuire, Amy L; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma'n H; Clayton, Ellen Wright

2014-05-01

84

Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings  

PubMed Central

Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical—maybe even a legal—obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

McGuire, Amy L.; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma’n H.; Clayton, Ellen Wright

2014-01-01

85

UCLA study finds survival significantly increased in early breast cancer after treatment with Herceptin and chemotherapy:  

Cancer.gov

Treating women with early stage breast cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and the molecularly targeted drug Herceptin significantly increases survival in patients with a specific genetic mutation that results in very aggressive disease, a researcher with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center reported Wednesday.

86

75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...no significant impact relative to oral rabies vaccination programs in several States...analyzes the further expansion of the oral rabies vaccination program to include the States...effectively combat the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. The environmental assessment...

2010-01-15

87

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(b) The EA is a document which shall explain the environmental consequences of the proposal and set forth sufficient analysis for the Bureau or the Commission to reach a determination that the proposal will or will not have a significant environmental...

2010-10-01

88

An Algorithm for Finding the Exact Significance Levels of r × c Contingency Tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented for calculating the exact permutation significance value for r × c contingency tables. In general, the algorithm does not require the total enumeration of all tables consistent with the given marginals. As a result, it is faster than existing algorithms.

Marcello Pagano; Katherine Taylor Halvorsen

1981-01-01

89

Finding the Intersection of the Learning Organization and Learning Transfer: The Significance of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article aims to develop a conceptual framework delineating the key dimension of the learning organization which significantly influences learning transfer. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing previous studies and synthesizing the results associated with the following four relationships:…

Kim, Jun Hee; Callahan, Jamie L.

2013-01-01

90

An algorithm for finding biologically significant features in microarray data based on a priori manifold learning.  

PubMed

Microarray databases are a large source of genetic data, which, upon proper analysis, could enhance our understanding of biology and medicine. Many microarray experiments have been designed to investigate the genetic mechanisms of cancer, and analytical approaches have been applied in order to classify different types of cancer or distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue. However, microarrays are high-dimensional datasets with high levels of noise and this causes problems when using machine learning methods. A popular approach to this problem is to search for a set of features that will simplify the structure and to some degree remove the noise from the data. The most widely used approach to feature extraction is principal component analysis (PCA) which assumes a multivariate Gaussian model of the data. More recently, non-linear methods have been investigated. Among these, manifold learning algorithms, for example Isomap, aim to project the data from a higher dimensional space onto a lower dimension one. We have proposed a priori manifold learning for finding a manifold in which a representative set of microarray data is fused with relevant data taken from the KEGG pathway database. Once the manifold has been constructed the raw microarray data is projected onto it and clustering and classification can take place. In contrast to earlier fusion based methods, the prior knowledge from the KEGG databases is not used in, and does not bias the classification process--it merely acts as an aid to find the best space in which to search the data. In our experiments we have found that using our new manifold method gives better classification results than using either PCA or conventional Isomap. PMID:24595155

Hira, Zena M; Trigeorgis, George; Gillies, Duncan F

2014-01-01

91

Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.  

SciTech Connect

This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

1997-03-01

92

Functional significance of predischarge exercise thallium-201 findings following intravenous streptokinase therapy during acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine which predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging pattern(s) best correlate with myocardial salvage following intravenous streptokinase therapy (IVSK). Myocardial salvage was defined as improvement in regional left ventricular function determined by two-dimensional echocardiography between the time of admission and time of discharge in 21 prospectively studied patients receiving IVSK within 4 hours of chest pain. All patients had coronary angiography 2 hours following IVSK. Whereas 16 of the 21 patients (76%) had patent infarct-related vessels, only seven (33%) showed significant improvement in regional function at hospital discharge. Eleven patients demonstrated persistent defects (PD), and five each showed delayed and reverse redistribution. Patients with both delayed and reverse redistribution demonstrated significant improvement in regional left ventricular function score, while those with PD did not (+3.9 +/- 3.3 versus -0.5 +/- 2.9, p = 0.004). All other clinical, exercise, electrocardiographic, scintigraphic, and angiographic variables were similar between all patients, with the exception of the interval between chest pain and the institution of IVSK, which was longer in patients with reverse compared to delayed redistribution (3.5 +/- 0.4 versus 2.2 +/- 0.4 hours, p = 0.001). It is concluded that both delayed and reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging are associated with myocardial salvage, defined as serial improvement in regional systolic function. Despite a high infarct vessel patency rate in patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving IVSK within 4 hours of onset of symptoms, only one third demonstrated improvement in regional function that was associated with either delayed or reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging.

Touchstone, D.A.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Watson, D.D.; Tedesco, C.; Kaul, S.

1988-12-01

93

Across the United States, students return to school to find significant changes underway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Back to School for Reformhttp://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/california/la-ed-mayor05sep05,1,6157283.story?coll=la-headlines-pe-californiaHarvard studies ways to promote teachinghttp://www.boston.com/news/education/higher/articles/2006/09/05/harvard_studies_ways_to_promote_teaching/Beloit CollegeâÂÂs Mindset List for the Class of 2010http://www.beloit.edu/~pubaff/mindset/index.htmlNEA: Help for Parentshttp://www.nea.org/parents/index.htmlIndiana University Health Center: Coping with Starting Collegehttp://www.indiana.edu/~health/caps/begincollege.shtmlA few years ago, most students would arrive at their schools after Labor Day to find a fresh coat of paint on the classroom walls and a shiny coat of wax on the hallways. Such superficial improvements definitely wonâÂÂt pass muster these days with concerned parents, local school boards, and other groups clamoring for systemic changes within all levels of the American education system. The New York public school system, with its 1.1 million students, is one of those systems undergoing such changes as Mayor Michael Bloomberg continues to cut the number of bureaucrats in the school system and push for the adoption of greater accountability measures. The same process is underway in the Los Angeles Unified School District, where legislation passed in Sacramento last week gave Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa additional power to assume greater responsibility for the future success of this troubled school system. Along with the K-12 set, college students have also returned to campuses across the country to find new support tools in place, such as enhanced writing centers, âÂÂwellnessâÂÂ-themed dorms, and at some select institutions, a renewed attention on undergraduate education. With all the changes going on, it may make some wistful commentators pine for the days when a lone teacher in front of a chalkboard dominated classrooms. Or in terms of the college experience, it may have been President James A. Garfield who said it best when (in referring to Mark Hopkins, the president of Williams College) he opined âÂÂThe ideal college is Mark Hopkins on one end of a log and a student on the other.â The first link will take interested parties to a piece from this TuesdayâÂÂs New York Times which reports on the transformations within the New York public school system as of late. Moving on to the second link, readers can read an editorial from the Los Angeles Times that addresses the mayorâÂÂs responsibility to the school district and Angelinos in general. The third link leads to a piece written by Boston Globe staff member Marcella Bombardieri on Harvard UniversityâÂÂs new initiative that seeks to improve the teaching of undergraduates. The fourth link is more than a bit fun, as it leads visitors down the primrose path to the annual Beloit College Mindset List. Essentially the list serves as a reminder to professors and others about what their entering freshmen may (or may not) be familiar in terms of cultural touchstones, historic events, and so on. Item 51 on the list is rather amusing, as it reads: âÂÂMichael Moore has always been showing up uninvited.â The fifth link will take users to a set of resources created by the National Education Association for parents who want to get involved with their childâÂÂs education. Included on the site are two new parent guides that will help ease the preschoolerâÂÂs transition to kindergarten. The last link leads to a site designed by the helpful staff at the Indiana University Health Center. Here, entering college students can learn about how to cope with the process of starting college.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

94

Types of ovarian activity in women and their significance: the continuum (a reinterpretation of early findings)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND There are many types of ovarian activity that occur in women. This review provides information on the relationship between the hormone values and the degree of biological response to the hormones including the frequency and degree of uterine bleeding. The continuous process is termed the ‘Continuum’ and is thus similar to other processes in the body. METHODS This review draws on information already published from monitoring ovarian activity by urinary oestrogen and pregnanediol measurements using timed 24-h specimens of urine. Much of the rationalization was derived from 5 to 6 year studies of girls progressing from childhood to adulthood, women progressing through menopause, and the return of fertility post-partum. During these times, all the reported types of ovarian activity were encountered. RESULTS All cycle types can be understood in terms of steps in the normal maturation of fertility at the beginning of reproductive life, its return post-partum and its demise at menopause. Each step merges into the next and therefore the sequence is termed the ‘Continuum’. Unpredictable movement from fertile to infertile types and back can occur at any time during reproductive life. Stress is a major causative factor. Hormonal definitions for each step, the relevance of the various cycle types in determining fertility and in the initiation of uterine bleeding and the roles of the pituitary hormones in causing them, are presented. CONCLUSIONS The findings explain the erratic fertility of women and why ovulation is not always associated with fertility. They provide an understanding of the various types of ovarian activity and their relation to pituitary function, fertility and uterine bleeding. PMID:20923873

Brown, James B.

2011-01-01

95

Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

NONE

1996-05-01

96

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

N /A

1999-09-27

97

Frequency and Clinical Significance of Previously Undetected Incidental Findings Detected on Computed Tomography Simulation Scans for Breast Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: All CT simulation images were first interpreted prospectively by radiation oncologists and then double-checked by diagnostic radiologists. The official reports of CT simulation images for 881 consecutive postoperative breast cancer patients from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Potentially important incidental findings (PIIFs) were defined as any previously undetected benign or malignancy-related findings requiring further medical follow-up or investigation. For all patients in whom a PIIF was detected, we reviewed the clinical records to determine the clinical significance of the PIIF. If the findings from the additional studies prompted by a PIIF required a change in management, the PIIF was also recorded as a clinically important incidental finding (CIIF). Results: There were a total of 57 (6%) PIIFs. The 57 patients in whom a PIIF was detected were followed for a median of 17 months (range, 3-26). Six cases of CIIFs (0.7% of total) were detected. Of the six CIIFs, three (50%) cases had not been noted by the radiation oncologist until the diagnostic radiologist detected the finding. On multivariate analysis, previous CT examination was an independent predictor for PIIF (p = 0.04). Patients who had not previously received chest CT examinations within 1 year had a statistically significantly higher risk of PIIF than those who had received CT examinations within 6 months (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.50; p = 0.01). Conclusions: The rate of incidental findings prompting a change in management was low. However, radiation oncologists appear to have some difficulty in detecting incidental findings that require a change in management. Considering cost, it may be reasonable that routine interpretations are given to those who have not received previous chest CT examinations within 1 year.

Nakamura, Naoki, E-mail: naokinak@luke.or.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tsunoda, Hiroko [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu [Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan); Akahane, Keiko; Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-11-01

98

Association between industry funding and statistically significant pro-industry findings in medical and surgical randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Conflicting reports exist in the medical literature re- garding the association between industry funding and pub- lished research findings. In this study, we examine the associa- tion between industry funding and the statistical significance of results in recently published medical and surgical trials. Methods: We examined a consecutive series of 332 randomized trials published between January 1999 and June

Mohit Bhandari; Jason W. Busse; Dianne Jackowski; Victor M. Montori; Holger Schünemann; Sheila Sprague; Derek Mears; Emil H. Schemitsch; Dianne Heels-Ansdell; P. J. Devereaux

2004-01-01

99

77 FR 32173 - Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact: Union and Henderson Counties, KY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Finding of No Significant Impact: Union and Henderson Counties, KY AGENCY: Federal...Project between Morganfield and Henderson in Union and Henderson Counties, Kentucky. The...cities of Morganfield and Henderson, in Union and Henderson Counties, and US 60 is...

2012-05-31

100

78 FR 64001 - Finding of No Significant Impact for the Renewal and Amendment to the Barton Springs Pool Habitat...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), make available the final Environmental Assessment (EA), Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), and the final amendment to the Barton Springs Pool Habitat Conservation Plan (BSP HCP) under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The City of Austin (applicant) applied for a renewal of their existing Endangered Species Act incidental take......

2013-10-25

101

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. PMID:15018183

Mellado, J M; Ramos, A; Salvadó, E; Camins, A; Danús, M; Saurí, A

2003-12-01

102

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. PMID:16440220

Mellado, J M; Ramos, A; Salvadó, E; Camins, A; Danús, M; Saurí, A

2003-12-01

103

78 FR 11632 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

The Department of the Army announces a 30-day extension on the public comment period for the draft Finding of No Significant Impact (FNSI) and final Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for Army 2020 force structure realignments that may occur from Fiscal Years (FYs) 2013-2020. The Army published the Notice of Availability of the draft FNSI and PEA in the Federal Register (78 FR 4134) on......

2013-02-19

104

Significance of immunohistochemical findings in Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: The need for more validation studies  

PubMed Central

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has been validated as clinically useful tool for prognostication of individual patients with IgAN. The original classification did not address the significance of immunostaining pattern in IgAN. A subsequent study by the same authors found immunostaining data to be potentially useful in predicting some of the morphological variables of Oxford classification. The study under discussion also addresses the potential significance of these ancillary data in refining the individual prognostication in this disease. Please cite this paper as: Mubarak M. Significance of immunohistochemical findings in Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: The need for more validation studies. J Nephropathology. 2013; 2(3): 210-213. DOI: 10.5812/nephropathol.11089 PMID:24475452

Mubarak, Muhammed

2013-01-01

105

Finding \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different data mining algorithms applied to the same data can result in similar findings, typically in the form of rules. These similarities can be exploited to identify especially powerful rules, in particular those that are common to the different algorithms. This research focuses on the independent application of association and classification mining algorithms to the same data to discover common

Karthik Rajasethupathy; Anthony Scime; Kulathur S. Rajasethupathy; Gregg R. Murray

2009-01-01

106

Long-term sediment yield in Crombie Reservoir catchment, Angus; and its regional significance within the Midland Valley of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drawdown of Crombie Reservoir in November 2001 afforded the opportunity to examine the exposed sediments trapped since impoundment in 1868. Direct measurements of infill depth enabled an isopachyte map to be produced. Gravimetric conversion using measured bulk densities and a trap efficiency term indicated a long-term catchment sediment yield of 59.1 t km year. Core stratigraphy analysis indicated that

I. F. SMALL; J. S. ROWAN; R. W. DUCK

2003-01-01

107

[Cytogenetic findings in patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome and their prognostic significance. (Analysis of results in 65 patients)].  

PubMed

Cytogenetic examination of 65 patients with primary MDS revealed cytogenetic changes in 39 (60%) of the patients. The most frequently affected chromosomes were chromosomes 5, 7, 11, 17 and 20. Deletion of 5q only found in 9 (23%) of the patients with chromosomal changes occurred similarly as simple chromosomal changes most frequently in the prognostically more favourable group MDS-RA. Prognostically adverse monosomy of chromosome 7 was found in 3 patients in group RAEB and RAEB-t but only as part of complex chromosomal changes. The latter were encountered most frequently in patients of groups RAEB and RAEB-t, similarly as trisomy of chromosome 8. Patients in these groups had also a significantly shorter survival time (RAEB 17.7 and RAEB-t 14.2 months) than patients in group MDS-RA (31.5 months). Evaluation of survival according to Kaplan-Meyer's curve revealed significantly longer survival of patients without cytogenetic changes. Laboratory, cytogenetic and clinical findings in four patients with CMML differed from findings of the remaining patients with MDS. This supports the view that this sub-group is rather a myoproliferative conditions than MDS. Transformation to AL was proved in 19 patients. 14 of them (74%) had a chromosomal change at the time of diagnosis. PMID:7975361

Indrák, K; Jarosová, M; Sulovská, I; Scudla, V; Hubácek, J; Sousková, I; B?hal, K; Svobodová, M

1994-09-01

108

Is Hospital Admission for Initiation of Antiarrhythmic Therapy With Sotalol for Atrial Arrhythmias Required? Yield of In-Hospital Monitoring and Prediction of Risk for Significant Arrhythmia Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine the yield of in-hospital monitoring for detection of significant arrhythmia complications in patients starting sotalol therapy for atrial arrhythmias and to identify factors that might predict safe outpatient initiation. Background. The need for hospital admission during initiation of antiarrhythmic therapy has been questioned, particularly for sotalol, with which proarrhythmia may be dose related. Methods. The

MINA K. CHUNG; ROBERT A. SCHWEIKERT; BRUCE L. WILKOFF; MARK J. NIEBAUER; SERGIO L. PINSKI; RICHARD G. TROHMAN; GREGORY A. KIDWELL; FREDRICK J. JAEGER; VICTOR A. MORANT; DAVE P. MILLER; PATRICK J. TCHOU

109

Yields of biologically significant damage produced in mammalian DNA by irradiation associated with radon decay. Final progress report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to characterize the difference between damage to DNA caused by alpha particles and by low LET radiation. Estimation of the risk posed by exposure to high LET radiation (such as that from radon) relies at present on epidemiological data, and is therefore largely empirical. This empiricism is evident from the concepts of quality factor or RBE that find use for describing the biological effects of high LET radiation. The author argues that some effort should be made to address the mechanisms of DNA damage by high and low LET forms of radiation, and how these mechanisms might relate to the biological endpoints. This report summarizes the results of the author`s investigations and the current understanding of these mechanisms.

Ward, J.F.

1994-03-01

110

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project is a 21-megawatt (MW) wind generation project proposed by Florida Power and Light (FPL) Energy North Dakota Wind LLC (Dakota Wind) and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin). The proposed windfarm would be located in La Moure County, south central North Dakota, near the rural farming communities of Kulm and Edgeley. The proposed windfarm is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2003. Dakota Wind and other project proponents are seeking to develop the proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project to provide utilities and, ultimately, electric energy consumers with electricity from a renewable energy source at the lowest possible cost. A new 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line would be built to transmit power generated by the proposed windfarm to an existing US Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration (Western) substation located near Edgeley. The proposed interconnection would require modifying Western's Edgeley Substation. Modifying the Edgeley Substation is a Federal proposed action that requires Western to review the substation modification and the proposed windfarm project for compliance with Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332, and Department of Energy NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR Part 1021). Western is the lead Federal agency for preparation of this Environmental Assessment (EA). The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is a cooperating agency with Western in preparing the EA. This document follows regulation issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for implementing procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and is intended to disclose potential impacts on the quality of the human environment resulting from the proposed project. If potential impacts are determined to be significant, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement would be required. If impacts are determined to be insignificant, Western would complete a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). Environmental protection measures that would be included in the design of the proposed project are included.

N /A

2003-04-15

111

76 FR 42121 - Final Notice of a Finding of No Significant Impact for a Programmatic Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Significant Impact for a Programmatic...Implementing a Wind Energy Program at...Significant Impact (FONSI) for...Implementing a Wind Energy Program at...the MARFORRES Wind Energy Program will...significant adverse impact on the...

2011-07-18

112

Feasibility, Yield, and Cost of Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Linked to a Mobile HIV Service in Cape Town, South Africa: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization is currently developing guidelines on screening for tuberculosis disease to inform national screening strategies. This process is complicated by significant gaps in knowledge regarding mass screening. This study aimed to assess feasibility, uptake, yield, treatment outcomes, and costs of adding an active tuberculosis case-finding program to an existing mobile HIV testing service. Methods and Findings The study was conducted at a mobile HIV testing service operating in deprived communities in Cape Town, South Africa. All HIV-negative individuals with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, and all HIV-positive individuals regardless of symptoms were eligible for participation and referred for sputum induction. Samples were examined by microscopy and culture. Active tuberculosis case finding was conducted on 181 days at 58 different sites. Of the 6,309 adults who accessed the mobile clinic, 1,385 were eligible and 1,130 (81.6%) were enrolled. The prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis was 2.2% (95% CI 1.1–4.0), 3.3% (95% CI 1.4–6.4), and 0.4% (95% CI 1.4 015–6.4) in HIV-negative individuals, individuals newly diagnosed with HIV, and known HIV, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 5.3% (95% CI 3.5–7.7), 7.4% (95% CI 4.5–11.5), 4.3% (95% CI 2.3–7.4), respectively. Of the 56 new tuberculosis cases detected, 42 started tuberculosis treatment and 34 (81.0%) completed treatment. The cost of the intervention was US$1,117 per tuberculosis case detected and US$2,458 per tuberculosis case cured. The generalisability of the study is limited to similar settings with comparable levels of deprivation and TB and HIV prevalence. Conclusions Mobile active tuberculosis case finding in deprived populations with a high burden of HIV and tuberculosis is feasible, has a high uptake, yield, and treatment success. Further work is now required to examine cost-effectiveness and affordability and whether and how the same results may be achieved at scale. PMID:22879816

Kranzer, Katharina; Lawn, Stephen D.; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Vassall, Anna; Raditlhalo, Eudoxia; Govindasamy, Darshini; van Schaik, Nienke; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

2012-01-01

113

The Welsh study of mothers and babies: protocol for a population-based cohort study to investigate the clinical significance of defined ultrasound findings of uncertain significance  

PubMed Central

Background Improvement in ultrasound imaging has led to the identification of subtle non-structural markers during the 18 – 20 week fetal anomaly scan, such as echogenic bowel, mild cerebral ventriculomegaly, renal pelvicalyceal dilatation, and nuchal thickening. These markers are estimated to occur in between 0.6% and 4.3% of pregnancies. Their clinical significance, for pregnancy outcomes or childhood morbidity, is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of seven markers in the general obstetric population and establish a cohort of children for longer terms follow-up to assess the clinical significance of these markers. Methods/Design All women receiving antenatal care within six of seven Welsh Health Boards who had an 18 to 20 week ultrasound scan in Welsh NHS Trusts between July 2008 and March 2011 were eligible for inclusion. Data were collected on seven markers (echogenic bowel, cerebral ventriculomegaly, renal pelvicalyceal dilatation, nuchal thickening, cardiac echogenic foci, choroid plexus cysts, and short femur) at the time of 18 – 20 week fetal anomaly scan. Ultrasound records were linked to routinely collected data on pregnancy outcomes (work completed during 2012 and 2013). Images were stored and reviewed by an expert panel. The prevalence of each marker (reported and validated) will be estimated. A projected sample size of 23,000 will allow the prevalence of each marker to be estimated with the following precision: a marker with 0.50% prevalence to within 0.10%; a marker with 1.00% prevalence to within 0.13%; and a marker with 4.50% prevalence to within 0.27%. The relative risk of major congenital abnormalities, stillbirths, pre-term birth and small for gestational age, given the presence of a validated marker, will be reported. Discussion This is a large, prospective study designed to estimate the prevalence of markers in a population-based cohort of pregnant women and to investigate associations with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study will also establish a cohort of children that can be followed-up to explore associations between specific markers and longer-term health and social outcomes. PMID:24884594

2014-01-01

114

The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.  

PubMed

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Alia; Sanders, Ian R

2013-01-01

115

78 FR 7850 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed NOVA Chemicals Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No Significant Impact for the Proposed NOVA Chemicals Inc. Line 20 Facility Conversion...of No Significant Impact on the proposed NOVA Chemicals Inc. Line 20 Facilities Conversion...non-gaseous fuels to or from a foreign country. NOVA Chemicals Inc. (NOVA) has applied...

2013-02-04

116

76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock...United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the...proposed release of this biological control agent into the...

2011-07-19

117

76 FR 4859 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus...United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the...United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce...

2011-01-27

118

Lumbar puncture-related cerebrospinal fluid leakage on magnetic resonance myelography: is it a clinically significant finding?  

PubMed Central

Background Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) due to excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a well-known complication of lumbar puncture. Although various factors, especially the type of spinal needle, have been demonstrated to be associated with PDPH, the clinical implications of CSF leakage detected on magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) images remain unclear. The objective of this case–control study was to evaluate the association between radiologically visualized CSF leakage and PDPH. Methods Clinical data including patients’ age and gender, types of spinal needle, duration of bed rest, interval between lumbar puncture procedures and MRM studies, and incidence of PDPH were compared between patients who were radiologically-positive and -negative for CSF leakage. Results Of the 22 patients with definite CSF leakage on MRM images, most were asymptomatic (86%, 19/22). The remaining three patients, who were suffering from PDPH, only complained of headaches and were treated conservatively. In a review of patients’ clinical data, there were no significant differences in any parameter including the incidence of PDPH between the 22 patients who were radiologically-positive for CSF leakage and the 31 radiologically-negative patients. Conclusion The significance of radiologically visualized CSF leakage should not be overestimated, as most such incidents are not associated with PDPH and do not require any treatment. PMID:24160550

2013-01-01

119

Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Sold residue treatment, repackaging, and storage  

SciTech Connect

From its founding in 1952 through the cessation of production in 1989, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (now the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site [the Site]) produced components for nuclear weapons. Some of those components were made of plutonium. As a result of the processes used to recover and purify plutonium and manufacture the components, a variety of materials became contaminated with plutonium. If the level of contamination were low, the material was considered waste. However, if the concentration of plutonium in the material exceeded the {open_quotes}economic discard limit,{close_quotes} the materials were classified as {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} rather than{open_quotes}Waste{close_quotes} and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. While large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, accumulated at the Site in storage. Two important events regarding residues have occurred at the Site since production activities ceased. One event was the end of the Cold War in 1991, which made the return to production of nuclear weapons, with their Rocky Flats-made components, unnecessary. This event led to DOE`s decision to permanently cease production at the Site, clean up and remove radioactive and chemical contamination at the Site, and find alternative uses for the Site. This document describes methods for processing of the wastes for safe interim storage. Environmental impacts from the processing and storage are discussed.

NONE

1996-04-01

120

Genome-wide scan of IQ finds significant linkage to a quantitative trait locus on 2q.  

PubMed

A genome-wide linkage scan of 795 microsatellite markers (761 autosomal, 34 X chromosome) was performed on Multidimensional Aptitude Battery subtests and verbal, performance and full scale scores, the WAIS-R Digit Symbol subtest, and two word-recognition tests (Schonell Graded Word Reading Test, Cambridge Contextual Reading Test) highly predictive of IQ. The sample included 361 families comprising 2-5 siblings who ranged in age from 15.7 to 22.2 years; genotype, but not phenotype, data were available for 81% of parents. A variance components analysis which controlled for age and sex effects showed significant linkage for the Cambridge reading test and performance IQ to the same region on chromosome 2, with respective LOD scores of 4.15 and 3.68. Suggestive linkage (LOD score>2.2) for various measures was further supported on chromosomes 6, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 22. Where location of linkage peaks converged for IQ subtests within the same scale, the overall scale score provided increased evidence for linkage to that region over any individual subtest. Association studies of candidate genes, particularly those involved in neural transmission and development, will be directed to genes located under the linkage peaks identified in this study. PMID:16341610

Luciano, M; Wright, M J; Duffy, D L; Wainwright, M A; Zhu, G; Evans, D M; Geffen, G M; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G

2006-01-01

121

Using a robust variogram to find an adequate butterfly neighborhood size for one-step yield mapping using robust fitting paraboloid cones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield map is generated by fitting the yield surface shape of yield monitor data mainly using paraboloid cones on floating\\u000a neighborhoods. Each yield map value is determined by the fit of such a cone on a neighborhood that looks like a huge butterfly\\u000a flying along the harvest track. Wide wings of the butterfly guarantee that the map is sufficiently

Martin Bachmaier

2007-01-01

122

Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

Not Available

1994-09-01

123

Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

NONE

1996-10-01

124

A new direction for prenatal chromosome microarray testing: software-targeting for detection of clinically significant chromosome imbalance without equivocal findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To design and validate a prenatal chromosomal microarray testing strategy that moves away from size-based detection thresholds, towards a more clinically relevant analysis, providing higher resolution than G-banded chromosomes but avoiding the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) of unclear prognosis that cause parental anxiety. Methods. All prenatal samples fulfilling our criteria for karyotype analysis (n = 342) were tested by chromosomal microarray and only CNVs of established deletion/duplication syndrome regions and any other CNV >3 Mb were detected and reported. A retrospective full-resolution analysis of 249 of these samples was carried out to ascertain the performance of this testing strategy. Results. Using our prenatal analysis, 23/342 (6.7%) samples were found to be abnormal. Of the remaining samples, 249 were anonymized and reanalyzed at full-resolution; a further 46 CNVs were detected in 44 of these cases (17.7%). None of these additional CNVs were of clear clinical significance. Conclusion. This prenatal chromosomal microarray strategy detected all CNVs of clear prognostic value and did not miss any CNVs of clear clinical significance. This strategy avoided both the problems associated with interpreting CNVs of uncertain prognosis and the parental anxiety that are a result of such findings. PMID:24795849

Bint, Susan; Irving, Melita D.; Kyle, Phillipa M.; Akolekar, Ranjit; Mohammed, Shehla N.; Mackie Ogilvie, Caroline

2014-01-01

125

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative, as required by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This section provides a brief description of the locale in which the Proposed Action would take place. (5) Environmental Impacts. This section describes the range of environmental impacts, beneficial and adverse, of the Proposed Action. Impacts of alternatives briefly are discussed. (6) Permits and Regulatory Requirements. This section provides a brief description of permits and regulatory requirements for the Proposed Action. (7) Organizations Consulted. This section lists any outside groups, agencies, or individuals contacted as part of the environmental assessment preparation and/or review. (8) References. This section provides a list of documents used to contribute information or data in preparation of this environmental assessment.

N /A

1999-02-11

126

Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

N /A

2004-08-31

127

Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

Not Available

2012-07-01

128

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the release of tritium from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch between 25 to 35 percent. If this proposed action is undertaken and its effectiveness is demonstrated, it may become a component of the final action in the CAP. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or prepare an environmental impact statement (EM).

N /A

1999-12-08

129

Available online--http://www.usc.edu/admin/provost/oprs/news/archives/index.html Revised Policy: Significant New Findings/Information (SNIF) Addendum  

E-print Network

://www.usc.edu/admin/provost/oprs/private/docs/oprs/news_items/New_Findings_Memo.pdf iStar "Sandbox" Back in Action A practice site on iStar is available to assist training new users. The "sandbox" is for classroom instruction or to gain familiarity with the iStar system. Once an iStar account has been created, users

Biederman, Irving

130

From Bayes Through Marginal Utility to Effect Sizes: A Guide to Understanding the Clinical and Statistical Significance of the Results of Autism Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this report are: (a) to trace the theoretical roots of the concept clinical significance that derives from\\u000a Bayesian thinking, Marginal Utility\\/Diminishing Returns in Economics, and the “just noticeable difference”, in Psychophysics.\\u000a These concepts then translated into: Effect Size (ES), strength of agreement, clinical significance, and related concepts,\\u000a and made possible the development of Power Analysis; (b) to

Domenic V. Cicchetti; Kathy Koenig; Ami Klin; Fred R. Volkmar; Rhea Paul; Sara Sparrow

2011-01-01

131

The prognostic significance of tumor location and bowel obstruction in Dukes B and C colorectal cancer. Findings from the NSABP clinical trials.  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the prognostic significance of tumor location and bowel obstruction in Dukes B and C colorectal cancer. Data were obtained from 1021 patients entered into two randomized prospective clinical trials of the NSABP. Tumor location proved to be a strong prognostic discriminant. Lesions located in the left colon demonstrated the most favorable prognosis. Tumors of the rectosigmoid and rectum had the worst prognosis with the relative risk of treatment failure for the latter being over three fold that of the left colon. When the relative risks associated with tumor location were adjusted for nodal imbalances, the left colon continued to demonstrate the most favorable prognosis. The presence of bowel obstruction also strongly influenced the prognostic outcome. Examination of the data without considering tumor location disclosed that patients with bowel obstruction were at greater risk for treatment failure than those without obstruction. The effect of bowel obstruction was influenced by the location of the tumor. The occurrence of bowel obstruction in the right colon was associated with a significantly diminished disease-free survival, whereas obstruction in the left colon demonstrated no such effect. This phenomenon was independent of nodal status and tumor encirclement, the latter two factors proving to be of prognostic significance independent of tumor obstruction. A multivariate analysis in which the covariate effects of sex, age, nodal status, tumor obstruction, encirclement, and tumor location were adjusted underscored the role of tumor location and obstruction as prognostic discriminants. The results indicate that the definition of prognostic factors can identify patient subsets with unique characteristics. PMID:6357118

Wolmark, N; Wieand, H S; Rockette, H E; Fisher, B; Glass, A; Lawrence, W; Lerner, H; Cruz, A B; Volk, H; Shibata, H

1983-01-01

132

Intensified Tuberculosis Case-Finding in HIV-Positive Adults Managed at Ethiopian Health Centers: Diagnostic Yield of Xpert MTB/RIF Compared with Smear Microscopy and Liquid Culture  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of active tuberculosis (TB) before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is important, but optimal diagnostic methods for use in resource-limited settings are lacking. We assessed the prevalence of TB, evaluated the diagnostic yield of Xpert MTB/RIF in comparison with smear microscopy and culture, and the impact of Xpert results on clinical management in HIV-positive adults eligible for ART at health centers in a region of Ethiopia. Methods Participants were prospectively recruited and followed up at 5 health centers. Trained nurses collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and symptoms, and performed physical examination. Two paired morning sputum samples were obtained, and lymph node aspirates in case of lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic yield of Xpert MTB/RIF in sputum was compared with smear microscopy and liquid culture. Results TB was diagnosed in 145/812 participants (17.9%), with bacteriological confirmation in 137 (16.9%). Among bacteriologically confirmed cases, 31 were smear-positive (22.6%), 96 were Xpert-positive (70.1%), and 123 were culture-positive (89.8%). Xpert MTB/RIF increased the TB detection rate by 64 cases (47.4%) compared with smear microscopy. The overall sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF was 66.4%, and was not significantly lower when testing one compared with two samples. While Xpert MTB/RIF was 46.7% sensitive among patients with CD4 cell counts >200 cells/mm3, this increased to 82.9% in those with CD4 cell counts ?100 cells/mm3. Compared with Xpert-positive TB patients, Xpert-negative cases had less advanced HIV and TB disease characteristics. Conclusions Previously undiagnosed TB is common among HIV-positive individuals managed in Ethiopian health centers. Xpert MTB/RIF increased TB case detection, especially in patients with advanced immunosuppression. An algorithm based on the use of a single morning sputum sample for individuals with negative sputum smear microscopy could be considered for intensified case finding in patients eligible for ART. However, technical and cost-effectiveness issues relevant for low-income countries warrant further study. PMID:24465572

Balcha, Taye T.; Sturegård, Erik; Winqvist, Niclas; Skogmar, Sten; Reepalu, Anton; Jemal, Zelalem Habtamu; Tibesso, Gudeta; Schön, Thomas; Björkman, Per

2014-01-01

133

Changes in Normal Liver and Spleen Volume after Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y-Resin Microspheres in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Findings and Clinical Significance  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In clinical trials with yttrium-90-resin-microspheres for the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases, it was observed that radioembolization might result in splenomegaly and an increase in portal vein size. Subclinical hepatitis in normal liver tissue as well as the effects of radioembolization and prior chemotherapy are suspected to be responsible for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter after radioembolization. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with liver-dominant metastatic disease from breast cancer who had not responded to chemotherapy or had to abandon chemotherapy because of its toxic effects were evaluated. Changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter as well as liver tumor volume and diameter were quantified using computed tomography scans. Results: Radioembolization was associated with a significant mean decrease in the whole liver volume of 10.2% (median 16.7%; P = 0.0024), mainly caused by a reduction in the right lobe volume (mean 16.0%; P < 0.0001). These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the diameter of the main portal vein (mean 6.8%; P < 0.0001) as well as splenic volume (mean 50.4%; P < 0.0001). Liver-tumor volume and diameter decreased by a median of 24 and 39.7%. Conclusions: Radioembolization is an effective treatment for tumor size reduction in patients with breast cancer liver metastases. Treatment is associated with changes of hepatic parenchymal volume, splenic volume, and portal vein size that appear not to represent clinically important sequelae in this patient cohort.

Paprottka, Philipp M., E-mail: philipp.paprottka@med.uni-muenchen.de; Schmidt, G. P.; Trumm, C. G.; Hoffmann, R. T.; Reiser, M. F.; Jakobs, T. F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, University Hospitals Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology (Germany)

2011-10-15

134

Significant Findings: Tracking the SeaWiFS Record with a Coupled Physical/Biogeochemical/Radiative Model of the Global Oceans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has observed 2.5 years of routine global chlorophyll observations from space. The mission was launched into a record El Nino event, which eventually gave way to one of the most intensive and longest-lasting La Nina events ever recorded. The SeaWiFS chlorophyll record captured the response of ocean phytoplankton to these significant events in the tropical Indo-Pacific basins, but also indicated significant interannual variability unrelated to the El Nino/La Nina events. This included large variability in the North Atlantic and Pacific basins, in the North Central and equatorial Atlantic, and milder patterns in the North Central Pacific. This SeaWiFS record was tracked with a coupled physical/biogeochemical/radiative model of the global oceans using near-real-time forcing data such as wind stresses, sea surface temperatures, and sea ice. This provided an opportunity to offer physically and biogeochemically meaningful explanations of the variability observed in the SeaWiFS data set, since the causal mechanisms and interrelationships of the model are completely understood. The coupled model was able to represent the seasonal distributions of chlorophyll during the SeaWiFS era, and was capable of differentiating among the widely different processes and dynamics occurring in the global oceans. The model was also reasonably successful in representing the interannual signal, especially when it was large, such as, the El Nino and La Nina events in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. The model provided different phytoplankton group responses for the different events in these regions: diatoms were predominant in the tropical Pacific during the La Nina but other groups were predominant during El Nino. The opposite condition occurred in the tropical Indian Ocean. Both situations were due to the different responses of the basins to El Nino. The interannual variability in the North Atlantic, which was exhibited in SeaWiFS data as a decline in the spring/summer bloom in 1999 relative to 1998, resulted in the model from a more slowly shoaling mixed layer, allowing herbivore populations to keep pace with increasing phytoplankton populations. However, several aspects of the interannual cycle were not well-represented by the model. Explanations ranged from inherent model deficiencies, to monthly averaging of forcing fields, to biases in SeaWiFS atmospheric correction procedures.

Watson, Gregg W.

2000-01-01

135

Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1994-12-31

136

Increasing Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize yield improvement in the 20th century represents one of the great success stories of plant breeding and agronomy. Maize grain yield in the United States has increased on average by 0.122 metric tons per hectare per year since 1945 (Figure 1). This is in sharp contrast to essentially zero gain ...

137

Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups  

PubMed Central

Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

138

Propagation of Significant Figures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

Schwartz, Lowell M.

1985-01-01

139

Microwave-assisted cation exchange toward synthesis of near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots with significantly improved quantum yields through a uniform growth path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we develop a reproducible and controllable microwave-assisted cation exchange approach, for the first time, to quickly synthesize high-quality, near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). These monodisperse QDs, emitting in the range of 1300-1600 nm, show a quantum yield as high as 57% that is ~1.4 times higher than that achieved by the same QDs prepared using conventional heating in an oil bath. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest reproducible value reported to date for PbS-based QDs in this emission range. More importantly, the as-synthesized PbS/CdS QDs can self-assemble nearly perfectly and easily at the micrometer scale as a result of their uniform shape and narrow size distribution.In this study, we develop a reproducible and controllable microwave-assisted cation exchange approach, for the first time, to quickly synthesize high-quality, near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). These monodisperse QDs, emitting in the range of 1300-1600 nm, show a quantum yield as high as 57% that is ~1.4 times higher than that achieved by the same QDs prepared using conventional heating in an oil bath. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest reproducible value reported to date for PbS-based QDs in this emission range. More importantly, the as-synthesized PbS/CdS QDs can self-assemble nearly perfectly and easily at the micrometer scale as a result of their uniform shape and narrow size distribution. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: EDX, XRD, and TEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02181e

Ren, Fuqiang; Zhao, Haiguang; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Ma, Dongling

2013-08-01

140

C-Reactive Protein and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Yield Either a Non-Significant or a Modest Incremental Value to Traditional Risk Factors in Predicting Long-Term Overall Mortality in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background New biomarkers may aid in preventive and end-of-life decisions in older adults if they enhance the prognostic ability of traditional risk factors. We investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) and/or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) improve the ability to predict overall mortality among the elderly of the Bambuí, Brazil Study of Aging when added to traditional risk factors. Methods From 1997 to 2007, 1,470 community-dwelling individuals (?60 years) were followed-up. Death was ascertained by continuous verification of death certificates. We calculated hazard ratios per 1 standard deviation change (HR) of death for traditional risk factors only (old model), and traditional risk factors plus CRP and/or BNP (new models) and assessed calibration of the models. Subsequently, we compared c-statistic of each of the new models to the old one, and calculated integrated discriminative improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Results 544 (37.0%) participants died in a mean follow-up time of 9.0 years. CRP (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17-1.40), BNP (HR 1.31 95% CI 1.19-1.45), and CRP plus BNP (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.15-1.38, and HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.16-1.42, respectively) were independent determinants of mortality. All models were well-calibrated. Discrimination was similar among the old (c-statistic 0.78 [0.78-0.81]) and new models (p=0.43 for CRP; p=0.57 for BNP; and p=0.31 for CRP plus BNP). Compared to the old model, CRP, BNP, and CRP plus BNP models led to an IDI of 0.009 (p<0.001), -0.005 (p<0.001) and -0.003 (p=0.84), and a NRI of 0.04 (p=0.24), 0.07 (p=0.08) and 0.06 (p=0.10), respectively. Conclusions Despite being independent predictors of long-term risk of death, compared to traditional risk factors CRP and/or BNP led to either a modest or non-significant improvement in the ability of predicting all-cause mortality in older adults. PMID:24244755

Beleigoli, Alline M.; Boersma, Eric; Diniz, Maria de Fátima H.; Vidigal, Pedro G.; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Ribeiro, Antonio L.

2013-01-01

141

Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings  

SciTech Connect

Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

1994-05-01

142

Prognostic significance of lymphatic invasion in lymph node-positive breast carcinoma: findings from a large case series with long-term follow-up using immunohistochemical endothelial marker.  

PubMed

The poor prognostic significance of lymphatic invasion (LI) in breast carcinoma (BC) as a whole and in lymph node (LN)-negative patients in particular has been recognized in several studies; however, its prognostic role in LN-positive patients is still questionable. Aim of the current study was to assess prognostic role of LI in LN-positive BC specimens. Sections from non-selected 557 LN-positive BC specimens were stained with antibody to podoplanin/D2-40. LI was identified and correlated with clinicopathological features and patients' outcome. Twenty-year overall survival (OS), disease-free interval (DFI), and development of distant metastasis (DM) or recurrence were known for all patients. LI was detected in 262/557 (47%) of specimens ranging from 1 to 350 lesion per tumor section. Its presence was associated with higher grade tumors (P<0.0001), negative hormonal receptors (P<0.0001), high HER-2 expression (P=0.006), and with increased number of positive LNs (P=0.019). In the whole LN-positive BC, presence of LI was a poor prognostic factor for OS, DFI, and development of DM both in univariate and in multivariate analysis. In further stratification of patients, LI was associated with poorer prognosis in patients with single positive LN and not in patients with >1 positive LN. In T1N1 stage, LI was highly associated with poor OS (P=0.002), DFI (P<0.0001), and DM (P<0.0001). In T2N1 patients, LI was associated only with poorer DFI (P=0.037) but not with death or DM. In the two former patient groups, LI lost significance in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, LI is a poor prognostic factor in LN-positive BC particularly for patients having single positive LN. LI therefore would add further prognostic significance when considered in treatment in those patients. We recommend incorporation of LI in breast carcinoma staging and in prognostic indices. PMID:24762542

Mohammed, Rabab A A; Menon, Sindhu; Martin, Stewart G; Green, Andrew R; Paish, Emma C; Ellis, Ian O

2014-12-01

143

Rock Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

2006-01-01

144

Low and intermediate mass star yields.II: The evolution of nitrogen abundances  

E-print Network

We analyze the impact on the Galactic nitrogen abundances of using a new set of low and intermediate mass star yields. These yields have a significant yield of primary nitrogen from intermediate mass stars. We use these yields as an input to a Galactic Chemical Evolution model and study the nitrogen abundances in the halo and in the disc, and compare them with models obtained using other yield sets and with a large amount of observational data. We find that, using these new yields, our model adequately reproduce the observed trends. In particular, these yields solve the historical problem of the evolution of nitrogen, giving the right level of relative abundance N/O by the production of a primary component in intermediate mass stars. Moreover, using different evolutionary rates in each radial region of the Galaxy, we may explain the observed N dispersion.

Marta Gavilan; Mercedes Molla; James F. Buell

2006-01-16

145

Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

1982-01-01

146

Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: immunohistochemical findings and clinical significance  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of seven patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scan, cystoscopy, and computed tomography (CT) scan. The level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) before and after surgery was assessed. Different prostate cancer markers were used for immunohistochemical staining. Results The mean age of the seven patients diagnosed with prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma in this study was 76.2 years (range 57–88). Five patients presented with intermittent and painless gross hematuria, one patient with progressive dysuria, and one patient with elevated serum PSA on routine health examination. The level of PSA before surgery ranged from 1.3 to 45.0 ng/mL. Immunohistochemical staining results of the prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma confirmed positivity for PSA, prostatic acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, and alpha-methyacyl co-enzyme A (CoA)-reductase markers. Two of the patients underwent bilateral orchiectomy combined with anti-androgen therapy, three underwent transurethral resection of prostate, one received radical prostatectomy, and one received medical castration therapy. The clinical outcomes of all patients were satisfactory, based on follow-up data. The symptoms of hematuria and dysuria were ameliorated well, and the postoperative PSA level decreased below 4.0 ng/mL. Recurrence or metastasis of disease was not detected on MRI and bone scan. Conclusion Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare subtype of prostate carcinoma, the diagnosis of which could be based on pathological and immunohistochemical examination. Earlier management promises better prognosis. PMID:24187500

Sha, Jianjun; Bo, Juanjie; Pan, Jiahua; Zhang, Lianhua; Xuan, Hanqing; Chen, Wei; Li, Dong; Wang, Zhaoliang; Liu, Dongming; Huang, Yiran

2013-01-01

147

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...much time will be allowed for public review. In all cases, other than classified actions, a public review period should be the norm unless clearly unnecessary due to the lack of potential controversy. (2) In the following circumstances, the EA and...

2010-07-01

148

76 FR 68260 - Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...United States Merchant Marine Academy Mallory Pier Replacement project. An environmental assessment...600 foot section of timber pile supported pier with concrete pile supports and decking. The timber pile pier section to be replaced comprises a...

2011-11-03

149

Finding Perimeter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore a real world problem based on the Marilyn Burns book Spaghetti and Meatballs for All!. The problem and further practice finding the distance around rectangles will lead them to discover efficient strategies and formulas for solving perimeter.

Strickland, Susanna

2012-07-27

150

Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.  

PubMed

Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions. PMID:25621333

Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

2015-01-22

151

Factor Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

Piecora, Jamie

2000-01-01

152

Main Findings  

Cancer.gov

This study looked at the ALTS patients with ASCUS who were found to have a precancerous lesion when they underwent colposcopy and biopsy. Its purpose was to find out how sensitive HPV testing was at identifying these women compared to repeat Pap testing. The study found that HPV testing was 96-percent sensitive - that is, identified 96% of the women with ASCUS who had a precancerous lesion. The authors concluded that HPV testing is a viable option for the management of ASCUS.

153

Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

Blamey, F.P.C.

1983-01-01

154

Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar’s potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset—biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis—were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world’s important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar.

Crane-Droesch, Andrew; Abiven, Samuel; Jeffery, Simon; Torn, Margaret S.

2013-12-01

155

Finding Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy activity serves as a kid-friendly how-to manual about searching for fossils. In Not Just Any Rock Will Do, kids learn that fossils "hide out" in sedimentary rock and see examples of shale and sandstone. Do's and Don'ts for Fossil Hunters gives kids practical tips and a list of fossil-hunting supplies. In Fossils You May Find, there are photos of common invertebrate, vertebrate, and plant fossils to guide kids. Paleontology Clubs and Web Sites lists resources to help kids determine where to hunt for fossils. In Keeping a Field Journal, kids are shown a sample journal entry that points out the types of information they should record.

156

Prediction of water yield reductions following a bushfire in ash-mixed species eucalypt forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work on long-term yield trends following the 1939 bushfire in mountain ash eucalypt catchments near Melbourne concluded that a relationship exists between the age of the ash forest and average annual streamflow yield. In the light of additional hydrologic and forest data, this study reassesses and extends the earlier work. A two-parameter model of the long-term yield trend following a bushfire is proposed. It is shown to satisfactorily fit rainfall-runoff data for eight catchments affected by the 1939 fires. In addition, the fits confirm earlier findings of significant yield reductions and, moreover, suggest possible recovery in yields. Despite insufficient hydrologic data to confirm these recovery trends, forest age and composition data indicate that recovery in yield should be practically complete by the time the ash forest reaches maturity (about 100-150 yr after regeneration). The yield trend model is consistent with this information. Using a generalized least squares approach, regional models for the long-term yield trend parameters Lmax (the maximum yield reduction) and log K (the response time) are developed. Unlike an earlier regional model only one forest parameter, namely the percentage of 1939 regrowth ash, was found to be significant in the prediction of Lmax. A simple simulation model based on the regional models is then developed enabling evaluation of the effect of future bushfire (and logging) on catchment yield. This was used to resolve contradictory conclusions about the significance of yield trends in the O'Shannassy catchment where the effect of fires prior to 1939 was shown to obscure the yield trends due to the 1939 fire. In addition, the simulation model was used to illustrate the potential vulnerability of Melbourne's water supply to a major bushfire.

Kuczera, George

1987-10-01

157

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

Haun, J. R.

1975-01-01

158

Calibration of neutron-yield diagnostics in attenuating and scattering environments  

SciTech Connect

We have performed absolute calibrations of a fusion-neutron-yield copper-activation diagnostic in environments that significantly attenuate and scatter neutrons. We have measured attenuation and scattering effects and have compared the measurements to Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code. We find that measurements and simulations are consistent within 10%.

Hahn, K. D.; Ruiz, C. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; McWatters, B. R.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Diagnostics and Target Physics, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87111 (United States); Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J. [University of New Mexico, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

2012-10-15

159

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

160

Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico-US cross-border migration.  

PubMed

Climate change is expected to cause mass human migration, including immigration across international borders. This study quantitatively examines the linkages among variations in climate, agricultural yields, and people's migration responses by using an instrumental variables approach. Our method allows us to identify the relationship between crop yields and migration without explicitly controlling for all other confounding factors. Using state-level data from Mexico, we find a significant effect of climate-driven changes in crop yields on the rate of emigration to the United States. The estimated semielasticity of emigration with respect to crop yields is approximately -0.2, i.e., a 10% reduction in crop yields would lead an additional 2% of the population to emigrate. We then use the estimated semielasticity to explore the potential magnitude of future emigration. Depending on the warming scenarios used and adaptation levels assumed, with other factors held constant, by approximately the year 2080, climate change is estimated to induce 1.4 to 6.7 million adult Mexicans (or 2% to 10% of the current population aged 15-65 y) to emigrate as a result of declines in agricultural productivity alone. Although the results cannot be mechanically extrapolated to other areas and time periods, our findings are significant from a global perspective given that many regions, especially developing countries, are expected to experience significant declines in agricultural yields as a result of projected warming. PMID:20660749

Feng, Shuaizhang; Krueger, Alan B; Oppenheimer, Michael

2010-08-10

161

Controlled reforestation can raise yield  

SciTech Connect

Reforestation in tropical countries by means of controlled man-made plantations of exotic species could increase the yield of fiber by something in the order of 20 to 30 cubic metres per hectare per annum. With the move away from wood in the solid to reconstituted wood products, this enormous annual increment could have significant effects on supply prospects and reduce the need for tropical forest destruction.

Gammie, J.I.

1981-04-25

162

Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

163

Weed competition and dry bean yield components  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

164

Ontogenesis, gender, and molting influence the venom yield in the spider Coremiocnemis tropix (Araneae, Theraphosidae)  

PubMed Central

The demand for spider venom increases along with the growing popularity of venoms-based research. A deeper understanding of factors that influence the venom yield in spiders would therefore be of interest to both commercial venom suppliers and research facilities. The present study addresses the influence of several factors on the venom yield by systematically analyzing the data obtained from 1773 electrical milkings of the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix. Gender and ontogenesis were found to cause a major effect on the venom yield, as adult female C. tropix yielded significantly more venom than adult males. During ontogenesis, the venom yield increased with increasing size of the spiders. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the venom yield during the 50-day time interval preceding a molt was found. On the other hand, extended milking intervals (up to 449 days) and different states of nutrition (as an indication of how well the spider was fed) did not significantly affect the venom yield. Overall, the present findings suggest that venom production in spiders is carefully balanced between the demand for venom and the energy costs associated with its production. It can therefore be concluded that, in line with the venom optimization hypothesis, venom is a precious resource for spiders, which have implemented control mechanisms to ensure economical venom production and usage. PMID:21544186

Herzig, Volker

2010-01-01

165

Yields of hawthorn Crataegus monogyna berries under different hedgerow management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yields of hawthorn berries under different hedgerow management treatments were examined in experimental hedgerows at Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire, UK. Statistically significant differences existed between the management treatments with yields per unit area of hedgerows unmanaged for more than a decade out-yielding managed hedgerows by an order of magnitude. These differences were further inflated if yields were considered per unit length

T. H Sparks; T Martin

1999-01-01

166

Genetic mechanisms underlying yield potential in the rice high-yielding cultivar Takanari, based on reciprocal chromosome segment substitution lines.  

PubMed

BackgroundIncreasing rice yield potential is a major objective in rice breeding programs, given the need for meeting the demands of population growth, especially in Asia. Genetic analysis using genomic information and high-yielding cultivars can facilitate understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying rice yield potential. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are a powerful tool for the detection and precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that have both large and small effects. In addition, reciprocal CSSLs developed in both parental cultivar backgrounds may be appropriate for evaluating gene activity, as a single factor or in epistatic interactions.ResultsWe developed reciprocal CSSLs derived from a cross between Takanari (one of the most productive indica cultivars) and a leading japonica cultivar, Koshihikari; both the cultivars were developed in Japan. Forty-one CSSLs covered most of the Takanari genome in the Koshihikari background and 39 CSSLs covered the Koshihikari genome in the Takanari background. Using the reciprocal CSSLs, we conducted yield trials under canopy conditions in paddy fields. While no CSSLs significantly exceeded the recurrent parent cultivar in yield, genetic analysis detected 48 and 47 QTLs for yield and its components in the Koshihikari and Takanari backgrounds, respectively. A number of QTLs showed a trade-off, in which the allele with increased sink-size traits (spikelet number per panicle or per square meter) was associated with decreased ripening percentage or 1000-grain weight. These results indicate that increased sink size is not sufficient to increase rice yield in both backgrounds. In addition, most QTLs were detected in either one of the two genetic backgrounds, suggesting that these loci may be under epistatic control with other gene(s).ConclusionsWe demonstrated that the reciprocal CSSLs are a useful tool for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying yield potential in the high-yielding rice cultivar Takanari. Our results suggest that sink-size QTLs in combination with QTLs for source strength or translocation capacity, as well as careful attention to epistatic interactions, are necessary for increasing rice yield. Thus, our findings provide a foundation for developing rice cultivars with higher yield potential in future breeding programs. PMID:25404368

Takai, Toshiyuki; Ikka, Takashi; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Nonoue, Yasunori; Ono, Nozomi; Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

2014-11-18

167

Argentina corn yield model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

1984-01-01

168

Minimizing Significant Figure Fuzziness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the principles and problems associated with the use of significant figures. Explains uncertainty, the meaning of significant figures, the Simple Rule, the Three Rule, and the 1-5 Rule. Also provides examples of the Rules. (ML)

Fields, Lawrence D.; Hawkes, Stephen J.

1986-01-01

169

Ecologically Significant Wetlands  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys FINAL REPORT Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork of the Flathead River Valley Appendix 29b #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys JUNE 1, 1999 DEQ

170

Biotechnology of Forest Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural and genetic manipulation of Douglas fir and loblolly pine plantations have increased their productivity 70 and 300 percent, respectively, over natural forests on the same sites. Yet these intensively managed plantations are achieving less than 50 percent of their potential productivity. Future increases in yield will result from optimization of nutritional treatments, control of noncrop vegetation, and advances in

Peter Farnum; Roger Timmis; J. Laurence Kulp

1983-01-01

171

Response of Grain Yield, Yield Components and Allergic Protein Content of Buckwheat to Drought Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buckwheat is usually categorized with the cereals due to its way of cultivation and utilization. The deficiency of water occurring between the whole vegetation period and from flowering do harvest has no influence on yield level and no influence on the level of yield components in buckwheat cv. Kora. The amount of albumins and globulins was not significantly affected by

Grazyna Podolska; Iwona Konopka; Jerzy Dziuba

172

Teaching Significant Figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that students would not be so careless about significant figures if they could actually see a demonstration of figures which are not significant. Such a demonstration is described, as is a simple teaching machine designed to give students facility in identifying insignificant figures in their calculations.

Tracy H. Logan

1964-01-01

173

ELECTROMIGRATION-DEPENDENT PARAMETRIC YIELD ESTIMATION Roman Barsky  

E-print Network

ELECTROMIGRATION-DEPENDENT PARAMETRIC YIELD ESTIMATION Roman Barsky Computer Science Department, electromigration-dependent parametric faults can make a significant contribution to the total yield estimation. 1 used to predict the yield of a VLSI chip. The critical area is traditionally defined as the area

Markovitch, Shaul

174

Feasibility and yield of screening in relatives from familial pancreatic cancer families  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a lethal disease. Over 80% of patients are found to have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Strategies to improve disease-specific outcome include identification and early detection of precursor lesions or early cancers in high risk groups. In this study we investigate whether screening at-risk relatives of familial pancreatic cancer patients is safe and has significant yield. METHODS We enrolled 309 asymptomatic at-risk relatives into our Familial Pancreatic Tumor Registry (FPTR) and offered them screening with MRCP followed by endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration if indicated. Relatives with findings were referred for surgical evaluation. RESULTS As of August 1, 2009, 109 relatives had completed at least one cycle of screening. Abnormal radiographic findings were present on initial screening in 18/109 patients (16.5%), 15 of whom underwent EUS. A significant abnormality was confirmed in 9 of 15 patients, 6 of whom ultimately had surgery for an overall diagnostic yield of 8.3% (9/109). Yield was greatest in relatives >65 years old (35% (6/17) when compared with relatives 55–65 (3% (1/31) and relatives<55 (3% (2/61). CONCLUSIONS Screening at-risk relatives from familial pancreatic cancer families has a significant diagnostic yield, particularly in relatives >65 years of age, confirming prior studies. MRCP as initial screening modality is safe and effective. PMID:21468009

Ludwig, Emmy; Olson, Sara H; Bayuga, Sharon; Simon, Jennifer; Schattner, Mark A; Gerdes, Hans; Allen, Peter J; Jarnagin, William R; Kurtz, Robert C

2013-01-01

175

Significant lexical relationships  

SciTech Connect

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

176

Yield stress and elastic modulus of suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids  

E-print Network

We study experimentally the behavior of isotropic suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids. This problem has been poorly studied in the literature, and only on specific materials. In this paper, we manage to develop procedures and materials that allow us to focus on the purely mechanical contribution of the particles to the yield stress fluid behavior, independently of the physicochemical properties of the materials. This allows us to relate the macroscopic properties of these suspensions to the mechanical properties of the yield stress fluid and the particle volume fraction, and to provide results applicable to any noncolloidal particle in any yield stress fluid. We find that the elastic modulus-concentration relationship follows a Krieger-Dougherty law, and we show that the yield stress-concentration relationship is related to the elastic modulus-concentration relationship through a very simple law, in agreement with results from a micromechanical analysis.

Fabien Mahaut; Xavier Chateau; Philippe Coussot; Guillaume Ovarlez

2008-10-20

177

Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

2013-12-01

178

Finding Canadian Government Pubs.  

E-print Network

Finding Canadian Government Pubs. Econ 773 Peggy Findlay Reference Librarian Mills Research Help 2 Objectives Finding print Canadian government publications Electronic Canadian government publications Census Information/ Survey Data #12;Finding Canadian Documents ­ Econ 773 Finding Print Canadian Government

Haykin, Simon

179

Where boosted significances come from  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

2014-03-01

180

Ideotype Population Exploration: Growth, Photosynthesis, and Yield Components at Different Planting Densities in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)  

PubMed Central

Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×104, 37.5×104, 48.0×104, 58.5×104, 69.0×104 plants ha–1) during 2010–2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011–2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×104 plants ha–1 in ZS11 and 48.0×104 plants ha–1 in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×104 plants ha–1for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×104 (n m–2) and ?1×104 (n m-2), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m–2) and ?300 (n m–2), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

2014-01-01

181

Sustainable Management in Crop Monocultures: The Impact of Retaining Forest on Oil Palm Yield  

PubMed Central

Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ?23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

Edwards, Felicity A.; Edwards, David P.; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C.

2014-01-01

182

Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.  

PubMed

Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ?23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

2014-01-01

183

A field study to unravel factors that are significantly associated with the secretory activity of the corpus luteum during the first three postpartum cycles in high yielding dairy cows, based on the amount of steroidogenic and endothelial cells present in the luteal tissue.  

PubMed

Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3?-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations. PMID:25147002

Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

2014-12-01

184

Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures.  

E-print Network

Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures. Thanks to improvements in treatment and early detection, more and more women are surviving breast cancer. In fact, the five-year survival rate for women with breast cancer today is 90%, up from only 63% in the 1960s. While progress has clearly been

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

185

Find a Gastroenterologist  

MedlinePLUS

... ACG Site ACG Patients Home / Find a Gastroenterologist Find a Gastroenterologist All ACG Members, Fellows (FACG) and ... Colorectal Cancer Screening See All Procedures (A-Z) Find a Gastroenterologist Locate an ACG member gastroenterologist in ...

186

Find a Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Code Enter Valid ZIP Code Plans Clear Profile Find a Doctor Your health plan option determines the ... military treatment facilities" or direct care. >>Learn More Find a Military Hospital or Clinic Find a Multi- ...

187

Rapid Yield and Depth Estimation from Global Calibrated Paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive test ban monitoring in terms of location has progressed significantly in recent years. However, the estimation of low yields remains a particular challenge because only limited number of teleseismic and local stations record the events. As the North Korean (NK) Explosion demonstrated, we can probably expect to have a small set of teleseismic data, some set of in-country (closed and open) regional data to estimate yield. The mb estimate from only a few station typically has large errors if calibration of mantle attenuation (t*) is not taken into account. Since stacking helps bring signals out of the noise, it becomes useful to conduct comparable analyses on neighboring events. If these auxiliary events have accurate moments, we have a means of directly estimating yields for an unknown test. The method starts with a detailed waveform inversion of natural earthquakes (M4-5) near the test site recorded by local or regional broadband stations with the Cut and Paste method which leads to accurate estimates of moment and focal mechanism. With the source parameters well known, we obtain amplitude path corrections by matching observed and synthetic teleseismic waveforms. Or alternatively, we can choose station specific t* to make the synthetic amplitude agree with the observations. We modeled three events with magnitude between M4-M5 in Korea Peninsular, and find t* of ~0.5s works for most stations for events in Korea Peninsular. We use this method of path calibration to estimate the 2006 NK Explosion at 1-2 kt using the Amchitka scaling laws and the yield estimate of the 2009 NK explosion will also be reported.

Ni, S.; Chu, R.; Helmberger, D. V.

2009-12-01

188

Clinical significance of translocation.  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications. PMID:8125386

Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

1994-01-01

189

Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

2012-01-01

190

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

191

Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type IA supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

1994-05-01

192

Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

1994-01-01

193

PINK1 heterozygous rare variants: prevalence, significance and phenotypic spectrum.  

PubMed

Heterozygous rare variants in the PINK1 gene, as well as in other genes causing autosomal recessive parkinsonism, have been reported both in patients and healthy controls. Their pathogenic significance is uncertain, but they have been suggested to represent risk factors to develop Parkinson disease (PD). The few large studies that assessed the frequency of PINK1 heterozygotes in cases and controls yielded controversial results, and the phenotypic spectrum is largely unknown. We retrospectively analyzed the occurrence of PINK1 heterozygous rare variants in over 1100 sporadic and familial patients of all onset ages and in 400 controls. Twenty patients and 6 controls were heterozygous, with frequencies (1.8% vs. 1.5%) not significantly different in the two groups. Clinical features of heterozygotes were indistinguishable to those of wild-type patients, with mean disease onset 10 years later than in carriers of two mutations but worse disease progression. A meta-analysis indicated that, in PINK1 heterozygotes, the PD risk is only slightly increased with a non significant odds ratio of 1.62. These findings suggest that PINK1 heterozygous rare variants play only a minor susceptibility role in the context of a multifactorial model of PD. Hence, their significance should be kept distinct from that of homozygous/compound heterozygous mutations, that cause parkinsonism inherited in a mendelian fashion. PMID:18330912

Marongiu, Roberta; Ferraris, Alessandro; Ialongo, Tàmara; Michiorri, Silvia; Soleti, Francesco; Ferrari, Francesca; Elia, Antonio E; Ghezzi, Daniele; Albanese, Alberto; Altavista, Maria Concetta; Antonini, Angelo; Barone, Paolo; Brusa, Livia; Cortelli, Pietro; Martinelli, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Pezzoli, Gianni; Scaglione, Cesa; Stanzione, Paolo; Tinazzi, Michele; Zecchinelli, Anna; Zeviani, Massimo; Cassetta, Emanuele; Garavaglia, Barbara; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Valente, Enza Maria

2008-04-01

194

Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

Carter, Ashley R.

2013-01-01

195

Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield  

SciTech Connect

We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources - the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

Ave, M.; Daumiller, K.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Salamida, F.; Smida, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohacova, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Ridky, J.; Schovanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Di Carlo, P.; Iarlori, M.; Petrera, S.; Rizi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita de l'Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Di Giulio, C.; Verzi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and Sezione INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); San Luis, P. Facal; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2011-09-22

196

Find a Cancer Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Find a Cancer Doctor The Find an Oncologist Database is made available by ASCO as an informational resource for patients and caregivers. The database includes the names of physicians and other health ...

197

Find a Plastic Surgeon  

MedlinePLUS

... Shop ASPS Corporate Opportunities The PSF About Us Find a Plastic Surgeon Please provide search terms. ZIP ... by Procedure Filter by Procedure Do Your Homework Find a board-certified plastic surgeon you can trust ...

198

Find an Orthopaedist  

MedlinePLUS

Find an Orthopaedist Orthopaedic Surgeons: Who Are They and What Do They Do? Choose a search method: ... provided their office address will not appear in Find an Orthopaedist. CME Learning Portfolio Course Calendar Online ...

199

Improved methods for yield-optimization of digital logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield optimization remains the primary device-level design task in digital superconductor electronics. We discuss yield-optimization in the context of our particular software implementation, Malt2, which interfaces to the circuit simulator Spice. This version contains significant improvements both to the numerical algorithms and in ease of use. Two special algorithms of yield-optimization are extant, both of which map out the multidimensional

Quentin P. Herr; Mark W. Johnson

2001-01-01

200

Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield

G. M. May; M. P. Pritts

1993-01-01

201

Acid rain and seed yields reductions in corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yields were significantly reduced on corn (Zea mays L.) plants where the silks had been exposed to an episode of simulated acid rain at pH 3.6 as compared with yields on plants with silks exposed to simulated rain of pH 5.6. The reduction in yield appeared related to a decrease in pollen germination and tube elongation associated with acidic

L. E. Craker; P. F. Waldron

2009-01-01

202

Effect of agricultural drought on wheat yields in two selected districts located in the Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Except for some areas located in Southern Moravia, the Czech Republic is not usually considered as an agricultural drought vulnerable area. This contribution presents an analysis of drought spells influence on wheat yields in two districts (located in the inner part of Bohemia) where a significant relation between yields and drought was found. Due to high spatial variability of drought, relatively small scale of district was selected. For the influence of drought on yields assessment, the following five indexes were tested: 1) Palmer Z-index, 2) precipitation-temperature ratio (P-T index), 3) precipitation-evapotranspiration ratio (P-E index), 4) soil storage calculated using hydrological balance model BILAN, and 5) available soil water for plants calculated using another simple balance model. For analysis of drought spells and yield relationship, different aggregation periods of input parameters were used for calculations of these indexes. According to observed data analysis, yields of wheat and the tested drought indexes are significantly correlated (p ? 0.05) in districts Louny and Rakovník. The highest correlations were found for monthly sums of P-T and P-E indexes in May in periods 1970-1980 and 1996 -2006. For these indexes, two-week step data aggregation led to lower correlation than monthly aggregation step. Two-week aggregations show also high values of correlation. Simply P-E and P-T indexes exhibit higher correlations with yields than other tested indexes. More complicated Palmer Z-index, soil storage or available soil water for plant need more input parameters for calculations and these indexes contain higher uncertainty in calculations. Despite the above findings, all tested indexes (usually calculated for May aggregations) showed high correlations with wheat yields. The P-E and P-T indexes in monthly step seem to be appropriate for the prediction of the potentially reduced wheat yields in tested districts. Maximum year-on-year decrease in wheat yield (probably caused primarily by drought in May) was approx. 1000 kg.ha-1 (decrease of 26 %) in Rakovník district (year 1976); and approx. 1300 kg.ha-1(decrease of 36 %), resp. 1550 kg.ha-1(39 %) in Louny district in 1976, resp. 1998. The research is supported by the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, project No. VG20102014038. Keywords: Available soil water, Central part of Bohemia, different drought indexes, decrease in crop yields, risk analysis

Ja?ka, Lukáš; Pavlásek, Jirka; Bašta, Petr

2014-05-01

203

Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

2013-12-01

204

Effect of Damping and Yielding on the Seismic Response of 3D Steel Buildings with PMRF  

PubMed Central

The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases. The results show the limitations of the commonly used static equivalent lateral force procedure where local and global response parameters are reduced in the same proportion. It is concluded that estimating the effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of steel buildings by using simplified models may be a very crude approximation. Moreover, the effect of yielding should be explicitly calculated by using complex 3D MDOF models instead of estimating it in terms of equivalent viscous damping. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions. PMID:25097892

Haldar, Achintya; Rodelo-López, Ramon Eduardo; Bojórquez, Eden

2014-01-01

205

Find a Partner  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Add the math of measurement to the tasks of lining up or finding a partner for an activity. Find a partner with the same length index finger as yours. Or, find a partner with the same arm span as yours. Everyone pairs up. Then, talk about how you found your partner: How did you line up your feet to see if they were the same size? Show everyone how you measured. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.

2010-01-01

206

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

207

Finding bugs is easy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many techniques have been developed over the years to automatically find bugs in software. Often, these techniques rely on formal methods and sophisticated program analysis. While these techniques are valuable, they can be difficult to apply, and they aren't always effective in finding real bugs. Bug patterns are code idioms that are often errors. We have implemented automatic detectors for

David Hovemeyer; William Pugh

2004-01-01

208

Finding bugs is easy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many techniques have been developed over the years to automatically find bugs in software. Often, these techniques rely on formal methods and sophisticated program analysis. While these techniques are valuable, they can be difficult to apply, and they aren't always effective in finding real bugs.Bug patterns are code idioms that are often errors. We have implemented automatic detectors for a

David Hovemeyer; William Pugh

2004-01-01

209

Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability.

Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

2015-01-01

210

Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability.  

PubMed

Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32-39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

Ray, Deepak K; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C

2015-01-01

211

Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.  

PubMed

Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

2014-04-01

212

High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

2011-01-01

213

Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high-yield plantations could be further analyzed by considering whether they help depress global prices, reducing incentives to expand elsewhere (Angelsen and Kaimowitz 2001). The significance of the study goes well beyond the bounds of Ucayli, and highlights risks to Amazonian forests from oil palm expansion (Butler and Laurance 2010). Oil palm is an astoundingly profitable and productive crop, with typical oil yields more than ten times that of soy. Some have even argued that oil palm is innately land sparing because it would take substantially more land for all other oil-bearing crops to provide the same output. However, most production gains from oil palm have occurred through increased area rather than increased yield, and in many cases expansion has been through forest clearing (Koh and Wilcove 2008, Gibbs et al 2010). The findings of Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) are particularly significant considering that the booming palm oil sectors in Indonesia and Malaysia, which currently produce over 80% of the world's product, are facing a host of pressures that constrain future area expansion. Malaysia has little remaining land suited for plantations and Indonesia faces intensifying international scrutiny over the future of their forestlands. Consequently, the Amazon basin is widely considered the new frontier, with more than half of its forest area suitable for palm oil cultivation (Butler and Laurance 2010) and growing incentives from Brazil's Program for the Sustainable Production of Oil Palm, which aims to utilize degraded lands and spur reforestation efforts. Their results also illuminate another key issue, namely the constraints faced by large-scale producers when they seek to expand plantation area. Emerging demand-side conservation efforts, such as the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), assume that already cleared and non-forested lands are freely available. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) hint at the obstacles to using such cleared lands, which is that they are inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these c

Gibbs, Holly

2012-03-01

214

Scintillation efficiency and ionization yield of liquid xenon for mono-energetic nuclear recoils down to 4 keV  

E-print Network

Liquid Xenon (LXe) is an excellent material for experiments designed to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). A low energy detection threshold is essential for a sensitive WIMP search. The understanding of the relative scintillation efficiency (Leff) and ionization yield of low energy nuclear recoils in LXe is limited for energies below 10 keV. In this paper, we present new measurements that extend the energy down to 4 keV, finding that Leff decreases with decreasing energy. We also measure the quenching of scintillation efficiency due to the electric field in LXe, finding no significant field dependence.

A. Manzur; A. Curioni; L. Kastens; D. N. McKinsey; K. Ni; T. Wongjirad

2009-09-05

215

Scintillation efficiency and ionization yield of liquid xenon for monoenergetic nuclear recoils down to 4 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid xenon (LXe) is an excellent material for experiments designed to detect dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). A low energy detection threshold is essential for a sensitive WIMP search. The understanding of the relative scintillation efficiency (Leff) and ionization yield of low energy nuclear recoils in LXe is limited for energies below 10 keV. In this article, we present new measurements that extend the energy down to 4 keV, finding that Leff decreases with decreasing energy. We also measure the quenching of scintillation efficiency caused by the electric field in LXe, finding no significant field dependence.

Manzur, A.; Curioni, A.; Kastens, L.; McKinsey, D. N.; Ni, K.; Wongjirad, T.

2010-02-01

216

Scintillation efficiency and ionization yield of liquid xenon for mono-energetic nuclear recoils down to 4 keV  

E-print Network

Liquid Xenon (LXe) is an excellent material for experiments designed to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). A low energy detection threshold is essential for a sensitive WIMP search. The understanding of the relative scintillation efficiency (Leff) and ionization yield of low energy nuclear recoils in LXe is limited for energies below 10 keV. In this paper, we present new measurements that extend the energy down to 4 keV, finding that Leff decreases with decreasing energy. We also measure the quenching of scintillation efficiency due to the electric field in LXe, finding no significant field dependence.

Manzur, A; Kastens, L; McKinsey, D N; Ni, K; Wongjirad, T

2009-01-01

217

Scintillation efficiency and ionization yield of liquid xenon for monoenergetic nuclear recoils down to 4 keV  

SciTech Connect

Liquid xenon (LXe) is an excellent material for experiments designed to detect dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). A low energy detection threshold is essential for a sensitive WIMP search. The understanding of the relative scintillation efficiency (L{sub eff}) and ionization yield of low energy nuclear recoils in LXe is limited for energies below 10 keV. In this article, we present new measurements that extend the energy down to 4 keV, finding that L{sub eff} decreases with decreasing energy. We also measure the quenching of scintillation efficiency caused by the electric field in LXe, finding no significant field dependence.

Manzur, A.; Curioni, A.; Kastens, L.; McKinsey, D. N.; Ni, K.; Wongjirad, T. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2010-02-15

218

Finding a PTSD Therapist  

MedlinePLUS

... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training Find a Job with VA Health Care Jobs (VA Careers) Travel Nurses Get Job ...

219

Find a Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Find the locations of NCI-designated cancer centers by area, region, state, or name that includes contact information to help health care providers and cancer patients with referrals to clinical trials.

220

Find a Free Clinic  

MedlinePLUS

... Membership Benefits Members Only Area Login Find a Free or Charitable Clinic Search for clinics near ... Within ... 7 8 9 … next › last » National Association of Free & Charitable Clinics Address 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 600 ...

221

Find a Physical Therapist  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice) e.g., Hunt, Doug or Old Town Physical Therapy 2 Refine Your Search by Practice Area (Optional) ... database of physical therapist members of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) for the exclusive purpose of finding ...

222

Agricultural management practices to sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities.  

PubMed

In the past several decades, agricultural management practices consisting of intensive tillage and high rate of fertilization to improve crop yields have resulted in the degradation of soil and environmental qualities by increasing erosion and nutrient leaching in the groundwater and releasing greenhouses gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), that cause global warming in the atmosphere by oxidation of soil organic matter. Consequently, management practices that sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities are needed. This paper reviews the findings of the effects of tillage practices, cover crops, and nitrogen (N) fertilization rates on crop yields, soil organic carbon (C) and N concentrations, and nitrate (NO3)-N leaching from the soil. Studies indicate that conservation tillage, such as no-till or reduced till, can increase soil organic C and N concentrations at 0- to 20-cm depth by as much as 7-17% in 8 years compared with conventional tillage without significantly altering crop yields. Similarly, cover cropping and 80-180 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) fertilization can increase soil organic C and N concentrations by as much as 4-12% compared with no cover cropping or N fertilization by increasing plant biomass and amount of C and N inputs to the soil. Reduced till, cover cropping, and decreased rate of N fertilization can reduce soil N leaching compared with conventional till, no cover cropping, and full rate of N fertilization. Management practices consisting of combinations of conservation tillage, mixture of legume and nonlegume cover crops, and reduced rate of N fertilization have the potentials for sustaining crop yields, increasing soil C and N storage, and reducing soil N leaching, thereby helping to improve soil and water qualities. Economical and social analyses of such practices are needed to find whether they are cost effective and acceptable to the farmers. PMID:12941975

Sainju, Upendra M; Whitehead, Wayne F; Singh, Bharat P

2003-08-20

223

Lasers, Let's Find 'Em!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research particular types of lasers and find examples of how they are used in technology today. Teams present their findings by means of PowerPoint presentations, videos or brochures. The class takes notes on the presentations using a provided handout. This activity prepares students for the "go public" phase of the legacy cycle in which they solve the grand challenge by designing and producing a laser-based security system.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

224

Multiple exciton generation in nano-crystals revisited: Consistent calculation of the yield based on pump-probe spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Multiple exciton generation (MEG) is a process in which more than one exciton is generated upon the absorption of a high energy photon, typically higher than two times the band gap, in semiconductor nanocrystals. It can be observed experimentally using time resolved spectroscopy such as the transient absorption measurements. Quantification of the MEG yield is usually done by assuming that the bi-exciton signal is twice the signal from a single exciton. Herein we show that this assumption is not always justified and may lead to significant errors in the estimated MEG yields. We develop a methodology to determine proper scaling factors to the signals from the transient absorption experiments. Using the methodology we find modest MEG yields in lead chalcogenide nanocrystals including the nanorods. PMID:23887181

Karki, Khadga J.; Ma, Fei; Zheng, Kaibo; Zidek, Karel; Mousa, Abdelrazek; Abdellah, Mohamed A.; Messing, Maria E.; Wallenberg, L. Reine; Yartsev, Arkadi; Pullerits, Tõnu

2013-01-01

225

The diagnostic yield of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the investigation of anaemia.  

PubMed

Computer records of patients endoscoped over a 34-month period were studied to assess the diagnostic yield of gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients with anaemia. Patients with obvious gastrointestinal bleeding and known gastrointestinal pathology were excluded. On hundred and thirty-six patients were endoscoped for anaemia. Eighty-three of them (61%) had iron deficiency anaemia and 53 (39%) had other types of anaemia. The ages of the patients with iron deficiency anaemia (mean 56 years) were significantly lower than those of other anaemias (means 65 years), (p less than 0.003). Patient characteristics were otherwise comparable. There were significant endoscopic findings (ulcers, carcinoma and haemorrhagic or erosive gastritis) in 26 of 83 patients (31%) with iron deficiency anaemia, in 11 of 53 patients with other anaemias (21%) and 37 of 136 patients (27%) combined. Significant endoscopic findings were found in 506 of 2224 patients (23%) endoscoped during this period who were not anaemic, did not have obvious gastrointestinal haemorrhage and were not known to have gastrointestinal diseases. The diagnostic yield for iron deficiency anaemia was significantly higher than for the non anaemic group (p less than 0.05). There was no difference between the diagnostic yields of iron deficiency and other anaemias, other anaemias and the non anaemic group, or total anaemias and the non anaemic group. Gastrointestinal symptoms and history of analgesic or steroid usage did not appear to increase the incidence of gastrointestinal lesions in either iron deficiency anaemia or other anaemias. Twenty-three of 41 patients (56%) who had no cause for anaemia found at the end of all investigations were colonscoped.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1876887

Tan, C C; Guan, R; Tay, H H; Yap, I; Math, M V

1991-06-01

226

ChemTeacher: Significant Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Significant Figures page includes resources for teaching students about understanding and using significant figures in calculations.

2012-07-19

227

Estimating R-Process Yields from Abundances of the Metal-Poor Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars provide important clues to explore stellar formation history and set significant constraints on models of the r-process. In this work, we find that the abundance patterns of the light and iron group elements of the main r-process stars are very close to those of the weak r-process stars. Based on a detailed abundance comparison, we find that the weak r-process occurs in supernovae with a progenitor mass range of ˜11-26 M?. Using the SN yields given by Heger & Woosley and the abundances of the weak r-process stars, the weak r-process yields are derived. The SNe with a progenitor mass range of 15 M? < M < 26 M? are the main sites of the weak r-process, and their contributions are larger than 80%. Using the abundance ratios of the weak r-process and the main r-process in the solar system, the average yields of the main r-process are estimated. The observed correlations of [neutron-capture/Eu] versus [Eu/Fe] can be explained by mixing of the two r-process abundances in various fractions.

Li, Hongjie; Ma, Wenjuan; Cui, Wenyuan; Zhang, Bo

2014-06-01

228

Small Bowel Endoscopy Diagnostic Yield and Reasons of Obscure GI Bleeding in Chinese Patients  

PubMed Central

Aim. To investigate the diagnostic yield and etiologies of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) using capsule endoscopy (CE) or double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Method. We studied the data of 532 consecutive patients with OGIB that were referred to Xinqiao Hospital in Chongqing from December 2005 to January 2012. A lesion that was believed to be the source of the bleeding (ulceration, mass lesion, vascular lesion, visible blood, inflammation, or others) was considered to be a positive finding. We analyzed the diagnostic yield of CE and SBE and the etiologies of OGIB. Result. CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields, at 71.9% (196/231) and 71.8% (251/304), respectively. The most common etiology was erosions/ulceration (27.1%) followed by mass lesion (19.4%) and angiodysplastic/vascular lesions (13.9%). By stratified analysis, we found that erosions/ulceration (27.1%) was the most common etiology for the 21–40-year age group. Mass lesion was the most common etiology in the 41–60-year age group. However, in the >60 years age group, angiodysplastic/vascular lesions were significantly increased compared with the other groups, even though erosions/ulceration was most common. Conclusion. In this study, we found that CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields and erosions/ulceration was the most common reason for OGIB, followed by mass lesion and angiodysplasias. PMID:25183969

He, Ya-Fei; Hao, Ning-Bo; Yang, Wu-Chen; Yang, Li; Liao, Zhong-Li; Fan, Chao-Qiang; Yu, Jin; Bai, Jian-Ying; Yang, Shi-Ming; Guo, Hong

2014-01-01

229

Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ? 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Two companies in Osaka, Japan. Subjects: 130 Japanese male workers selected randomly during their annual regular health check up and 116 Japanese male volunteers taking part in a smoking cessation programme. Main outcome measurements: Subjects answered a questionnaire about smoking habits. Following the interview, each participant was asked to smoke his own cigarette and, after extinguishing it, to blow expired air into an apparatus for measuring carbon monoxide concentration. Urine was also collected for the assays of nicotine metabolites. Results: We found wide variation in urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations at any given nicotine yield. Based on one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations of ultra low yield cigarette smokers were significantly lower compared to smokers of high (p = 0.002) and medium yield cigarettes (p = 0.017). On the other hand, the estimated nicotine intake per ultra low yield cigarette smoked (0.59 mg) was much higher than the 0.1 mg indicated by machine. Conclusions: In this study of Japanese male smokers, actual levels of nicotine intake bore little relation to advertised nicotine yield levels. Our study reinforces the need to warn consumers of inappropriate advertisements of nicotine yields, especially low yield brands. PMID:11891369

Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

2002-01-01

230

Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

231

hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield  

E-print Network

rate the bond pays is fixed when the bond is first sold or issued, but changes in the market interesthp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield The FINANCE menu Bond Yield Practice solving for the yield of a bond #12;hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Bond Yield The FINANCE menu

Vetter, Frederick J.

232

FindTutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FindTutorials offers hundreds of tutorials and professional online IT and Softskills training courses that are available for a variety of disciplines and skill levels. In addition, it offers an online e-mail system, an IT job database with thousands of daily updated positions, and a host of additional resources on internet training skills. With simple to use navigational tools and a "sophisticated in-house developed site search", finding information to meet your requirements merely takes the click of a button.

1999-01-01

233

Over-reporting significant figures—a significant problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExcessive use of significant figures in numerical data gives a spurious impression of laboratory imprecision to clinicians. We describe reporting practices in 24 Asia-Pacific laboratories, assess whether these reporting formats and those used in the literature can be justified based on actual laboratory performance and outline how to choose the appropriate number of significant places.

Robert C. Hawkins; Tony Badrick; Peter E. Hickman

2007-01-01

234

Numerical Modeling for Yield Pillar Design: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two single-entry gateroad systems employing a yield pillar for bump control in a Chinese coal mine were introduced. The overburden depth of the longwall panels was approximately 390 m. When the width/height (W/H) ratio of the yield pillar was 2.67, coal bumps in the tailgate occurred in front of the longwall retreating face. However, in another panel, the coal bump was eliminated because the W/H ratio was reduced to 1.67. Under this condition, instrumentation results indicated that the roof-to-floor and rib-to-rib convergences reached 1,050 and 790 mm, respectively, during longwall retreat. The numerical model was used to back-analyze the two cases of yield pillar application in the hope to find the principle for yield pillar design. In order to improve the reliability of the numerical model, the strain-hardening gob and strain-softening pillar materials were meticulously calibrated, and the coal/rock interface strength was determined by laboratory direct shear tests. The results of the validated model indicate that if the W/H ratio of the yield pillar equals 1.67, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (37.7 MPa) is much larger than that in the yield pillar (21.1 MPa); however, the peak vertical stress in the panel rib (30.87 MPa) is smaller than that in the yield pillar (36 MPa) when the W/H ratio of yield pillar is 2.67. These findings may be helpful to the design of yield pillars for bump control.

Li, Wenfeng; Bai, Jianbiao; Peng, Syd; Wang, Xiangyu; Xu, Ying

2015-01-01

235

Drops of Yield-Stress Liquid Impacting a Solid Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use high-speed video to investigate the drop impact process for yield-stress fluids under different initial conditions. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the impact dynamics of yield-stress liquids are greatly affected by the their viscoelasticity, which can be attributed to either a surface stress or bulk material properties. To explore these two different mechanisms, we perform impact experiments for two model fluids: liquid metals and particle suspensions, which both exhibit significant yield-stress in rheology. By controlling surface oxidation (for liquid metals) and packing density (for suspensions), we quantitatively vary the yield-stress within several orders of magnitude. In this way, we draw a direct comparison between the two fluids at various impact velocities to clarify the role of different sources of yield stress. Also, we build up an approach to bridge impact dynamics with rheological measurements.

Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich

2012-02-01

236

Eddington's planet finding capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capabilities of Eddington for the detection and analysis of extrasolar planets are outlined. The primary goal of the PF (Planet finding) part of the mission is the detection of planets that are Earth like - which limits their size to less then 3 Earth radii - and which are potentially habitable - which limits their temperature or their orbital

H. J. Deeg; K. Horne

2002-01-01

237

Find International Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Find International Clinical Trials Search for Clinical TrialsSearch NCI's list of 8,000+ clinical trials now accepting participants, or use more search options to search the set of 19,000+ clinical trials that are no longer recruiting. Search Tip:The

238

Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations  

E-print Network

, and Utilization Classroom Space Management and Planning Classroom Technical Services Classroom Facilities· Classroom scheduling, use, and utilization· Classroom space management and planning· Classroom technical Finding: There is a Lack of and a Need for an Identified Office of Classroom Management and Services

239

Finding Their Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every time Dr. Larry Shinagawa teaches his "Introduction to Asian American Studies" course at the University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, he finds that 10 to 20 percent of his students are adoptees. Among other things, they hunger to better comprehend the social and political circumstances overseas leading to their adoption. In response, UMD…

Lum, Lydia

2009-01-01

240

ULTRASONIC RANGE FINDING SENSOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the research within the MAURO (Mobile Autonomous Robot) project (1995 - 1998) the research team from the 'Robot Control Systems' Laboratory has designed and realized an ultrasonic range finding sensor intended to be used in mobile robot navigation. The sensor has been successively improved and the design was adopted also by other research teams within the Automation Department being

Gheorghe Laze; Emil Lupu; Silviu Folea

241

Finding Those Missing Links  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author stresses not to give up on a site when a URL returns an error message. Many web sites can be found by using strategies such as URL trimming, searching cached sites, site searching and searching the WayBack Machine. Methods and tips for finding web sites are contained within this article.

Gunn, Holly

2004-01-01

242

Spring 2009 Fresh Find  

E-print Network

Spring 2009 Fresh Find: Students stumble on possible long-lost freshwater mussel An Alumni, Macon, Ga. date AgSouth Farm Credit, ACA B&S Air CELLFOR International Forest Co. MetLife was a huge at the school. L Mike Clutter, Dean, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources T his year's spring

Scott, Robert A.

243

Intelligence: New Findings and Theoretical Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review new findings and new theoretical developments in the field of intelligence. New findings include the following: (a) Heritability of IQ varies significantly by social class. (b) Almost no genetic polymorphisms have been discovered that are consistently associated with variation in IQ in the normal range. (c) Much has been learned about the biological underpinnings of intelligence. (d) \\

Richard E. Nisbett; Joshua Aronson; Clancy Blair; William Dickens; James Flynn; Diane F. Halpern; Eric Turkheimer

2012-01-01

244

Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2007-01-01

245

P Values and Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

Hopkins, Will G.

246

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Significant Digits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers a tutorial on significant digits. The tutorial includes an introduction to significant digits, example problems, and a series of self-paced questions. This is part of series of tutorials on physics and mathematics used in physics classes.

2008-09-03

247

Significant Scales in Community Structure  

PubMed Central

Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

2013-01-01

248

Correlation between biogas yield and chemical composition of energy crops.  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to investigate the influence of the chemical composition of energy crops on biogas and methane yield. In total, 41 different plants were analyzed in batch test and their chemical composition was determined. For acid detergent lignin (ADL) content below 10% of total solids, a significant negative correlation for biogas and methane yields (r?-0.90) was observed. Based on a simple regression analysis, more than 80% of the sample variation can be explained through ADL. Based on a principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis, ADL and hemicellulose are suggested as suitable model variables for biogas yield potential predictions across plant species. PMID:25443623

Dandikas, V; Heuwinkel, H; Lichti, F; Drewes, J E; Koch, K

2014-12-01

249

Find That Planet!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use internet resources to learn about celestial coordinates, and how to use an emphemeris to locate planets on a horizon sky map. The sky maps are then used for outdoor observing. A more advanced application has students draw maps in celestial coordinates. They first learn about the celestial coordinate system astronomers use and then they generate a position, or ephemeris, for a planet at a certain time on a certain night and plot that position on an appropriate sky map. While engaged in this activity, students will learn to use star maps for finding a planet, plot a planet path on star maps with coordinate grids, and be able to find out when a planet is visible.

250

Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability  

PubMed Central

Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

2015-01-01

251

Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.  

PubMed

Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

2015-01-01

252

Chariton Valley Biomass Project Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

SciTech Connect

Switchgrass is a warm-weather, native Iowa grass that grows well on marginal land. It has been identified and extensively studied for its potential as a biomass energy crop, especially its potential for use as co-fire feedstock in coal-burning plants. In this environmental assessment (EA), the term ''co-fire'' refers to the burning of switchgrass in the OGS boiler in conjunction with coal, with the goal of reducing the amount of coal used and reducing emissions of some objectionable air pollutants associated with coal combustion. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to provide partial funding for (1) the design and construction of a biomass (switchgrass [Panicum virgatum]) storage, handling, and conveying system into the boiler at the Ottumwa Generating Station (OGS) near Chillicothe, Iowa; (2) operational testing of switchgrass as a biomass co-fire feedstock at OGS; and (3) ancillary activities related to growing, harvesting, storing, and transporting switchgrass in areas of the Rathbun Lake watershed. Chillicothe is in Wapello County on the south side of the Des Moines River, approximately 16 kilometers (10 miles) northwest of Ottumwa, Iowa, and 130 kilometers (80 miles) southeast of Des Moines. The OGS is a 725-megawatt (MW) maximum output, low-sulfur, pulverized coal-burning plant jointly owned by several Iowa utilities and operated by Alliant Energy. The plant is located about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) northwest of Chillicothe, Iowa, on the Des Moines River. The following three-phase switchgrass co-fire test campaign has been planned and partially implemented at OGS: During Phase 1, which occurred from November 2000 through January 2001, Alliant Energy conducted Co-fire Test 1 at OGS. Phase 2 testing, the Proposed Action, would consist of two additional co-fire tests. Co-fire Test 2, which would utilize some residual equipment from Co-fire Test 1 and also test some new equipment, is currently planned for September/October 2003. It would be designed to test and demonstrate the engineering and environmental feasibility of co-firing up to 11.3 tonnes (12.5 tons) of switchgrass per hour and would burn a maximum of 5,440 tonnes (6,000 tons) of switchgrass. Co-fire Test 3, which is tentatively planned for winter 2004/2005, would test the long-term (approximately 2,000 hours) sustainability of processing 11.3 tonnes (12.5 tons) per hour. Co-fire Test 3 would be conducted using a proposed new process building and storage barn that would be constructed at the OGS as part of the Proposed Action. Phase 3, commercial operations, may occur if Phase 2 indicated that commercial operations were technically, environmentally, and economically feasible. Continuous, full-scale commercial operations could process up to 23 tonnes (25 tons) of switchgrass per hour, generate 35 MW per year of OGS's annual output, and replace 5 percent of the coal burned at OGS with switchgrass. Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development Inc. (Chariton Valley RC&D), a rural-development-oriented, non-profit corporation (Chariton Valley RC&D 2003a) and Alliant Energy would implement Phase 3 at their discretion after the completion of the Phase 2 co-fire tests. DOE's Proposed Action would support only Phase 2 testing; that is, Co-fire Tests 2 and 3. DOE has no plans to provide financial support for the commercial operations that would be performed during Phase 3. The new construction that DOE proposes to partially fund would include a new switchgrass processing facility and equipment and a new storage barn that would be used for Co-fire Test 3. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental impacts that could result from the Proposed Action. It also evaluates the impacts that could occur if DOE decided not to partially fund the Proposed Action (the No Action Alternative). No other action alternatives are analyzed because (1) no generating plants other than OGS have the installed infrastructure and operating experience necessary to conduct Phase 2 co-fire testing, and (2) the Rathbun Lake watershed is the only viable

N /A

2003-07-11

253

67 FR 63074 - Wisdom Combustion Turbine Project, Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notices] [Page 63074] [FR...of Humboldt, Iowa, and Basin...northwestern Iowa region. The...in rural Clay County located in northwest Iowa approximately...diesel fuel oil as backup fuel...reflecting the potential impacts of...

2002-10-10

254

Annotation-Modules: a tool for finding significant combinations of multisource annotations for gene lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The ontological analysis of the gene lists obtained from DNA microarray experiments constitutes an important step in under- standing the underlying biology of the analyzed system. Over the last years, many other high-throughput techniques emerged, cover- ing now basically all \\

Michael Hackenberg; Rune Matthiesen

2008-01-01

255

75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2008, the transfer of spent fuel from the fuel storage pool to the dry-cask Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation was completed, and the decontamination...and engineered features that limit the transport of radioactive material. The natural...

2010-11-10

256

77 FR 25209 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption Request for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Nuclear Materials Safety, Region III Office...boost dose post external beam therapy without radiating...requested quantity of radioactive material in unshielded...Access and Management System (ADAMS), which provides...of Nuclear Materials Safety, Region III. [FR...

2012-04-27

257

78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment...Grande Canalization Project in Vado, New Mexico; Notice of Availability AGENCY: United...Commission (USIBWC), United States and Mexico. ACTION: Notice of Availability of...

2013-12-11

258

75 FR 34774 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...activities involved use of the following radionuclides with half-lives greater than 120 days: Barium 133, cesium 137, americium 241, and uranium 238. Prior to performing the final status survey, the Licensee conducted decontamination...

2010-06-18

259

77 FR 66874 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...documents for a fee. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Dated at Rockville, Maryland this 2nd day of November, 2012. Rosemary T. Hogan, Chief, Structural, Geotechnical, and Seismic Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of...

2012-11-07

260

75 FR 6067 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Impact for License Amendment for Revised Groundwater Protection Standards, Western Nuclear...Inc. (WNI), to authorize revised groundwater protection standards for its facility...license amendment request for revised groundwater protection standards. On [[Page...

2010-02-05

261

77 FR 48131 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Limiting the consumption of freshwater resources and returning water back to the same watershed so as not to deplete the groundwater and surface water resources of that region in quantity or quality; and (3) Reducing, reusing, and recovering waste...

2012-08-13

262

77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INFORMATION: Turning Point Solar proposes to construct a 49.9 MW solar generating facility...installation of high-efficiency monocrystalline photovoltaic...panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment...Columbus Southern Power Company and Ohio...

2012-04-27

263

75 FR 11946 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...resource@nrc.gov. Dated at Rockville, Maryland, this 8th day of March, 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Mahesh Chawla, Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch LPL III-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of...

2010-03-12

264

Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

SciTech Connect

DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

NONE

1995-12-01

265

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact - Mckay Bypass Canal Extension  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1262) to extend the McKay Bypass Canal on the east side of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. The McKay Bypass Canal Extension (Extension) is needed to route water from the existing canal around the Walnut Creek drainage, thus preventing potential co-mingling of Broomfield city water (collected from the Coal Creek drainage) with Site runoff water. The EA describes and analyzes the environmental effects of the Proposed Action (using a buried pipeline for the extension), and the alternatives of taking no action, using an open ditch for the extension, and using an aboveground pipeline for the extension. The EA was the subject of a public comment period from July 22 to August 6, 1998. Written comments regarding the EA were received from the City of Broomfield and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

N /A

1998-09-01

266

Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the expansion of Naluabaale Dam in Uganda for the declining water level in the lake. However, Lake Victoria does not receive water from a large catchment area: most of its water comes from rain that falls directly over the huge surface of the lake. For this reason, climatic contributions cannot be ignored in the recent declining. This research aims at analyzing the contribution of rainfall over the lake area between the years 1998 and 2008. Least squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is applied on 400 cycles of TOPEX/Poseidon and 232 cycles of Jason1 altimeter data along with monthly TRMM data from 1998 to 2008 to reveal the specific frequencies. From our results, yearly, half-yearly and seasonal frequencies along with a long term frequency are clearly visible in the Lake Victoria level variations. Key words. Lake Victoria, Least Squares Spectral Analysis, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, TRMM

Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; van Loon, E. E.

2009-04-01

267

76 FR 44374 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment to Source...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...authorized the Licensee to use uranium and thorium for purposes of conducting...area involved the unloading of depleted uranium contaminated targets in a central...such activities involved use of depleted uranium radionuclides with...

2011-07-25

268

76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...disposal of byproduct and special nuclear material must occur at a facility...contains byproduct and special nuclear material at the USEI hazardous...Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. 9601 et...possession and use of special nuclear material (SNM) be...

2011-10-24

269

75 FR 81316 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...exercise, provides evidence that Fermi 2 has regularly exercised its emergency...The proposed action would exempt Fermi 2 from the requirements of conducting...Final Environmental Statement for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2,...

2010-12-27

270

75 FR 70707 - Detroit Edison Company; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...experience with rail shipments from the Fermi-1 decommissioning project. Those...days for radioactive shipments from Fermi-1 based on historical data submitted...Final Environmental Statement for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2,...

2010-11-18

271

75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...congestion. Affected Environment The project is proposed...and truck idling Recycling construction waste...Name and location of recycling, reuse or landfill...how waste reduction/recycling goals will be communicated...quality of the human environment. No...

2010-07-23

272

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1308 Consideration of environmental...established procedures. See Interagency Cooperation—Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 50 CFR part 402; Protection...

2011-10-01

273

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1308 Consideration of environmental...established procedures. See Interagency Cooperation—Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 50 CFR part 402; Protection...

2012-10-01

274

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1308 Consideration of environmental...established procedures. See Interagency Cooperation—Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 50 CFR part 402; Protection...

2013-10-01

275

78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Between Bayonne, Hudson County, New Jersey and Staten Island, Richmond County...the Kill Van Kull between Bayonne, New Jersey and Staten Island, New York. This...the Port Authority of New York & New Jersey (PANYNJ) for Coast Guard...

2013-05-16

276

69 FR 35698 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Summary Environmental Assessment; Brownsville/Matamoros West...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...visual impacts and create further bio-diversity in regards to the future World...Mitigation Plan seeks to increase diversity in the current cultivated land...woody deciduous tree and shrub diversity, and improve the visual...

2004-06-25

277

75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...stabilizing the materials in accordance with NRC standards in 10 CFR part 40. The cover over the disposal area would consist of a radon/ infiltration barrier, overlain by a frost protection layer and rock erosion protection layers. Following approval by...

2010-10-15

278

77 FR 77118 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...least 5 feet of clean soil. The USDA estimates...monitoring groundwater contamination and performing characterization...migration of radioactive contamination to soil or groundwater because the source of the contamination will be removed....

2012-12-31

279

76 FR 34273 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Special Nuclear Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...spontaneous fission at a very low rate, thereby generating neutrons that escape the cladding and would result in an extremely...standing close to the fuel. Although fresh fuel emits neutrons, the neutrons do not become environmental effluents. There...

2011-06-13

280

Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

NONE

1996-04-01

281

77 FR 49457 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...would be taken to control non-native salt cedar and no restoration of native plant species would occur. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT...listed threatened and endangered species. The proposed action will likely benefit native wildlife populations,...

2012-08-16

282

63 FR 57356 - Finding of Significant Contribution and Rulemaking for Certain States in the Ozone Transport...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8\\ Variable-Grid Urban Airshed Model...to define nonattainment to include all grid cells within a county when a monitor...contributions are in terms of the number of grids in the downwind area that are...

1998-10-27

283

78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...associated. Thus the environmental impacts of the proposed...Wisconsin Department of Health Services, regarding the environmental impact of the proposed...Recovery Licensing Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection,...

2013-07-31

284

75 FR 36701 - Issuance of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Modification of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...risk of accidental nuclear criticality, and...byproduct, and special nuclear material up to the...safety, and the environment, and is not inimical...creating an unsafe environment for the public...staff considered the effects of variability in...EnergySolutions' Nuclear Criticality...

2010-06-28

285

Dating the Houma Covenant Texts: The Significance of Recent Findings From the Wenxian Covenant Texts??????????????????????  

E-print Network

5. Li Xueqin, Eastern Zhou and Qin Civilizations, trans. K.C. Chang, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985), 40-52. Shanxi sheng wenwu gongzuo weiyuanhui, Houma mengshu { ^ I I I S U (Beijing: Wenwu, 1976), 2, 384. 6. There is a date...

Williams, Crispin; ???

2013-01-01

286

66 FR 15321 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company: Grant of Waiver and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...500-3, approximately 11.2 miles downstream of Compressor Station 860, in Hickman and Dickson Counties...extended segments cover the distance between Compressor Station 860 and mainline valves 861-1, 560- 1, 560-2, and...

2001-03-16

287

75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...50-333; NRC-2010-0095] James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment...for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located...Environmental Statement for the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Docket No....

2010-03-11

288

76 FR 187 - Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Final Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemptions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 2 Hope Creek Generating Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 1, 2 and 3 James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 Millstone Power Station, Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3...

2011-01-03

289

78 FR 70529 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Availability for the...Impact (FONSI) for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2013-11-26

290

76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Vehicle (RLV) from the McGregor test site in McGregor, Texas. The...landing vehicle. The McGregor test site is located within the city...EA and FONSI on the FAA/AST Web site at http://www.faa...Grasshopper RLV from the McGregor test site in McGregor, Texas....

2011-11-18

291

Fluid-electrolyte responses during prolonged space flight: A review and interpretation of significant findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most important results of the Skylab studies related to fluid-electrolyte regulation are summarized. These data are the starting point of a systems analysis to study adaptation to the weightlessness environment. A summary of the systems analysis study, including an interpretation of Skylab results, is included.

Leonard, J. I.

1985-01-01

292

78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program...FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program...authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to...

2013-08-16

293

75 FR 34151 - Availability: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact; Modoc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Clay, Project Leader at Modoc NWR, (530) 233-3572...which we announced via several methods, including press releases, updates to constituents, and a Federal Register...

2010-06-16

294

78 FR 4134 - Availability of the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment AGENCY: Department of the...Environmental Assessment (PEA) for Army force structure realignments that may occur from Fiscal...to provide flexibility as future force structure realignment decisions are made;...

2013-01-18

295

78 FR 21919 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment AGENCY: Department of the...FNSI) for implementation of force structure realignment to reduce the Army active...Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment (PEA), supporting...

2013-04-12

296

76 FR 8382 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact For...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Division of Nuclear Materials Safety, Region 1, 475 Allendale...NRC-approved, operating radiation safety procedures, were required...increase the potential health and safety impacts to workers or the public...days: natural uranium and thorium mixtures. Prior to...

2011-02-14

297

78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...no-action alternative. Based on the...the EA, DLA Energy has determined...of the EA. Alternatives Considered: The EA for DLA Energy's Mobility...market, and DLA Energy's continued...and approve alternative fuels,...

2013-03-21

298

77 FR 7610 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...building constructed with a structural steel frame and reinforced concrete floors acting as diaphragms in distributing loads...000 liters (23,000 gallons), supported by a reinforced concrete foundation. The reactor is fueled with...

2012-02-13

299

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes – Statistical Significance Versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used toquantify the degree of practical significanceof study results. This paper gives anintroduction to the computation andinterpretation of effect sizes from theperspective of the consumer of the researchliterature. The key points made are:1. ES is a useful indicator of the practical(clinical) importance of research resultsthat can be operationally defined frombeing ``negligible'' to

Mohammadreza Hojat; Gang Xu

2004-01-01

300

76 FR 31379 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...previously approved remediation activities or DCGLs for uranium or cobalt-60 (Co-60) at the site. On February 26, 2010, and as...areas (namely, those associated with enriched uranium and cobalt-60) exist in the FUSRAP areas as well. The FUSRAP...

2011-05-31

301

Radiological Findings in FXTAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we review the radiological and structural brain findings associated with fragile X-associated tremor\\/ataxia\\u000a syndrome (FXTAS). We will review what is currently known about radiological signs of the disorder including both white matter\\u000a lesions and mild to severe cortical loss. We will also review brain–molecular relationships in FXTAS including associations\\u000a that have been observed between cortical and white

Susan M. Rivera; Glenn T. Stebbins; Jim Grigsby

302

Find Arc Degree Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will introduce central angles, arcs of circles, congruent circles, and congruent arcs. Note taking time! Find the definition of a central angle, minor arc, major arc,semicircle, measure of a minor arc, and measure of a major arc from page 659 of your text from Class Zone: Class Zone Geometry Textbook Check your answers in the following links: Angles in Circles Arcs in Circles Now take notes from page 660 in your text from Class Zone ...

Mrs. Neubert

2011-03-08

303

Finding the Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson,students participate in activities in which they focus on patterns and relations that can be developed from the exploration of balance, mass, length of the mass arm, and the position of the fulcrum. Given a ruler placed on a large crayon, two small paper cups, and paper clips, students try to locate the center of balance of the ruler. After finding various positions for balancing the ruler, students discuss in class the patterns and relations found.

NCTM Illuminations

2000-01-01

304

The Great Fossil Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On an imaginary fossil hunt, learners "find" (remove from envelope) paper "fossils" of some unknown creature, only a few at a time. Each time, they attempt to reconstruct the creature, and each time their interpretation tends to change as new pieces are "found." Use this as an introduction to the nature of science inquiry -- scientists don't always have all the information, scientists must form interpretations of the information, scientists must work together to come to consensus about interpretations.

Steve Rendak

1999-01-01

305

Finding Monster Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the varying sizes of ocean waves, what causes such variation, and where to find giant waves. Students will learn the parts of a wave, and discuss wave height, wavelength, and wave period. They will explore variables that influence wave size through scientific visualizations. They will then experiment with creating waves on the National Geographic Wave Simulator and discuss how geography affects waves.

306

High vertical yield InP nanowire growth on Si(111) using a thin buffer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the growth of InP nanowires on Si(111) using a thin InP buffer layer. The buffer layer is grown using a two-step procedure. The initial layer formation is ensured by using a very low growth temperature. An extremely high V/III ratio is necessary to prevent In droplet formation at this low temperature. The second layer is grown on the initial layer at a higher temperature and we find that post-growth annealing of the buffer layer does not improve its crystal quality significantly. It is found that the layers inherently have the (111)B polarity. Nanowires grown on this buffer layer have the same morphology and optical properties as nanowires grown on InP (111)B substrates. The vertical yield of the nanowires grown on the buffer layer is over 97% and we also find that crystal defects in the buffer layer do not affect the morphology, vertical yield or optical properties of the nanowires significantly.

Fonseka, H. A.; Tan, H. H.; Wong-Leung, J.; Kang, J. H.; Parkinson, P.; Jagadish, C.

2013-11-01

307

Deep subthreshold photofission yields analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photofission yield measurements on ²³²Th and \\/sup 235,236,238\\/U, showing the ''shelf effect,'' have been analyzed in terms of a double-humped fission barrier. From the characteristic of the shelf it was possible to evaluate the excitation energy E\\/sub II\\/ of the shape isomer. In the framework of the double-humped barrier, with the competition between ..gamma.. decay to the shape isomer and

G. Bellia; A. Del Zoppo; E. Migneco; R. C. Barna; D. De Pasquale

1979-01-01

308

Yielding of binary colloidal glasses  

E-print Network

The rheological response, in particular the non-linear response, to oscillatory shear is experimentally investigated in colloidal glasses. The glasses are highly concentrated binary hard-sphere mixtures with relatively large size disparities. For a size ratio of 0.2, a strong reduction of the normalized elastic moduli, the yield strain and stress and, for some samples, even melting of the glass to a fluid is observed upon addition of the second species. This is attributed to the more efficient packing, as indicated by the shift of random close packing to larger total volume fractions. This leads to an increase in free volume which favours cage deformations and hence a loosening of the cage. Cage deformations are also favoured by the structural heterogeneity introduced by the second species. For a limited parameter range, we furthermore found indications of two-step yielding, as has been reported previously for attractive glasses. In samples containing spheres with more comparable sizes, namely a size ratio of 0.38, the cage seems less distorted and structural heterogeneities on larger length scales seem to become important. The limited structural changes are reflected in only a small reduction of the moduli, yield strain and stress.

T. Sentjabrskaja; E. Babaliari; J. Hendricks; M. Laurati; G. Petekidis; S. U. Egelhaaf

2013-01-31

309

Testicular microlithiasis: is it significant?  

PubMed

Previously considered to be a benign finding on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular microlithiasis (TM) is now recognized as a condition associated with the development of testicular neoplasia. Despite this the management of TM remains unclear. We review the evidence for this association and suggested management strategies. PMID:23033512

Mullooly, C; Hickerton, B; Weston, R; Woolley, P D

2012-09-01

310

CONVERGENCE AND ANCHORING OF YIELD CURVES IN THE EURO AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the convergence of European bond markets and the anchoring of inflation expectations in the euro area using high-frequency bond yield data for France, Germany, Italy, and Spain as well as smaller euro area countries and a control group comprising the UK, Denmark, and Sweden. We find that Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) has led to substantial convergence in

Michael Ehrmann; Marcel Fratzscher; Refet S. Gürkaynak; Eric T. Swanson

2008-01-01

311

SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

312

Significant Conversations and Significant Networks--Exploring the Backstage of the Teaching Arena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an inquiry into conversations that academic teachers have about teaching. The authors investigated to whom they talk and the forms that these conversations take. The findings indicate that most teachers rely on a small number of significant others for conversations that are characterised by their privacy, by mutual trust and…

Roxa, Torgny; Martensson, Katarina

2009-01-01

313

Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

2014-11-01

314

Finding Space Weather Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about searching online data archives for solar wind events. Learners will find at least three episodes of increased solar wind activity impacting Earth using direct measurements of solar wind velocity and density. Then, they will characterize each events by its rise time, the time it takes for the solar wind speed to rise from normal levels to the peak speed of the event, and the percentage increase in solar wind velocity. This is Activity 11 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum.

315

Finding the Pole Star  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of a high school course on astronomy, Newtonian mechanics and spaceflight and provides a closer look at the pole star and the neighboring constellations, especially the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia. One objective is for the student to know the constellations of the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia, and their use in finding the Pole Star. The student will also realize that other celestial objects - Sun, Moon and planets - share the rotation (and hence rise and set), even though their positions among the stars slowly change.

Stern, David

316

Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

2012-01-01

317

Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.  

PubMed

The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site. PMID:23673936

Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

2013-01-01

318

Yield Enhancement of Digital Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Space Redundancy and Local Reconfiguration*  

E-print Network

Yield Enhancement of Digital Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Space Redundancy and Local to avoid faulty elements. Digital microfluidics- based biochips are also amenable to redundancy-based yield. As microfluidics-based biochips become more complex, manufacturing yield will have significant influence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures  

PubMed Central

A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets. PMID:23365551

Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

2013-01-01

320

Electron yields from spacecraft materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoyields and secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics were determined under UHV conditions for a group of insulating materials used in spacecraft applications. The SEE studies were carried out with a pulsed primary beam while photoyields were obtained with a chopped photon beam from a Kr resonance source with major emission at 123.6 nm. This provides a photon flux close to that of the Lyman alpha in the space environment. Yields per incident photon are obtained relative to those from a freshly evaporated and air oxidized Al surface. Results are presented for Kapton, FEP Teflon, the borosilicate glass covering of a shuttle tile, and spacesuit outer fabric.

Yang, K.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

1985-01-01

321

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

1978-01-01

322

Attribution of maize yield increase in China to climate change and technological advancement between 1980 and 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop yields are affected by climate change and technological advancement. Objectively and quantitatively evaluating the attribution of crop yield change to climate change and technological advancement will ensure sustainable development of agriculture under climate change. In this study, daily climate variables obtained from 553 meteorological stations in China for the period 1961-2010, detailed observations of maize from 653 agricultural meteorological stations for the period 1981-2010, and results using an Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) model, are used to explore the attribution of maize (Zea mays L.) yield change to climate change and technological advancement. In the AEZ model, the climatic potential productivity is examined through three step-by-step levels: photosynthetic potential productivity, photosynthetic thermal potential productivity, and climatic potential productivity. The relative impacts of different climate variables on climatic potential productivity of maize from 1961 to 2010 in China are then evaluated. Combined with the observations of maize, the contributions of climate change and technological advancement to maize yield from 1981 to 2010 in China are separated. The results show that, from 1961 to 2010, climate change had a significant adverse impact on the climatic potential productivity of maize in China. Decreased radiation and increased temperature were the main factors leading to the decrease of climatic potential productivity. However, changes in precipitation had only a small effect. The maize yields of the 14 main planting provinces in China increased obviously over the past 30 years, which was opposite to the decreasing trends of climatic potential productivity. This suggests that technological advancement has offset the negative effects of climate change on maize yield. Technological advancement contributed to maize yield increases by 99.6%-141.6%, while climate change contribution was from -41.4% to 0.4%. In particular, the actual maize yields in Shandong, Henan, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia increased by 98.4, 90.4, 98.7, and 121.5 kg hm-2 yr-1 over the past 30 years, respectively. Correspondingly, the maize yields affected by technological advancement increased by 113.7, 97.9, 111.5, and 124.8 kg hm-2 yr-1, respectively. On the contrary, maize yields reduced markedly under climate change, with an average reduction of -9.0 kg hm-2 yr-1. Our findings highlight that agronomic technological advancement has contributed dominantly to maize yield increases in China in the past three decades.

Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Wu, Dingrong; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

2014-12-01

323

FindArticles.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new service is a partnership between LookSmart and the Gale Group, a publisher of research and reference materials for libraries, businesses, and information technologists. The site offers free access to the full-text of articles published in over 350 magazines and journals dating from 1998. Users can search the database by keyword and by one of the nine subject categories (Arts & Entertainment, Computers & Technology, Reference & Education, Sports, etc.). Search returns include article title, periodical, and short description, with a link to the full-text, which is conveniently and quickly displayed at the FindArticles site, though with numerous advertising banners. Visitors can also view a list of the publications indexed, alphabetically or by subject. Periodical listings include a one-sentence description and a link to their Website. Despite the banners and other commercial content (the bills must be paid, after all) this site is a very useful reference source, indexing many leading journals and magazines.

324

[Silicosis: computed tomography findings].  

PubMed

Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, which is caused by the inhalation of silica and affects a wide range of jobs. There are many clinical forms of silicosis: acute silicosis, results from exposure to very large amounts of silica dust over a period of less than 2 years. Simple chronic silicosis, the most common type that we see today, results from exposure to low amounts of silica between 2 and 10 years. Chronic silicosis complicated, with silicotic conglomerates. In many cases the diagnosis of silicosis is made according to epidemiological and radiological data, without a histological confirmation. It is important to know the various radiological manifestations of silicosis to differentiate it from other lung diseases and to recognize their complications. The objective of this work is to describe typical and atypical radiological findings of silicosis and their complications in helical and high resolution (HRCT) thorax CT. PMID:22884889

González Vázquez, M; Trinidad López, C; Castellón Plaza, D; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, J; Tardáguila Montero, F

2013-01-01

325

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-10-01

326

Significant Dreams: Bizarre or Beautiful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on highly significant dreams is filled with references to the bizarreness of their content. On the other hand, the concept of beauty is rarely if ever mentioned in relation to these dreams. Grounded in archetypal psychology's tenet that psychological life is aesthetic life, this article argues that the enduring, even life-long, influence some dreams have on the dreamer's

Roger M. Knudson

2001-01-01

327

Significant Figures in Speed Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAD hoped that someone more competent than myself would have replied to Col. O'Gorman's letter, in which, in NATURE of Mar. 30, he offered an apologia for recording Sir Henry Segrave's speed to 8 significant figures, but probably most readers of this journal do not consider that motor speed records form a subject with which they are intimately concerned.

J. S. Dines

1929-01-01

328

Statistical significance for genomewide studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in genomewide experiments and the sequencing of multiple genomes, the analysis of large data sets has become commonplace in biology. It is often the case that thousands of features in a genomewide data set are tested against some null hypothesis, where a number of features are expected to be significant. Here we propose an approach to measuring

John D. Storey; Robert Tibshirani

2003-01-01

329

Significance of a Correlation Coefficient  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To assess the significance of any particular instance of r, enter the values of N[>6] and r into the designated cells, then click the 'Calculate' button. Application of this formula to any particular observed sample value of r will accordingly test the null hypothesis that the observed value comes from a population in which rho=0.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-12

330

An Introduction Significance of Pain  

E-print Network

Inflammation or nerve damage !!65 -90 million in US !!Arthritis !!Neuropathic pain !!Back pain !!MigraineAn Introduction to: Pain #12;Significance of Pain !!Pain is adaptive !!Alerts us to danger !!Motivates escape and avoidance learning !!Motivates recuperation !!Congenital insensitivity to pain !!Pain

Meagher, Mary

331

A Case Study: Significance, Epidemiology, and Management of Hop Viruses.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hop latent carlavirus (HpLV), Hop mosaic carlavirus (HpMV), and Apple mosaic ilarvirus (ApMV) are viruses that have been shown to have deleterious effects on cone yield and brewing organic acids in several cultivars in Australian hop gardens, and pose a significant threat to the continued production...

332

Finding a Niche  

PubMed Central

Although I always knew I wanted to be a scientist, I didn't know I would become a cell biologist. Events in life that you would never have predicted can greatly impact your career trajectory. I have learned to let those events take me in new directions. Following a desire to investigate an understudied area of cell biology, I have found a niche. In this area, my lab is poised to contribute significantly toward understanding the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying polarized plant cell growth. PMID:21079002

2010-01-01

333

Finding a niche.  

PubMed

Although I always knew I wanted to be a scientist, I didn't know I would become a cell biologist. Events in life that you would never have predicted can greatly impact your career trajectory. I have learned to let those events take me in new directions. Following a desire to investigate an understudied area of cell biology, I have found a niche. In this area, my lab is poised to contribute significantly toward understanding the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying polarized plant cell growth. PMID:21079002

Bezanilla, Magdalena

2010-11-15

334

Evidence for the Decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}  

SciTech Connect

Using a 281 pb{sup -1} data sample collected at the {psi}(3770) with the CLEO-c detector, we present the first absolute branching fraction measurement of the decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e} at a statistical significance of about 4.0 standard deviations. We find 10 candidates consistent with the decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}. The probability that a background fluctuation accounts for this signal is less than 4.1x10{sup -5}. We find B(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e})=[2.8{sub -1.1}{sup +1.4}(stat){+-}0.3(syst)]x10 = {sup -4}. By restricting the invariant mass of the hadronic system to be consistent with K{sub 1}(1270), we obtain the product of branching fractions B(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270)e{sup +}{nu}{sub e})xB(K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270){yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=[2.5{sub -1.0} = {sup +1.3}(stat){+-}0.2(syst)]x10{sup -4}. Using B(K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270){yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=(33{+-}3)%, we obtain B(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270)e{sup +}{nu}{sub e})=[7.6{sub -3.0}{sup +4.1}(stat){+-}0.6(syst){+-}0.7] = x10{sup -4}. The last error accounts for the uncertainties in the measured K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270){yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} branching fractions.

Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, K. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A. [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Naik, P. [Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada)] (and others)

2007-11-09

335

Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report  

SciTech Connect

To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

2009-12-01

336

Improved endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography brush increases diagnostic yield of malignant biliary strictures  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine if a new brush design could improve the diagnostic yield of biliary stricture brushings. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed of all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures with malignant biliary stricture brushing between January 2008 and October 2012. A standard wire-guided cytology brush was used prior to protocol implementation in July 2011, after which, a new 9 French wire-guided cytology brush (Infinity sampling device, US Endoscopy, Mentor, OH) was used for all cases. All specimens were reviewed by blinded pathologists who determined whether the sample was positive or negative for malignancy. Cellular yield was quantified by describing the number of cell clusters seen. RESULTS: Thirty-two new brush cases were compared to 46 historical controls. Twenty-five of 32 (78%) cases in the new brush group showed abnormal cellular findings consistent with malignancy as compared to 17 of 46 (37%) in the historical control group (P = 0.0003). There was also a significant increase in the average number of cell clusters of all sizes (21.1 vs 9.9 clusters, P = 0.0007) in the new brush group compared to historical controls. CONCLUSION: The use of a new brush design for brush cytology of biliary strictures shows increased diagnostic accuracy, likely due to improved cellular yield, as evidenced by an increase in number of cellular clusters obtained. PMID:25031790

Shieh, Frederick K; Luong-Player, Adelina; Khara, Harshit S; Liu, Haiyan; Lin, Fan; Shellenberger, Matthew J; Johal, Amitpal S; Diehl, David L

2014-01-01

337

Statistical Significance of Threading Scores  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to general protein contact map properties, this reference distribution is a Weibull extreme value distribution whose parameters depend on the threading method, the structure, the length of the query and the random sequence simulation model used. These parameters can be estimated off-line with simulated sequence samples, for different sequence lengths. They can further be interpolated at the exact length of a query, enabling the quick computation of the p-value. PMID:22149633

Fayyaz Movaghar, Afshin; Launay, Guillaume; Schbath, Sophie; Gibrat, Jean-François

2012-01-01

338

Pollen vacuoles and their significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuoles of several types can be observed in pollen throughout its development. Their physiological significance reflects\\u000a the complexity of the biological process leading to functional pollen grains. Vacuolisation always occurs during pollen development\\u000a but when ripe pollen is shed the extensive translucent vacuoles present in the vegetative parts in previous stages are absent.\\u000a Vacuole functions vary according to developmental stage

Ettore Pacini; Cédric Jacquard; Christophe Clément

2011-01-01

339

Signal Significance in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

The concept of the "statistical significance" of an observation, and how it is used in particle physics experiments is reviewed. More properly known as a "p-value," the statistical foundations for this concept are reviewed from a freqentist perspective. The discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and a more recent analysis of data recorded at Fermilab are used to illustrate practical applications of these concepts.

Pekka K. Sinervo

2002-08-05

340

Significant Figures and Rounding Rules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page deals with significant figures and rounding rules. It's primary audience is teachers of high-school and college-level science classes like Physics and Chemistry, but there are links to sites for students as well. For educators, this page describes recent research into the accuracy and safety of the standard rounding rule for multiplication and division and discusses the implicationsfor science education.

Mulliss, Christopher

2003-10-10

341

Observation of {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}J/{psi}  

SciTech Connect

From e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data acquired with the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we observe the non-DD decay {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1} with a statistical significance of 6.6 standard deviations, using the two-photon cascades to J/{psi} and J/{psi}{yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}. We determine {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{psi}(3770))xB({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})=(18.0{+-}3.3= {+-}2.5) pb and branching fraction B({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})=(2.8{+-}0.5{+-}0.4)x10{sup -3}. We set 90% C.L. upper limits for the transition to {chi}{sub c2} ({chi}{sub c0}): {sigma}xB<5.7 pb (<282 pb) and B<0.9x10{sup -3} (<44x10{sup -3}). We also determine {gamma}({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})/{gamma}({psi}(3770){yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}J/= {psi})=1.5{+-}0.3{+-}0.3 (>1.0 at 90% C.L.), which bears upon the interpretation of X(3872)

Coan, T.E.; Gao, Y.S.; Liu, F. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Boulahouache, C.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nandakumar, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Redjimi, R.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, K. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Csorna, S. E. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] (and others)

2006-05-12

342

Find an Endocrinology - Thyroid Specialist  

MedlinePLUS

... Public – Thyroid Information > Find an Endocrinology – Thyroid Specialist Find an Endocrinology – Thyroid Specialist Please tell your thyroidologist ... for the services of physicians listed in this “Find a Specialist” resource. The physicians and surgeons listed ...

343

Find HIV/AIDS Care  

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... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Find HIV/AIDS Care Were you recently diagnosed as ... to pay for health services. Where Can I Find Help? Find HIV Care and Services across the ...

344

Find a Heart Rhythm Specialist  

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... Home Find a Specialist Back to HRS Home Find a Specialist A searchable directory of HRS physician ... to receive the most results for your area. Find an Electrophysiologist in your area Search by Location ...

345

Serologic laboratory findings in malignancy.  

PubMed

Autoantibodies are extremely promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancer, and have the potential to promote early diagnosis and to make a large impact by improving patient outcome and decreasing mortality. Moreover, autoantibodies may be useful reagents in the identification of subjects at risk for cancer, bearing premalignant tissue changes. Great efforts are being made in many laboratories to validate diagnostic panels of autoantibodies with high sensitivity and specificity that could be useful in a clinical setting. It is likely that prospective studies of sufficiently large cohorts of patients and controls using high-throughput technology may allow the identification of biomarkers with diagnostic significance, and perhaps of discrete antigen phenotypes with clinical significance. The identification of TAAs may also be essential for the development of anticancer vaccines, because autoantibodies found in cancer sera target molecules involved in signal transduction, cell-cycle regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, playing important roles in carcinogenesis. On this basis, molecular studies of antigenantibody systems in cancer promise to yield valuable information on the carcinogenic process. TAAs identified by serum antibodies in cancer sera can be natural immunogenic molecules, useful as targets for cancer immunotherapy. An important problem encountered in the practice of medicine is the identification of healthy individuals in the general population who unknowingly are at high risk of developing cancer. For the rheumatologist, a related problem is the identification of those patients with rheumatic diseases who are at high risk for developing a malignant process. These problems encountered in the fields of cancer and the rheumatic diseases can in the future be helped by new diagnostic instruments based on antibodies. The need for promoting the early diagnosis of cancer is a recognized major public health problem in need of significant research support for the validation of multiple promising but inconclusive studies, with the intention of producing diagnostic panels of autoantibodies in various types of cancers. Cancer developing in patients with rheumatic diseases is also an important problem requiring prospective longterm follow-up studies of patients with rheumatic diseases, particularly because some of the new biologic therapies seem to increase the cancer risk. It is possible that a panel of autoantibodies common to patients with cancer and the rheumatic diseases may prove to be of value in the identification of those patients with ADs at high risk for neoplasms. PMID:22075195

Madrid, Félix Fernández; Maroun, Marie-Claire

2011-11-01

346

Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ? 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

2014-01-01

347

Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.  

PubMed

Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment. PMID:25348886

Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

2014-10-28

348

The yield strength of subliquidus basalts — experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield strength is an important property of particle-fluid suspensions. In basaltic lavas that crystallize during flow emplacement, the onset of yield strength may result in threshold transitions in flow behavior and flow surface morphology. However, yield strength-crystallinity relations are poorly known, particularly in geologic suspensions, where difficulties of experimental and field measurements have limited data acquisition in the subliquidus temperature range. Here we describe two complementary experimental approaches designed to examine the effect of particle shape on the low-shear yield strength of subliquidus basalts. The first involves melting cubes of holocrystalline basalt samples with different initial textures to determine the temperature (crystallinity) at which these samples lose their cubic form. These experiments provide information on the minimum crystal volume fractions (0.20< ?<0.35) required to maintain the structual integrity of the cube. The second set of experiments uses suspensions of corn syrup and neutrally buoyant particles to isolate the effect of particle shape on yield strength development. From these experiments, we conclude that the shape is important in determining the volume fraction range over which suspensions exhibit a finite yield strength. As anisotropic particles may orient during flow, the effect of particle shape will be controlled by the orientation distribution of the constituent particles. We find that the so-called 'excluded volume' can be used to relate results of experiments on anisotropic particles to those of suspensions of spherical particles. Recent measurements of yield strength onset in basaltic melts at crystal volume fractions near 0.25 are consistent with our observations that crystal frameworks develop at low to moderate crystal volume fractions when crystals are anisotropic (e.g. plagioclase). We further suggest that conditions leading to yield strength onset at low crystallinities include rapid cooling (increased crystal anisotropy), heterogeneous nucleation (which promotes extensive crystal clustering and large cluster anisotropy) and static conditions (random crystal orientations).

Hoover, S. R.; Cashman, K. V.; Manga, M.

2001-06-01

349

Acetone photolysis at 248 nm revisited: pressure dependence of the CO and CO2 quantum yields.  

PubMed

Pressure dependent CO and CO2 quantum yields in the laser pulse photolysis of acetone at 248 nm and T = 298 K have been measured directly using quantitative infrared diode laser absorption. The experiments cover the pressure range from 50 to 900 mbar. It is found that the quantum yields show a significant dependence on total pressure, with Phi(CO) decreasing from around 0.5 at 20 mbar to approximately 0.3 at 900 mbar. The corresponding CO2 yields as observed when O2 exists in the reaction mixture, exhibit exactly the opposite behaviour. For the sum of both a value of 1.05(-0.05)(+0.02) independent of pressure is obtained, showing that the sum of (Phi(CO) + Phi(CO2)) is a measure for the primary quantum yield in the photolysis of acetone. In addition, CO quantum yields and corresponding pressure dependences were measured in experiments using different bath gases including He, Ar, Kr, SF6, and O2 as third body colliders. The theoretical framework in which we discuss these data is based on our previous findings that the pressure dependence of the CO yield is a consequence of a stepwise fragmentation mechanism during which acetone decomposes initially into methyl and a vibrationally 'hot' acetyl radical, with the latter being able to decompose promptly into methyl plus CO. The pressure dependence of the CO yield then originates from the second step and is modelled quantitatively via statistical dynamical calculations using a combination of RRKM theory with a time-dependent master equation (ME) approach. From a comparison of experiment with theory the amount of excess energy in the vibrationally hot acetyl radicals (E* approximately 65 kJ mol(-1)) as well as the characteristic collision parameters for interaction of acetyl with the different bath gases were derived. Values of 90, 280, 310, 545, 550 and 1800 cm(-1) for the average energy transferred per downward collision for the bath gases He, Ar, Kr, O2, N2, and SF6, respectively, are obtained. The calculations also considered different models for the energy transfer kernel P(E,E') and best fits were obtained with a rho-weighted exponential down model. PMID:19774283

Somnitz, H; Ufer, T; Zellner, R

2009-10-14

350

Yield surface approximation for lower and upper bound yield design of 3D composite frame structures  

E-print Network

Yield surface approximation for lower and upper bound yield design of 3D composite frame structures structure is presented. Keywords: yield design, limit analysis, composite frames, yield surface, 18]. In the case of yield design of frame structures made of composite sections, two approaches can

Boyer, Edmond

351

Breast Cancer Chemo Tied to Small but Significant Leukemia Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast Cancer Chemo Tied to Small But Significant Leukemia Risk ... in about a half-percent of early stage breast cancer patients, study finds (*this news item will not ...

352

Clinical Significance of Precipitous Labor  

PubMed Central

Background Precipitous labor is defined as expulsion of the fetus within less than 3 hours of commencement of regular contractions. We retrospectively examined our cases of precipitous labor to identify the clinical significance and perinatal outcomes following precipitous labor in singleton vertex deliveries. Methods A retrospective population-based study was conducted comparing women with singleton precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes by comparing patients with precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration in 0 and two-parous singleton pregnant women. Results Using a multivariate analysis, precipitous labor in nulliparous women was independently associated with teenagers (adjusted OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 0.99 - 2.95, P = 0.049), preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.70, P < 0.01) and hypertensive disorders (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.19 - 2.65, P < 0.01), while in two-parous women, it was independently associated with hypertensive disorders (adjusted OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.33 - 5.24, P < 0.01). No significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding maternal or neonatal complications on both nulliparous and two-parous women. Conclusion Although precipitous labor was associated with hypertensive disorders in singleton vertex deliveries, it was not associated with maternal or neonatal outcomes. PMID:25584099

Suzuki, Shunji

2015-01-01

353

2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield  

E-print Network

© 2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host,3 Cyanobacteria, and the viruses (phages) that infect them, are significant contributors to the oceanic `gene pool­19 photosynthetic host­virus systems. Thus, continued photosynthesis is required for maximum phage production in our

Church, George M.

354

Yield performance of cacao propagated by somatic embryogenesis and grafting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve cacao (Theobroma cacao) clones propagated by grafting and somatic embryogenesis and grown on an Ultisol soil were evaluated for five years under intensive management at Corozal, Puerto Rico. Preliminary data showed no significant differences between propagation methods for yield of dry beans ...

355

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2010-01-01

356

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields.  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

357

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

358

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2014-01-01

359

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2013-01-01

360

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2012-01-01

361

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2011-01-01

362

Sputtering yields exceeding 1000 by 80 keV Xe irradiation of Au nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using experiments and computer simulations, we find that 80 keV Xe ion irradiation of Au nanorods can produce sputtering yields exceeding 1000, which to our knowledge are the highest yields reported for sputtering by single ions in the nuclear collision regime. This value is enhanced by more than an order of magnitude compared to the same irradiation of flat Au surfaces. Using MD simulations, we show that the very high yield can be understood as a combination of enhanced yields due to low incoming angles at the sides of the nanowire, as well as the high surface-to-volume ratio causing enhanced explosive sputtering from heat spikes. We also find, both in experiments and simulations, that channeling has a strong effect on the sputtering yield: if the incoming beam happens to be aligned with a crystal axis of the nanorod, the yield can decrease to about 100.

Ilinov, A.; Kuronen, A.; Nordlund, K.; Greaves, G.; Hinks, J. A.; Busby, P.; Mellors, N. J.; Donnelly, S. E.

2014-12-01

363

GGE Biplot Analysis of Oil Yield in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six varieties\\/strains belonging to three species of Cymbopogon, viz., C. flexuosus, C. khasianus and C. pendulus, or their hybrids, were evaluated for oil yield across four years (1997-98-2000-01) as very limited information is available on variety-by-environment interaction from multi-environment trials. The main effects, varieties and years, were significant, but variety-by-year interaction was not significant. Log-transformation of data reduced coefficients of

M. K. Bhan; S. Pal; B. L. Rao; A. K. Dhar; M. S. Kang

2005-01-01

364

42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or findings suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2011-10-01

365

Yawning and its physiological significance  

PubMed Central

Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

2013-01-01

366

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. 1 Introduction

Cook, Di

367

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. Finally, spatial factor

Cook, Di

368

FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

ALDEN R. HIBBERT

369

Heterois in Switchgrass: Biomass Yield in Swards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving the biomass yield of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) will improve its utility as a dedicated energy crop by increasing energy yield per acre. In a previous space-transplanted study, mid-parent heterosis for biomass yield was reported for population and specific F1 hybrids of the lowland-...

370

Yield management in the airline industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield management systems are used by airlines in their passenger business. The systems aim at high load factors and high average yields simultaneously in a situation where capacity is fixed and demand is fluctuating. Other parts of the logistics sector could profit by such a system, further discussion and introduction of yield management outside the airline sector is recommended.

T. Biermann

2007-01-01

371

Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement.  

PubMed

Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Global soybean production and yield per hectare increased steadily over the past century with improved agronomy and development of cultivars suited to a wide range of latitudes. In order to meet the needs of a growing world population without unsustainable expansion of the land area devoted to this crop, yield must increase at a faster rate than at present. Here, the historical basis for the yield gains realized in the past 90 years are examined together with potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Optimization of investment in photosynthetic enzymes, bypassing photorespiratory metabolism, engineering the electron transport chain and engineering a faster recovery from the photoprotected state are different strategies to improve photosynthesis in soybean. These potential improvements in photosynthetic carbon gain will need to be matched by increased carbon and nitrogen transport to developing soybean pods and seeds in order to maximize the benefit. Better understanding of control of carbon and nitrogen transport along with improved knowledge of the regulation of flower initiation and abortion will be needed to optimize sink capacity in soybean. Although few single targets are likely to deliver a quantum leap in yields, biotechnological advances in molecular breeding techniques that allow for alteration of the soybean genome and transcriptome promise significant yield gains. PMID:21689112

Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Yendrek, Craig R; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Long, Stephen P

2012-01-01

372

Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

2003-01-01

373

Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

Bemiller, James N.

374

Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2003-01-01

375

PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED  

SciTech Connect

The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M {sub sun}, or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16-80131, Napoli (Italy)

2009-12-10

376

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses.  

PubMed

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale. PMID:20365392

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Jörg

2010-01-01

377

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2010-01-15

378

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Jörg

2010-01-01

379

Grain yields with limited water.  

PubMed

Plant reproduction is sensitive to water deficits, especially during the early phases when development may cease irreversibly even though the parent remains alive. Grain numbers decrease because of several developmental changes, especially ovary abortion in maize (Zea mays L.) or pollen sterility in small grains. In maize, the water deficits inhibit photosynthesis, and the decrease in photosynthate flux to the developing organs appears to trigger abortion. Abscisic acid also increases in the parent and may play a role, perhaps by inhibiting photosynthesis through stomatal closure. Recent work indicates that invertase activity is inhibited and starch is diminished in the ovaries or affected pollen. Also, sucrose fed to the stems rescues many of the ovaries otherwise destined to abort. The feeding restores some of the ovary starch and invertase activity. These studies implicate invertase as a limiting enzyme step for grain yields during a water deficit, and transcript profiling with microarrays has identified genes that are up- or down-regulated during water deficit-induced abortion in maize. However, profiling studies to date have not reported changes in invertase or starch synthesizing genes in water-deficient ovaries, perhaps because there were too few sampling times. The ovary rescue with sucrose feeding indicates either that the changes identified in the profiling are of no consequence for inhibiting ovary development or that gene expression reverts to control levels when the sugar stream recovers. Careful documentation of tissue- and developmentally specific gene expression are needed to resolve these issues and link metabolic changes to the decreased sugar flux affecting the reproductive organs. PMID:15286147

Boyer, J S; Westgate, M E

2004-11-01

380

Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Background Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. Principal Finding Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM) and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. Significance This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility. PMID:23284672

Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Sønderkær, Mads; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup; Pedersen, Henrik; Feder, Christian; Nielsen, Kåre L.

2012-01-01

381

Investigation of some effective factors on yield traits of Pepino (Solanum muricatum) as a new vegetable in Iran.  

PubMed

To find out the effects of media culture and foliar fertilization on some yield traits including the number of fruits per bush, mean weight of fruit, yield of per bush, long of fruits and diameter of fruits 9 months completely randomized factorial experiment (3 x 5) with four replications was conducted. Media culture treatments include 5 levels namely soil; mixture of soil and vermy compost; mixture of soil and sand; mixture of soil and peat moss and mixture of soil, sand and peat moss. Foliar fertilization treatments include 3 levels namely applying once a week, once a 3 week and no fertilization (control). The results showed that the media culture treatments on the whole of traits and foliar fertilization also on the whole of traits except yield of per bush had a significant difference (p < 0.01). In the foliar fertilization except yield per bush the once a 3 week fertilization caused highest increase than other treatments and in the media culture treatments, the mixture of soil and peat moss showed highest increase than other treatments. PMID:19579997

Nemati, S H; Karimian, Z; Tehranifar, A; Mashhadian, N V; Lakzian, A

2009-03-15

382

Developing a scalable model of recombinant protein yield from Pichia pastoris: the influence of culture conditions, biomass and induction regime  

PubMed Central

Background The optimisation and scale-up of process conditions leading to high yields of recombinant proteins is an enduring bottleneck in the post-genomic sciences. Typical experiments rely on varying selected parameters through repeated rounds of trial-and-error optimisation. To rationalise this, several groups have recently adopted the 'design of experiments' (DoE) approach frequently used in industry. Studies have focused on parameters such as medium composition, nutrient feed rates and induction of expression in shake flasks or bioreactors, as well as oxygen transfer rates in micro-well plates. In this study we wanted to generate a predictive model that described small-scale screens and to test its scalability to bioreactors. Results Here we demonstrate how the use of a DoE approach in a multi-well mini-bioreactor permitted the rapid establishment of high yielding production phase conditions that could be transferred to a 7 L bioreactor. Using green fluorescent protein secreted from Pichia pastoris, we derived a predictive model of protein yield as a function of the three most commonly-varied process parameters: temperature, pH and the percentage of dissolved oxygen in the culture medium. Importantly, when yield was normalised to culture volume and density, the model was scalable from mL to L working volumes. By increasing pre-induction biomass accumulation, model-predicted yields were further improved. Yield improvement was most significant, however, on varying the fed-batch induction regime to minimise methanol accumulation so that the productivity of the culture increased throughout the whole induction period. These findings suggest the importance of matching the rate of protein production with the host metabolism. Conclusion We demonstrate how a rational, stepwise approach to recombinant protein production screens can reduce process development time. PMID:19570229

Holmes, William J; Darby, Richard AJ; Wilks, Martin DB; Smith, Rodney; Bill, Roslyn M

2009-01-01

383

Estimation of corn and soybeans yield using remote sensing and crop yield data in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crop yield estimation is essential for the food security and the economic development of any nation. Particularly, the United States is the world largest grain exporter, and the total amount of corn exported from the U.S. accounted for 49.2% of the world corn trade in 2010 and 2011. Thus, accurate estimation of crop yield in U.S. is very significant for not only the U.S. crop producers but also decision makers of food importing countries. Estimating the crop yield using remote sensing data plays an important role in the Agricultural Sector, and it is actively discussed and studied in many countries. This is because remote sensing can observe the large areas repetitively. Consequently, the use of various techniques based on remote sensing data is steadily increasing to accurately estimate for crop yield. Therefore, the objective of this study is to estimate the accurate yield of corn and soybeans using climate dataset of PRISM climate group and Terra/MODIS products in the United States. We construct the crop yield estimation model for the decade (2001-2010) and perform predictions and validation for 2011 and 2012.

Kim, Nari; Lee, Yang-Won

2014-10-01

384

Runge Kutta integrators yield optimal regularization schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymptotic regularization (also called Showalter's method) is a theoretically appealing regularization scheme for an ill-posed problem Tx = y, T acting between Hilbert spaces. Here, Tx = y is stably solved by evaluating the solution of the evolution equation u'(t) = T*(y - Tu(t)), u(0) = 0, at a properly chosen finite time. For a numerical realization, however, we have to apply an integrator to the ODE. Fortunately all properties of asymptotic regularization carry over to its numerical realization: Runge-Kutta integrators yield optimal regularization schemes when stopped by the discrepancy principle. In this way a common analysis is obtained for such different regularization schemes as, for instance, the Landweber iteration and the iterated Tikhonov-Phillips method which are generated by the explicit and implicit Euler integrators, respectively. Furthermore it turns out that inconsistent Runge-Kutta schemes, which are useless for solving ODEs, lead to optimal regularizations as well which can even be more efficient than regularizations from consistent Runge-Kutta integrators. The presented computational examples illustrate the theoretical findings and demonstrate that implicit schemes outperform the explicit ones.

Rieder, Andreas

2005-04-01

385

The positive significant effect of these treatments was observed mainly in single pregnant ewes; this observation was correlated with a significant increase of milk yields during machine  

E-print Network

. Hormonal treatments at the end of pregnancy, increasing plasma levels of prolactin, thyroxin and corticoids of sheep-meat in the E.E.C., and France 25 p. 100. Italy has a large flock, but produces little sheep-meat of the E.E.C. market. As sheep-meat is not under any common regulation, each member state applies its own

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Precise measurement of exoplanet atmosphere yields surprising results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists studying the atmospheres of hot, gassy exoplanets recently found significantly less water than predicted in one exoplanet's atmosphere. Researchers at the University of Cambridge published their findings in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-08-01

387

Accretionary orogens: definition, character, significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classic models of orogens involve a Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing with orogenesis related to continent-continent collision. Such models fail to explain the geological history of a significant number of orogenic belts throughout the world in which deformation, metamorphism and crustal growth took place in an environment of on-going plate convergence. These belts are termed accretionary orogens but have also been refereed to as non-collisional orogens, Pacific-type orogens, Turkic-type and exterior orogens. Accretionary orogens evolve in generally curvilinear belts comprising dominantly mafic to silicic igneous rocks and their sedimentary products and accumulated largely in marine settings. They are variably deformed and metamorphosed by tectono-thermal events aligned parallel to, and punctuating, facies trends. Accretionary orogens form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere and consist of magmatic arcs systems along with material accreted from the downgoing plate and eroded from the upper plate. Deformational features include structures formed in extension and compressive environments during steady-state convergence (arc/backarc vs. accretionary prism) that are overprinted by short regional compressive orogenic events. Orogenesis takes place through coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion over-riding the downgoing plate. The Circum-Pacific region provides outstanding examples of accretionary orogens. The Pacific formed during breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic and has never subsequently closed, resulting in a series of overall ocean-ward younging orogenic systems that have always faced an open ocean, yet have been the sites of repeated tectono-thermal events and continental growth. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products and include Archean greenstone belts, the Paleoproterozoic Birimian orogen (W. Africa), the Arabian-Nubian shield (Pan African) and Paleozoic orogens in Asia.

Cawood, P. A.; Kroener, A.; Windley, B. F.

2003-04-01

388

[Influence of plant growth regulater on yield and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza].  

PubMed

The study is aimed to investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on yield and quality of the Salvia miltiorrhiza. The plant growth regulators was spraying on Salvia plants in July or August in field experiment, then the yield, ingredient content and the antioxidant activity were determined. The results showed that plant growth regulator 'Zhuanggenling' could increase the yield of Salvia with root-planting by 38.45%. Plant growth regulator 'Duoxiaozuo' could increase the yield of Salvia with seedling planting by 14.19%. Both plant growth regulator significantly reduced the antioxidant activity of Salvia in vitro, but they had no significant effect on active ingredient contents. PMID:25272828

Li, Xian-En; Zhang, Xiao-Yang

2014-06-01

389

Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBX32 gene in soybean increases grain yield.  

PubMed

Crop yield is a highly complex quantitative trait. Historically, successful breeding for improved grain yield has led to crop plants with improved source capacity, altered plant architecture, and increased resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To date, transgenic approaches towards improving crop grain yield have primarily focused on protecting plants from herbicide, insects, or disease. In contrast, we have focused on identifying genes that, when expressed in soybean, improve the intrinsic ability of the plant to yield more. Through the large scale screening of candidate genes in transgenic soybean, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana B-box domain gene (AtBBX32) that significantly increases soybean grain yield year after year in multiple transgenic events in multi-location field trials. In order to understand the underlying physiological changes that are associated with increased yield in transgenic soybean, we examined phenotypic differences in two AtBBX32-expressing lines and found increases in plant height and node, flower, pod, and seed number. We propose that these phenotypic changes are likely the result of changes in the timing of reproductive development in transgenic soybean that lead to the increased duration of the pod and seed development period. Consistent with the role of BBX32 in A. thaliana in regulating light signaling, we show that the constitutive expression of AtBBX32 in soybean alters the abundance of a subset of gene transcripts in the early morning hours. In particular, AtBBX32 alters transcript levels of the soybean clock genes GmTOC1 and LHY-CCA1-like2 (GmLCL2). We propose that through the expression of AtBBX32 and modulation of the abundance of circadian clock genes during the transition from dark to light, the timing of critical phases of reproductive development are altered. These findings demonstrate a specific role for AtBBX32 in modulating soybean development, and demonstrate the validity of expressing single genes in crops to deliver increased agricultural productivity. PMID:22363475

Preuss, Sasha B; Meister, Robert; Xu, Qingzhang; Urwin, Carl P; Tripodi, Federico A; Screen, Steven E; Anil, Veena S; Zhu, Shuquan; Morrell, James A; Liu, Grace; Ratcliffe, Oliver J; Reuber, T Lynne; Khanna, Rajnish; Goldman, Barry S; Bell, Erin; Ziegler, Todd E; McClerren, Amanda L; Ruff, Thomas G; Petracek, Marie E

2012-01-01

390

Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer  

PubMed Central

Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2?cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5?m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the compost heights (0.8?m and 1.5?m). The yield on compost height of 1.5?m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of 0.8?m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1?:?1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1?:?1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5?m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1?:?1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom. PMID:25580299

Kortei, N. K.; Dzogbefia, V. P.; Obodai, M.

2014-01-01

391

Redefining agricultural yields: from tonnes to people nourished per hectare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide demand for crops is increasing rapidly due to global population growth, increased biofuel production, and changing dietary preferences. Meeting these growing demands will be a substantial challenge that will tax the capability of our food system and prompt calls to dramatically boost global crop production. However, to increase food availability, we may also consider how the world’s crops are allocated to different uses and whether it is possible to feed more people with current levels of crop production. Of particular interest are the uses of crops as animal feed and as biofuel feedstocks. Currently, 36% of the calories produced by the world’s crops are being used for animal feed, and only 12% of those feed calories ultimately contribute to the human diet (as meat and other animal products). Additionally, human-edible calories used for biofuel production increased fourfold between the years 2000 and 2010, from 1% to 4%, representing a net reduction of available food globally. In this study, we re-examine agricultural productivity, going from using the standard definition of yield (in tonnes per hectare, or similar units) to using the number of people actually fed per hectare of cropland. We find that, given the current mix of crop uses, growing food exclusively for direct human consumption could, in principle, increase available food calories by as much as 70%, which could feed an additional 4 billion people (more than the projected 2-3 billion people arriving through population growth). Even small shifts in our allocation of crops to animal feed and biofuels could significantly increase global food availability, and could be an instrumental tool in meeting the challenges of ensuring global food security.

Cassidy, Emily S.; West, Paul C.; Gerber, James S.; Foley, Jonathan A.

2013-09-01

392

AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC: Clinical Significance  

PubMed Central

“Gain-of-function” and “loss-of-function” studies in human cancer cells and analysis of a transgenic mouse model have convincingly established that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC performs a seminal role in regulating proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance, the salient defining hallmarks of cancer. These observations are strongly buttressed by clinicopathologic correlations of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC expression in a diverse array of cancers distinguishing AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC as an independent biomarker for highly aggressive metastatic disease with poor prognosis. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has been shown to be a marker predicting response to chemotherapy, and serum anti-AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC antibody titer also serves as a predictor of advanced stages of aggressive cancer. However, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the localization of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC protein in the nucleus or cytoplasm of cancer cells and the utility of nuclear or cytoplasmic AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC to predict the course and prognosis of disease. This chapter provides a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature to emphasize the common and conflicting findings relative to the clinical significance of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in cancer. PMID:23889987

Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

2014-01-01

393

Going Local to Find Help  

MedlinePLUS

... Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... phone numbers, maps and directions, such as To Find Out More: Visit www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

394

Finding an Eye Care Professional  

MedlinePLUS

Finding an Eye Care Professional Listen Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific eye care professionals. However, you may wish to consider the ...

395

Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high- and low- yielding dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Electrocardiography (ECG) may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00%) compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%). The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%), wandering pacemaker (22.45 %), bradycardia (18.37%), tachycardia (10.20%), atrial premature beat (2.04%), sinoatrial block (2.04%), atrial fibrillation (8.16%) and atrial tachycardia (2.04%). The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95%) and wandering pacemaker (13.05%). Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows. PMID:25568685

Jafari Dehkordi, Afshin; Nasser Mohebi, Abdonnaser; Heidari Soreshjani, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

396

Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.  

PubMed

Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-12-01

397

Distinguishing between yield advances and yield plateaus in historical crop production trends  

PubMed Central

Food security and land required for food production largely depend on rate of yield gain of major cereal crops. Previous projections of food security are often more optimistic than what historical yield trends would support. Many econometric projections of future food production assume compound rates of yield gain, which are not consistent with historical yield trends. Here we provide a framework to characterize past yield trends and show that linear trajectories adequately describe past yield trends, which means the relative rate of gain decreases over time. Furthermore, there is evidence of yield plateaus or abrupt decreases in rate of yield gain, including rice in eastern Asia and wheat in northwest Europe, which account for 31% of total global rice, wheat and maize production. Estimating future food production capacity would benefit from an analysis of past crop yield trends based on a robust statistical analysis framework that evaluates historical yield trajectories and plateaus. PMID:24346131

Grassini, Patricio; Eskridge, Kent M.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2013-01-01

398

Primary epiploic appendagitis: MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA) occurs secondary to inflammation of an epiploic appendage, and is considered to be a rare cause of acute abdomen. In this case report, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of PEA correlated with computed tomographic (CT) findings. MRI findings included an oval shaped fat intensity mass with a central dot on T1- and T2-weighted

Mustafa ?irvanci; N. Cem Balci; Kutlay Karaman; Cihan Duran; Ercan Karaka?

2002-01-01

399

Search for the neutral current top quark decay t{yields}Zc using the ratio of Z-boson+4 jets to W-boson+4 jets production  

SciTech Connect

We have used the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF-II) to search for the flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) top-quark decay t{yields}Zc using a technique employing ratios of W and Z production, measured in pp data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.52 fb{sup -1}. The analysis uses a comparison of two decay chains, pp{yields}tt{yields}WbWb{yields}l{nu}bjjb and pp{yields}tt{yields}ZcWb{yields}llcjjb, to cancel systematic uncertainties in acceptance, efficiency, and luminosity. We validate the modeling of acceptance and efficiency for lepton identification over the multiyear data set using another ratio of W and Z production, in this case the observed ratio of inclusive production of W to Z bosons. To improve the discrimination against standard model backgrounds to top-quark decays, we calculate the top-quark mass for each event with two leptons and four jets assuming it is a tt event with one of the top quarks decaying to Zc. For additional background discrimination we require at least one jet to be identified as originating from a b quark. No significant signal is found and we set an upper limit on the FCNC branching ratio Br(t{yields}Zc) using a likelihood constructed from the llcjjb top-quark mass distribution and the number of l{nu}bjjb events. Limits are set as a function of the helicity of the Z boson produced in the FCNC decay. For 100% longitudinally-polarized Z bosons we find limits of 8.3% and 9.3% (95% C.L.) depending on the assumptions regarding the theoretical top-quark pair production cross section.

Aaltonen, T.; Maki, T.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Remortel, N. van [Division of High Energy Physics, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Adelman, J.; Brubaker, E.; Fedorko, W. T.; Frisch, H. J.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Kim, Y. K.; Krop, D.; Kwang, S.; Lee, H. S.; Paramonov, A. A.; Schmidt, M. A.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M. [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] (and others)

2009-09-01

400

Assessment of statistical significance and clinical relevance.  

PubMed

In drug development, it is well accepted that a successful study will demonstrate not only a statistically significant result but also a clinically relevant effect size. Whereas standard hypothesis tests are used to demonstrate the former, it is less clear how the latter should be established. In the first part of this paper, we consider the responder analysis approach and study the performance of locally optimal rank tests when the outcome distribution is a mixture of responder and non-responder distributions. We find that these tests are quite sensitive to their planning assumptions and have therefore not really any advantage over standard tests such as the t-test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, which perform overall well and can be recommended for applications. In the second part, we present a new approach to the assessment of clinical relevance based on the so-called relative effect (or probabilistic index) and derive appropriate sample size formulae for the design of studies aiming at demonstrating both a statistically significant and clinically relevant effect. Referring to recent studies in multiple sclerosis, we discuss potential issues in the application of this approach. PMID:23018516

Kieser, Meinhard; Friede, Tim; Gondan, Matthias

2013-05-10

401

Spectral reflectance indices for estimating yield and water content in spring wheat genotypes under well irrigated, water stress, and high temperature conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study. Alternative methods for selecting, detecting, and identifying higher yielding genotypes in wheat breeding programs are important for obtaining major genetic gains. The water indices can be used as an indirect selection tool because of their strong association with different physiological and yield components. Diverse spring wheat advanced lines were used, which corresponded to three international trials developed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT); 24th Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT) with 25 lines, 11th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT) with 40 lines, and 11th High Temperature Wheat Yield Trial (HTWYT) with 18 lines. Two other experiments also employed advanced lines for testing the relationship between water indices and water content parameters (10-16 lines) and for evaluating the influence of morphological traits (20 lines) over the water indices. Several water indices and other reflectance indices were estimated at three growth stages (booting, heading, and grain filling) using a field portable spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Devices, Boulder, CO). Field plots were planted in Northwest Mexico during three growing seasons (2006, 2007, and 2007). Grain yield, biomass, and some water status parameters were determined in diverse experiments. Findings and Conclusions. There were high correlations (phenotypic and genetic) between grain yield and the water indices showing high heritability, response to selection and correlated response, relative selection efficiency, and efficiency in selecting the higher yielding genotypes. Two water indices showed the strongest relationships (NWI-1 and NWI-3) for all the parameters determined in the well irrigated, water stress, and high temperature environments. In addition, the water indices were related with parameters commonly employed for assessing the crop water status ( i.e., water potential) during booting, anthesis and grain filling under water stress conditions. Finally, our results demonstrated that the relationship between the water indices and grain yield was affected mainly by erect leaves and spike orientation. The potential for employing the water indices for selecting high yielding lines represents a significant advantage in breeding programs because the top yielding lines can be selected in an accurate, inexpensive, and easy manner. In addition, the best high yielding lines maintained high canopy water content under water stress conditions.

Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Mario

402

Yield stress of cemented tungsten carbide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cemented tungsten carbide yields plastically at room temperature in the presence of a large hydrostatic pressure component. By approximate analysis of the state of stress in supported opposed anvils and by measurement of the pressure at which the anvil tips exhibit a permanent deviation from planarity, we have obtained the yield stress of such materials. Our value for the yield stress of a 3% cobalt cemented tungsten carbide is 86 kbar.

Ruoff, A. L.; Wanagel, J.

1975-01-01

403

Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new yield\\/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materials. This is a fundamental key to model

Davide Bigoni; Andrea Piccolroaz

2004-01-01

404

Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new yield\\/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materals. This is a fundamental key to model

Davide Bigoni; Andrea Piccolroaz

2010-01-01

405

New findings presented at European breast cancer conference  

Cancer.gov

An experimental model of breast cancer has yielded exciting new insights into why some breast cancers become resistant to endocrine therapies such as tamoxifen, say researchers from the Hospital of Prato, Italy, and the Breast Center at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston. Their findings could lead to new treatments and prognostic tests for the disease.

406

FINDING SPEAKER IDENTITIES WITH A CONDITIONAL MAXIMUM ENTR OPY MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the task of identifying the speaker s by name in audio content. Identification of speakers by name hel ps to improve the readability of the transcript and also provides additional meta-data which can help in finding the audio content of inter est. We present a conditional maximum entropy (maxent) framework for this problem which yields

Chengyuan Ma; Patrick Nguyen; Milind Mahajan

407

Finding Speaker Identities with a Conditional Maximum Entropy Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the task of identifying the speakers by name in audio content. Identification of speakers by name helps to improve the readability of the transcript and also provides additional meta-data which can help in finding the audio content of interest. We present a conditional maximum entropy (maxent) framework for this problem which yields superior performance and

Chengyuan Ma; P. Nguyen; M. Mahajan

2007-01-01

408

Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods  

SciTech Connect

Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1991-06-01

409

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

Haun, J. R.

1976-01-01

410

Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

411

Knowledge translation of research findings  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation. PMID:22651257

2012-01-01

412

The energetic and nutritional yields from insectivory for Kasekela chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Insectivory is hypothesized to be an important source of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet nutritional data based on actual intake are lacking. Drawing on observations from 2008 to 2010 and recently published nutritional assays, we determined the energy, macronutrient and mineral yields for termite-fishing (Macrotermes), ant-dipping (Dorylus), and ant-fishing (Camponotus) by the Kasekela chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We also estimated the yields from consumption of weaver ants (Oecophylla) and termite alates (Macrotermes and Pseudacanthotermes). On days when chimpanzees were observed to prey on insects, the time spent in insectivorous behavior ranged from <1 min to over 4 h. After excluding partial bouts and those of <1 min duration, ant-dipping bouts were of significantly shorter duration than the other two forms of tool-assisted insectivory but provided the highest mass intake rate. Termite-fishing bouts were of significantly longer duration than ant-dipping and had a lower mass intake rate, but provided higher mean and maximum mass yields. Ant-fishing bouts were comparable to termite-fishing bouts in duration but had significantly lower mass intake rates. Mean and maximum all-day yields from termite-fishing and ant-dipping contributed to or met estimated recommended intake (ERI) values for a broad array of minerals. The mean and maximum all-day yields of other insects consistently contributed to the ERI only for manganese. All forms of insectivory provided small but probably non-trivial amounts of fat and protein. We conclude that different forms of insectivory have the potential to address different nutritional needs for Kasekela chimpanzees. Other than honeybees, insects have received little attention as potential foods for hominins. Our results suggest that ants and (on a seasonal basis) termites would have been viable sources of fat, high-quality protein and minerals for extinct hominins employing Pan-like subsistence technology in East African woodlands. PMID:24698197

O'Malley, Robert C; Power, Michael L

2014-06-01

413

Characteristics of water-well yields in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mean yields and the numbers of wells drilled are presented for 35 rock types containing 4,115 wells in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia. Analysis of variance of the well yields shows that Harper's Formation phyllite and Catoctin Formation metabasalt have yields significantly different from those of other rock types. Preliminary variography has identified an anisotropy that roughly parallels the general compressional trend of the Blue Ridge.

Sutphin, David M.; Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Burton, W.C.

2000-01-01

414

Detection of Clinically Significant Retinopathy of Prematurity Using Wide-angle Digital Retinal Photography  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the accuracy of detecting clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) using wide-angle digital retinal photography. Methods Literature searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were conducted last on December 7, 2010, and yielded 414 unique citations. The authors assessed these 414 citations and marked 82 that potentially met the inclusion criteria. These 82 studies were reviewed in full text; 28 studies met inclusion criteria. The authors extracted from these studies information about study design, interventions, outcomes, and study quality. After data abstraction, 18 were excluded for study deficiencies or because they were superseded by a more recent publication. The methodologist reviewed the remaining 10 studies and assigned ratings of evidence quality; 7 studies were rated level I evidence and 3 studies were rated level III evidence. Results There is level I evidence from ?5 studies demonstrating that digital retinal photography has high accuracy for detection of clinically significant ROP. Level III studies have reported high accuracy, without any detectable complications, from real-world operational programs intended to detect clinically significant ROP through remote site interpretation of wide-angle retinal photographs. Conclusions Wide-angle digital retinal photography has the potential to complement standard ROP care. It may provide advantages through objective documentation of clinical examination findings, improved recognition of disease progression by comparing previous photographs, and the creation of image libraries for education and research. Financial Disclosure(s) Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. PMID:22541632

Chiang, Michael F.; Melia, Michele; Buffenn, Angela N.; Lambert, Scott R.; Recchia, Franco M.; Simpson, Jennifer L.; Yang, Michael B.

2013-01-01

415

Why Publishing Everything Is More Effective than Selective Publishing of Statistically Significant Results  

PubMed Central

Background De Winter and Happee [1] examined whether science based on selective publishing of significant results may be effective in accurate estimation of population effects, and whether this is even more effective than a science in which all results are published (i.e., a science without publication bias). Based on their simulation study they concluded that “selective publishing yields a more accurate meta-analytic estimation of the true effect than publishing everything, (and that) publishing nonreplicable results while placing null results in the file drawer can be beneficial for the scientific collective” (p.4). Methods and Findings Using their scenario with a small to medium population effect size, we show that publishing everything is more effective for the scientific collective than selective publishing of significant results. Additionally, we examined a scenario with a null effect, which provides a more dramatic illustration of the superiority of publishing everything over selective publishing. Conclusion Publishing everything is more effective than only reporting significant outcomes. PMID:24465448

van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.; van Aert, Robbie C. M.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

2014-01-01

416

Online physical activity information: will typical users find quality information?  

PubMed

This study evaluated physical activity Web sites to determine quality, accuracy, and consistency with principles of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). Three keyword searches were conducted using 4 search engines to find a sample of N = 41 Web sites. Three raters evaluated the Web sites using the JAMA benchmarks to assess quality and American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for physical activity to determine accuracy, as well as checking for inclusion of EPPM variables. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance with least squares means. Only 22% of the sites were high quality, none were highly accurate, and most were consistent with the EPPM. Quality ratings were weakly associated with accuracy. Educational and .net sites were rated significantly higher in quality and accuracy, and government sites were most consistent with the EPPM. Quality Web sites were more often found by using Yahoo and Google. "Exercise" yielded more accurate results, whereas "physical activity" and "fitness" produced more Web sites consistent with the EPPM. It is encouraging that most sites incorporated EPPM concepts; however, quality and accuracy were poor, leaving physical activity information seekers at risk for disease and injury. PMID:19280460

Bonnar-Kidd, Kelly K; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Dan

2009-03-01

417

Rain-fed fig yield as affected by rainfall distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable annual rainfall and its uneven distribution are the major uncontrolled inputs in rain-fed fig production and possibly the main cause of yield fluctuation in Istahban region of Fars Province, I.R. of Iran. This introduces a considerable risk in rain-fed fig production. The objective of this study was to find relationships between seasonal rainfall distribution and rain-fed fig production in Istahban region to determine the critical rainfall periods for rain-fed fig production and supplementary irrigation water application. Further, economic analysis for rain-fed fig production was considered in this region to control the risk of production. It is concluded that the monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall indices are able to show the effects of rainfall and its distribution on the rain-fed fig yield. Fig yield with frequent occurrence of 80 % is 374 kg ha-1. The internal rates of return for interest rate of 4, 8 and 12 % are 21, 58 and 146 %, respectively, that are economically feasible. It is concluded that the rainfall in spring especially in April and in December has negatively affected fig yield due to its interference with the life cycle of Blastophaga bees for pollination. Further, it is concluded that when the rainfall is limited, supplementary irrigation can be scheduled in March.

Bagheri, Ensieh; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza

2014-08-01

418

Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements  

SciTech Connect

A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

2011-04-06

419

Pollinator shortage and global crop yield  

PubMed Central

A pollinator decline caused by environmental degradation might be compromising the production of pollinator-dependent crops. In a recent article, we compared 45 year series (1961–2006) in yield, production and cultivated area of pollinator-dependent and nondependent crop around the world. If pollinator shortage is occurring globally, we expected a lower annual growth rate in yield for pollinator-dependent than nondependent crops, but a higher growth in cultivated area to compensate the lower yield. We have found little evidence for the first “yield” prediction but strong evidence for the second “area” prediction. Here, we present an additional analysis to show that the first and second predictions are both supported for crops that vary in dependency levels from nondependent to moderate dependence (i.e., up to 65% average yield reduction without pollinators). However, those crops for which animal pollination is essential (i.e., 95% average yield reduction without pollinators) showed higher growth in yield and lower expansion in area than expected in a pollination shortage scenario. We propose that pollination management for highly pollinator-dependent crops, such us renting hives or hand pollination, might have compensated for pollinator limitation of yield. PMID:19704865

Aizen, Marcelo A; Cunningham, Saul A; Klein, Alexandra M

2009-01-01

420

Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

421

High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are

W. X. Su; J. S. Hsieh

1993-01-01

422

Long-term Studies on Yield and Quality of Java Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) in Relation to Nitrogen Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies have been conduced over a five-year period to examine the effect of nitrogen application on the yield and quality of essential oil in Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) in a semi-arid tropical region in South India. The results showed that the yield per unit area of citronella fresh plant (herbage) differed significantly between years; the yields increased up

Eranki V. S. Prakasa Rao; Munnu Singh

1991-01-01

423

Risk assessment model of drought-caused winter wheat yield loss and its applications in Henan province  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a major agrometeorological disaster of winter wheat in Henan, drought is a big contributing factor to the steady rise of the yield. To make risk assessment of the drought-caused yield decline is of much significance to rational choice of culvars and putting forth measures against drought loss. Based on interannual meteorological and yield records, analysis is undertaken of yearly

Ronghua Liu; Shuanghe Shen; Zixi Zhu; Wenying Kang; Wensong Fang; Youhe Wang

2006-01-01

424

Plasma nicotine levels after smoking cigarettes with high, medium, and low nicotine yields.  

PubMed Central

Plasma nicotine three minutes after smoking a cigarette was measured in 10 sedentary workers in mid-morning and five hours later on four typical working days. The average mid-morning level after they had been smoking their usual cigarettes (mean nicotine yield 1-34 ng) was 150-4 nmol/l (24-4 ng/ml) (range 95-6-236-7 nmol/l (15-5-38-4 ng/ml)). Despite great variation between smokersthe mid-morning levels of each smoker were fairly consistent over the four mornings and correlated 0-82 with their carboxyhaemoglobin levels. After continuing to smoke their usual brand or switching to a high-nicotine brand (3-2 mg) average afternoon levels of 185-6 and 180-0 nmol/6 (30-1 and 29-2 ng/ml) respectively were not significantly higher than the morning levels, but after switching to low-nicotine cigarettes (0-14 mg) the plasma nicotine dropped to an average of 52-4 nmol/l (8-5 ng/ml). The changes between morning and afternoon while smoking usual or high-nicotine cigarettes showed marked individual variation. The findings suggest that the plasma nicotine level just after a cigarette depends more on the way the cigarette is smoked than on its nicotine yield or the number which have been smoked over the preceding few hours. PMID:1168517

Russell, M A; Wilson, C; Patel, U A; Feyerabend, C; Cole, P V

1975-01-01

425

Bioinoculants: a sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways. PMID:24097367

Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

2013-10-01

426

Combined sugar yields for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-print Network

Combined sugar yields for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic over a range of sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.22%, 0.49% and 0.98% w/w at 140, 160, 180 and 200 °C (Lamptey et al., 1985). Adding small amounts of a sulfuric acid significantly enhanced xylose yields from

California at Riverside, University of

427

Effect of light scalar mesons in {eta} {yields} 3{pi}  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the decay {eta} {yields} 3{pi}, for which the observed branching ratio is larger than the simplest predict ions from chiral symmetry. This process occurs primarily due to strong isospin violation and so is in principle a sensitive measure of the up-down quark mass difference. We study the role of a possible nonet of light scalar mesons in the {eta} {yields} 3{pi} decay. Using a non-linear chiral Lagrangian approach which successfully describes several other strong processes, we find that the inclusion of the scalar mesons leads to a modest increase relative to the simplest prediction. The main effect of the scalar mesons is due to a light broad {sigma} meson.

A. Abdel-Rehim; Deirdre Black; A. H. Fariborz; J. Schechter

2004-02-05

428

How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker & Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2012) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Kinney & Graham, 1985). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.

2012-04-01

429

Find it early: Get screened  

E-print Network

blood (FOBT or FIT), or colonoscopy every 10 years following a normal exam. · BreastCancer Annual for at least 30 minutes, most days of the week. · Limit intake of alcohol to 1 drink per day for women and 2Find it early: Get screened Why? Screening can find cancer before symptoms develop. Screening

Myers, Lawrence C.

430

Finding Concurrency Bugs In Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because threads are a core feature of the Java language, the widespread adoption of Java has exposed a much wider audi- ence to concurrency than previous languages have. Concur- rent programs are notoriously dicult to write correctly, and many subtle bugs can result from incorrect use of threads and synchronization. Therefore, finding techniques to find concurrency bugs is an important

David Hovemeyer; William Pugh

2004-01-01

431

Algebraic tensegrity form-finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the form-finding problem for general and symmetric tensegrity structures with shape constraints. A number of different geometries are treated and several fundamental properties of tensegrity structures are identified that simplify the form-finding problem. The concept of a tensegrity invariance (similarity) transformation is defined and it is shown that tensegrity equilibrium is preserved under affine node position transformations.

Milenko Masic; Robert E. Skelton; Philip E. Gill

2005-01-01

432

Tuberculosis Case Finding: Evaluation of a Paper Slip Method to Trace Contacts  

PubMed Central

Setting South Africa has the third highest tuberculosis (TB) burden in the world. Intensified case finding, recommended by WHO, is one way to control TB. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a paper slip method for TB contact tracing. Method TB patients were offered paper slips to give to their contacts, inviting them for TB screening. The number of contacts screened and the proportion diagnosed with TB was calculated. Contacts that returned to the clinic after receiving the slips were interviewed. A focus group discussion (FGD) with TB patients was held to determine their acceptability. Results From 718 paper slips issued, a 26% TB contact tracing rate was found, with a 12% case detection rate. The majority (68%) of contacts were screened within 2 weeks of receiving the slip. Age and gender were not significantly associated with time to screening. 16% of the contacts screened did not reside with the TB patients. 98% of the contacts said the method was acceptable. FGD findings show that this method is acceptable and may prevent stigma associated with TB/HIV. Conclusion This simple, inexpensive method yields high contact tracing and case detection rates and potentially would yield additional benefits outside households. PMID:24073277

Mwansa-Kambafwile, Judith; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Gharbaharan, Varanna; Venter, Francois W. D.; Maitshotlo, Boitumelo; Black, Andrew

2013-01-01

433

Relation of nicotine yield of cigarettes to blood nicotine concentrations in smokers.  

PubMed Central

Blood nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) concentrations were studied in 330 smokers (206 women and 124 men). Blood nicotine concentrations in individual smokers varied from 25 to 444 nmol/l (4 to 72 ng/ml). The average concentration, 203 nmol/l (33 ng/ml), was the same in the men and the women, although cigarette consumption was higher in the men. Despite large differences in nicotine yield, there was no relation between blood nicotine concentration and the type of cigarette smoked: smokers of plain, untipped cigarettes (1.9 mg nicotine), cigarettes with unventilated filters (1.3 mg nicotine), and cigarettes with ventilated filters (0.8 mg nicotine) had similar blood nicotine concentrations. Cigarette consumption was also similar in these three groups. The correlation between blood nicotine concentration and nicotine yield of cigarette, though significant, was low (0.21, p < 0.001), showing that the nicotine yield of the cigarettes accounted for only 4.4% of the variation in blood nicotine concentrations. Similarly, the low correlation of 0.30 between COHb concentration and cigarette consumption suggests that cigarette consumption accounted for only 9% of the variation in the amount of smoke taken into the smokers' lungs. These results suggest that the assumed health advantage of switching to lower-tar and lower-nicotine cigarettes may be largely offset by the tendency of smokers to compensate by increasing inhalation. The findings of epidemiological studies showing lower risks with filter-tipped cigarettes may be attributable to other factors such as biases in the samples and changes in the quality and carcinogenicity of tobacco tar, rather than to reduced tar intake. PMID:7417765

Russell, M A; Jarvis, M; Iyer, R; Feyerabend, C

1980-01-01

434

Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.  

PubMed

To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565

Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

2014-05-01

435

Comparison of D{yields}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi} and D{yields}K{sub L}{sup 0}{pi} Decay Rates  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of D{yields}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi} and D{yields}K{sub L}{sup 0}{pi} branching fractions using 281 pb{sup -1} of {psi}(3770) data at the CLEO-c experiment. We find that B(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) is larger than B(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sub L}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}), with an asymmetry of R(D{sup 0})=0.108{+-}0.025{+-}0.024. For B(D{sup +}{yields}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}) and B(D{sup +}{yields}K{sub L}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}), we observe no measurable difference; the asymmetry is R(D{sup +})=0.022{+-}0.016{+-}0.018. The D{sup 0} asymmetry is consistent with the value based on the U-spin prediction A(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})/A(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})=-tan{sup 2}{theta}{sub C}, where {theta}{sub C} is the Cabibbo angle.

He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Coan, T. E.; Gao, Y. S. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)] (and others)

2008-03-07

436

cysteine-containing dipeptides in high yield and without significant loss of chirality at the C2-exomethine carbon  

E-print Network

-exomethine carbon atom. Finally, the application of this method to one-pot tandem dehydrocyclizations containing late 3d transi- tion metal ions are proposed as key intermediates in bio- logical and chemical

Hendrich, Mike

437

The measure and significance of Bateman's principles  

PubMed Central

Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles. PMID:24648220

Collet, Julie M.; Dean, Rebecca F.; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S.; Pizzari, Tommaso

2014-01-01

438

Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

439

Yield drag associated with resistance to root-knot nematodes in high-yielding cotton germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...

440

Yield drag associated with resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in high-yielding cotton germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...

441

Yield Editor 2.0: software for automated removal of yield map errors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yield maps provide important information for developing and evaluating precision management strategies. The high-quality yield maps needed for decision-making require screening raw yield monitor datasets for errors and removing them before maps are made. To facilitate this process, we developed the ...

442

Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery and Yield Monitor Data for Mapping Cotton Yield Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased availability of hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acquired using an airborne imaging system from two cotton fields during the 2001 growing season, and yield data were collected from the

Chenghai Yang; James H. Everitt; Joe M. Bradford; Dale Murden

2004-01-01

443

Yield loci for an anisotropic granular assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield loci of a granular material are derived in case of triaxial compression carried out at constant pressure. The theory is based upon a simple micromechanical model in which particles move according to an average, homogeneous deformation. We show how the presence of an inherent anisotropy in the aggregate (typical of laboratory samples due to depositional processes) produces a deviation of the yield loci in the stress space from the expected Mohr-Coulomb prediction. That is, when the compaction pressure in an anisotropic aggregate is increased, irreversibility associated with sliding between particles occurs and this will influence the yield function in the subsequent triaxial test. Numerical simulations support the theoretical result.

La Ragione, Luigi; Oger, Luc

2012-10-01

444

Significant Cancer Prevention Factor Extraction: An Association Rule Discovery Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is increasing the total number of unexpected deaths around the world. Until now, cancer research could not significantly\\u000a contribute to a proper solution for the cancer patient, and as a result, the high death rate is uncontrolled. The present\\u000a research aim is to extract the significant prevention factors for particular types of cancer. To find out the prevention factors,

Jesmin Nahar; Kevin S. Tickle; A. B. M. Shawkat Ali; Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen

2011-01-01

445

Somatosensory Evoked Potential Findings in Ankylosing Spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) abnormalities were reported in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study aimed to investigate SSEP abnormalities and its relation with clinical findings in AS patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 26 patients with AS and 17 age-matched health volunteers (Control for SSEP). Median nerve SSEP findings were normal in all AS cases. Results: However, delayed latency and/or very low amplitude of tibial nerve SSEP was found in 20 (76.9%) AS patients. There were significant correlations between tibial SSEP latency and disease duration (R=0.433 to 0.635). There was also an inverse correlation between tibial SSEP amplitude and disease duration (R=?0.429, p=0.047). Serum estradiol level, hip total bone mineral density, The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) score and Beck depression score were significantly lower in AS patients with SSEP abnormalities (37.3±10.8 pg/mL, 0.916±0.123 g/cm2, 35.0±27.9, 12.8±8.4, respectively) than in AS patients without SSEP abnormalities (53.7±12.3 pg/mL, 1.103±0.197 g/cm2, 64.8±15.5, 24.8±10.1, respectively). Conclusion: Significant inverse correlations between SSEP latencies and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels were found (R=?0.400 to ?0.713). There were also significant inverse correlation between SSEP latencies and DHEAS/oestrogen index (R=?0.596 to ?0.868), and between SSEP latencies and DHEAS/Progesterone index (R=?0.467 to ?0.685). As a conclusion, this study indicates that tibial nerve SSEP abnormalities are common in patients with AS and there are significant correlations between clinical findings of AS and SSEP abnormalities. PMID:25610293

Cidem, Muharrem; Sahin, Zerrin; Aydin, Teoman; Aysal, Fikret

2014-01-01

446

Factors affecting herbicide yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, June 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be affected by the interdependence of the factors. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential factor in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 199094 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of factors affecting herbicide yields could be refined with more-current land use and land cover information and a more accurate estimate of the percentage of basin area planted in corn. Factors related to herbicide yields can be used to predict herbicide yields in other basins within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to develop an estimate of herbicide loads to Chesapeake Bay.Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be affected by the interdependence of the factors. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential factor in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 1990-94 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of factors affecting herbicide yields could be refined with more-current land use and land cover information and a more accurate estimate of the percentage of basin area planted in corn. Factors related to herbicide yields can be used to predict herbicide yields in other basins within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to develop an estimate of herbicide loads to Chesapeake Bay.

Hainly, R.A.; Kahn, J.M.

1996-01-01

447

Near unity quantum yield of light-driven redox mediator reduction and efficient H2 generation using colloidal nanorod heterostructures.  

PubMed

The advancement of direct solar-to-fuel conversion technologies requires the development of efficient catalysts as well as efficient materials and novel approaches for light harvesting and charge separation. We report a novel system for unprecedentedly efficient (with near-unity quantum yield) light-driven reduction of methylviologen (MV(2+)), a common redox mediator, using colloidal quasi-type II CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod nanorods as a light absorber and charge separator and mercaptopropionic acid as a sacrificial electron donor. In the presence of Pt nanoparticles, this system can efficiently convert sunlight into H(2), providing a versatile redox mediator-based approach for solar-to-fuel conversion. Compared to related CdSe seed and CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots and CdS nanorods, the quantum yields are significantly higher in the CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod structures. Comparison of charge separation, recombination and hole filling rates in these complexes showed that the dot-in-rod structure enables ultrafast electron transfer to methylviologen, fast hole removal by sacrificial electron donor and slow charge recombination, leading to the high quantum yield for MV(2+) photoreduction. Our finding demonstrates that by controlling the composition, size and shape of quantum-confined nanoheterostructures, the electron and hole wave functions can be tailored to produce efficient light harvesting and charge separation materials. PMID:22721499

Zhu, Haiming; Song, Nianhui; Lv, Hongjin; Hill, Craig L; Lian, Tianquan

2012-07-18

448

The genetic architecture of grain yield and related traits in Zea maize L. revealed by comparing intermated and conventional populations.  

PubMed

Using advanced intermated populations has been proposed as a way to increase the accuracy of mapping experiments. An F(3) population of 300 lines and an advanced intermated F(3) population of 322 lines, both derived from the same parental maize inbred lines, were jointly evaluated for dry grain yield (DGY), grain moisture (GM), and silking date (SD). Genetic variance for dry grain yield was significantly lower in the intermated population compared to the F(3) population. The confidence interval around a QTL was on average 2.31 times smaller in the intermated population compared to the F(3) population. One controversy surrounding QTL mapping is whether QTL identified in fact represent single loci. This study identifies two distinct loci for dry grain yield in the intermated population in coupling phase, while the F(3) identifies only a single locus. Surprisingly, fewer QTL were detected in the intermated population than the F(3) (21 vs. 30) and <50% of the detected QTL were shared among the two populations. Cross-validation showed that selection bias was more important in the intermated population than in the F(3) and that each detected QTL explained a lower percentage of the variance. This finding supports the hypothesis that QTL detected in conventional populations correspond mainly to clusters of linked QTL. The actual number of QTL involved in the genetic architecture of complex traits may be substantially larger, with effect sizes substantially smaller than in conventional populations. PMID:20592258

Huang, Yung-Fen; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Valérie; Ky, Chin Long; Coubriche, Denis; Jamin, Philippe; Jouanne, Sophie; Dumas, Fabrice; Bouty, Ellen; Bertin, Pascal; Charcosset, Alain; Moreau, Laurence

2010-09-01

449

The Genetic Architecture of Grain Yield and Related Traits in Zea maize L. Revealed by Comparing Intermated and Conventional Populations  

PubMed Central

Using advanced intermated populations has been proposed as a way to increase the accuracy of mapping experiments. An F3 population of 300 lines and an advanced intermated F3 population of 322 lines, both derived from the same parental maize inbred lines, were jointly evaluated for dry grain yield (DGY), grain moisture (GM), and silking date (SD). Genetic variance for dry grain yield was significantly lower in the intermated population compared to the F3 population. The confidence interval around a QTL was on average 2.31 times smaller in the intermated population compared to the F3 population. One controversy surrounding QTL mapping is whether QTL identified in fact represent single loci. This study identifies two distinct loci for dry grain yield in the intermated population in coupling phase, while the F3 identifies only a single locus. Surprisingly, fewer QTL were detected in the intermated population than the F3 (21 vs. 30) and <50% of the detected QTL were shared among the two populations. Cross-validation showed that selection bias was more important in the intermated population than in the F3 and that each detected QTL explained a lower percentage of the variance. This finding supports the hypothesis that QTL detected in conventional populations correspond mainly to clusters of linked QTL. The actual number of QTL involved in the genetic architecture of complex traits may be substantially larger, with effect sizes substantially smaller than in conventional populations. PMID:20592258

Huang, Yung-Fen; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Valérie; Ky, Chin Long; Coubriche, Denis; Jamin, Philippe; Jouanne, Sophie; Dumas, Fabrice; Bouty, Ellen; Bertin, Pascal; Charcosset, Alain; Moreau, Laurence

2010-01-01

450

A survey of DNA motif finding algorithms  

PubMed Central

Background Unraveling the mechanisms that regulate gene expression is a major challenge in biology. An important task in this challenge is to identify regulatory elements, especially the binding sites in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for transcription factors. These binding sites are short DNA segments that are called motifs. Recent advances in genome sequence availability and in high-throughput gene expression analysis technologies have allowed for the development of computational methods for motif finding. As a result, a large number of motif finding algorithms have been implemented and applied to various motif models over the past decade. This survey reviews the latest developments in DNA motif finding algorithms. Results Earlier algorithms use promoter sequences of coregulated genes from single genome and search for statistically overrepresented motifs. Recent algorithms are designed to use phylogenetic footprinting or orthologous sequences and also an integrated approach where promoter sequences of coregulated genes and phylogenetic footprinting are used. All the algorithms studied have been reported to correctly detect the motifs that have been previously detected by laboratory experimental approaches, and some algorithms were able to find novel motifs. However, most of these motif finding algorithms have been shown to work successfully in yeast and other lower organisms, but perform significantly worse in higher organisms. Conclusion Despite considerable efforts to date, DNA motif finding remains a complex challenge for biologists and computer scientists. Researchers have taken many different approaches in developing motif discovery tools and the progress made in this area of research is very encouraging. Performance comparison of different motif finding tools and identification of the best tools have proven to be a difficult task because tools are designed based on algorithms and motif models that are diverse and complex and our incomplete understanding of the biology of regulatory mechanism does not always provide adequate evaluation of underlying algorithms over motif models. PMID:18047721

Das, Modan K; Dai, Ho-Kwok

2007-01-01

451

Cultivating corn in clumps increases water efficiency, yield  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 26 C ornfields in the Texas High Plains may look a little different in the future if research findings by a group of scientists are adopted by farmers.This group is discovering that planting corn in clumps instead of the tradi...-tional rows increases water use efficiency and corn yield. Researchers are Dr. B.A. Stewart and graduate student Mohankumar Kapan-igowda of West Texas A&M University in Canyon, and Drs. Terry Howell, Louis Baumhardt, and Paul Colaizzi of the Conservation...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

452

Dissociative electron attachment in uracil: Total anion yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total relative yield of anions produced by electron impact on uracil has been measured at energies below ionization. Peaks associated with vibrational Feshbach, shape and core-excited resonances are observed, although the relative sizes differ from those measured using mass analysis. Observation of positive ionization in uracil permits normalization to the ionization cross section. Feil et al. [J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 (2004) 3013] have used the semi-classical Deutsch-Märk ionization cross section for this purpose. Using the D-M cross section for normalization, we find that the cross section for production of (U-H) - is substantially smaller than their mass selected result.

Aflatooni, K.; Scheer, A. M.; Burrow, P. D.

2005-06-01

453

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2010-10-01

454

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2013-10-01

455

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2012-10-01

456

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2011-10-01

457

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2014-10-01

458

User's appraisal of yield model evaluation criteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five major potential USDA users of AgRISTAR crop yield forecast models rated the Yield Model Development (YMD) project Test and Evaluation Criteria by the importance placed on them. These users were agreed that the "TIMELINES" and "RELIABILITY" of the forecast yields would be of major importance in determining if a proposed yield model was worthy of adoption. Although there was considerable difference of opinion as to the relative importance of the other criteria, "COST", "OBJECTIVITY", "ADEQUACY", AND "MEASURES OF ACCURACY" generally were felt to be more important that "SIMPLICITY" and "CONSISTENCY WITH SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE". However, some of the comments which accompanied the ratings did indicate that several of the definitions and descriptions of the criteria were confusing.

Warren, F. B. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

459

Radiation chemical yields of electrons in alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Nanosecond pulse radiolysis was used to investigate the dependence of electron capture yields on the concentrations of electron scavengers (benzyl chloride, anthracene, diphenyl) and scavengers of R/sub 2/CHOH/sup +/ and R/sub 2/CHOH/sub 2//sup +/ ions (R isH or alkyl) in methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, and n-butyl alcohols at room temperature. From these relationships it was found that in the series from methanol to n-butanol the yields of free electrons per 100 eV of absorbed energy fall from 1.9 to 1.2 while the yields of electrons disappearing in ''spurs'' rise from 2.7 to 3.2. The initial yields of electrons (solvated and ''dry''), found by summing these quantities, lie in the range 4.4-4.6.

Ponomarev, A.V.; Likaev, A.K.

1986-11-01

460

Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

Manatt, S. L.

1978-01-01

461

Solar Telescope Yields Striking New Sunspot Images  

NSF Publications Database

... Yields Striking New Sunspot Images This sunspot image shows what the new camera and adaptive ... times wider than Earth, was made possible by a new high-resolution CCD camera working in conjunction ...

462

Finding Surface Area and Volume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Using the isometric drawing tool, students build three-dimensional figures and find the surface area and volume of each figure." (from NCTM Illuminations) This is the fifth lesson of a six lesson unit.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-07-13

463

Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings  

PubMed Central

Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized. PMID:21493882

Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

2011-01-01

464

Dermoscopy findings of hidroacanthoma simplex.  

PubMed

Hidroacanthoma simplex (HAS), also known as intraepidermal eccrine poroma, is a rare eccrine adnexal tumor that tends to be misdiagnosed as other types of benign skin tumor, including clonal seborrheic keratosis. Notably, HAS is sometimes misdiagnosed and treated by cryosurgery as seborrheic keratosis, which could trigger the later development of porocarcinoma. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of HAS is indispensable for dermatologists to avoid the development of malignant tumors by an unsuitable treatment. In this report, we present the characteristic dermoscopy findings of HAS. Indeed, the dermoscopy findings might be related to the melanin-rich necrotic cells in the epidermis, which are quite different from dermoscopy findings of clonal seborrheic keratosis. As a previous report suggested, it is difficult for a dermatologist to differentiate HAS from clonal seborrheic keratosis by the naked eye. Our findings might be supportive for the early diagnosis of HAS. PMID:24987351

Sato, Yota; Fujimura, Taku; Tamabuchi, Erika; Haga, Takahiro; Aiba, Setsuya

2014-05-01

465

Dermoscopy Findings of Hidroacanthoma Simplex  

PubMed Central

Hidroacanthoma simplex (HAS), also known as intraepidermal eccrine poroma, is a rare eccrine adnexal tumor that tends to be misdiagnosed as other types of benign skin tumor, including clonal seborrheic keratosis. Notably, HAS is sometimes misdiagnosed and treated by cryosurgery as seborrheic keratosis, which could trigger the later development of porocarcinoma. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of HAS is indispensable for dermatologists to avoid the development of malignant tumors by an unsuitable treatment. In this report, we present the characteristic dermoscopy findings of HAS. Indeed, the dermoscopy findings might be related to the melanin-rich necrotic cells in the epidermis, which are quite different from dermoscopy findings of clonal seborrheic keratosis. As a previous report suggested, it is difficult for a dermatologist to differentiate HAS from clonal seborrheic keratosis by the naked eye. Our findings might be supportive for the early diagnosis of HAS. PMID:24987351

Sato, Yota; Fujimura, Taku; Tamabuchi, Erika; Haga, Takahiro; Aiba, Setsuya

2014-01-01

466

A Family Finds Its Way  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury A Family Finds Its Way Past Issues / Fall ... by a roadside bomb and suffers from traumatic brain injury (TBI). As a baby, daughter Nora, now 8, ...

467

Dividend Size, Yield, Clienteles and REITs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dividend size and dividend yield are typically highly correlated which substantially hinders the empirical assessment of ex-dividend\\u000a stock pricing. The ability to disentangle the joint effect of dividend yield and dividend size on ex-dividend stock prices\\u000a is thus of central importance in assessing existing theories. Fortunately, the REIT asset class provides data having a low\\u000a correlation between dividend size and

William G. Hardin; Gow-Cheng Huang; Kartono Liano

2012-01-01

468

Application of wheat yield model to United States and India. [Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The wheat yield model was applied to the major wheat-growing areas of the US and India. In the US Great Plains, estimates from the winter and spring wheat models agreed closely with USDA-SRS values in years with the lowest yields, but underestimated in years with the highest yields. Application to the Eastern Plains and Northwest indicated the importance of cultural factors, as well as meteorological ones in the model. It also demonstrated that the model could be used, in conjunction with USDA-SRRS estimates, to estimate yield losses due to factors not included in the model, particularly diseases and freezes. A fixed crop calendar for India was built from a limited amount of available plot data from that country. Application of the yield model gave measurable evidence that yield variation from state to state was due to different mixes of levels of meteorological and cultural factors.

Feyerherm, A. M. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

469

Potential well yields from unconsolidated deposits in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A comprehensive groundwater protection plan, developed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 1985, identified the need to delineate significant aquifers within the state. A map of the unconsolidated aquifers in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins was compiled from available data on the surficial geology and well yields. It delineates the significant unconsolidated aquifers and indicates the potential yield of wells that tap these aquifers. The potential well yield is categorized into three ranges: < 10 gal/min; 10 to 100 gal/min; and > 100 gal/min. No yield range is given for till, but some large diameter or dug wells in till may yield up 10 gal/min. (Lantz-PTT)

Wolcott, Stephen W.

1987-01-01

470

Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials  

E-print Network

A new yield/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materals. This is a fundamental key to model the behaviour of materials which become cohesive during hardening (so that the shape of the yield surface evolves from that typical of a granular material to that typical of a dense material), or which decrease cohesion due to damage accumulation. The proposed yield function is shown to agree with a variety of experimental data relative to soil, concrete, rock, metallic and composite powders, metallic foams, porous metals, and polymers. The yield function represents a single, convex and smooth surface in stress space approaching as limit situations well-known criteria and the extreme limits of convexity in the deviatoric plane....

Bigoni, Davide

2010-01-01

471

Research Methods to Investigate Significant Life Experiences: Review and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews different research approaches to understanding the significant experiences that influence peoples environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of existing studies. It also reviews relevant findings regarding the validity of autobiographical memory, as memory is the medium…

Chawla, Louise

2006-01-01

472

Fertility Treatments Aren't Significantly Linked to Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Fertility Treatments Aren't Significantly Linked to Birth Defects Expectant parents can be reassured by findings, ... Preidt Wednesday, October 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Birth Defects Infertility WEDNESDAY, Oct. 22, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

473

Cytology of Morcellated Renal Specimens: Significance in Diagnosis and Dissemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeControversy surrounds the process of morcellation for retrieving laparoscopically removed specimens. The inability to assess tumor stage, increased difficulty in pathological examination and the potential for tumor spillage are cited as significant disadvantages of the technique. We examined cytological findings in bag washings after laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign and malignant diseases.

MAXWELL V. MENG; THEODORE R. MILLER; IMOK CHA; MARSHALL L. STOLLER

2003-01-01

474

Genetic Analysis of Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping  

PubMed Central

The main objective in this research was the genetic analysis of heterosis in rapeseed at the QTL level. A linkage map comprising 235 SSR and 144 AFLP markers covering 2045 cM was constructed in a doubled-haploid population from a cross between the cultivar “Express” and the resynthesized line “R53.” In field experiments at four locations in Germany 250 doubled-haploid (DH) lines and their corresponding testcrosses with Express were evaluated for grain yield and three yield components. The heterosis ranged from 30% for grain yield to 0.7% for kernel weight. QTL were mapped using three different data sets, allowing the estimation of additive and dominance effects as well as digenic epistatic interactions. In total, 33 QTL were detected, of which 10 showed significant dominance effects. For grain yield, mainly complete dominance or overdominance was observed, whereas the other traits showed mainly partial dominance. A large number of epistatic interactions were detected. It was concluded that epistasis together with all levels of dominance from partial to overdominance is responsible for the expression of heterosis in rapeseed. PMID:18562665

Radoev, Mladen; Becker, Heiko C.; Ecke, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

475

Variation in canopy duration in the perennial biofuel crop Miscanthus reveals complex associations with yield  

PubMed Central

Energy crops can provide a sustainable source of power and fuels, and mitigate the negative effects of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel use. Miscanthus is a perennial C4 energy crop capable of producing large biomass yields whilst requiring low levels of input. Miscanthus is largely unimproved and therefore there could be significant opportunities to increase yield. Further increases in yield will improve the economics, energy balance, and carbon mitigation of the crop, as well as reducing land-take. One strategy to increase yield in Miscanthus is to maximize the light captured through an extension of canopy duration. In this study, canopy duration was compared among a diverse collection of 244 Miscanthus genotypes. Canopy duration was determined by calculating the number of days between canopy establishment and senescence. Yield was positively correlated with canopy duration. Earlier establishment and later senescence were also both separately correlated with higher yield. However, although genotypes with short canopy durations were low yielding, not all genotypes with long canopy durations were high yielding. Differences of yield between genotypes with long canopy durations were associated with variation in stem and leaf traits. Different methodologies to assess canopy duration traits were investigated, including visual assessment, image analysis, light interception, and different trait thresholds. The highest