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1

Finding Statistically Significant Communities in Networks  

PubMed Central

Community structure is one of the main structural features of networks, revealing both their internal organization and the similarity of their elementary units. Despite the large variety of methods proposed to detect communities in graphs, there is a big need for multi-purpose techniques, able to handle different types of datasets and the subtleties of community structure. In this paper we present OSLOM (Order Statistics Local Optimization Method), the first method capable to detect clusters in networks accounting for edge directions, edge weights, overlapping communities, hierarchies and community dynamics. It is based on the local optimization of a fitness function expressing the statistical significance of clusters with respect to random fluctuations, which is estimated with tools of Extreme and Order Statistics. OSLOM can be used alone or as a refinement procedure of partitions/covers delivered by other techniques. We have also implemented sequential algorithms combining OSLOM with other fast techniques, so that the community structure of very large networks can be uncovered. Our method has a comparable performance as the best existing algorithms on artificial benchmark graphs. Several applications on real networks are shown as well. OSLOM is implemented in a freely available software (http://www.oslom.org), and we believe it will be a valuable tool in the analysis of networks. PMID:21559480

Lancichinetti, Andrea; Radicchi, Filippo; Ramasco, Jose J.; Fortunato, Santo

2011-01-01

2

40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1508.13 Finding of no significant impact. Finding of no significant impact means a document by a Federal...not have a significant effect on the human environment and for which an environmental impact statement therefore will not be...

2010-07-01

3

40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1508.13 Finding of no significant impact. Finding of no significant impact means a document by a Federal...not have a significant effect on the human environment and for which an environmental impact statement therefore will not be...

2011-07-01

4

10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant impact will: (1) Identify the...to prepare an environmental impact statement for the proposed...effect on the quality of the human environment; (4)...

2011-01-01

5

10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant impact will: (1) Identify the...to prepare an environmental impact statement for the proposed...effect on the quality of the human environment; (4)...

2010-01-01

6

10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.  

...51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant impact will: (1) Identify the proposed...Commission has determined not to prepare an environmental impact statement for the proposed action;...

2014-01-01

7

21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS ...of no significant impact. (a) As...significantly affect the human environment...

2010-04-01

8

46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...not have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment of the...finding of no significant impact shall be prepared and...significant effect on the human environment and why...therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS)...

2011-10-01

9

46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...not have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment of the...finding of no significant impact shall be prepared and...significant effect on the human environment and why...therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS)...

2010-10-01

10

21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS ...of no significant impact. (a) As...significantly affect the human environment...

2011-04-01

11

10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Findings of no significant impact. 1021.322 Section...Findings of no significant impact. (a) DOE shall...not have a significant effect on the human environment...essential to render the impacts of the proposed action...essential to render the impacts of the proposed...

2010-01-01

12

21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.  

...CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1508.13), a FONSI is a document prepared by a Federal agency stating briefly why an action,...

2014-04-01

13

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

... 989.15 Section 989.15 National Defense Department...ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact...actions are contained in § 989.15(e)(2). These are not all...specific examples. In every case where an EA and FONSI are...

2014-07-01

14

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 989.15 Section 989.15 National Defense Department...ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact...actions are contained in § 989.15(e)(2). These are not all...specific examples. In every case where an EA and FONSI are...

2010-07-01

15

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 989.15 Section 989.15 National Defense Department...ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact...actions are contained in § 989.15(e)(2). These are not all...specific examples. In every case where an EA and FONSI are...

2011-07-01

16

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 989.15 Section 989.15 National Defense Department...ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact...actions are contained in § 989.15(e)(2). These are not all...specific examples. In every case where an EA and FONSI are...

2012-07-01

17

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 989.15 Section 989.15 National Defense Department...ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact...actions are contained in § 989.15(e)(2). These are not all...specific examples. In every case where an EA and FONSI are...

2013-07-01

18

16 CFR 1021.13 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) A finding of no significant impact shall cite and be attached to the environmental assessment upon which it is based. It shall refer to anticipated effects upon the environment identified in the environmental assessment and give the reason(s) why those effects will not be...

2010-01-01

19

Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g (Earth's gravity), and the emergence of face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals late in the coarsening process (as small crystallites lost particles to the slow ripening of large crystallites). Significant quantitative findings from the microgravity experiments have been developed describing complex interactions among crystallites during the growth process, as concentration fields overlap in the surrounding disordered phase. Time-resolved Bragg scattering under microgravity captures one effect of these interactions quite conclusively for the sample at a volume fraction of 0.528. From the earliest time until the sample is almost fully crystalline, the size and overall crystallinity grow monotonically, but the number of crystallites per unit volume (number density) falls. Apparently nucleation is slower than the loss of crystallites because of the transfer of particles from small to large crystals. Thus, coarsening occurs simultaneously with growth, rather than following the completion of nucleation and growth as is generally assumed. In the same sample, an interesting signature appears in the apparent number density of crystallites and the volume fraction within the crystallites shortly before full crystallinity is reached. A brief upturn in both indicates the creation of more domains of the size of the average crystallite simultaneous with the compression of the crystallites. Only the emergence of dendritic arms offers a reasonable explanation. The arms would be "seen" by the light scattering as separate domains whose smaller radii of curvature would compress the interior phase. In fiscal year 1999, numerous papers, a doctoral dissertation, and the PHaSE final report were produced. Although this flight project has been completed, plans are in place for a follow-on colloid experiment by Chaikin and Russel that employs a light microscope within Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. PHaSE is providing us with a deeper understanding of the nure of phase transitions. The knowledge derived has added to the understandin

Doherty, Michael P.

2000-01-01

20

Media Naturalness and Online Learning: Findings Supporting Both the Significant and No-SignificantDifference Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is the use of an online course delivery format, when compared with the more tradi- tional face-to-face format, good or bad in the context of university education? Those who subscribe to the no-significant-difference perspective argue that online delivery is good, because it allows students with time and geographic distance constraints to obtain the education that they need, with no significant

Ned Kock; Jacques Verville; Vanessa Garza

2007-01-01

21

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings...significant impact. 1.1308...the National Environmental Policy Act of...Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings...significant impact....

2010-10-01

22

75 FR 34774 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact for License...Issuance of Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact for License...significantly impact the quality...draft of this Environmental Assessment to the...

2010-06-18

23

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and findings of no significant impact. 25.51 Section 25.51...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation...and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

2011-04-01

24

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51...Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.51 Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact....

2010-04-01

25

77 FR 71198 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2012-0288] Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption...Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact; issuance...Management and Environmental...

2012-11-29

26

76 FR 66334 - Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2009-0435] Final Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact for the Proposed...of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact...issuing a final environmental assessment (EA)...

2011-10-26

27

76 FR 74069 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Impact Associated With the Environmental Assessment for Block...the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact may be accessed...described in the Environmental Assessment (EA) will...significant impact on the...

2011-11-30

28

SIMPLE MACHINE PERFUSION SIGNIFICANTLY ENHANCES HEPATOCYTE YIELDS OF ISCHEMIC AND FRESH RAT LIVERS  

PubMed Central

The scarcity of viable hepatocytes is a significant bottleneck in cell transplantation, drug discovery, toxicology, tissue engineering, and bioartificial assist devices, where trillions of high-functioning hepatocytes are needed annually. We took the novel approach of using machine perfusion to maximize cell recovery, specifically from uncontrolled cardiac death donors, the largest source of disqualified donor organs. In a rat model, we developed a simple 3 hour room temperature (20±2°C) machine perfusion protocol to treat non-premedicated livers exposed to 1 hour of warm (34°C) ischemia. Treated ischemic livers were compared to fresh, fresh-treated and untreated ischemic livers using viable hepatocyte yields and in vitro performance as quantitative endpoints. Perfusion treatment resulted in both a 25-fold increase in viable hepatocytes from ischemic livers, and a 40% increase from fresh livers. While cell morphology and function in suspension and plate cultures of untreated warm ischemic cells was significantly impaired, treated warm ischemic cells were indistinguishable from fresh hepatocytes. Further, a strong linear correlation between tissue ATP and cell yield enabled accurate evaluation of the extent of perfusion recovery. Maximal recovery of warm ischemic liver ATP content appears to be correlated with optimal flow through the microvasculature. These data demonstrate that the inclusion of a simple perfusion-preconditioning step can significantly increase the efficiency of functional hepatocyte yields and the number of donor livers that can be gainfully utilized.

Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Basak E.; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Price, Gavrielle; Luitje, Martha; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L.; Uygun, Korkut

2014-01-01

29

Enhancing the Interpretation of "Significant" Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

2004-01-01

30

7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940—Finding of No Significant...

2013-01-01

31

7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Significant Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental...affect the quality of the human environment. Therefore...preparation of an environmental impact statement is not...

2011-01-01

32

The orthopaedic trauma literature: an evaluation of statistically significant findings in orthopaedic trauma randomized trials  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-based medicine posits that health care research is founded upon clinically important differences in patient centered outcomes. Statistically significant differences between two treatments may not necessarily reflect a clinically important difference. We aimed to quantify the sample sizes and magnitude of treatment effects in a review of orthopaedic randomized trials with statistically significant findings. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search (PubMed, Cochrane) for all randomized controlled trials between 1/1/95 to 12/31/04. Eligible studies include those that focused upon orthopaedic trauma. Baseline characteristics and treatment effects were abstracted by two reviewers. Briefly, for continuous outcome measures (ie functional scores), we calculated effect sizes (mean difference/standard deviation). Dichotomous variables (ie infection, nonunion) were summarized as absolute risk differences and relative risk reductions (RRR). Effect sizes >0.80 and RRRs>50% were defined as large effects. Using regression analysis we examined the association between the total number of outcome events and treatment effect (dichotomous outcomes). Results Our search yielded 433 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), of which 76 RCTs with statistically significant findings on 184 outcomes (122 continuous/62 dichotomous outcomes) met study eligibility criteria. The mean effect size across studies with continuous outcome variables was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.43–1.97). For dichotomous outcomes, the mean risk difference was 30% (95%confidence interval:24%–36%) and the mean relative risk reduction was 61% (95% confidence interval: 55%–66%; range: 0%–97%). Fewer numbers of total outcome events in studies was strongly correlated with increasing magnitude of the treatment effect (Pearson's R = -0.70, p < 0.01). When adjusted for sample size, the number of outcome events revealed an independent association with the size of the treatment effect (Odds ratio = 50, 95% confidence interval: 3.0–1000, p = 0.006). Conclusion Our review suggests that statistically significant results in orthopaedic trials have the following implications-1) On average large risk reductions are reported 2) Large treatment effects (>50% relative risk reduction) are correlated with few number of total outcome events. Readers should interpret the results of such small trials with these issues in mind. PMID:18230147

Sung, Jinsil; Siegel, Judith; Tornetta, Paul; Bhandari, Mohit

2008-01-01

33

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...have a significant environmental impact (see § 1.1307). An EA...have a significant environmental impact upon the quality of the human environment, it will so inform...would not have a significant impact, it will make a finding of...

2011-10-01

34

10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) A finding of no significant impact appears warranted for the proposed action but the proposed action is (i) closely similar to one which normally requires the preparation of an environmental impact statement, or (ii) without precedent;...

2010-01-01

35

77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant...Environmental Assessment (EA) associated with a solar generation project. The EA was prepared...loan or loan guarantee to Turning Point Solar LLC (Turning Point Solar) for the...

2012-04-27

36

Find may yield flu early warning -The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING  

E-print Network

Find may yield flu early warning - The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING Find may yield flu early warning By Stephen Smith, Globe Staff | January 7, 2008 For a decade, disease flu to easily infect people and ignite a firestorm of human illness akin to the 1918 global flu

Sasisekharan, Ram

37

Managing clinically significant findings in research: the UK10K example  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in sequencing technology allow data on the human genome to be generated more quickly and in greater detail than ever before. Such detail includes findings that may be of significance to the health of the research participant involved. Although research studies generally do not feed back information on clinically significant findings (CSFs) to participants, this stance is increasingly being questioned. There may be difficulties and risks in feeding clinically significant information back to research participants, however, the UK10K consortium sought to address these by creating a detailed management pathway. This was not intended to create any obligation upon the researchers to feed back any CSFs they discovered. Instead, it provides a mechanism to ensure that any such findings can be passed on to the participant where appropriate. This paper describes this mechanism and the specific criteria, which must be fulfilled in order for a finding and participant to qualify for feedback. This mechanism could be used by future research consortia, and may also assist in the development of sound principles for dealing with CSFs. PMID:24424120

Kaye, Jane; Hurles, Matthew; Griffin, Heather; Grewal, Jasote; Bobrow, Martin; Timpson, Nic; Smee, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Durbin, Richard; Dyke, Stephanie; Fitzpatrick, David; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Raymond, Lucy F; Semple, Robert; Spector, Tim

2014-01-01

38

Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2000-05-24

39

Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. {section}4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

Not Available

1995-12-31

40

Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

1999-04-01

41

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

1999-02-22

42

FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

Marcus Milling

2004-09-23

43

Effects of plant density on the yield of field pea and faba bean varieties across southern and central NSW—preliminary findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant density is a major determinant of crop yield, and is particularly important in large-seeded species such as field pea and faba bean, where the logistics and cost of sowing large quantities of seed become a significant issue compared to cereals. This paper presents preliminary findings of investigations into plant density of field pea and faba bean across southern NSW

EL Armstrong; PW Matthews; NA Fettell; DJ Holding; LG Gaynor; CJ Lisle; BR Cullis

44

The relationship between specific event sediment yields and runoff depth and its significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the dynamics of suspended sediment transport are complex, they may become less complex and hence easier to quantify as the time scale increases from instantaneous to event-lumped transport. To test this hypothesis, we collected suspended sediment data from watersheds with contrasting transport behavior (supply-limited and transport-limited), together with those reported in Loess areas of China. Supply-limited watersheds (type I) included four Australia watersheds with various land use and land cover (LULC) conditions and a central New York watershed. Transport-limited watersheds (type II) contained twelve watersheds from Walnut Gulch, Arizona and an Italy watershed. Type III watersheds involved fourteen watersheds in Loess area of upstream Yellow River, China. They are different from the others in that they have hyperconcentrated flows most of time during events due to the finer grain size of loess. We calculated specific event sediment yield (SSYe, t/km2) and runoff depth (h, mm) of various rainfall events in each watershed, and statistically established a proportional relationship, SSYe = Ch where C is a constant for a given watershed, which is equivalent to the discharge-weighted event mean sediment concentration. The coefficient of determination ranges from 0.64 to 0.99, with the median of 0.95 indicating that the proportional model generally holds. Furthermore, values of C showed distinct ranges for the three types of watersheds: 0.32 - 1.93 for type I watersheds, 7.17-34.39 for type II watersheds, and 680-861 for type III watersheds. These values correctly reflect the different nature of sediment transport in three types of watersheds. We further found that C begins to decrease at different threshold values of watershed area for types I and II watersheds, whereas C remains constant for type III watersheds. These results suggest that a simple proportional model may be used to describe event-lumped behavior of suspended sediment transport.

Gao, P.; Nearing, M.; Hicks, M.; Commons, M.

2012-12-01

45

75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...will not have a significant impact on the quality of the human or natural environment and...Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) supporting that...will not have a significant impact on the quality of the human or natural...

2010-11-30

46

75 FR 21659 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact for Arroyo...of Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) and...Significant Impact (FONSI...the Draft Environmental Assessment and [[Page...Significant Impact are...

2010-04-26

47

10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.  

...whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a final finding of...the preparation of an environmental impact statement, or (ii) without precedent...determination to prepare an environmental impact statement or a final finding...

2014-01-01

48

75 FR 50036 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Availability of Finding...findings of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) August 2009...the EA). The FAA (Office of Commercial Space Transportation) participated as a...

2010-08-16

49

Department of Energy finding of no significant impact, Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator, Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As part of the DOE`s need to maintain the capability of producing tritium in support of its historic and near-term stewardship of the nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile, the agency has recently completed a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling. The Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Technical Area (TA) 53, LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico (DOE-EA-1147), March 1996, analyzes the DOE proposal to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end, low-energy section of the accelerator at LANL. LEDA would be incrementally developed and tested in five separate stages over the next seven years. LEDA would be located at an existing building at TA-53; the LEDA components would be tested in order to verify equipment and prototype design and resolve related performance and production issues for future full-scale operation at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the event the APT plant is built. Production operations would not occur at LANL under the proposed action. The US DOE finds that there would be no significant impact from proceeding with its proposal to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end, low-energy section of the accelerator, at TA-53, LANL. Based on the environmental assessment that analyses the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to design, build, and test prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action which would significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, no environmental impact statement is required for this proposal.

NONE

1996-08-01

50

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Sunrise II Water Supply Line  

SciTech Connect

Sunrise Power Company, LLC (Sunrise), has planned the modification of an existing power plant project to increase its generation capacity by 265 megawatts by 2003. The initial Sunrise facility was constructed in accordance with a license issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) on December 6, 2000 and brought 320 MW of much needed power to commercial operation in June 2001. The Governor of the State of California issued recent Executive Orders to provide for emergency permit streamlining of projects that can help alleviate the current California energy crisis. Specifically, Executive Order D-25-01 directed the CEC to expedite processing amendments such as the Sunrise II modification that would increase generating capacity from 320 MW to 585 MW by summer 2003. As part of the modification, an approximately 15.3 mile water line will be installed. Additionally, improvements to West Kern Water District's (WKWD) Pumping Station ''B'', located on DOE land, will occur. Sunrise has requested a right-of-way grant for the construction of the water supply line on U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and DOE lands. Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the potential impacts of the proposed action were analyzed in an Environmental Assessment (EA-1434) with the BLM acting as lead agency. Based on the analysis of the potential environmental impacts contained in the Environmental Assessment (EA), BLM has determined that significant impacts are not expected and an environmental impact statement is not required. The DOE, acting as a cooperating agency, has adopted the BLM's EA and is consequently issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

N /A

2002-10-09

51

Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional windows.

Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

2003-01-31

52

10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Whenever the Commission makes a draft or final finding of no significant impact on a proposed action, the finding will be published in the Federal Register as provided in § 51.119. (b) Except as provided in §...

2010-01-01

53

Significant improvement in islet yield and survival with modified ET-Kyoto solution: ET-Kyoto/Neutrophil elastase inhibitor.  

PubMed

Although islet transplantation can achieve insulin independence in patients with type 1 diabetes, sufficient number of islets derived from two or more donors is usually required to achieve normoglycemia. Activated neutrophils and neutrophil elastase (NE), which is released from these neutrophils, can directly cause injury in islet grafts. We hypothesized that inhibition of NE improves islet isolation and islet allograft survival. We tested our hypothesis by examining the effects of modified ET-Kyoto solution supplemented with sivelestat, a NE inhibitor (S-Kyoto solution), on islet yield and viability in islet isolation and the effect of intraperitoneally injected sivelestat on islet graft survival in a mouse allotransplant model. NE and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 increased markedly at the end of warm digestion during islet isolation and exhibited direct cytotoxic activity against the islets causing their apoptosis. The use of S-Kyoto solution significantly improved islet yield and viability. Furthermore, treatment with sivelestat resulted in significant prolongation of islet allograft survival in recipient mice. Furthermore, serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-? at 1 and 2 weeks posttransplantation were significantly higher in islet recipients than before transplantation. Our results indicated that NE released from activated neutrophils negatively affects islet survival and that its suppression both in vitro and in vivo improved islet yield and prolonged islet graft survival. The results suggest that inhibition of NE activity could be potentially useful in islet transplantation for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22472201

Machida, Tomohiko; Tanemura, Masahiro; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Tanida, Tsukasa; Wada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Ito, Toshinori; Nagano, Hiroaki; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Sawa, Yoshiki

2013-01-01

54

75 FR 30899 - Notice of a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Record of Decision (ROD) on a Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Record of Decision (ROD...significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required....

2010-06-02

55

76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and...Significant Impact (FONSI...ACTION: Environmental Assessment (EA...Significant Impact (FONSI...Environmental Assessment (EA) to...potential environmental impacts related...

2011-12-23

56

Dating the Houma Covenant Texts: The Significance of Recent Findings From the Wenxian Covenant Texts??????????????????????  

E-print Network

This paper reconsiders the dating of the Houma covenant texts in light of new findings from the Wenxian covenant texts. Dating of the Houma covenants has focused on matching certain names found in the Houma covenants ...

Williams, Crispin; ???

2013-01-01

57

78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 50-409; NRC-2013-0168] La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) for the La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) facility and Independent Spent...

2013-07-31

58

78 FR 77722 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to an Alternative Disposal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Impact Related to an Alternative Disposal Request of Westinghouse...for the former Hematite Fuel Cycle Facility in Festus, Missouri authorizing alternative disposal of soil and soil-like...materials from its former fuel cycle facility...

2013-12-24

59

UCSF researchers find that nonsmokers in automobiles are exposed to significant secondhand smoke  

Cancer.gov

Nonsmokers sitting in an automobile with a smoker for one hour had markers of significantly increased levels of carcinogens and other toxins in their urine, indicating that secondhand smoke in motor vehicles poses a potentially major health risk.

60

Finding Missing Heritability in Less Significant Loci and Allelic Heterogeneity: Genetic Variation in Human Height  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common variants associated with complex traits in human populations. Thus far, most reported variants have relatively small effects and explain only a small proportion of phenotypic variance, leading to the issues of ‘missing’ heritability and its explanation. Using height as an example, we examined two possible sources of missing heritability: first, variants with smaller effects whose associations with height failed to reach genome-wide significance and second, allelic heterogeneity due to the effects of multiple variants at a single locus. Using a novel analytical approach we examined allelic heterogeneity of height-associated loci selected from SNPs of different significance levels based on the summary data of the GIANT (stage 1) studies. In a sample of 1,304 individuals collected from an island population of the Adriatic coast of Croatia, we assessed the extent of height variance explained by incorporating the effects of less significant height loci and multiple effective SNPs at the same loci. Our results indicate that approximately half of the 118 loci that achieved stringent genome-wide significance (p-value<5×10?8) showed evidence of allelic heterogeneity. Additionally, including less significant loci (i.e., p-value<5×10?4) and accounting for effects of allelic heterogeneity substantially improved the variance explained in height. PMID:23251454

Zhang, Ge; Karns, Rebekah; Sun, Guangyun; Indugula, Subba Rao; Cheng, Hong; Havas-Augustin, Dubravka; Novokmet, Natalija; Durakovic, Zijad; Missoni, Sasa; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Rudan, Pavao; Deka, Ranjan

2012-01-01

61

UCLA study finds survival significantly increased in early breast cancer after treatment with Herceptin and chemotherapy:  

Cancer.gov

Treating women with early stage breast cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and the molecularly targeted drug Herceptin significantly increases survival in patients with a specific genetic mutation that results in very aggressive disease, a researcher with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center reported Wednesday.

62

Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.  

SciTech Connect

This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

1997-03-01

63

Functional significance of predischarge exercise thallium-201 findings following intravenous streptokinase therapy during acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine which predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging pattern(s) best correlate with myocardial salvage following intravenous streptokinase therapy (IVSK). Myocardial salvage was defined as improvement in regional left ventricular function determined by two-dimensional echocardiography between the time of admission and time of discharge in 21 prospectively studied patients receiving IVSK within 4 hours of chest pain. All patients had coronary angiography 2 hours following IVSK. Whereas 16 of the 21 patients (76%) had patent infarct-related vessels, only seven (33%) showed significant improvement in regional function at hospital discharge. Eleven patients demonstrated persistent defects (PD), and five each showed delayed and reverse redistribution. Patients with both delayed and reverse redistribution demonstrated significant improvement in regional left ventricular function score, while those with PD did not (+3.9 +/- 3.3 versus -0.5 +/- 2.9, p = 0.004). All other clinical, exercise, electrocardiographic, scintigraphic, and angiographic variables were similar between all patients, with the exception of the interval between chest pain and the institution of IVSK, which was longer in patients with reverse compared to delayed redistribution (3.5 +/- 0.4 versus 2.2 +/- 0.4 hours, p = 0.001). It is concluded that both delayed and reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging are associated with myocardial salvage, defined as serial improvement in regional systolic function. Despite a high infarct vessel patency rate in patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving IVSK within 4 hours of onset of symptoms, only one third demonstrated improvement in regional function that was associated with either delayed or reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging.

Touchstone, D.A.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Watson, D.D.; Tedesco, C.; Kaul, S.

1988-12-01

64

Types of ovarian activity in women and their significance: the continuum (a reinterpretation of early findings)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND There are many types of ovarian activity that occur in women. This review provides information on the relationship between the hormone values and the degree of biological response to the hormones including the frequency and degree of uterine bleeding. The continuous process is termed the ‘Continuum’ and is thus similar to other processes in the body. METHODS This review draws on information already published from monitoring ovarian activity by urinary oestrogen and pregnanediol measurements using timed 24-h specimens of urine. Much of the rationalization was derived from 5 to 6 year studies of girls progressing from childhood to adulthood, women progressing through menopause, and the return of fertility post-partum. During these times, all the reported types of ovarian activity were encountered. RESULTS All cycle types can be understood in terms of steps in the normal maturation of fertility at the beginning of reproductive life, its return post-partum and its demise at menopause. Each step merges into the next and therefore the sequence is termed the ‘Continuum’. Unpredictable movement from fertile to infertile types and back can occur at any time during reproductive life. Stress is a major causative factor. Hormonal definitions for each step, the relevance of the various cycle types in determining fertility and in the initiation of uterine bleeding and the roles of the pituitary hormones in causing them, are presented. CONCLUSIONS The findings explain the erratic fertility of women and why ovulation is not always associated with fertility. They provide an understanding of the various types of ovarian activity and their relation to pituitary function, fertility and uterine bleeding. PMID:20923873

Brown, James B.

2011-01-01

65

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

N /A

1999-04-28

66

Frequency and Clinical Significance of Previously Undetected Incidental Findings Detected on Computed Tomography Simulation Scans for Breast Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: All CT simulation images were first interpreted prospectively by radiation oncologists and then double-checked by diagnostic radiologists. The official reports of CT simulation images for 881 consecutive postoperative breast cancer patients from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Potentially important incidental findings (PIIFs) were defined as any previously undetected benign or malignancy-related findings requiring further medical follow-up or investigation. For all patients in whom a PIIF was detected, we reviewed the clinical records to determine the clinical significance of the PIIF. If the findings from the additional studies prompted by a PIIF required a change in management, the PIIF was also recorded as a clinically important incidental finding (CIIF). Results: There were a total of 57 (6%) PIIFs. The 57 patients in whom a PIIF was detected were followed for a median of 17 months (range, 3-26). Six cases of CIIFs (0.7% of total) were detected. Of the six CIIFs, three (50%) cases had not been noted by the radiation oncologist until the diagnostic radiologist detected the finding. On multivariate analysis, previous CT examination was an independent predictor for PIIF (p = 0.04). Patients who had not previously received chest CT examinations within 1 year had a statistically significantly higher risk of PIIF than those who had received CT examinations within 6 months (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.50; p = 0.01). Conclusions: The rate of incidental findings prompting a change in management was low. However, radiation oncologists appear to have some difficulty in detecting incidental findings that require a change in management. Considering cost, it may be reasonable that routine interpretations are given to those who have not received previous chest CT examinations within 1 year.

Nakamura, Naoki, E-mail: naokinak@luke.or.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tsunoda, Hiroko [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu [Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan); Akahane, Keiko; Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-11-01

67

Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in February 2001, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) began publishing "Findings" magazine. The publication features research and findings from scholars doing work with funding from the NIGMS. Visitors can browse the archive of the publication by topic or date, and they can also check out the sample articles from the latest edition on the homepage. Recent pieces have included "Drugs from Deep Down", "Mesmerized by Metals", and "Just Found", which talks about potential sunburn treatments. The site also has the "Find More" area, which contains an image gallery, school resources, free slide kits, and interactive games. Also, the "Watch" area contains interviews with scientists like Dr. Kevin Tracey talking about his investigations into sepsis. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive Findings via email.

68

78 FR 11632 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of the Army announces a 30-day extension on the public comment period for the draft Finding of No Significant Impact (FNSI) and final Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for Army 2020 force structure realignments that may occur from Fiscal Years (FYs) 2013-2020. The Army published the Notice of Availability of the draft FNSI and PEA in the Federal Register (78 FR 4134) on......

2013-02-19

69

Significance of thermophilic fungi in mushroom compost preparation: effect on growth and yield of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen species of thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi were isolated from mushroom compost. Growth of Agaricus bisporus, was studied on sterile compost pre-colonized with four thermophilic fungi viz., Chaetomium thermophile, Malbranchea sulfurea, Thermomyces lanuginosus and Torula thermophila. All the four fungi were inoculated singly and in different combinations on sterilized compost to evaluate their potential to promote growth and yield of

R. K. Salar; K. R. Aneja

70

Congenital anomalies and variations of the bile and pancreatic ducts: magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings, epidemiology and clinical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this paper is to document the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings and the epidemiology\\u000a of congenital anomalies and variations of the bile and pancreatic ducts and to discuss their clinical significance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Three-hundred and fifty patients of both sexes (150 females, 200 males, age range 0–76 years, average age 38 years) underwent\\u000a MRCP for clinically suspected

M. De Filippo; M. Calabrese; S. Quinto; A. Rastelli; A. Bertellini; R. Martora; N. Sverzellati; D. Corradi; M. Vitale; G. Crialesi; L. Sarli; L. Roncoroni; G. Garlaschi; M. Zompatori

2008-01-01

71

Finding of no significant impact proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1995-06-01

72

Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI).

Not Available

1994-10-01

73

Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field  

E-print Network

water use, the increased weather variability due to global climate change, will require a more efficient. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil productivity worldwide (Boyer, 1982; Boyer and Westgate, 2004; Barnabas et al., 2008). Water availability

Blumwald, Eduardo

74

A Significant Proportion of Pediatric Morphea En Coup De Sabre and Parry-Romberg Syndrome Patients Have Neuroimaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives En coup de sabre (ECDS) and Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) are variants of linear morphea on the head and neck that can be associated with neurologic manifestations. Intracranial abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be present in a significant proportion of patients. Methods We describe 32 pediatric patients from our institution with ECDS or PRS, in whom neuroimaging was performed in 21 cases. We also review 51 additional patients from the literature. Results Nineteen percent of the children at our institution had intracranial abnormalities on MRI, half of whom were asymptomatic. Hyperintensities on T2-weighted sequences were the most common finding, present in all patients who had intracranial abnormalities on MRI. Seizures and headaches were the most common neurologic symptom, affecting 13% and 9% of our population, respectively. The presence of neurologic symptoms was not correlated with neuroimaging abnormalities as 2 asymptomatic patients had marked MRI findings, while the MRI was abnormal in only 2/9 symptomatic patients. Similarly, the severity of the superficial disease did not predict neurologic involvement; a patient with subtle skin involvement had striking MRI findings and seizures while another patient with a bony defect had no brain parenchymal involvement. Conclusions Neurologic symptoms and neuroimaging abnormalities are found in a surprisingly substantial percentage of children with ECDS and PRS. Early recognition of neurologic involvement is necessary as it affects treatment choices. As clinical predictors of intracranial abnormalities are poor, strong consideration should be given to obtaining an MRI prior to treatment initiation to assist in management decisions and establish a baseline examination. PMID:23106674

Chiu, Yvonne E.; Vora, Sheetal; Kwon, Eun-Kyung M.; Maheshwari, Mohit

2012-01-01

75

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project is a 21-megawatt (MW) wind generation project proposed by Florida Power and Light (FPL) Energy North Dakota Wind LLC (Dakota Wind) and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin). The proposed windfarm would be located in La Moure County, south central North Dakota, near the rural farming communities of Kulm and Edgeley. The proposed windfarm is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2003. Dakota Wind and other project proponents are seeking to develop the proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project to provide utilities and, ultimately, electric energy consumers with electricity from a renewable energy source at the lowest possible cost. A new 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line would be built to transmit power generated by the proposed windfarm to an existing US Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration (Western) substation located near Edgeley. The proposed interconnection would require modifying Western's Edgeley Substation. Modifying the Edgeley Substation is a Federal proposed action that requires Western to review the substation modification and the proposed windfarm project for compliance with Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332, and Department of Energy NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR Part 1021). Western is the lead Federal agency for preparation of this Environmental Assessment (EA). The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is a cooperating agency with Western in preparing the EA. This document follows regulation issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for implementing procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and is intended to disclose potential impacts on the quality of the human environment resulting from the proposed project. If potential impacts are determined to be significant, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement would be required. If impacts are determined to be insignificant, Western would complete a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). Environmental protection measures that would be included in the design of the proposed project are included.

N /A

2003-04-15

76

Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon: Finding of no significant impact  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam on the Umatilla River in Oregon to increase the numbers of anadromous fish. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to provide funding for the project. These agencies' actions would implement section 904(d) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program which addresses the provision of offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. This Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decision document for both agencies. The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1986-05-01

77

Dimension Reduction via Unsupervised Learning Yields Significant Computational Improvements for Support Vector Machine Based Protein Family Classification.  

SciTech Connect

Reducing the dimension of vectors used in training support vector machines (SVMs) results in a proportional speedup in training time. For large-scale problems this can make the difference between tractable and intractable training tasks. However, it is critical that classifiers trained on reduced datasets perform as reliably as their counterparts trained on high-dimensional data. We assessed principal component analysis (PCA) and sequential project pursuit (SPP) as dimension reduction strategies in the biology application of classifying proteins into well-defined functional ‘families’ (SVM-based protein family classification) by their impact on run-time, sensitivity and selectivity. Homology vectors of 4352 elements were reduced to approximately 2% of the original data size without significantly affecting accuracy using PCA and SPP, while leading to approximately a 28-fold speedup in run-time.

Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

2009-02-26

78

Feasibility, Yield, and Cost of Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Linked to a Mobile HIV Service in Cape Town, South Africa: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization is currently developing guidelines on screening for tuberculosis disease to inform national screening strategies. This process is complicated by significant gaps in knowledge regarding mass screening. This study aimed to assess feasibility, uptake, yield, treatment outcomes, and costs of adding an active tuberculosis case-finding program to an existing mobile HIV testing service. Methods and Findings The study was conducted at a mobile HIV testing service operating in deprived communities in Cape Town, South Africa. All HIV-negative individuals with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, and all HIV-positive individuals regardless of symptoms were eligible for participation and referred for sputum induction. Samples were examined by microscopy and culture. Active tuberculosis case finding was conducted on 181 days at 58 different sites. Of the 6,309 adults who accessed the mobile clinic, 1,385 were eligible and 1,130 (81.6%) were enrolled. The prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis was 2.2% (95% CI 1.1–4.0), 3.3% (95% CI 1.4–6.4), and 0.4% (95% CI 1.4 015–6.4) in HIV-negative individuals, individuals newly diagnosed with HIV, and known HIV, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 5.3% (95% CI 3.5–7.7), 7.4% (95% CI 4.5–11.5), 4.3% (95% CI 2.3–7.4), respectively. Of the 56 new tuberculosis cases detected, 42 started tuberculosis treatment and 34 (81.0%) completed treatment. The cost of the intervention was US$1,117 per tuberculosis case detected and US$2,458 per tuberculosis case cured. The generalisability of the study is limited to similar settings with comparable levels of deprivation and TB and HIV prevalence. Conclusions Mobile active tuberculosis case finding in deprived populations with a high burden of HIV and tuberculosis is feasible, has a high uptake, yield, and treatment success. Further work is now required to examine cost-effectiveness and affordability and whether and how the same results may be achieved at scale. PMID:22879816

Kranzer, Katharina; Lawn, Stephen D.; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Vassall, Anna; Raditlhalo, Eudoxia; Govindasamy, Darshini; van Schaik, Nienke; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

2012-01-01

79

Genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence: significant findings in African- and European-Americans including novel risk loci  

PubMed Central

We report a GWAS of alcohol dependence (AD) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations, with replication in independent samples of EAs, AAs and Germans. Our sample for discovery and replication was 16 087 subjects, the largest sample for AD GWAS to date. Numerous genome-wide significant (GWS) associations were identified, many novel. Most associations were population specific, but in several cases were GWS in EAs and AAs for different SNPs at the same locus, showing biological convergence across populations. We confirmed well-known risk loci mapped to alcohol-metabolizing enzyme genes, notably ADH1B (EAs: Arg48His, P = 1.17 × 10?31; AAs: Arg369Cys, P = 6.33 × 10?17) and ADH1C in AAs (Thr151Thr, P = 4.94 × 10?10), and identified novel risk loci mapping to the ADH gene cluster on chromosome 4 and extending centromerically beyond it to include GWS associations at LOC100507053 in AAs (P = 2.63 × 10?11), PDLIM5 in EAs (P = 2.01 × 10?8), and METAP in AAs (P = 3.35 × 10?8). We also identified a novel GWS association (1.17 × 10?10) mapped to chromosome 2 at rs1437396, between MTIF2 and CCDC88A, across all of the EA and AA cohorts, with supportive gene expression evidence, and population-specific GWS for markers on chromosomes 5, 9 and 19. Several of the novel associations implicate direct involvement of, or interaction with, genes previously identified as schizophrenia risk loci. Confirmation of known AD risk loci supports the overall validity of the study; the novel loci are worthy of genetic and biological follow-up. The findings support a convergence of risk genes (but not necessarily risk alleles) between populations, and, to a lesser extent, between psychiatric traits. PMID:24166409

Gelernter, J; Kranzler, HR; Sherva, R; Almasy, L; Koesterer, R; Smith, AH; Anton, R; Preuss, UW; Ridinger, M; Rujescu, D; Wodarz, N; Zill, P; Zhao, H; Farrer, LA

2014-01-01

80

The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava  

PubMed Central

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernandez, Cristhian; Pena, Ricardo

2013-01-01

81

75 FR 29365 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps...Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps...proposed construction of a small wind turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center,...

2010-05-25

82

78 FR 58517 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Bayou Meto Basin Project, Arkansas AGENCY: Natural Resources...Environmental Impact Statement for the Bayou Meto Basin project dated November 2006 and revised...Final Environmental Assessment Bayou Meto Basin, Arkansas Post General Reevaluation...

2013-09-24

83

Rectal cancer staging: focus on the prognostic significance of the findings described by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool for multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) addressing rectal cancer. It provides anatomic information for surgical planning and allows patients to be stratified into different groups according to the risk of local and distant recurrence. One of the objectives of the MDT is the preoperative identification of high-risk patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant treatment. For this reason, the correct evaluation of the circumferential resection margin (CRM), the depth of tumor spread beyond the muscularis propria, extramural vascular invasion and nodal status is of the utmost importance. Low rectal tumors represent a special challenge for the MDT, because decisions seek a balance between oncologic safety, in the pursuit of free resection margins, and the patient's quality of life, in order to preserve sphincter function. At present, the exchange of information between the different specialties involved in dealing with patients with rectal cancer can rank the contribution of colleagues, auditing their work and incorporating knowledge that will lead to a better understanding of the pathology. Thus, beyond the anatomic description of the images, the radiologist's role in the MDT makes it necessary to know the prognostic value of the findings that we describe, in terms of recurrence and survival, because these findings affect decision making and, therefore, the patients' life. In this review, the usefulness of HR MRI in the initial staging of rectal cancer and in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment, with a focus on the prognostic value of the findings, is described as well as the contribution of HR MRI in assessing patients with suspected or confirmed recurrence of rectal cancer. PMID:23876415

Dieguez, Adriana

2013-01-01

84

Rectal cancer staging: focus on the prognostic significance of the findings described by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Abstract High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool for multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) addressing rectal cancer. It provides anatomic information for surgical planning and allows patients to be stratified into different groups according to the risk of local and distant recurrence. One of the objectives of the MDT is the preoperative identification of high-risk patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant treatment. For this reason, the correct evaluation of the circumferential resection margin (CRM), the depth of tumor spread beyond the muscularis propria, extramural vascular invasion and nodal status is of the utmost importance. Low rectal tumors represent a special challenge for the MDT, because decisions seek a balance between oncologic safety, in the pursuit of free resection margins, and the patient’s quality of life, in order to preserve sphincter function. At present, the exchange of information between the different specialties involved in dealing with patients with rectal cancer can rank the contribution of colleagues, auditing their work and incorporating knowledge that will lead to a better understanding of the pathology. Thus, beyond the anatomic description of the images, the radiologist’s role in the MDT makes it necessary to know the prognostic value of the findings that we describe, in terms of recurrence and survival, because these findings affect decision making and, therefore, the patients’ life. In this review, the usefulness of HR MRI in the initial staging of rectal cancer and in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment, with a focus on the prognostic value of the findings, is described as well as the contribution of HR MRI in assessing patients with suspected or confirmed recurrence of rectal cancer. PMID:23876415

2013-01-01

85

75 FR 17161 - Job Corps: Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Installation of a Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Installation of a Small Wind Turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center Located...Significant Impact (FONSI) for a small Wind Turbine Installation to be located at the Pine...has been prepared for a proposed Wind Turbine Installation to be located at the...

2010-04-05

86

FatiGO: a web tool for finding significant associations of Gene Ontology terms with groups of genes.  

PubMed

We present a simple but powerful procedure to extract Gene Ontology (GO) terms that are significantly over- or under-represented in sets of genes within the context of a genome-scale experiment (DNA microarray, proteomics, etc.). Said procedure has been implemented as a web application, FatiGO, allowing for easy and interactive querying. FatiGO, which takes the multiple-testing nature of statistical contrast into account, currently includes GO associations for diverse organisms (human, mouse, fly, worm and yeast) and the TrEMBL/Swissprot GOAnnotations@EBI correspondences from the European Bioinformatics Institute. PMID:14990455

Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón; Dopazo, Joaquín

2004-03-01

87

Lumbar puncture-related cerebrospinal fluid leakage on magnetic resonance myelography: is it a clinically significant finding?  

PubMed Central

Background Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) due to excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a well-known complication of lumbar puncture. Although various factors, especially the type of spinal needle, have been demonstrated to be associated with PDPH, the clinical implications of CSF leakage detected on magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) images remain unclear. The objective of this case–control study was to evaluate the association between radiologically visualized CSF leakage and PDPH. Methods Clinical data including patients’ age and gender, types of spinal needle, duration of bed rest, interval between lumbar puncture procedures and MRM studies, and incidence of PDPH were compared between patients who were radiologically-positive and -negative for CSF leakage. Results Of the 22 patients with definite CSF leakage on MRM images, most were asymptomatic (86%, 19/22). The remaining three patients, who were suffering from PDPH, only complained of headaches and were treated conservatively. In a review of patients’ clinical data, there were no significant differences in any parameter including the incidence of PDPH between the 22 patients who were radiologically-positive for CSF leakage and the 31 radiologically-negative patients. Conclusion The significance of radiologically visualized CSF leakage should not be overestimated, as most such incidents are not associated with PDPH and do not require any treatment. PMID:24160550

2013-01-01

88

Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Sold residue treatment, repackaging, and storage  

SciTech Connect

From its founding in 1952 through the cessation of production in 1989, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (now the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site [the Site]) produced components for nuclear weapons. Some of those components were made of plutonium. As a result of the processes used to recover and purify plutonium and manufacture the components, a variety of materials became contaminated with plutonium. If the level of contamination were low, the material was considered waste. However, if the concentration of plutonium in the material exceeded the {open_quotes}economic discard limit,{close_quotes} the materials were classified as {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} rather than{open_quotes}Waste{close_quotes} and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. While large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, accumulated at the Site in storage. Two important events regarding residues have occurred at the Site since production activities ceased. One event was the end of the Cold War in 1991, which made the return to production of nuclear weapons, with their Rocky Flats-made components, unnecessary. This event led to DOE`s decision to permanently cease production at the Site, clean up and remove radioactive and chemical contamination at the Site, and find alternative uses for the Site. This document describes methods for processing of the wastes for safe interim storage. Environmental impacts from the processing and storage are discussed.

NONE

1996-04-01

89

Finding of no significant impact. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diverson Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. The proposed fish passage improvements would have effects on the anadromous and resident fish populations which, viewed in the context of the Umatilla River basin, would be beneficial. Resident fish would receive incidental benefits from reduced mortalities at the diversion structures. However, given the regional context, as specified in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, in which the proposed passage improvements would be implemented and the large increase in anadromous fish production necessary to restore historical population levels, the proposed actions are not considered to have significant environmental impacts.

Not Available

1986-05-01

90

Serial assessment of suspected myelodysplastic syndromes: significance of flow cytometric findings validated by cytomorphology, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics  

PubMed Central

The significance of flow cytometry indicating myelodysplasia without proof of myelodysplasia by cytomorphology remains to be clarified. We evaluated follow-up analyses in 142 patients analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry, cytomorphology and cytogenetics for suspected myelodysplasia without proof of myelodysplasia by cytomorphology. At initial assessment, flow cytometry indicated myelodysplasia in 64 of 142 (45.1%) patients. In 9 of 142 (6.3%) patients, cytogenetics revealed aberrant karyotypes at first evaluation that were found in 5 of 64 (7.8%) patients rated with myelodysplasia by flow cytometry. The remaining 133 patients without proof of myelodysplasia by cytomorphology and with normal karyotype underwent follow-up analyses that confirmed myelodysplasia by cytomorphology, cytogenetics or molecular genetics in 47 (35.3%) after a median interval of nine months (range 1-53 months). As far as initial flow cytometry results are concerned, this applied to 30 of 59 (50.1%) with myelodysplasia, 10 of 42 (23.8%) with “possible myelodysplasia” (minor antigen aberrancies only) and 7 of 32 (21.9%) without myelodysplasia (P=0.004). Notably, in these latter 7 patients, flow cytometry results changed at follow up to “possible myelodysplasia” (n=4) and “myelodysplasia” (n=2). These data argue in favor of including flow cytometry along with cytomorphology, cytogenetics and molecular genetics to diagnose myelodysplasia, and suggest a closer monitoring of patients with myelodysplasia-typical aberrant antigen expression found by flow cytometry. PMID:22929975

Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Claudia; Schnittger, Susanne; Alpermann, Tamara; Haferlach, Torsten

2013-01-01

91

Department of Energy finding of no significant impact concerning the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents the US DOE finding for environmental remediation at the Belfield and Bowman inactive uranium processing sites in North Dakota. An Environmental Assessment performed for the sites analyzed the consequences of performing no remedial action and of a remedial action alternative. Based on the assessment, the DOE finds that there would be no significant impact from either alternative. Therefore, no environmental impact statement is required for the proposal to revoke the processing designation of the sites.

NONE

1998-12-31

92

Singlet-oxygen generation at gas-liquid interfaces: A significant artifact in the measurement of singlet-oxygen yields from ozone-biomolecule reactions  

SciTech Connect

Several ozone-biomolecule reactions have previously been shown to generate singlet oxygen in high yields. For some of these ozone-biomolecule reactions, we now show that the apparent singlet-oxygen yields determined from measurements of 1270 nm chemiluminescence were artifactually elevated by production of gas-phase singlet oxygen. The gas-phase singlet oxygen results from the reaction of gas-phase ozone with biomolecules near the surface of the solution. Through the use of a flow system that excludes air from the reaction chamber, accurate singlet-oxygen yields can be obtained. The revised singlet-oxygen yields (mol 1O2 per mol O3) for the reactions of ozone with cysteine, reduced glutathione, NADH, NADPH, human albumin, methionine, uric acid and oxidized glutathione are 0.23 +/- 0.02, 0.26 +/- 0.2, 0.48 +/- 0.04, 0.41 +/- 0.01, 0.53 +/- 0.06, 1.11 +/- 0.04, 0.73 +/- 0.05 and 0.75 +/- 0.01, respectively. These revised singlet-oxygen yields are still substantial.

Kanofsky, J.R.; Sima, P.D. (Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, Hines, IL (United States))

1993-09-01

93

Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

Not Available

1994-09-01

94

Revised Finding of No Significant Impact for Expansion and Operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site (10/29/03)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1194) in 1997 for the expansion and operation of the existing Central Shops Borrow Pit (i.e., SRS Facility 632-G) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. This EA was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 15400-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE determined that the action was not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) was not required, and DOE issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) dated March 13, 1997. In an effort to provide the site with cost-effective future landfill capacity for construction and demolition (C&D) debris/structural fill, DOE is considering redefining the closure of the 632-G facility to encompass the permitted disposal of inert C&D debris into the excavation areas, which would then be closed as per regulatory requirements. Based on the existing infrastructure at the 632-G facility that would support a permitted Part III C&D Landfill, DOE has concluded that the environmental impacts of the proposed use of the excavated portions of this facility as an inert debris landfill is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required, and DOE is issuing this revised FONSI.

N /A

2003-10-29

95

Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

N /A

2004-08-31

96

Decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity in anterior sub-network of default mode network and cerebellum: significant findings in major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

The issue of inter-hemispheric connectivity is an emerging new area in understanding the pathophysiology of depression. This study was designed to analyse the pattern of inter-hemispheric connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RFMRI) was acquired in all enrolled patients and controls. We used a method of voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) to estimate the significant differences in inter-hemispheric connectivity between 44 patients with first-episode medication-naïve MDD and 27 normal controls. The patients and controls were matched for age and gender. The patients with first-episode medication-naïve MDD showed lower VMHC than normal controls in bilateral medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate and cerebellar posterior lobe. The strength of inter-hemispheric connectivity VMHC value was negatively correlated with clinical severity of MDD. From the results, we suggested that decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity in the anterior sub-network of the default mode network and the cerebellar posterior lobe might represent an emerging finding in the pathophysiology for MDD. PMID:25116002

Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te

2014-12-01

97

Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

Not Available

2012-07-01

98

Recent Findings Regarding Maintenance of Enzootic Variants of Yersinia pestis in Sylvatic Reservoirs and Their Significance in the Evolution of Epidemic Plague  

PubMed Central

Abstract Despite the widespread presence of bubonic plague in sylvatic reservoirs throughout the world, the causative agent (Yersinia pestis) evolved in its present form within the last 20,000 years from enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Comparison of the genomes from the two species revealed that Y. pestis possesses only a few unique plasmid-encoded genes that contribute to acute disease, whereas this organism has lost about 13% of the chromosomal genes that remain active in Y. pseudotuberculosis. These losses reflect readily detectable additions, deletions, transpositions, inversions, and acquisition of about 70 insertion sequence (IS) inserts, none of which are likely to promote increased virulence. In contrast, major enzymes of intermediary metabolism, including glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf?) and aspartase, are present but not catalytically functional due to the presence of missense mutations. The latter are generally not detectable by the technology of bioinformatics and, in the case of Y. pestis, result in radical changes in the metabolic flow of carbon. As an important consequence, plague bacilli exhibit a stringent low-calcium response characterized by conversion of L-glutamate (and metabolically related amino acids) to L-aspartate with secretion of the latter into supernatant fluid at 37°C in culture media containing Na+ but lacking added Ca2+. This phenomenon also occurs in vivo and likely adversely affects the bioenergetics of host amino acid pools. Curiously, aspartase is functional in all tested enzootic (pestoides) strains of Y. pestis. These isolates are typically restricted to the ancient plague reservoirs of Central Asia and Africa and are fully virulent in members of the rodent Superfamily Muroidea but avirulent in guinea pigs and man. The implications of these findings for the distribution and ecology of Y. pestis could be significant. PMID:20158336

Brubaker, Robert R.

2010-01-01

99

Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis  

SciTech Connect

A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A. [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others] [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); and others

1996-10-02

100

Final Report Regarding the Findings of the Study Group on the Feasibility of Using Alternative Financial Instruments for Determining Lender Yield under the Federal Family Education Loan Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Higher Education Amendments of 1998 required a study of the feasibility of alternative financial instruments for determining lender yields in the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) and called for an evaluation of the 91-day Treasury bill, 30-day and 90-day commercial paper, and the 90-day London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) as…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

101

First finds of Late Tithonian and middle-late Albian radiolarian assemblages in volcanogenic-siliceous rocks of the Amur River right lower reaches and their tectonic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithological-stratigraphic study of volcanogenic-siliceous rocks developed on the left side of the Machtovaya River, a\\u000a right tributary of the Amur River, yielded the first radiolarian assemblages of the late Late Tithonian, the late Late Tithonian-early\\u000a Valanginian, and the middle-late Albian age. It is established that the stratigraphic succession of volcanogenic-siliceous\\u000a rocks in this area is composed of upper Tithonian-Valanginian

A. N. Filippov; I. V. Kemkin

2008-01-01

102

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the release of tritium from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch between 25 to 35 percent. If this proposed action is undertaken and its effectiveness is demonstrated, it may become a component of the final action in the CAP. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or prepare an environmental impact statement (EM).

N /A

1999-12-08

103

Prognostic significance of prevalent and incident atrial fibrillation among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome: findings from the Gulf RACE-2 Registry.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of data on atrial fibrillation (AF) complicating acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Arabian Gulf countries. Thus, we assessed the incidence of AF in patients with ACS in these countries and examined the associated in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year adverse outcomes. The population comprised 7930 patients enrolled in the second Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Of 7930 patients with ACS, 217 (2.7%) had AF. Compared with patients without AF, patients with AF were less likely to be male (65.9 vs 79.1%) and were older (mean age 64.6 vs 56.6 years). Compared with patients without AF, in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality were significantly higher in patients with any AF (odds ratio [OR]: 2.7, 2.2, 1.9, respectively; P < .001) and in patients with new-onset AF (OR: 5.2, 3.9, 3.1, respectively; P < .001. In conclusion, AF in patients with ACS was associated with significantly higher short- and long-term mortality. PMID:22144666

Hersi, Ahmad; Alhabib, Khalid F; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Alfaleh, Hussam F; Alsaif, Shukri; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Asaad, Nidal; Haitham, Amin; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Suwaidi, Jassim; Shehab, Abdullah

2012-08-01

104

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

N /A

2000-03-20

105

Changes in Normal Liver and Spleen Volume after Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y-Resin Microspheres in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Findings and Clinical Significance  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In clinical trials with yttrium-90-resin-microspheres for the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases, it was observed that radioembolization might result in splenomegaly and an increase in portal vein size. Subclinical hepatitis in normal liver tissue as well as the effects of radioembolization and prior chemotherapy are suspected to be responsible for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter after radioembolization. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with liver-dominant metastatic disease from breast cancer who had not responded to chemotherapy or had to abandon chemotherapy because of its toxic effects were evaluated. Changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter as well as liver tumor volume and diameter were quantified using computed tomography scans. Results: Radioembolization was associated with a significant mean decrease in the whole liver volume of 10.2% (median 16.7%; P = 0.0024), mainly caused by a reduction in the right lobe volume (mean 16.0%; P < 0.0001). These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the diameter of the main portal vein (mean 6.8%; P < 0.0001) as well as splenic volume (mean 50.4%; P < 0.0001). Liver-tumor volume and diameter decreased by a median of 24 and 39.7%. Conclusions: Radioembolization is an effective treatment for tumor size reduction in patients with breast cancer liver metastases. Treatment is associated with changes of hepatic parenchymal volume, splenic volume, and portal vein size that appear not to represent clinically important sequelae in this patient cohort.

Paprottka, Philipp M., E-mail: philipp.paprottka@med.uni-muenchen.de; Schmidt, G. P.; Trumm, C. G.; Hoffmann, R. T.; Reiser, M. F.; Jakobs, T. F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, University Hospitals Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology (Germany)

2011-10-15

106

Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs  

SciTech Connect

Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Suter, Jonathan D.

2012-09-01

107

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action regarding an upgrade of the Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). Potential environmental consequences associated with the proposed action and alternative actions are provided. DOE proposes to design, build, and operate a new WWTF, consistent with the requirements of Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 317, ''Design Criteria for Sewage Systems,'' capable of supporting current and future wastewater treatment requirements of the Plant. Wastewater treatment at Pantex must provide sufficient operational flexibility to meet Pantex Plant's anticipated future needs, including potential Plant mission changes, alternative effluent uses, and wastewater discharge permit requirements. Treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water maybe used for irrigation on DOE-owned agricultural land. Five factors support the need for DOE action: (1) The current WWTF operation has the potential for inconsistent permit compliance. (2) The existing WWTF lies completely within the 100-year floodplain. (3) The Pantex Plant mission has the potential to change, requiring infrastructure changes to the facility. (4) The life expectancy of the existing facility would be nearing its end by the time a new facility is constructed. (5) The treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water would have a beneficial agricultural use through irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following factors are present and of concern at the proposed action site on Pantex Plant: (1) Periodic wastewater effluent permit exceedances; (2) Wetlands protection and floodplain management; (3) Capability of the existing facility to meet anticipated future needs of Pantex (4) Existing facility design life; and (5) Use of treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water for irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and no further analysis was conducted: (1) State or national parks, forests, or other conservation areas; (2) Wild and scenic rivers; (3) Natural resources, such as timber, range, soils, minerals; (4) Properties of historic, archeological, or architectural significance; (5) Native American concerns; (6) Minority and low-income populations; and (7) Prime or unique farmland. In this document, DOE describes the proposed action and a reasonable range of alternatives to the proposed action, including the ''No-Action'' alternative. The proposed action cited in the ''U.S. Department of Energy Application for a Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Modifying Permit to Dispose of Waste, No. 02296,'' December 1998, included the construction of a new wastewater treatment facility, a new irrigation storage pond, and the conversion of the current wastewater treatment facility into an irrigation storage pond. Although a permit modification application has been filed, if a decision on this EA necessitates it, an amendment to the permit application would be made. The permit application would be required for any of the alternatives and the filing does not preclude or predetermine selection of an alternative considered by this EA. This permit change would allow Pantex to land-dispose treated wastewater by irrigating agricultural land. This construction for the proposed action would include designing two new lagoons for wastewater treatment. One of the lagoons could function as a facultative lagoon for treatment of wastewater. The second lagoon would serve as an irrigation storage impoundment (storage pond), with the alternative use as a facultative lagoon if the first lagoon is out of service for any reason. The new facultative lagoon and irrigation water storage pond would be sited outside of the 100-year flood plain. The existing WWTF lagoon would be used as a storage pond for treated wastewater effluent for irrigation water, as needed. The two new lagoons would be li

N /A

1999-05-27

108

ER Waiting Times Vary Significantly, Studies Find  

MedlinePLUS

... who's also an attending physician and director of health policy studies in the department of emergency medicine at ... who is also chief of the division of health policy translation in the department of emergency medicine at ...

109

Is statistical significance always significant?  

PubMed

One way in which we learn new information is to read the medical literature. Whether or not we do primary research, it is important to be able to read literature in a critical fashion. A seemingly simple concept in reading is to interpret p values. For most of us, if we find a p value that is <.05, we take the conclusion to heart and quote it at every opportunity. If the p value is >.05, we discard the paper and look elsewhere for useful information. Unfortunately, this is too simplistic an approach. The real utility of p values is to consider them within the context of the experiment being performed. Defects in study design can make an interpretation of a p value useless. One has to be wary of type I (seeing a "statistically significant" difference just because of chance) and type II (failing to see a difference that really exists) errors. Examples of the former are publication bias and the performance of multiple analyses; the latter refers to a trial that is too small to demonstrate the difference. Finding significant differences in surrogate or intermediate endpoints may not help us. We need to know if those endpoints reflect the behavior of clinical endpoints. Selectively citing significant differences and disregarding studies that do not find them is inappropriate. Small differences, even if they are statistically significant, may require too much resource expenditure to be clinically useful. This article explores these problems in depth and attempts to put p values in the context of studies. PMID:16207667

Koretz, Ronald L

2005-06-01

110

Baryon resonance yields after QGP hadronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the yields of ?(1232), ?(1385) and ?(1520) baryon resonances in the framework of a kinetic master equations for the case of entropy rich QGP fast hadronization leading to initial above chemical equilibrium yields of hadrons. In this case the resonance yield in a rapidly expanding system does not follow the chemical equilibrium yield as function of time. We find that a significant additional yields of ?(1232), ?(1385) can be produced by the back-reaction of the over- abundance of the decay products of resonances. A more complex situation arises for a relatively narrow resonance such as ?(1520), which can be in part seen as a stable state, which is depopulated to increase the heavier resonance yield. We find that a suppression of yield of such resonances, as compared to statistical hadronization model, is possible. The pattern of deviation of hadron resonance yields from expectations based on statistical hadronization model are another characteristic signature for a fast hadronization of entropy rich QGP. The total yields of the ground state baryons used in analysis of data (such as N, ?) are not affected. The results are in agreement with yields of these resonances reported by RHIC experiments.

Kuznetsova, Inga; Rafelski, Johann

2009-05-01

111

Conceptualizing yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a framework for employing the concept of tourism yield in a multidimensional manner, in particular applied to various quality of life aspects promoted by sustainable development. Most analysts employ a narrow economic definition of yield while paying some attention to the triple bottom line. Here, a framework is proposed that not only seeks to conceptualize tourism yield

Jeremy Northcote; Jim Macbeth

2006-01-01

112

Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1994-12-31

113

Yield of green peas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green peas (cv.‘Victory Freezer’) were grown at five plant densities (52, 90, 105, 182, 358 plants\\/m) and three soil moisture treatments: natural rainfall, irrigation at flowering and pod swelling, and water stress at these periods. Both total green yield and green pea yield increased with increasing density, although green pea yield dropped slightly below 182 plants\\/m. No significant differences occurred

J. A. D. Anderson; J. G. H. White

1974-01-01

114

Abscisic Acid Sprays Significantly Increase Yield per Plant in Vineyard-Grown Wine Grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Through Increased Berry Set with No Negative Effects on Anthocyanin Content and Total Polyphenol Index of Both Juice and Wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cultivars of Vitis vinifera periods of mild water stress during ripening are thought to increase grape quality for winemaking, even though yields may\\u000a be negatively affected. Because abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the signaling of water stress in plants, we examine the\\u000a effects of the ABA signal being given without the concomitant water stress. ABA at 250 mg

Andrea M. Quiroga; Federico J. Berli; Daniela Moreno; Juan B. Cavagnaro; Rubén Bottini

2009-01-01

115

Finding food  

PubMed Central

A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

2011-01-01

116

An Innovative Approach to Plant Utility Audits Yields Significant Results  

E-print Network

Alta Popular Creek Power Station9 Fossil fuel offset with waste gas 2,600 to 4,200 MMBtu/day of natural gas for an annual savings of C$4.4 to C$8.4 MM/Year based on refinery operation Suncor Energy10/11 Improved production and reduced energy usage...Alta Popular Creek Power Station9 Fossil fuel offset with waste gas 2,600 to 4,200 MMBtu/day of natural gas for an annual savings of C$4.4 to C$8.4 MM/Year based on refinery operation Suncor Energy10/11 Improved production and reduced energy usage...

Robinson, J. E.; Moore, D. A.

2005-01-01

117

Maximizing the ExoEarth Candidate Yield from a Future Direct Imaging Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagraph contrast noise floor. We find a surprisingly weak dependence of exoEarth candidate yield on exozodi level. Additionally, we provide a quantitative approach to defining a yield goal for future exoEarth-imaging missions.

Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Robinson, Tyler D.

2014-11-01

118

Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

1982-01-01

119

Maximum Sustainable Yield Lives On  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined 142 papers published from 1977 through 1985 that used the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). I classified them as to how MSY was used, year of publication, subject, and publication forum. The primary uses of MSY were in estimating long-term yield (28.9%), evaluating stock condition (28.2%), and analyzing policy (21.8%). The number of such publications declined significantly

Willard E. Barber

1988-01-01

120

Wafer yield prediction by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of yield from the production lines is concentrated at a high-yield area and tapers down to the lower-yield area. Production management would find it useful if the yield of individual wafers could be forecast. The yield is determined by the variability of electrical characteristics and dust. In this study, only the variability of electrical characteristics was discussed. One

M. Asada

2001-01-01

121

Clinical significance of cytogenetic findings in solid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome analysis of solid tumors is becoming an increasingly useful tool to help establish a correct diagnosis and to provide prognostically important information. Characteristic karyotypic patterns in terms of degree of cytogenetic complexity and type of nonrandom abnormalities may help to distinguish neoplasia from a nonneoplastic lesion and to differentiate between a benign and a malignant tumor. More importantly, the

Felix Mitelman; Bertil Johansson; Nils Mandahl; Fredrik Mertens

1997-01-01

122

Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: immunohistochemical findings and clinical significance  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of seven patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scan, cystoscopy, and computed tomography (CT) scan. The level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) before and after surgery was assessed. Different prostate cancer markers were used for immunohistochemical staining. Results The mean age of the seven patients diagnosed with prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma in this study was 76.2 years (range 57–88). Five patients presented with intermittent and painless gross hematuria, one patient with progressive dysuria, and one patient with elevated serum PSA on routine health examination. The level of PSA before surgery ranged from 1.3 to 45.0 ng/mL. Immunohistochemical staining results of the prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma confirmed positivity for PSA, prostatic acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, and alpha-methyacyl co-enzyme A (CoA)-reductase markers. Two of the patients underwent bilateral orchiectomy combined with anti-androgen therapy, three underwent transurethral resection of prostate, one received radical prostatectomy, and one received medical castration therapy. The clinical outcomes of all patients were satisfactory, based on follow-up data. The symptoms of hematuria and dysuria were ameliorated well, and the postoperative PSA level decreased below 4.0 ng/mL. Recurrence or metastasis of disease was not detected on MRI and bone scan. Conclusion Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare subtype of prostate carcinoma, the diagnosis of which could be based on pathological and immunohistochemical examination. Earlier management promises better prognosis. PMID:24187500

Sha, Jianjun; Bo, Juanjie; Pan, Jiahua; Zhang, Lianhua; Xuan, Hanqing; Chen, Wei; Li, Dong; Wang, Zhaoliang; Liu, Dongming; Huang, Yiran

2013-01-01

123

Significant findings concerning the production of Italian Renaissance lustred majolica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper the main results obtained, over a period of more than ten years, from a series of studies concerning the characterization of Italian Renaissance lustred majolicas (from Gubbio and Deruta, Umbria, Italy) are presented. Lustre decoration is a well-known technique, consisting in the application of a thin metallic iridescent film, containing silver and copper nanoparticles, over a previously glazed ceramic object. The technique had its origin in Persia (IX century), was imported by Moorish in Spain, and then developed in central Italy during the Renaissance period. Numerous analytical techniques (among which, ETASS, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM-EDX) have been employed for the characterization of lustred ceramic shards, allowing one to acquire information on both lustre chemical composition and nanostructure. In this way it was shown how some technological parameters, such as the firing conditions, are mandatory to obtain the final result. The presence of a specific marker of the lustre Italian production, i.e., cosalite (Pb2Bi2S5), has been also highlighted. From the study of the ceramic body composition (by means of XRD and ICP-OES and in particular of chemometric techniques) acquired on more than 50 ceramic shards it was possible to discriminate between Deruta and Gubbio production, in this way allowing one to assign objects of uncertain provenance to a specific site. Finally, the most interesting results obtained studying excellent lustred masterpieces from Renaissance belonging to important museums are here presented. In particular, with the use of nondestructive techniques (PIXE, RBS, and portable XRD), the production of Mastro Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio was investigated. By means of the same analytical approach, one of the first examples of lustre in Italy (the famous Baglioni's albarello) was examined, and the controversial question of its attribution to Italian production was scientifically faced.

Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

2013-12-01

124

Finding Perimeter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore a real world problem based on the Marilyn Burns book Spaghetti and Meatballs for All!. The problem and further practice finding the distance around rectangles will lead them to discover efficient strategies and formulas for solving perimeter.

Strickland, Susanna

2012-07-27

125

Assessing the impacts of current and future concentrations of surface ozone on crop yield with meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of rising ozone concentrations ([O 3]) on yield and yield components of major food crops: potato, barley, wheat, rice, bean and soybean in 406 experimental observations. Yield loss of the crops under current and future [O 3] was expressed relative to the yield under base [O 3] (?26 ppb). With potato, current [O 3] (31-50 ppb) reduced the yield by 5.3%, and it reduced the yield of barley, wheat and rice by 8.9%, 9.7% and 17.5%, respectively. In bean and soybean, the yield losses were 19.0% and 7.7%, respectively. Compared with yield loss at current [O 3], future [O 3] (51-75 ppb) drove a further 10% loss in yield of soybean, wheat and rice, and 20% loss in bean. Mass of individual grain, seed, or tuber was often the major cause of the yield loss at current and future [O 3], whereas other yield components also contributed to the yield loss in some cases. No significant difference was found between the responses in crops grown in pots and those in the ground for any yield parameters. The ameliorating effect of elevated [CO 2] was significant in the yields of wheat and potato, and the individual grain weight in wheat exposed to future [O 3]. These findings confirm the rising [O 3] as a threat to food security for the growing global population in this century.

Feng, Zhaozhong; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

126

To Strive, to Seek, to Find and not to Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental importance of the arts in the development of human potential cannot be overemphasized. In Hong Kong, the drive\\u000a to establish education through the arts and education in the arts as the keys to future growth and to new ways of thinking\\u000a about and experiencing the world really began in 1995 with the establishment of the Hong Kong Arts

Darwin Chen

127

Main Findings  

Cancer.gov

This study looked at the ALTS patients with ASCUS who were found to have a precancerous lesion when they underwent colposcopy and biopsy. Its purpose was to find out how sensitive HPV testing was at identifying these women compared to repeat Pap testing. The study found that HPV testing was 96-percent sensitive - that is, identified 96% of the women with ASCUS who had a precancerous lesion. The authors concluded that HPV testing is a viable option for the management of ASCUS.

128

Factor Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

Piecora, Jamie

2000-01-01

129

Fossil Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students simulate a "dinosaur dig." The activity opens with background information for teachers about fossils. Working in groups, students excavate fossil sites created in advance by the teacher, or other group of students, and try to reconstruct a chicken skeleton. The activity closes with a two-page student worksheet that directs students to diagram the fossil site and includes probing questions to help them decode their findings.

130

Finding Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy activity serves as a kid-friendly how-to manual about searching for fossils. In Not Just Any Rock Will Do, kids learn that fossils "hide out" in sedimentary rock and see examples of shale and sandstone. Do's and Don'ts for Fossil Hunters gives kids practical tips and a list of fossil-hunting supplies. In Fossils You May Find, there are photos of common invertebrate, vertebrate, and plant fossils to guide kids. Paleontology Clubs and Web Sites lists resources to help kids determine where to hunt for fossils. In Keeping a Field Journal, kids are shown a sample journal entry that points out the types of information they should record.

131

Effects of geoengineering on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as market shares of agricultural output may change with the different spatial pattern of climate change. More importantly, geoengineering by SRM does not address a range of other detrimental consequences of climate change, such as ocean acidification, which could also affect food security via effects on marine food webs. Finally, SRM poses substantial anticipated and unanticipated risks by interfering with complex, not fully understood systems. Therefore, despite potential positive effects of SRM on crop yields, the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2011-12-01

132

The yield stress myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New experimental data obtained from constant stress rheometers are used to show that the yield stress concept is an idealization, and that, given accurate measurements, no yield stress exists. The simple Cross model is shown to be a useful empiricism for many non-Newtonian fluids, including those which have hitherto been thought to possess a yield stress.

H. A. Barnes; K. Walters

1985-01-01

133

Predicting Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: "Non-Significant" Findings with the Potential for Significant Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the March 2003 issue of "Psychological Science", the flagship journal of the American Psychological Society, Goodman et al. (2003) reported on a prospective study that examined memory for childhood sexual abuse. The authors interviewed adolescents and young adults who had been victims of documented childhood sexual abuse that led to criminal…

Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Becker-Blease, Kathryn

2003-01-01

134

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

135

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

Haun, J. R.

1975-01-01

136

Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches  

PubMed Central

Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the “yield to pedestrian” sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds), and can feasibly be incorporated into microsimulation algorithms to model driver yielding at roundabouts. PMID:24619314

Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J.; Geruschat, Duane R.; Rouphail, Nagui M.

2013-01-01

137

Why Selective Publication of Statistically Significant Results Can Be Effective  

PubMed Central

Concerns exist within the medical and psychological sciences that many published research findings are not replicable. Guidelines accordingly recommend that the file drawer effect should be eliminated and that statistical significance should not be a criterion in the decision to submit and publish scientific results. By means of a simulation study, we show that selectively publishing effects that differ significantly from the cumulative meta-analytic effect evokes the Proteus phenomenon of poorly replicable and alternating findings. However, the simulation also shows that the selective publication approach yields a scientific record that is content rich as compared to publishing everything, in the sense that fewer publications are needed for obtaining an accurate meta-analytic estimation of the true effect. We conclude that, under the assumption of self-correcting science, the file drawer effect can be beneficial for the scientific collective. PMID:23840479

de Winter, Joost; Happee, Riender

2013-01-01

138

Lung in Dengue: Computed Tomography Findings  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue virus infection may be asymptomatic or lead to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever with or without warning signs, or severe dengue. Lower respiratory symptoms are unusual and lung-imaging data in patients with dengue are scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate lung changes associated with dengue infection, we retrospectively analyzed 2,020 confirmed cases of dengue. Twenty-nine of these patients (11 females and 18 males aged 16–90 years) underwent chest computed tomography (CT), which yielded abnormal findings in 17 patients: 16 patients had pleural effusion (the sole finding in six patients) and 11 patients had pulmonary abnormalities. Lung parenchyma involvement ranged from subtle to moderate unilateral and bilateral abnormalities. The most common finding was ground-glass opacity in eight patients, followed by consolidation in six patients. Less common findings were airspace nodules (two patients), interlobular septal thickening (two patients), and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (one patient). Lung histopathological findings in four fatal cases showed thickening of the alveolar septa, hemorrhage, and interstitial edema. Conclusions/Significance In this largest series involving the use of chest CT to evaluate lung involvement in patients with dengue, CT findings of lower respiratory tract involvement were uncommon. When abnormalities were present, pleural effusion was the most frequent finding and lung involvement was often mild or moderate and bilateral. Extensive lung abnormalities are infrequent even in severe disease and when present should lead physicians to consider other diagnostic possibilities. PMID:24836605

Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Brum, Ana Livia Garcia; Paes, Marciano Viana; Povoa, Tiago Fajardo; Basilio-de-Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Marchiori, Edson; Borghi, Danielle Provencano; Ramos, Grazielle Viana; Bozza, Fernando Augusto

2014-01-01

139

Ecosystem Viable Yields  

E-print Network

The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

2011-01-01

140

Estimating Corn Grain Yields  

E-print Network

to potential crop insurance claims, ? A corn crop for harvest as silage during the milk stage (R3), and ? Grain yields of corn at the dent (R5) or physiological maturity (R6) stage of development when planning harvest and post-harvest grain storage needs... to potential crop insurance claims, ? A corn crop for harvest as silage during the milk stage (R3), and ? Grain yields of corn at the dent (R5) or physiological maturity (R6) stage of development when planning harvest and post-harvest grain storage needs...

Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne

2009-06-12

141

Spleen findings in drowning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study of spleen findings in 42 victims of drowning and a comparison group of 42 c,lses of asphyxiation due to other causes (hanging, ligature strangulation and manual strangulation), that were matched for sex, age, body weight and build, was performed. Significantly smaller spleen weights (P < 0.05), spleen weightbody weight ratios (P < 0.01) and spl.een weight:liver weight

H. Th. Haffner; M. Graw; J. Erdelkamp

1994-01-01

142

Tests of Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-25

143

Detecting Novelty and Significance  

PubMed Central

Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

2013-01-01

144

Metasynthesis findings: potential versus reality.  

PubMed

Early on, qualitative researchers predicted that metasynthesis research had the potential to significantly push knowledge development forward. More recently, scholars have questioned whether this is actually occurring. To examine this concern, a randomly selected sample of metasynthesis articles was systematically reviewed to identify the types of findings that have been produced. Based on this systematic examination, it appears that findings from metasynthesis investigations might not be reaching their full potential. Metasynthesis investigations frequently result in isolated findings rather than findings in relationship, and opportunities to generate research hypotheses and theoretical models are not always fully realized. With this in mind, methods for moving metasynthesis findings into relationship are discussed. PMID:25192758

Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

2014-11-01

145

Communist China: Significant Trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Far East today Communist China, Soviet Russia, and the United States form a power triangle. Each power has objectives in the area which are in conflict with those of the others. These conflicts are finding expression in the war in Vietnam which is ...

H. L. Duncan

1966-01-01

146

UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR YIELD IMPROVEMENT  

E-print Network

/average casting weight (yield decreases with its increase). VARIABLES IMPACTING YIELD IN STEEL CASTING of Iowa researchers are conducting a casting yield survey to deter- mine the average metal yield in steel techniques for decreasing the size and number of risers re- quired to produce quality castings

Beckermann, Christoph

147

Ecologically Significant Wetlands  

E-print Network

habitat for wildlife and rare plants and animals. The quality and significance of each site was ranked of concentrations of rare plants or animals, and intact uplands. Of the approximately 100 potential wetlands

148

Yield stress and elastic modulus of suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids  

E-print Network

We study experimentally the behavior of isotropic suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids. This problem has been poorly studied in the literature, and only on specific materials. In this paper, we manage to develop procedures and materials that allow us to focus on the purely mechanical contribution of the particles to the yield stress fluid behavior, independently of the physicochemical properties of the materials. This allows us to relate the macroscopic properties of these suspensions to the mechanical properties of the yield stress fluid and the particle volume fraction, and to provide results applicable to any noncolloidal particle in any yield stress fluid. We find that the elastic modulus-concentration relationship follows a Krieger-Dougherty law, and we show that the yield stress-concentration relationship is related to the elastic modulus-concentration relationship through a very simple law, in agreement with results from a micromechanical analysis.

Fabien Mahaut; Xavier Chateau; Philippe Coussot; Guillaume Ovarlez

2008-10-20

149

Significant lexical relationships  

SciTech Connect

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

150

Coincidence to significance.  

PubMed

This article will describe the author's entrepreneurial experiences related to challenges of initiating, negotiating and completing a health promotion project for a Fortune 500 company. The events described begin with her casual meeting of a director of the health promotion section of an international food company and wncludes with the author's final development of a significant employee injury prevention program. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate professional challenges an occupational therapist may encounter to successfully complete a corporate project. PMID:23931009

Herring, C

1989-01-01

151

Where boosted significances come from  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

2014-03-01

152

Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures.  

E-print Network

Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures. Thanks to improvements in treatment and early detection, more and more women are surviving breast cancer. In fact, the five-year survival rate for women with breast cancer today is 90%, up from only 63% in the 1960s. While progress has clearly been

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

153

A Field Study to Unravel Factors that are Significantly Associated with the Secretory Activity of the Corpus Luteum During the First Three Postpartum Cycles in High Yielding Dairy Cows, Based on the Amount of Steroidogenic and Endothelial Cells Present in the Luteal Tissue.  

PubMed

Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3?-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations. PMID:25147002

Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

2014-12-01

154

Yield enhancement with DFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

2012-03-01

155

Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

Saugstad, L F

1975-01-01

156

Yield stress for initial firmness determination on yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield stress and apparent residual stress were measured in laboratory-made yogurts containing different gum concentrations and in seven retail yogurts. Yield stress exhibited significant correlation (p<0.001) with the sensory initial firmness perceived by trained panelists in both laboratory-made (r=0.99) and retail (r>0.97) yogurts. Apparent residual stress was significantly correlated with sensory viscosity for retail yogurts (r>0.90). The yield stress had

F. Harte; S. Clark; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2007-01-01

157

Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

1994-01-01

158

Brain Scans Yield Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain Scans Yield Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Findings ... HealthDay News) -- There are clear differences in the brains of people with chronic fatigue syndrome and the ...

159

No steady state flows below the yield stress. A true yield stress at last?  

E-print Network

For more than 20 years it has been debated if yield stress fluids are solid below the yield stress or actually flow; whether true yield stress fluids exist or not. Advocates of the true yield stress picture have demonstrated that the effective viscosity increases very rapidly as the stress is decreased towards the yield stress. Opponents have shown that this viscosity increase levels off, and that the material behaves as a Newtonian fluid of very high viscosity below the yield stress. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally (on four different materials, using three different rheometers, five different geometries, and two different measurement methods) that the low-stress Newtonian viscosity is an artifact that arises in non steady state experiments. For measurements as long as 10,000 seconds we find that the value of the 'Newtonian viscosity' increases indefinitely. This proves that the yield stress exists and marks a sharp transition between flowing states and states where the steady state viscosity is infinite -a solid!

Peder CF Moller; Abdoulaye Fall; Daniel Bonn

2009-04-09

160

Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

2012-01-01

161

Scaling of keV HHG photon yield with drive wavelength.  

PubMed

We study semi-analytically and numerically the photon yield of high harmonic generation (HHG) on the level of the single atom response under ideal conditions: no initial depletion of the ground state prior to the main peak of the pump pulse. We show that the yield decreases exponentially as function of the cutoff energy starting at about 0.5keV in the case of a Ti:sapphire source and a helium target. We show that the yield in helium beyond the 1keV energy range can be increased by orders of magnitude when long wavelength driver sources in the range from 1.5 mum to 3 mum are used. This finding leads to the conclusion that significant HHG beyond 1keV is possible through long wavelength driver pulses. PMID:19495190

Gordon, Ariel; Kärtner, Franz

2005-04-18

162

Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield  

SciTech Connect

We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources - the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

Ave, M.; Daumiller, K.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Salamida, F.; Smida, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohacova, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Ridky, J.; Schovanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Di Carlo, P.; Iarlori, M.; Petrera, S.; Rizi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita de l'Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Di Giulio, C.; Verzi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and Sezione INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); San Luis, P. Facal; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2011-09-22

163

Analyzing the Designs of Planet-Finding Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a framework for the analysis of direct detection planet-finding missions using space telescopes. This framework generates simulations of complete missions, with varying populations of planets, to produce ensembles of mission simulations, which are used to calculate distributions of mission science yields. We describe the components of a mission simulation, including the complete description of an arbitrary planetary system, the description of a planet-finding instrument, and the modeling of a target system observation. These components are coupled with a decision-modeling algorithm that allows us to automatically generate mission timelines with simple mission rules that lead to an optimized science yield. Along with the details of our implementation of this algorithm, we discuss validation techniques and possible future refinements. We apply this analysis technique to four mission concepts whose common element is a 4 m diameter telescope aperture: an internal pupil mapping coronagraph with two different inner working angles, an external occulter, and the THEIA XPC multiple distance occulter. The focus of this study is to determine the ability of each of these designs to achieve one of their most difficult mission goals-the detection and characterization of Earthlike planets in the habitable zone. We find that all four designs are capable of detecting on the order of five Earthlike planets within a 5 yr mission, even if we assume that only one out of every 10 stars has such a planet. The designs do differ significantly in their ability to characterize the planets they find. Along with science yield, we also analyze fuel usage for the two occulter designs, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of the mission concepts.

Savransky, Dmitry; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Cady, Eric

2010-04-01

164

Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

Whitman, Robert S.

1964-01-01

165

Find a Cancer Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Find a Cancer Doctor The Find an Oncologist Database is made available by ASCO as an informational resource for patients and caregivers. The database includes the names of physicians and other health ...

166

Final state interactions for B{yields}VV charmless decays  

SciTech Connect

We estimate final state interactions in the B-meson decays into two light vector mesons by the Regge model. We consider Pomeron exchange and charmed Regge trajectories that can relate intermediate charmed particles to the final state. The Regge poles have various helicity-flip residues, which allows a change from the longitudinal to transverse polarization. In this way a significant reduction of the longitudinal polarization fraction can be produced. In the factorization approximation we find agreement with recent data from the BABAR and Belle Collaborations in the B{yields}K*{phi} decay channel, as a result of an appropriate choice of semileptonic form factors and Regge exchanges. On the other hand, data for the K*{rho} decay channels appear more elusive. The soft effects discussed in the present paper are based on a model of Regge trajectories that is shown to reproduce correctly in the noncharmed case the Regge phenomenology of light mesons.

Ladisa, Massimo; Laporta, Vincenzo; Nardulli, Giuseppe; Santorelli, Pietro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Bari, Italy Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Italy Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy)

2004-12-01

167

Rx for low cash yields.  

PubMed

Certain strategies can offer not-for-profit hospitals potentially greater investment yields while maintaining stability and principal safety. Treasury inflation-indexed securities can offer good returns, low volatility, and inflation protection. "Enhanced cash" strategies offer liquidity and help to preserve capital. Stable value "wrappers" allow hospitals to pursue higher-yielding fixed-income securities without an increase in volatility. PMID:14560584

Tobe, Chris

2003-10-01

168

Uncertainties in Supernova Yields I: 1D Explosions  

E-print Network

Theoretical nucleosynthetic yields from supernovae are sensitive to both the details of the progenitor star and the explosion calculation. We attempt to comprehensively identify the sources of uncertainties in these yields. In this paper we concentrate on the variations in yields from a single progenitor arising from common 1-dimensional methods of approximating a supernova explosion. Subsequent papers will examine 3-dimensional effects in the explosion and the progenitor, and trends in mass and composition. For the 1-dimensional explosions we find that both elemental and isotopic yields for Si and heavier elements are a sensitive function of explosion energy. Also, piston-driven and thermal bomb type explosions have different yields for the same explosion energy. Yields derived from 1-dimensional explosions are non-unique.

Patrick A. Young; Chris L. Fryer

2006-12-22

169

Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are directly related to year-end yield. During 2012 (a drier-than-normal growing season) corn in parts of the field with shallow groundwater had significantly higher yields than the rest of the field, indicating that groundwater can provide significant yield benefits during drought. In contrast, during 2013 (a wetter-than-normal growing season) areas with the shallowest groundwater experienced total yield losses due to early-season groundwater flooding and oxygen stress. This demonstrates that the optimal DTGW for agricultural production is variable and depends on growing season weather conditions. The presence or absence of shallow groundwater is an important and dynamic feature of many agroecosystems, and should be considered when making both field- and watershed-scale management decisions.

Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

2013-12-01

170

Find a Plume, Find a Vent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity gives students an appreciation for the difficulties deep sea researchers must face in order to find hydrothermal vents. Working in small groups, students can complete this Web investigation in a single class period. The printable handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions that prompt students to use what they already know about mid-ocean ridges to hypothesize about how scientists locate deep sea vents, detailed directions for a Web research project that takes them on a virtual deep sea journey investigating hydrothermal vents, and a worksheet that helps students apply their building knowledge to locate a vent in the northern Pacific Ocean.

171

Yield and yield components of saffron under different cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate yield and yield components of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in response to (i) production system (PS) (irrigated vs. non-irrigated); (ii) corm size (CS) (medium ?2.25 to 3cm diameter vs. small corms <2.25cm diameter); (iii) planting depth (PD) (10cm vs. 20cm); and iv) planting density (PDEN) (51cormsm?2 vs. 69cormsm?2).This fully replicated multifactorial design was started

José Arturo de Juan; Horacio López Córcoles

2009-01-01

172

[Explosive "Roman find"].  

PubMed

A case of a 40-year-old hobby archeologist is presented who searched for remains from Roman times. After finding an oblong, cylindrical object, he opened it with a saw to examine it, which triggered an explosion killing the man. The technical investigation of the remains showed that the find was actually a grenade from the 2nd World War. The autopsy findings and the results of the criminological investigation are presented. PMID:16529179

Stiel, Michael; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

2006-01-01

173

Find a Partner  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Add the math of measurement to the tasks of lining up or finding a partner for an activity. Find a partner with the same length index finger as yours. Or, find a partner with the same arm span as yours. Everyone pairs up. Then, talk about how you found your partner: How did you line up your feet to see if they were the same size? Show everyone how you measured. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.

2010-01-01

174

Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings  

SciTech Connect

The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

1984-07-01

175

Find a Plume, Find a Vent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity will give students an appreciation for the difficulties deep sea researchers must face in order to find hydrothermal vents. Working in small groups, students can complete this Web investigation in a single class period. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions that prompt students to use what they already know about mid-ocean ridges to hypothesize about how scientists locate deep sea vents. In addition, it has detailed directions for a Web research project that takes them on a virtual deep sea journey, investigating hydrothermal vents and a worksheet that helps students apply their knowledge to locate a vent in the northern Pacific Ocean.

176

Effect of harvest method and date on lesquerella seed yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted to compare the harvested yields of lesquerella seed obtained from windrow combining to those obtained by direct combining following spraying with a desiccant. The mean harvested yield for windrow combining was less than for direct combining. The difference was statistically significant for the detailed trials, but not for the commercial trials. Delaying crop termination by two

Wayne Coates

1996-01-01

177

Africa Region: Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Findings_ reports on ongoing operational, economic, and sector work carried out by the World Bank and its member governments in the Africa Region. Currently, issues of agricultural extension in Madagascar, drought and Sub-Saharan African economies, and gender issues in Ethiopia are discussed in four Findings articles (Nos. 117-119).

1992-01-01

178

Finding bugs is easy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many techniques have been developed over the years to automatically find bugs in software. Often, these techniques rely on formal methods and sophisticated program analysis. While these techniques are valuable, they can be difficult to apply, and they aren't always effective in finding real bugs. Bug patterns are code idioms that are often errors. We have implemented automatic detectors for

David Hovemeyer; William Pugh

2004-01-01

179

Finding Your Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers ways on how to find a voice when telling or sharing stories in print or in person. To find a voice, someone must: (1) Trust themselves; (2) Trust their audience whether they know they can trust them or not; (3) Be respectful in their inventions; (4) Listen to and read the stories of others; (5) Make mistakes; (6)…

Neugebauer, Bonnie

2008-01-01

180

Increased upconversion quantum yield in plasmonic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upconversion processes have found widespread applications in drug delivery, bio-imaging and solar-cells. In this paper we present a theoretical model that analyzes the impact of a plasmonic shield structure on the quantum yield of upconversion nanoparticles. We use this model to assess the efficiency of NaYF4: Tm3+ Yb3+/NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles when embedded in a polymer matrix and covered by a metallic can-like structure. We find that as a result of this specific plasmonic structure, the upconversion luminescence from NIR to UV can be increased by a factor of 30.

Elhalawany, A.; Hayenga, W. E.; He, S.; Lantigua, C.; Johnson, N. J. J.; Almutairi, A.; Khajavikhan, M.

2014-09-01

181

Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

2014-06-01

182

Effect of Damping and Yielding on the Seismic Response of 3D Steel Buildings with PMRF  

PubMed Central

The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases. The results show the limitations of the commonly used static equivalent lateral force procedure where local and global response parameters are reduced in the same proportion. It is concluded that estimating the effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of steel buildings by using simplified models may be a very crude approximation. Moreover, the effect of yielding should be explicitly calculated by using complex 3D MDOF models instead of estimating it in terms of equivalent viscous damping. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions. PMID:25097892

Haldar, Achintya; Rodelo-Lopez, Ramon Eduardo; Bojorquez, Eden

2014-01-01

183

Designing a high-yielding maize ideotype for a changing climate in Lombardy plain (northern Italy).  

PubMed

The expected climate change will affect the maize yields in view of air temperature increase and scarce water availability. The application of biophysical models offers the chance to design a drought-resistant ideotype and to assist plant breeders and agronomists in the assessment of its suitability in future scenarios. The aim of the present work was to perform a model-based estimation of the yields of two hybrids, current vs ideotype, under future climate scenarios (2030-2060 and 2070-2100) in Lombardy (northern Italy), testing two options of irrigation (small amount at fixed dates vs optimal water supply), nitrogen (N) fertilization (300 vs 400 kg N ha(-1)), and crop cycle durations (current vs extended). For the designing of the ideotype we set several parameters of the ARMOSA process-based crop model: the root elongation rate and maximum depth, stomatal resistance, four stage-specific crop coefficients for the actual transpiration estimation, and drought tolerance factor. The work findings indicated that the current hybrid ensures good production only with high irrigation amount (245-565 mm y(-1)). With respect to the current hybrid, the ideotype will require less irrigation water (-13%, p<0.01) and it resulted in significantly higher yield under water stress condition (+15%, p<0.01) and optimal water supply (+2%, p<0.05). The elongated cycle has a positive effect on yield under any combination of options. Moreover, higher yields projected for the ideotype implicate more crop residues to be incorporated into the soil, which are positively correlated with the SOC sequestration and negatively with N leaching. The crop N uptake is expected to be adequate in view of higher rate of soil mineralization; the N fertilization rate of 400 kg N ha(-1) will involve significant increasing of grain yield, and it is expected to involve a higher rate of SOC sequestration. PMID:24913890

Perego, Alessia; Sanna, Mattia; Giussani, Andrea; Chiodini, Marcello Ermido; Fumagalli, Mattia; Pilu, Salvatore Roberto; Bindi, Marco; Moriondo, Marco; Acutis, Marco

2014-11-15

184

Growth parameter and yield component response of field corn to simulated acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yield changes the study examined the effect of simulated acid rain on parameters associated with corn yield. Cultivars B73 x

W. L. Banwart; P. M. Porter; E. L. Ziegler; J. J. Hassett

1988-01-01

185

Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.  

PubMed

Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

2014-04-01

186

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

187

Find a Plastic Surgeon  

MedlinePLUS

... Buttock Lift Calf Implants Chemical Peel Chin Surgery Cosmetic Surgery Dermabrasion Dermal Fillers Ear Surgery Eyelid Surgery Facelift ... on highly trained board-certified plastic surgeons in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery around the world. Use our free Find a ...

188

Find a Healthcare Professional  

MedlinePLUS

... Caputo.html||| 336734167|||43.654444|||-70.276725|||Dr. Rebecca Carey, M.D.|||887 Congress St|||Portland|||04102||| ... org/living-with-crohns-colitis/find-a-doctor/Rebecca-Carey.html||| 459169790|||32.791583|||-96.778051|||Angela ...

189

Find an Orthopaedist  

MedlinePLUS

... in Find an Orthopaedist. About the AAOS AAOS Strategic Plan Membership Data Board of Directors Board of Councilors Board of Specialty Societies Senior Management Specialty Societies International Contacts Careers AAOS Staff Opportunities ...

190

Find a Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Find the locations of NCI-designated cancer centers by area, region, state, or name that includes contact information to help health care providers and cancer patients with referrals to clinical trials.

191

Cotranslational Folding Increases GFP Folding Yield  

PubMed Central

Protein sequences evolved to fold in cells, including cotranslational folding of nascent polypeptide chains during their synthesis by the ribosome. The vectorial (N- to C-terminal) nature of cotranslational folding constrains the conformations of the nascent polypeptide chain in a manner not experienced by full-length chains diluted out of denaturant. We are still discovering to what extent these constraints affect later, posttranslational folding events. Here we directly address whether conformational constraints imposed by cotranslational folding affect the partitioning between productive folding to the native structure versus aggregation. We isolated polyribosomes from Escherichia coli cells expressing GFP, analyzed the nascent chain length distribution to determine the number of nascent chains that were long enough to fold to the native fluorescent structure, and calculated the folding yield for these nascent chains upon ribosome release versus the folding yield of an equivalent concentration of full-length, chemically denatured GFP polypeptide chains. We find that the yield of native fluorescent GFP is dramatically higher upon ribosome release of nascent chains versus dilution of full-length chains from denaturant. For kinetically trapped native structures such as GFP, folding correctly the first time, immediately after release from the ribosome, can lead to lifelong population of the native structure, as opposed to aggregation. PMID:20371331

Ugrinov, Krastyu G.; Clark, Patricia L.

2010-01-01

192

Can you find it?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can you find where events in the Bible and Church History actually happened? You will need your scriptures for this activity. Preferably with a partner, but if not, by yourself, pick your two most favorite events from the Bible or from Church history. Look them up in the scriptures or, if it\\'s an event from Church history go here Church History in the Fulness of Times. Find ...

Brothom

2005-12-01

193

Maximizing DNA Yield for Epidemiologic Studies: No More Buffy Coats?  

PubMed Central

Some molecular analyses require microgram quantities of DNA, yet many epidemiologic studies preserve only the buffy coat. In Frederick, Maryland, in 2010, we estimated DNA yields from 5 mL of whole blood and from equivalent amounts of all-cell-pellet (ACP) fraction, buffy coat, and residual blood cells from fresh blood (n = 10 volunteers) and from both fresh and frozen blood (n = 10). We extracted DNA with the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, Maryland) for silica spin column capture and measured double-stranded DNA. Yields from frozen blood fractions were not statistically significantly different from those obtained from fresh fractions. ACP fractions yielded 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 66, 97) of the yield of frozen whole blood and 99.3% (95% confidence interval: 86, 100) of the yield of fresh blood. Frozen buffy coat and residual blood cells each yielded only half as much DNA as frozen ACP, and the yields were more variable. Assuming that DNA yield and quality from frozen ACP are stable, we recommend freezing plasma and ACP. Not only does ACP yield twice as much DNA as buffy coat but it is easier to process, and its yield is less variable from person to person. Long-term stability studies are needed. If one wishes to separate buffy coat before freezing, one should also save the residual blood cell fraction, which contains just as much DNA. PMID:23857774

Gail, Mitchell H.; Sheehy, Tim; Cosentino, Mark; Pee, David; Diaz-Mayoral, Norma A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Caporaso, Neil E.; Pitt, Karen; Ziegler, Regina G.

2013-01-01

194

Research note Yield stress for initial firmness determination on yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield stress and apparent residual stress were measured in laboratory-made yogurts containing different gum concentrations and in seven retail yogurts. Yield stress exhibited significant correlation (p < 0.001) with the sensory initial firmness perceived by trained pan- elists in both laboratory-made (r = 0.99) and retail (r > 0.97) yogurts. Apparent residual stress was significantly correlated with sensory viscosity for

F. Harte; S. Clark; G. V. Barbosa-Canovas

195

Cotton Response to 1-Methylcyclopropene Under Different Light Regimes and Growth Stages: Lint Yield and Yield Components  

E-print Network

imposed at four developmental stages of growth: pinhead square (PHS), first flower (FF), peak flower (PF), and boll development (BD). Data pooled over both years indicated that there were no significant differences in yield for 1-MCP treatments; however...

Carden, Charles Warren

2010-10-12

196

Defining and managing sustainable yield.  

PubMed

Ground water resource management programs are paying increasing attention to the integration of ground water and surface water in the planning process. Many plans, however, show a sophistication in approach and presentation that masks a fundamental weakness in the overall analysis. The plans usually discuss issues of demand and yield, yet never directly address a fundamental issue behind the plan--how to define sustainable yield of an aquifer system. This paper points out a number of considerations that must be addressed in defining sustainable yield in order to make the definition more useful in practical water resource planning studies. These include consideration for the spatial and temporal aspects of the problem, the development of a conceptual water balance, the influence of boundaries and changes in technology on the definition, the need to examine water demand as well as available supply, the need for stakeholder involvement, and the issue of uncertainty in our understanding of the components of the hydrologic system. PMID:15584295

Maimone, Mark

2004-01-01

197

Sensitivity of Yield Optimized Superoscillations  

E-print Network

Super oscillating signals are band limited signals that oscillate in some region faster than their largest Fourier component. Such signals have many obvious scientific and technological applications, yet their practical use is strongly limited by the fact that an overwhelming proportion of the energy goes into that part of the signal, which is not superoscillating. In a recent article the problem of optimization of such signals has been studied. In that article the concept of superoscillation yield is defined as the ratio of the energy in the super oscillations to the total energy of the signal, given the range in time and frequency of the superoscillations, which is imposed by forcing the signal to interpolate among a set of predetermined points. The optimization of the superoscillation yield consists of obtaining the Fourier coefficients of the low frequency components of which the signal consists, that maximize the yield under the interpolation constraint. Since in practical applications it is impossible t...

Schwartz, Moshe

2014-01-01

198

Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high-yield plantations could be further analyzed by considering whether they help depress global prices, reducing incentives to expand elsewhere (Angelsen and Kaimowitz 2001). The significance of the study goes well beyond the bounds of Ucayli, and highlights risks to Amazonian forests from oil palm expansion (Butler and Laurance 2010). Oil palm is an astoundingly profitable and productive crop, with typical oil yields more than ten times that of soy. Some have even argued that oil palm is innately land sparing because it would take substantially more land for all other oil-bearing crops to provide the same output. However, most production gains from oil palm have occurred through increased area rather than increased yield, and in many cases expansion has been through forest clearing (Koh and Wilcove 2008, Gibbs et al 2010). The findings of Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) are particularly significant considering that the booming palm oil sectors in Indonesia and Malaysia, which currently produce over 80% of the world's product, are facing a host of pressures that constrain future area expansion. Malaysia has little remaining land suited for plantations and Indonesia faces intensifying international scrutiny over the future of their forestlands. Consequently, the Amazon basin is widely considered the new frontier, with more than half of its forest area suitable for palm oil cultivation (Butler and Laurance 2010) and growing incentives from Brazil's Program for the Sustainable Production of Oil Palm, which aims to utilize degraded lands and spur reforestation efforts. Their results also illuminate another key issue, namely the constraints faced by large-scale producers when they seek to expand plantation area. Emerging demand-side conservation efforts, such as the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), assume that already cleared and non-forested lands are freely available. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) hint at the obstacles to using such cleared lands, which is that they are inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these c

Gibbs, Holly

2012-03-01

199

Yield Strength of bcc Tantalum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined the quasi-static yield strength of bcc tantalum at room temperature and pressures up to 60 GPa, using two independent methods with the diamond-anvil cell. In the first method, synchrotron x-ray diffraction patterns of samples having varying degrees of hydrostaticity yield results that are consistent with theoretically predicted values. Radial pressure gradients, determined from ruby flourescence in the second method, compare well with the diffraction results. In addition, the equation of state of tantalum obtained in the present study can be compared to previously published static - as well as shock-compression results in order to distinguish pressure from strain-rate and temperature effects.

Nguyen, Jeffrey H.; Kruger, Michael B.; Caldwell, Wendell A.; Benedetti, Laura Robin; Chen, Bin; Jeanloz, Raymond; Holmes, Neil C.

1998-03-01

200

The Significance of Adolescents' Relationships with Significant Others and School Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates the importance of social support from students' significant others (parents, peers and teachers) in the process of doing well at school. The main focus of the research project was to find correlations between the quality of adolescents' relationships with significant others and their school success or school failure, as…

Domagala-Zysk, Ewa

2006-01-01

201

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

202

Dawn: Find a Meteorite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the importance of meteorites to the understanding of the origin of the Solar System. Learners will use a key to determine if samples are meteorites. Finding meteorites can be difficult because most meteorites look like Earth rocks to the casual or untrained eye. Even to the trained eye, recognizing meteorites can be difficult. Since scientists believe that some meteorites are pieces of the asteroid Vesta, they may be very old remnants of the solar system in its earliest stages. This activity provides information and insight that allows participants to share scientists' expectations, based on meteoritic samples, of what we will find when the NASA's Dawn Mission visits Vesta and Ceres.

203

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Western's Hoover Dam Bypass Project Phase II (Double-Circuiting a Portion of the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead No.1 230-kV Transmission Line, Clark County, Nevada)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Highway 93 (U.S. 93) Hoover Dam Bypass Project calls for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Western Area Power Administration (Western) to remove its Arizona and Nevada (A&N) Switchyard. As a result of this action, Western must reconfigure its existing electrical transmission system in the Hoover Dam area. Western proposes to double-circuit a portion of the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead No.1 Transmission Line (see Figure 1-1). Double-circuiting is the placement of two separate electrical circuits, typically in the form of three separate conductors or bundles of conductors, on the same set of transmission line structures. The old Henderson-Hoover 230-kV Transmission Line would become the new Henderson-Mead No.1 and would extend approximately eight miles to connect with the Mead Substation. Western owns, operates, and maintains the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7, and Henderson-Hoover electrical power transmission lines. Additionally, approximately 0.25 miles of new right-of-way (ROW) would be needed for the Henderson-Mead No.1 when it transfers from double-circuiting with the Hoover-Mead No.7 to the Hoover-Mead No.5 at the Boulder City Tap. The proposed project would also involve a new transmission line ROW and structures where the Henderson-Mead No.1 will split from the Hoover-Mead No.5 and enter the northeast corner of the Mead Substation. Lastly, Western has proposed adding fiber optic overhead ground wire from the Hoover Power Plant to the Mead Substation on to the Henderson-Mead No.1, Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 Transmission Lines. The proposed project includes replacing existing transmission line tower structures, installing new structures, and adding new electrical conductors and fiber optic cables. As a consequence of these activities, ground disturbance may result from grading areas for structure placement, constructing new roads, improving existing roads for vehicle and equipment access, and from installing structures, conductors, and fiber optic cables. Project construction activities would be conducted within the existing 200-foot transmission line ROW and 50-foot access road ROW, although new spur access roads could occur outside of existing ROWs. As lead Federal agency for this action under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Western must ensure that adverse environmental effects on Federal and non-Federal lands and resources are avoided or minimized. This Environmental Assessment (EA) is intended to be a concise public document that assesses the probable and known impacts to the environment from Western's Proposed Action and alternatives, and reaches a conclusion about the significance of the impacts. This EA was prepared in compliance with NEPA regulations published by the Council on Environmental Quality (40 CFR 1500-1508) and implementing procedures of the Department of Energy (10 CFR 1021).

N /A

2003-10-27

204

Yield potential of Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield of individual plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. ‘Mary Washington 500W’ grown from seed is very variable. Yield can be improved by selection on plant sex, specific vegetative characters, or yield itself. A study of yield variation among plants in an experimental population showed that an all-male population would yield 35% more than a population with about equal numbers

D. M. Moon

1976-01-01

205

Find International Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Find International Clinical Trials Search for Clinical TrialsSearch NCI's list of 8,000+ clinical trials now accepting participants, or use more search options to search the set of 19,000+ clinical trials that are no longer recruiting. Search Tip:The

206

Everybody Find a Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, younger students will learn to recognize the properties of selected rocks. After participating in a read-aloud, the students will examine a variety of polished rocks, and take a walk outside to find their own rocks. As a closure activity, they are directed to explore other unique rocks at home and bring them in for class discussion and sorting.

207

Find far fish fast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science author Nicholas Makris from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology helped to create the new fish finding tool. He says that the fish finder will help scientists better understand how fish behave. It will also let scientists calculate the number of fish in different parts of the ocean â a task that is incredibly difficult using current methods for fish counting.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2006-02-02

208

Finding Funding Opportunities  

E-print Network

Finding Funding Opportunities Proposal Development Services Office of Sponsored Projects The Graduate School, UW-Milwaukee June 5, 2013 #12;Thinking about Funding · Specific persuasive form · Specific and funding needs · Determine fundable components · Research funding agencies and mechanisms · Analyze

Saldin, Dilano

209

Finding Those Missing Links  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author stresses not to give up on a site when a URL returns an error message. Many web sites can be found by using strategies such as URL trimming, searching cached sites, site searching and searching the WayBack Machine. Methods and tips for finding web sites are contained within this article.

Gunn, Holly

2004-01-01

210

Tooth Tutoring: The Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…

Cone, Richard; And Others

211

Finding similar faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a method to match similar faces despite photos, which are taken from different sources on Internet, could have different scenes, illumination and posing. Interest points are used to recognize faces, and some points are eliminated in order to find best matching points which pair the similar face. Difference between two matching points is used to

R. Baturalp Torun; Merve Yurdakul; Pinar Duygulu

2009-01-01

212

Finding Their Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every time Dr. Larry Shinagawa teaches his "Introduction to Asian American Studies" course at the University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, he finds that 10 to 20 percent of his students are adoptees. Among other things, they hunger to better comprehend the social and political circumstances overseas leading to their adoption. In response, UMD…

Lum, Lydia

2009-01-01

213

Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations  

E-print Network

, and Utilization Classroom Space Management and Planning Classroom Technical Services Classroom Facilities· Classroom scheduling, use, and utilization· Classroom space management and planning· Classroom technical Finding: There is a Lack of and a Need for an Identified Office of Classroom Management and Services

214

Training, sharing, finding applications  

E-print Network

Training, sharing, finding applications Cataloguing ant species, Santo expedition, Vanuatu #12 of its mission is to meet the scientific training needs of its Southern partners. The Institute has long Master's grants, 20 in-service training grants and 25 scientific exchange grants. With this system

215

Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.  

PubMed

In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. PMID:22932270

Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

2012-10-11

216

Estimating R-Process Yields from Abundances of the Metal-Poor Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars provide important clues to explore stellar formation history and set significant constraints on models of the r-process. In this work, we find that the abundance patterns of the light and iron group elements of the main r-process stars are very close to those of the weak r-process stars. Based on a detailed abundance comparison, we find that the weak r-process occurs in supernovae with a progenitor mass range of ˜11-26 M?. Using the SN yields given by Heger & Woosley and the abundances of the weak r-process stars, the weak r-process yields are derived. The SNe with a progenitor mass range of 15 M? < M < 26 M? are the main sites of the weak r-process, and their contributions are larger than 80%. Using the abundance ratios of the weak r-process and the main r-process in the solar system, the average yields of the main r-process are estimated. The observed correlations of [neutron-capture/Eu] versus [Eu/Fe] can be explained by mixing of the two r-process abundances in various fractions.

Li, Hongjie; Ma, Wenjuan; Cui, Wenyuan; Zhang, Bo

2014-06-01

217

[Empirical findings with arson offenders].  

PubMed

Forensic, psychological and psychopathological findings on 40 arsonists, who were investigated in our psychiatric department between 1980 and 1990, are presented. The findings indicate that arsonists represent a diagnostically heterogeneous group of offenders. On the other hand, some common psychodynamic patterns can be seen; in particular, a high degree of suicidal and autoaggressive behaviour. As reported by other authors, arsonists appear to suffer from a disorder of impulse control. A historical review illustrates that since the mid-19th century a purely psychopathological model of pyromania has been found unsatisfactory, and suggests that psychodynamic aspects should not be over-emphasized. Analysis of the different motivation and abnormalities of arsonists could render the term pyromania obsolete. This requires however a radical reappraisal of the significance of psychiatric diagnosis within an anthropological framework. PMID:1470271

Rechlin, T; Weis, M

1992-11-01

218

Variables associated with islet yield in autologous islet cell transplantation for chronic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The goal of total pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet cell transplantation is to manage pain and prevent surgical diabetes for patients with severe chronic pancreatitis. We performed this procedure in 17 patients from November 2006 to October 2009 at Baylor University Medical Center. All patients were included in this retrospective study and were divided into two groups based on islet yield in the final product based on patient body weight: a low-yield group (<5000 IE/kg) and a high-yield group (?5000 IE/kg). There were significant differences between the two groups in the rate of pancreatic findings on computed tomography (low vs high group, 88% vs 22%: P = 0.02), Cambridge classification score for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (3.8 ± 0.2 vs 2.1 ± 0.6: P = 0.03), number of positive endoscopic ultrasonography criteria (6.0 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.4: P = 0.04), and distension score (1.9 ± 0.4 vs 3.7 ± 0.2: P = 0.006). A significant reduction in narcotics use after the operation was observed in both groups (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009 in the low and high groups, respectively, using a paired t test). Excellent graft function and glycemic control after the transplantation were also demonstrated in both groups. Patients in the high-yield group were in the early stage of chronic pancreatitis, which led to excellent pancreatic distention for islet isolation; however, the excellent clinical outcomes were observed in both low- and high-yield groups. PMID:20396418

Takita, Morihito; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Shimoda, Masayuki; Chujo, Daisuke; Itoh, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Koji; Onaca, Nicholas; Lamont, Jeffrey P.; Lara, Luis F.; Levy, Marlon F.

2010-01-01

219

Finding Our Top Speed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By considering real-world, hands-on activities, students develop their understanding of time and distance. Students reconsider their concept of time by finding their speeds for walking 100 feet. The idea of distance as compared to time comes from a second activity: marking the distance each can travel in 8 seconds. Finally, students plot the data they have collected. Teaching instructions are clear and well thought out.

Illuminations, Nctm

2000-01-01

220

Finding Monster Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the varying sizes of ocean waves, what causes such variation, and where to find giant waves. Students will learn the parts of a wave, and discuss wave height, wavelength, and wave period. They will explore variables that influence wave size through scientific visualizations. They will then experiment with creating waves on the National Geographic Wave Simulator and discuss how geography affects waves.

221

Orbital Dirofilariasis: MR Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Dirofilariasis is a helminthic zoonosis occurring in many parts of the world. We report the findings in a 61- year-old woman who had painless right exophthalmos caused by orbital dirofilariasis. A vivid worm was embed- ded inside an inflammatory nodule in the right orbit. On T1-weighted MR images, the parasite was visible as a dis- crete, low-intensity, tubular signal

Reinhard Groell; Gerhard Ranner; Martin M. Uggowitzer; Hannes Braun

222

TAL effectors: finding plant genes for disease and defense.  

PubMed

Transcription activator like effectors (TALEs) are injected via the type III secretion pathway of many plant pathogenic Xanthomonas spp. into plant cells where they contribute to disease or trigger resistance by binding to DNA and turning on TALE-specific host genes. Advances in our understanding of TALEs and their targets have yielded new models for pathogen recognition and defense. Similarly, we have gained insight into plant molecules and processes that can be co-opted to promote infection. Recent elucidation of the basis for specificity in DNA binding by TALEs expedites further discovery and opens the door to biotechnological applications. This article reviews the most significant findings in TALE research, with a focus on recent advances, and discusses future prospects including pressing questions yet to be answered. PMID:20570209

Bogdanove, Adam J; Schornack, Sebastian; Lahaye, Thomas

2010-08-01

223

Computer simulation of serrated yielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for serrated yielding based on the negative resistance characteristics of materials is discussed. An analog computer\\u000a based on this model is described. The simulated curves show oscillations which are regular and uniform in amplitude. To simulate\\u000a more realistic tensile test curves, a refined model which includes the effects of fluctuations in dislocation density and\\u000a velocity is described. Some

K Neelakantan; Indira Gandhi

1986-01-01

224

76 FR 67229 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...availability of the Environmental Assessment...LLC, Hematite Decommissioning Project. This...Project Manager, Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery...Management and Environmental Protection...Deputy Director, Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery...Management and Environmental...

2011-10-31

225

76 FR 44374 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment to Source...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amendment to Source Materials License No. SMB- 141. This license is held by the Department...area for unrestricted use. License No. SMB-141 was issued on April 12, 1961, pursuant...the eventual termination of License No. SMB-141, the Licensee will be required...

2011-07-25

226

76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Bureau of Land Management, the Eastern Shoshone Tribe, the Northern Arapaho Tribe, the Northern Cheyenne Tribe, the Blackfeet Nation, Three Affiliated Tribes (Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara), the Ft. Peck Assiniboine/Sioux, the...

2011-07-14

227

Fluid-electrolyte responses during prolonged space flight: A review and interpretation of significant findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most important results of the Skylab studies related to fluid-electrolyte regulation are summarized. These data are the starting point of a systems analysis to study adaptation to the weightlessness environment. A summary of the systems analysis study, including an interpretation of Skylab results, is included.

Leonard, J. I.

1985-01-01

228

78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...As a result, a Section 106 Programmatic...been included in the Final EA...Coast Guard issued a NEPA Workplan...environmental analysis. On October 31...regarding this analysis can be found in Chapter 18 of...communities had a voice in the...

2013-05-16

229

Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

NONE

1996-04-01

230

75 FR 76496 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Measure the Uranium Element and Isotopic Content of Special Nuclear Material AGENCY: Nuclear...measure the uranium element and isotopic content of certain small amounts of strategic...system of measurements to substantiate such contents. By letter dated December 31,...

2010-12-08

231

78 FR 5514 - Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Uranium One USA, Inc., Willow Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project...ISR) of uranium at the Willow Creek Project (formally known as...Johnson and Campbell Counties, Wyoming. The NRC has prepared a Supplemental...requested comments from the Wyoming Department of...

2013-01-25

232

63 FR 56292 - Findings of Significant Contribution and Rulemaking on Section 126 Petitions for Purposes of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...inner zone to western Pennsylvania...units of heat input (lb...individual States determine...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Vermont...maximum design heat input of...following twenty States: Alabama...Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee...maximum design heat input of...following twenty States: Alabama...Pennsylvania, Rhode......

1998-10-21

233

63 FR 57356 - Finding of Significant Contribution and Rulemaking for Certain States in the Ozone Transport...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requirement for certain States to revise their...across county and State lines, it is essential for State governments and...New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-CT...MO-IL Springfield (western MA), MA Washington...many of the major urban centers...

1998-10-27

234

63 FR 24058 - Findings of Significant Contribution and Rulemaking on Section 126 Petitions for Purposes of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont...in upwind States contribute...other indirect heat exchangers...computerized urban airshed modeling...Northeastern States and the District...Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York...commits these States to reductions...other indirect heat exchangers...inner zone to western...

1998-04-30

235

62 FR 60318 - Finding of Significant Contribution and Rulemaking for Certain States in the Ozone Transport...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from the affected States, EPA, and interested...the following 37 States and the District...Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina...OTAG process, the States concluded that widespread...eastern half of the United States to prepare...OTAG Regional and Urban Scale Modeling...

1997-11-07

236

64 FR 28250 - Findings of Significant Contribution and Rulemaking on Section 126 Petitions for Purposes of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fossil fuel-fired indirect heat exchange combustion units with a maximum rated heat input capacity of 250 mmBtu...at 15 MW or greater. Rhode Island...facilities with a maximum gross heat input rate of 250...

1999-05-25

237

76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...resource areas considered in the Final EA include air quality; noise and compatible land use; land use (including U.S. Department...archaeological, and cultural resources; hazardous materials, pollution prevention, and solid waste; light emissions and visual...

2011-11-18

238

76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for unrestricted use and for removal from the license. The NRC...for unrestricted use and removal from the license. The licensee...low levels of hydrogen-3 (tritium) and carbon-14 by incineration...gigabecquerels) of hydrogen-3 (tritium) and about 13...

2011-04-08

239

76 FR 34273 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Special Nuclear Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Nuclear Material License Application From Tennessee Valley Authority for Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Spring...is considering the issuance of a license to Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), to authorize the receipt,...

2011-06-13

240

76 FR 31379 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...previously approved remediation activities or DCGLs for uranium or cobalt-60 (Co-60) at the site. On February 26, 2010, and as...areas (namely, those associated with enriched uranium and cobalt-60) exist in the FUSRAP areas as well. The FUSRAP...

2011-05-31

241

77 FR 7610 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EHS department currently retains the waste for decay in storage. According to the licensee, no spent nuclear fuel has been shipped from the site to date. To comply with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the...

2012-02-13

242

75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Arizona, which is necessary to effectively combat the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. The environmental assessment provides...and Arizona, which is necessary to effectively combat the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. In that notice, we stated...

2010-01-15

243

Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

1996-08-01

244

75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requirements; AREVA Enrichment Services, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility, Bonneville County...control. Excavating the site including rock blasting and removal. Installing parking...licensing decision on the proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility. Environmental...

2010-03-16

245

77 FR 41774 - Notice of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prototypes. Radioactive materials must be handled in...prevent the spread of radioactive contamination to workers...maintenance operations, packaging of radiological waste...radiologically controlled material. The facility would...prevent the spread of radioactive contamination to...

2012-07-16

246

76 FR 30639 - Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact; Giant Miscanthus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...grown in the Aloterra Energy and MFA Oil Biomass Company (project sponsors) proposed...Ohio, and Pennsylvania as part of the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP). Based...INFORMATION: The Aloterra Energy and MFA Oil Biomass Company submitted a proposal to the...

2011-05-26

247

Annotation-Modules: a tool for finding significant combinations of multisource annotations for gene lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The ontological analysis of the gene lists obtained from DNA microarray experiments constitutes an important step in under- standing the underlying biology of the analyzed system. Over the last years, many other high-throughput techniques emerged, cover- ing now basically all \\

Michael Hackenberg; Rune Matthiesen

2008-01-01

248

73 FR 51440 - Brazos Electric Power Cooperative, Inc.; Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Texas. The project will consist of two combustion turbines and heat recovery steam generators and one steam turbine with a water-cooled steam surface condenser. Any final action by RUS related to the proposed project will be subject to,...

2008-09-03

249

MD Anderson study finds tamoxifen causes significant side effects in male breast cancer patients:  

Cancer.gov

About half of male breast cancer patients who take the drug tamoxifen to prevent their disease from returning report side effects such as weight gain and sexual dysfunction, which prompts more than 20 percent of them to discontinue treatment, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

250

78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission (USIBWC), United States and Mexico. ACTION: Notice...Gilbert Anaya, Environmental Management Division; United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission...Grande flooding, with risks to personal safety...

2013-12-11

251

Chariton Valley Biomass Project Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

SciTech Connect

Switchgrass is a warm-weather, native Iowa grass that grows well on marginal land. It has been identified and extensively studied for its potential as a biomass energy crop, especially its potential for use as co-fire feedstock in coal-burning plants. In this environmental assessment (EA), the term ''co-fire'' refers to the burning of switchgrass in the OGS boiler in conjunction with coal, with the goal of reducing the amount of coal used and reducing emissions of some objectionable air pollutants associated with coal combustion. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to provide partial funding for (1) the design and construction of a biomass (switchgrass [Panicum virgatum]) storage, handling, and conveying system into the boiler at the Ottumwa Generating Station (OGS) near Chillicothe, Iowa; (2) operational testing of switchgrass as a biomass co-fire feedstock at OGS; and (3) ancillary activities related to growing, harvesting, storing, and transporting switchgrass in areas of the Rathbun Lake watershed. Chillicothe is in Wapello County on the south side of the Des Moines River, approximately 16 kilometers (10 miles) northwest of Ottumwa, Iowa, and 130 kilometers (80 miles) southeast of Des Moines. The OGS is a 725-megawatt (MW) maximum output, low-sulfur, pulverized coal-burning plant jointly owned by several Iowa utilities and operated by Alliant Energy. The plant is located about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) northwest of Chillicothe, Iowa, on the Des Moines River. The following three-phase switchgrass co-fire test campaign has been planned and partially implemented at OGS: During Phase 1, which occurred from November 2000 through January 2001, Alliant Energy conducted Co-fire Test 1 at OGS. Phase 2 testing, the Proposed Action, would consist of two additional co-fire tests. Co-fire Test 2, which would utilize some residual equipment from Co-fire Test 1 and also test some new equipment, is currently planned for September/October 2003. It would be designed to test and demonstrate the engineering and environmental feasibility of co-firing up to 11.3 tonnes (12.5 tons) of switchgrass per hour and would burn a maximum of 5,440 tonnes (6,000 tons) of switchgrass. Co-fire Test 3, which is tentatively planned for winter 2004/2005, would test the long-term (approximately 2,000 hours) sustainability of processing 11.3 tonnes (12.5 tons) per hour. Co-fire Test 3 would be conducted using a proposed new process building and storage barn that would be constructed at the OGS as part of the Proposed Action. Phase 3, commercial operations, may occur if Phase 2 indicated that commercial operations were technically, environmentally, and economically feasible. Continuous, full-scale commercial operations could process up to 23 tonnes (25 tons) of switchgrass per hour, generate 35 MW per year of OGS's annual output, and replace 5 percent of the coal burned at OGS with switchgrass. Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development Inc. (Chariton Valley RC&D), a rural-development-oriented, non-profit corporation (Chariton Valley RC&D 2003a) and Alliant Energy would implement Phase 3 at their discretion after the completion of the Phase 2 co-fire tests. DOE's Proposed Action would support only Phase 2 testing; that is, Co-fire Tests 2 and 3. DOE has no plans to provide financial support for the commercial operations that would be performed during Phase 3. The new construction that DOE proposes to partially fund would include a new switchgrass processing facility and equipment and a new storage barn that would be used for Co-fire Test 3. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental impacts that could result from the Proposed Action. It also evaluates the impacts that could occur if DOE decided not to partially fund the Proposed Action (the No Action Alternative). No other action alternatives are analyzed because (1) no generating plants other than OGS have the installed infrastructure and operating experience necessary to conduct Phase 2 co-fire testing, and (2) the Rathbun Lake watershed is the only viable

N /A

2003-07-11

252

75 FR 34151 - Availability: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact; Modoc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...021-acre Modoc National Wildlife Refuge is located southeast...birds, for incidental fish and wildlife- oriented recreational development...analysis of impacts on the human environment, which we included...the draft CCP. The National Wildlife Refuge System...

2010-06-16

253

76 FR 65541 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safeguard plans. Therefore, this part of the action does not require either an environmental assessment or an environmental impact statement. This environmental assessment was prepared for the part of the proposed action not involving...

2011-10-21

254

76 FR 28480 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safeguard plans. Therefore, this part of the action does not require either an environmental assessment or an environmental impact statement. This environmental assessment was prepared for the part of the proposed action not involving...

2011-05-17

255

Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the expansion of Naluabaale Dam in Uganda for the declining water level in the lake. However, Lake Victoria does not receive water from a large catchment area: most of its water comes from rain that falls directly over the huge surface of the lake. For this reason, climatic contributions cannot be ignored in the recent declining. This research aims at analyzing the contribution of rainfall over the lake area between the years 1998 and 2008. Least squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is applied on 400 cycles of TOPEX/Poseidon and 232 cycles of Jason1 altimeter data along with monthly TRMM data from 1998 to 2008 to reveal the specific frequencies. From our results, yearly, half-yearly and seasonal frequencies along with a long term frequency are clearly visible in the Lake Victoria level variations. Key words. Lake Victoria, Least Squares Spectral Analysis, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, TRMM

Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; van Loon, E. E.

2009-04-01

256

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL...Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969... Consideration of environmental assessments...

2012-10-01

257

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL...Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969... Consideration of environmental assessments...

2013-10-01

258

75 FR 63519 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...public meeting may register in advance by contacting Ms. Tarsha Moon at (800) 368-5642, ext. 6745, no later than October 22...the need should be brought to the attention of Ms. Tarsha Moon at (800) 368-5642, ext. 6745, no later than October...

2010-10-15

259

75 FR 25301 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...measured physical inventory. NFS is currently in the process of implementing program improvements and conducting operational readiness reviews which must be reviewed and approved by NRC before each process line is restarted. After operations...

2010-05-07

260

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact - Mckay Bypass Canal Extension  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1262) to extend the McKay Bypass Canal on the east side of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. The McKay Bypass Canal Extension (Extension) is needed to route water from the existing canal around the Walnut Creek drainage, thus preventing potential co-mingling of Broomfield city water (collected from the Coal Creek drainage) with Site runoff water. The EA describes and analyzes the environmental effects of the Proposed Action (using a buried pipeline for the extension), and the alternatives of taking no action, using an open ditch for the extension, and using an aboveground pipeline for the extension. The EA was the subject of a public comment period from July 22 to August 6, 1998. Written comments regarding the EA were received from the City of Broomfield and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

N /A

1998-09-01

261

7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact  

...under Public Law 103-354 environmental reviewer. After reviewing...Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary. I also...status of compliance with the environmental laws and requirements...

2014-01-01

262

77 FR 77118 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USDA's Low-Level Radiation Burial Site and examined the impacts...not acceptable because the burial pits contain residual radioactive...the Maryland Department of Natural Resources provided responses...USDA's Low-Level Radiation Burial Site at the Beltsville...

2012-12-31

263

76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and use of special nuclear material (SNM) be completed and...concentrations of byproduct material and SNM, is authorized by...3) Hematite Supplemental Characterization Report--Books 1 and 2...Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental...

2011-10-24

264

75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1983, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E...insulation, roofing material, and other debris...amounts of radioactive material involved, the environmental...providing Radiological Characterization Report for Humboldt...of Federal and State Materials and Environmental...

2010-11-10

265

76 FR 60557 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...issued to Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC (WEC...original special nuclear material license for the Hematite...ML092870405. Radiological Characterization Report...ML092870506. Supplemental Characterization Report...and ML022590511. Materials by Air and Other...

2011-09-29

266

77 FR 8903 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Light-Water Nuclear Power Reactors,'' and...NPF-63, issued to Carolina Power and Light Company (the licensee), doing business...Public Document Room (PDR), O 1 F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike...

2012-02-15

267

75 FR 36701 - Issuance of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Modification of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...further reduce the risk of accidental nuclear criticality, and the resulting worker and public radiation doses from the proposed action by...source, byproduct, and special nuclear material up to the limits...

2010-06-28

268

Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

SciTech Connect

DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

NONE

1995-12-01

269

Problem Finding and the Enhancement of Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 20-year study of 31 artists as students and as professionals reveals that skills in finding and formulating problems are significantly related to creative achievement. Accordingly, educators should turn their attention to teaching such skills. (MCG)

Getzels, J. W.

1985-01-01

270

Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2007-01-01

271

Natural variation in photosynthetic capacity, growth, and yield in 64 field-grown wheat genotypes.  

PubMed

Increasing photosynthesis in wheat has been identified as an approach to enhance crop yield, with manipulation of key genes involved in electron transport and the Calvin cycle as one avenue currently being explored. However, natural variation in photosynthetic capacity is a currently unexploited genetic resource for potential crop improvement. Using gas-exchange analysis and protein analysis, the existing natural variation in photosynthetic capacity in a diverse panel of 64 elite wheat cultivars grown in the field was examined relative to growth traits, including biomass and harvest index. Significant variations in photosynthetic capacity, biomass, and yield were observed, although no consistent correlation was found between photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf and grain yield when all cultivars were compared. The majority of the variation in photosynthesis could be explained by components related to maximum capacity and operational rates of CO2 assimilation, and to CO2 diffusion. Cluster analysis revealed that cultivars may have been bred unintentionally for desirable traits at the expense of photosynthetic capacity. These findings suggest that there is significant underutilized photosynthetic capacity among existing wheat varieties. Our observations are discussed in the context of exploiting existing natural variation in physiological processes for the improvement of photosynthesis in wheat. PMID:24963002

Driever, S M; Lawson, T; Andralojc, P J; Raines, C A; Parry, M A J

2014-09-01

272

Finding Space Weather Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about searching online data archives for solar wind events. Learners will find at least three episodes of increased solar wind activity impacting Earth using direct measurements of solar wind velocity and density. Then, they will characterize each events by its rise time, the time it takes for the solar wind speed to rise from normal levels to the peak speed of the event, and the percentage increase in solar wind velocity. This is Activity 11 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum.

273

Finding the Pole Star  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of a high school course on astronomy, Newtonian mechanics and spaceflight and provides a closer look at the pole star and the neighboring constellations, especially the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia. One objective is for the student to know the constellations of the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia, and their use in finding the Pole Star. The student will also realize that other celestial objects - Sun, Moon and planets - share the rotation (and hence rise and set), even though their positions among the stars slowly change.

Stern, David

274

Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2002-01-01

275

Adaptive Significance of Floral Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Darwin observed the reconfiguration of pollinia in orchards and referred to it as a function to reduce self-pollination, diverse floral movements have been investigated and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain their adaptive significance. However, adaptive significance of floral movement in some species has yet to be fully explained. Increasing evidence suggests that some floral movements, which have

Cheng-Jiang Ruan

2011-01-01

276

P Values and Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

Hopkins, Will G.

2008-12-16

277

The Significance of Linguistic Generalizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the problem of defining the notion "linguistically significant generalization." A rigorous objective method for determining the significance of a generalization, based on probability theory, is proposed. The proposal is illustrated by applying it to examples central to theorizing in generative grammar. (Author/KM)

Hurford, James R.

1977-01-01

278

Significant Scales in Community Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of ``significance'' of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine ``good'' resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; van Dooren, P.

2013-10-01

279

An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

2011-08-01

280

An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang [Mechanical Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2011-08-22

281

FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes growth of the Korean economy in the 1990s, and its relationship with the nation's export performance. Total factor productivity (TFP) played a significant role in growth for select industries, and a sharp increase in TFP was observed in the late 1990s in Korea, especially for the electrics and electronics industry and automobile industry. In the 1990s, overall,

MOONJOONG TCHA

282

MRI Findings in Neuroferritinopathy  

PubMed Central

Neuroferritinopathy is a neurodegenerative disease which demonstrates brain iron accumulation caused by the mutations in the ferritin light chain gene. On brain MRI in neuroferritinopathy, iron deposits are observed as low-intensity areas on T2WI and as signal loss on T2?WI. On T2WI, hyperintense abnormalities reflecting tissue edema and gliosis are also seen. Another characteristic finding is the presence of symmetrical cystic changes in the basal ganglia, which are seen in the advanced stages of this disorder. Atrophy is sometimes noted in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices. The variety in the MRI findings is specific to neuroferritinopathy. Based on observations of an excessive iron content in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, the presence of excess iron is therefore recognized as a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The future development of multimodal and advanced MRI techniques is thus expected to play an important role in accurately measuring the brain iron content and thereby further elucidating the neurodegenerative process. PMID:21808735

Ohta, Emiko; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

2012-01-01

283

The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays  

SciTech Connect

The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

Achasov, N. N., E-mail: achasov@math.nsc.ru [Russina Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15

284

Circuit yield of organic integrated electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on organic electronics is focussed on materials and on the performance of discrete devices. Reliability and circuit yield is largely unexplored. Yield, based on measurements on digital organic circuits up to 1000 transistors, is described. The causes of yield loss are analyzed and design solutions to improve the yield are discussed.

E. Cantatore; C. M. Hart; M. Digioia; G. H. Gelinck; T. C. T. Geuns; H. E. A. Huitema; L. R. R. Schrijnemakers; E. van Veenendaal; D. M. de Leeuw

2003-01-01

285

Electron yields from spacecraft materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoyields and secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics were determined under UHV conditions for a group of insulating materials used in spacecraft applications. The SEE studies were carried out with a pulsed primary beam while photoyields were obtained with a chopped photon beam from a Kr resonance source with major emission at 123.6 nm. This provides a photon flux close to that of the Lyman alpha in the space environment. Yields per incident photon are obtained relative to those from a freshly evaporated and air oxidized Al surface. Results are presented for Kapton, FEP Teflon, the borosilicate glass covering of a shuttle tile, and spacesuit outer fabric.

Yang, K.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

1985-01-01

286

[Silicosis: computed tomography findings].  

PubMed

Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, which is caused by the inhalation of silica and affects a wide range of jobs. There are many clinical forms of silicosis: acute silicosis, results from exposure to very large amounts of silica dust over a period of less than 2 years. Simple chronic silicosis, the most common type that we see today, results from exposure to low amounts of silica between 2 and 10 years. Chronic silicosis complicated, with silicotic conglomerates. In many cases the diagnosis of silicosis is made according to epidemiological and radiological data, without a histological confirmation. It is important to know the various radiological manifestations of silicosis to differentiate it from other lung diseases and to recognize their complications. The objective of this work is to describe typical and atypical radiological findings of silicosis and their complications in helical and high resolution (HRCT) thorax CT. PMID:22884889

González Vázquez, M; Trinidad López, C; Castellón Plaza, D; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, J; Tardáguila Montero, F

2013-01-01

287

Meghan Miller Background and Significance  

E-print Network

1 Meghan Miller Background and Significance Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent variable pathological symptoms from one individual to the next, representing a continual spectrum rather within the autism spectrum include Asperger, Fragile X, Angelman, Rett, Williams, Prader

Gleeson, Joseph G.

288

SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

289

Temporal associations between low body condition, lameness and milk yield in a UK dairy herd.  

PubMed

Previous work has hypothesised that cows in low body condition become lame. We tested this in a prospective longitudinal study. Body condition score (BCS), causes of lameness and milk yield were collected from a 600-cow herd over 44-months. Mixed effect binomial models and a continuous outcome model were used to investigate the associations between lameness, BCS and milk yield. In total, 14,320 risk periods were obtained from 1137 cows. There were 1510 lameness treatments: the most common causes of lameness were sole ulcer (SU) (39%), sole haemorrhage (SH) (13%), digital dermatitis (DD) (10%) and white line disease (WLD) (8%). These varied by year and year quarter. Body condition was scored at 60-day intervals. BCS ranged from 1 to 5 with a mean of 2.5, scores were higher in very early lactation but varied widely throughout lactation; approximately 45% of scores were <2.5. The key finding was that BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for lameness in the following 0-2 months and >2-4 months for all causes of lameness and also specifically for SU/WLD lameness. BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for SH in the following 0-2 months but not >2-4 months. There was no such association with DD. All lameness, SU/WLD, SH and DD were significantly more likely to occur in cows that had been lame previously, but the effect of BCS was present even when all repeat cases of lameness were excluded from the analysis. Milk yield was significantly higher and fell in the month before treatment in cows lame with SU/WLD but it was not significantly higher for cows that were treated for DD compared with non-lame cows. These findings support the hypothesis that low BCS contributes to the development of horn related claw lameness but not infectious claw diseases in dairy cows. One link between low BCS and lameness is a thin digital cushion which has been proposed as a trigger for claw horn disease. Cows with BCS 2 produced more milk than cows with BCS 2.5, however, this was only approximately 100 kg difference in yield over a 305-day lactation. Given the increased risk of lameness in cows with BCS 2, the direct costs of lameness and the small variability in milk yield by BCS, preventing cows from falling to BCS<2.5 would improve cow welfare and be economically beneficial. PMID:24183787

Green, L E; Huxley, J N; Banks, C; Green, M J

2014-01-01

290

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-10-01

291

Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

2012-01-01

292

Yield of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as an adjunct to echocardiography in young infants with congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Echocardiography provides adequate preoperative imaging for most young infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). When anatomic details require further clarification, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) may be useful but adds the risks of sedation or general anesthesia for a vulnerable population. This study aimed to determine the safety of CMRI and its yield of additional significant information for this population. The study identified all infants age 90 days or younger with preoperative echocardiography and a CMRI from the period 2002-2012. Indications, complications, and imaging results were collected. The additional CMRI information was defined as "significant" if it altered surgical management or "not significant" if it did not. Associations between indications for CMRI and the likelihood of new significant findings were sought. For 137 infants (58% male), CMRI was performed at a median age of 5 days (range, 0-89 days). The CMRI yielded additional information for 76% (104/137) of the patients. The additional findings were significant for 69% (72/104) of these patients. The incidence of significant new findings was similar among indication categories. All the infants were intubated. Complications occurred for 5% of the patients, including one subject with a bradycardic event that prevented completion of the exam and six patients with transient vital sign changes that allowed exam completion. More than 50% of young infants with CHD who underwent preoperative CMRI had new findings affecting surgical management. Among these patients, CMRI-associated complications were few and predominantly minor for intubated infants. Further studies to determine standard preoperative criteria for the use of CMRI for infants with CHD may help to define appropriate cost-effective use of this diagnostic method. PMID:24710844

Johnson, Joyce T; Molina, Kimberly M; McFadden, Molly; Minich, L LuAnn; Menon, Shaji C

2014-08-01

293

Cosmic Ray Albedo Proton Yield Correlated with Lunar Elemental Abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy cosmic rays constantly bombard the lunar regolith, producing secondary "albedo" or "splash" particles like protons and neutrons, some of which escape back to space. Two lunar missions, Lunar Prospector and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), have shown that the energy distribution of albedo neutrons is modulated by the elemental composition of the lunar regolith[1-4], with reduced neutron fluxes near the lunar poles being the result of collisions with hydrogen nuclei in ice deposits[5] in permanently shadowed craters. Here we investigate an analogous phenomenon with high energy (~100 MeV) lunar albedo protons. LRO has been observing the surface and environment of the Moon since June of 2009. The CRaTER instrument (Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation) on LRO is designed to characterize the lunar radiation environment and its effects on simulated human tissue. CRaTER's multiple solid-state detectors can discriminate the different elements in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) population above ~10 MeV/nucleon, and can also distinguish between primary GCR protons arriving from deep space and albedo particles propagating up from the lunar surface. We use albedo protons with energies greater than 60 MeV to construct a cosmic ray albedo proton map of the Moon. The yield of albedo protons is proportional to the rate of lunar proton detections divided by the rate of incoming GCR detections. The map accounts for time variation in the albedo particles driven by time variations in the primary GCR population, thus revealing any true spatial variation of the albedo proton yield. Our current map is a significant improvement over the proof-of-concept map of Wilson et al.[6]. In addition to including twelve more months of CRaTER data here, we use more numerous minimum ionizing GCR protons for normalization, and we make use of all six of CRaTER's detectors to reduce contamination from spurious non-proton events in the data stream. We find find that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. In general the yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1.1% ± 0.4% higher than the flux from the highlands. In addition there appear to be localized peaks in the albedo proton yield that are co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer. References: [1] Feldman W. C. et al. (1998) Sci-ence, 281, 1496-1500. [2] Gasnault, O. et al. (2001) GRL, 28, 3797-3800. [3] Maurice, S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04. [4] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483-486. [5] Feldman W. C. et al. (1997) JGR, 102, 25565-25574. [6] Wilson, J. K. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H23.

Wilson, J. K.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Blake, J. B.; Golightly, M. J.; Kasper, J. C.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C. J.

2012-12-01

294

A reassessment of ground water flow conditions and specific yield at Borden and Cape Cod.  

PubMed

Recent widely accepted findings respecting the origin and nature of specific yield in unconfined aquifers rely heavily on water level changes observed during two pumping tests, one conducted at Borden, Ontario, Canada, and the other at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The drawdown patterns observed during those tests have been taken as proof that unconfined specific yield estimates obtained from long-duration pumping tests should approach the laboratory-estimated effective porosity of representative aquifer formation samples. However, both of the original test reports included direct or referential descriptions of potential supplemental sources of pumped water that would have introduced intractable complications and errors into straightforward interpretations of the drawdown observations if actually present. Searches for evidence of previously neglected sources were performed by screening the original drawdown observations from both locations for signs of diagnostic skewing that should be present only if some of the extracted water was derived from sources other than main aquifer storage. The data screening was performed using error-guided computer assisted fitting techniques, capable of accurately sensing and simulating the effects of a wide range of non-traditional and external sources. The drawdown curves from both tests proved to be inconsistent with traditional single-source pumped aquifer models but consistent with site-specific alternatives that included significant contributions of water from external sources. The corrected pumping responses shared several important features. Unsaturated drainage appears to have ceased effectively at both locations within the first day of pumping, and estimates of specific yield stabilized at levels considerably smaller than the corresponding laboratory-measured or probable effective porosity. Separate sequential analyses of progressively later field observations gave stable and nearly constant specific yield estimates for each location, with no evidence from either test that more prolonged pumping would have induced substantially greater levels of unconfined specific yield. PMID:11798042

Grimestad, Garry

2002-01-01

295

Variation in yield loss of oilseed rape due to grazing by mute swans Cygnus olor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield loss due to grazing by mute swans was measured on nine fields of autumn-sown oilseed rape located in five regions of England. Using a paired-plot design, a significant reduction in yield (total dry weight of seed) was observed on three of the fields: 18%, 23% and 24%, respectively. On the first of these fields yield reduction was not simply

Dave Parrott; George Watola

2007-01-01

296

Yield Enhancement of Digital Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Space Redundancy and Local Reconfiguration*  

E-print Network

Yield Enhancement of Digital Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Space Redundancy and Local to avoid faulty elements. Digital microfluidics- based biochips are also amenable to redundancy-based yield. As microfluidics-based biochips become more complex, manufacturing yield will have significant influence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

Machine milkability as related to dairy yield and its fractions in dairy ewes (1)  

E-print Network

Machine milkability as related to dairy yield and its fractions in dairy ewes (1) O. JATSCH R. SAGI and adaptation to machine milking were evaluated by determining milk yield fractions for Awassi and Assaf dairy conformation significantly affected milk yield and adaptation to machine milking, while breed, rearing methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

2014-11-01

299

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

1978-01-01

300

Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2003-01-01

301

Hematospermia: imaging findings.  

PubMed

Hematospermia is an anxiety provoking but otherwise generally benign and self-limited condition that is infrequently associated with significant underlying pathology, and is most often considered to be idiopathic in nature. Management with routine clinical evaluation, watchful waiting, and reassurance generally suffice without further diagnostic workup or treatment. Noninvasive imaging may play an important role in the diagnostic workup of men with hematospermia, particularly in those who are >40 years old, have other associated symptoms or signs of disease, or have persistence of hematospermia. Many entities may be encountered in association with hematospermia at imaging, and specific therapeutic interventions may be used if certain treatable underlying pathologies are coincidentally detected. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the potential etiologies, diagnostic workup, imaging techniques, relevant male pelvic anatomy, imaging appearance of specific associated pathologies, and treatment for hematospermia. PMID:16802198

Torigian, D A; Ramchandani, P

2007-01-01

302

Statistical significance for genomewide studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in genomewide experiments and the sequencing of multiple genomes, the analysis of large data sets has become commonplace in biology. It is often the case that thousands of features in a genomewide data set are tested against some null hypothesis, where a number of features are expected to be significant. Here we propose an approach to measuring

John D. Storey; Robert Tibshirani

2003-01-01

303

Iris mammillations: Significance and associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iris mammillations are rarely described, distinctive villiform protuberances that can cover the iris. In the majority of reported cases they are unilateral and sporadic, and are seen in association with oculodermal melanosis. In past literature and current clinical practice they are frequently confused with the iris nodules seen in neurofibromatosis type 1. Their clinical significance is not established, although it

Nicola K Ragge; J Acheson; A Linn Murphree

1996-01-01

304

Bikini Observations and Their Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

On rare occasions, events of transcendent importance are described in a paper of corresponding significance. The following presentation, prepared by two Past-Presidents of The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) who were official United States scientific observers of Operation Crossroads, is a contribution of this unusual sort. It is most earnestly commended to the thoughtful attention of the readers of the

H. Pratt; A. Van Dyck

1946-01-01

305

An Introduction Significance of Pain  

E-print Network

An Introduction to: Pain #12;Significance of Pain !!Pain is adaptive !!Alerts us to danger !!Motivates escape and avoidance learning !!Motivates recuperation !!Congenital insensitivity to pain !!Pain was killing his buddies all around him. When a shell burst nearby, he felt an excruciating pain

Meagher, Mary

306

Status and Significance of Credentialing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination…

Musgrave, Dorothea

1984-01-01

307

(significance maps) (distributed source coding;  

E-print Network

-- SPIHT Wyner-Ziv (significance maps) 1 (distributed source coding; DSC) 1970 Slepian Wolf (noiseless coding of correlated information sources)[1] DSC (sensor networks) DSC ),( YXH ),( YXH )()( YHXH + DSC XY (joint decoding) ),( YXH DSC Slepian-Wolf Wyner-Ziv Wyner

Yang, Shih-Hsuan

308

Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report  

SciTech Connect

To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

2009-12-01

309

Sialidosis type I: ophthalmological findings.  

PubMed

Sialidosis is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficit of neuraminidase. It is an autosomal recessive disease, heterogeneous in its onset, presentation and prognosis. We report a case of a male patient with molecular and enzymatic confirmation of the diagnosis. Symptoms began at age 26 with reduced visual acuity, bilateral cherry-red spots and later myoclonus. A brother, now deceased, had the same confirmed disease. We describe the symptoms and clinical findings of the patient, as well review the current knowledge on the topic. With this report, we highlight the importance of a clinical history integrating all the patient's symptoms in order to achieve the diagnosis. In the presence of a cherry-red spot, a comprehensive study is mandatory. Despite being a rare disease, sialidosis carries a significant burden for its patients and its diagnosis should always be considered in the appropriate setting. PMID:25323282

Sobral, Isa; Cachulo, Maria da Luz; Figueira, João; Silva, Rufino

2014-01-01

310

Immunological findings in hemp workers.  

PubMed

Immunological status and its relation to respiratory findings were studied in 42 female textile workers occupationally exposed to hemp dust and in 49 female control workers. Skin prick tests with hemp or flax dust extracts from different parts of the mill in hemp workers demonstrated the following frequencies of positive tests to antigens: a mixture of hemp and flax extracts (64%), followed by flax extracts (48%), hemp from combing machines (41%), hemp from carding machines (38%), hemp from spinning and weaving machines (33%), and hemp from softening machines (20%). The prevalence of positive skin tests to hemp or flax allergens in control workers was consistently lower, ranging from 21 to 5%. Increased total serum IgE was recorded in 35.7% of hemp workers compared to only 5.0% of control workers (P < 0.05). Hemp workers with positive skin tests had significantly higher prevalences of chronic respiratory symptoms than those with negative skin tests. There were, however, no differences for acute symptoms between workers with positive and negative skin tests. Across-shift changes and baseline lung function were not different when compared by immunologic status. We showed additionally that a water-soluble extract of hemp dust causes a dose-related contraction of nonsensitized guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle when studied in vitro. Our results suggest that frequent immunologic abnormalities can be documented in hemp workers but, with the exception of chronic respiratory symptoms, in general, these do not correlate with respiratory findings. PMID:1464288

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J; Maayani, S; Goswami, S; Marom, Z; Rienzi, N

1992-12-01

311

Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.  

PubMed

Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered. PMID:24520967

Hibberd, Rachel

2013-08-01

312

Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage  

PubMed Central

The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage. PMID:21284904

2011-01-01

313

High-Yield Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water by a Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C6H10O5 (l)+7 H2O (l)?12 H2 (g)+6 CO2 (g). The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. Conclusions Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30°C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H2/glucose) of anaerobic fermentations. Significance The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30°C and atmospheric pressure), high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($?2/kg H2), and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H2-based mass%), provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy. PMID:17520015

Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W.W.

2007-01-01

314

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields.  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

315

Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields  

E-print Network

A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

Harper, Thomas Lawrence

1969-01-01

316

Yield learning model for integrated circuit package  

E-print Network

assemblies has been developed and implemented. Sensitivity analysis was performed to isolate the factors that affected yield learning the most. The yield model was developed after performing case studies on the Tape Carrier Package at Intel Corporation...

Balasubramaniam, Gaurishankar

2012-06-07

317

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2010-01-01

318

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2011-01-01

319

Wheat yield forecasts using Landsat data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaf area index and percentage of vegetative cover, two indices of crop yield developed from Landsat multispectral scanning data, are discussed. Studies demonstrate that the Landsat indicators may be as highly correlated with winter wheat yield as estimates based on traditional field sampling methods; in addition, the Landsat indicators may account for variations in individual field yield which are not explainable by meteorological data. A simple technique employing early-season Landsat data to make wheat yield predictions is also considered.

Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

1977-01-01

320

A greedy algorithm for yield surface approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Note presents an approximation method for convex yield surfaces in the framework of yield design theory. The proposed algorithm constructs an approximation using a convex hull of ellipsoids such that the approximate criterion can be formulated in terms of second-order conic constraints. The algorithm can treat bounded as well as unbounded yield surfaces. Its efficiency is illustrated on two yield surfaces obtained using up-scaling procedures.

Bleyer, Jérémy; de Buhan, Patrick

321

Yield optimization through MLR techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some chip manufacturing steps lead to non-negligible process variation at wafer level. Typically, chemomechanical planarization, known as CMP, is a nonhomogeneous process and thickness variations can be measured depending on the distance from a specific die to the wafer center. These variations have an impact on chip performances and thus on the final yield. This effect may be amplified by the fact that thickness variations on processed wafers introduce focus issues during later photo-lithography steps. Original chip layouts are modified by inserting dummies to correct thickness variation issues due to CMP, but these correction are based on models only depending on average values. In this paper, we propose a methodology to replace a single instance of the field written on the mask by multiple instances of this field as commonly used for Multi Layer Reticles. In the described methodology, each field of a same mask does not consist in different layers of the same chip, but of an optimized image of the same layer of the chip.

Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

2011-11-01

322

Possible future directions in crop yield forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines present and future possible applications of remote sensing to crop yield forecasting. It is concluded that there are ways in which Landsat data could be used to assist in crop yield forecasting using present technology. A framework for global crop yield forecasting which uses remote sensing, meteorological, field and ancillary data, as available, is proposed for the future.

Colwell, J. E.

1979-01-01

323

A unified explanation for secondary ion yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pure element secondary ion yields under oxygen and cesium ion bombardment are shown to be solely dependent on a) the ionization potential (or electron affinity for negative ionization) of the sputtered atom and b) the reciprocal of the matrix sputtering yield which determines the equilibrium concentration of implanted oxygen or cesium. This unified approach accounts for the yields of

V. R. Deline; C. A. Evans; Peter Williams

1978-01-01

324

Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55 d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90 d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination and decreased the proportion of nonpregnant cows after 150 d in milk. In light of these findings, we suggest that a short DP be applied for its economic and physiological benefits. This is highly relevant to dairy herds located in regions such as Israel, Spain, and Florida that suffer from reduced milk production during the hot season. PMID:24630671

Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

2014-05-01

325

Analyzing the designs of planet finding missions  

E-print Network

We present an extended framework for the analysis of direct detection planet finding missions using space telescopes. We describe the components of a design reference mission (DRM), including the complete description of an arbitrary planetary system, the description of a planet finding instrument, and the modeling of an observation at an arbitrary time. These components are coupled with a decision modeling algorithm, which allows us to automatically generate DRMs with simple mission rules that lead to an optimized science yield. This automated DRM generation is then employed to perform a Monte Carlo analysis to produce the distribution of science deliverables and costs for a mission concept. Along with the details of our implementation of this algorithm, we discuss validation techniques and possible future refinements. We apply this analysis technique to three mission concepts: an internal pupil mapping coronagraph, an external occulter, and the THEIA XPC concept (also an occulter based design). The focus of ...

Savransky, D; Cady, E

2009-01-01

326

Rate and yield of repeat upper endoscopy in patients with dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the rate and yield of repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for dyspepsia in clinical practice, whether second opinions drive its use, and whether it is performed at the expense of colorectal cancer screening. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent repeat EGD for dyspepsia from 1996 to 2006 at the University of California, San Francisco endoscopy service. RESULTS: Of 24 780 EGDs, 5460 (22%) were performed for dyspepsia in 4873 patients. Of these, 451 patients (9.3%) underwent repeat EGD for dyspepsia at a median 1.7 (interquartile range, 0.8-3.1) years after initial EGD. Significant findings possibly related to dyspepsia were more likely at initial (29%) vs repeat EGD (18%) [odds ratio (OR), 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.75, P < 0.0001], and at repeat EGD if the initial EGD had reported such findings (26%) than if it had not (14%) (OR, 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08-1.62, P = 0.0015). The same endoscopist performed the repeat and initial EGD in 77% of cases. Of patients aged 50 years or older, 286/311 (92%) underwent lower endoscopy. CONCLUSION: Repeat EGD for dyspepsia occurred at a low but substantial rate, with lower yield than initial EGD. Optimizing endoscopy use remains a public health priority. PMID:20503451

Ladabaum, Uri; Dinh, Viam

2010-01-01

327

Yawning and its physiological significance  

PubMed Central

Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

2013-01-01

328

Redefining yield gaps at various spatial scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research has highlighted the prevalence of 'yield gaps' around the world and the importance of closing them for global food security. However, the traditional concept of yield gap -defined as the difference between observed and optimal yield under biophysical conditions - omit relevant socio-economic and ecological constraints and thus offer limited guidance on potential policy interventions. This paper proposes alternative definitions of yield gaps by incorporating rich, high resolution, national and sub-national agricultural datasets. We examine feasible efforts to 'close yield gaps' at various spatial scales and across different socio-economic and ecological domains.

Meng, K.; Fishman, R.; Norstrom, A. V.; Diekert, F. K.; Engstrom, G.; Gars, J.; McCarney, G. R.; Sjostedt, M.

2013-12-01

329

Yield and quality of forages grown on mine spoil  

SciTech Connect

Pasture or hayland is a potential use for much of the reclaimed mined land in Kentucky. To determine the usefulness of several species for forage production, two study areas were established, one in the eastern coal fields, the second in the western coal fields. Eight species were seeded in eight different mixtures at each location. Each plot was harvested twice each year to determine yield, and samples were analyzed to determine percent protein, DMD, and sugar. Analysis of variance of the data show that there are significant differences in yield, stand, percent protein and percent DMD among the different species. There is also a significant difference in the yield of the same species between the two study areas. In eastern Kentucky, two mixtures, switchgrass-Interstate sericea lespedeza and Caucasian bluestem-Appalow sericea lespedeza yielded more hay than tall fescue-Interstate sericea, the standard of comparison. In western Kentucky, all seeding mixtures yielded more than the tall fescue Interstate mixture. There is no difference in stand among the species in eastern Kentucky. In western Kentucky, Caucasian bluestem, tall fescue, and switchgrass have better stands than other species.

Kuenstler, W.F.; Henry, D.S.

1980-12-01

330

Weather yield model for the semi tropical region (Pakistan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather models are essential tools for checking of the effect of the weather elements in terms of their effect on the production of the crop. This research is an attempt to see the effect of only two variables i.e., temperature and rainfall for the division Faisalabad (semitropical region of Pakistan). The model fitted is of the linear form: Y= a+ bX 1+ cX 2, the values of a,b,c have been found. The expected yield has been calculated by using the aridity indices X 1 and X 2 and the result in the form of coefficient of determination R 2 has been found equal to 0.166. The significance of the regression coefficient has been tested, which shows that the contribution to the yield from aridity index at germination and that at ripening is significant. The wheat yields are the results of a wide variety of variables, most of which show varying degree of relationship with one another, some positive and some negative in terms of output. These variables may be technology, fertilizers, pesticides, epidemics, kinds of seeds used, market price of crop and the area under cultivation etc, which can be the source of variation in the wheat yield. Since rainfall during germination and temperature at the ripening periods are the necessary factors for the yield of wheat, for this purpose these parameters have been studied in order to their contribution.

Haider, Syed Faizan; Asif, K. H.; Gilani, Amjad Hussain

1992-09-01

331

Stress localization, stiffening, and yielding in a model colloidal gel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use numerical simulations and an athermal quasi-static shear protocol to investigate the yielding of a model colloidal gel. Under increasing deformation, the elastic regime is followed by a significant stiffening before yielding takes place. A space-resolved analysis of deformations and stresses unravel how the complex load curve observed is the result of stress localization and that the yielding can take place by breaking a very small fraction of the network connections. The stiffening corresponds to the stretching of the network chains, unbent and aligned along the direction of maximum extension. It is characterized by a strong localization of tensile stresses, that triggers the breaking of a few network nodes at around 30% of strain. Increasing deformation favors further breaking but also shear-induced bonding, eventually leading to a large-scale reorganization of the gel structure at the yielding. At low enough shear rates, density and velocity profiles display significant spatial inhomogeneity during yielding in agreement with experimental observations.

Colombo, Jader; Del Gado, Emanuela

2014-09-01

332

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2010-01-15

333

[Significance of aldosterone antagonist therapy].  

PubMed

Since the introduction of ACE-inhibitors into clinical practice, the diuretic treatment with the classical aldosterone antagonist spironolactone has disappeared. It was generally believed that chronic treatment with ACE-inhibitors significantly reduces aldosterone secretion via reduction of angiotensin II-dependent aldosterone formation. However, aldosterone "escape" occurs: Even during chronic treatment with ACE-inhibitors, plasma levels of aldosterone rise again, which is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, extrarenal actions of aldosterone have been demonstrated, which detrimentally affect coagulation, autonomic activity, inflammatory signalling, hemodynamics, and fibrosis, subsequently leading to cardiovascular damage. Recently published studies (RALES, EPHESUS) convincingly support the concept of detrimental cardiovascular aldosterone actions even during chronic ACE-inhibition. In addition to those cardiovascular effects, aldosterone antagonism has beneficial impacts on ascites, chronic renal disease, renal volume regulation, and hypokalemia induced by diuretics. Of note, aldosterone dependent mechanisms are believed to be even involved in essential hypertension, and the value of aldosterone antagonism is currently tested in those patients. In conclusion, an old-fashioned, previously abandoned treatment strategy is currently celebrating its revival. PMID:14997312

Christ, M; Grimm, W; Maisch, B

2004-03-01

334

Heritability and gene effects for yield and yield components in chickpea.  

PubMed

A 4x4 full-diallel cross set of chickpea (ILC 3279, Konya, Balikesir and Aknohut) was studied to estimate the gene effects and genetic parameters of nine traits. According to Hayman's method, only additive gene effects were found significant for days to flowering, plant height, number of pods and seeds per plant. In additon to the significant additive gene effects, dominant gene effects were significant for days to maturity, basal pod height, number of branches per plant and 100-seed weight. However, the magnitude of the additive gene effects was much higher than dominant gene effects. Reciprocal differences were observed for days to flowering and 100-seed weight. Estimates of genetic parameters also revealed that additive variance was significant for all traits studied except for seed yield, while dominance variance was significant only for days to maturity. The narrow-sense heritabilities were high for 100-seed weight (96%), days to flowering (84%), seeds (78%) and pods per plant (74%) indicating that great genetic gain could be achieved for these traits. PMID:19076689

Tuba Biçer, B T; Sakar, Do?an

2008-10-01

335

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields  

PubMed Central

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-01-01

336

Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance  

SciTech Connect

This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

337

North-Finding Module Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Litton north-finding module was studied to determine its absolute azimuth accuracy and repeatability. Results indicate the north-finding module can determine azimuth heading with reasonable accuracy in a laboratory environment. The unit will be used in ...

S. G. McDaniel, H. V. White

1981-01-01

338

Finding an Eye Care Professional  

MedlinePLUS

Finding an Eye Care Professional Listen Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific eye care professionals. However, you may wish to consider the ...

339

Finding \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networking services well know that some users are unwilling to freely share the information they store with the service (e.g. profile information). To address this, ser vices typically provide various privacy \\

Jessica Staddon

2009-01-01

340

Accretionary orogens: definition, character, significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classic models of orogens involve a Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing with orogenesis related to continent-continent collision. Such models fail to explain the geological history of a significant number of orogenic belts throughout the world in which deformation, metamorphism and crustal growth took place in an environment of on-going plate convergence. These belts are termed accretionary orogens but have also been refereed to as non-collisional orogens, Pacific-type orogens, Turkic-type and exterior orogens. Accretionary orogens evolve in generally curvilinear belts comprising dominantly mafic to silicic igneous rocks and their sedimentary products and accumulated largely in marine settings. They are variably deformed and metamorphosed by tectono-thermal events aligned parallel to, and punctuating, facies trends. Accretionary orogens form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere and consist of magmatic arcs systems along with material accreted from the downgoing plate and eroded from the upper plate. Deformational features include structures formed in extension and compressive environments during steady-state convergence (arc/backarc vs. accretionary prism) that are overprinted by short regional compressive orogenic events. Orogenesis takes place through coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion over-riding the downgoing plate. The Circum-Pacific region provides outstanding examples of accretionary orogens. The Pacific formed during breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic and has never subsequently closed, resulting in a series of overall ocean-ward younging orogenic systems that have always faced an open ocean, yet have been the sites of repeated tectono-thermal events and continental growth. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products and include Archean greenstone belts, the Paleoproterozoic Birimian orogen (W. Africa), the Arabian-Nubian shield (Pan African) and Paleozoic orogens in Asia.

Cawood, P. A.; Kroener, A.; Windley, B. F.

2003-04-01

341

QCD Corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg at B Factories  

SciTech Connect

In heavy quarkonium production, the measured ratio R{sub cc}={sigma}[J/{psi}+cc+X]/{sigma}[J/{psi}+X] at B factories is much larger than existing theoretical predictions. To clarify this discrepancy, in nonrelativistic QCD we find the next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD correction to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg can enhance the cross section by about 20%. Together with the calculated NLO result for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+cc, we show that the NLO corrections can significantly improve the fit to the ratio R{sub cc}. The effects of leading logarithm resummation near the end point on the J/{psi} momentum distribution and total cross section are also considered. Comparison of the calculated cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg with the observed cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+non-(cc) is expected to provide unique information on the issue of color-octet contributions.

Ma Yanqing; Zhang Yujie [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chao Kuangta [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2009-04-24

342

Distinguishing between yield advances and yield plateaus in historical crop production trends  

PubMed Central

Food security and land required for food production largely depend on rate of yield gain of major cereal crops. Previous projections of food security are often more optimistic than what historical yield trends would support. Many econometric projections of future food production assume compound rates of yield gain, which are not consistent with historical yield trends. Here we provide a framework to characterize past yield trends and show that linear trajectories adequately describe past yield trends, which means the relative rate of gain decreases over time. Furthermore, there is evidence of yield plateaus or abrupt decreases in rate of yield gain, including rice in eastern Asia and wheat in northwest Europe, which account for 31% of total global rice, wheat and maize production. Estimating future food production capacity would benefit from an analysis of past crop yield trends based on a robust statistical analysis framework that evaluates historical yield trajectories and plateaus. PMID:24346131

Grassini, Patricio; Eskridge, Kent M.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2013-01-01

343

Precise measurement of exoplanet atmosphere yields surprising results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists studying the atmospheres of hot, gassy exoplanets recently found significantly less water than predicted in one exoplanet's atmosphere. Researchers at the University of Cambridge published their findings in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-08-01

344

Liver in Leprosy: Histological and Biochemical Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological findings and their correlation with biochemical functions of the liver in 240 leprosy patients are presented. In 21% with tuberculoid leprosy and in 62% with lepromatous leprosy leprous granulomata were found in the liver. A significant prevalence of granulomatous lesions in the liver among patients with tuberculoid and borderline-tuberculoid leprosy of less than one year's duration suggests that

A. B. A. Karat; C. K. Job; P. S. S. Rao

1971-01-01

345

The clinical significance of drug craving.  

PubMed

Although drug craving has received considerable research attention over the past several decades, to date there has been no systematic review of the general clinical significance of craving. This paper presents an overview of measurement issues of particular relevance to a consideration of use of craving in clinical settings. The paper then considers the relevance of craving across a broad array of clinical domains, including diagnosis, prognostic utility, craving as an outcome measure, and the potential value of craving as a direct target of intervention. The paper is both descriptive and prescriptive, informed by the current state of the science on craving with recommendations for the definition of craving, assessment practices, future research, and clinical applications. We conclude that craving has considerable utility for diagnosis and as a clinical outcome, and that findings from future research will likely expand the clinical potential of the craving construct in the domains of prognosis and craving as a treatment target. PMID:22172057

Tiffany, Stephen T; Wray, Jennifer M

2012-02-01

346

Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBX32 Gene in Soybean Increases Grain Yield  

PubMed Central

Crop yield is a highly complex quantitative trait. Historically, successful breeding for improved grain yield has led to crop plants with improved source capacity, altered plant architecture, and increased resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To date, transgenic approaches towards improving crop grain yield have primarily focused on protecting plants from herbicide, insects, or disease. In contrast, we have focused on identifying genes that, when expressed in soybean, improve the intrinsic ability of the plant to yield more. Through the large scale screening of candidate genes in transgenic soybean, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana B-box domain gene (AtBBX32) that significantly increases soybean grain yield year after year in multiple transgenic events in multi-location field trials. In order to understand the underlying physiological changes that are associated with increased yield in transgenic soybean, we examined phenotypic differences in two AtBBX32-expressing lines and found increases in plant height and node, flower, pod, and seed number. We propose that these phenotypic changes are likely the result of changes in the timing of reproductive development in transgenic soybean that lead to the increased duration of the pod and seed development period. Consistent with the role of BBX32 in A. thaliana in regulating light signaling, we show that the constitutive expression of AtBBX32 in soybean alters the abundance of a subset of gene transcripts in the early morning hours. In particular, AtBBX32 alters transcript levels of the soybean clock genes GmTOC1 and LHY-CCA1-like2 (GmLCL2). We propose that through the expression of AtBBX32 and modulation of the abundance of circadian clock genes during the transition from dark to light, the timing of critical phases of reproductive development are altered. These findings demonstrate a specific role for AtBBX32 in modulating soybean development, and demonstrate the validity of expressing single genes in crops to deliver increased agricultural productivity. PMID:22363475

Preuss, Sasha B.; Meister, Robert; Xu, Qingzhang; Urwin, Carl P.; Tripodi, Federico A.; Screen, Steven E.; Anil, Veena S.; Zhu, Shuquan; Morrell, James A.; Liu, Grace; Ratcliffe, Oliver J.; Reuber, T. Lynne; Khanna, Rajnish; Goldman, Barry S.; Bell, Erin; Ziegler, Todd E.; McClerren, Amanda L.; Ruff, Thomas G.; Petracek, Marie E.

2012-01-01

347

AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC: Clinical Significance  

PubMed Central

“Gain-of-function” and “loss-of-function” studies in human cancer cells and analysis of a transgenic mouse model have convincingly established that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC performs a seminal role in regulating proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance, the salient defining hallmarks of cancer. These observations are strongly buttressed by clinicopathologic correlations of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC expression in a diverse array of cancers distinguishing AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC as an independent biomarker for highly aggressive metastatic disease with poor prognosis. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has been shown to be a marker predicting response to chemotherapy, and serum anti-AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC antibody titer also serves as a predictor of advanced stages of aggressive cancer. However, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the localization of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC protein in the nucleus or cytoplasm of cancer cells and the utility of nuclear or cytoplasmic AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC to predict the course and prognosis of disease. This chapter provides a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature to emphasize the common and conflicting findings relative to the clinical significance of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in cancer. PMID:23889987

Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

2014-01-01

348

Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods  

SciTech Connect

Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1991-06-01

349

New findings presented at European breast cancer conference  

Cancer.gov

An experimental model of breast cancer has yielded exciting new insights into why some breast cancers become resistant to endocrine therapies such as tamoxifen, say researchers from the Hospital of Prato, Italy, and the Breast Center at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston. Their findings could lead to new treatments and prognostic tests for the disease.

350

Analyzing the Designs of Planet-Finding Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for the analysis of direct detection planet-finding missions using space telescopes. This framework generates simulations of complete missions, with varying populations of planets, to produce ensembles of mission simulations, which are used to calculate distributions of mission science yields. We describe the components of a mission simulation, including the complete description of an arbitrary planetary system,

Dmitry Savransky; N. Jeremy Kasdin; Eric Cady

2010-01-01

351

Knowledge translation of research findings  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation. PMID:22651257

2012-01-01

352

Enhancement of Yield Strength in Zirconium Metal Through High-Pressure Induced Structural Phase Transition  

SciTech Connect

We report here a high-pressure phase-transition induced strengthening in ultrapure zirconium metal. The determined yield strength shows more than sixfold abrupt increase at the transition pressure of Pc = 6 GPa, from {sigma}{sub y}{sup {alpha}} {approx} 180 MPa in the low-pressure phase of {alpha}-Zr to {sigma}{sub y}{sup {omega}} {approx} 1180 MPa in the high-pressure phase of {omega}-Zr. The observed enhancement provides an alternate route for material strengthening and is the most significant among the known strengthening techniques for metals. Our findings support the theoretical simulations of the substantial covalent bonding and 'rougher' corrugation of slip planes for dislocations in the {omega}-phase of zirconium.

Zhao,Y.; Zhang, J.

2007-01-01

353

Yield strength of molybdenum at high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the diamond anvil cell technology, the pressure gradient approach is one of the three major methods in determining the yield strength for various materials at high pressures. In the present work, by in situ measuring the thickness of the sample foil, we have improved the traditional technique in this method. Based on this modification, the yield strength of molybdenum

Qiumin Jing; Yan Bi; Qiang Wu; Fuqian Jing; Zhigang Wang; Jian Xu; Sheng Jiang

2007-01-01

354

Estimating Crop Yields From Multispectral Reflectance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three reports describe research on proposed method for estimating crop yields by combining meteorological data with satellite measurements of reflected radiation to estimate crop-absorbed radiation. Concept, when tested over large areas, forms basis for evaluating crop conditions and estimating yields over regions where ground observations too costly or too difficult.

Daughtry, C.

1986-01-01

355

The Quantum Yield of Diacetyl Fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum yield of fluorescence of diacetyl, excited by radiation of ?4047 and ?4358, has been measured and found to be 0.145±0.03. It is approximately independent of pressure. On the other hand, the yield with excitation of ?3650, as first observed by Henriques and Noyes, increases apparently from zero at zero pressure to nearly the value obtained for the longer

G. M. Almy; P. R. Gillette

1943-01-01

356

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

357

Yield Stress in Foods: Measurements and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the presence of true yield stress has been debated, it has been accepted as an engineering reality. Now, yield stress is routinely measured and used in the food industry not only for basic process calculations and manufacturing practices, but also as a test for sensory and quality indices and to determine the effect of composition and manufacturing procedures on

Adriano Sun; Sundaram Gunasekaran

2009-01-01

358

The energetic and nutritional yields from insectivory for Kasekela chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Insectivory is hypothesized to be an important source of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet nutritional data based on actual intake are lacking. Drawing on observations from 2008 to 2010 and recently published nutritional assays, we determined the energy, macronutrient and mineral yields for termite-fishing (Macrotermes), ant-dipping (Dorylus), and ant-fishing (Camponotus) by the Kasekela chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We also estimated the yields from consumption of weaver ants (Oecophylla) and termite alates (Macrotermes and Pseudacanthotermes). On days when chimpanzees were observed to prey on insects, the time spent in insectivorous behavior ranged from <1 min to over 4 h. After excluding partial bouts and those of <1 min duration, ant-dipping bouts were of significantly shorter duration than the other two forms of tool-assisted insectivory but provided the highest mass intake rate. Termite-fishing bouts were of significantly longer duration than ant-dipping and had a lower mass intake rate, but provided higher mean and maximum mass yields. Ant-fishing bouts were comparable to termite-fishing bouts in duration but had significantly lower mass intake rates. Mean and maximum all-day yields from termite-fishing and ant-dipping contributed to or met estimated recommended intake (ERI) values for a broad array of minerals. The mean and maximum all-day yields of other insects consistently contributed to the ERI only for manganese. All forms of insectivory provided small but probably non-trivial amounts of fat and protein. We conclude that different forms of insectivory have the potential to address different nutritional needs for Kasekela chimpanzees. Other than honeybees, insects have received little attention as potential foods for hominins. Our results suggest that ants and (on a seasonal basis) termites would have been viable sources of fat, high-quality protein and minerals for extinct hominins employing Pan-like subsistence technology in East African woodlands. PMID:24698197

O'Malley, Robert C; Power, Michael L

2014-06-01

359

Spectral reflectance indices for estimating yield and water content in spring wheat genotypes under well irrigated, water stress, and high temperature conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study. Alternative methods for selecting, detecting, and identifying higher yielding genotypes in wheat breeding programs are important for obtaining major genetic gains. The water indices can be used as an indirect selection tool because of their strong association with different physiological and yield components. Diverse spring wheat advanced lines were used, which corresponded to three international trials developed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT); 24th Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT) with 25 lines, 11th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT) with 40 lines, and 11th High Temperature Wheat Yield Trial (HTWYT) with 18 lines. Two other experiments also employed advanced lines for testing the relationship between water indices and water content parameters (10-16 lines) and for evaluating the influence of morphological traits (20 lines) over the water indices. Several water indices and other reflectance indices were estimated at three growth stages (booting, heading, and grain filling) using a field portable spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Devices, Boulder, CO). Field plots were planted in Northwest Mexico during three growing seasons (2006, 2007, and 2007). Grain yield, biomass, and some water status parameters were determined in diverse experiments. Findings and Conclusions. There were high correlations (phenotypic and genetic) between grain yield and the water indices showing high heritability, response to selection and correlated response, relative selection efficiency, and efficiency in selecting the higher yielding genotypes. Two water indices showed the strongest relationships (NWI-1 and NWI-3) for all the parameters determined in the well irrigated, water stress, and high temperature environments. In addition, the water indices were related with parameters commonly employed for assessing the crop water status ( i.e., water potential) during booting, anthesis and grain filling under water stress conditions. Finally, our results demonstrated that the relationship between the water indices and grain yield was affected mainly by erect leaves and spike orientation. The potential for employing the water indices for selecting high yielding lines represents a significant advantage in breeding programs because the top yielding lines can be selected in an accurate, inexpensive, and easy manner. In addition, the best high yielding lines maintained high canopy water content under water stress conditions.

Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Mario

360

New yield-aware mask strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we provide new yield-aware mask strategies to mitigate emerging variability and defectivity challenges. To address variability, we analyze CD variability with respect to reticle size, and its impact on parametric yield. With a cost model that incorporates mask, wafer, and processing cost considering throughput, yield, and manufacturing volume, we assess various reticle strategies (e.g., single layer reticle (SLR), multiple layer reticle (MLR), and small and large size) considering field-size dependent parametric yield. To address defectivity, we compare parametric yield due to EUV mask blank defects for various reticle strategies in conjunction with reticle floorplan optimizations such as shifting of the mask pattern within a mask blank to avoid defects being superposed by performance-critical patterns of a design.

Jeong, Kwangok; Kahng, Andrew B.; Progler, Christopher J.

2011-05-01

361

Absolute 1* quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain versus absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absolute I* quantum yields were measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The temperature yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-versus-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 +/- 2% and it falls off to 53.4 +/- 2% and 44.0 +/- 4% at 284 and 248 respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I* quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I* yields. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I* yield results.

Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

1987-01-01

362

Growth parameter and yield component response of field corn to simulated acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yield changes the study examined the effect of simulated acid rain on parameters associated with corn yield. Cultivars B73 x Mo17 and Pioneer 3377 were shielded from ambient rain by two movable rain exclusion shelters. Six simulated rain treatments were applied biweekly within these shelters through the use of a nozzle distribution system. For the most part, growth and yield parameters were unaffected by simulated rain treatment. While the only significant yield reduction was a contrast of pH 3.0 and the average of all other treatments for B73 x Mo17, the reduction appears to be the result both of slightly fewer ears and slightly less successful ear fill.

Banwart, W.L.; Porter, P.M.; Ziegler, E.L.; Hassett, J.J.

1988-01-01

363

Finding the bottom and using it  

PubMed Central

Maximizing 2-photon parameters used in acquiring images for quantitative intravital microscopy, especially when high sensitivity is required, remains an open area of investigation. Here we present data on correctly setting the black level of the photomultiplier tube amplifier by adjusting the offset to allow for accurate quantitation of low intensity processes. When the black level is set too high some low intensity pixel values become zero and a nonlinear degradation in sensitivity occurs rendering otherwise quantifiable low intensity values virtually undetectable. Initial studies using a series of increasing offsets for a sequence of concentrations of fluorescent albumin in vitro revealed a loss of sensitivity for higher offsets at lower albumin concentrations. A similar decrease in sensitivity, and therefore the ability to correctly determine the glomerular permeability coefficient of albumin, occurred in vivo at higher offset. Finding the offset that yields accurate and linear data are essential for quantitative analysis when high sensitivity is required.

Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wang, Exing; Molitoris, Bruce A.

2014-01-01

364

Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements  

SciTech Connect

A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

2011-04-06

365

Finding Articles Social Sciences Inquiry  

E-print Network

Finding Articles Social Sciences Inquiry Info Lit @ Mac Nora Gaskin Reference Librarian Mills Articles in the Social Sciences 1. Finding references to articles 2. Getting the articles 3. Downloading and Social Sciences INNIS -- Business THODE -- Science and Engineering HEALTH Sciences #12;Inquiry 1SS3 Mills

Haykin, Simon

366

Algebraic tensegrity form-finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the form-finding problem for general and symmetric tensegrity structures with shape constraints. A number of different geometries are treated and several fundamental properties of tensegrity structures are identified that simplify the form-finding problem. The concept of a tensegrity invariance (similarity) transformation is defined and it is shown that tensegrity equilibrium is preserved under affine node position transformations.

Milenko Masic; Robert E. Skelton; Philip E. Gill

2005-01-01

367

75 FR 10835 - Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1, Environmental Assessment and Finding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unit 1, Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact The U.S...significant impact. Environmental Assessment Identification...analyzed in the environmental assessment and finding...significant impact made by...

2010-03-09

368

75 FR 10834 - Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Station; Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact The U.S...significant impact. Environmental Assessment Identification...analyzed in the environmental assessment and finding...significant impact made by...

2010-03-09

369

Finding the object'' proceedings addendum  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this workshop was to discuss finding the object -- that is, how software engineers imagine, invent, design, or recycle objects and their behaviors for object-oriented software engineering. The workshop organizers (and, as we subsequently discovered, several of the workshop participants) felt that this issue is crucial to successful object-oriented software engineering (after all, finding objects is what the projects is all about, isn't it ). Unfortunately, when previous workshops have had the opportunity to review and discuss techniques practitioners use to find objects, too often the results were heated debates on what is an object '' which becomes all consuming. We believed that, given appropriate control over the question of which kind of object'' is being discussed (which meant tell us what object you are trying to find, then tell us your method), a workshop to concentrate on techniques for finding objects would be quite appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Whiting, M.A.; Devaney, D.M.

1990-10-01

370

Characteristics of water-well yields in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mean yields and the numbers of wells drilled are presented for 35 rock types containing 4,115 wells in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia. Analysis of variance of the well yields shows that Harper's Formation phyllite and Catoctin Formation metabasalt have yields significantly different from those of other rock types. Preliminary variography has identified an anisotropy that roughly parallels the general compressional trend of the Blue Ridge.

Sutphin, David M.; Drew, L. J.; Schuenemeyer, J. H.; Burton, W. C.

2000-01-01

371

Seed yield and its components in smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yield performance and effect on seed yield of morphological traits such as seeds\\/panicle, seed weight, seeds\\/branch, branches\\/2nd node, branches\\/panicle, fertile tillers\\/plant and panicle length were evaluated in 13 cultivars of smooth bromegrass in a spaced-plant nursery. Wide variation was observed between and within cultivars for seed yield and traits. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found among traits and seed

E. ACIKGijZ; A. S. Tekeli

1980-01-01

372

Growth and development characteristics of super-high-yielding mid-season japonica rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is one of the most important food crops in China. The realization of the super-high-yielding (SHY) type has great significance\\u000a in ensuring food security in this country. This study investigated the growth and development characteristics of the super-high-yielding\\u000a rice (grain yield > 11 t\\/hm2). Four mid-season japonica rice cultivars (including lines): Lianjiajing 2, Huajing 5, 0026 and 9823, were

Jianchang Yang; Yong Du; Changfu Wu; Lijun Liu; Zhiqin Wang; Qingsen Zhu

2007-01-01

373

The yield condition in the mobilization of yield-stress materials in distensible tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the yield condition in the mobilization of yield-stress materials in distensible tubes. We discuss the two possibilities for modeling the yield-stress materials prior to yield: solid-like materials and highly-viscous fluids and identify the logical consequences of these two approaches on the yield condition. Our results reveal that these two modeling approaches have far reaching consequences on the yield bottleneck and hence should be critically examined in the light of experimental evidence. As part of this investigation we derive an analytical expression for the pressure field inside a distensible tube with a Newtonian flow using a one-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow model in conjunction with a pressurearea constitutive relation based on elastic tube wall characteristics. This analytical expression has wider applicability than in the identification of the yield condition of yield-stress material.

Sochi, Taha

2014-08-01

374

Yield Estimation from Surface-wave Amplitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-wave amplitudes from explosion sources show less variation for a given event han body wave amplitudes, so it is natural to expect that yield estimates derived from surface waves will be more accurate than yield estimates derived from body waves. However, yield estimation from surface waves is complicated by the presence of tectonic strain release, which acts like one or more earthquake sources superimposed on top of the explosion. Moment-tensor inversion can be used to remove the tectonic component of the surface waves, however moment-tensor inversion for shallow sources is inherently non-unique so the explosion isotropic moment cannot be determined with the necessary accuracy by this means. Explosions on an island or near a mountain slope can exhibit anomalous surface waves similar to those caused by tectonic strain release. These complications cause yield estimates derived from surface waves to be less accurate than yield estimates from body waves recorded on a well-calibrated network with good coverage. Surface-wave amplitudes can be expressed as a surface-wave magnitude Ms, which is defined as the logarithm of the amplitude plus a distance correction, or as a path corrected spectral magnitude, log M'0, which is derived from the surface-wave spectrum. We derive relations for Ms vs. yield and log M'0 vs. yield for a large data set and estimate the accuracy of these estimates.

Stevens, J. L.; Murphy, J. R.

375

Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.  

PubMed

To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565

Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

2014-05-01

376

Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery and Yield Monitor Data for Mapping Cotton Yield Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased availability of hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acquired using an airborne imaging system from two cotton fields during the 2001 growing season, and yield data were collected from the

Chenghai Yang; James H. Everitt; Joe M. Bradford; Dale Murden

2004-01-01

377

Climate change: implications for the yield of edible rice.  

PubMed

Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980-2009 at IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy. PMID:23776635

Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa

2013-01-01

378

Nuclear reaction rate uncertainties and astrophysical modeling: Carbon yields from low-mass giants  

SciTech Connect

Calculations that demonstrate the influence of three key nuclear reaction rates on the evolution of asymptotic giant branch stars have been carried out. We study the case of a star with an initial mass of 2 M{sub {center_dot}} and a metallicity of Z=0.01, somewhat less than the solar metallicity. The dredge-up of nuclear processed material from the interior of the star and the yield predictions for carbon are sensitive to the rate of the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O and triple-{alpha} reactions. These reactions dominate the H- and He-burning shells of stars in this late evolutionary phase. Published uncertainty estimates for each of these two rates propagated through stellar evolution calculations cause uncertainties in carbon enrichment and yield predictions of about a factor of 2. The other important He-burning reaction, {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O, although associated with the largest uncertainty in our study, does not have a significant influence on the abundance evolution compared with other modeling uncertainties. This finding remains valid when the entire evolution from the main sequence to the tip of the asymptotic giant branch is considered. We discuss the experimental sources of the rate uncertainties addressed here and give some outlooks for future work.

Herwig, Falk [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Astrophysics Group in T-Division, MS B227, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Austin, Sam M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Lattanzio, John C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

2006-02-15

379

Optimal swarm formation for odor plume finding.  

PubMed

This paper presents an analytical approach to the problem of odor plume finding by a network of swarm robotic gas sensors, and finds an optimal configuration for them, given a set of assumptions. Considering cross-wind movement for the swarm, we found that the best spatial formation of robots in finding odor plumes is diagonal line configuration with equal distance between each pair of neighboring robots. We show that the distance between neighboring pairs in the line topology depends mainly on the wind speed and the environmental conditions, whereas, the number of robots and the swarm's crosswind movement distance do not show significant impact on optimal configurations. These solutions were analyzed and verified by simulations and experimentally validated in a reduced scale realistic environment using a set of mobile robots. PMID:25415939

Marjovi, Ali; Marques, Lino

2014-12-01

380

Ultrasound findings in trisomy 22.  

PubMed

We sought to identify the characteristic sonographic findings of fetal trisomy 22 by performing a retrospective review of nine cases of fetal trisomy 22. All cases of chromosomal mosaicism were excluded, as were first-trimester losses. Indications for sonography, gestational age, and sonographically detected fetal anomalies were analyzed. The majority of patients were referred for advanced maternal age or abnormal ultrasound findings on screening exam. Oligohydramnios was the most common sonographic finding, present in 55% of affected fetuses. Intrauterine growth restriction and increased nuchal thickness were slightly less frequent. PMID:18850513

Schwendemann, Wade D; Contag, Stephen A; Koty, Patrick P; Miller, Richard C; Devers, Patricia; Watson, William J

2009-02-01

381

Spectrally-Based Assessment of Crop Seasonal Performance and Yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid advances of space technologies concern almost all scientific areas from aeronautics to medicine, and a wide range of application fields from communications to crop yield predictions. Agricultural monitoring is among the priorities of remote sensing observations for getting timely information on crop development. Monitoring agricultural fields during the growing season plays an important role in crop health assessment and stress detection provided that reliable data is obtained. Successfully spreading is the implementation of hyperspectral data to precision farming associated with plant growth and phenology monitoring, physiological state assessment, and yield prediction. In this paper, we investigated various spectral-biophysical relationships derived from in-situ reflectance measurements. The performance of spectral data for the assessment of agricultural crops condition and yield prediction was examined. The approach comprisesd development of regression models between plant spectral and state-indicative variables such as biomass, vegetation cover fraction, leaf area index, etc., and development of yield forecasting models from single-date (growth stage) and multitemporal (seasonal) reflectance data. Verification of spectral predictions was performed through comparison with estimations from biophysical relationships between crop growth variables. The study was carried out for spring barley and winter wheat. Visible and near-infrared reflectance data was acquired through the whole growing season accompanied by detailed datasets on plant phenology and canopy structural and biochemical attributes. Empirical relationships were derived relating crop agronomic variables and yield to various spectral predictors. The study findings were tested using airborne remote sensing inputs. A good correspondence was found between predicted and actual (ground-truth) estimates

Kancheva, Rumiana; Borisova, Denitsa; Georgiev, Georgy

382

Effect of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Our objective was to estimate the effects of the first occurrence of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) on milk yield in 3071 dairy cows in 2 New York State farms. The pathogens studied were Streptococcus spp.,Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, other pathogens grouped together, and "no pathogen isolated." Data were collected from October 1999 to July 2001. Milk samples were collected from cows showing signs of CM and were sent to the Quality Milk Production Services laboratory at Cornell University for microbiological culture. The SAS statistical procedure PROC MIXED, with an autoregressive covariance structure, was used to quantify the effect of CM and several other control variables (herd, calving season, parity, month of lactation, J-5 vaccination status, and other diseases) on weekly milk yield. Separate models were fitted for primipara and multipara, because of the different shapes of their lactation curves. To observe effects of mastitis, milk weights were divided into several periods both pre- and postdiagnosis, according to when they were measured in relation to disease occurrence. Another category contained cows without the type of CM being modeled. Because all pathogens were modeled simultaneously, a control cow was one without CM. Among primipara, Staph. aureus, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and "no pathogen isolated" caused the greatest losses. Milk yield generally began to drop 1 or 2 wk before diagnosis; the greatest loss occurred immediately following diagnosis. Mastitic cows often never recovered their potential yield. Among older cows, Streptococcus spp., Staph. aureus, A. pyogenes, E. coli, and Klebsiella spp. caused the most significant losses. Many multipara that developed CM were actually higher producers before diagnosis than their nonmastitic herd-mates. As in primipara, milk yield in multipara often began to decline shortly before diagnosis; the greatest loss occurred immediately following diagnosis. Milk loss persisted until at least 70 d after diagnosis for Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and A. pyogenes. The tendency for higher producing cows to contract CM may mask its impact on cow health and production. These findings provide dairy producers with more information on which pathogen-specific CM cases should receive treatment and how to manage these cows, thereby reducing CM impact on cow well being and profitability. PMID:15377615

Gröhn, Y T; Wilson, D J; González, R N; Hertl, J A; Schulte, H; Bennett, G; Schukken, Y H

2004-10-01

383

Long-term Studies on Yield and Quality of Java Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) in Relation to Nitrogen Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies have been conduced over a five-year period to examine the effect of nitrogen application on the yield and quality of essential oil in Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) in a semi-arid tropical region in South India. The results showed that the yield per unit area of citronella fresh plant (herbage) differed significantly between years; the yields increased up

Eranki V. S. Prakasa Rao; Munnu Singh

1991-01-01

384

HETEROSIS STUDIES FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT UNDER NORMAL AND LATE-SOWING CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 *, R. S. SAIN, and E. V. D. SASTRY SUMMARY The magnitude of heterosis over mid-parent and better-parent for yield and yield contributing characters, as well as inbreeding depression were calculated in a 10 x 10 diallel set of bread wheat under two different environments. For grain yield, 55 crosses showed significant positive heterobeltiosis in two sowing dates; however,

H. SINGH; S. N. SHARMA

385

PATH-FINDING FOR LARGE SCALE MULTIPLAYER COMPUTER GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path-finding consumes a significant amount of resources, especially in movement-intensive games such as (mas- sively) multiplayer games. We investigate several path- finding techniques, and explore the impact on perfor- mance of workloads derived from real player movements in a multiplayer game. We find that a map-conforming, hierarchical path-finding strategy performs best, and in combination with caching optimizations can greatly re-

Marc Lanctot; Clark Verbrugge

386

Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p?=?0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p?=?0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p?=?0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

2012-01-01

387

Effect of laser priming on canola yield and its components under salt stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of laser priming at different irradiation times on canola yield and its components under saline conditions were investigated. The results showed that laser priming had a positive effect on yield and its components and caused yield increase under saline conditions. Increase in salt levels had a negative and significant effect on seed yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, pod length and plant height. The results showed that 45-min laser priming had the strongest effect on yield and yield components and reduced significantly the adverse effects of salinity. By contrast, laser radiation applied for 60 and 75 min, resulted in a dramatic decrease in yield and its components. Correlation coefficients between the attributes showed that canola yield had a positive and significant correlation with plant height, number of seeds, pod per main branch and lateral branches, length of pod and number of lateral branches. Effects of laser and salinity were significant on lateral branch pod length but not on main branch pods.

Mohammadi, S. K.; Shekari, F.; Fotovat, R.; Darudi, A.

2012-02-01

388

REGIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND SURFACE TEMPERATURES PREDICTING COTTON YIELDS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown strong relationship s between ENSO phase and climate in the southeastern USA during the boreal winter. Crop yields in this region are significantly affected by ENSO phase due to predictable patterns of climate during this time of the year. However, both climate during the boreal summer months and cotton yields in this region show little or no

Guillermo A. Baigorria; James W. Hansen; Neil Ward; James W. Jones; James J. O'Brien

389

Evaluation of Grain Yield and Its Components in Durum Wheat under Mediterranean Conditions: An Ontogenic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

the number of spikes per square meter predominantly influenced grain drought stress, with respect to grain yield, is from double production in the warmer environments. The number of kernels per ridge to anthesis due to its negative impact on spikelet spike had a significant contribution to grain yield, especially under number and kernels per spike (Shpiler and Blum, 1991). drought

L. F. Garcia del Moral; Y. Rharrabti; D. Villegas; C. Royo

390

Yield response of spring wheat to increasing densities of spring oats and various forms  

E-print Network

Agronomy Yield response of spring wheat to increasing densities of spring oats and various forms by interference from spring oat (cv Selma), considered as a weed, were estimated in field studies on post for each of the 3 experimental years. Wheat yield losses were significantly greater on oat-infested plots

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Anal manometric findings in symptomatic hemorrhoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anal manometric findings were studied in 50 patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids and an equal number of age- and sex-matched\\u000a control subjects. Manometry was performed with a continuously perfused catheter by the continuous pull-through technique.\\u000a Both the control subjects and patients had significant negative collerations between age and basal pressure;i.e., basal pressure was lower with advancing age. Patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids

Kari-Matti Hiltunen; Martti Matikainen

1985-01-01

392

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding  

Cancer.gov

Skip to main content Sign Up for Updates | Follow us on Twitter | Connect with us on LinkedIn | Contact Us | Site Map Search About Program Information Program Structure Goals Eligibility Criteria Employment Opportunities Meet the Team Funding Opportunities Find

393

Dermoscopy Findings of Hidroacanthoma Simplex  

PubMed Central

Hidroacanthoma simplex (HAS), also known as intraepidermal eccrine poroma, is a rare eccrine adnexal tumor that tends to be misdiagnosed as other types of benign skin tumor, including clonal seborrheic keratosis. Notably, HAS is sometimes misdiagnosed and treated by cryosurgery as seborrheic keratosis, which could trigger the later development of porocarcinoma. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of HAS is indispensable for dermatologists to avoid the development of malignant tumors by an unsuitable treatment. In this report, we present the characteristic dermoscopy findings of HAS. Indeed, the dermoscopy findings might be related to the melanin-rich necrotic cells in the epidermis, which are quite different from dermoscopy findings of clonal seborrheic keratosis. As a previous report suggested, it is difficult for a dermatologist to differentiate HAS from clonal seborrheic keratosis by the naked eye. Our findings might be supportive for the early diagnosis of HAS. PMID:24987351

Sato, Yota; Fujimura, Taku; Tamabuchi, Erika; Haga, Takahiro; Aiba, Setsuya

2014-01-01

394

Going Local to Find Help  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall ... local health and social services for survivors of TBI is as important as knowing about the medical ...

395

Freshman Inquiry Retention Preliminary Findings  

E-print Network

Freshman Inquiry Retention Preliminary Findings Sukhwant Jhaj, Rowanna Carpenter University Studies Student Data Warehouse - Student Retention - Academic Performance #12;Evolving Assessment Structure intending to graduate from PSU had a higher fall-to- fall retention rate than others. · First

396

Visual direction finding by fishes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of visual orientation, in the absence of landmarks, for underwater direction finding exercises by fishes is reviewed. Celestial directional clues observed directly near the water surface or indirectly at an asymptatic depth are suggested as possible orientation aids.

Waterman, T. H.

1972-01-01

397

Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings  

PubMed Central

Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized. PMID:21493882

Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

2011-01-01

398

Finding Out about Fireworks Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Are Reading Moving to Middle School Going Back to School When It's Just You After School Ebola How the Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society Finding Out About Fireworks Safety KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Safe > Playing ...

399

Absolute quantum yield measurement of powder samples.  

PubMed

Measurement of fluorescence quantum yield has become an important tool in the search for new solutions in the development, evaluation, quality control and research of illumination, AV equipment, organic EL material, films, filters and fluorescent probes for bio-industry. Quantum yield is calculated as the ratio of the number of photons absorbed, to the number of photons emitted by a material. The higher the quantum yield, the better the efficiency of the fluorescent material. For the measurements featured in this video, we will use the Hitachi F-7000 fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with the Quantum Yield measuring accessory and Report Generator program. All the information provided applies to this system. Measurement of quantum yield in powder samples is performed following these steps: 1. Generation of instrument correction factors for the excitation and emission monochromators. This is an important requirement for the correct measurement of quantum yield. It has been performed in advance for the full measurement range of the instrument and will not be shown in this video due to time limitations. 2. Measurement of integrating sphere correction factors. The purpose of this step is to take into consideration reflectivity characteristics of the integrating sphere used for the measurements. 3. Reference and Sample measurement using direct excitation and indirect excitation. 4. Quantum Yield calculation using Direct and Indirect excitation. Direct excitation is when the sample is facing directly the excitation beam, which would be the normal measurement setup. However, because we use an integrating sphere, a portion of the emitted photons resulting from the sample fluorescence are reflected by the integrating sphere and will re-excite the sample, so we need to take into consideration indirect excitation. This is accomplished by measuring the sample placed in the port facing the emission monochromator, calculating indirect quantum yield and correcting the direct quantum yield calculation. 5. Corrected quantum yield calculation. 6. Chromaticity coordinates calculation using Report Generator program. The Hitachi F-7000 Quantum Yield Measurement System offer advantages for this application, as follows: High sensitivity (S/N ratio 800 or better RMS). Signal is the Raman band of water measured under the following conditions: Ex wavelength 350 nm, band pass Ex and Em 5 nm, response 2 sec), noise is measured at the maximum of the Raman peak. High sensitivity allows measurement of samples even with low quantum yield. Using this system we have measured quantum yields as low as 0.1 for a sample of salicylic acid and as high as 0.8 for a sample of magnesium tungstate. Highly accurate measurement with a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude allows for measurements of both sharp scattering peaks with high intensity, as well as broad fluorescence peaks of low intensity under the same conditions. High measuring throughput and reduced light exposure to the sample, due to a high scanning speed of up to 60,000 nm/minute and automatic shutter function. Measurement of quantum yield over a wide wavelength range from 240 to 800 nm. Accurate quantum yield measurements are the result of collecting instrument spectral response and integrating sphere correction factors before measuring the sample. Large selection of calculated parameters provided by dedicated and easy to use software. During this video we will measure sodium salicylate in powder form which is known to have a quantum yield value of 0.4 to 0.5. PMID:22617474

Moreno, Luis A

2012-01-01

400

User's appraisal of yield model evaluation criteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five major potential USDA users of AgRISTAR crop yield forecast models rated the Yield Model Development (YMD) project Test and Evaluation Criteria by the importance placed on them. These users were agreed that the "TIMELINES" and "RELIABILITY" of the forecast yields would be of major importance in determining if a proposed yield model was worthy of adoption. Although there was considerable difference of opinion as to the relative importance of the other criteria, "COST", "OBJECTIVITY", "ADEQUACY", AND "MEASURES OF ACCURACY" generally were felt to be more important that "SIMPLICITY" and "CONSISTENCY WITH SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE". However, some of the comments which accompanied the ratings did indicate that several of the definitions and descriptions of the criteria were confusing.

Warren, F. B. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

401

Gene Research Yields Insights into Ebola Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Gene Research Yields Insights Into Ebola Virus Strain tied to West Africa outbreak has ... 2014) Thursday, August 28, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Ebola Genes and Gene Therapy THURSDAY, Aug. 28, 2014 ( ...

402

Mb Bias and Regional Magnitude and Yield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditional seismic yield estimation is performed using body wave magnitude (mb) measured from compressional wave amplitudes recorded across the globe. Stability is obtained by averaging many measurements. These waves traverse the earth's mantle, and are ...

G. E. Randall, H. E. Phillips, R. J. Stead

2008-01-01

403

Global optimization for track finding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hopfield networks with mean-field annealing have been proposed for track finding in particle detectors by Peterson and Denby. In this paper we investigate and compare some other-probabilistic and heuristic-approaches to finding the global minimum of the associated energy function: Simulated annealing, threshold accepting, great deluge, record-to-record travel, and tabu search. We also use a branch-and-bound and a branch-and-cut algorithm in order to obtain the exact global minimum.

Diehl, M.; Jünger, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Scherzer, J.

1997-02-01

404

Can You Find the Pattern?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some fun games to see if you can figure out the next piece of the pattern. Use these Marble patterns to review how patterns work. Finish four marble patterns. Check your work. Mr. Cracker needs to find the secret code before the evil Dr. Soup. Can you help Mr. Cracker find the number code. Choose the easy level and play two games. Complete the spooky number sequences and send the ghosts back to their haunted house. Here ...

Korth, Mrs.

2005-10-27

405

Observation of B{yields}{eta}{sup '}K{sup *} and Evidence for B{sup +}{yields}{eta}{sup '}{rho}{sup +}  

SciTech Connect

We present an observation of B{yields}{eta}{sup '}K{sup *}. The data sample corresponds to 232x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We measure the branching fractions (in units of 10{sup -6}) B(B{sup 0}{yields}{eta}{sup '}K{sup *0})=3.8{+-}1.1{+-}0.5 and B(B{sup +}{yields}{eta}{sup '}K{sup *+})=4.9{sub -1.7}{sup +1.9}{+-}0.8, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. A simultaneous fit results in the observation of B{yields}{eta}{sup '}K{sup *} with B(B{yields}{eta}{sup '}K{sup *})=4.1{sub -0.9}{sup +1.0}{+-}0.5. We also search for B{yields}{eta}{sup '}{rho} and {eta}{sup '}f{sub 0}(980)(f{sub 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) with results and 90% confidence level upper limits B(B{sup +}{yields}{eta}{sup '}{rho}{sup +})=8.7{sub -2.8-1.3}{sup +3.1+2.3} (<14), B(B{sup 0}{yields}{eta}{sup '}{rho}{sup 0})<3.7, and B(B{sup 0}{yields}{eta}{sup '}f{sub 0}(980)(f{sub 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}))<1.5. Charge asymmetries in the channels with significant yields are consistent with zero.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Palano, A. [Universita di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100039 (China); Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway)] (and others)

2007-02-02

406

Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to increase H2 yields from fermentative H2 production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although\\u000a heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H2 yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming\\u000a acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low

Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2007-01-01

407

Ophthalmologic findings in Aicardi syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Aicardi syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder that has been characterized classically by agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, and the finding of chorioretinal lacunae. This triad has been augmented more recently by central nervous system and ocular findings. The goal of this study is to determine how frequently other ophthalmologic findings are associated with Aicardi syndrome. Methods A single ophthalmologist recorded the ocular and adnexal findings of 40 girls with this disorder at the annual meeting of an Aicardi syndrome family support group. For each subject, the examiner performed facial anthropometrics, portable biomicroscopy, and, where feasible, indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results The most common findings were chorioretinal lacunae in 66 (88%) of 75 eyes and optic nerve abnormalities in 61 (81%) of 75 eyes. Other less common findings included persistent pupillary membrane in 4 (5%) of 79 eyes and anterior synechiae in 1 of 79 eyes (1%). Conclusions Although the ophthalmic hallmark and defining feature of Aicardi syndrome is the cluster of distinctive chorioretinal lacunae surrounding the optic nerve(s), the spectrum of ocular, papillary, and retinal anomalies varies widely, from nearly normal to dysplasia of the optic nerve and to severe microphthalmos. PMID:22681940

Fruhman, Gary; Eble, Tanya N.; Gambhir, Nikki; Sutton, V. Reid; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.; Lewis, Richard A.

2013-01-01

408

Making lasting memories: Remembering the significant  

PubMed Central

Although forgetting is the common fate of most of our experiences, much evidence indicates that emotional arousal enhances the storage of memories, thus serving to create, selectively, lasting memories of our more important experiences. The neurobiological systems mediating emotional arousal and memory are very closely linked. The adrenal stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone released by emotional arousal regulate the consolidation of long-term memory. The amygdala plays a critical role in mediating these stress hormone influences. The release of norepinephrine in the amygdala and the activation of noradrenergic receptors are essential for stress hormone-induced memory enhancement. The findings of both animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that stress-induced activation of the amygdala and its interactions with other brain regions involved in processing memory play a critical role in ensuring that emotionally significant experiences are well-remembered. Recent research has determined that some human subjects have highly superior autobiographic memory of their daily experiences and that there are structural differences in the brains of these subjects compared with the brains of subjects who do not have such memory. Understanding of neurobiological bases of such exceptional memory may provide additional insights into the processes underlying the selectivity of memory. PMID:23754441

McGaugh, James L.

2013-01-01

409

Spectral reflectance indices as a selection criterion for yield improvement in wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and methods of study. Yield in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a complex trait and influenced by many environmental factors, and yield improvement is a daunting task for wheat breeders. Spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) have been used to study different physiological traits in wheat. SRIs have the potential to differentiate genotypes for grain yield. SRIs strongly associated with grain yield can be used to achieve effective genetic gain in wheat under different environments. Three experiments (15 adapted genotypes, 25 and 36 random sister lines derived from two different crosses) under irrigated conditions, and three experiments (each with 30 advanced genotypes) under water-limited conditions were conducted in three successive years in Northwest Mexico at the CIMMYT (International Maize and wheat Improvement Center) experimental station. SRIs and different agronomic data were collected for three years, and biomass was harvested for two years. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between SRIs and grain yield, between SRIs and biomass, realized and broad sense heritability, direct and correlated selection responses for grain yield, and SRIs were calculated. Findings and conclusion. Seven SRIs were calculated, and three near infrared based indices (WI, NWI-1 and NWI-2) showed higher level of genetic and phenotypic correlations with grain yield, yield components and biomass than other SRIs (PRI, RNDVI, GNDVI, and SR) under both irrigated and water limiting environments. Moderate to high realized and broad sense heritability, and selection response were demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. High efficiency of correlated response for yield estimation was demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. The ratio between the correlated response to grain yield based on the three NIR based indices and direct selection response for grain yield was very close to one. The NIR based indices showed very high accuracy in selecting superior genotypes for grain yield under both well-watered and water-limited conditions. These results demonstrated that effective genetic gain in grain yield improvement can be achieved by making selections with the three NIR based indices.

Babar, Md. Ali

410

Yields of Bacterial Cells from Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

A strain of Nocardia and one of Pseudomonas, both isolated on pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane), gave cell yields of approximately 100% on n-octadecane and pristane. Both organisms grew more rapidly on the n-octadecane than on the pristane. A mixed culture, isolated on 3-methylheptane, whose two components were identified as species of Pseudomonas and of Nocardia, gave approximately 100% cell yields and grew with generation times of about 5 hr on n-heptane, n-octane, and 2-methylheptane. The generation time on 3-methylheptane was 8.6 hr and the cell yield was only 79%. A strain of Pseudomonas isolated from naphthalene enrichments and one from phenanthrene enrichments both gave a cell yield of 50% on naphthalene. The phenanthrene isolate gave a cell yield of 40% on phenanthrene. A Nocardia species isolated on benzene gave a 79% cell yield on benzene. The generation times of the bacteria isolated on aromatic hydrocarbons were related to the solubility of the aromatic hydrocarbons on which they were grown; the more insoluble hydrocarbons gave slower growth. PMID:5726161

Wodzinski, Richard S.; Johnson, Marvin J.

1968-01-01

411

Automated Crop Yield Estimation for Apple Orchards  

E-print Network

Abstract Crop yield estimation is an important task in apple orchard management. The current manual sampling-based yield estimation is time-consuming, labor-intensive and inaccurate. To deal with this challenge, we developed a computer vision-based system for automated, rapid and accurate yield estimation. The system uses a two-camera stereo rig for image acquisition. It works at nighttime with controlled artificial lighting to reduce the variance of natural illumination. An autonomous orchard vehicle is used as the support platform for automated data collection. The system scans both sides of each tree row in orchards. A computer vision algorithm detects and registers apples from acquired sequential images, and then generates apple counts as crop yield estimation. We deployed the yield estimation system in Washington state in September, 2011. The results show that the system works well with both red and green apples in the tall-spindle planting system. The crop yield estimation errors are-3.2 % for a red apple block with about 480 trees, and 1.2 % for a green apple block with about 670 trees. 1

Qi Wang; Stephen Nuske; Marcel Bergerman; Sanjiv Singh

412

Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials  

E-print Network

A new yield/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materals. This is a fundamental key to model the behaviour of materials which become cohesive during hardening (so that the shape of the yield surface evolves from that typical of a granular material to that typical of a dense material), or which decrease cohesion due to damage accumulation. The proposed yield function is shown to agree with a variety of experimental data relative to soil, concrete, rock, metallic and composite powders, metallic foams, porous metals, and polymers. The yield function represents a single, convex and smooth surface in stress space approaching as limit situations well-known criteria and the extreme limits of convexity in the deviatoric plane....

Bigoni, Davide

2010-01-01

413

A survey of DNA motif finding algorithms  

PubMed Central

Background Unraveling the mechanisms that regulate gene expression is a major challenge in biology. An important task in this challenge is to identify regulatory elements, especially the binding sites in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for transcription factors. These binding sites are short DNA segments that are called motifs. Recent advances in genome sequence availability and in high-throughput gene expression analysis technologies have allowed for the development of computational methods for motif finding. As a result, a large number of motif finding algorithms have been implemented and applied to various motif models over the past decade. This survey reviews the latest developments in DNA motif finding algorithms. Results Earlier algorithms use promoter sequences of coregulated genes from single genome and search for statistically overrepresented motifs. Recent algorithms are designed to use phylogenetic footprinting or orthologous sequences and also an integrated approach where promoter sequences of coregulated genes and phylogenetic footprinting are used. All the algorithms studied have been reported to correctly detect the motifs that have been previously detected by laboratory experimental approaches, and some algorithms were able to find novel motifs. However, most of these motif finding algorithms have been shown to work successfully in yeast and other lower organisms, but perform significantly worse in higher organisms. Conclusion Despite considerable efforts to date, DNA motif finding remains a complex challenge for biologists and computer scientists. Researchers have taken many different approaches in developing motif discovery tools and the progress made in this area of research is very encouraging. Performance comparison of different motif finding tools and identification of the best tools have proven to be a difficult task because tools are designed based on algorithms and motif models that are diverse and complex and our incomplete understanding of the biology of regulatory mechanism does not always provide adequate evaluation of underlying algorithms over motif models. PMID:18047721

Das, Modan K; Dai, Ho-Kwok

2007-01-01

414

Effects of Stubble Management on Yield of Tomato  

E-print Network

Abstract- Field experiments were conducted on-farm in the forest zone of Ghana to determine the effects of stubble mulch (in-situ residues from Mucuna pruriens var utilis or natural grass fallow) and method of land preparation on the yield of dry season tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Land preparation methods studied were slash burn and ridge; ridge and mulching with the existing residue; and zero tillage without burning. The design was randomized complete block with four replications. Tomato seedlings were transplanted at a spacing of 50 cm within plants and 90 cm between rows; 2 seedlings per hill. Results showed that stubble mulch resulted in significant reduction in soil temperature and an increase in soil moisture content. Ridging resulted in a higher content of soil nutrients. Mulching especially with Mucuna residue, was however associated with insect pest problems. Despite this problem, stubble mulching with mucuna resulted in up to 100 % increase in tomato yield and resulted in the highest yields among the management options. Result of the studies showed that soil moisture and temperature might be more important than soil fertility in the short term in determining yield in dry season tomato in the study area. Index Terms- Stubble management, tomato, dry season, vegetables V I.

P. Osei-bonsu; J. Y. Asibuo

415

Explanation of the relationships between seed yield and some morphological traits in smooth bromegrass ( Bromus inermis Leyss.) by path analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path analysis was performed on plant characters in a sward of smooth bromegrass to determine the seed yield, the direct and indirect effects of the following seed yield components: stem yield\\/m2, total stem number\\/m2, fertile stem number\\/m2, sterile stem number\\/m2, percentage of fertile stem, seeds\\/m2, seeds\\/panicle, seed weight\\/panicle, 1000-seed weight, and plant height under field conditions. Seed yield was significantly

Hayati Seker; Yunus Serin

2004-01-01

416

Factors affecting herbicide yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, June 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be affected by the interdependence of the factors. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential factor in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 199094 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of factors affecting herbicide yields could be refined with more-current land use and land cover information and a more accurate estimate of the percentage of basin area planted in corn. Factors related to herbicide yields can be used to predict herbicide yields in other basins within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to develop an estimate of herbicide loads to Chesapeake Bay.Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be affected by the interdependence of the factors. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential factor in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 1990-94 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of factors affecting herbicide yields could be refined with more-current land use and land cover information and a more accurate estimate of the percentage of basin area planted in corn. Factors related to herbicide yields can be used to predict herbicide yields in other basins within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to develop an estimate of herbicide loads to Chesapeake Bay.

Hainly, R.A.; Kahn, J.M.

1996-01-01

417

ReportingResearchFindings 44Reporting Research Findings  

E-print Network

that an overwhelming percentage of the respondents -- 83% -- feel that punishing cyberbullies is not necessary of reporting findings Yes No 21% 79% Yes No 21% 79% Figure 2: Percentage of respondents who know how to do CPR of knowledge of CPR As can be seen from Figure 2, only 21% of the respondents reported knowing how

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

418

Business process analysis of yield data flow at a newly merged pharmaceutical company  

E-print Network

Tracking, monitoring, and documentation of the manufacturing performance are significant for pharmaceutical companies under the regulations of Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, the current yield data are not ...

Jiang, Nan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

419

Statistical modelling of grapevine yield in the Port Wine region under present and future climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of projected climate change on wine production was analysed for the Demarcated Region of Douro, Portugal. A statistical grapevine yield model (GYM) was developed using climate parameters as predictors. Statistically significant correlations were identified between annual yield and monthly mean temperatures and monthly precipitation totals during the growing cycle. These atmospheric factors control grapevine yield in the region, with the GYM explaining 50.4% of the total variance in the yield time series in recent decades. Anomalously high March rainfall (during budburst, shoot and inflorescence development) favours yield, as well as anomalously high temperatures and low precipitation amounts in May and June (May: flowering and June: berry development). The GYM was applied to a regional climate model output, which was shown to realistically reproduce the GYM predictors. Finally, using ensemble simulations under the A1B emission scenario, projections for GYM-derived yield in the Douro Region, and for the whole of the twenty-first century, were analysed. A slight upward trend in yield is projected to occur until about 2050, followed by a steep and continuous increase until the end of the twenty-first century, when yield is projected to be about 800 kg/ha above current values. While this estimate is based on meteorological parameters alone, changes due to elevated CO2 may further enhance this effect. In spite of the associated uncertainties, it can be stated that projected climate change may significantly benefit wine yield in the Douro Valley.

Santos, João A.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

2011-03-01

420

Injection Temperature Significantly Affects In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of Collagen-Platelet Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Collagen-platelet composites have recently been successfully used as scaffolds to stimulate anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) wound healing in large animal models. These materials are typically kept on ice until use to prevent premature gelation; however, with surgical use, placement of a cold solution then requires up to an hour while the solution comes to body temperature (at which point gelation occurs). Bringing the solution to a higher temperature before injection would likely decrease this intra-operative wait; however, the effects of this on composite performance are not known. The hypothesis tested here was that increasing the temperature of the gel at the time of injection would significantly decrease the time to gelation, but would not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the composite or its ability to support functional tissue repair. Primary outcome measures included the maximum elastic modulus (stiffness) of the composite in vitro and the in vivo yield load of an ACL transection treated with an injected collagen-platelet composite. In vitro findings were that injection temperatures over 30°C resulted in a faster visco-elastic transition; however, the warmed composites had a 50% decrease in their maximum elastic modulus. In vivo studies found that warming the gels prior to injection also resulted in a decrease in the yield load of the healing ACL at 14 weeks. These studies suggest that increasing injection temperature of collagen-platelet composites results in a decrease in performance of the composite in vitro and in the strength of the healing ligament in vivo and this technique should be used only with great caution. PMID:19030174

Palmer, M.P.; Abreu, E.L.; Mastrangelo, A.; Murray, M.M.

2009-01-01

421

Ductographic Findings of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Ductography has become the gold standard for the evaluation of patients exhibiting pathologic nipple discharges. In nine patients (age range, 29-67 years; median age, 51 years) with invasive (n=5) or intraductal (n=4) cancer, ductographic findings were recorded, then correlated with mammographic and sonographic findings. Common ductographic findings included complete ductal obstruction, multiple irregular filling defects in the nondilated peripheral ducts, ductal wall irregularities, periductal contrast extravasation, and ductal displacement. Faint microcalcifications or ill-defined masses, which were not opacified by contrast material, were often discovered adjacent to ductal abnormalities. Mammographically and sonographically occult diffusely spreading intraductal cancers often manifested as pathologic nipple discharge. In such cases, meticulous ductographic examinations and interpretations were crucial in order not to miss breast cancers. PMID:15782017

Cho, Nariya; Chung, Sun Yang; Cha, Joo Hee; Cho, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun

2005-01-01

422

Application of wheat yield model to United States and India. [Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The wheat yield model was applied to the major wheat-growing areas of the US and India. In the US Great Plains, estimates from the winter and spring wheat models agreed closely with USDA-SRS values in years with the lowest yields, but underestimated in years with the highest yields. Application to the Eastern Plains and Northwest indicated the importance of cultural factors, as well as meteorological ones in the model. It also demonstrated that the model could be used, in conjunction with USDA-SRRS estimates, to estimate yield losses due to factors not included in the model, particularly diseases and freezes. A fixed crop calendar for India was built from a limited amount of available plot data from that country. Application of the yield model gave measurable evidence that yield variation from state to state was due to different mixes of levels of meteorological and cultural factors.

Feyerherm, A. M. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

423

Search for the CP-Violating Decays {upsilon}(4S){yields}B{sup 0}B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}+J/{psi}({eta}{sub c})K{sub S}{sup 0}  

SciTech Connect

We report the first search for CP-violating decays of the {upsilon}(4S) using a data sample that contains 535x10{sup 6} {upsilon}(4S) mesons with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. A partial reconstruction technique is employed to enhance the signal sensitivity. No significant signals were observed. We obtain an upper limit of 4x10{sup -7} at the 90% confidence level for the branching fractions of the CP violating modes, {upsilon}(4S){yields}B{sup 0}B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}+J/{psi}({eta}{sub c})K{sub S}{sup 0}. Extrapolating the result, we find that an observation with 5{sigma} significance is expected with a 30 ab{sup -1} data sample, which is within the reach of a future super B factory.

Tajima, O.; Hazumi, M.; Adachi, I.; Haba, J.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ozaki, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sumisawa, K.; Takasaki, F.; Tanaka, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; Yamauchi, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)] (and others)

2007-11-23

424

Significant Cancer Prevention Factor Extraction: An Association Rule Discovery Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is increasing the total number of unexpected deaths around the world. Until now, cancer research could not significantly\\u000a contribute to a proper solution for the cancer patient, and as a result, the high death rate is uncontrolled. The present\\u000a research aim is to extract the significant prevention factors for particular types of cancer. To find out the prevention factors,

Jesmin Nahar; Kevin S. Tickle; A. B. M. Shawkat Ali; Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen

2011-01-01

425

A survey for low stau yields in the MSSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the implications of LHC results for the abundance of long-lived staus after freeze-out from thermal equilibrium in a super-WIMP dark matter scenario. We classify regions in the MSSM parameter space according to the stau yield, considering all possible co-annihilation effects as well as the effects of resonances and large Higgs-sfermion couplings. Afterwards, we examine the viability of these regions after imposing experimental and theoretical constraints, in particular a Higgs mass around 125 GeV and null-searches for heavy stable charged particles (HSCP) at the LHC. We work in a pMSSM framework and perform a Monte Carlo scan over the parameter space. To interpret the HSCP searches in our scenario, we consider all potentially important superparticle production processes, developing a fast estimator for NLO cross sections for electroweak and strong production at the LHC. After applying all constraints, we find that stau yields below 10-14 occur only for resonant annihilation via a heavy Higgs in combination with either co-annihilation or large left-right stau mixing. We encounter allowed points with yields as low as 2 × 10-16, thus satisfying limits from big bang nucleosynthesis even for large stau lifetimes.

Heisig, Jan; Kersten, Jörn; Panes, Boris; Robens, Tania

2014-04-01

426

Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets  

SciTech Connect

The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

Tan, C.Y.

2000-02-01

427

Sediment yield following severe volcanic disturbance - A two-decade perspective from Mount St. Helens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Explosive volcanic eruptions perturb water and sediment fluxes in watersheds; consequently, posteruption sediment yields can exceed pre-eruption yields by several orders of magnitude. Annual suspended-sediment yields following the catastrophic 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption were as much as 500 times greater than typical background level, and they generally declined nonlinearly for more than a decade. Although sediment yields responded primarily to type and degree of disturbance, streamflow fluctuations significantly affected sediment-yield trends. Consecutive years (1995-1999) of above-average discharge reversed the nonlinear decline and rejuvenated yields to average values measured within a few years of the eruption. After 20 yr, the average annual suspended-sediment yield from the 1980 debris-avalanche deposit remains 100 times (104 Mg [megagrams]/km2) above typical background level (~102 Mg/km2). Within five years of the eruption, annual yields from valleys coated by lahar deposits roughly plateaued, and average yields remain about 10 times (103 Mg/km2) above background level. Yield from a basin devastated solely by a blast pyroclastic current diminished to background level within five years. These data demonstrate long-term instability of eruption-generated detritus, and show that effective mitigation measures must remain functional for decades.

Major, J.J.; Pierson, T.C.; Dinehart, R.L.; Costa, J.E.

2000-01-01

428

Variation in canopy duration in the perennial biofuel crop Miscanthus reveals complex associations with yield  

PubMed Central

Energy crops can provide a sustainable source of power and fuels, and mitigate the negative effects of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel use. Miscanthus is a perennial C4 energy crop capable of producing large biomass yields whilst requiring low levels of input. Miscanthus is largely unimproved and therefore there could be significant opportunities to increase yield. Further increases in yield will improve the economics, energy balance, and carbon mitigation of the crop, as well as reducing land-take. One strategy to increase yield in Miscanthus is to maximize the light captured through an extension of canopy duration. In this study, canopy duration was compared among a diverse collection of 244 Miscanthus genotypes. Canopy duration was determined by calculating the number of days between canopy establishment and senescence. Yield was positively correlated with canopy duration. Earlier establishment and later senescence were also both separately correlated with higher yield. However, although genotypes with short canopy durations were low yielding, not all genotypes with long canopy durations were high yielding. Differences of yield between genotypes with long canopy durations were associated with variation in stem and leaf traits. Different methodologies to assess canopy duration traits were investigated, including visual assessment, image analysis, light interception, and different trait thresholds. The highest correlation coefficients were associated with later assessments of traits and the use of quantum sensors for canopy establishment. A model for trait optimization to enable yield improvement in Miscanthus and other bioenergy crops is discussed. PMID:23599277

Robson, Paul R.H.

2013-01-01

429

Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not well defined in the suspension rheology we tested three types of measurement in determination of yield stress. Two methods utilized cone-plate geometry performing creep test (stress controlled) and variable shear rate test and one utilized narrow-gap concentric cylinder geometry with variable shear rate. Herschel-Bulckley model can be successfully applied to variable shear-rate tests to determine yield stress. Creep test and H-B model give almost identical yield stress, for instance 45±5Pa at 2.5wt%. At the gel volume fraction of 50% yield stress emerges and it increases with the increase of the concentration of gel powder. This critical value roughly corresponds to the random loose packing fraction while the viscosity begins to increase at lower fraction.

Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

2012-04-01

430

Radioluminescence yield of alpha particles in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpha particles can be detected by measuring the radioluminescence light which they induce when absorbed in air. The light is emitted in the near ultraviolet region by nitrogen molecules excited by secondary electrons. The accurate knowledge of the radioluminescence yield is of utmost importance for novel radiation detection applications utilizing this secondary effect. Here, the radioluminescence yield of an alpha particle is investigated as a function of energy loss in air for the first time. Also, the total radioluminescence yield of the particle is measured with a carefully calibrated ^{239}Pu emitter used in the experiments. The obtained results consistently indicate that alpha particles generate 19±3 photons per one MeV of energy released in air at normal pressure (temperature 22°C, relative humidity 43%) and the dependence is found to be linear in the studied energy range from 0.3 MeV to 5.1 MeV. The determined radioluminescence yield is higher than previously reported for alpha particles and similar to the radioluminescence yield of electrons at comparable energies. This strengthens the evidence that the luminescence induced by charged particles is mostly proportional to the energy loss in the media and not very sensitive to the type of primary particle.

Sand, J.; Ihantola, S.; Peräjärvi, K.; Toivonen, H.; Toivonen, J.

2014-05-01

431

Potential well yields from unconsolidated deposits in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A comprehensive groundwater protection plan, developed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 1985, identified the need to delineate significant aquifers within the state. A map of the unconsolidated aquifers in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins was compiled from available data on the surficial geology and well yields. It delineates the significant unconsolidated aquifers and indicates the potential yield of wells that tap these aquifers. The potential well yield is categorized into three ranges: < 10 gal/min; 10 to 100 gal/min; and > 100 gal/min. No yield range is given for till, but some large diameter or dug wells in till may yield up 10 gal/min. (Lantz-PTT)

Wolcott, Stephen W.

1987-01-01

432

The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

2014-05-01

433

Recent Changes of Sediment Yield in the Upper Yangtze, China  

PubMed

/ Reservoir sedimentation is one of the many environmental problems associated with the Three Gorges Project in China. The rate and characteristics of sedimentation that directly affect the operating life of the reservoir are closely related to soil erosion and sediment transport dynamics in the upstream catchment and to the ability to manage the throughput of sediment-laden waters. The recent changes in sediment yield were examined using gauging data from 187 stations of varying sizes from less than 100 km2 to larger than 1,000,000 km2 in the Upper Yangtze basin between 1956 and 1987. Whereas many previous studies have concentrated on the trends in the main channel of the Yangtze, the distributed pattern of changes across the whole catchment is complex. Results from time series analysis indicate ten stations, mainly located in the Dadu and Wu tributaries (with a total incremental catchment area of 78,963 km2) have shown increasing trajectories of sediment yield, and six stations, located in the upper Jialing and Tuo tributaries (with a total incremental area of 27,816 km2) have experienced decreasing trajectories. By dividing the time series into three components, it is possible to map significant decadal changes in sediment yields that can be related to phases of deforestation and the construction of water conservancy projects. Most of the observed decreases in sediment yield are associated with large reservoir schemes on tributary rivers. The lack of evidence for increasing sediment input to the Three Gorges area masks a considerable variation in sediment conveyance and storage within the Upper Yangtze catchment.KEY WORDS: Sediment yield; Reservoir sedimentation; Three Gorges Project; Time series analysis; China PMID:9680538

Lu; Higgitt

1998-09-01

434

Search for the decay J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}+invisible  

SciTech Connect

A search for J/{psi} radiative decay to weakly interacting neutral final states was performed using the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. J/{psi} events were selected by observing the hadronic decay {psi}(2S){yields}{pi}{sup +{pi}-}J/{psi}. A total of 3.7x10{sup 6} J/{psi} events were used to study the decay J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}+X, where X is a narrow state that is invisible to the detector. No significant signal was observed, and upper limits on the branching fraction were set for masses m{sub X} up to 960 MeV/c{sup 2}. The upper limit corresponding to m{sub X}=0 is 4.3x10{sup -6} at the 90% confidence level.

Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Ricciardi, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Thomas, C. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Mountain, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Lincoln, A.; Smith, M. J.; Zhou, P. [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

2010-05-01

435

Shear induced drainage in foamy yield-stress fluids  

E-print Network

Shear induced drainage of a foamy yield stress fluid is investigated using MRI techniques. Whereas the yield stress of the interstitial fluid stabilizes the system at rest, a fast drainage is observed when a horizontal shear is imposed. It is shown that the sheared interstitial material behaves as a viscous fluid in the direction of gravity, the effective viscosity of which is controlled by shear in transient foam films between bubbles. Results provided for several bubble sizes are not captured by the R^2 scaling classically observed for liquid flow in particulate systems, such as foams and thus constitute a remarkable demonstration of the strong coupling of drainage flow and shear induced interstitial flow. Furthermore, foam films are found to be responsible for the unexpected arrest of drainage, thus trapping irreversibly a significant amount of interstitial liquid.

Julie Goyon; François Bertrand; Olivier Pitois; Guillaume Ovarlez

2010-03-30

436

Biological Significance of Prolactin in Gynecological Cancers  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that Prolactin (PRL), a hormone/cytokine, plays a role in breast, prostate and colorectal cancers via local production or accumulation. Elevated levels of serum PRL in ovarian and endometrial cancers have been reported indicating a potential role for prolactin in endometrial and ovarian carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that serum PRL levels are significantly elevated in women with a strong family history of ovarian cancer. We demonstrate dramatically increased expression of PRL receptor (PRLR) in ovarian and endometrial tumors as well as in endometrial hyperplasia signifying the importance of PRL signaling in malignant and premalignant conditions. PRL mRNA was expressed in ovarian and endometrial tumors indicating the presence of an autocrine loop. PRL potently induced proliferation in several ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. Binding of PRL to its receptor was followed by rapid phosphorylation of ERK1/2, MEK-1, STAT3, CREB, ATF-2, and p53, and activation of 37 transcription factors in ovarian and endometrial carcinoma cells. PRL also activated Ras oncogene in these cells. When human immortalized normal ovarian epithelial (NOE) cells were chronically exposed to PRL a malignant transformation occurred manifested by the acquired ability of transformed cells to form clones, grow in soft agar, and form tumors in SCID-beige mice. Transformation efficiency was diminished by a Ras inhibitor providing proof that PRL-induced transformation utilizes the Ras pathway. In summary, we present findings that indicate an important role for PRL in ovarian and endometrial tumorigenesis. PRL may represent a risk factor for ovarian and endometrial cancers. PMID:19491263

Levina, Vera V; Nolen, Brian; Su, YunYun; Godwin, Andrew K.; Fishman, David; Liu, Jinsong; Mor, Gil; Maxwell, Larry G.; Herberman, Ronald B.; Szczepanski, Miroslaw J.; Szajnik, Marta E.; Gorelik, Elieser; Lokshin, Anna E

2010-01-01

437

Find it early: Get screened  

E-print Network

increases chances of finding cancer at the earliest stage, when it can be treated most effectively. Consult cancers. Regular exercise is linked to a lower risk of cancer. · Eat a healthy diet with whole grains, lean protein, fruits, and vegetables. · Reduce calories. · Limit red meat and animal fat. · Exercise

Myers, Lawrence C.

438

Help me Find my Relationship!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate the relationship between angles when parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Students will identify angles, find angle measures, and they will use the free application GeoGebra (see download link under Suggested Technology) to provide students with a visual representation of angles relationships.

2012-11-12

439

Triangles: Finding Interior Angle Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, students will start with a hands-on activity and then experiment with a GeoGebra-based computer model to investigate and discover the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem. Then they will use the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem to write and solve equations and find missing angle measures in a variety of examples.

2012-11-25

440

Finding Funding Locating Funding Opportunities  

E-print Network

Finding Funding - 1 - Locating Funding Opportunities Locating the right funding opportunity to meet should embark on your funding search well in advance of when you want to do the project (i.e., when funds for and review your professional society's newsletter. They often publish information about funding opportunities

Mather, Patrick T.

441

Writing audit findings: Be reasonable  

SciTech Connect

A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address root cause'' as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a root problems'' approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee's part. This in itself, is its own reward.

Girvin, N.W.

1992-05-01

442

Writing audit findings: Be reasonable!  

SciTech Connect

A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address ``root cause`` as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a ``root problems`` approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee`s part. This in itself, is its own reward.

Girvin, N.W.

1992-05-01

443

Finding Geography Using Found Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional literacy is important in both English/language arts and geography. Using the "found poetry" strategy, students will summarize a piece of text, identify main ideas and find geographic connections. While using young adult literature is a great way to incorporate geography into English/language arts classroom, understanding of geography…

Foster, Ellen J.

2012-01-01

444

MEMS AO for Planet Finding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul

2008-01-01

445

A Required Yield Theory of Stock Market Valuation and Treasury Yield Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stock market valuation and Treasury yield determination are consistent with the Fisher effect (1896) as generalized by Darby (1975) and Feldstein (1976). The U.S. stock market (S&P 500) is priced to yield ex-ante a real after-tax return directly related to real long-term GDP\\/capita growth (the required yield). Elements of our theory show that: 1) real after-tax Treasury and S&P 500

Faugere Christophe

2003-01-01

446

A Required Yield Theory of Stock Market Valuation and Treasury Yield Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stock market valuation and Treasury yield determination are consistent with the Fisher effect (1896) as generalized by Darby (1975) and Feldstein (1976). The U.S. stock market (S&P 500) is priced to yield ex-ante a real after-tax return directly related to real long-term GDP/capita growth (the required yield). Elements of our theory show that: (1) real after-tax Treasury and S&P 500

Christophe Faugère; Julian Van Erlach

2009-01-01

447

Neutrino yield from Galactic cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the neutrino yield from collisions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with gas using the event generator QGSJET-II. We present first the general characteristics and numerical results for the neutrino yield assuming power-law fluxes for the primary CR nuclei. Then we use three parametrizations for the Galactic CR flux to derive the neutrino yield for energies around and above the knee. The shape and the normalization of the resulting neutrino flux above ˜1014 eV depends on the composition of the Galactic CR flux employed, but is generally dominated by its proton component. The spectral shape and magnitude of the neutrino flux suggest that the IceCube excess is not connected to interactions of Galactic sea CRs.

Kachelrieß, M.; Ostapchenko, S.

2014-10-01

448

Evaluation of trends in wheat yield models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trend terms in models for wheat yield in the U.S. Great Plains for the years 1932 to 1976 are evaluated. The subset of meteorological variables yielding the largest adjusted R(2) is selected using the method of leaps and bounds. Latent root regression is used to eliminate multicollinearities, and generalized ridge regression is used to introduce bias to provide stability in the data matrix. The regression model used provides for two trends in each of two models: a dependent model in which the trend line is piece-wise continuous, and an independent model in which the trend line is discontinuous at the year of the slope change. It was found that the trend lines best describing the wheat yields consisted of combinations of increasing, decreasing, and constant trend: four combinations for the dependent model and seven for the independent model.

Ferguson, M. C.

1982-01-01

449

Erosion yields of deposited beryllium layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion yields of various Be surfaces exposed to deuterium plasma, including polycrystalline Be (PC-Be), magnetron and thermionic vacuum arc deposited surfaces, and in situ plasma-deposited Be layers on Be (DP-Be/Be) and on graphite (DP-Be/C) targets, are measured in the linear divertor plasma simulator PISCES-B. It is observed that the enhanced erosion (˜3 times higher than PC-Be) of DP-Be/Be occurs at sample temperature Ts ˜ 310 K, while DP-Be/Be possesses the same yield as PC-Be at a higher Ts ˜ 570 K. The erosion yield of DP-Be/C is found to be slightly decreased at Ts ˜ 850 K. This is consistent with the more effective formation of Be 2C at higher Ts, which has a higher surface binding energy than Be. It has been identified from spectroscopic measurements that Be is also eroded as BeD.

Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; De Temmerman, G.

2009-06-01

450

Yield strength dependence on strain rate of molybdenum-alloy nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yield strength dependence on strain rate was studied for molybdenum-alloy nanofibers with varying initial dislocation density at three different pre-strain levels. In-situ tensile experiments at three displacement rates were carried out in a scanning electron microscope. Yield strength and its scatter decreased as a function of the pre-strain level for different displacement rates. A statistical model was used to analyze the results, and a negative strain rate dependence was inferred from the yield experiments. This finding suggests the need for theoretical investigations since classical models such as dynamic strain aging may have limitations at such nanoscales.

Loya, P. E.; Xia, Y. Z.; Peng, C.; Bei, H.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, J.; George, E. P.; Gao, Y. F.; Lou, J.

2014-06-01

451

The role of climatic variables in winter cereal yields: a retrospective analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effects of observed climate including [CO2] on winter cereal [winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativa)] yields by adopting robust statistical analysis/modelling approaches (i.e. autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average, generalised addition model) based on long time series of historical climate data and cereal yield data at three locations (Moree, Dubbo and Wagga Wagga) in New South Wales, Australia. Research results show that (1) growing season rainfall was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yield at all locations considered; (2) [CO2] was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields in all cases except wheat and barley yields at Wagga Wagga; (3) growing season maximum temperature was significantly, negatively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields at Dubbo and Moree (except for barley); and (4) radiation was only significantly correlated with oat yield at Wagga Wagga. This information will help to identify appropriate management adaptation options in dealing with the risk and in taking the opportunities of climate change.

Luo, Qunying; Wen, Li

2014-04-01

452

Improving yield through the application of process window OPC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the industry progresses toward more challenging patterning nodes with tighter error budgets and weaker process windows, it is becoming clear that current single process condition Optical Proximity Corrections (OPC) as well as OPC verification methods such as Optical Rules Checking (ORC) performed at a single process point fail to provide robust solutions through process. Moreover, these techniques can potentially miss catastrophic failures that will negatively impact yield while surely failing to capitalize on every chance to enhance process window. Process-aware OPC and verification algorithms have been developed [1,2] that minimize process variability to enhance yield and assess process robustness, respectively. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of process aware OPC and ORC tools to enable first time right manufacturing solutions, even for technology nodes prior to 45nm such as a 65nm contact level, by identifying critical spots on the layout that became significant yield detractors on the chip but nominal ORC could not catch. Similarly, we will demonstrate the successful application of a process window OPC (PWOPC) algorithm capable of recognizing and correcting for process window systematic variations that threaten the overall RET performance, while maintaining printed contours within the minimum overlay tolerances. Direct comparison of wafer results are presented for two 65nm CA masks, one where conventional nominal OPC was applied and a second one processed with PWOPC. Thorough wafer results will show how our process aware OPC algorithm was able to address and successfully strengthen the lithography performance of those areas in the layout previously identified by PWORC as sensitive to process variations, as well as of isolated and semi-isolated features, for an overall significant yield enhancement.

Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Krasnoperova, Azalia; Siddiqui, Shahab; Settlemyer, Kenneth; Graur, Ioana; Stobert, Ian; Oberschmidt, James M.

2009-03-01

453

Variables affecting simulated Be sputtering yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since beryllium is a strong candidate for the main plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors, its sputtering behaviour plays an important role in predicting the reactor's life-time. Consensus about the actual sputtering yields has not yet been achieved, as observations are influenced by experimental method and/or studied sample. In this work, the beryllium sputtering due to deuterium and beryllium self-bombardment is analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The main methodological aspects that influence the outcome, such as flux and fluence of the bombardment, are highlighted, and it is shown that the simulated yields also depend on the sample structure and deuterium content.

Björkas, C.; Nordlund, K.

2013-08-01