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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Finding of No Significant Impact Text - Atryn  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Finding of No Significant Impact Text - Atryn. FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT. for. the rBc6 rDNA Construct in GTC ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

2

Finding Statistically Significant Communities in Networks  

PubMed Central

Community structure is one of the main structural features of networks, revealing both their internal organization and the similarity of their elementary units. Despite the large variety of methods proposed to detect communities in graphs, there is a big need for multi-purpose techniques, able to handle different types of datasets and the subtleties of community structure. In this paper we present OSLOM (Order Statistics Local Optimization Method), the first method capable to detect clusters in networks accounting for edge directions, edge weights, overlapping communities, hierarchies and community dynamics. It is based on the local optimization of a fitness function expressing the statistical significance of clusters with respect to random fluctuations, which is estimated with tools of Extreme and Order Statistics. OSLOM can be used alone or as a refinement procedure of partitions/covers delivered by other techniques. We have also implemented sequential algorithms combining OSLOM with other fast techniques, so that the community structure of very large networks can be uncovered. Our method has a comparable performance as the best existing algorithms on artificial benchmark graphs. Several applications on real networks are shown as well. OSLOM is implemented in a freely available software (http://www.oslom.org), and we believe it will be a valuable tool in the analysis of networks.

Lancichinetti, Andrea; Radicchi, Filippo; Ramasco, Jose J.; Fortunato, Santo

2011-01-01

3

40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Findings of no significant impact. 6.206 Section 6.206 Protection...206 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Responsible Official may issue a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR...

2013-07-01

4

10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy ...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant...

2013-01-01

5

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 989.15 Section 989.15 National...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.15 Finding of no significant impact. (a) The FONSI (40 CFR...

2013-07-01

6

23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Findings of no significant impact. 771.121 Section 771.121 Highways...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration...

2013-04-01

7

16 CFR 1021.13 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1021.13 Section 1021.13 Commercial...Documents § 1021.13 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant impact shall cite and be attached to the...

2013-01-01

8

21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 25.41 Section 25.41 Food and...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental...25.41 Findings of no significant impact. (a) As defined by the...

2013-04-01

9

46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...potential or proposed action will not have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment of the United States or of the global commons, a finding of no significant impact shall be prepared and notice of its availability published in the Federal...

2011-10-01

10

46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...potential or proposed action will not have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment of the United States or of the global commons, a finding of no significant impact shall be prepared and notice of its availability published in the Federal...

2012-10-01

11

Association of bronchoalveolar lavage yield with chest computed tomography findings and symptoms in immunocompromised patients  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB) with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a common procedure performed in immunocompromised patients with undiagnosed pulmonary pathology. Identifying patients with the highest potential diagnostic yield may help to avoid morbidity in patients unlikely to benefit from the procedure. We sought to determine which patient factors, specifically chest computed tomography (CT) findings, affected diagnostic yield of BAL. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of immunocompromised patients who underwent FOB with BAL from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2011 at an academic medical center was performed. The lung lobe lavaged, characteristics of pulmonary infiltrate on radiograph, patient symptoms, and diagnostic yield were collected. A positive diagnostic yield was defined as a positive microbiological culture, finding on cytopathologic staining, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, alveolar eosinophilia or a positive immunologic or nucleic acid assay. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yield was 52.6%. Infiltrates that were predominantly reticular or nodular by CT had a lower diagnostic yield than predominantly consolidated, ground-glass, or tree-in-bud infiltrates (36.5% vs. 61.2%, P = 0.0058). The diagnostic yield was significantly improved in patients with both fever and chest symptoms compared to patients without symptoms (61.3% vs. 29.6%, P = 0.0066). CONCLUSION: CT findings of reticular and nodular infiltrates portend a worse diagnostic yield from BAL than those that are alveolar in nature. Symptomatic patients are more likely to have diagnostic FOB with BAL than asymptomatic patients.

Brownback, Kyle R.; Simpson, Steven Q.

2013-01-01

12

Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging findings in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Staging of rectal cancer is essential to help guide clinicians to decide upon the correct type of surgery and determine whether or not neoadjuvant therapy is indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most accurate modalities on which to base treatment decisions for patients with rectal cancer. MRI can accurately detect the mesorectal fascia, assess the invasion of the mesorectum or surrounding organs and predict the circumferential resection margin. Although nodal disease remains a difficult radiological diagnosis, new lymphographic agents and diffusion weighted imaging may allow identification of metastatic nodes by criteria other then size. In light of this, we have reviewed the literature on the accuracy of specific MRI findings for staging the local extent of primary rectal cancer. The aim of this review is to establish a correlation between MRI findings, prognosis, and available treatment options.

Bellows, Charles F; Jaffe, Bernard; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Gagliardi, Guiseppe

2011-01-01

13

Avulsion fractures of the knee: imaging findings and clinical significance.  

PubMed

The knee is an intricate joint with numerous tendinous, ligamentous, and meniscal attachments, which make it particularly vulnerable to complex injuries after trauma. A variety of avulsion fractures of the knee can occur, including Segond and reverse Segond fractures; avulsions of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments; arcuate complex avulsion; iliotibial band avulsion; avulsions of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and quadriceps tendons; Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome; and Osgood-Schlatter disease. These fractures often have a subtle appearance at conventional radiography, which is typically the first imaging modality performed in these cases. Advanced imaging modalities, particularly magnetic resonance imaging, are helpful and can provide valuable additional information for adequately defining the extent of damage. The onus is on the radiologist to identify the pattern of injury and to understand the substantial underlying damage that it frequently represents. Conveying this information to the referring clinician is crucial and represents the first step toward additional evaluation and probable orthopedic referral. By recognizing the significance of these injuries at initial presentation, radiologists can facilitate appropriate patient work-up and prevent the chronic morbidity associated with delayed treatment. PMID:18936034

Gottsegen, Christopher J; Eyer, Benjamin A; White, Eric A; Learch, Thomas J; Forrester, Deborah

2008-10-01

14

Media Naturalness and Online Learning: Findings Supporting Both the Significant and No-SignificantDifference Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is the use of an online course delivery format, when compared with the more tradi- tional face-to-face format, good or bad in the context of university education? Those who subscribe to the no-significant-difference perspective argue that online delivery is good, because it allows students with time and geographic distance constraints to obtain the education that they need, with no significant

Ned Kock; Jacques Verville; Vanessa Garza

2007-01-01

15

10 CFR 51.119 - Publication of finding of no significant impact; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Publication of finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.119 Section...Publication of finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As required...will publish the finding of no significant impact in the Federal Register. The...

2013-01-01

16

10 CFR 51.33 - Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. 51.33 Section 51...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.33 Draft finding of no significant impact; distribution. (a) As provided...

2013-01-01

17

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings...significant impact. 1.1308...the National Environmental Policy Act of...Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings...significant impact....

2010-10-01

18

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51...Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.51 Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact....

2010-04-01

19

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact. 25.51...Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.51 Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact....

2009-04-01

20

10 CFR 51.34 - Preparation of finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preparation of finding of no significant impact. 51.34 Section 51.34 Energy...Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.34 Preparation of finding of no significant impact. (a) Except as provided in...

2013-01-01

21

Prevalence and significance of extravascular incidental findings on computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography.  

PubMed

Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are routinely used to evaluate patients with vascular disease. They have the ability to detect unexpected non-vascular pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and significance of extravascular incidental findings in patients undergoing CTA or MRA. A retrospective review of 737 patients who underwent CTA and 184 patients who underwent MRA during a five-year period was performed. Incidental findings were classified as low, moderate or high significance findings. For patients with high significance extravascular findings, assessment of the rates of appropriate follow-up was conducted. Among the CTA patients, 539 (73.1%) had incidental findings. Low, moderate and high significance findings were discovered in 514 (69.7%), 95 (12.9%) and 41 (5.6%) patients, respectively. Twenty (48.8%) patients with high significance findings received appropriate follow-up investigations. Among the MRA patients, 95 (51.6%) had extravascular findings. Low, moderate and high significance findings were present in 80 (43.5%), 27 (14.7%), and 3 (1.6%) patients, respectively. Two (66.7%) patients with high significance findings were properly followed up. In conclusion, incidental findings on CTA and MRA are very common. A small percentage of these findings could be serious and were not all adequately followed-up in our study population. Referring physicians should be aware of the potential for serious incidental findings and manage them appropriately. PMID:23493281

Yang, Roy Y; Jaskolka, Jeffrey D; Tan, Kong T; Roche-Nagle, Graham

2013-03-14

22

Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.  

PubMed

Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot plants. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance in both laboratory and field conditions. Transgenic peanut plants maintained higher photosynthetic rates, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration than wild-type control plants under reduced irrigation conditions. More importantly, transgenic peanut plants produced significantly higher yields than wild-type control plants in the field, indicating a great potential for the development of crops with improved performance and yield in water-limited areas of the world. PMID:21920877

Qin, Hua; Gu, Qiang; Zhang, Junling; Sun, Li; Kuppu, Sundaram; Zhang, Yizheng; Burow, Mark; Payton, Paxton; Blumwald, Eduardo; Zhang, Hong

2011-09-15

23

Enhancing the Interpretation of "Significant" Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

2004-01-01

24

75 FR 11946 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...will have no significant environmental impact. Environmental Assessment Identification...additional time to complete. Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action The NRC has...

2010-03-12

25

The orthopaedic trauma literature: an evaluation of statistically significant findings in orthopaedic trauma randomized trials  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-based medicine posits that health care research is founded upon clinically important differences in patient centered outcomes. Statistically significant differences between two treatments may not necessarily reflect a clinically important difference. We aimed to quantify the sample sizes and magnitude of treatment effects in a review of orthopaedic randomized trials with statistically significant findings. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search (PubMed, Cochrane) for all randomized controlled trials between 1/1/95 to 12/31/04. Eligible studies include those that focused upon orthopaedic trauma. Baseline characteristics and treatment effects were abstracted by two reviewers. Briefly, for continuous outcome measures (ie functional scores), we calculated effect sizes (mean difference/standard deviation). Dichotomous variables (ie infection, nonunion) were summarized as absolute risk differences and relative risk reductions (RRR). Effect sizes >0.80 and RRRs>50% were defined as large effects. Using regression analysis we examined the association between the total number of outcome events and treatment effect (dichotomous outcomes). Results Our search yielded 433 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), of which 76 RCTs with statistically significant findings on 184 outcomes (122 continuous/62 dichotomous outcomes) met study eligibility criteria. The mean effect size across studies with continuous outcome variables was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.431.97). For dichotomous outcomes, the mean risk difference was 30% (95%confidence interval:24%36%) and the mean relative risk reduction was 61% (95% confidence interval: 55%66%; range: 0%97%). Fewer numbers of total outcome events in studies was strongly correlated with increasing magnitude of the treatment effect (Pearson's R = -0.70, p < 0.01). When adjusted for sample size, the number of outcome events revealed an independent association with the size of the treatment effect (Odds ratio = 50, 95% confidence interval: 3.01000, p = 0.006). Conclusion Our review suggests that statistically significant results in orthopaedic trials have the following implications-1) On average large risk reductions are reported 2) Large treatment effects (>50% relative risk reduction) are correlated with few number of total outcome events. Readers should interpret the results of such small trials with these issues in mind.

Sung, Jinsil; Siegel, Judith; Tornetta, Paul; Bhandari, Mohit

2008-01-01

26

75 FR 70707 - Detroit Edison Company; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 50-341; NRC-2010-0357; FERMI, Unit 2] Detroit Edison Company; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...Facility Operating License No. NFP-43, issued to Detroit Edison Company (DECo, the licensee), for operation of Fermi,...

2010-11-18

27

78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 50-409; NRC-2013-0168] La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...Federal Regulations (10 CFR) for the La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) facility and Independent Spent Fuel...

2013-07-31

28

Prognostic Significance of Rheological and Biochemical Findings in Patients with Intermittent Claudication  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the prognostic significance of clinical and laboratory findings in intermittent claudication a group of 62 untreated patients was followed up in detail for periods of from one to three years. There was a significant correlation between progressive deterioration of the peripheral circulatory disturbance and the initial blood viscosity, the plasma fibrinogen level, and the susceptibility of red cell

J. A. Dormandy; E. Hoare; A. H. Khattab; D. E. Arrowsmith; T. L. Dormandy

1973-01-01

29

10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. ...102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...

2013-01-01

30

Minimal pelvic fluid in blunt abdominal trauma in children: The significance of this sonographic finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of the ultrasonographic finding of pelvic fluid after blunt abdominal trauma in children as a predictor of an abdominal organ injury. Methods: The clinical and imaging data of 183 children with blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed retrospectively. All children had an abdominal sonography as the primary screening study. The

Valeria Rathaus; Rivka Zissin; Miriam Werner; Ilan Erez; Myra Shapiro; Michael Grunebaum; Osnat Konen

2001-01-01

31

Significance of hematuria in patients with interstitial cystitis: review of radiographic and endoscopic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Hematuria may be found in up to 30% of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). However, few studies have described its etiology based on the findings of a complete evaluation. We reviewed the clinical significance of hematuria in the setting of IC.Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 148 patients fulfilling the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney

Cristiano M Gomes; Ricardo F Snchez-Ortiz; Constantine Harris; Alan J Wein; Eric S Rovner

2001-01-01

32

78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Rural Utilities Service (RUS) has made a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. The FONSI decision document is based on impact analysis documented in a programmatic environmental assessment of the new program that was issued for 30-day public comment......

2013-08-16

33

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and information that are protected from disclosure by 18 U.S.C. 1905 or 21 U.S.C. 331(j) or 360j(c) shall not be included in the portion of environmental documents that is made...

2013-04-01

34

Significance of the computed tomography finding of subcapsular hepatic necrosis in liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Background: To evaluate the clinical significance of the computed tomographic finding of subcapsular hepatic necrosis following liver\\u000a transplantation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: 105 computed tomography scans performed in 50 allografts, 6 days to 4 years following transplantation, were retrospectively\\u000a reviewed and divided into two groups: those with and those without the computed tomographic finding of subcapsular hepatic\\u000a necrosis. Extrahepatic fluid, biliary dilatation,

R. Feld; R. J. Wechsler; J. Z. Dumsha; S. Westerberg; S. Munoz; I. Boiskin; R. Rubin

1996-01-01

35

Reliability and significance of a simple method of estimating the potential yield of the potato crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of the method of estimating potential yield of the potato crop, described by Van der Zaag & Burton (1978), is discussed on the basis of the results of field experiments done in the Netherlands during three years at three separate centres and during four years at a fourth centre. The method seems to give a reasonable approximation of

D. E. Van Der Zaag

1984-01-01

36

Proposed finding of no significant impact for the Sakakawea Medical Center coal-fired heating plant  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (the Department) has prepared an environmental assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0949) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposed action at the Sakakawea Medical Center (the Center) in Hazen, North Dakota. The proposed action would replace the existing No. 2 fuel oil-fired boilers supplemented by electric reheat with a new coal-fired hot water heating plant, using funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-0949, the Department has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended. Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (Finding).

Not Available

1994-07-01

37

Venom yield of the North American coral snake and its clinical significance.  

PubMed

The dry venom yields of 14 North American coral snakes were measured and correlated to the length of the individual snake. There exists a positive linear correlation between the length of the snake and the amount of dried venom elaborated. The results of this experiment show that the North American coral snake is capable of injecting far more venom than has been previously reported in the literature. A large coral snake can produce 20 mg of dried venom, which is equal to approximately four or five lethal doses for human adults. At least ten 10 ml vials of specific North American coral snake antivenin (Wyeth) would be required to neutralize this quantity of venom. The largest yield of 28 mg of dried venom was obtained from an 89.5 cm specimen, representing approximately seven lethal doses and requiring at least fourteen 10 ml vials of antivenin for neutralization. Observations on the envenomation characteristics of this snake are described. PMID:7394594

Fix, J D

1980-06-01

38

Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

1999-04-01

39

Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2000-05-24

40

FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

Marcus Milling

2004-09-23

41

Student-led exercise sessions yield significant fitness gains for Alzheimer's patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when they are losing skills in virtually all arenas of life, persons with Alzheimer's disease can experience significant, esteem-building achievements in physical fitness and mood through supervised participation in an exercise program. The effects of physical exercise plus cognitive and social stimulation on persons with early stage Alzheimer's disease were assessed in a longitudinal study. Twenty-four such

Sharon M. Arkin

2003-01-01

42

Finding of no significant impact resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0887, for the proposed thermal stabilization (controlled oxidation) of plutonium, to take place in Building 707, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. The stabilization action would include post-stabilization characterization and on-site movement of stabilized material. Public meetings were held on July 7 and October 6, 1993, to discuss the scope and analyses in the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of stabilization, stabilization in other buildings at Rocky Flats, shipping off-site for stabilization, and no action. The public and the State were provided 60 days to comment on the EA, and comments received were responded to as needed in the final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

Not Available

1994-02-01

43

(Bradfield Electric and Alaska Power Authority Presidential permit): Finding of no significant impact (FONSI)  

SciTech Connect

The Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering an application by Bradfield Electric, Inc. (Bradfield), and the Alaska Power Authority (APA) for a Presidential permit to construct, operate, maintain and connect a 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line which would extend from the APA's Tyee Lake Hydroelectric Power Project located near Wrangell, Alaska, to a point on the US-Canadian international border just east of the South Fork Craig River. The DOE has reviewed an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Forest Service (USFS) in connection with its issuance of a special use permit to construct the proposed line through the Tongass National Forest. Based on this EA, the USFS issued a decision notice and a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the proposed project on May 9, 1988. The DOE is adopting this EA as DOE/EA-0375 in partial satisfaction of its responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) regarding the issuance of a Presidential permit.

Not Available

1988-01-01

44

75 FR 65294 - Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding...Calvert and St. Mary's Counties, Maryland. The EA was prepared pursuant to the...impacts of and alternatives to a Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative (SMECO)...

2010-10-22

45

Extracolonic Findings on CT Colonography Increases Yield of Colorectal Cancer Screening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of extracolonic findings when screening is undertaken by CT colonography (CTC). We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients completing a screening CTC from August 2003 to June 2006 at Walter Re...

C. Maydonovitch G. R. Veerappan J. R. Choi J. S. Pak M. R. Ally

2010-01-01

46

76 FR 56820 - Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of no significant impact. Environmental Assessment...delays than when the plant was first licensed...continued population growth. Improvements have...tasks. Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action...significantly affect plant safety and would...effluents that effect radiation exposures to...

2011-09-14

47

GeoJabber: Finding Significant Analytic Events in Collaborative Visual Analysis Sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of a peer-to-peer instant messaging system into visual analytic software allows automatic extraction of significant analytic events, such as inference drawing, causality determination, or hypothesis generation, during the course of an analysis. It does so by examining the textual communications between collaborators and marking those analytic events which are determined to be significant using term extraction and term

Frank Hardisty

48

78 FR 5514 - Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No Significant Impact for License Renewal for Uranium One USA, Inc., Willow Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Johnson and Campbell...Source Materials License SUA-1341 for continued uranium production operations and in-situ...

2013-01-25

49

76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Impact for License Renewal for Uranium One USA Inc., Irigaray and Christensen Ranch Uranium In-Situ Recovery Projects (Willow Creek...CONTACT: Ron C. Linton, Project Manager, Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch, Division...

2011-07-14

50

Significance of extrapancreatic findings in computed tomography (CT) of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) has proven reliable in the early detection of acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis. In the present study the extrapancreatic changes at CT were studied in 60 patients with acute pancreatitis. The CT findings were correlated to the early "prognostic signs" by Ranson and the clinical course of the disease. All the patients with minor extrapancreatic changes recovered without complications. When moderate to severe extrapancreatic changes were seen the incidence of haemorrhagic pancreatitis and the risk of development of pseudocyst or abscess was high. In these patients a dynamic contrast enhanced CT should be done in order to select the patients with haemorrhagic pancreatitis. PMID:3878784

Schrder, T; Kivisaari, L; Somer, K; Standertskjld-Nordenstam, C G; Kivilaakso, E; Lempinen, M

1985-11-01

51

An Algorithm for Finding the Exact Significance Levels of r c Contingency Tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented for calculating the exact permutation significance value for r c contingency tables. In general, the algorithm does not require the total enumeration of all tables consistent with the given marginals. As a result, it is faster than existing algorithms.

Marcello Pagano; Katherine Taylor Halvorsen

1981-01-01

52

UCLA study finds survival significantly increased in early breast cancer after treatment with Herceptin and chemotherapy:  

Cancer.gov

Treating women with early stage breast cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and the molecularly targeted drug Herceptin significantly increases survival in patients with a specific genetic mutation that results in very aggressive disease, a researcher with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center reported Wednesday.

53

Colonic work-up after incomplete colonoscopy: significant new findings during follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and study aims: Cecal intubation is not achieved in 2-23% of colonoscopies. The efforts made by physicians to visualize the remaining colon and the number of missed significant lesions are unknown. This study evaluates 1) the reasons for incomplete colonoscopy, 2) the rates of complete colonic evaluation after incomplete colonoscopy, and 3) the number of (pre-) malignant lesions missed

M. Neerincx; J. S. Terhaar sive Droste; C. J. Mulder; M. Rkers; J. F. Bartelsman; R. J. Loffeld; H. A. Tuynman; R. M. Brohet; Hulst van der R. W

2010-01-01

54

Finding the Intersection of the Learning Organization and Learning Transfer: The Significance of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This article aims to develop a conceptual framework delineating the key dimension of the learning organization which significantly influences learning transfer. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing previous studies and synthesizing the results associated with the following four relationships:

Kim, Jun Hee; Callahan, Jamie L.

2013-01-01

55

76 FR 50170 - Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Natural Resources Conservation Service Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding of No Significant...being prepared for the rehabilitation of Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia. FOR FURTHER...

2011-08-12

56

Across the United States, students return to school to find significant changes underway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Back to School for Reformhttp://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/california/la-ed-mayor05sep05,1,6157283.story?coll=la-headlines-pe-californiaHarvard studies ways to promote teachinghttp://www.boston.com/news/education/higher/articles/2006/09/05/harvard_studies_ways_to_promote_teaching/Beloit Colleges Mindset List for the Class of 2010http://www.beloit.edu/~pubaff/mindset/index.htmlNEA: Help for Parentshttp://www.nea.org/parents/index.htmlIndiana University Health Center: Coping with Starting Collegehttp://www.indiana.edu/~health/caps/begincollege.shtmlA few years ago, most students would arrive at their schools after Labor Day to find a fresh coat of paint on the classroom walls and a shiny coat of wax on the hallways. Such superficial improvements definitely wont pass muster these days with concerned parents, local school boards, and other groups clamoring for systemic changes within all levels of the American education system. The New York public school system, with its 1.1 million students, is one of those systems undergoing such changes as Mayor Michael Bloomberg continues to cut the number of bureaucrats in the school system and push for the adoption of greater accountability measures. The same process is underway in the Los Angeles Unified School District, where legislation passed in Sacramento last week gave Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa additional power to assume greater responsibility for the future success of this troubled school system. Along with the K-12 set, college students have also returned to campuses across the country to find new support tools in place, such as enhanced writing centers, wellness-themed dorms, and at some select institutions, a renewed attention on undergraduate education. With all the changes going on, it may make some wistful commentators pine for the days when a lone teacher in front of a chalkboard dominated classrooms. Or in terms of the college experience, it may have been President James A. Garfield who said it best when (in referring to Mark Hopkins, the president of Williams College) he opined The ideal college is Mark Hopkins on one end of a log and a student on the other. The first link will take interested parties to a piece from this Tuesdays New York Times which reports on the transformations within the New York public school system as of late. Moving on to the second link, readers can read an editorial from the Los Angeles Times that addresses the mayors responsibility to the school district and Angelinos in general. The third link leads to a piece written by Boston Globe staff member Marcella Bombardieri on Harvard Universitys new initiative that seeks to improve the teaching of undergraduates. The fourth link is more than a bit fun, as it leads visitors down the primrose path to the annual Beloit College Mindset List. Essentially the list serves as a reminder to professors and others about what their entering freshmen may (or may not) be familiar in terms of cultural touchstones, historic events, and so on. Item 51 on the list is rather amusing, as it reads: Michael Moore has always been showing up uninvited. The fifth link will take users to a set of resources created by the National Education Association for parents who want to get involved with their childs education. Included on the site are two new parent guides that will help ease the preschoolers transition to kindergarten. The last link leads to a site designed by the helpful staff at the Indiana University Health Center. Here, entering college students can learn about how to cope with the process of starting college.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

57

Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.  

SciTech Connect

This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

1997-03-01

58

Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

NONE

1996-05-01

59

The Impact of Significant Others in Motivational Enhancement Therapy: Findings from Project MATCH  

PubMed Central

Background Social network support for abstinence has been associated with improved treatment outcomes among samples of individuals with alcohol use disorders. As a result, research studies have focused on the inclusion of significant others (SOs) in the treatment process. Nonetheless, little is known about 1) the specific influence SOs may have on clients during treatment sessions or 2) whether SO within-session behaviors have any relationship to client post-treatment drinking. Method In the current study, Motivational Enhancement Therapy sessions in which a SO was present were coded using a behavioral coding system designed to measure SO and client within-session language. Results Relationships were observed between SO and client within-session language. Furthermore, some specific SO categories of language predicted post-treatment client drinking. Conclusions This study is the first systematic evaluation of SO contributions in substance abuse treatment sessions. Future research examining SO language in the treatment of alcohol use disorders might allow clinicians to avoid contributions from SOs that are associated with poorer drinking outcomes.

Manuel, Jennifer K.; Houck, Jon M.; Moyers, Theresa B.

2011-01-01

60

Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in February 2001, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) began publishing "Findings" magazine. The publication features research and findings from scholars doing work with funding from the NIGMS. Visitors can browse the archive of the publication by topic or date, and they can also check out the sample articles from the latest edition on the homepage. Recent pieces have included "Drugs from Deep Down", "Mesmerized by Metals", and "Just Found", which talks about potential sunburn treatments. The site also has the "Find More" area, which contains an image gallery, school resources, free slide kits, and interactive games. Also, the "Watch" area contains interviews with scientists like Dr. Kevin Tracey talking about his investigations into sepsis. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive Findings via email.

61

Prevalence of Clinically Significant Extraosseous Findings on Unenhanced CT Portions of 18F-Fluoride PET/CT Bone Scans  

PubMed Central

Objective. Due to the frequently interrupted supply of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate, the use of 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has become more popular. The study aims to determine the percentage of extraosseous findings from the unenhanced CT portion of 18F-fluoride PET/CT scans. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively collected 18F-fluoride PET/CT studies between March 2010 and February 2011. The unenhanced CT portions of 18F-fluoride PET/CT were reviewed for each patient. Significant extraosseous findings related to malignancy from the unenhanced CT were recorded. Results. A total of 158 patients (110 females, 48 males) were included in the study. Clinically significant extraosseous findings from the unenhanced CT were found in 43 patients (27.2%). Previously unknown extraosseous findings were identified in 17 patients (10.8%) after a review of the 18F-fluoride PET/CT scan results. Most of the extraosseous findings were small pulmonary metastases or enlarged metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusion. It is not rare to identify new clinically significant extraosseous findings from the unenhanced CT of 18F-fluoride PET/CT studies. Therefore the clinical management of patients may be altered by the results, and a careful review of the unenhanced CT portion of 18F-fluoride PET/CT is mandatory.

Chen, Chao-Jung; Ma, Shih-Ya

2012-01-01

62

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

N /A

1999-04-28

63

Evaluating correlations in studies of personality and behavior: Beyond the number of significant findings to be expected by chance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When large numbers of statistical tests are computed, such as in broad investigations of personality and behavior, the number of significant findings required before the total can be confidently considered beyond chance is typically unknown. Employing modern software, specially written code, and new procedures, the present article uses three sets of personality data to demonstrate how approximate randomization tests can

Ryne A. Sherman; David C. Funder

2009-01-01

64

78 FR 146 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Final Environmental Assessment (FEA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...Project (Project). PHMSA has posted the FEA and FONSI online at http://www.regulations...circumstances. Accordingly, PHMSA has issued an FEA in order to analyze the impacts of the...

2013-01-02

65

78 FR 64001 - Finding of No Significant Impact for the Renewal and Amendment to the Barton Springs Pool Habitat...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), make available the final Environmental Assessment (EA), Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), and the final amendment to the Barton Springs Pool Habitat Conservation Plan (BSP HCP) under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The City of Austin (applicant) applied for a renewal of their existing Endangered Species Act incidental take......

2013-10-25

66

Age-dependent yield of screening for undetected atrial fibrillation in stroke patients: the Find-AF study.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) in stroke patients is challenging, but highly clinically relevant. The percentage of stroke patients with permanent AF increases with age, but limited data are available for the age-dependent yield of paroxysmal AF by Holter monitoring. Patients with acute cerebral ischemia were included into the prospective observational Find-AF study. Patients free from AF at presentation received 7 day Holter monitoring. We calculated the percentage of otherwise undetected paroxysmal AF and the number needed to screen for age groups under 60 years, and in 5 year clusters from the age of 60 up to 85 and older. 272 patients were included, 43 (15.8 %) had AF at admission, 33 patients with paroxysmal AF were identified by 7 day Holter (n = 29) or medical history (n = 4).The yield of 7 day Holter ECG clearly increased with older age (p = 0.004): <60 years: 5 %, 60-64 years: 5 %, 65-69 years: 7 %, 70-74 years: 11 %, 75-79 years: 13 %, 80-84 years: 25 %, ? 85 years: 39 %. The number needed to screen (NNS) to find one patient with paroxysmal AF decreased with age: ? 60 years: 18, 60-64 years: 20, 65-69 years: 14, 70-74 years: 9, 75-79 years: 8, 80-84 years: 4, ? 85 years: 3, respectively. In patients <65 years, all AF cases were detected by Holter ECG. The percentage of paroxysmal AF in stroke patients increases with age. The 7 day Holter ECG is most efficient in elderly patients. PMID:23632947

Wachter, Rolf; Weber-Krger, Mark; Seegers, Joachim; Edelmann, Frank; Wohlfahrt, Janin; Wasser, Katrin; Gelbrich, Gtz; Hasenfu, Gerd; Stahrenberg, Raoul; Liman, Jan; Grschel, Klaus

2013-05-01

67

Finding of no significant impact for the tritium facility modernization and consolidation project at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1222) for the proposed modernization and consolidation of the existing tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issueing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1998-01-01

68

Concomitant findings and clinical significance of a fluid crescent between the iliacus muscle and iliac bone on MRI.  

PubMed

BackgroundSome routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations show a thin line of fluid signal intensity along the iliac crest ("fluid crescent") between the iliacus muscle and the iliac bone. This fluid crescent has not been described before.PurposeTo evaluate the clinical context and significance of the fluid crescent.Material and MethodsMRI examinations of the abdomen and pelvis performed over 1 year were retrospectively reviewed twice for the presence of a fluid crescent. The relationship between the presence of a fluid crescent and associated abnormal findings, including ascites, iliopsoas compartment, and bone and soft tissue pathologies, was evaluated.ResultsForty-one out of 254 MRI studies (male:female ratio, 136:118; mean age, 42 years) demonstrated a fluid crescent (16%). Thirty-eight of them had associated MRI pathologies: edema of the hip muscles = 24, ascites = 11, iliac bone = 21, and iliopsoas compartment = 7. Correlations between the presence of a fluid crescent and pathological findings were highly significant (P < 0.0001), except for the presence of fluid in the hip joint.ConclusionA fluid crescent is an abnormal MRI finding strongly associated with iliopsoas compartment pathology, ascites, hip muscle edema, and pelvic bone abnormalities. The nature of this fluid crescent is yet to be determined. PMID:23474771

Eshed, Iris; Liberman, Boaz; Inbar, Yael; Amitai, Michal; Portnoy, Orith; Hertz, Marjorie; Apter, Sara

2013-03-10

69

Feasibility, Yield, and Cost of Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Linked to a Mobile HIV Service in Cape Town, South Africa: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization is currently developing guidelines on screening for tuberculosis disease to inform national screening strategies. This process is complicated by significant gaps in knowledge regarding mass screening. This study aimed to assess feasibility, uptake, yield, treatment outcomes, and costs of adding an active tuberculosis case-finding program to an existing mobile HIV testing service. Methods and Findings The study was conducted at a mobile HIV testing service operating in deprived communities in Cape Town, South Africa. All HIV-negative individuals with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, and all HIV-positive individuals regardless of symptoms were eligible for participation and referred for sputum induction. Samples were examined by microscopy and culture. Active tuberculosis case finding was conducted on 181 days at 58 different sites. Of the 6,309 adults who accessed the mobile clinic, 1,385 were eligible and 1,130 (81.6%) were enrolled. The prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis was 2.2% (95% CI 1.14.0), 3.3% (95% CI 1.46.4), and 0.4% (95% CI 1.4 0156.4) in HIV-negative individuals, individuals newly diagnosed with HIV, and known HIV, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 5.3% (95% CI 3.57.7), 7.4% (95% CI 4.511.5), 4.3% (95% CI 2.37.4), respectively. Of the 56 new tuberculosis cases detected, 42 started tuberculosis treatment and 34 (81.0%) completed treatment. The cost of the intervention was US$1,117 per tuberculosis case detected and US$2,458 per tuberculosis case cured. The generalisability of the study is limited to similar settings with comparable levels of deprivation and TB and HIV prevalence. Conclusions Mobile active tuberculosis case finding in deprived populations with a high burden of HIV and tuberculosis is feasible, has a high uptake, yield, and treatment success. Further work is now required to examine cost-effectiveness and affordability and whether and how the same results may be achieved at scale.

Kranzer, Katharina; Lawn, Stephen D.; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Vassall, Anna; Raditlhalo, Eudoxia; Govindasamy, Darshini; van Schaik, Nienke; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

2012-01-01

70

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project is a 21-megawatt (MW) wind generation project proposed by Florida Power and Light (FPL) Energy North Dakota Wind LLC (Dakota Wind) and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin). The proposed windfarm would be located in La Moure County, south central North Dakota, near the rural farming communities of Kulm and Edgeley. The proposed windfarm is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2003. Dakota Wind and other project proponents are seeking to develop the proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project to provide utilities and, ultimately, electric energy consumers with electricity from a renewable energy source at the lowest possible cost. A new 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line would be built to transmit power generated by the proposed windfarm to an existing US Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration (Western) substation located near Edgeley. The proposed interconnection would require modifying Western's Edgeley Substation. Modifying the Edgeley Substation is a Federal proposed action that requires Western to review the substation modification and the proposed windfarm project for compliance with Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332, and Department of Energy NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR Part 1021). Western is the lead Federal agency for preparation of this Environmental Assessment (EA). The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is a cooperating agency with Western in preparing the EA. This document follows regulation issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for implementing procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and is intended to disclose potential impacts on the quality of the human environment resulting from the proposed project. If potential impacts are determined to be significant, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement would be required. If impacts are determined to be insignificant, Western would complete a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). Environmental protection measures that would be included in the design of the proposed project are included.

N /A

2003-04-15

71

Clinical significance of discordant findings between pre-therapy (123)I and post-therapy (131)I whole body scan in patients with thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

Radioactive therapy with (131)I (RAI) is commonly used during the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of discordant findings between pre-RAI whole body scan (WBS) with (123)I and post-RAI WBS in the management of DTC. We retrospectively evaluated 342 individuals between 2002 and 2008 who had a diagnosis of DTC and underwent RAI. All had WBS one day before RAI and WBS one week after RAI. Patients were divided into 3 groups: 1) RAI-naive subjects without known distant metastatic disease (M1); 2) patients with history of prior RAI and persistent disease (except M1); and 3) patients with known M1. In Group 1 (n=311), 7% of patients (n=22) had discordant scans, but in only 4 of these cases did this represent true disease (3 unsuspected lung and 1 mediastinal node metastasis). In the remaining 18 patients, discordant findings corresponded to physiologic or other benign causes. In group 2 (n=23), 7 subjects (30%) had discordant findings and all of the discrepant sites consisted of loco-regional nodal disease in the neck/upper mediastinum (n=6) and M1 in lung (n=1). In group 3 (n=8), 5 patients (62%) showed discordant uptake in lung and bone which corresponded to the locations of known M1. A total of 12 patients with iodine-avid M1 were identified on post-RAI WBS (3.5% of entire cohort). Pre-RAI WBS was only concordant in 3 of these cases (25%). In conclusion, the significance of pre and post-RAI WBS is highly influenced by the clinical setting. Unsuspected distant metastatic disease is infrequent in RAI-naive patients without known M1, where most discordant findings are usually due to benign explanations, and represent false positive findings in this group. In contrast, in patients with history of previous RAI or known M1, discordant results likely correspond to true disease. In our study, pre-RAI scans showed a low yield to detect iodine-avid distant metastatic disease when compared to post-RAI scans. PMID:23724150

Bravo, Paco E; Goudarzi, Behnaz; Rana, Uzma; Filho, Paulo Togni; Castillo, Raymond; Rababy, Christopher; Ewertz, Marjorie; Ziessman, Harvey A; Cooper, David S; Ladenson, Paul W; Wahl, Richard L

2013-05-22

72

Clinical significance of discordant findings between pre-therapy 123I and post-therapy 131I whole body scan in patients with thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Radioactive therapy with 131I (RAI) is commonly used during the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of discordant findings between pre-RAI whole body scan (WBS) with 123I and post-RAI WBS in the management of DTC. We retrospectively evaluated 342 individuals between 2002 and 2008 who had a diagnosis of DTC and underwent RAI. All had WBS one day before RAI and WBS one week after RAI. Patients were divided into 3 groups: 1) RAI-naive subjects without known distant metastatic disease (M1); 2) patients with history of prior RAI and persistent disease (except M1); and 3) patients with known M1. In Group 1 (n=311), 7% of patients (n=22) had discordant scans, but in only 4 of these cases did this represent true disease (3 unsuspected lung and 1 mediastinal node metastasis). In the remaining 18 patients, discordant findings corresponded to physiologic or other benign causes. In group 2 (n=23), 7 subjects (30%) had discordant findings and all of the discrepant sites consisted of loco-regional nodal disease in the neck/upper mediastinum (n=6) and M1 in lung (n=1). In group 3 (n=8), 5 patients (62%) showed discordant uptake in lung and bone which corresponded to the locations of known M1. A total of 12 patients with iodine-avid M1 were identified on post-RAI WBS (3.5% of entire cohort). Pre-RAI WBS was only concordant in 3 of these cases (25%). In conclusion, the significance of pre and post-RAI WBS is highly influenced by the clinical setting. Unsuspected distant metastatic disease is infrequent in RAI-naive patients without known M1, where most discordant findings are usually due to benign explanations, and represent false positive findings in this group. In contrast, in patients with history of previous RAI or known M1, discordant results likely correspond to true disease. In our study, pre-RAI scans showed a low yield to detect iodine-avid distant metastatic disease when compared to post-RAI scans.

Bravo, Paco E; Goudarzi, Behnaz; Rana, Uzma; Filho, Paulo Togni; Castillo, Raymond; Rababy, Christopher; Ewertz, Marjorie; Ziessman, Harvey A; Cooper, David S; Ladenson, Paul W; Wahl, Richard L

2013-01-01

73

The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava.  

PubMed

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernndez, Cristhian; Pea, Ricardo; Rodrguez, Alia; Sanders, Ian R

2013-08-07

74

76 FR 17160 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Antitrust Changes and Time for Filing Requests for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear...The Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) has made a...the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation find that ``no...

2011-03-28

75

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging

J. M. Mellado; A. Ramos; E. Salvad; A. Camins; M. Dans; A. Saur

2003-01-01

76

75 FR 29365 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps...Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps...proposed construction of a small wind turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center,...

2010-05-25

77

76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid...United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity...the proposed release of this biological control agent into the...

2011-07-19

78

78 FR 14509 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid...United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity...the proposed release of this biological control agent into the eastern...

2013-03-06

79

76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY...continental United States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity...continental United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium...

2011-03-14

80

76 FR 15935 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY...United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity...the proposed release of this biological control agent into the...

2011-03-22

81

75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific Northwest...1999)), the FRA and the Washington State Department of Transportation...improvements program to the Washington State portion of the Pacific...

2010-11-30

82

Rectal cancer staging: focus on the prognostic significance of the findings described by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool for multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) addressing rectal cancer. It provides anatomic information for surgical planning and allows patients to be stratified into different groups according to the risk of local and distant recurrence. One of the objectives of the MDT is the preoperative identification of high-risk patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant treatment. For this reason, the correct evaluation of the circumferential resection margin (CRM), the depth of tumor spread beyond the muscularis propria, extramural vascular invasion and nodal status is of the utmost importance. Low rectal tumors represent a special challenge for the MDT, because decisions seek a balance between oncologic safety, in the pursuit of free resection margins, and the patient's quality of life, in order to preserve sphincter function. At present, the exchange of information between the different specialties involved in dealing with patients with rectal cancer can rank the contribution of colleagues, auditing their work and incorporating knowledge that will lead to a better understanding of the pathology. Thus, beyond the anatomic description of the images, the radiologist's role in the MDT makes it necessary to know the prognostic value of the findings that we describe, in terms of recurrence and survival, because these findings affect decision making and, therefore, the patients' life. In this review, the usefulness of HR MRI in the initial staging of rectal cancer and in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment, with a focus on the prognostic value of the findings, is described as well as the contribution of HR MRI in assessing patients with suspected or confirmed recurrence of rectal cancer. PMID:23876415

Dieguez, Adriana

2013-07-22

83

Clinical significance of resolution of chest X-ray findings in HIV-infected children with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP).  

PubMed

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) in HIV-infected children is generally associated with better prognosis as compared with children with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). We prospectively studied 12 cases of HIV-infected children with LIP over a 4-year period in an effort to document one aspect of the natural history of this clinical entity. Severe CD4 lymphocytopenia was associated with complete resolution of the chest X-ray findings in five patients, one of whom died of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex. A second patient developed rapid-onset subacute HIV encephalopathy at the time when the CD4-lymphocyte count declined from 589 to 39, and the lung findings resolved spontaneously. The resolution of the lung pathology may be the first indication of severe immune suppression and a warning of the increased risk for opportunistic infections. Therefore, in those settings where diagnostic laboratory facilities are not easily available, the resolution of the reticulonodular changes on chest radiographs is a poor prognostic sign in HIV-infected children with LIP. PMID:8577544

Prosper, M; Omene, J A; Ledlie; Odita, J C

1995-11-01

84

76 FR 37842 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1 License DPR-012, York and Lancaster...10 CFR part 73 and 10 CFR 50.54(p) for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) Unit 1. This Environmental...

2011-06-28

85

Groups for Significant Others of Survivors of Child Sexual AbuseA Report of Methods and Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a report of our experiences providing Groups for Significant Others of Survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Three different group formats are described: open, drop-in model; educative course; and workshop. Issues of social isolation and the identification of affective and cognitive skills served to structure the group experiences. Group participants exhibited differing abilities to distinguish their own needs

DAVID E. BRITTAIN; KAREN MERRIAM

1988-01-01

86

High prevalence of non-productive FeLV infection in necropsied cats and significant association with pathological findings.  

PubMed

Applying a combination of semi-nested PCR and immunohistology (IHC), the presence of exogenous feline leukemia virus infection was studied in 302 necropsied cats with various disorders. 9% showed the classical outcome of persistent productive FeLV infection which was represented by FeLV antigen expression in different organs. 152 cats (50%) harboured exogenous FeLV-specific proviral sequences in the bone marrow but did not express viral antigen. These cats were considered as horizontally but non-productively infected. Statistical evaluation showed a significant association of non-productive horizontal FeLV infection with a variety of parameters. Non-productively infected cats were statistically significantly older and more often originated from animal shelters than cats without exogenous FeLV infection. Furthermore, some pathological disorders like anemia, panleukopenia, and purulent inflammation showed significant association with non-productive FeLV infection. No significant association was found with lymphosarcoma, known for a long time to be induced by productive FeLV infection. PMID:20398945

Suntz, M; Failing, K; Hecht, W; Schwartz, D; Reinacher, M

2010-03-25

87

75 FR 17161 - Job Corps: Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Installation of a Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Installation of a Small Wind Turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center Located...Significant Impact (FONSI) for a small Wind Turbine Installation to be located at the Pine...has been prepared for a proposed Wind Turbine Installation to be located at the...

2010-04-05

88

Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Sold residue treatment, repackaging, and storage  

SciTech Connect

From its founding in 1952 through the cessation of production in 1989, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (now the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site [the Site]) produced components for nuclear weapons. Some of those components were made of plutonium. As a result of the processes used to recover and purify plutonium and manufacture the components, a variety of materials became contaminated with plutonium. If the level of contamination were low, the material was considered waste. However, if the concentration of plutonium in the material exceeded the {open_quotes}economic discard limit,{close_quotes} the materials were classified as {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} rather than{open_quotes}Waste{close_quotes} and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. While large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, accumulated at the Site in storage. Two important events regarding residues have occurred at the Site since production activities ceased. One event was the end of the Cold War in 1991, which made the return to production of nuclear weapons, with their Rocky Flats-made components, unnecessary. This event led to DOE`s decision to permanently cease production at the Site, clean up and remove radioactive and chemical contamination at the Site, and find alternative uses for the Site. This document describes methods for processing of the wastes for safe interim storage. Environmental impacts from the processing and storage are discussed.

NONE

1996-04-01

89

Hysteroscopic findings in women with two and with more than two first-trimester miscarriages are not significantly different.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyse hysteroscopic results in patients with recurrent miscarriages and to compare the frequency of uterine anomalies in women with a history of exactly two and with more than two consecutive miscarriages. A retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing hysteroscopy for repeated early pregnancy losses was performed at two university centres. Late miscarriages were excluded, terminations of pregnancy were not counted. Eighty-seven patients had suffered from exactly two early miscarriages and 119 from more than two. Both groups were comparable with respect to age at admission (32.95+/-4.46 versus 34.06+/-5.02 years) and at first miscarriage (30.43+/-4.24 versus 29.08+/-5.38 years). The prevalence of acquired (adhesions, polyps, fibroids) and congenital uterine anomalies (septate or bicornuate uterus, etc.) did not differ significantly (acquired: 28.7 versus 27.7%; congenital: 9.2 versus 16.8%). The rates of uterine anomalies did not differ significantly overall (36.8 versus 42.9%). In conclusion, uterine anomalies are frequently found in patients with two and with more than two early miscarriages. Due to the high rate of anomalies, their risk for adverse pregnancy outcome and a possible therapeutic approach, hysteroscopy might be a diagnostic option even after two early miscarriages. PMID:20541468

Bohlmann, Michael K; von Wolff, Michael; Luedders, Doerte W; Beuter-Winkler, Petra; Diedrich, Klaus; Hornemann, Amadeus; Strowitzki, Thomas

2010-04-24

90

Genome-wide scan of IQ finds significant linkage to a quantitative trait locus on 2q.  

PubMed

A genome-wide linkage scan of 795 microsatellite markers (761 autosomal, 34 X chromosome) was performed on Multidimensional Aptitude Battery subtests and verbal, performance and full scale scores, the WAIS-R Digit Symbol subtest, and two word-recognition tests (Schonell Graded Word Reading Test, Cambridge Contextual Reading Test) highly predictive of IQ. The sample included 361 families comprising 2-5 siblings who ranged in age from 15.7 to 22.2 years; genotype, but not phenotype, data were available for 81% of parents. A variance components analysis which controlled for age and sex effects showed significant linkage for the Cambridge reading test and performance IQ to the same region on chromosome 2, with respective LOD scores of 4.15 and 3.68. Suggestive linkage (LOD score>2.2) for various measures was further supported on chromosomes 6, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 22. Where location of linkage peaks converged for IQ subtests within the same scale, the overall scale score provided increased evidence for linkage to that region over any individual subtest. Association studies of candidate genes, particularly those involved in neural transmission and development, will be directed to genes located under the linkage peaks identified in this study. PMID:16341610

Luciano, M; Wright, M J; Duffy, D L; Wainwright, M A; Zhu, G; Evans, D M; Geffen, G M; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G

2005-12-09

91

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The National Compact Stellarator Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

If the United States is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels, the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors, and the limitations of solar, hydro and wind alternatives. Fusion energy, the power source of the sun and other stars, has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion would provide substantially reduced environmental impacts as compared with current forms of energy generation. Thus, the United States and other countries around the world continue to pursue development of fusion energy as one of a number of potential power sources for the long term. Fusion research, using various machine configurations, has been proceeding since the early 1950's, and significant progress has been achieved in performance and in understanding of the underlying physics. For most of this period, fusion machines called stellarators and tokamaks, which are toroidal (doughnut-shaped) devices, have been most frequently used to conduct experiments for producing controlled nuclear fusion. It is now desirable to take a next step in the fusion development program, by providing an experimental device to investigate the attractiveness of a compact stellarator as the basis for a fusion power reactor. This concept has the potential to build upon advances in understanding of stellarators and tokamaks, and to combine the best features of both. The goal is to build a compact stellarator that would be smaller than conventional stellarators and operate more efficiently than previous tokamaks. Such a device would broaden our understanding of magnetic fusion science while contributing to the development of a potentially attractive fusion reactor solution that may have cost advantages over other fusion concepts.

N /A

2002-10-25

92

Yield of HIV-associated tuberculosis during intensified case finding in resource-limited settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Summary Intensified case finding is the regular screening for evidence of tuberculosis in people infected with HIV, at high risk of HIV, or living in congregate settings. We systematically reviewed studies of intensified case finding published between January, 1994, and April, 2009. In 78 eligible studies, the number of people with tuberculosis detected during intensified case finding varied substantially between countries and target groups of patients. Median prevalence of newly diagnosed tuberculosis was 07% in population-based surveys, 22% in contact-tracing studies, 23% in mines, 23% in programmes preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, 25% in prisons, 82% in medical and antiretroviral treatment clinics, and 85% in voluntary counselling and testing services. Metaregression analysis of studies that included only people with HIV showed that for each increment in national prevalence of tuberculosis of 100 cases per 100?000 population, intensified case finding identified an additional one case per 100 screened individuals (p=003). Microbiological sputum examination of all individuals without prior selection by symptom screening yielded an additional four cases per 100 individuals screened (p=005). Data on the use of serial screening, treatment outcomes in actively identified cases of tuberculosis, and cost-effectiveness, however, were lacking. Concerted action is needed to develop intensified case finding as an important method for control of tuberculosis.

Kranzer, Katharina; Houben, Rein MGJ; Glynn, Judith R; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin; Lawn, Stephen D

2010-01-01

93

Finding of No Significant for the Closure of the High-Level Waste Tanks in F-and H-Areas at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOEEA-1164) for the proposed closure of the high-level waste tanks in F- and H-Areas on the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

1996-07-31

94

Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

NONE

1997-03-01

95

Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

NONE

1996-10-01

96

Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

NONE

1995-12-01

97

A functional dynamic scoring model to elucidate the significance of post-induction interim fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background The findings of interim fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT) predict progression-free survival of patients with Hodgkins lymphoma. Historically, the assessment was based on a static all-or-none scoring system. However, the clinical significance of any positivity in interim FDG-PET/CT has not been defined. Design and Methods Ninety-six patients with Hodgkins lymphoma who underwent interim FDG-PET/CT were evaluated using dynamic and visual scores, employing mediastinal or liver blood pool uptake as a comparator. FDG-PET/CT was prospectively defined as positive if any abnormal F18FDG uptake was present. In a retrospective analysis dynamic score 0 indicated resolution of all disease sites; score 1 defined a single residual focus; score 2 denoted a reduction in the number of foci; score 3 defined a reduction in intensity with no reduction in number; and score 4 indicated no change in the number and intensity of foci or appearance of new foci. Results The dynamic visual score review reduced the number of positive interim studies from 24 to 6 if a score of 2 or less was considered negative, with significantly better specificity (96%) as compared to static visual scores (78%86%). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates in patients who had a negative dynamic score were 92% and 97%, respectively; the corresponding figures for patients with positive results were 50% and 67%. Conclusions A dynamic visual score may be a better indicator for tailoring therapy than static visual scoring.

Dann, Eldad J.; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Tamir, Ada; Epelbaum, Ron; Avivi, Irit; Ben-Shachar, Menachem; Gaitini, Diana; Rowe, Jacob M.

2010-01-01

98

Final Report Regarding the Findings of the Study Group on the Feasibility of Using Alternative Financial Instruments for Determining Lender Yield under the Federal Family Education Loan Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Higher Education Amendments of 1998 required a study of the feasibility of alternative financial instruments for determining lender yields in the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) and called for an evaluation of the 91-day Treasury bill, 30-day and 90-day commercial paper, and the 90-day London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) as

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

99

Recent findings regarding maintenance of enzootic variants of Yersinia pestis in sylvatic reservoirs and their significance in the evolution of epidemic plague.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread presence of bubonic plague in sylvatic reservoirs throughout the world, the causative agent (Yersinia pestis) evolved in its present form within the last 20,000 years from enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Comparison of the genomes from the two species revealed that Y. pestis possesses only a few unique plasmid-encoded genes that contribute to acute disease, whereas this organism has lost about 13% of the chromosomal genes that remain active in Y. pseudotuberculosis. These losses reflect readily detectable additions, deletions, transpositions, inversions, and acquisition of about 70 insertion sequence (IS) inserts, none of which are likely to promote increased virulence. In contrast, major enzymes of intermediary metabolism, including glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf ) and aspartase, are present but not catalytically functional due to the presence of missense mutations. The latter are generally not detectable by the technology of bioinformatics and, in the case of Y. pestis, result in radical changes in the metabolic flow of carbon. As an important consequence, plague bacilli exhibit a stringent low-calcium response characterized by conversion of L-glutamate (and metabolically related amino acids) to L-aspartate with secretion of the latter into supernatant fluid at 37 degrees C in culture media containing Na(+) but lacking added Ca(2+). This phenomenon also occurs in vivo and likely adversely affects the bioenergetics of host amino acid pools. Curiously, aspartase is functional in all tested enzootic (pestoides) strains of Y. pestis. These isolates are typically restricted to the ancient plague reservoirs of Central Asia and Africa and are fully virulent in members of the rodent Superfamily Muroidea but avirulent in guinea pigs and man. The implications of these findings for the distribution and ecology of Y. pestis could be significant. PMID:20158336

Bearden, Scott W; Brubaker, Robert R

100

Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis  

SciTech Connect

A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A. [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

1996-10-02

101

First finds of Late Tithonian and middle-late Albian radiolarian assemblages in volcanogenic-siliceous rocks of the Amur River right lower reaches and their tectonic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithological-stratigraphic study of volcanogenic-siliceous rocks developed on the left side of the Machtovaya River, a\\u000a right tributary of the Amur River, yielded the first radiolarian assemblages of the late Late Tithonian, the late Late Tithonian-early\\u000a Valanginian, and the middle-late Albian age. It is established that the stratigraphic succession of volcanogenic-siliceous\\u000a rocks in this area is composed of upper Tithonian-Valanginian

A. N. Filippov; I. V. Kemkin

2008-01-01

102

From Bayes through Marginal Utility to Effect Sizes: A Guide to Understanding the Clinical and Statistical Significance of the Results of Autism Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objectives of this report are: (a) to trace the theoretical roots of the concept clinical significance that derives from Bayesian thinking, Marginal Utility/Diminishing Returns in Economics, and the "just noticeable difference", in Psychophysics. These concepts then translated into: Effect Size (ES), strength of agreement, clinical

Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Koenig, Kathy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.; Paul, Rhea; Sparrow, Sara

2011-01-01

103

Changes in Normal Liver and Spleen Volume after Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y-Resin Microspheres in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Findings and Clinical Significance  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In clinical trials with yttrium-90-resin-microspheres for the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases, it was observed that radioembolization might result in splenomegaly and an increase in portal vein size. Subclinical hepatitis in normal liver tissue as well as the effects of radioembolization and prior chemotherapy are suspected to be responsible for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter after radioembolization. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with liver-dominant metastatic disease from breast cancer who had not responded to chemotherapy or had to abandon chemotherapy because of its toxic effects were evaluated. Changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter as well as liver tumor volume and diameter were quantified using computed tomography scans. Results: Radioembolization was associated with a significant mean decrease in the whole liver volume of 10.2% (median 16.7%; P = 0.0024), mainly caused by a reduction in the right lobe volume (mean 16.0%; P < 0.0001). These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the diameter of the main portal vein (mean 6.8%; P < 0.0001) as well as splenic volume (mean 50.4%; P < 0.0001). Liver-tumor volume and diameter decreased by a median of 24 and 39.7%. Conclusions: Radioembolization is an effective treatment for tumor size reduction in patients with breast cancer liver metastases. Treatment is associated with changes of hepatic parenchymal volume, splenic volume, and portal vein size that appear not to represent clinically important sequelae in this patient cohort.

Paprottka, Philipp M., E-mail: philipp.paprottka@med.uni-muenchen.de; Schmidt, G. P.; Trumm, C. G.; Hoffmann, R. T.; Reiser, M. F.; Jakobs, T. F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, University Hospitals Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology (Germany)

2011-10-15

104

Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive EnvironmentsSignificant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs  

SciTech Connect

Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

2012-09-01

105

A Cochrane Systematic Review finds no significant difference in outcome or risk of postoperative complications between day care and in-patient cataract surgery.  

PubMed

This review was conducted to determine reliable evidence regarding the safety, feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of cataract extraction performed as a day care versus in-patient procedure. The search to identify randomized controlled trials comparing day care and in-patient surgery for age-related cataract included the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences. Assessment of methodological quality was based on criteria defined by the Cochrane Collaboration. The primary outcome was the achievement of a satisfactory visual acuity 6 weeks after operation. Two trials, involving a total of 1284 people, are included. One trial reported statistically significant differences in early postoperative complication rates in the day care group, which had no clinical relevance to visual outcomes 4 months postoperatively. Mean change in visual acuity Snellen lines of the operated eye 4 months postoperatively was 4.1 standard deviation SD 2.3 for the day care group and 4.1 SD 2.2 for the in-patient group. Costs were 20% more for the in-patient group attributable to higher costs for overnight stay. PMID:16951761

Fedorowicz, Zbigniew; Lawrence, David J; Gutierrez, Peter

2006-09-01

106

Grease Yields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is directed to lubricating grease compositions, more particularly to the use of certain agents to improve the yield of calcium base greases. The yields of grease compositions are increased by incorporating therein an oil-soluble polyglycol p...

D. W. Criddle

1965-01-01

107

The majority of the in vitro erythroid expansion potential resides in CD34? cells, outweighing the contribution of CD34+ cells and significantly increasing the erythroblast yield from peripheral blood samples  

PubMed Central

The study of human erythropoiesis in health and disease requires a robust culture system that consistently and reliably generates large numbers of immature erythroblasts that can be induced to differentiate synchronously. We describe a culture method modified from Leberbauer et al. (2005) and obtain a homogenous population of erythroblasts from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) without prior purification of CD34+ cells. This pure population of immature erythroblasts can be expanded to obtain 4108 erythroblasts from 1108 PBMC after 1314 days in culture. Upon synchronized differentiation, high levels of enucleation (8090%) and low levels of cell death (<10%) are achieved. We compared the yield of erythroblasts obtained from PBMC, CD34+ cells or PBMC depleted of CD34+ cells and show that CD34? cells represent the most significant early erythroid progenitor population. This culture system may be particularly useful for investigating the pathophysiology of anemic patients where only small blood volumes are available.

van den Akker, Emile; Satchwell, Timothy J.; Pellegrin, Stephanie; Daniels, Geoff; Toye, Ashley M.

2010-01-01

108

Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1994-12-31

109

Are Crop Yields Normally Distributed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence for nonnormality of crop yields is reassessed. Three methodological problems are identified in typical yield distribution analyses: (i) misspecification of the nonrandom components of yield distributions, (ii) misreporting of statistical significance, and (iii) use of aggregate time-series (ATS) data to represent farm-level yield distributions. One or more of these problems infect virtually all evidence against normality to date.

Quinn Weninger

1999-01-01

110

Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}  

SciTech Connect

We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

Rubin, P. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R. [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Besson, D. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Pedlar, T. K. [Luther College, Decorah, Iowa 52101 (United States); Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K. [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] (and others)

2009-05-01

111

Parsimonious Modeling of Yield Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a parametrically parsimonious model for yield curves that has the ability to represent the shapes generally associated with yield curves: monotonic, humped, and S-shaped. The authors find that the model explains 96 percent of the variation in bill yields across maturities during the period 1981-83. The movement of the parameters through time reflects and confirms a change

Charles R. Nelson; Andrew F. Siegel

1987-01-01

112

Abscisic Acid Sprays Significantly Increase Yield per Plant in Vineyard-Grown Wine Grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Through Increased Berry Set with No Negative Effects on Anthocyanin Content and Total Polyphenol Index of Both Juice and Wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cultivars of Vitis vinifera periods of mild water stress during ripening are thought to increase grape quality for winemaking, even though yields may\\u000a be negatively affected. Because abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the signaling of water stress in plants, we examine the\\u000a effects of the ABA signal being given without the concomitant water stress. ABA at 250mg

Andrea M. Quiroga; Federico J. Berli; Daniela Moreno; Juan B. Cavagnaro; Rubn Bottini

2009-01-01

113

Microwave-assisted cation exchange toward synthesis of near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots with significantly improved quantum yields through a uniform growth path.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop a reproducible and controllable microwave-assisted cation exchange approach, for the first time, to quickly synthesize high-quality, near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). These monodisperse QDs, emitting in the range of 1300-1600 nm, show a quantum yield as high as 57% that is ?1.4 times higher than that achieved by the same QDs prepared using conventional heating in an oil bath. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest reproducible value reported to date for PbS-based QDs in this emission range. More importantly, the as-synthesized PbS/CdS QDs can self-assemble nearly perfectly and easily at the micrometer scale as a result of their uniform shape and narrow size distribution. PMID:23887182

Ren, Fuqiang; Zhao, Haiguang; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Ma, Dongling

2013-08-01

114

Finding food  

PubMed Central

A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data.

Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

2011-01-01

115

Practical approaches to incidental findings in brain imaging research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade of empirical work in brain imaging, genomics, and other areas of research has yielded new knowledge about the frequency of incidental findings, investigator responsibility, and risks and benefits of disclosure. Straightforward guidance for handling such findings of possible clini- cal significance, however, has been elusive. In early work focusing on imaging studies of the brain, we suggested that

J. Illes; M. P. Kirschen; E. Edwards; P. Bandettini; M. K. Cho; P. J. Ford; G. H. Glover; J. Kulynych; R. Macklin; D. B. Michael; S. M. Wolf; T. Grabowski; B. Seto

2008-01-01

116

Evidence for X(3872){yields}{psi}(2S){gamma} in B{sup {+-}}{yields}X(3872)K{sup {+-}} Decays and a Study of B{yields}cc{gamma}K  

SciTech Connect

In a search for B{yields}cc{gamma}K decays with the BABAR detector, where cc includes J/{psi} and {psi}(2S), and K includes K{sup {+-}}, K{sub S}{sup 0}, and K*(892), we find evidence for X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{gamma} and X(3872){yields}{psi}(2S){gamma} with 3.6{sigma} and 3.5{sigma} significance, respectively. We measure the product of branching fractions B(B{sup {+-}}{yields}X(3872)K{sup {+-}})xB(X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{gamma})=[2.8{+-}0.8(stat){+-}0.1(syst)]x10{sup -6} and B(B{sup {+-}}{yields}X(3872)K{sup {+-}})xB(X(3872){yields}{psi}(2S){gamma})=[9.5{+-}2.7(stat){+-}0.6(syst)]x10{sup -6}.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V. [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules, IN2P3/CNRS et Universite de Savoie, F-74941 Annecy-Le-Vieux (France); Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] (and others)

2009-04-03

117

Rock Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the

Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

2006-01-01

118

Genome-wide linkage scans for type 2 diabetes mellitus in four ethnically diverse populations; significant evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in African Americans: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) Research Group  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that, in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations. Methods Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from African American (AA; total number of individuals (N)=1004), American Indian (AI; N=883), European American (EA; N=537), and Mexican American (MA; N=1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Nonparametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4,404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM. Results Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 4q21.1 (LOD=3.13; genome-wide p=0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of eleven regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD>1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD=2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD=2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD=2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD=2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD=2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD>1.71 have been identified in previously published studies. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA, 6p in EA, 2p in AI, and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population.

Malhotra, Alka; Igo, Robert P.; Thameem, Farook; Kao, W.H. Linda; Abboud, Hanna E.; Adler, Sharon G.; Arar, Nedal H.; Bowden, Donald W.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Freedman, Barry I.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Knowler, William C.; Kohn, Orly; Leehey, David; Meoni, Lucy A.; Nelson, Robert G.; Nicholas, Susanne B.; Parekh, Rulan S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Saad, Mohammed F.; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Sedor, John R.; Shah, Vallabh O.; Taylor, Kent D.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Zager, Philip G.; Horvath, Amanda; Hanson, Robert L.

2009-01-01

119

Finding Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' abilities to find factors of whole numbers. The lesson also introduces prime numbers. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to factors as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2010-01-01

120

Factor Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

Piecora, Jamie

2000-01-01

121

Fossil Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students simulate a "dinosaur dig." The activity opens with background information for teachers about fossils. Working in groups, students excavate fossil sites created in advance by the teacher, or other group of students, and try to reconstruct a chicken skeleton. The activity closes with a two-page student worksheet that directs students to diagram the fossil site and includes probing questions to help them decode their findings.

122

Kootenai River Ecosystem: Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Kootenai River Ecosystem Project. With this funding the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho (KTOI) and Idaho Fish and Game (IDFG) would add liquid nitrogen and phosphorus to the Kootenai River from late J...

2005-01-01

123

FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT A Food Allergen ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... that this labeling change is similar to the result if a petition were granted under 21 CFR 10.30 to amend or revoke the label declaration of ingredients ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

124

Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: immunohistochemical findings and clinical significance  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of seven patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scan, cystoscopy, and computed tomography (CT) scan. The level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) before and after surgery was assessed. Different prostate cancer markers were used for immunohistochemical staining. Results The mean age of the seven patients diagnosed with prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma in this study was 76.2 years (range 5788). Five patients presented with intermittent and painless gross hematuria, one patient with progressive dysuria, and one patient with elevated serum PSA on routine health examination. The level of PSA before surgery ranged from 1.3 to 45.0 ng/mL. Immunohistochemical staining results of the prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma confirmed positivity for PSA, prostatic acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, and alpha-methyacyl co-enzyme A (CoA)-reductase markers. Two of the patients underwent bilateral orchiectomy combined with anti-androgen therapy, three underwent transurethral resection of prostate, one received radical prostatectomy, and one received medical castration therapy. The clinical outcomes of all patients were satisfactory, based on follow-up data. The symptoms of hematuria and dysuria were ameliorated well, and the postoperative PSA level decreased below 4.0 ng/mL. Recurrence or metastasis of disease was not detected on MRI and bone scan. Conclusion Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare subtype of prostate carcinoma, the diagnosis of which could be based on pathological and immunohistochemical examination. Earlier management promises better prognosis.

Sha, Jianjun; Bo, Juanjie; Pan, Jiahua; Zhang, Lianhua; Xuan, Hanqing; Chen, Wei; Li, Dong; Wang, Zhaoliang; Liu, Dongming; Huang, Yiran

2013-01-01

125

Spread of yield with mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests conducted on mild steel after various heat treatments are reported. Conclusions are drawn on the significance of upper\\u000a yield point and yield-point extension on the shape of yield-zone development. A model is postulated to explain the observations.

R. I. Mair; E. E. Banks

1973-01-01

126

Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields  

SciTech Connect

Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

Lobell, D

2007-04-26

127

Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

Blamey, F.P.C.

1983-01-01

128

Effects of geoengineering on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as market shares of agricultural output may change with the different spatial pattern of climate change. More importantly, geoengineering by SRM does not address a range of other detrimental consequences of climate change, such as ocean acidification, which could also affect food security via effects on marine food webs. Finally, SRM poses substantial anticipated and unanticipated risks by interfering with complex, not fully understood systems. Therefore, despite potential positive effects of SRM on crop yields, the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2011-12-01

129

Raw Material Convenience Yields and Business Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper extends the methodology of Milonas and Thomadakis (1997) to estimate raw material convenience yields with futures prices during the period 1996 to 2005. We define the business cycle\\u000a of a seasonal commodity with demand\\/supply shocks and find that the convenience yields for crude oil and agricultural commodity\\u000a exhibits seasonal behavior. The convenience yield for crude oil is the

Chang-Wen Duan; William T. Lin

130

Climate Change and Crop Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our data are county level yields. Soil quality and climatic conditions can vary significantly within a county and the estimated value at the centroid might be quite different from what farmers experience. To more accurately reflect this reality, we therefore average the soil characteristics over all the farmland area in a county. Farmland area is derived from the 1992 National

Wolfram Schlenker

131

Predicting Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: "Non-Significant" Findings with the Potential for Significant Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the March 2003 issue of "Psychological Science", the flagship journal of the American Psychological Society, Goodman et al. (2003) reported on a prospective study that examined memory for childhood sexual abuse. The authors interviewed adolescents and young adults who had been victims of documented childhood sexual abuse that led to criminal

Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Becker-Blease, Kathryn

2003-01-01

132

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

133

Reed canarygrass yield improvement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reed canarygrass is well adapted to the northern USA. Eight cultivars and 72 accessions collected in rural landscapes from Iowa to New Hampshire were evaluated for yield. Accessions produced on average 7% higher biomass yield compared to existing cultivars. Naturalized populations of reed canarygras...

134

TOWARDS STANDARDIZATION OF CSP YIELD ASSESSMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives recommendations to reach high quality, traceable and reproducible yield prognosis for solar thermal power plants. The whole process chain from solar resources to simulation is evaluated to identify main error sources. Three main fields are identified, which have significant impact on accuracy of potential electricity yields: Firstly, much care must be taken to create realistic site-specific meteorological

Richard Meyer; Hans Georg Beyer; Jrg Fanslau; Norbert Geuder; Annette Hammer; Tobias Hirsch; Carsten Hoyer-Klick; Norbert Schmidt; Marko Schwandt

135

Biodynamic Preparations Cause Opposite Yield Effects Depending Upon Yield Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop yields of cereals, carrots, beetroots and potatoes from 28 different field plot and pot experiments (on a site near Marburg\\/Germany) were compared to determine the influence of the biodynamic preparations 500 and 501 on yields. Under generally low yields the preparations tended to increase the yields. When the yields reach a medium level this positive effect was smaller. At

Joachim Raupp; Uli Johannes Knig

1996-01-01

136

Search for B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup 0} and B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup *0} decays  

SciTech Connect

We report a search for the rare decays B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup 0} and B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup *0} in an event sample of approximately 465x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We find no significant evidence for either mode and we set 90% probability upper limits on the branching fractions of B(B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup 0})<2.9x10{sup -6} and B(B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup *0})<3.0x10{sup -6}.

Amo Sanchez, P. del; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V. [Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy-Le-Vieux (France); Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-11-01

137

Biotechnology of Forest Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural and genetic manipulation of Douglas fir and loblolly pine plantations have increased their productivity 70 and 300 percent, respectively, over natural forests on the same sites. Yet these intensively managed plantations are achieving less than 50 percent of their potential productivity. Future increases in yield will result from optimization of nutritional treatments, control of noncrop vegetation, and advances in

Peter Farnum; Roger Timmis; J. Laurence Kulp

1983-01-01

138

Search for b{yields}u transitions in B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup 0}K*{sup 0} decays  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of the decays B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup 0}K*{sup 0} and B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup 0}K*{sup 0} with K*{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The D{sup 0} and the D{sup 0} mesons are reconstructed in the final states f=K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and their charge conjugates. Using a sample of 465x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC, we measure the ratio R{sub ADS}{identical_to}[{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}[f]{sub D}K*{sup 0})+{gamma}(B{sup 0} {yields}[f]{sub D}K*{sup 0})]/[{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}[f]{sub D}K*{sup 0})+{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}[f]{sub D}K*{sup 0})] for the three final states. We do not find significant evidence for a signal and set the following limits at 95% probability: R{sub ADS}(K{pi})<0.244, R{sub ADS}(K{pi}{pi}{sup 0})<0.181, and R{sub ADS}(K{pi}{pi}{pi})<0.391. From the combination of these three results, we find that the ratio r{sub S} between the b{yields}u and the b{yields}c amplitudes lies in the range [0.07,0.41] at 95% probability.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V. [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules, IN2P3/CNRS et Universite de Savoie, F-74941 Annecy-Le-Vieux (France); Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] (and others)

2009-08-01

139

Research on Family Engagement in Preventive Interventions: Toward Improved Use of Scientific Findings in Primary Prevention Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective strategies for family engagement are essential in the implementation of models directed toward the application of research findings to primary prevention practice. Although there has been limited investigation of family engagement in preventive interventions for general populations, the research has yielded several preliminary findings that warrant further study. Notably, families in eligible general populations can differ to a significant

Richard Spoth; Cleve Redmond

2000-01-01

140

Influence of Morphophysiological Traits on Sunflower Oil Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of interdependence between sunflower oil yield on the one hand and seed yield and morphophysiological traits on the other makes it possible to better utilize genetic resources in breeding for a high genetic potential for oil yield in this crop. The sunflower genotypes studied differed significantly in the mean values of all the traits concerned. A highly significant positive

Nada HLADNI; Marija KRALJEVI?-BALALI?

141

Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based System for High-Sensitivity Differential Sputter Yield Measurements (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based system for high sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements of different target materials due to ion bombardment. The differential sputter yields can be integrated to find total yields. Possible...

A. P. Yalin B. Rubin C. C. Farnell J. L. Topper

2009-01-01

142

Fission Yield Predictions with TALYS  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear model code TALYS has been extended to enable the prediction of fission yields. The mass yield curves are extracted from temperature-dependent multi-modal random-neck rupture calculations. Charge yields of the fission fragment are determined using the scission-point model and subsequently folded with the mass yields. We present a comparison of several fission-fragment mass yields and isotopic yields with experimental data.

Duijvestijn, M.C.; Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2005-05-24

143

Button/Plate Yielding  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum button and plate were yielded to compare the experimental and calculated button to plate stress ratios. Using the fact that compressive stress is directly proportional to area and load, the calculated button to plate stress ratio is equal to the plate to button area ratio for a constant load. The loads that caused the button and plate to yield were estimated from a load test cell graph obtained from the materials testing facility. The button was simply compressed, but the plate was compressed with a steel cylinder of the same diameter as the aluminum button. The experimental and calculated stress ratios for the button and plate are the same within experimental error. The equation for the plate bearing area is therefore correct.

Wintercorn, S.; /Fermilab

1987-06-17

144

Biotechnology of forest yield  

SciTech Connect

Silvicultural and genetic manipulation of Douglas fir and loblolly pine plantations have increased their productivity 70 and 300 percent, respectively, over natural forests on the same sites. Yet these intensively managed plantations are achieving less than 50 percent of their potential productivity. Future increases in yield will result from optimization of nutritional treatments, control of noncrop vegetation, and advances in tree breeding and tissue culture techniques. (Refs. 90).

Farnum, P.; Timmis, R.; Kulp, J.L.

1983-02-11

145

A review on pharmacological significance of genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae).  

PubMed

A number of herbs belonging to the genus Jatropha of Euphorbiaceae family are noted for their medicinal benefits. The genus Jatropha is one of the prospective biodiesel yielding crops. The plants which have been so far explored include J. curcas, J. gossypifolia, J. glandulifera, J. multifida and J. podagrica. Although, the plants of this genus are widely distributed, there is an exiguity of scientific literature proclaiming the medicinal benefits of the plants belonging to genus Jatropha. The present paper is a pragmatic approach to accrue the findings on this very significant genus. PMID:23086490

Sharma, Surendra Kr; Singh, Harneet

2012-10-20

146

Practical approaches to incidental findings in brain imaging research  

PubMed Central

A decade of empirical work in brain imaging, genomics, and other areas of research has yielded new knowledge about the frequency of incidental findings, investigator responsibility, and risks and benefits of disclosure. Straightforward guidance for handling such findings of possible clinical significance, however, has been elusive. In early work focusing on imaging studies of the brain, we suggested that investigators and institutional review boards must anticipate and articulate plans for handling incidental findings. Here we provide a detailed analysis of different approaches to the problem and evaluate their merits in the context of the goals and setting of the research and the involvement of neurologists, radiologists, and other physicians. Protecting subject welfare and privacy, as well as ensuring scientific integrity, are the highest priorities in making choices about how to handle incidental findings. Forethought and clarity will enable these goals without overburdening research conducted within or outside the medical setting.

Illes, J.; Kirschen, M.P.; Edwards, E.; Bandettini, P.; Cho, M.K.; Ford, P.J.; Glover, G.H.; Kulynych, J.; Macklin, R.; Michael, D.B.; Wolf, S.M.; Grabowski, T.; Seto, B.

2008-01-01

147

Tests of Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-25

148

Drilling ban yields verdict  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews a lawsuit which is under appeal by the State of Michigan regarding a takings claim filed over a petroleum exploration site. The dispute arose as a result of a 1987 decision by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources forbidding the property owners from developing the mineral rights leased to Miller Brothers in the Huron/Manistee National Forest. This area is bisected by a trend of Silurian Niagaran reef complexes which has a known production history throughout the State. The dunes area of the national forest has been deemed a wilderness area. As a result of the State's decision, the courts have awarded a sum of 71 million dollars to the developer to cover damages and lost resources. The reserve estimates were taken from adjacent areas which showed that the Niagaran reefs are relatively consistent in their yield.

Nation, L.M.

1992-01-01

149

Detecting Novelty and Significance  

PubMed Central

Studies of cognition often use an oddball paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance.

Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

2013-01-01

150

Search for b{yields}u transitions in B{sup -{yields}}DK{sup -} and D*K{sup -} decays  

SciTech Connect

We report results from an updated study of the suppressed decays B{sup -}{yields}DK{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D*K{sup -} followed by D{yields}K{sup +{pi}-}, where D{sup (*)} indicates a D{sup (*)0} or a D{sup (*)0} meson, and D*{yields}D{pi}{sup 0} or D*{yields}D{gamma}. These decays are sensitive to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle angle {gamma} due to interference between the b{yields}c transition B{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*)0}K{sup -} followed by the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +{pi}-}, and the b{yields}u transition B{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*)0}K{sup -} followed by the Cabibbo-favored decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +{pi}-}. We also report an analysis of the decay B{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*){pi}-} with the D decaying into the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed mode D{yields}K{sup +{pi}-}. Our results are based on 467x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S){yields}BB decays collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. We measure the ratios R{sup (*)} of the suppressed ([K{sup +{pi}-}]{sub D}K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -}) to favored ([K{sup -{pi}+}]{sub D}K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -}) branching fractions as well as the CP asymmetries A{sup (*)} of those modes. We see indications of signals for the B{sup -}{yields}DK{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D{sub D{pi}}{sup 0}*K{sup -} suppressed modes, with statistical significances of 2.1 and 2.2{sigma}, respectively, and we measure: R{sub DK}=(1.1{+-}0.6{+-}0.2)x10{sup -2}, A{sub DK}=-0.86{+-}0.47{sub -0.16}{sup +0.12}, R{sub (D{pi}{sup 0})K}*=(1.8{+-}0.9{+-} 0.4)x10{sup -2}, A{sub (D{pi}{sup 0})K}*=+0.77{+-}0.35{+-}0.12, R{sub (D{gamma})K}*=(1.3{+-}1.4{+-}0.8)x10{sup -2},A{sub (D{gamma})K}*=+0.36 {+-}0.94{sub -0.41}{sup +0.25}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We use a frequentist approach to obtain the magnitude of the ratio r{sub B{identical_to}}|A(B{sup -}{yields}D{sup 0}K{sup -})/A(B{sup -}{yields}D{sup 0}K{sup -})|=(9.5{sub -4.1}{sup +5.1})%, with r{sub B}<16.7% at 90% confidence level. In the case of B{sup -}{yields}D*K{sup -} we find r{sub B}*{identical_to}|A(B{sup -}{yields}D*{sup 0}K{sup -})/A(B{sup -}{yields}D*{sup 0}K{sup -})|=(9.6{sub -5.1}{sup +3.5})%, with r{sub B}*<15.0% at 90% confidence level.

Amo Sanchez, P. del; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V. [Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy-Le-Vieux (France); Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-10-01

151

Relationships of Australian sugarcane yields to various climatic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the sugarcane yield anomalies in northeastern Australia and various atmospheric and oceanic variables is examined with the help of three different climatological data sets, the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), the Southern Hemisphere Analyses data set (SHANAL) and the Tabulated Data Set (TDS). Correlation coefficients of 10 different climatological variables with the yields are presented for lags up to twelve months prior to the harvest. The results suggest that the sugarcane yields show the strongest positive (negative) response to anomalous sea surface temperature (SSTA) and mean sea level pressure (MSLPA) changes occurring in the central and eastern Pacific during the austral spring 7 to 10 months prior to the sugarcane harvest. These correlations are accompanied by an opposite pattern of anomalies located north of Australia. At the same time, anomalies in the strength of the zonal components of the surface winds can be found over the western tropical Pacific (positive correlations) and the eastern Indian Ocean (negative correlations). These patterns are characteristic of the El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and support the findings of a previous Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)-oriented study. However, the maximum correlations with the SSTA and MSLPA are substantially higher (around |0.8|) than those reached with the SOI (-0.65). Furthermore, it appears that the large-scale circulation indices are better indicators of sugarcane yields than the regional (Cairns) climatological variables. The maximum correlations between the yields and the climatological variables at Cairns are highly significant (values between |0.5| and |0.6|), but the signal is generally confined to the summer months only.

Kuhnel, I.

1996-09-01

152

Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV)], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

Greenland, David

2005-11-01

153

How to predict coker yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

When planning studies require estimates of product yields from delayed coking, this method will help. It requires the use of two readily obtainable feed properties: API gravity and Conradson carbon. These properties, together with the key process variables of the coking unit, are used with the accompanying graphs to determine the yield structure. The calculated yields are those coming from

Castiglioni

1983-01-01

154

The significance of beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the conception of beauty and its importance for the preservation of the race and the species. The conditions of beauty are partly positive and partly negative. The negative conditions are: (1) Signs of race (2) Signs of disease, deformity or weakness (3) Significant deviations from the average (4) Misplaced sex characteristics. The positive condition are: (1) Posture (2) Bodily

Knight Dunlap

1918-01-01

155

What drives Provincial - Canada Yield Spreads?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent research has led to a deeper understanding of the factors determining yields on long term Canada bonds, there has been little corresponding work on provincial bonds. This is despite the fact that unlike the US state bond market, provincial debt represents a significant part of the Canadian bond market. Provincial and state debt are examples of sub-national debt

Laurence Booth; George Georgopoulos; Walid Hejazi

2006-01-01

156

Reexamining charmless B{yields}PV decays in the QCD factorization approach  

SciTech Connect

Using the QCD factorization approach, we reexamine the two-body hadronic charmless B-meson decays to final states involving a pseudoscalar (P) and a vector (V) meson, with inclusion of the penguin contractions of spectator-scattering amplitudes induced by the b{yields}Dg*g* (where D=d or s, and g* denotes an off-shell gluon) transitions, which are of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}. Their impacts on the CP-averaged branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries are examined. We find that these higher order penguin contraction contributions have significant impacts on some specific decay modes. Since B{yields}{pi}K*, K{rho} decays involve the same electroweak physics as B{yields}{pi}K puzzles, we present a detailed analysis of these decays and find that the five R-ratios for the B{yields}{pi}K*, K{rho} system are in agreement with experimental data except for R({pi}K*). Generally, these new contributions are found to be important for penguin-dominated B{yields}PV decays.

Li Xinqiang [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100080 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Yang Yadong [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

2006-06-01

157

Probing new physics in B{yields}f{sub 0}(980)K decays  

SciTech Connect

We study the hadronic decay modes B{sup {+-}}{sup (0)}{yields}f{sub 0}(980)K{sup {+-}}{sup (0)}, involving a scalar and a pseudoscalar meson in the final state. These decay modes are dominated by the loop induced b{yields}sqq(q=s,u,d) penguins along with a small b{yields}u tree level transition (for B{sup +}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sup +}) and annihilation diagrams. Therefore, the standard model expectation of direct CP violation is negligibly small and the mixing-induced CP violation parameter in the mode B{sup 0}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sub S} is expected to give the same value of sin(2{beta}), as extracted from B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S} but with opposite sign. Using the generalized factorization approach we find the direct CP violation in the decay mode B{sup +}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sup +} to be of the order of few percent. We then study the effect of the R-parity violating supersymmetric model and show that the direct CP violating asymmetry in B{sup +}{yields}f{sub 0}(980)K{sup +} could be as large as {approx}80% and the mixing-induced CP asymmetry in B{sup 0}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sub S} (i.e., -S{sub f{sub 0}}{sub K{sub S}}) could deviate significantly from that of sin(2{beta}){sub J/{psi}}{sub K{sub S}}.

Giri, A. K. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002 (India); Mawlong, B.; Mohanta, R. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500 046 (India)

2006-12-01

158

Relevant and significant supervised gene clusters for microarray cancer classification.  

PubMed

An important application of microarray data in functional genomics is to classify samples according to their gene expression profiles such as to classify cancer versus normal samples or to classify different types or subtypes of cancer. One of the major tasks with gene expression data is to find co-regulated gene groups whose collective expression is strongly associated with sample categories. In this regard, a gene clustering algorithm is proposed to group genes from microarray data. It directly incorporates the information of sample categories in the grouping process for finding groups of co-regulated genes with strong association to the sample categories, yielding a supervised gene clustering algorithm. The average expression of the genes from each cluster acts as its representative. Some significant representatives are taken to form the reduced feature set to build the classifiers for cancer classification. The mutual information is used to compute both gene-gene redundancy and gene-class relevance. The performance of the proposed method, along with a comparison with existing methods, is studied on six cancer microarray data sets using the predictive accuracy of naive Bayes classifier, K-nearest neighbor rule, and support vector machine. An important finding is that the proposed algorithm is shown to be effective for identifying biologically significant gene clusters with excellent predictive capability. PMID:22552589

Maji, Pradipta; Das, Chandra

2012-04-27

159

Finding OB in Disney's Finding Nemo  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the greatest challenges faced by new professors and those aspiring to become members of the academy is the consistent need to illustrate organizational behavior concepts to undergraduate students (Hunt, 2001). Most of today's undergraduate population find themselves encased in a world permeated with fashion, music and little understanding of business principles. For this reason, it is incumbent upon

Rayshad A Holmes

2005-01-01

160

Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield  

SciTech Connect

We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources - the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

Ave, M.; Daumiller, K.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Salamida, F.; Smida, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohacova, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Ridky, J.; Schovanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Di Carlo, P.; Iarlori, M.; Petrera, S.; Rizi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita de l'Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Di Giulio, C.; Verzi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and Sezione INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); San Luis, P. Facal; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2011-09-22

161

The significance of sex.  

PubMed

Sexual and asexual modes of proliferation are associated with advantages and disadvantages, yet a profound percept that would account for both ways of reproduction is missing. On the basis of the 2nd law of thermodynamics we find that both sexual and asexual reproduction can be regarded as a means to consume free energy in least time. Parthenogenesis is a fast way to consume a rich repository of free energy, e.g., an ample stock of food with a large number of individuals, whereas sexual reproduction is a fast way to consume diverse and dispersed resources with a large variety of individuals. Most organisms have adapted to their surroundings accordingly and some organisms switch from one mode of reproduction to the other depending on the amount and dispersion of free-energy sources. We conclude that the least-time free energy consumption in respective surroundings, as the general criterion of natural selection, determines also sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. PMID:23063598

Annila, Arto; Annila, Erkki

2012-10-09

162

Improving photosynthesis and yield potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop yield is fundamentally related to the (a) amount of solar radiation absorbed; (b) efficiency of solar energy use in photosynthesis;\\u000a (c) translocation of photosynthate to sinks, especially sinks later harvested; (d) capacity for growth in sinks; (e) efficiency\\u000a of converting photosynthate to new biomass; and (f) metabolic cost of maintenance. Yield potential has been defined as the yield of

Jeffrey S. Amthor

163

On the significance of ?13C correlations in ancient sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A graphical analysis of the correlations between ?c and ?TOC was introduced by Rothman et al. (2003) to obtain estimates of the carbon isotopic composition of inputs to the oceans and the organic carbon burial fraction. Applied to Cenozoic data, the method agrees with independent estimates, but with Neoproterozoic data the method yields results that cannot be accommodated with standard models of sedimentary carbon isotope mass balance. We explore the sensitivity of the graphical correlation method and find that the variance ratio between ?c and ?o is an important control on the correlation of ?c and ?. If the variance ratio ?c/ ?o ? 1 highly correlated arrays very similar to those obtained from the data are produced from independent random variables. The Neoproterozoic data shows such variance patterns, and the regression parameters for the Neoproterozoic data are statistically indistinguishable from the randomized model at the 95% confidence interval. The projection of the data into ?c- ? space cannot distinguish between signal and noise, such as post-depositional alteration, under these circumstances. There appears to be no need to invoke unusual carbon cycle dynamics to explain the Neoproterozoic ?c- ? array. The Cenozoic data have ?c/ ?o < 1 and the ?c vs. ? correlation is probably geologically significant, but the analyzed sample size is too small to yield statistically significant results.

Derry, Louis A.

2010-08-01

164

Fluorescence Yields of Aromatic Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Values of fluorescence yields for eighteen compounds in solution at 23C are reported and are compared to previous literature values. Modifications of the technique of Weber and Teale for measurement of fluorescence yields are described. Fluorescein in 0.1...

W. R. Dawson M. W. Windsor

1968-01-01

165

Dimension Yields from Alder Lumber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Charts are presented for determining yields of dimension from the top three grades of alder lumber. The basic chart for each grade is for random-width material, 1-inch minimum, with an adjustment for determining yields in specific widths greater than 1 in...

D. R. Schumann

1972-01-01

166

e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}{mu}+{mu}-} scattering in the noncommutative standard model  

SciTech Connect

We study muon pair production e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}{mu}+{mu}-} in the noncommutative (NC) extension of the standard model using the Seiberg-Witten maps of this to the second order of the noncommutative parameter {Theta}{sub {mu}{nu}}. Using O({Theta}{sup 2}) Feynman rules, we find the O({Theta}{sup 4}) cross section (with all other lower order contributions simply cancelled) for the pair production. The momentum dependent O({Theta}{sup 2}) NC interaction significantly modifies the cross section and angular distributions which are different from the commuting standard model. We study the collider signatures of the space-time noncommutativity at the International Linear Collider (ILC) and find that the process e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}{mu}+{mu}-} can probe the NC scale {Lambda} in the range 0.8-1.0 TeV for typical ILC energy ranges.

Prakash, Abhishodh; Mitra, Anupam; Das, Prasanta Kumar [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, KK Birla Goa Campus, NH-17B, Zuarinagar, Goa 403726 (India)

2010-09-01

167

Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

2012-01-01

168

Crop yields in a geoengineered climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop models predict that recent and future climate change may have adverse effects on crop yields. Intentional deflection of sunlight away from the Earth could diminish the amount of climate change in a high-CO2 world. However, it has been suggested that this diminution would come at the cost of threatening the food and water supply for billions of people. Here, we carry out high-CO2, geoengineering and control simulations using two climate models to predict the effects on global crop yields. We find that in our models solar-radiation geoengineering in a high-CO2 climate generally causes crop yields to increase, largely because temperature stresses are diminished while the benefits of CO2 fertilization are retained. Nevertheless, possible yield losses on the local scale as well as known and unknown side effects and risks associated with geoengineering indicate that the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2012-02-01

169

Final state interactions for B{yields}VV charmless decays  

SciTech Connect

We estimate final state interactions in the B-meson decays into two light vector mesons by the Regge model. We consider Pomeron exchange and charmed Regge trajectories that can relate intermediate charmed particles to the final state. The Regge poles have various helicity-flip residues, which allows a change from the longitudinal to transverse polarization. In this way a significant reduction of the longitudinal polarization fraction can be produced. In the factorization approximation we find agreement with recent data from the BABAR and Belle Collaborations in the B{yields}K*{phi} decay channel, as a result of an appropriate choice of semileptonic form factors and Regge exchanges. On the other hand, data for the K*{rho} decay channels appear more elusive. The soft effects discussed in the present paper are based on a model of Regge trajectories that is shown to reproduce correctly in the noncharmed case the Regge phenomenology of light mesons.

Ladisa, Massimo; Laporta, Vincenzo; Nardulli, Giuseppe; Santorelli, Pietro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Bari, Italy Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Italy Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy)

2004-12-01

170

Loss of function of the IAA-glucose hydrolase gene TGW6 enhances rice grain weight and increases yield.  

PubMed

Increases in the yield of rice, a staple crop for more than half of the global population, are imperative to support rapid population growth. Grain weight is a major determining factor of yield. Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of THOUSAND-GRAIN WEIGHT 6 (TGW6), a gene from the Indian landrace rice Kasalath. TGW6 encodes a novel protein with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-glucose hydrolase activity. In sink organs, the Nipponbare tgw6 allele affects the timing of the transition from the syncytial to the cellular phase by controlling IAA supply and limiting cell number and grain length. Most notably, loss of function of the Kasalath allele enhances grain weight through pleiotropic effects on source organs and leads to significant yield increases. Our findings suggest that TGW6 may be useful for further improvements in yield characteristics in most cultivars. PMID:23583977

Ishimaru, Ken; Hirotsu, Naoki; Madoka, Yuka; Murakami, Naomi; Hara, Nao; Onodera, Haruko; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Bun-Ichi; Onishi, Atsuko; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Katoh, Etsuko

2013-04-14

171

Mycobacterium avium complex: significance of isolation from bone marrow culture.  

PubMed Central

Six patients with bone marrow cultures yielding Mycobacterium avium complex were encountered at the Mount Sinai Hospital between 1969 and 1976. One additional isolate of the same mycobacterial species was recovered from splenic cyst fluid of a seventh patient. Because none of the patients had illnesses apparently due to M. avium complex, the isolates were unexpected and unexplained. Six of the seven patients had other acute or chronic infectious processes, occurring alone or superimposed on a preexisting disease. These patients were therefore unusual, because nontuberculous mycobacteria have previously been obtained from bone marrow cultures exclusively in patients who had either disseminated or pleuropulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis. The isolation of M. avium complex from the reticuloendothelial tissue of these seven patients may reflect an asymptomatic infection or alternatively may lack significance. Either premise can only be judged by continued careful evaluation of similar findings.

Kozinn, W P; Damsker, B; Bottone, E J

1980-01-01

172

Particle mass yield from ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of second-generation products on the particle mass yield of ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis was systematically tested and quantified. The approach was to vary the relative concentrations of first- and second-generation products by adjusting the concentration of ozone while observing changes in particle mass yield. For all wall-loss corrected organic particle mass concentrations Morg of this study (0.5 < Morg < 230 ?g m-3), the data show that the particle-phase organic material was composed for the most part of second-generation products. For 0.5< Morg < 10 ?g m-3, a range which overlaps with atmospheric concentrations, the particle mass yield was 10 to 20% and was not sensitive to ozone exposure, implying that the constituent molecules were rapidly produced at all investigated ozone exposures. In contrast, for Morg > 10 ?g m-3 the particle mass yield increased to as high as 70% for the ultimate yield corresponding to the greatest ozone exposures. These differing dependencies on ozone exposure under different regimes of Morg are explained by a combination of the ozonolysis lifetimes of the first-generation products and the volatility distribution of the resulting second-generation products. First-generation products that have short lifetimes produce low-volatility second-generation products whereas first-generation products that have long lifetimes produce high-volatility second-generation products. The ultimate particle mass yield was defined by mass-based stoichiometric yields ?i of ?0 = 0.17 0.05, ?1 = 0.11 0.17, and ?2 = 1.03 0.30 for corresponding saturation concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ?g m-3. Terms ?0 and ?1 had low sensitivity to the investigated range of ozone exposure whereas term ?2 increased from 0.32 0.13 to 1.03 0.30 as the ozone exposure was increased. These findings potentially allow for simplified yet accurate parameterizations in air quality and climate models that seek to represent the ozonolysis particle mass yields of certain classes of biogenic compounds.

Chen, Q.; Li, Y. L.; McKinney, K. A.; Kuwata, M.; Martin, S. T.

2012-04-01

173

FindSounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FindSounds.com is new search engine devoted to finding sample sounds and sound effects on the Web. The easy-to-use search feature offers variables including the file formats AIFF, .wav, and .au; mono or stereo; resolution; sample rate; and maximum file size up to two megabytes; as well as simply the subject of the sound. For those who might feel overwhelmed, there is also a partial directory of sounds in order to help users get started. After users find the sound-types they are looking for, they may also choose the Find Sounds Like This One button, which will find up to 100 audio files on the Web that most closely match the given file. For users aiming to find their own matches on the Web, the free downloadable Comparisonics Audio Player shows a colored sound wave image of the sound file. All or part of this soundwave may be highlighted and searched on the Web for matches.

174

Find a Partner  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Add the math of measurement to the tasks of lining up or finding a partner for an activity. Find a partner with the same length index finger as yours. Or, find a partner with the same arm span as yours. Everyone pairs up. Then, talk about how you found your partner: How did you line up your feet to see if they were the same size? Show everyone how you measured. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.

2010-01-01

175

What does the yield curve tell us about GDP growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot, including a few things you may not expect. Previous studies find that the term spread forecasts GDP but these regressions are unconstrained and do not model regressor endogeneity. We build a dynamic model for GDP growth and yields that completely characterizes expectations of GDP. The model does not permit arbitrage. Contrary to previous findings, we predict that the

Andrew Ang; Monika Piazzesi; Min Wei

2006-01-01

176

How to predict coker yield  

SciTech Connect

When planning studies require estimates of product yields from delayed coking, this method will help. It requires the use of two readily obtainable feed properties: API gravity and Conradson carbon. These properties, together with the key process variables of the coking unit, are used with the accompanying graphs to determine the yield structure. The calculated yields are those coming from the coke drum. An additional adjustment might be needed to correct for overlaps that might occur during fractionation. The adjustment would estimate the amount of gasoline remaining in the gas oil and the amount of gas oil carried away with the gasoline.

Castiglioni, B.B.

1983-09-01

177

Acid rain and seed yields reductions in corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yields were significantly reduced on corn (Zea mays L.) plants where the silks had been exposed to an episode of simulated acid rain at pH 3.6 as compared with yields on plants with silks exposed to simulated rain of pH 5.6. The reduction in yield appeared related to a decrease in pollen germination and tube elongation associated with acidic

L. E. Craker; P. F. Waldron

2009-01-01

178

Limits to Achieving Potential Yield of Canola in Southern NSW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canola yielded to its water-limited potential (12 kg\\/ha\\/mm) in field experiments at three sites in southern NSW in 2001 when N nutrition was adequate, Blackleg severity was low and Sclerotinia was controlled using fungicides applied during flowering. Yields in excess of 4 t\\/ha were achieved under these conditions. The results suggest that Sclerotinia is causing significant yield loss (~20%) in

John Kirkegaard; Michael Robertson; Mark Barber; Jim Wright; Peter Hamblin

2003-01-01

179

Modeling sediment yields in Italian catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment yield observations, derived from 40 long-term sedimentation records in Italian reservoirs, were used to calibrate and validate the spatially distributed sediment delivery model WaTEM/SEDEM using the best data available at national scale. The sediment yield data set includes records from semi-natural catchments in northern Italy as well as agricultural and semi-natural basins in central and southern Italy. The average size of the catchments is 150 km2 with mean annual sediment yields ranging from 0.20 to 20 t ha-1 year-1. WaTEM/SEDEM estimates mean annual sediment fluxes to permanent river channels. Depending on the local transport capacity, the sediment flux is detachment-limited or transport-limited. The optimal transport capacity parameters for Italian conditions were derived via automatic calibration procedures. A global model calibration procedure taking into account all catchments in the dataset led to an overestimation of the sediment yield for the mountain catchments and an underestimation for the non-mountain catchments. Sediment yield estimates are more reliable when calibration procedures are applied separately for mountain and non-mountain catchments. The model performance of WaTEM/SEDEM is rather poor in the mountain catchments (R=0.25), which suggests that the model structure is too simplified to come to an adequate description of the sediment fluxes. The model performance for the non-mountain catchments, which are more important from a management point of view, is significantly better (R=0.51). Considering the fact that data layers with a 7575 m resolution were used, the results are encouraging the further development and application of spatially distributed sediment yield models at regional and national scale levels.

Rompaey, Anton Van; Bazzoffi, Paolo; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca

2005-02-01

180

Child Find Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help school districts meet the Child Find requirements of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, the manual considers ways of locating unknown handicapped children and reviews aspects of recordkeeping, confidentiality and due process. An initial section addresses the role of Chld Find in the delivery of special

Bradley, Ralph A.; And Others

181

Africa Region: Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Findings_ reports on ongoing operational, economic, and sector work carried out by the World Bank and its member governments in the Africa Region. Currently, issues of agricultural extension in Madagascar, drought and Sub-Saharan African economies, and gender issues in Ethiopia are discussed in four Findings articles (Nos. 117-119).

1992-01-01

182

Weather Variation and Crop Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the efiects of rising mean temperatures on agricultural output have been studied extensively, there is limited discussion of the impact of inter-annual weather variation on crop yields. This paper estimates the link between weather and crop yields separating the in?uence of (i) mean weather outcomes (i.e., climate) to which a farmer can adapt from (ii) unpredictable year-to-year weather ?uctuations

Wolfram Schlenker

183

A significant improvement of both yield and purity during SWCNT synthesis via the electric arc process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the optimisation of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesis by the electric arc technique using so-called heterogeneous anodes filled with Ni and Y catalysts along with either graphite (large-grain or small-grain) or diamond powders. The various carbon nanophases produced were analyzed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Plasma physical properties were determined by emission spectroscopy and

A. Mansour; M. Razafinimanana; M. Monthioux; M. Pacheco; A. Gleizes

2007-01-01

184

Effects of dwarfing genes on yield and yield components under irrigated and rainfed conditions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-isogenic tall (no dwarfing gene), semidwarf (Rht1 or Rht2) and dwarf (Rht1 + Rht2 or Rht3) spring wheat lines were evaluated for yield and yield components under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, the dwarf and the semidwarf lines exhibited a significant yield advantage over the tall lines. Under rainfed conditions, the semidwarf lines outyielded the tall as well

M. Nizam Uddin; D. R. Marshall

1989-01-01

185

Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were

Whitman, Robert S.

1964-01-01

186

Observation of B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}and evidence for B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}at Belle  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}and B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}decays in a data sample of 657x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We find 446{sub -56}{sup +58} B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}events with a significance of 8.1 standard deviations, and 146{sub -41}{sup +42} B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}events with a significance of 3.5 standard deviations. The latter signal provides the first evidence for this decay mode. The measured branching fractions are B(B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}})=(2.12{sub -0.27}{sup +0.28}(stat){+-}0.29(syst))% and B(B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}})=(0.77{+-}0.22(stat){+-}0.12(syst))%.

Bozek, A.; Rozanska, M.; Kapusta, P.; Matyja, A.; Ostrowicz, W.; Stypula, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Adachi, I.; Higuchi, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.; Sakai, Y.; Schuemann, J.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

2010-10-01

187

[Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].  

PubMed

The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

2003-01-01

188

Finding a Donor  

MedlinePLUS

... about the steps involved in finding a matching bone marrow donor . HLA matching Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing is used to match you with a donor for your bone marrow or cord blood transplant. Learn more about how ...

189

Radio Direction Finding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discussed in the book are the theoretical principles of radio direction finding and the operating principles of the various types of radio direction finders. Questions concerned with the practical use of ground station radio direction finders are reviewed...

E. S. Goikhman M. I. Rogatkin V. A. Vartanesyan

1970-01-01

190

Find a Dentist  

MedlinePLUS

... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Wednesday, September 25, 2013 About | Contact Find an ... more. Disclaimer of Liabilities The Academy of General Dentistry's (AGD) Web site provides a listing of members ...

191

Find a Blood Establishment  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Find a Blood Establishment. Welcome to the eBER Public Query application. You may use this application to review blood ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/establishmentregistration

192

Corn yield prediction using climatology  

SciTech Connect

A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of ear growth and the beginning of grain fill. The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

Duchon, C.E.

1986-05-01

193

Maximizing DNA yield for epidemiologic studies: no more buffy coats?  

PubMed

Some molecular analyses require microgram quantities of DNA, yet many epidemiologic studies preserve only the buffy coat. In Frederick, Maryland, in 2010, we estimated DNA yields from 5 mL of whole blood and from equivalent amounts of all-cell-pellet (ACP) fraction, buffy coat, and residual blood cells from fresh blood (n = 10 volunteers) and from both fresh and frozen blood (n = 10). We extracted DNA with the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, Maryland) for silica spin column capture and measured double-stranded DNA. Yields from frozen blood fractions were not statistically significantly different from those obtained from fresh fractions. ACP fractions yielded 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 66, 97) of the yield of frozen whole blood and 99.3% (95% confidence interval: 86, 100) of the yield of fresh blood. Frozen buffy coat and residual blood cells each yielded only half as much DNA as frozen ACP, and the yields were more variable. Assuming that DNA yield and quality from frozen ACP are stable, we recommend freezing plasma and ACP. Not only does ACP yield twice as much DNA as buffy coat but it is easier to process, and its yield is less variable from person to person. Long-term stability studies are needed. If one wishes to separate buffy coat before freezing, one should also save the residual blood cell fraction, which contains just as much DNA. PMID:23857774

Gail, Mitchell H; Sheehy, Tim; Cosentino, Mark; Pee, David; Diaz-Mayoral, Norma A; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Caporaso, Neil E; Pitt, Karen; Ziegler, Regina G

2013-07-14

194

Status of fission yield data  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

1988-01-01

195

An improved extraction method to increase DNA yield from molted ...  

Treesearch

We also compared PCR success across the same five feather types using five ... Although our modified extraction method increased the time required for ... it resulted in significantly higher yields of DNA as compared to the unmodified protocol.

196

Research note Yield stress for initial firmness determination on yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield stress and apparent residual stress were measured in laboratory-made yogurts containing different gum concentrations and in seven retail yogurts. Yield stress exhibited significant correlation (p < 0.001) with the sensory initial firmness perceived by trained pan- elists in both laboratory-made (r = 0.99) and retail (r > 0.97) yogurts. Apparent residual stress was significantly correlated with sensory viscosity for

F. Harte; S. Clark; G. V. Barbosa-Canovas

197

Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutirrez-Vlez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutirrez-Vlez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutirrez-Vlez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high-yield plantations could be further analyzed by considering whether they help depress global prices, reducing incentives to expand elsewhere (Angelsen and Kaimowitz 2001). The significance of the study goes well beyond the bounds of Ucayli, and highlights risks to Amazonian forests from oil palm expansion (Butler and Laurance 2010). Oil palm is an astoundingly profitable and productive crop, with typical oil yields more than ten times that of soy. Some have even argued that oil palm is innately land sparing because it would take substantially more land for all other oil-bearing crops to provide the same output. However, most production gains from oil palm have occurred through increased area rather than increased yield, and in many cases expansion has been through forest clearing (Koh and Wilcove 2008, Gibbs et al 2010). The findings of Gutirrez-Vlez et al (2011) are particularly significant considering that the booming palm oil sectors in Indonesia and Malaysia, which currently produce over 80% of the world's product, are facing a host of pressures that constrain future area expansion. Malaysia has little remaining land suited for plantations and Indonesia faces intensifying international scrutiny over the future of their forestlands. Consequently, the Amazon basin is widely considered the new frontier, with more than half of its forest area suitable for palm oil cultivation (Butler and Laurance 2010) and growing incentives from Brazil's Program for the Sustainable Production of Oil Palm, which aims to utilize degraded lands and spur reforestation efforts. Their results also illuminate another key issue, namely the constraints faced by large-scale producers when they seek to expand plantation area. Emerging demand-side conservation efforts, such as the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), assume that already cleared and non-forested lands are freely available. Gutirrez-Vlez et al (2011) hint at the obstacles to using such cleared lands, which is that they are inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these c

Gibbs, Holly

2012-03-01

198

FindTutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FindTutorials offers hundreds of tutorials and professional online IT and Softskills training courses that are available for a variety of disciplines and skill levels. In addition, it offers an online e-mail system, an IT job database with thousands of daily updated positions, and a host of additional resources on internet training skills. With simple to use navigational tools and a "sophisticated in-house developed site search", finding information to meet your requirements merely takes the click of a button.

2007-07-29

199

Sediment Yields and Sediment Sources in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine-grained sediment is having an adverse effect on the living resources and habitat of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. In order to reduce sediment inputs to the Bay, it is necessary to quantify erosion rates and sediment yields and identify the significant sources of fine-grained sediment. Sediment sources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed were identified using different methods at several scales. At the Chesapeake Bay scale (165,800 km2), U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment data collected from 1985 through 2001 for 35 stations showed that 4 of the 6 highest sediment yields were in the Conestoga River Basin, Pennsylvania, which drains to the Susquehanna River. In the Susquehanna River Basin (70,190 km2), erosion rates were determined using atmospheric 10Be at 92 river outlets and confirmed that the highest rates of erosion were in the Conestoga River Basin. In three small watersheds draining to the Chesapeake Bay -- the Pocomoke River (157 km2), Little Conestoga Creek (109 km2), and Mattawoman Creek (142 km2) -- sediment sources were identified using a sediment-fingerprinting approach. In this approach, the sources of fine-grained suspended sediment in transport can be established by comparing physical and chemical properties of the suspended sediment to potential sources. In this study, suspended sediment (< 0.062 mm) collected during storm runoff was compared to upland sediment sources (cropland, construction sites, and forest) and channel corridor sources (channel banks and bed) using radionuclides (210Pb, 137Cs), stable isotopes (13C, 15N), and total C, N, and P. Preliminary results are available for two of the three watersheds. In the Pocomoke River watershed, ditch beds which were dug to drain cropland are a significant source of sediment. In the Little Conestoga Creek watershed, river banks and cropland are significant sources Erosion rates for nine cropland sites in the Little Conestoga Creek watershed were also determined with 137Cs inventories and indicated an average rate of erosion of 16.4 tons/hectare/year, which is about 25 times the sediment yield of the Little Conestoga Creek (0.65 tons/hectare/year). This finding indicates substantial sediment storage in the watershed.

Gellis, A. C.; Landwehr, J. M.; Pavich, M. J.; Hupp, C. R.; Ritchie, J. C.; Reuter, J. M.

2005-12-01

200

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

201

Finding Those Missing Links  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author stresses not to give up on a site when a URL returns an error message. Many web sites can be found by using strategies such as URL trimming, searching cached sites, site searching and searching the WayBack Machine. Methods and tips for finding web sites are contained within this article.|

Gunn, Holly

2004-01-01

202

Finding Our Top Speed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson sets the stage for a discussion of travel in the solar system. Learners measure how far they can walk in 8 seconds. By considering a real-world, hands-on activity, learners develop their understanding of time and distance. Finally, learners plot the data they have collected and find the slope to determine the average rate of speed.

Mathematics, National C.

2012-01-01

203

Find A Grave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for genealogical information about long deceased relatives can often prove to be troubling and at times expensive, to say nothing of locating where they might be buried in order to pay your respects. Find a Grave is an excellent way to locate the burial places of family and friends, and it is completely free of charge. From their site, visitors can search for the graves of relatives and ancestors by typing in their surname, which will allow the search engine to query over 3.8 million burial records. Additionally, visitors can search through different cemeteries and make their own contributions to the Web site about family members and other loved ones. Along with making contributions to the site's database (a prime reason that the site has so many burial records), visitors make join discussion forums or share their success stories about locating burial sites and so on. For visitors looking to find the burial place of a famous individual, Find A Grave has another massive database, searchable by name, location, and date, with many of the entries containing a photograph of the famous individual and some brief biographical information. While the subject of death is a rather emotive and personal one, Find A Grave has done a fine job of providing an important information source for many individuals, attested to by the many success stories posted on the site.

2000-01-01

204

Finding the Sweet Spot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will discover how to find the "sweet spots" on a baseball bat. Whenever an object is struck, it vibrates in response. These vibrations travel in waves up and down the length of the object. At one point, called "the node," the waves always cancel each other out. The "sweet spot" is actually a node!

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

205

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS 1962 REPORT CONTAINS THE FINDINGS OF A 2-YEAR ANALYSIS OF EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITIES IN THE DETROIT PUBLIC SCHOOLS. ALTHOUGH FACTORS ARE EXAMINED WHICH AFFECT THE EDUCATION OF ALL PUPILS, THE REPORT PARTICULARLY FOCUSES ON RACE RELATIONS, DISCRIMINATION, AND THE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. SPECIFICALLY DISCUSSED ARE

Detroit Board of Education, MI. Citizens Advisory Committee on Equal Educational Opportunities.

206

Finding Meaning in Adversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiencing hardship, suffering and loss and finding a way to learn from one's experiences rather than being overtaken, diminished and embittered by them, constitutes an inevitable human challenge. Yet surprisingly, little has been written about the structure of the experience of adversity. Equally astounding is the fact that although there is considerable knowledge about the personality traits and behavioral patterns

Nancy E. Johnston

2003-01-01

207

Finding meaning in adversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiencing hardship, suffering and loss and finding a way to learn from one's experiences rather than being overtaken, diminished and embittered by them, constitutes an inevitable human challenge. Yet surprisingly, little has been written about the structure of the experience of adversity. Equally astounding is the fact that although there is considerable knowledge about the personality traits and behavioral patterns

Nancy E Johnston

2003-01-01

208

Finding Their Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Every time Dr. Larry Shinagawa teaches his "Introduction to Asian American Studies" course at the University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, he finds that 10 to 20 percent of his students are adoptees. Among other things, they hunger to better comprehend the social and political circumstances overseas leading to their adoption. In response, UMD

Lum, Lydia

2009-01-01

209

Finding Maximum Convex Polygons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the situation where one is given a finite set of n points in the plane each of which is labeled either positive or negative. The problem is to find a bounded convex polygon of maximum area, the vertices of which are positive points and which does not contain any negative point. It is shown that this problem

Paul Fischer; Lehrstuhl Informatik II

1993-01-01

210

Plant density-dependent variations in bioactive markers and root yield in Australian-grown Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.  

PubMed

The plant density-dependent variations in the root yield and content, and the yield of biomarkers in Australian grown Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, were investigated in a field trial involving six different plant densities. The key biomarker compounds cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and salvianolic acid B were quantified by a validated RP-HPLC method, and the root yields were determined per plant pair or unit area. There were significant variations (p<0.05) in the root yields and contents and the yields of the biomarkers between the different plant densities. Positive linear correlations were observed between the contents of the three tanshinones, whereas negative linear correlations were revealed between the contents of the tanshinones and salvianolic acid B. The highest root yield per plant pair was achieved when the plants were grown at 4530?cm or 4540?cm, whereas the highest root production par unit area was obtained for a plant density of 3030?cm. The highest contents of the three tanshinones and the most abundant production of these tanshinones per unit area were achieved when the plants were grown at 3030?cm. However, the highest content of salvianolic acid B was found for a density of 4540?cm, while its highest yield per unit area was obtained for densities of 3040?cm or 4530?cm. The findings suggest that the plant density distinctly affects the root yield and content and the yield of tanshinones and salvianolic acid B in Australian grown S. miltiorrhiza, which may be used as a guide for developing optimal agricultural procedures for cultivating this herb. PMID:21480516

Li, Chun Guang; Sheng, Shu Jun; Pang, Edwin C K; May, Brian; Xue, Charlie Chang Li

2011-04-01

211

INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL FUNGICIDE TREATMENT OF OAT SEED ON SEEDLING EMERGENCE, SEED YIELD, AND KERNEL WEIGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating sound seed of five oat (Avena sativa) varieties with six fungicide chemicals in field trials over a sdn years resulted in seed yields and kernel weights not significantly different from those of the untreated controls. Seedling emergence was increased slightly. Average seed yields were significantly different over the 3-year period but kernel weights were not. Varietal seed yields and

R. V. Clark

1971-01-01

212

Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ? 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Two companies in Osaka, Japan. Subjects: 130 Japanese male workers selected randomly during their annual regular health check up and 116 Japanese male volunteers taking part in a smoking cessation programme. Main outcome measurements: Subjects answered a questionnaire about smoking habits. Following the interview, each participant was asked to smoke his own cigarette and, after extinguishing it, to blow expired air into an apparatus for measuring carbon monoxide concentration. Urine was also collected for the assays of nicotine metabolites. Results: We found wide variation in urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations at any given nicotine yield. Based on one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations of ultra low yield cigarette smokers were significantly lower compared to smokers of high (p = 0.002) and medium yield cigarettes (p = 0.017). On the other hand, the estimated nicotine intake per ultra low yield cigarette smoked (0.59 mg) was much higher than the 0.1 mg indicated by machine. Conclusions: In this study of Japanese male smokers, actual levels of nicotine intake bore little relation to advertised nicotine yield levels. Our study reinforces the need to warn consumers of inappropriate advertisements of nicotine yields, especially low yield brands.

Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

2002-01-01

213

Enhancement of yield strength in zirconium metal through high-pressure induced structural phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here a high-pressure phase-transition induced strengthening in ultrapure zirconium metal. The determined yield strength shows more than sixfold abrupt increase at the transition pressure of Pc=6 GPa, from ?y?~180 MPa in the low-pressure phase of ?-Zr to ?y?~1180 MPa in the high-pressure phase of ?-Zr. The observed enhancement provides an alternate route for material strengthening and is the most significant among the known strengthening techniques for metals. Our findings support the theoretical simulations of the substantial covalent bonding and ``rougher'' corrugation of slip planes for dislocations in the ?-phase of zirconium.

Zhao, Yusheng; Zhang, Jianzhong

2007-11-01

214

Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.  

PubMed

In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. PMID:22932270

Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

2012-08-29

215

Finding Monster Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the varying sizes of ocean waves, what causes such variation, and where to find giant waves. Students will learn the parts of a wave, and discuss wave height, wavelength, and wave period. They will explore variables that influence wave size through scientific visualizations. They will then experiment with creating waves on the National Geographic Wave Simulator and discuss how geography affects waves.

216

Finding Gale Strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem 2-Nash of finding a Nash equilibrium of a bimatrix game belongs to the complexity class PPAD. This class comprises computational problems that are known to have a solution by means of a path-following argument. For bimatrix games, this argument is provided by the LemkeHowson algorithm. It has been shown that this algorithm is worst-case exponential with the help

Marta M. Casetti; Julian Merschen; Bernhard von Stengel

2010-01-01

217

CT findings in leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Review of 84 computed tomographic (CT) scans in leukemic patients demonstrate a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Findings caused by leukemia were lymphadenopathy, visceral enlargement, focal defects, and tissue infiltration. Hemorrhage was by far the most common complication and could usually be characterized on the noncontrast CT scan. The distinction between old hematomas, foci of infection, and leukemia infiltration could not be made with certainty without CT-guided aspiration. Unusual instances of sepsis, such as microabscesses of the liver and typhlitis, were seen.

Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

1984-12-01

218

Find Arc Degree Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will introduce central angles, arcs of circles, congruent circles, and congruent arcs. Note taking time! Find the definition of a central angle, minor arc, major arc,semicircle, measure of a minor arc, and measure of a major arc from page 659 of your text from Class Zone: Class Zone Geometry Textbook Check your answers in the following links: Angles in Circles Arcs in Circles Now take notes from page 660 in your text from Class Zone ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-08

219

The Great Fossil Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this imaginary fossil hunt, students learn about the uncertainty of science and the fact that, as new evidence is revealed, ideas may change. As they follow a script read by the teacher, students find (remove from envelope) paper fossils of some unknown creature, a few at a time. Each time, they attempt to reconstruct the creature and each time their interpretation tends to change as new pieces are found.

220

Down-regulation of Glucan, Water-Dikinase activity in wheat endosperm increases vegetative biomass and yield.  

PubMed

A novel mechanism for increasing vegetative biomass and grain yield has been identified in wheat (Triticum aestivum). RNAi-mediated down-regulation of Glucan, Water-Dikinase (GWD), the primary enzyme required for starch phosphorylation, under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, resulted in a decrease in starch phosphate content and an increase in grain size. Unexpectedly, consistent increases in vegetative biomass and grain yield were observed in subsequent generations. In lines where GWD expression was decreased, germination rate was slightly reduced. However, significant increases in vegetative growth from the two leaf stage were observed. In glasshouse pot trials, down-regulation of GWD led to a 29% increase in grain yield while in glasshouse tub trials simulating field row spacing and canopy development, GWD down-regulation resulted in a grain yield increase of 26%. The enhanced yield resulted from a combination of increases in seed weight, tiller number, spikelets per head and seed number per spike. In field trials, all vegetative phenotypes were reproduced with the exception of increased tiller number. The expression of the transgene and suppression of endogenous GWD RNA levels were demonstrated to be grain specific. In addition to the direct effects of GWD down-regulation, an increased level of ?-amylase activity was present in the aleurone layer during grain maturation. These findings provide a potentially important novel mechanism to increase biomass and grain yield in crop improvement programmes. PMID:22672098

Ral, Jean-Philippe; Bowerman, Andrew F; Li, Zhongyi; Sirault, Xavier; Furbank, Robert; Pritchard, Jenifer R; Bloemsma, Marianne; Cavanagh, Colin R; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K

2012-06-06

221

Scintillation efficiency and ionization yield of liquid xenon for monoenergetic nuclear recoils down to 4 keV  

SciTech Connect

Liquid xenon (LXe) is an excellent material for experiments designed to detect dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). A low energy detection threshold is essential for a sensitive WIMP search. The understanding of the relative scintillation efficiency (L{sub eff}) and ionization yield of low energy nuclear recoils in LXe is limited for energies below 10 keV. In this article, we present new measurements that extend the energy down to 4 keV, finding that L{sub eff} decreases with decreasing energy. We also measure the quenching of scintillation efficiency caused by the electric field in LXe, finding no significant field dependence.

Manzur, A.; Curioni, A.; Kastens, L.; McKinsey, D. N.; Ni, K.; Wongjirad, T. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2010-02-15

222

Multiple exciton generation in nano-crystals revisited: consistent calculation of the yield based on pump-probe spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Multiple exciton generation (MEG) is a process in which more than one exciton is generated upon the absorption of a high energy photon, typically higher than two times the band gap, in semiconductor nanocrystals. It can be observed experimentally using time resolved spectroscopy such as the transient absorption measurements. Quantification of the MEG yield is usually done by assuming that the bi-exciton signal is twice the signal from a single exciton. Herein we show that this assumption is not always justified and may lead to significant errors in the estimated MEG yields. We develop a methodology to determine proper scaling factors to the signals from the transient absorption experiments. Using the methodology we find modest MEG yields in lead chalcogenide nanocrystals including the nanorods. PMID:23887181

Karki, Khadga J; Ma, Fei; Zheng, Kaibo; Zidek, Karel; Mousa, Abdelrazek; Abdellah, Mohamed A; Messing, Maria E; Wallenberg, L Reine; Yartsev, Arkadi; Pullerits, Tnu

2013-01-01

223

Yield Analysis and Mixed Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Aconcept of yield analysis, an approach for estimating an observation-specific prediction of the dependent variable, has been developed. A relationship with Hildretch-Houck regression with random,coefficients is established. Two types of estimation are considered: (1) distribution-free that isbased,on variance ,least squares and weighted least squares and (2) maximum,likelihood that uses normal,assumption; ,not ,normally ,distributed regression coefficients are considered as well.

Eugene Demidenko; Igor Mandel

224

An evaluation of water-yield relations in maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha(-1) for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha(-1) for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m(-3), while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m(-3) in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity. PMID:18817120

Meng, Glay Pamuk; Ozgrel, Mustafa

2008-02-15

225

Optimum Significance Levels for Multistage Comparison Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framework for multistage comparison procedures in the present paper is roughly that introduced by Duncan and treated more fully by Tukey. In the present paper we consider the problem of finding the optimum allocation of nominal significance levels for successive stages. The optimum procedure we obtain when the number $s$ of treatments is odd, and the compromise procedure we

E. L. Lehmann; Juliet Popper Shaffer

1979-01-01

226

Nonlinear temperature effects indicate severe damages to U.S. crop yields under climate change  

PubMed Central

The United States produces 41% of the world's corn and 38% of the world's soybeans. These crops comprise two of the four largest sources of caloric energy produced and are thus critical for world food supply. We pair a panel of county-level yields for these two crops, plus cotton (a warmer-weather crop), with a new fine-scale weather dataset that incorporates the whole distribution of temperatures within each day and across all days in the growing season. We find that yields increase with temperature up to 29 C for corn, 30 C for soybeans, and 32 C for cotton but that temperatures above these thresholds are very harmful. The slope of the decline above the optimum is significantly steeper than the incline below it. The same nonlinear and asymmetric relationship is found when we isolate either time-series or cross-sectional variations in temperatures and yields. This suggests limited historical adaptation of seed varieties or management practices to warmer temperatures because the cross-section includes farmers' adaptations to warmer climates and the time-series does not. Holding current growing regions fixed, area-weighted average yields are predicted to decrease by 3046% before the end of the century under the slowest (B1) warming scenario and decrease by 6382% under the most rapid warming scenario (A1FI) under the Hadley III model.

Schlenker, Wolfram; Roberts, Michael J.

2009-01-01

227

Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data*  

PubMed Central

One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies.

Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng

2008-01-01

228

Search for new physics in B{yields}D*{tau}nu-bar {sub {tau}} decay  

SciTech Connect

B physics offers important tests of the Standard Model at low energies. Recently, BaBar observed significant deviations from the Standard Model expectations in the semileptonic B{yields}D{sup (*)}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays. Interestingly, the measured leptonic B{yields}{tau}{nu} branching fraction also deviates from CKM unitarity predictions. Motivated by these results we investigate the most general set of lowest dimensional effective operators leading to modifications of b{yields}c(u) (semi)tauonic transitions. Allowing for general flavor violation, we find that among possible operator structures, new contributions from right-right vector and right-left scalar quark currents provide viable explanations of the anomalies. In addition, we identify a number of B{yields}D*{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} transition observables with the power to discriminate among the various effective operators' contributions. They are the differential decay rate, longitudinal D* polarization fraction, D*-{tau} opening angle asymmetry and the {tau} helicity asymmetry.

Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Nisandzic, Ivan [Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2012-10-23

229

Determining yields in high solids enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.  

PubMed

As technologies for utilizing biomass for fuel and chemical production continue to improve, enzymatic hydrolysis can be run at still higher solids concentrations. For hydrolyses that initially contain little or no free water (10-40% total solids, w/w), the saccharification of insoluble polymers into soluble sugars involves changes of volume, density, and proportion of insoluble solids. This poses a new challenge when determining the degree of hydrolysis (conversion yield). Experiments have shown that calculating the yield from the resulting sugar concentration in the supernatant of the slurry and using the assumed initial volume leads to significant overestimations of the yield. By measuring the proportion of insoluble solids in the slurry as well as the sugar concentration and specific gravity of the aqueous phase, it is possible to precisely calculate the degree of conversion. The discrepancies between the different ways of calculating yields are demonstrated along with a nonlaborious method for approximating yields in high solids hydrolysis. PMID:18836690

Kristensen, Jan B; Felby, Claus; Jrgensen, Henning

2008-10-04

230

Yield impacting systematic defects search and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite great effort before design tapeout, there are still some pattern related systematic defects showing up in production, which impact product yield. Through various check points in the production life cycle endeavor is made to detect these defective patterns. It is seen that apart from the known defective patterns, slight variations of polygon sizes and shapes in the known defective patterns also cause yield loss. This complexity is further compounded when interactions among multiple process layers causes the defect. Normally the exact pattern matching techniques cannot detect these variations of the defective patterns. With the currently existing tools in the fab it is a challenge to define the 'sensitive patterns', which are arbitrary variations in the known 'defective patterns'. A design based approach has been successfully experimented on product wafers to detect yield impacting defects that greatly reduces the TAT for hotspot analysis and also provides optimized care area definition to enable high sensitivity wafer inspection. A novel Rule based pattern search technique developed by Anchor Semiconductor has been used to find sensitive patterns in the full chip design. This technique allows GUI based pattern search rule generation like, edge move or edge-to-edge distance range, so that any variations of a particular sensitive pattern can be captured and flagged. Especially the pattern rules involving multiple process layers, like M1-V1-M2, can be defined easily using this technique. Apart from using this novel pattern search technique, design signatures are also extracted around the defect locations in the wafer and used in defect classification. This enhanced defect classification greatly helps in determining most critical defects among the total defect population. The effectiveness of this technique has been established through design to defect correlation and SEM verification. In this paper we will report details of the design based experiments that were successfully run on multiple process layers in production device.

Zhang, Jing; Xu, Qingxiu; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xing; Ning, Jay; Cheng, Guojie; Chen, Shijie; Zhang, Gary; Vikram, Abhishek; Su, Bo

2012-03-01

231

Alternatives to Statistical Significance Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers increasingly recognize that significance tests are limited in their ability to inform scientific practice. Common errors in interpreting significance tests and three strategies for augmenting the interpretation of significance test results are illustrated. The first strategy for augmenting the interpretation of significance tests

Palomares, Ronald S.

232

MRI Findings in Neuroferritinopathy  

PubMed Central

Neuroferritinopathy is a neurodegenerative disease which demonstrates brain iron accumulation caused by the mutations in the ferritin light chain gene. On brain MRI in neuroferritinopathy, iron deposits are observed as low-intensity areas on T2WI and as signal loss on T2?WI. On T2WI, hyperintense abnormalities reflecting tissue edema and gliosis are also seen. Another characteristic finding is the presence of symmetrical cystic changes in the basal ganglia, which are seen in the advanced stages of this disorder. Atrophy is sometimes noted in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices. The variety in the MRI findings is specific to neuroferritinopathy. Based on observations of an excessive iron content in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, the presence of excess iron is therefore recognized as a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The future development of multimodal and advanced MRI techniques is thus expected to play an important role in accurately measuring the brain iron content and thereby further elucidating the neurodegenerative process.

Ohta, Emiko; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

2012-01-01

233

MRI findings in neuroferritinopathy.  

PubMed

Neuroferritinopathy is a neurodegenerative disease which demonstrates brain iron accumulation caused by the mutations in the ferritin light chain gene. On brain MRI in neuroferritinopathy, iron deposits are observed as low-intensity areas on T2WI and as signal loss on T2(?)WI. On T2WI, hyperintense abnormalities reflecting tissue edema and gliosis are also seen. Another characteristic finding is the presence of symmetrical cystic changes in the basal ganglia, which are seen in the advanced stages of this disorder. Atrophy is sometimes noted in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices. The variety in the MRI findings is specific to neuroferritinopathy. Based on observations of an excessive iron content in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, the presence of excess iron is therefore recognized as a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The future development of multimodal and advanced MRI techniques is thus expected to play an important role in accurately measuring the brain iron content and thereby further elucidating the neurodegenerative process. PMID:21808735

Ohta, Emiko; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

2011-07-21

234

The Significance of Adolescents' Relationships with Significant Others and School Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates the importance of social support from students' significant others (parents, peers and teachers) in the process of doing well at school. The main focus of the research project was to find correlations between the quality of adolescents' relationships with significant others and their school success or school failure, as

Domagala-Zysk, Ewa

2006-01-01

235

31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial transaction. 561.404 Section...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

2013-07-01

236

Sediment Yield Modeling in a Large Scale Drainage Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of spatially distributed sediment yield modeling in the upper Indus River basin. Spatial erosion rates calculated by using the Thornes model at 1-kilometre spatial resolution and monthly time scale indicate that 87 % of the annual gross erosion takes place in the three summer months. The model predicts a total annual erosion rate of 868

K. Ali; D. H. de Boer

2009-01-01

237

The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays  

SciTech Connect

The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

Achasov, N. N., E-mail: achasov@math.nsc.ru [Russina Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15

238

75 FR 34774 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...activities involved use of the following radionuclides with half-lives greater than 120 days: Barium 133, cesium 137, americium 241, and uranium 238. Prior to performing the final status survey,...

2010-06-18

239

76 FR 65541 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is considering a request dated December 2, 2010, by ZionSolutions, LLC (ZS, the licensee) requesting exemptions from certain security requirements in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations...

2011-10-21

240

75 FR 25301 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Monitoring, Water Resources, Geology, Soils, Air Quality, Demography, Biota...environmental monitoring, water resources, geology, soils, air quality, demography, biota...environmental monitoring, water resources, geology, soils, air quality, demography,...

2010-05-07

241

75 FR 6067 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact for License Amendment for Revised Groundwater Protection Standards, Western Nuclear...Inc. (WNI), to authorize revised groundwater protection standards for its facility...license amendment request for revised groundwater protection standards. On [[Page...

2010-02-05

242

77 FR 48131 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Limiting the consumption of freshwater resources and returning water back to the same watershed so as not to deplete the groundwater and surface water resources of that region in quantity or quality; and (3) Reducing, reusing, and recovering waste...

2012-08-13

243

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact - Mckay Bypass Canal Extension  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1262) to extend the McKay Bypass Canal on the east side of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. The McKay Bypass Canal Extension (Extension) is needed to route water from the existing canal around the Walnut Creek drainage, thus preventing potential co-mingling of Broomfield city water (collected from the Coal Creek drainage) with Site runoff water. The EA describes and analyzes the environmental effects of the Proposed Action (using a buried pipeline for the extension), and the alternatives of taking no action, using an open ditch for the extension, and using an aboveground pipeline for the extension. The EA was the subject of a public comment period from July 22 to August 6, 1998. Written comments regarding the EA were received from the City of Broomfield and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

N /A

1998-09-01

244

A rare finding of the superficial palmar arch-developmental and clinical significance.  

PubMed

The ulnar artery provides a major blood supply to the hand in the form of the superficial palmar arch, with the assistance of the radial artery. A rare pattern of the superficial palmar arch was observed in a formalin fixed, male cadaveric left hand. The ulnar artery was only involved in the formation of this arch, which provided three common palmar digital arteries which ran into the second, third and the fourth spaces between the corresponding digits and one proper palmar digital artery which ran along the ulnar side of the little finger. The main trunk of the ulnar artery bifurcated to supply the thumb and the index finger. The superficial branch of the radial artery did not participate in the arch formation. The arch was completed by the radial artery proper on the dorsolateral surface of the hand, after joining the point of bifuracation of the ulnar artery. PMID:23730652

Saxena, Alok; Agarwal, Kishore Kumar; Ray, Biswabina; Pyrtuh, Samuel

2013-04-01

245

78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Transportation West Building, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...mil/d1/prevention/Bridges.asp, www.dhs.gov...Bldg, 1 South Street, Building 1, New York, NY 10004...to modify the Bayonne Bridge across navigable waters...highway and structural design standards. In...

2013-05-16

246

Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

1996-08-01

247

Significant Findings Related to Formation of Chlorinated Organics in the Presence of Chloramines,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the drinking water industry is to produce safe, potable water for its consumers at the lowest possible cost. As the definition of acceptable quality changes via federal regulations, many communities are experiencing difficulty in ...

R. Arber M. A. Speed F. Scully

1984-01-01

248

Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

NONE

1996-04-01

249

Finding of no significant impact; Atlantic Richfield Company and Intalco Aluminum Corporation  

SciTech Connect

On February 27, 1989, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Opinion and Order No. 301 to Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) conditionally authorizing the importation of Canadian natural gas for use in its refinery near Ferndale, Washington. On February 28, 1989, the DOE issued Opinion and Order No. 302 to Intalco Aluminum Corporation (Intalco) conditionally authorizing the importation of Canadian natural gas for use in its aluminum smelting plant near Ferndale, Washington. However, both conditional orders provided that the issues raised in the proceedings would be reexamined upon subsequent completion of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for the Ferndale Pipeline project and that the final action would then be taken on the conditional orders. The DOE reviewed the project and determined that the pipeline project would not affect the quality of the environment.

Not Available

1990-01-01

250

Finding of No Significant Impact: Quartz Creek Fish Barrier, September 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The upper Quartz drainage is the only one of the ten major drainages of the Flathead River watershed in Glacier National Park that is altogether free of non-native fish species and contains the Columbia River population of bull trout (Salvelinus confluent...

2004-01-01

251

Bradfield Electric and Alaska Power Authority Presidential Permit: Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering an application by Bradfield Electric, Inc. (Bradfield), and the Alaska Power Authority (APA) for a Presidential permit to construct, operate, maintain and connec...

1988-01-01

252

75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Arizona, which is necessary to effectively combat the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. The environmental assessment provides...and Arizona, which is necessary to effectively combat the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. In that notice, we stated...

2010-01-15

253

75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...building materials, and soil debris from Unit 3. The waste...the NRC to exempt the low-contaminated material authorized for disposal...and other metal, wood and soil debris generated during dismantlement...alternate disposal would conserve low-level radioactive waste...

2010-11-10

254

75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...stabilizing the materials in accordance with NRC standards in 10 CFR part 40. The cover over the disposal area would consist of a radon/ infiltration barrier, overlain by a frost protection layer and rock erosion protection layers. Following approval by...

2010-10-15

255

75 FR 81316 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-341] Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment...License No. NFP-43, issued to Detroit Edison Company (the licensee), for operation...The Need for the Proposed Action Detroit Edison's Fermi 2 biennial evaluated...

2010-12-27

256

Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation on Cardiovascular Parameters: An Absence of Biologically Significant Findings?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyzes the variations of heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) during 60 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). All variables were evaluated every 2 h in a resting condition, during the performance of a vigilance task. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men and 15 women) from 18 to 24 years old participated

Elena Mir; Maria Carmen Cano; Gualberto Buela-Casal

2002-01-01

257

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation...or adversely affects an American Indian tribe's religious...Commission shall solicit the views of that American Indian tribe. See ...Commission determines, based on an independent...

2012-10-01

258

67 FR 79228 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Summary Environmental Assessment-Mexicali-Calexico...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Conveyor Belt, Imperial County, CA The proposed action is to issue a Presidential...Enforcement Facility were shipped from Salton Sea Beach, 74 miles from the Calexico...National Register of Historic Places (CA-IMP-7320-H). This project...

2002-12-27

259

78 FR 4134 - Availability of the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment AGENCY: Department of the...Environmental Assessment (PEA) for Army force structure realignments that may occur from Fiscal...to provide flexibility as future force structure realignment decisions are made;...

2013-01-18

260

78 FR 21919 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment AGENCY: Department of the...FNSI) for implementation of force structure realignment to reduce the Army active...Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment (PEA), supporting...

2013-04-12

261

75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...30, 40, and 70; Commencement of Construction Requirements; AREVA Enrichment Services...for Exemption from Commencement of Construction Requirements...application from the ``commencement of construction'' provisions of Title 10 of the...

2010-03-16

262

76 FR 66334 - Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...consider the potential impacts from NFS discharges of...magnitude with the potential impacts for the requested 40-year...undue cumulative risks to human health and the environment...comments on the draft EA, impacts from site decommissioning...MODERATE (soils)....

2011-10-26

263

77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INFORMATION: Turning Point Solar proposes to construct a 49.9 MW solar generating facility in Brookfield...photovoltaic panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment and the construction...land owned by Columbus Southern Power Company and Ohio Power...

2012-04-27

264

A Rare Finding of the Superficial Palmar Arch-Developmental and Clinical Significance  

PubMed Central

The ulnar artery provides a major blood supply to the hand in the form of the superficial palmar arch, with the assistance of the radial artery. A rare pattern of the superficial palmar arch was observed in a formalin fixed, male cadaveric left hand. The ulnar artery was only involved in the formation of this arch, which provided three common palmar digital arteries which ran into the second, third and the fourth spaces between the corresponding digits and one proper palmar digital artery which ran along the ulnar side of the little finger. The main trunk of the ulnar artery bifurcated to supply the thumb and the index finger. The superficial branch of the radial artery did not participate in the arch formation. The arch was completed by the radial artery proper on the dorsolateral surface of the hand, after joining the point of bifuracation of the ulnar artery.

Saxena, Alok; Agarwal, Kishore Kumar; Ray, Biswabina; Pyrtuh, Samuel

2013-01-01

265

Environmental Impact Assessment and Findings of No Significant Impact for the Proposed Asbestos Standard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This environmental assessment presents an analysis of the environmental effects that may be expected to occur as a result of the implementation of the proposed action. This report discusses asbestos production, use, and health effects; the proposed action...

A. Cyr

1984-01-01

266

77 FR 76050 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...use specified in materials submitted by AquaBounty Technologies, Inc., in support of a new animal drug application...a GE Atlantic salmon containing the opAFP-GHc2 recombinant DNA construct is being made available for public...

2012-12-26

267

75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the...James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located...will not present an undue risk to the public health and...James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Docket No....

2010-03-11

268

Find Significant Gene Information Based on Changing Points of Microarray Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

For transformations, a set of new basis is normally chosen for the data. The selection of the new basis determines the properties that will be held by the transformed data. For wavelet transform, a set of wavelet basis aims to detect the localized features contained in microarray data. In this research, we investigate the performance of wavelet features based on

Yihui Liu; Li Bai

2009-01-01

269

75 FR 34151 - Availability: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact; Modoc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...grasslands, and sagebrush/juniper upland habitats. These habitats provide important resting, feeding, and nesting areas for ducks, geese, and other migratory birds, including the greater sandhill crane. We announce our decision and the availability...

2010-06-16

270

7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under Public Law 103-354 environmental reviewer. After reviewing...Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary. I also...status of compliance with the environmental laws and requirements...

2013-01-01

271

77 FR 8903 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located...Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final...

2012-02-15

272

Finding of No Significant Impact: Construction of New Hay Storage and Feeding Facility, September 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Glacier National Park, stock is used to support much of the work conducted in the backcountry. Some programs that regularly receive supplies or assistance from stock operations include: trail crews, backcountry rangers, lookouts, revegetation crews, an...

2004-01-01

273

Red Bridge Water Reuse Project Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the proposed action is to increase the water supply to the Strawberry High Line Canal Lateral 20 which serves 4,500 acres west of Payson Utah. A pump station would be constructed on Spring Creek where it crosses Red Bridge below the Strawbe...

2008-01-01

274

Significance of clinical and radiographic findings in young adults after slipped capital femoral epiphysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiographic presentation of young adults in the mid-term follow-up after pinning in situ for mild to moderate slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). We postulated that there was a correlation between the degree of head-neck-offset decrease and clinical and radiographic signs of hip joint degeneration. Thirty-eight young adults (average age 23.4??3.6years old) with various grades of femoral head-neck-offset pathologies were assessed clinically via Harris hip score (HHS), Tegner-Lysholm score (TLS) and Short Form 36 (SF-36), and radiographic signs of OA were measured on plain X-ray films after a follow-up of 11.1??3.8years. We conclude that clinical and radiographic signs of joint degeneration appear early in the follow-up after SCFE, but there is no linear correlation between offset-pathology and joint degeneration. PMID:20694725

Zilkens, Christoph; Bittersohl, Bernd; Jger, Marcus; Miese, Falk; Schultz, Johannes; Kircher, Jrn; Westhoff, Bettina; Krauspe, Rdiger

2010-08-08

275

Portrayal of personality in Victorian novels reflects modern research findings but amplifies the significance of agreeableness  

Microsoft Academic Search

All literature embodies an implicit theory of personality and human nature (Hogan, 1976). The research described here investigates the implicit personality theory embedded in the behavior of 435 characters in 143 canonical Victorian novels. Characters were rated on the Web by 519 scholars and students of 19th-century British literature. Ratings included the characters goals, success in achieving goals, mate preferences

John A. Johnson; Joseph Carroll; Jonathan Gottschall; Daniel Kruger

2011-01-01

276

76 FR 187 - Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Final Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemptions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Brunswick Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and...Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852. Publicly available records will...resource@nrc.gov. Dated at Rockville, Maryland, this 20th day of December...

2011-01-03

277

64 FR 28250 - Findings of Significant Contribution and Rulemaking on Section 126 Petitions for Purposes of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...paragraph (j) of Sec. 52.34. The EPA will issue the...paragraph (k) of Sec. 52.34, which delineates the interim...1997 Executive Report, pg. 57). The Agency received...paragraph (j) of Sec. 52.34. The general...

1999-05-25

278

76 FR 67229 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) accession number for the EA contained...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John J. Hayes, Senior Project Manager, Decommissioning...telephone: (301) 415-5928, email: John.Hayes@nrc.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY...

2011-10-31

279

Kalispell Maintenance Headquarters Project : Environmental Assessment and Findings of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

The facilities needed to maintain and repair Bonneville Power Administration (BPA`s) electrical equipment in northwest Montana are currently in two locations: A maintenance headquarters at the Kalispell Substation, and a temporary leased facility south of Kalispell. The present situation is not efficient. There is not enough space to accommodate the equipment needed at each site, and coordination and communication between the two sites is difficult. Also, two sites means duplication of equipment and facilities. BPA needs a single, centralized facility that would efficiently accommodate all the area`s maintenance activities and equipment. BPA proposes to build a maintenance headquarters facility consisting of 2 to 4 single-story buildings totaling about 35,000 square feet (office spaces and workshop areas); an open-ended vehicle storage building (carport style); a fenced-in storage year; a storage building for flammables, herbicides, and hazardous wastes; and a parking lot. The facility would require developing about 6 to 10 acres of land. Two sites are being considered for the proposed project (see the attached map for locations). This report is the environmental assessment of the two options.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-12-01

280

77 FR 25209 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption Request for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...manufactured by Radiation Therapy Resources, Inc. The...manufacturer of the sources, Radiation Therapy Resources, Inc...give boost dose post external beam therapy without radiating the...the licensee may use Radiation Therapy...

2012-04-27

281

76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle (RLV) from the McGregor test site in McGregor, Texas. The...landing vehicle. The McGregor test site is located within the city...EA and FONSI on the FAA/AST Web site at http://www.faa...Grasshopper RLV from the McGregor test site in McGregor, Texas....

2011-11-18

282

Organic aerosol yields from ?-pinene oxidation: bridging the gap between first-generation yields and aging chemistry.  

PubMed

Secondary organic aerosol formation from volatile precursors can be thought of as a succession of generations of reaction products. Here, we constrain first-generation SOA formation from the ?-pinene + OH reaction and also study SOA formation from ?-pinene ozonolysis carried out without an OH scavenger. SOA yields from OH oxidation of ?-pinene are significantly higher than SOA yields from ozonolysis including an OH scavenger, and the SOA mass yields for unscavenged ozonolysis generally fall within the range of mass yields for ?-pinene ozonolysis under various conditions. Taken together, first-generation product yields parametrized with a volatility basis set fit provide a starting point for atmospheric models designed to simulate both the production and subsequent aging of SOA from this important terpene. PMID:23088520

Henry, Kaytlin M; Lohaus, Theresa; Donahue, Neil M

2012-10-31

283

Effect of extraction parameters on curcumin yield from turmeric.  

PubMed

Effect of 4 independent variables - temperature (50-90C), particle size (0.42-0.85 mm), mixing time (10-50 min) and solvent (ethanol) to meal ratio (10-50) on curcumin yield from turmeric (Curcuma longa L) was studied using central composite rotatable design. The experimental value of curcumin yield ranged between 4.49 and 12.89%. The second order model obtained for curcumin yield revealed a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.78 and standard error of 0.72. The linear, square and interaction terms were significant at p <0.05 while lack of fit was non-significant at p >0.05. Surface graphs were plotted to optimize the curcumin extraction. The maximum curcumin yield was obtained when temperature, particle size, mixing time and solvent to meal ratio were 60C, 0.42 mm, 30 min and 50, respectively. PMID:23572641

Sogi, D S; Sharma, S; Oberoi, D P S; Wani, I A

2010-07-29

284

Total radical yields from tropospheric ethene ozonolysis.  

PubMed

The gas-phase reactions of ozone with alkenes can be significant sources of free radicals (OH, HO(2) and RO(2)) in the Earth's atmosphere. In this study the total radical production and degradation products from ethene ozonolysis have been measured, under conditions relevant to the troposphere, during a series of detailed simulation chamber experiments. Experiments were carried out in the European photoreactor EUPHORE (Valencia, Spain), utilising various instrumentation including a chemical-ionisation-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS) measuring volatile organic compounds/oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs/OVOCs), a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system for measuring HO(2) radical products and a peroxy radical chemical amplification (PERCA) instrument measuring HO(2) + ?RO(2). The ethene + ozone reaction system was investigated with and without an OH radical scavenger, in order to suppress side reactions. Radical concentrations were measured under dry and humid conditions and interpreted through detailed chemical chamber box modelling, incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1) degradation scheme for ethene, which was updated to include a more explicit representation of the ethene-ozone reaction mechanism.The rate coefficient for the ethene + ozone reaction was measured to be (1.45 0.25) 10(-18) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, and a stabilised Criegee intermediate yield of 0.54 0.12 was determined from excess CO scavenger experiments. An OH radical yield of 0.17 0.09 was determined using a cyclohexane scavenger approach, by monitoring the formation of the OH-initiated cyclohexane oxidation products and HO(2). The results highlight the importance of knowing the [HO(2)] (particularly under alkene limited conditions and high [O(3)]) and scavenger chemistry when deriving radical yields. An averaged HO(2) yield of 0.27 0.07 was determined by LIF/model fitting. The observed yields are interpreted in terms of branching ratios for each channel within the postulated ethene ozonolysis mechanism. PMID:21487601

Alam, Mohammed S; Camredon, Marie; Rickard, Andrew R; Carr, Timo; Wyche, Kevin P; Hornsby, Karen E; Monks, Paul S; Bloss, William J

2011-04-12

285

Nicotine yield and measures of cigarette smoke exposure in a large population: are lower-yield cigarettes safer?  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship of machine-estimated nicotine yield by cigarette brand with the level of cigarette consumption and two biochemical measures of smoke exposure (expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate) in a large, population-based sample of smokers (N = 713). The lower the nicotine yield of the cigarette, the greater the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Prior to adjusting for number of cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine yield was not related to the actual measures of smoke exposure. Smokers of ultralow-yield cigarettes had laboratory tests of smoke exposure which were not significantly different from those of smokers of higher-yield brands. Only after adjustment for number of cigarettes smoked per day did nicotine yield become significantly related to expired-air carbon monoxide and to plasma thiocyanate. In multivariate analysis, the number of cigarettes smoked per day accounted for 28 per cent and 22 per cent of the variance in observed expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate levels, respectively, whereas nicotine yield accounted for only 1 per cent and 2 per cent of the variance, respectively. The relative lack of an effect of nicotine yield on the biochemical measure appears to be due to the fact that smokers of lower nicotine brands smoked more cigarettes per day, thereby compensating for reduced delivery of smoke products. Our data do not support the concept that ultralow-yield cigarettes are less hazardous than others. Machine estimates suggesting low nicotine yield underrepresent actual human consumption of harmful cigarette constituents.

Maron, D J; Fortmann, S P

1987-01-01

286

ChemTeacher: Significant Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Significant Figures page includes resources for teaching students about understanding and using significant figures in calculations.

2011-01-01

287

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-08-20

288

EMPIRICALLY DERIVED INTEGRATED STELLAR YIELDS OF Fe-PEAK ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We present here the initial results of a new study of massive star yields of Fe-peak elements. We have compiled from the literature a database of carefully determined solar neighborhood stellar abundances of seven iron-peak elements, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and then plotted [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] to study the trends as functions of metallicity. Chemical evolution models were then employed to force a fit to the observed trends by adjusting the input massive star metallicity-sensitive yields of Kobayashi et al. Our results suggest that yields of Ti, V, and Co are generally larger as well as anticorrelated with metallicity, in contrast to the Kobayashi et al. predictions. We also find the yields of Cr and Mn to be generally smaller and directly correlated with metallicity compared to the theoretical results. Our results for Ni are consistent with theory, although our model suggests that all Ni yields should be scaled up slightly. The outcome of this exercise is the computation of a set of integrated yields, i.e., stellar yields weighted by a slightly flattened time-independent Salpeter initial mass function and integrated over stellar mass, for each of the above elements at several metallicity points spanned by the broad range of observations. These results are designed to be used as empirical constraints on future iron-peak yield predictions by stellar evolution modelers. Special attention is paid to the interesting behavior of [Cr/Co] with metallicity-these two elements have opposite slopes-as well as the indirect correlation of [Ti/Fe] with [Fe/H]. These particular trends, as well as those exhibited by the inferred integrated yields of all iron-peak elements with metallicity, are discussed in terms of both supernova nucleosynthesis and atomic physics.

Henry, R. B. C.; Cowan, John J. [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer, E-mail: henry@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: jsobeck@uchicago.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2010-02-01

289

Electroretinogram findings in unilateral optic neuritis.  

PubMed

To report the electrophysiological findings in patients with unilateral optic neuritis (ON), with particular reference to the electroretinogram (ERG). A retrospective analysis of full-field ERG, pattern ERG (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential findings from 46 patients with clinical and electrophysiological findings in keeping with unilateral ON. ISCEV standard ERGs did not significantly differ between the optic neuritis and fellow eyes, nor between patients with and without MS. Differences were present in the N95 component of the PERG, which was significantly lower in the affected eye, and the pattern reversal visual evoked potential, which showed significantly longer peak time (latency) in the affected eye. In addition, there was a significant difference between patients with and without multiple sclerosis (MS). No significant inter-ocular asymmetry in ISCEV standard ERGs was present in these cases of unilateral optic neuritis, either as a clinically isolated syndrome or as part of multiple sclerosis. All ERGs recorded were normal. PMID:22038575

Fraser, Clare L; Holder, Graham E

2011-10-30

290

FindArticles.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new service is a partnership between LookSmart and the Gale Group, a publisher of research and reference materials for libraries, businesses, and information technologists. The site offers free access to the full-text of articles published in over 350 magazines and journals dating from 1998. Users can search the database by keyword and by one of the nine subject categories (Arts & Entertainment, Computers & Technology, Reference & Education, Sports, etc.). Search returns include article title, periodical, and short description, with a link to the full-text, which is conveniently and quickly displayed at the FindArticles site, though with numerous advertising banners. Visitors can also view a list of the publications indexed, alphabetically or by subject. Periodical listings include a one-sentence description and a link to their Website. Despite the banners and other commercial content (the bills must be paid, after all) this site is a very useful reference source, indexing many leading journals and magazines.

291

Effects of different water regimes on field-grown determinate and indeterminate faba bean ( Vicia faba L.). II. Yield, yield components and harvest index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faba bean yields are highly sensitive to variations of water availability. For indeterminate faba bean, high levels of water could promote excessive vegetative growth at the expense of pod growth. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objective of comparing the yield and harvest index of determinate and indeterminate faba bean under different water regimes and finding how the

M. D. Dennett; U. Ratnaweera; K. Nyalemegbe

1997-01-01

292

Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.  

PubMed

Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

Marchiori, Edson; Loureno, Slvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Glucia; Mano, Cludia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

2010-02-13

293

Oligosaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is exclusively devoted to the occurrence, significance and physical and randomly selected chemical properties of various group of disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, pentasaccharides and hexasaccharides.

Witczak, Zbigniew J.

294

ZZ{yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}{nu}{nu} production in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV  

SciTech Connect

We describe a search for Z boson pair production in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb{sup -1}. Using the final state decay ZZ{yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}{nu}{nu} (where l=e or {mu}) we find a signal with a 2.6 standard deviations significance (2.0 expected) corresponding to a cross section of {sigma}(pp{yields}ZZ+X)=2.01{+-}0.93(stat){+-}0.29(sys) pb.

Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Yatsunenko, Y. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Abbott, B.; Gutierrez, P.; Hossain, S.; Jain, S.; Rominsky, M.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Strauss, M. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Abolins, M.; Benitez, J. A.; Brock, R.; Dyer, J.; Edmunds, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)] (and others)

2008-10-01

295

Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report  

SciTech Connect

To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate High-Yield Scenario (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

2009-12-01

296

Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry  

SciTech Connect

The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield responded linearly to B and quadratically to P. At pH 6.5, P interacted with B and Zn. Fruit count per inflorescence was the yield component most strongly associated with yield, followed by individual fruit weight. However, these two yield components responded differently to soil-applied nutrients. Foliar nutrient levels generally did not increase with the amount of applied nutrient, but often an applied nutrient had a strong effect on the level of another nutrient. Leaf nutrient levels were often correlated with fruit levels, but foliar and fruit levels at harvest were not related to reproductive performance. The study identifies some of the problems inherent in using foliar nutrient levels to predict a yield response and demonstrates how plant responses to single nutrients depend on soil chemistry and the presence of other nutrients.

May, G.M.; Pritts, M.P. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

1993-01-01

297

Cow milk yield and composition before development of Escherichia coli mastitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High milk yield, low milk fat and low milk protein were considered as possible predisposing factors to bovine Escherichia coli mastitis. Morning and afternoon milk yields were recorded in 46 Friesian cows later developing E coli mastitis and compared with 92 uninfected controls. Animals developing E coli mastitis gave a significantly higher milk yield than controls. The overall morning: afternoon

TO Jones; PC Jones

1986-01-01

298

Scale-Dependent Relationship between Wheat Yield and Topographic Indices: A Wavelet Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 0.46), whereas soil surface curvature explained only 15% of the variations in grain yield. Wavelet analyses revealed that between slope percentage and wheat yield. significant variations occurred at scales 160 m for wheat grain yield, In semi-arid or arid regions, soil water is the major 280 m for upslope lengths, and 110 m for the wetness index. The cross

Bing Cheng Si; Richard E. Farrell

299

Bronchoalveolar lavage in the cat: cytological findings.  

PubMed Central

Cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from the lungs of specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats from birth to maturity and from adult conventional cats were enumerated and identified. The predominant cell type recovered was the pulmonary alveolar macrophage from all ages of both SPF and conventional cats. Other cell types included eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Lavage of conventional cats yielded significantly more eosinophils and neutrophils than were recovered from SPF cats.

McCarthy, G M; Quinn, P J

1989-01-01

300

Correlation and periodicity analysis between herbage yields and climatic factors in the Tianshan Mountain,China in 22 year periods.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the relationship between herbage yields and climatic factors, 22 years of herbage yields and climate data were collected on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains region of western China. Using multiple regression analysis, maximum entropy spectrum analysis and cross spectrum analysis, it was clarified that fluctuation of climatic factors affected herbage yields and their periodical variation. The herbage yields were correlated significantly to the four climate factors including annual precipitation, annual means of relative humidity, absolute humidity and percentage of sunshine, but unrelated to the trend variable (the former year yield has little effects on the later) and other climatic factors. These clarified that long term variation of grassland productivity responded directly to changes of some climate factors in typical zone of arid continental climate. The results in co-spectrum and quadrature spectrum analysis revealed that the herbage yields had 4-year period similar to some moisture factors, and with 1/4 period delay. These findings demonstrated further that the fluctuation of some climatic elements (precipitation particularly) was the crucial factor affecting the variations of herbage yields of natural grassland in arid and semiarid ecosystem. The periodical change of vegetation and correlation with climate provide us a way to predict the herbage production according to the climate change, and it was important for the herdsmen to arrange predictively their animal production including rectifying their livestock population in natural grazing land and storing up the supply of forage timely for livestock use in cold season. Our finding in periodical variation of climatic element and plant yield further demonstrated the crucial driver of some climate factors on formation of herbage yields. The same or similar quasi-4-year period in climatic element and vegetation was due to that periodical variation of climatic element (especially precipitation) directly led to the annual periodical variation of herbage yields. These were almost the same as the second period (3-4 years) of meteorological period, which was obvious in ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) (Chao, 1979; French, 1979; Huang and Li, 1992; Webb and Lauenroth, 1993; Li and Bai, 1996). These results also were supported by our long term observation (Li and Xu, 1993). Therefore, it could be concluded that under certain meteorological conditions, herbage yields of natural grasslands had the same variation periods, which resulted from climatic factors, especially periodical precipitation. The finding that ecological response of herbage yields to climatic change usually delayed by 1/4 period was important phenomena. The results were accordant with the biological principle and ecological characteristics of variation of plant growth and yields formation (French, 1979; White and Neild, 1982; Li and Xu, 1993; Webb and Lauenroth, 1993; Espigares and Peco, 1995; Li and Bai, 1996). Keywords: herbage yield; climatic factor; variation periodicity; maximum entropy spectrum analysis; cross spectrum analysis; multiple regression analysis; Tianshan Mountains.

Jianlong, L.

2009-04-01

301

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Significant Digits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers a tutorial on significant digits. The tutorial includes an introduction to significant digits, example problems, and a series of self-paced questions. This is part of series of tutorials on physics and mathematics used in physics classes.

2008-09-03

302

Adaptive Significance of Floral Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Darwin observed the reconfiguration of pollinia in orchards and referred to it as a function to reduce self-pollination, diverse floral movements have been investigated and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain their adaptive significance. However, adaptive significance of floral movement in some species has yet to be fully explained. Increasing evidence suggests that some floral movements, which have

Cheng-Jiang Ruan

2011-01-01

303

FERTILIZER AND SPACING EFFECT ON MUNGBEAN YIELD AND QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was carried out at the TOP\\/AVRDC field in Kamphaeng Saen Campus of Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, 1990-1991. Mungbean yield was significantly influenced by the effect of fertilizers and spacings, while the number of mungbean seeds per pod were significantly different among spacings only. There was no significant difference among the fertilizer-spacing interactions. Plots treated with compost and

UNGSA MAROM

304

Significant Scales in Community Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of ``significance'' of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine ``good'' resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; van Dooren, P.

2013-10-01

305

Significant Scales in Community Structure  

PubMed Central

Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of significance of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine good resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

2013-01-01

306

How significant is the 'significant other'? Associations between significant others' health behaviors and attitudes and young adults' health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status). This study examined the association between significant others health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n?=?1212). Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat???5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

2012-01-01

307

Finding biomedical categories in Medline  

PubMed Central

Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

2012-01-01

308

Cotton Yield Assessment Using Remotely Sensed Drought Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural drought is a natural hazard having direct impacts to crop yield. One major application of remote sensing to agriculture is crop monitoring and assessment of vegetative stress, whereas satellite derived indices have been extensively used for identifying stress periods in crops. In this paper, two remotely sensed indices are used in order to quantify agricultural drought impact to cotton growth and estimate the final yield. In specific, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) are used to monitor agricultural drought and estimate cotton yield. VCI and TCI characterises the moisture and thermal conditions of vegetation, respectively. VCI has excellent ability to detect drought, whereas TCI can identify thermal stresses that have direct impact in vegetation's health. The two indices are computed for 20 hydrological years, from October 1981 to September 2001, from NOAA/AVHRR ten -day composite images with 8x8 Km spatial resolution. VCI and TCI are correlated with yield data in order to identify the critical ten-day showing the highest correlation coefficient with the final yield. Two approaches are tested for deriving the empirical model for estimating cotton yield. The first uses VCI values and yield for developing the empirical relationship. The second incorporates VCI and TCI values along with yield data in a multiple regression analysis. In order to test the derived models on independent dataset, the period 1981-1996 is used for developing the empirical models, whereas the years 1997-2000 are used for validation. The study area is the Prefecture of Thessaly, the largest lowland formation of Greece and the country's largest agricultural centre, located in Central Greece. The critical ten-days for cotton yield regarding the values of the two indices are the 2nd and 3rd of July for VCI and TCI, respectively, corresponding to blooming to bolls open phenological stage. The two approaches gave similar results denoting the significance of VCI to crop yield estimation and the importance of moisture conditions to the final cotton yield in Greece. In all cases, results present that model's estimating accuracy is above 95%, with a Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) of 2% between the estimated and the real yield values. The results show that an early estimation of the cotton yield is feasible by the use of the VCI, three months prior to harvest.

Tsiros, Emmanouel; Dalezios, Nicolas R.

2010-05-01

309

Limit Analysis and Yield Line Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between limit analysis and yield-line analysis is investigated. Attention is restricted to simply-supported, isotropic slabs subjected to single point loadings. It is found that conventional yield-line analyses quite often give substantia...

A. Sawczuk P. G. Hodge

1967-01-01

310

7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations...Will be used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive...calculated, in the actual production history base period when the producer...

2013-01-01

311

Observation of {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}J/{psi}  

SciTech Connect

From e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data acquired with the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we observe the non-DD decay {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1} with a statistical significance of 6.6 standard deviations, using the two-photon cascades to J/{psi} and J/{psi}{yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}. We determine {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{psi}(3770))xB({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})=(18.0{+-}3.3= {+-}2.5) pb and branching fraction B({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})=(2.8{+-}0.5{+-}0.4)x10{sup -3}. We set 90% C.L. upper limits for the transition to {chi}{sub c2} ({chi}{sub c0}): {sigma}xB<5.7 pb (<282 pb) and B<0.9x10{sup -3} (<44x10{sup -3}). We also determine {gamma}({psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c1})/{gamma}({psi}(3770){yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}J/= {psi})=1.5{+-}0.3{+-}0.3 (>1.0 at 90% C.L.), which bears upon the interpretation of X(3872)

Coan, T.E.; Gao, Y.S.; Liu, F. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Boulahouache, C.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nandakumar, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Redjimi, R.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, K. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Csorna, S. E. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] (and others)

2006-05-12

312

Perspective on the relative insignificance of increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration to crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average yield of most crops in many countries increased significantly during the past 50 to 100 years. Although atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2]a, also increased during that time period, and although crop growth and yield can respond positively to [CO2]a increase, yield increases were due mainly to factors other than increasing [CO2]a. Similarly, some yield increases prior to 1900 were also

Jeffrey S Amthor

1998-01-01

313

SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

314

FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

ALDEN R. HIBBERT

315

Neutron Yields from Individual Fission Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new methods are used to obtain data on neutron yield nuf as a function of the mass number M of the emitting fission fragment; the results suggest changes in fission theory. The methods involve the combination of data on fission mass yields obtained by radiochemical means with time-of-flight mass data. The more detailed method yields essentially the complete function

James Terrell

1962-01-01

316

Decay pi exp 0 Yields mu E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An upper limit for the branching ratio of the decay pi exp 0 yields mu e is determined from existing experimental data to be lambda( pi exp 0 yields mu e)/lambda( mu exp 0 yields all) < 7 x 10 exp -8 (90 percent C.L.). Phenomenological implications are di...

D. Bryman

1982-01-01

317

Have Biotech Seeds Increased Maize Yields?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn yield is determined by soils, weather, seed used and other technology choices. Global population and per capita income growth trends as well as demand from the energy sector have placed great stress on cropland use. Global cropland acres and\\/or yield per acre will need to increase. Whether new seed technologies have enhanced corn yield is a controversial issue. We

Zheng Xu; David A. Hennessy; GianCarlo Moschini

2010-01-01

318

Static Yield Stress in Magnetorheological Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and a device for measuring a true static yield stress in magnetorheological (MR) fluids are proposed. The data obtained by means of this device are compared with the measured values of the dynamic yield stress for similar compositions as well as with the quantities calculated by the reported models. It is shown that the dynamic yield stress exceeds

W. Kordonski; S. Gorodkin; N. Zhuravski

2001-01-01

319

Yield function development for aluminum alloy sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, yield surfaces were measured for binary aluminum-magnesium sheet samples which were fabricated by different processing paths to obtain different microstructures. The yielding behavior was measured using biaxial compression tests on cubic specimens made from laminated sheet samples. The yield surfaces were also predicted from a polycrystal model using crystallographic texture data as input and from a phenomenological

F. Barlat; Y. Maeda; K. Chung; M. Yanagawa; J. C. Brem; Y. Hayashida; D. J. Lege; K. Matsui; S. J. Murtha; S. Hattori; R. C. Becker; S. Makosey

1997-01-01

320

PRODUCTION AND SEED YIELDS OF LESQUERELLA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed yields are critical in determining the economic success of lesquerella. There have been reports of yield potential based on individual plants and on small-plot estimates. A decade ago attempts were made to produce lesquerella on farmers fields to increase seed to measure seed yields. The objec...

321

Generalized Yield Lines in Reinforced Concrete Slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield loci for reinforced concrete which are suitable for predicting the stress resultants on a straight yield line with ?n, 2??nt, ?n as nonzero concentrated strain rates have been proposed. These expressions are close approximations to the true yield surface derived in parametric form for a composite slab of two idealized materials. It is found that the expressions give good

P. J. Cookson

1979-01-01

322

Yield response of watermelon to irrigation shortage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study conducted in Turkey in 1998 and 1999, was to ascertain the correct irrigation scheduling of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) under adequate soil water supply during whole growing season, and under limited soil water supply at different seasonal combinations. The yield and the yield components, the sensitive periods to soil water deficits and the yield response

Yesim Erdem; A. Nedim Yuksel

2003-01-01

323

Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures  

PubMed Central

A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that random gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets.

Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

2013-01-01

324

Cultivar variations of Australian-grown Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza): bioactive markers and root yields.  

PubMed

Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Lamiaceae) is a commonly used and highly valued Chinese medicinal herb grown widely in China. In the present work, we studied cultivar variations of Australian-grown Danshen in order to select optimal cultivars for local herbal production. Root yields of seven cultivars, V1-V7, were monitored in a one-year field trial, and bioactive markers, including cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and salvianolic acid B, were quantitatively determined using a validated RP-HPLC method. Significant variations were found in root yields, root production efficiencies, and contents of the bioactive marker compounds. Linear correlations were observed among the contents of three tanshinones but not among those of tanshinones and salvianolic acid B. Among the cultivars, V6 was the best cultivar for production of tanshinones, and V4 and V5 were best for production of salvianolic acid B. The findings indicate that it is possible to achieve optimal root yields, and high contents of tanshinones and salvianolic acid B by selecting specific Danshen cultivars. PMID:19235159

Li, Chun Guang; Sheng, Shu Jun; Pang, Edwin C K; Marriott, Philip; May, Brian; Zhou, Shufeng; Story, David; Xue, Charlie Chang Li

2009-02-01

325

High-Yield Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water by a Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C6H10O5 (l)+7 H2O (l)?12 H2 (g)+6 CO2 (g). The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. Conclusions Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H2/glucose) of anaerobic fermentations. Significance The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30C and atmospheric pressure), high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($?2/kg H2), and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H2-based mass%), provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy.

Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W.W.

2007-01-01

326

[Not significant--what now?].  

PubMed

In a statistical significance test a scientific problem is expressed by formulating a null hypothesis and an opposite alternative. Construction of an empirical decision rule usually focuses on control of the alpha-error, i.e. the probability of erroneously refusing the null hypothesis. Contrary to the alpha-error, the beta-error is not controlled and in general is of unknown size. Thus in case of a non-significant result the validity of the null hypothesis still may be highly questionable. Such an unwanted outcome of an applied test the researcher should try to avoid by choosing an appropriate study design. In case it occurs nevertheless, it is advised to further evaluate the (non-significant) result. This can be done by calculating confidence intervals of the tested effects. Furthermore the p-value can be interpreted as a metric measure of evidence against the null hypothesis. By means of a posterior power analysis the probability of a significant test result is estimated under the given circumstances. Thus possibly the applied test--under the assumption of actual validity of the alternative--turns out to have had hardly a chance of rejecting the null hypothesis. In this case the non-significant result (pointing towards the null hypothesis) is relativized substantially. On the other hand a large power points to a small probability of a beta-error. PMID:17213967

Gerss, J

2006-12-01

327

Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized ``rules'' on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value.1,2,3,4,5,6 And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Whyhave we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at the evolution of significant figures over the last 300 years, from Newton to Millikan to modern authors, sheds some light on their purpose moving forward. While there is much discussion for7,8 and against9,10 their use, especially in chemistry, a review of earlier versions of the rules suggests that we have lost some items of value, most notably, a significant figure rule for angles. In addition, we have lost the emphasis that the significant figure rules were designed to calculate an approximate (not exact) precision. Now that the significant figure rules are ingrained into our introductory physics sequence, we would be wise to reiterate that these are just general ``rules of thumb.''

Carter, Ashley R.

2013-09-01

328

Study of B{sub c{yields}}KK decay with perturbative QCD approach  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the perturbative QCD approach, we study the charmless pure weak annihilation B{sub c}{sup -{yields}}K{sup -}K{sup 0} decay and find that the branching ratio BR(B{sub c{yields}}KK){approx}O(10{sup -7}). This prediction is so tiny that the B{sub c{yields}}KK decay might be unmeasurable at the Large Hadron Collider.

Yang Yueling; Sun Junfeng; Wang Na [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

2010-04-01

329

Boosting investor yields through bond insurance  

SciTech Connect

The market for utility securities generally tends to be fairly static. Innovative financing techniques are rarely used because of the marketability of utility securities stemming from the companies' generally strong financial credit and the monopoly markets most utilities serve. To many people, utility securities are considered the pillars of the financial world, and innovation is not needed. Further, plain vanilla utility issues are easily understood by investors, as well as by regulators and customers. Over the past several years, however, a new utility bond product has crept into the world of utility securities - insured secondary utility bonds. These insured bonds may possibly be used as an alternative financing technique for newly issued debt. Individual investors often tend to rely on insurance as a tool for reducing credit risk and are willing to take the lower yields as a tradeoff. Insured utility bonds are created by brokerage firms through the acqusition of a portion of an outstanding utility bond issue and subsequent solicitation of the insurance companies for bids. The insurance company then agrees to insure that portion of the issue until maturity for a fee, and the brokerage firm sells those bonds to their customers as a AAA-insured bond. Issuers are encouraged to explore the retail market as a financing alternative. They may find a most cost-effective means of raising capital.

Mosbacher, M.L.; Burkhardt, D.A.

1993-02-01

330

Reliability analysis based on significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the expected increase of defects and errors in circuits based on deep submicron technologies, reliability has become an important design criterion. As reliability improvement is generally achieved by adding redundancy, identify and classify critical blocks of a circuit is a major concern. This work presents two new classification methods regarding the significance of a block with respect to

Lirida A. de B. Naviner; Jean-Francois Naviner; Tian Ban; G. S. Gutemberg

2011-01-01

331

Public Health Significance of Neuroticism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant

Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

332

Soil erosion and sediment yield and their relationships with vegetation cover in upper stream of the Yellow River.  

PubMed

Soil erosion is a significant concern when considering regional environmental protection, especially in the Yellow River Basin in China. This study evaluated the temporal-spatial interaction of land cover status with soil erosion characteristics in the Longliu Catchment of China, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. SWAT is a physical hydrological model which uses the RUSLE equation as a sediment algorithm. Considering the spatial and temporal scale of the relationship between soil erosion and sediment yield, simulations were undertaken at monthly and annual temporal scales and basin and sub-basin spatial scales. The corresponding temporal and spatial Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) information was summarized from MODIS data, which can integrate regional land cover and climatic features. The SWAT simulation revealed that the annual soil erosion and sediment yield showed similar spatial distribution patterns, but the monthly variation fluctuated significantly. The monthly basin soil erosion varied from almost no erosion load to 3.92 t/ha and the maximum monthly sediment yield was 47,540 tones. The inter-annual simulation focused on the spatial difference and relationship with the corresponding vegetation NDVI value for every sub-basin. It is concluded that, for this continental monsoon climate basin, the higher NDVI vegetation zones prevented sediment transport, but at the same time they also contributed considerable soil erosion. The monthly basin soil erosion and sediment yield both correlated with NDVI, and the determination coefficients of their exponential correlation model were 0.446 and 0.426, respectively. The relationships between soil erosion and sediment yield with vegetation NDVI indicated that the vegetation status has a significant impact on sediment formation and transport. The findings can be used to develop soil erosion conservation programs for the study area. PMID:21071065

Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, A G

2010-11-11

333

Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement.  

PubMed

Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Global soybean production and yield per hectare increased steadily over the past century with improved agronomy and development of cultivars suited to a wide range of latitudes. In order to meet the needs of a growing world population without unsustainable expansion of the land area devoted to this crop, yield must increase at a faster rate than at present. Here, the historical basis for the yield gains realized in the past 90 years are examined together with potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Optimization of investment in photosynthetic enzymes, bypassing photorespiratory metabolism, engineering the electron transport chain and engineering a faster recovery from the photoprotected state are different strategies to improve photosynthesis in soybean. These potential improvements in photosynthetic carbon gain will need to be matched by increased carbon and nitrogen transport to developing soybean pods and seeds in order to maximize the benefit. Better understanding of control of carbon and nitrogen transport along with improved knowledge of the regulation of flower initiation and abortion will be needed to optimize sink capacity in soybean. Although few single targets are likely to deliver a quantum leap in yields, biotechnological advances in molecular breeding techniques that allow for alteration of the soybean genome and transcriptome promise significant yield gains. PMID:21689112

Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Yendrek, Craig R; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Long, Stephen P

2011-07-21

334

Climate Change: Implications for the Yield of Edible Rice  

PubMed Central

Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 19802009 at IRRI, Los Baos, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy.

Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa

2013-01-01

335

Array-Based Whole-Genome Survey of Dog Saliva DNA Yields High Quality SNP Data  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association scans for genetic loci underlying both Mendelian and complex traits are increasingly common in canine genetics research. However, the demand for high-quality DNA for use on such platforms creates challenges for traditional blood sample ascertainment. Though the use of saliva as a means of collecting DNA is common in human studies, alternate means of DNA collection for canine research have instead been limited to buccal swabs, from which dog DNA is of insufficient quality and yield for use on most high-throughput array-based systems. We thus investigated an animal-based saliva collection method for ease of use and quality of DNA obtained and tested the performance of saliva-extracted canine DNA on genome-wide genotyping arrays. Methodology/Principal Findings Overall, we found that saliva sample collection using this method was efficient. Extractions yielded high concentrations (?125 ng/ul) of high-quality DNA that performed equally well as blood-extracted DNA on the Illumina Infinium canine genotyping platform, with average call rates >99%. Concordance rates between genotype calls of saliva- versus blood-extracted DNA samples from the same individual were also >99%. Additionally, in silico calling of copy number variants was successfully performed and verified by PCR. Conclusions/Significance Our findings validate the use of saliva-obtained samples for genome-wide association studies in canines, highlighting an alternative means of collecting samples in a convenient and non-invasive manner.

Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Hamilton, Steven P.

2010-01-01

336

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2010-01-15

337

Yield-driven electromagnetic optimization via multilevel multidimensional models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the foundation of a sophisticated hierarchical multidimensional response surface modeling system for efficient yield-driven design. The scheme dynamically integrates models and database updating in real optimization time. The method facilitates a seamless, smart, optimization-ready interface. It has been specially designed to handle circuits containing complex subcircuits or components whose simulation requires significant computational effort. This approach makes

John W. Bandler; R. M. Biernacki; Shao Hua Chen; Piotr A. Grobelny; Shen Ye

1993-01-01

338

The Impact of Outcrossing on Yields of 'Hass' Avocado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is characterized by excessive flower and fruit abscission, resulting in extremely low fruit set. Low outcrossing rates might be a factor contributing to low yields. It is hypothesized that self-fertilized flowers and resulting fruit abscise at a much higher rate than fruit that are the product of outcrossing. However, significant relationships between outcrossing rates and

Lauren C. Garner; Vanessa E. T. M. Ashworth; Michael T. Clegg; Carol J. Lovatt

339

Yield performance of cacao propagated by somatic embryogenesis and grafting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve cacao (Theobroma cacao) clones propagated by grafting and somatic embryogenesis and grown on an Ultisol soil were evaluated for five years under intensive management at Corozal, Puerto Rico. Preliminary data showed no significant differences between propagation methods for yield of dry beans ...

340

Analysis of RF MEMS switch packaging Process for yield improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio frequency microelectro-mechanical systems (RF MEMS) switches offer significant performance advantages in high-frequency RF applications. The switches are actuated by electrostatic force when voltage was applied to the electrodes. Such devices provide high isolation when open and low contact resistance when closed. However, during the packaging process, there are various possible failure modes that may affect the switch yield and

Lei L. Mercado; Shun-Meen Kuo; Tien-Yu Lee; R. Lee

2005-01-01

341

Driver Behavior in Yielding to Sighted and Blind Pedestrians at Roundabouts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluated drivers' behavior in yielding the right-of-way to sighted and blind pedestrians who stood at different stopping distances from the crosswalk lines at entry and exit lanes at two different roundabouts. The findings demonstrate that drivers' willingness to yield to pedestrians is affected by whether they are attempting to cross

Geruschat, Duane R.; Hassan, Shirin E.

2005-01-01

342

Measurement of the {eta}{sup '}-Meson Mass using J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sup '}  

SciTech Connect

We measure the mass of the {eta}{sup '} meson using {psi}(2S){yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}J/{psi}, J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sup '} events acquired with the CLEO-c detector operating at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Using three decay modes, {eta}{sup '}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, {eta}{sup '}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta} with {eta}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}, and {eta}{sup '}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta} with {eta}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, we find M{sub {eta}{sup '}}=957.793{+-}0.054{+-}0.036 MeV, in which the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. This result is consistent with but substantially more precise than the current world average.

Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G. [University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ecklund, K. M. [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Love, W.; Savinov, V. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Mendez, H. [University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (Puerto Rico); Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); He, Q. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)] (and others)

2008-10-31

343

Chemical characterization of high-yielding varieties of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew apples and kernels from sixteen high-yielding varieties were chemically characterized. Protein, starch, amino acids and sodium contents in cashew kernels did not vary significantly among the high-yielding varieties. Reducing sugar content in the kernel was negligible compared to total sugar. Ascorbic acid, amino acid, phenol and tannin contents in cashew apple showed a significant variation among high-yielding varieties. Non-reducing

K. V. Nagaraja; V. M. Krishnan Nampoothiri

1986-01-01

344

Yield improvement of 3D ICs in the presence of defects in through signal vias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through signal vias (TSVs) in 3D ICs suffer from thermo-mechanical stress, and may fail or attain plasticity resulting in significant yield loss. We present a novel set of strategies for yield improvement in the presence of defects in through signal vias in heterogeneous 3D system-on-chip. Monte-Carlo simulation results show that our strategy can improve the yield of 3D ICs significantly.

Rajeev K. Nain; Shantesh Pinge; Malgorzata Chrzanowska-Jeske

2010-01-01

345

The Effect of Progenitor Age and Metallicity on Luminosity and 56Ni Yield in Type Ia Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timmes et al. found that metallicity variations could theoretically account for a 25% variation in the mass of 56Ni synthesized in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), and thus account for a large fraction of the scatter in observed SN Ia luminosities. Higher-metallicity progenitors are more neutron rich, producing more stable burning products relative to radioactive 56Ni. We develop a new method for estimating bolometric luminosity and 56Ni yield in SNe Ia and use it to test the theory with data from the Supernova Legacy Survey. We find that the average 56Ni yield does drop in SNe Ia from high-metallicity environments, but the theory can only account for 7%-10% of the dispersion in SN Ia 56Ni mass, and thus luminosity. This is because the effect is dominant at metallicities significantly above solar, whereas we find that SN hosts have predominantly subsolar or only moderately above-solar metallicities. We also show that allowing for changes in O/Fe with the metallicity [Fe/H] does not have a major effect on the theoretical prediction of Timmes et al., so long as one is using the O/H as the independent variable. Age may have a greater effect than metallicitywe find that the luminosity-weighted age of the host galaxy is correlated with 56Ni yield, and thus more massive progenitors give rise to more luminous explosions. This is hard to understand if most SNe Ia explode when the primaries reach the Chandrasekhar mass. Finally, we test the findings of Gallagher et al. that the residuals of SNe Ia from the Hubble diagram are correlated with host galaxy metallicity, and we find no such correlation.

Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Brown, E. F.; Conley, A.; Le Borgne, D.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Baumont, S.; LeDu, J.; Lidman, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.; Wheeler, J. C.

2009-01-01

346

Finding \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the relevant role that models obtained in the early stages play in the development of OO systems, in the recent years special attention has been paid to the quality of such models. Adhering to this fact, the main objective of this work is to obtain \\

Marcela Genero; Mario Piatini; Esperanza Manso

2004-01-01

347

Statistical Significance of Threading Scores  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to general protein contact map properties, this reference distribution is a Weibull extreme value distribution whose parameters depend on the threading method, the structure, the length of the query and the random sequence simulation model used. These parameters can be estimated off-line with simulated sequence samples, for different sequence lengths. They can further be interpolated at the exact length of a query, enabling the quick computation of the p-value.

Fayyaz Movaghar, Afshin; Launay, Guillaume; Schbath, Sophie; Gibrat, Jean-Francois

2012-01-01

348

Going Local to Find Help  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall ... the time. From the MedlinePlus page on Traumatic Brain Injury, you can use Go Local to find specific ...

349

Finding Out about Fireworks Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Jellyfish The Pink Locker Society Finding Out About Fireworks Safety KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Safe > Playing It Safe Outdoors and on the Road > Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Print A A A Text Size Isn' ...

350

Pollen vacuoles and their significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuoles of several types can be observed in pollen throughout its development. Their physiological significance reflects\\u000a the complexity of the biological process leading to functional pollen grains. Vacuolisation always occurs during pollen development\\u000a but when ripe pollen is shed the extensive translucent vacuoles present in the vegetative parts in previous stages are absent.\\u000a Vacuole functions vary according to developmental stage

Ettore Pacini; Cdric Jacquard; Christophe Clment

2011-01-01

351

Clinical significance of chronic hyperamylasemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal study of patients with persistent hyperamylasemia was carried out to evaluate the clinical significance of this condition. Twenty-five outpatients were studied by means of serum amylase, isoamylase (wheat germ-inhibition method), and lipase determination; macroamylase detection; and abdominal ultrasonography over a one-year period. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis was carried out to validate the wheat germ-inhibition tests; the results of the

M. Ventrucci; R. Pezzilli; D. Festi

1991-01-01

352

Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage  

PubMed Central

The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

2011-01-01

353

AMTA's Find a Massage Therapist  

MedlinePLUS

AMTA's Find a Massage Therapist Find Keyword or name Location Street, city, state, or zip Browse by location Browse by technique Find a ... and Legal Notice October 20-26 is National Massage Therapy Awareness Week! Learn more about the health ...

354

Parametric yield maximization using gate sizing based on efficient statistical power and delay gradient computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased significance of leakage power and performance variability, the yield of a design is becoming constrained both by power and performance limits, thereby significantly complicating circuit optimization. In this paper, we propose a new optimization method for yield optimization under simultaneous leakage power and performance limits. The optimization approach uses a novel leakage power and performance analysis that

Kaviraj Chopra; Saumil Shah; Ashish Srivastava; David Blaauw; Dennis Sylvester

2005-01-01

355

Systematics of Fission-Product Yields  

SciTech Connect

Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

A.C. Wahl

2002-05-01

356

Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data.  

PubMed

One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies. PMID:18196615

Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng

2008-01-01

357

Fiber yields in Sansevieria interspecific hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber yields are reported for the interspecific hybrid Florida H-13 (Sansevieria trifasciata Prain S. deserti 2V. E.\\u000a Brown), subjected to various harvesting cycles at three locations in southern Florida. Yields of Florida H-13 are compared\\u000a with those of other F1F2triploid, and backcross hybrids and the parental species, S. trifasciata. Fiber yields were higher from plants grown on peat

F. D. Wilson; J. F. Joyner; D. W. Fishler

1969-01-01

358

A Cointegration Analysis of Treasury Bill Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that yields to maturity of U.S. Treasury bills are cointegrated and that, during periods when the Federal Reserve specifically targeted short-term interest rates, the spreads between yields of different maturity define the cointegrating vectors. This cointegrating relationship implies that a single nonstationary common factor underlies the time-series behavior of each yield to maturity and that risk premia

Anthony D Hall; Heather M Anderson; Clive W J Granger

1992-01-01

359

Static Yield Stress in Magnetorheological Fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method and a device for measuring a true static yield stress in magnetorheological (MR) fluids are proposed. The data obtained by means of this device are compared with the measured values of the dynamic yield stress for similar compositions as well as with the quantities calculated by the reported models. It is shown that the dynamic yield stress exceeds the static one. The experimental data better agree with Rosensweig's model.

Kordonski, W.; Gorodkin, S.; Zhuravski, N.

360

Public Health Significance of Neuroticism  

PubMed Central

The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them.

Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

361

[Clinical significance of monoclonal gammopathy with undetermined significance--review].  

PubMed

Monoclonal gammopathy with undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common plasma cell disorder, MGUS is an asymptomatic premalignant disorder, which is markedly underdiagnosed in the general population. The risk frequency of progression to multiple myeloma or a closely related plasma cell disorder was developed at a rate of 1.5% per year, indicating that the condition is not entirely benign. The cumulative probability of progression is 10% at 10 years, 21% at 20 years, and 26% at 25 years. As compared with control populations, the progression rate of MGUS into multiple myeloma, Waldenstr m's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis and lymphoma were increased by 25, 46, 8.4 and 2.4 times respectively. Numerous reports suggest an association of MGUS with a wide variety of other malignant and nonmalignant diseases. The determining highest risk factors of progression, delaying or preventing the progression of MGUS, targeting at the highest risk of progression and improving overall quality of life, all of them are the current hot topics to be explored and summarized in this review. PMID:21129295

Wang, Xue-Wen; Li, Feng

2010-10-01

362

On yield loci of HY80, HY100 steels and Ti6Al2Nb1Ta0. 8Mo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends other findings by examining the biaxial yield behavior of Ti-6A1-1Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo and HY 100 steel. The results of the study are compared with previous findings of HY80 steel to assess the effect of crystallography on the shape of the yield surface.

K. S. Chan; J. Wise

1984-01-01

363

On yield loci of HY80, HY100 steels and Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0. 8Mo  

SciTech Connect

This paper extends other findings by examining the biaxial yield behavior of Ti-6A1-1Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo and HY 100 steel. The results of the study are compared with previous findings of HY80 steel to assess the effect of crystallography on the shape of the yield surface.

Chan, K.S.; Lindholm, U.S.; Wise, J.

1984-11-01

364

Yield stress of stearically stabilized colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk property, yield stress has been modeled by Larson in the past for spherical colloidal particles with dependence on volume fraction of solids particle diameter and interaction potential (sum of van der Waals potential and electrostatic potential. In our organic pigment dispersions polymer stabilized followed Herschel-Bulkley equation with yield stress which was non-linearly dependent on pigment surface area measured by BET. Stability of dispersions changed with time in terms of particle size and yield stress as well as on the type of deformation, shear applied to the dispersion. The results of yield stress are compared with models in terms of interaction potential, particle size and zeta potential..

Ahuja, Suresh; Bluhm, Terry

2007-03-01

365

Efficient prediction of (p,n) yields  

SciTech Connect

In the continuous deceleration approximation, charged particles decelerate without any spread in energy as they traverse matter. This approximation simplifies the calculation of the yield of nuclear reactions, for which the cross-section depends on the particle energy. We calculated (p,n) yields for a LiF target, using the Bethe-Bloch relation for proton deceleration, and predicted that the maximum yield would be around 0.25% neutrons per incident proton, for an initial proton energy of 70 MeV or higher. Yield-energy relations calculated in this way can readily be used to optimize source and (p,n) converter characteristics.

Swift, D C; McNaney, J M; Higginson, D P; Beg, F

2009-09-09

366

QCD Corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg at B Factories  

SciTech Connect

In heavy quarkonium production, the measured ratio R{sub cc}={sigma}[J/{psi}+cc+X]/{sigma}[J/{psi}+X] at B factories is much larger than existing theoretical predictions. To clarify this discrepancy, in nonrelativistic QCD we find the next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD correction to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg can enhance the cross section by about 20%. Together with the calculated NLO result for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+cc, we show that the NLO corrections can significantly improve the fit to the ratio R{sub cc}. The effects of leading logarithm resummation near the end point on the J/{psi} momentum distribution and total cross section are also considered. Comparison of the calculated cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg with the observed cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+non-(cc) is expected to provide unique information on the issue of color-octet contributions.

Ma Yanqing; Zhang Yujie [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chao Kuangta [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2009-04-24

367

Yawning and its physiological significance  

PubMed Central

Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field.

Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

2013-01-01

368

The energetic significance of cooking.  

PubMed

While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

2009-09-03

369

Redefining agricultural yields: from tonnes to people nourished per hectare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide demand for crops is increasing rapidly due to global population growth, increased biofuel production, and changing dietary preferences. Meeting these growing demands will be a substantial challenge that will tax the capability of our food system and prompt calls to dramatically boost global crop production. However, to increase food availability, we may also consider how the worlds crops are allocated to different uses and whether it is possible to feed more people with current levels of crop production. Of particular interest are the uses of crops as animal feed and as biofuel feedstocks. Currently, 36% of the calories produced by the worlds crops are being used for animal feed, and only 12% of those feed calories ultimately contribute to the human diet (as meat and other animal products). Additionally, human-edible calories used for biofuel production increased fourfold between the years 2000 and 2010, from 1% to 4%, representing a net reduction of available food globally. In this study, we re-examine agricultural productivity, going from using the standard definition of yield (in tonnes per hectare, or similar units) to using the number of people actually fed per hectare of cropland. We find that, given the current mix of crop uses, growing food exclusively for direct human consumption could, in principle, increase available food calories by as much as 70%, which could feed an additional 4 billion people (more than the projected 2-3 billion people arriving through population growth). Even small shifts in our allocation of crops to animal feed and biofuels could significantly increase global food availability, and could be an instrumental tool in meeting the challenges of ensuring global food security.

Cassidy, Emily S.; West, Paul C.; Gerber, James S.; Foley, Jonathan A.

2013-09-01

370

Resilience Significantly Contributes to Exceptional Longevity  

PubMed Central

Objective. We aim to investigate whether centenarians are significantly more resilient than younger elders and whether resilience significantly contributes to exceptional longevity. Data. We use a unique dataset from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey with the largest sample to date of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and a compatible group of young old aged 6579. Methods and Results. Logistic regressions based on the cross-sectional sample show that after controlling for various confounders, including physical health and cognitive status, centenarians are significantly more resilient than any other old-age group. Logistic regression analyses based on the longitudinal data show that nonagenarians aged 9498 with better resilience have a 43.1% higher likelihood of becoming a centenarian compared to nonagenarians with lower resilience. Conclusions. Resilience significantly contributes to longevity at all ages, and it becomes even more profound at very advanced ages. These findings indicate that policies and programs to promote resilience would have long-term and positive effects on the well-being and longevity for senior citizens and their families.

Zeng, Yi; Shen, Ke

2010-01-01

371

Postcoiling Aneurysm Tilting: A Disturbing Finding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We present two patients with posterior tilting of a basilar tip aneurysm after selective coiling. The cause and significance of this finding are discussed. Unlike surgery, where clipping and manipulation of an aneurysm often alters its orientation, selective en- dovascular treatment should leave the aneurysm's morphology and orientation intact. We report our observations of two patients with large ruptured

Eric Sauvageau; Jean Raymond; Daniel Roy; Louis Juravsky; Francois Guilbert; Alain Weill

372

Knowledge translation of research findings  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

2012-01-01

373

Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBX32 gene in soybean increases grain yield.  

PubMed

Crop yield is a highly complex quantitative trait. Historically, successful breeding for improved grain yield has led to crop plants with improved source capacity, altered plant architecture, and increased resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To date, transgenic approaches towards improving crop grain yield have primarily focused on protecting plants from herbicide, insects, or disease. In contrast, we have focused on identifying genes that, when expressed in soybean, improve the intrinsic ability of the plant to yield more. Through the large scale screening of candidate genes in transgenic soybean, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana B-box domain gene (AtBBX32) that significantly increases soybean grain yield year after year in multiple transgenic events in multi-location field trials. In order to understand the underlying physiological changes that are associated with increased yield in transgenic soybean, we examined phenotypic differences in two AtBBX32-expressing lines and found increases in plant height and node, flower, pod, and seed number. We propose that these phenotypic changes are likely the result of changes in the timing of reproductive development in transgenic soybean that lead to the increased duration of the pod and seed development period. Consistent with the role of BBX32 in A. thaliana in regulating light signaling, we show that the constitutive expression of AtBBX32 in soybean alters the abundance of a subset of gene transcripts in the early morning hours. In particular, AtBBX32 alters transcript levels of the soybean clock genes GmTOC1 and LHY-CCA1-like2 (GmLCL2). We propose that through the expression of AtBBX32 and modulation of the abundance of circadian clock genes during the transition from dark to light, the timing of critical phases of reproductive development are altered. These findings demonstrate a specific role for AtBBX32 in modulating soybean development, and demonstrate the validity of expressing single genes in crops to deliver increased agricultural productivity. PMID:22363475

Preuss, Sasha B; Meister, Robert; Xu, Qingzhang; Urwin, Carl P; Tripodi, Federico A; Screen, Steven E; Anil, Veena S; Zhu, Shuquan; Morrell, James A; Liu, Grace; Ratcliffe, Oliver J; Reuber, T Lynne; Khanna, Rajnish; Goldman, Barry S; Bell, Erin; Ziegler, Todd E; McClerren, Amanda L; Ruff, Thomas G; Petracek, Marie E

2012-02-17

374

Assessing catchment-scale erosion and yields of suspended solids from improved temperate grassland.  

PubMed

This paper quantifies the yields of suspended solids (SS) from a headwater catchment managed as improved temperate grassland, providing the first direct, catchment-scale evidence of the rates of erosion from this land-use in the UK and assessing the threat posed to aquatic ecosystems. High-resolution monitoring of catchment hydrology and the concentrations of SS and volatile organic matter (VOM) were carried out in the first-order channel of the Den Brook headwater catchment in Devon (UK) during the 2006-2007 hydrological season. The widely used 'rating curve' (discharge-concentration) approach was employed to estimate yields of SS, but as demonstrated by previous researchers, this study showed that discharge is a poor predictor of SS concentrations and therefore any yields estimated from this technique are likely to be highly uncertain. Nevertheless, for the purpose of providing estimates of yields that are comparable to previous studies on other land uses/sources, this technique was adopted albeit in an uncertainty-based framework. The findings suggest that contrary to the common perception, grasslands can be erosive landscapes with SS yields from this catchment estimated to be between 0.54 and 1.21 t ha(-1) y(-1). In terms of on-site erosion problems, this rate of erosion does not significantly exceed the commonly used 'tolerable' threshold in the UK ( approximately 1 t ha(-1) y(-1)). In terms of off-site erosion problems, it is argued here that the conventional expression of SS yield as a bulk annual figure has little relevance to the water quality and ecological status of surface waters and therefore an alternative technique (the concentration-frequency curve) is developed within this paper for the specific purpose of assessing the ecological threat posed by the delivery of SS into surface waters. This technique illustrates that concentrations of SS recorded at the catchment outlet frequently exceed the water quality guidelines, such as those of the EU Freshwater Fisheries Directive (78/659/EC), and pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms. It is suggested that failure to recognise improved temperate grasslands as a potential source of particulate material could result in the non-compliance of surface waters to water quality guidelines, deterioration of ecological status and failure of water quality remediation measures. PMID:20445863

Bilotta, G S; Krueger, T; Brazier, R E; Butler, P; Freer, J; Hawkins, J M B; Haygarth, P M; Macleod, C J A; Quinton, J N

2010-01-15

375

Temporal bone computed tomography findings in bilateral sensorineural hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine the yield of computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bones when investigating sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and to identify factors associated with CT findings.METHODSRetrospective analysis of 116 consecutively investigated children with bilateral SNHL at the audiology department of Great Ormond Street Hospital, London. Main outcome measures were CT results, hearing loss parameters, history, and clinical examination.RESULTSA total of

D E Bamiou; P Phelps; T Sirimanna

2000-01-01

376

New findings presented at European breast cancer conference  

Cancer.gov

An experimental model of breast cancer has yielded exciting new insights into why some breast cancers become resistant to endocrine therapies such as tamoxifen, say researchers from the Hospital of Prato, Italy, and the Breast Center at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston. Their findings could lead to new treatments and prognostic tests for the disease.

377

Enhancement of ultrasonic cavitation yield by multi-frequency sonication.  

PubMed

The paper reports the enhanced effect of multi-frequency ultrasonic irradiation on cavitation yield. The cavitation yield is characterized by electrical conductivity determination, fluorescence intensity determination and iodine release method. Two-frequency (28 kHz/0.87 MHz) orthogonal continuous ultrasound, two-frequency (28 kHz/0.87 MHz) orthogonal pulse ultrasound and three-frequency (28 kHz/1.0 MHz/1.87 MHz) orthogonal continuous ultrasound have been used. It has been found that the combined irradiation of two or more frequencies of ultrasound can produce a significant increase in cavitation yield compared with single frequency irradiation. The possible mechanisms of the enhanced effect are briefly discussed. PMID:12371198

Feng, Ruo; Zhao, Yiyun; Zhu, Changping; Mason, T J

2002-10-01

378

Dalitz plot analysis of the B{yields}K{eta}{gamma} decays  

SciTech Connect

Recently B factories have published new results on the B{yields}K{eta}{gamma} decays being inspired by the theoretical suggestion to search for new physics in B{yields}P{sub 1}P{sub 2}{gamma} decays. Using heavy-meson chiral perturbation theory, we find a mechanism which governs the amplitude in parts of the Dalitz plot where either K or {eta} mesons are soft. The dominant contributions in these cases are coming from the nonresonant decay modes. We discuss also the B{yields}K{eta}{sup '}{gamma} Dalitz plot. Our partially integrated rates are in agreement with the experimental findings.

Fajfer, S. [J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pham, T. N. [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Kosnik, N. [J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-10-01

379

Late Foliar Diseases in Wheat Crops Decrease Nitrogen Yield Through N Uptake Rather than Through Variations in N Remobilization  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims French wheat grains may be of little value on world markets because they have low and highly variable grain protein concentrations (GPC). This nitrogen-yield to yield ratio depends on crop nitrogen (N) fertilization as well as on crop capacity to use N, which is known to vary with climate and disease severity. Here an examination is made of the respective roles that N remobilization and post-anthesis N uptake play in N yield variations; in particular, when wheat crops (Triticum aestivum) are affected by leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and Septoria tritici blotch (teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola). Methods Data from a 4-year field experiment was used to analyse N yield variations in wheat crops grown either with a third or no late N fertilization. Natural aerial epidemics ensured a range of disease severity, and fungicide ensured disease-free control plots. The data set of Gooding et al. (2005, Journal of Agricultural Science 143: 503518) was incorporated in order to enlarge the range of conditions. Key Results Post-anthesis N uptake accounted for a third of N yield whilst N remobilization accounted for two-thirds in all crops whether affected by diseases or not. However, variations in N yield were highly correlated with post-anthesis N uptake, more than with N remobilization, in diseased and also healthy crops. Furthermore, N remobilization did not significantly correlate with N yield in healthy crops. These findings matched data from studies using various wheat genotypes under various management and climatic conditions. Leaf area duration (LAD) accurately predicted N remobilization whether or not crops were diseased; in diseased crops, LAD also accurately predicted N uptake. Conclusions Under the experimental conditions, N yield variations were closely associated with post-anthesis N uptake in diseased but also in healthy crops. Understanding the respective roles of N uptake and N remobilization in the case of diseased and healthy crops holds the promise of better modelling of variations in N yield, and thus in GPC.

Bancal, Marie-Odile; Roche, Romain; Bancal, Pierre

2008-01-01

380

Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-02-01

381

Aspergillus bronchitis without significant immunocompromise.  

PubMed

Aspergillus bronchitis is poorly understood and described. We extracted clinical data from more than 400 referred patients with persistent chest symptoms who did not fulfill criteria for allergic, chronic, or invasive aspergillosis. Symptomatic patients with a positive culture or real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp. were reviewed. Seventeen patients fulfilled the selected criteria. Fourteen were women, with a mean age of 57 years (range 39-76). Sixteen of the patients had productive cough, eight had voluminous tenacious sputum, and seven had recurrent chest infections. Eight patients had Medical Research Council dyspnea scores of 4-5; 12 had bronchiectasis; and 13 patients grew A. fumigatus, 3 A. niger, and 1 A. terreus. Twelve of the 17 patients (71%) had elevated Aspergillus IgG (47-137 mg/L, mean 89.2) and 5 (29%) had elevated Aspergillus precipitins. Six of 12 (50%) had a major response to antifungal therapy and five of 12 (42%) patients relapsed, requiring long-term therapy. Aspergillus bronchitis is a discrete clinical entity in patients with structural lung disease but who are not significantly immunocompromised. It is distinct from asymptomatic fungal colonization and other forms of aspergillosis, and may respond to antifungal therapy. PMID:23231717

Chrdle, Ales; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Baxter, Caroline G; Felton, Timothy; Denning, David W

2012-12-01

382

Silicon dioxide etching yield measurements with inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide etching yield has been measured directly with inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasmas. The yields measurement technique of this work can provide useful information for feature profile evolution modeling, which is essential to understand various issues in oxide etching such as reactive ion etching (RIE) lag, inverse RIE lag, etch stop, microtrenching, bowing, etc. Etching and deposition yields per ion were measured using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a function of ion bombardment energy, ion-to-neutral flux ratio, and ion-impinging angle. C2HF5, C2F6, C2H4F2, and C4F8 were used for the oxide etching. Oxide etching mechanism with those gases is complex because etching and deposition are involved at the same time. In highly selective processes fluorocarbon deposition plays important role in determining etching characteristics. Two fluorocarbon deposition mechanisms are identified in this work: neutral deposition and ion-enhanced deposition. The low-energy ions are believed to enhance the deposition rates by creating active sites and fluorocarbon neutrals deposit on the active sites with higher sticking probability. A surface kinetic model is suggested to explain the ion-enhanced mechanism and shows good agreement with experimental data. Angular yield measurement shows that when fluorocarbon deposition is relatively severe, etching yield decreases significantly as the incident angle increases and deposit fluorocarbon at a high incident angle above 60.

Chae, Heeyeop; Vitale, Steven A.; Sawin, Herbert H.

2003-03-01

383

Yield stress anomaly in B2 FeAl  

SciTech Connect

The studies on yield stress anomaly of B2 FeAl single crystals are reviewed in this paper. A positive temperature dependence of yield stress, so-called yield stress anomaly, is observed in B2 FeAl in which excess vacancies are fully annealed out. Associated with the anomaly, characteristic asymmetry is found between tension and compression. While the strain-rate sensitivity is almost zero in the temperature range of the yield stress anomaly, the stress relaxation becomes significant with increasing temperature, indicating that a recovery process is thermally activated. It is ascertained by the two-surface trace analysis that slip transition from <111> direction at intermediate temperature to <100> at high temperature occurs around the peak temperature. Even at the peak temperature, in addition, operative slip vector for yielding is confirmed to be predominantly <111> by TEM. Also, it is observed that <111>-type superdislocations are frequently climb-dissociated in the temperature range of the anomaly. APB formation on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is energetically favorable, which is in agreement with the Flinn`s calculation for the B2 superlattice that APB energy on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is lower than that on {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane. Such an anisotropy of APB energy would offer specific driving force for the climb dissociation on <111> superdislocations. On the basis of the observed results, the anomalous strengthening behavior of B2 FeAl single crystals is discussed.

Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1996-12-31

384

ICF Gamma-Ray Yield Measurements on the NIF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is to provide bang time and burn width information in order to constrain implosion simulation parameters such as shell velocity and confinement time. This is accomplished by measuring DT fusion ?-rays with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV ?-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. For yield determination, absolute uncertainties associated with the d(t,n)?/d(t,?)^5He branching ratio and detector response are removed by cross-calibrating the GRH signal against independent neutron yield measurements of directly-driven DT exploding pushers with negligible neutron downscatter. The GRH signal can then be used to make Total DTn Yield inferences on indirectly-driven, cryogenically-layered DT implosions which achieve high areal density and hence scatter a significant fraction of DTn out of the 14 MeV primary peak. By comparing the Total DTn Yield from ?-ray measurements with the Primary DTn Yield (13-15 MeV) from neutron measurements, the Total Downscatter Fraction (TDSF) can be inferred. Results of recent measurements will be presented.

Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Hoffman, N. M.; Stoeffl, W. S.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Church, J. A.; Liebman, J.; Grafil, E.

2011-11-01

385

THE ZONES PROJECTS: UNDERSTANDING SOYBEAN YIELD VARIABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two regional projects funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and the United Soybean Board are entitled Mapping of Soil and Field Characteristics to Understand Soybean Yield and Using Remotely Sensed Data to Diagnose Soybean Yield Limiting Factors. These projects were developed in resp...

386

Suspended sediment yields of rivers in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to quantify the spatial distribution of suspended sediment yields of rivers in Turkey, and to quantify the suspended sediment flux to the sea, to lakes and reservoirs, and out of the country. Sediment yields in Turkey vary in accordance with the erosion potential of the river basins and values range from 12 to 609

FAZLI OZTURK

387

Pollinator shortage and global crop yield  

PubMed Central

A pollinator decline caused by environmental degradation might be compromising the production of pollinator-dependent crops. In a recent article, we compared 45 year series (19612006) in yield, production and cultivated area of pollinator-dependent and nondependent crop around the world. If pollinator shortage is occurring globally, we expected a lower annual growth rate in yield for pollinator-dependent than nondependent crops, but a higher growth in cultivated area to compensate the lower yield. We have found little evidence for the first yield prediction but strong evidence for the second area prediction. Here, we present an additional analysis to show that the first and second predictions are both supported for crops that vary in dependency levels from nondependent to moderate dependence (i.e., up to 65% average yield reduction without pollinators). However, those crops for which animal pollination is essential (i.e., 95% average yield reduction without pollinators) showed higher growth in yield and lower expansion in area than expected in a pollination shortage scenario. We propose that pollination management for highly pollinator-dependent crops, such us renting hives or hand pollination, might have compensated for pollinator limitation of yield.

Aizen, Marcelo A; Cunningham, Saul A; Klein, Alexandra M

2009-01-01

388

Multiple item capacitated random yield systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main contributors to the uncertainty of production systems are capacity and random yield; therefore, strategies are needed that incorporate both random yield and the increased effect due to capacity restrictions. This paper utilizes dynamic programming and linear programming transformation to provides a method to specify an optimal decision for a given inventory state. In doing so, it can be

Scott E. Grasman

2009-01-01

389

rho(yields)4(pi) decay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decay modes (rho)(sup 0)(yields)2(pi)(sup +)2(pi)(sup -) and (rho)(sup 0)(yields)2(pi)(sup 0)(pi)(sup +)(pi)(sup -) are considered in the framework of the low energy effective chiral Lagrangian. The obtained values of the decay widths (Gamma)((rho)(su...

S. I. Ejdel'man E. Kuraev Z. K. Silagadze

1994-01-01

390

YIELD STRESS DETERMINATION OF ASPHALT EMULSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield stress of asphalt emulsions was investigated as a potential quality control parameter. Viscometric data were determined using concentric cylinder, parallel plate, and cone and plate geometries. The use of a novel slotted-plate technique was investigated to determine the yield stress of asphalt emulsions in a direct way, that is to say, without extrapolation. The Saybolt viscosity was determined

Max Hetzer; Kyle Frederic; Daniel De Kee; Christopher D. Abadie

2007-01-01

391

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana lvarez-Fernndez; Javier Abada; Anunciacin Abada

392

Foundations of Yield Improvement in Watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taken as a group, the studies indicate the presence of heterosis in watermelon and the importance of GCA High yield is a major goal for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus(Thunb.) in the choice of parents for hybrid production. Ferreira Matsum. & Nakai) breeders. The objective of this study was to mea- sure yield in a diverse set of watermelon cultivars to identify

Gabriele Gusmini; Todd C. Wehner

2005-01-01

393

Nonuniform sprinkler irrigation and crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nonuniform water application by sprinkler on the variability of soil water content and corn yield was studied on two experimental plots differing in their texture and hydraulic characteristics (Table 2). Variograms, autocorrelations and cross-correlations of soil water contents (?), crop yield of sweet corn (Y), and net water application (Q) were calculated (Fig. 2). The correlograms show

Jack Stern; Eshel Bresler

1983-01-01

394

Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance in a bone marrow donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a patient suffering from multiple myeloma, for whom allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was planned. Donor workup revealed monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. We discuss this finding and stress the importance of performing complete donor examinations.

S. O. Peters; M. Stockschlder; W. Zeller; K. Mross; M. Drken; W. Krger; A. R. Zander

1993-01-01

395

Yielding behavior of dense microgel glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the yielding behavior of dense suspensions of stimuli-responsive poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel particles studied by performing oscillatory shear measurements. At a volume fraction of ? = 0.6 (labeled as sample S1) the suspension is characterized to be repulsive glass by dynamic light scattering technique and showed one step yielding. Quite interestingly higher volume fraction sample (S2) prepared by osmotically compressing sample S1, showed yielding occurring in two steps. Such one step yielding behavior turning into two step yielding was reported by Pham et al [Europhys. Lett., 75, 624 (2006)] in hard-sphere repulsive colloidal glass when transformed into an attractive glass by inducing depletion attraction. We confirm the repulsive interparticle interaction between PNIPAM microgel particles turning into attractive upon osmotic compression by static light scattering measurements.

Joshi, R. G.; Tata, B. V. R.; Karthickeyan, D.

2013-02-01

396

PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED  

SciTech Connect

The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M {sub sun}, or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16-80131, Napoli (Italy)

2009-12-10

397

Rain-fed fig yield as affected by rainfall distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable annual rainfall and its uneven distribution are the major uncontrolled inputs in rain-fed fig production and possibly the main cause of yield fluctuation in Istahban region of Fars Province, I.R. of Iran. This introduces a considerable risk in rain-fed fig production. The objective of this study was to find relationships between seasonal rainfall distribution and rain-fed fig production in Istahban region to determine the critical rainfall periods for rain-fed fig production and supplementary irrigation water application. Further, economic analysis for rain-fed fig production was considered in this region to control the risk of production. It is concluded that the monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall indices are able to show the effects of rainfall and its distribution on the rain-fed fig yield. Fig yield with frequent occurrence of 80 % is 374 kg ha-1. The internal rates of return for interest rate of 4, 8 and 12 % are 21, 58 and 146 %, respectively, that are economically feasible. It is concluded that the rainfall in spring especially in April and in December has negatively affected fig yield due to its interference with the life cycle of Blastophaga bees for pollination. Further, it is concluded that when the rainfall is limited, supplementary irrigation can be scheduled in March.

Bagheri, Ensieh; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza

2013-09-01

398

Measurements of branching fractions for B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, and B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}{gamma}  

SciTech Connect

We present branching fraction measurements for the radiative decays B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, and B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}{gamma}. The analysis is based on a data sample of 465x10{sup 6} BB events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We find B(B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma})=(1.20{sub -0.37}{sup +0.42}{+-}0.20)x10{sup -6}, B(B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma})=(0.97{sub -0.22}{sup +0.24}{+-}0.06)x10{sup -6}, and a 90% C.L. upper limit B(B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}{gamma})<0.9x10{sup -6}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. We also measure the isospin-violating quantity {gamma}(B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma})/2{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma})-1=-0.43{sub -0.22}{sup +0.25}{+-}0.10.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V. [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules, IN2P3/CNRS et Universite de Savoie, F-74941 Annecy-Le-Vieux (France); Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] (and others)

2008-12-01

399

MR findings in listerial rhombencephalitis.  

PubMed

We describe a case of listerial rhombencephalitis in a previously healthy 40-year-old man. The diagnosis was based on the clinical findings, results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis, blood culture, and MR imaging findings. The treatment was started before culture results were available, and the patient had a full clinical recovery. PMID:8881261

Alper, G; Knepper, L; Kanal, E

1996-03-01

400

Finding Areas on Dot Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contains investigative activities to assist students in constructing formulas out of an understanding of the area of geometric shapes. Included with this article are a "Finding Areas on Square Dot Paper Activity Sheet" and a "Finding Areas on Triangle Dot Paper Activity Sheet." (Contains 1 table and 11 figures.)

Pagni, David L.

2007-01-01

401

Refinding Is Not Finding Again  

Microsoft Academic Search

A challenging problem for Internet users today is how to refind information that they have seen before. We believe that finding and refinding are different user activities and require different types of support. The problem of how to find information on the web is studied extensively - new search algorithms, support for natural language queries, and innovative document indexing techniques

Robert Capra; Mary Pinney; Manuel A. Prez-Quiones

402

Radiological findings of human fascioliasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasciola hepatica is a trematode of herbivorous mammals. Humans are accidentally infected by the ingestion of water or raw aquatic vegetables contaminated with the metacercaria. Radiological findings of six patients with fascioliasis (five hepatic fascioliasis, one biliary fascioliasis) were analyzed. The diagnosis was based on serologic testing and\\/or histopathologic findings of eosinophilic abscess in five patients and identification of the

Joon Koo Han; Byung Ihn Choi; Jae Min Cho; Kyoo Byung Chung; Man Chung Han; Chu-Wan Kim

1993-01-01

403

Krabbe disease: unusual MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the MRI findings in a case of infantile-onset Krabbe disease. Enlargement of the intracranial optic nerves and\\u000a cervical cord were detected in addition to more typical changes in the cerebral white matter and thalami. We also review the\\u000a proton MR spectroscopic findings in Krabbe disease.

Veena A. Nagar; Meher A. Ursekar; Pradeep Krishnan; Bhavin G. Jankharia

2006-01-01

404

Finding the object'' proceedings addendum  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this workshop was to discuss finding the object -- that is, how software engineers imagine, invent, design, or recycle objects and their behaviors for object-oriented software engineering. The workshop organizers (and, as we subsequently discovered, several of the workshop participants) felt that this issue is crucial to successful object-oriented software engineering (after all, finding objects is what the projects is all about, isn't it ). Unfortunately, when previous workshops have had the opportunity to review and discuss techniques practitioners use to find objects, too often the results were heated debates on what is an object '' which becomes all consuming. We believed that, given appropriate control over the question of which kind of object'' is being discussed (which meant tell us what object you are trying to find, then tell us your method), a workshop to concentrate on techniques for finding objects would be quite appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Whiting, M.A.; Devaney, D.M.

1990-10-01

405

AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY AND YIELD MONITOR DATA FOR MAPPING COTTON YIELD VARIABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased availability of hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acquired using...

406

MAPPING COTTON YIELD VARIABILITY USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY AND YIELD MONITOR DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased availability of airborne hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acqui...

407

Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements  

SciTech Connect

A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

2011-04-06

408

Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

409

Growth parameter and yield component response of field corn to simulated acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yield changes the study examined the effect of simulated acid rain on parameters associated with corn yield. Cultivars B73 x Mo17 and Pioneer 3377 were shielded from ambient rain by two movable rain exclusion shelters. Six simulated rain treatments were applied biweekly within these shelters through the use of a nozzle distribution system. For the most part, growth and yield parameters were unaffected by simulated rain treatment. While the only significant yield reduction was a contrast of pH 3.0 and the average of all other treatments for B73 x Mo17, the reduction appears to be the result both of slightly fewer ears and slightly less successful ear fill.

Banwart, W.L.; Porter, P.M.; Ziegler, E.L.; Hassett, J.J.

1988-01-01

410

Nitrate radical quantum yield from peroxyacetyl nitrate photolysis.  

PubMed

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(O)OONO2) is a ubiquitous pollutant that is primarily destroyed by either thermal or photochemical mechanisms. We have investigated the photochemical destruction of PAN using a combination of laser pulsed photolysis and cavity ring-down spectroscopic detection of the NO3 photoproduct. We find that the nitrate radical quantum yield from the 289 nm photolysis of PAN is Phi(NO3)PAN = 0.31 +/- 0.08 (+/-2 sigma). The quantum yield is determined relative to that of dinitrogen pentoxide, which is assumed to be unity, under identical experimental conditions. The instrument design and experimental procedure are discussed as well as auxiliary experiments performed to further characterize the performance of the optical cavity and photolysis system. PMID:16833558

Flowers, Bradley A; Angerhofer, Mark E; Simpson, William R; Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka

2005-03-24

411

Remotely Sensed Rice Yield Prediction Using Multi-Temporal NDVI Data Derived from NOAA's-AVHRR  

PubMed Central

Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha?1. Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

2013-01-01

412

Factors affecting the dynamics of yield premia on shipping seasoned high yield bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates factors that can explain the dynamics of yield premia on seasoned high yield bonds of shipping companies. Our analysis utilises 40 seasoned high yield bonds offered by 32 shipping companies between April 1998 and December 2002 and a set of microeconomic, macroeconomic and, industry related factors. Our model suggests that the dynamics of credit premia of seasoned

Costas Th. Grammenos; Amir H. Alizadeh; Nikos C. Papapostolou

2007-01-01

413

LARGE-AREA MAIZE YIELD FORECASTING USING LEAF AREA INDEX BASED YIELD MODEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-area yield prediction early in the growing season is important in agricultural decision-making. The objectives of this study were to derive maize (Zea mays L.) leaf area index (LAI) estimates from spectral data and to use these estimates with a simple LAI-based yield model to forecast yield u...

414

Yield drag associated with resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in high-yielding cotton germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant breeding, accidental incorporation of deleterious DNA near a desirable gene is called linkage drag; if it reduces yield, it is called yield drag. Yield drag is best documented by comparing near isogenic lines with and without the DNA containing the desired gene to minimize other genetic di...

415

Finding beam focus errors automatically  

SciTech Connect

An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors. (LEW)

Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

1987-01-01

416

Interdecadal patterns of total sediment yield from a montane catchment, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconstruct sediment yield for a mountain watershed of western Canada since the mid-twentieth century from studies of annually laminated lake sediments, delta progradation, and solute transfer. Total yield averaged 32040Mgkm?2a?1 and comprised ?35% suspended load, 50% bedload, and 15% dissolved load. Ratios between the individual yield components varied approximately threefold at interannual timescales because of significant variability in the

Erik Schiefer; Marwan A. Hassan; Brian Menounos; Channa P. Pelpola; Olav Slaymaker

2010-01-01

417

Influence of seed rates and row spacings on the growth and yield of late planted sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to see the effect of seed rates and row spacings on the growth and yield of late planted\\u000a sugarcane at Regional Research Station, Kheri (Sangrur) during 199596 and 199697. Pooled data of plant and ratoon crop on\\u000a cane yield, tillers, millable canes and cane height revealed that significantly higher cane yield was obtained from the

Avtar Singh

2000-01-01

418

Effect of pH on cream particle formation and solids extraction yield of black tea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of pH on tea solids extraction yield was significant in increasing instant tea yield. Solids extraction yield was doubled when tea was extracted at pH 1.2 compared with that extracted in boiling distilled water with pH 6.8. H+ encouraged black tea cream particle formation by either releasing more solids into the infusion or stimulating polyphenols to interact with polysaccharides

Yuerong Liang; Yuerong Xu

2001-01-01

419

How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker and Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2011) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Glasstone & Dolan, 1977). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.

2011-12-01

420

How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker & Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2012) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Kinney & Graham, 1985). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.

2012-04-01

421

Climate change: implications for the yield of edible rice.  

PubMed

Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980-2009 at IRRI, Los Baos, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy. PMID:23776635

Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa

2013-06-12

422

Hydrostatic stress dependent yield of 7075-T6 aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Tension and compression tests on notched cylindrical bars made of 7075-T6 aluminum have been conducted as a part of an investigation of the mechanics of ductile fracture. The compression tests showed significantly stiffer behavior in the nonlinear portion of the experiment than those found from the tension tests. This difference was accounted for by incorporating a hydrostatic stress dependent yield model in the analysis of the experiment. The model was verified by comparing finite element calculations with the actual experimental results.

Benzley, S.E.; Priddy, T.G.; Soo Hoo, M.S.

1980-03-01

423

Ammonium reduces growth, fruit yield and fruit quality of watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermelon (Citrullus lunatus Thunb.) plants cv Sugar Baby were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse under NO3:NH4 ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. Plants receiving the high ammonium treatment expressed symptoms of NH4?toxicity and declined rapidly after bloom. Reducing NO3:NH4 from 3:1 to 1:1 significantly reduced growth, water use, fruit yield, flesh soluble solids and uptake of NO3, NH4, K, Ca

E. H. Simonne; H. A. Mills; D. A. Smittle

1992-01-01

424

A Family Finds Its Way  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury A Family Finds Its Way Past Issues / Fall ... by a roadside bomb and suffers from traumatic brain injury (TBI). As a baby, daughter Nora, now 8, ...

425

Yes, Increased Yields Can Reduce Harvests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increases in stand yields resulting from growth-stimulating or inventory-protecting silvicultural investments may actually reduce the allowable cut calculated by Timber RAM as presently used on National Forests. The case study presented here indicates tha...

E. F. Bell

1976-01-01

426

Minimum Data Set--Maximum Yield.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the minimum data-maxiumum yield concept as a tool leading to greater counselor accountability. Data sets are useful tools for improving services, answering questions, and encouraging meaningful outcome research. (JAC)

Bozarth, Jerold D.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

1979-01-01

427

The Squeeze Flow of Yield Stress Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of squeeze flow (SF) is presented using different concentrations of carbopol with varying yield stresses. A constant volume of sample is placed between two parallel plates and a series of 3 constant force steps applied; each lasting 8 minutes, allowing the sample to achieve a limiting height before the next force is applied. The yield stress of each fluid can be calculated from the limiting height as predicted by SF theory. In this study, the reliability of SF for the determination of the yield stress is analyzed through comparison with precise rheometrical tests. The rheometrical data is combined with SF theory to obtain the predicted dynamic height evolution. The predicted height evolution represents the results of the SF experiments quite nicely. Ultimately, the yield stress values determined from the SF experiments and those of the precise rheometrical tests are in good agreement.

Rabideau, Brooks D.; Lanos, Christophe; Coussot, Philippe

2008-07-01

428

CHANGE IN NICOTINE YIELDS 1998 - 2004  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... yields have been reported from tests using smoking machines. ... machine's puff duration is too short, too little ... and the amount of time between puffs is ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

429

Agricultural Impacts: Multi-model yield projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using model ensembles for simulating the responses of future crop yields to climate change offers the prospect of more reliable projections, but requires sustained international collaboration and exchange of high-quality data for model testing.

Carter, Timothy R.

2013-09-01

430

Predictive relationships for sidestream smoke cigarette yields.  

PubMed

Relationships have been sought for smoking machine generated sidestream smoke yields of cigarettes for particulate matter (water and nicotine free) (PMWNF) and nicotine. Comparisons have been made with the corresponding mainstream smoke yields, other readily measurable factors in machine smoking and with the physical characteristics of cigarettes. The sidestream smoke yields have been found to be related to the puff count during machine smoking multiplied by the cross-sectional area of a cigarette or to the total weight of cigarette tobacco burnt during machine smoking. For the brands retailed in the U.K. these relationships permit calculation of the sidestream smoke contributions of PMWNF and nicotine to environmental tobacco smoke. From the data used to derive these relationships, and based on 31 cigarette brands representing 71% of cigarette sales in the U.K., the sales weighted sidestream PMWNF yield is 27.1 mg/cigarette and that for nicotine is 5.12 mg/cigarette. PMID:1615311

Evans, W H; Sefton, G V

1992-05-15

431

A comparison of period finding algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a comparison of popular period finding algorithms applied to the light curves of variable stars from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, MACHO and ASAS data sets. We analyse the accuracy of the methods against magnitude, sampling rates, quoted period, quality measures (signal-to-noise and number of observations), variability and object classes. We find that measure of dispersion-based techniques - analysis of variance with harmonics and conditional entropy - consistently give the best results but there are clear dependences on object class and light-curve quality. Period aliasing and identifying a period harmonic also remain significant issues. We consider the performance of the algorithms and show that a new conditional entropy-based algorithm is the most optimal in terms of completeness and speed. We also consider a simple ensemble approach and find that it performs no better than individual algorithms.

Graham, Matthew J.; Drake, Andrew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Donalek, Ciro; Duan, Victor; Maker, Allison

2013-10-01

432

Ocular Findings in Aplastic Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the ocular findings in aplastic anemia. Design: Eighteen patients with aplastic anemia were examined. Results: Ocular findings included cotton wool spots (38%), nerve fiber layer or preretinal hemorrhages (67%), vitreous hemorrhages (13%), a picture resembling central retinal vein occlusion (13%) and optic disk edema (6%). Preretinal hemorrhages were the presenting sign of aplastic anemia in 2 patients

Ahmad M. Mansour; Haytham I. Salti; Dennis P. Han; Albert Khoury; Scott M. Friedman; Ziad Salem; Khaled Ibrahim; Ali Bazerbachi; Nagi Saghir

2000-01-01

433

Global optimization for track finding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hopfield networks with mean-field annealing have been proposed for track finding in particle detectors by Peterson and Denby. In this paper we investigate and compare some other - probabilistic and heuristic - approaches to finding the global minimum of the associated energy function: Simulated annealing, threshold accepting, great deluge, record-to-record travel, and tabu search. We also use a branch-and-bound and a branch-and-cut algorithm in order to obtain the exact global minimum.

Diehl, M.; Jnger, M.; Frhwirth, R.; Scherzer, J.

1997-02-01

434

Cervical Castleman's disease: imaging findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Castleman's disease, a lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology, rarely causes a neck mass and may mimic granulomatous,\\u000a inflammatory and metastatic lymph nodes, or lymphoma with its nonspecific imaging findings. Definitive diagnosis and treatment\\u000a is possible with complete surgical resection. Imaging findings of a case with Castleman's disease detected during multinodular\\u000a goiter surgery and later verified through excisional biopsy are

A. Poyanli; F. A. Gen; S. Sencer; H. Yanar; Y. Kapran

2000-01-01

435

Ophthalmologic findings in Aicardi syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Aicardi syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder that has been characterized classically by agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, and the finding of chorioretinal lacunae. This triad has been augmented more recently by central nervous system and ocular findings. The goal of this study is to determine how frequently other ophthalmologic findings are associated with Aicardi syndrome. Methods A single ophthalmologist recorded the ocular and adnexal findings of 40 girls with this disorder at the annual meeting of an Aicardi syndrome family support group. For each subject, the examiner performed facial anthropometrics, portable biomicroscopy, and, where feasible, indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results The most common findings were chorioretinal lacunae in 66 (88%) of 75 eyes and optic nerve abnormalities in 61 (81%) of 75 eyes. Other less common findings included persistent pupillary membrane in 4 (5%) of 79 eyes and anterior synechiae in 1 of 79 eyes (1%). Conclusions Although the ophthalmic hallmark and defining feature of Aicardi syndrome is the cluster of distinctive chorioretinal lacunae surrounding the optic nerve(s), the spectrum of ocular, papillary, and retinal anomalies varies widely, from nearly normal to dysplasia of the optic nerve and to severe microphthalmos.

Fruhman, Gary; Eble, Tanya N.; Gambhir, Nikki; Sutton, V. Reid; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.; Lewis, Richard A.

2013-01-01

436

Serrated yielding in Al-Li alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serrated yielding (SY) during tensile testing has been observed in Al-Li alloys, both in the binary and the commercial quaternary alloys, in single crystal as well as polycrystalline materials. Serrated yielding is commonly explained by a dynamic strain aging (DSA) model developed by McCormick and van den Beukel. All the solute elements present in Al-Li alloys, viz., Mg, Cu and

S. Kumar; H. B. McShane

1993-01-01

437

Weak-scintillation light yield determination  

SciTech Connect

The pulse-height distribution produced by weak scintillations is simulated as a Poisson distribution if the mean number of photoelectrons collected at the first dynode is of the order of one. This method enables one to determine the scintillation yield also when the photomultiplier does not show a peak in the single-electron pulses. Scintillation yields have been determined for some aqueous solutions of sodium salicylate and for aromatic solvents (benzene, toluene, and xylene) on internal irradiation by ..cap alpha.. particles.

Mandzhukov, I.G.; Mandzhukova, B.V.

1987-12-01

438

Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to increase H2 yields from fermentative H2 production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although\\u000a heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H2 yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming\\u000a acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low

Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2007-01-01

439

Thermodynamics of yield in boron nitride nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the atomistic mechanism of yield to mechanical tension in boron nitride nanotubes. The formation energy of the first emerging defect is computed by accurate ab initio calculations. Its susceptibilities to mechanical tension is further evaluated in an economical fashion, when only load-free clusters need to be considered. The obtained thermodynamic threshold is above that of the homologuous carbon system, whose exceptional resistance to mechanical yield is already recognized.

Dumitric?, Traian; Bettinger, Holger F.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Yakobson, Boris I.

2003-08-01

440

Modeling sediment yields in Italian catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment yield observations, derived from 40 long-term sedimentation records in Italian reservoirs, were used to calibrate and validate the spatially distributed sediment delivery model WaTEM\\/SEDEM using the best data available at national scale. The sediment yield data set includes records from semi-natural catchments in northern Italy as well as agricultural and semi-natural basins in central and southern Italy. The average

Anton Van Rompaey; Paolo Bazzoffi; Robert J. A. Jones; Luca Montanarella

2005-01-01

441

MODELLING SEDIMENT YIELDS IN ITALIAN CATCHMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Long term sediment yield observations, derived from 40 long term sedimentation records in Italian reservoirs, were used to calibrate and validate the spatially distributed sediment delivery model,WaTEM\\/SEDEM using the best data available at national scale. The sediment yield data set includes records from semi-natural catchments in northern Italy as well and agricultural and semi-natural basins in central and southern

Anton Van Rompaey; Paolo Bazzoffi; Robert J. A Jones; Luca Montanarella

2005-01-01

442

Regulated Expression of an Isopentenyltransferase Gene (IPT) in Peanut Significantly Improves Drought Tolerance and Increases Yield Under Field Conditions.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot p...

443

Nuclear reaction rate uncertainties and astrophysical modeling: Carbon yields from low-mass giants  

SciTech Connect

Calculations that demonstrate the influence of three key nuclear reaction rates on the evolution of asymptotic giant branch stars have been carried out. We study the case of a star with an initial mass of 2 M{sub {center_dot}} and a metallicity of Z=0.01, somewhat less than the solar metallicity. The dredge-up of nuclear processed material from the interior of the star and the yield predictions for carbon are sensitive to the rate of the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O and triple-{alpha} reactions. These reactions dominate the H- and He-burning shells of stars in this late evolutionary phase. Published uncertainty estimates for each of these two rates propagated through stellar evolution calculations cause uncertainties in carbon enrichment and yield predictions of about a factor of 2. The other important He-burning reaction, {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O, although associated with the largest uncertainty in our study, does not have a significant influence on the abundance evolution compared with other modeling uncertainties. This finding remains valid when the entire evolution from the main sequence to the tip of the asymptotic giant branch is considered. We discuss the experimental sources of the rate uncertainties addressed here and give some outlooks for future work.

Herwig, Falk [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Astrophysics Group in T-Division, MS B227, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Austin, Sam M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Lattanzio, John C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

2006-02-15

444

An application of linear regression technique for predicting bulgur yield and quality of wheat cultivars.  

PubMed

Grains of 26 Turkish wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines were used in this study. Simple correlations between a number of quality parameters to predict bulgur yield and bulgur cooking quality were determined. Highly significant correlations between bulgur yield and each of the thousand-kernel weight and the sum of the grain over 2.8 + 2.5 mm sieves were obtained for both durum and bread wheat samples (p < 0.01). The regression equations showed that the models involving two variables (the thousand-kernel weight and the thickness of the grain for durum wheat samples; the thousand-kernel weight and the length of the grain for bread wheat samples) resulted in the highest R2 values. For an assessment of the influence of all factors on bulgur cooking properties (total organic matter: TOM and colorimetric test values), simple and multiple regression analyses were used to find equations that predict best the relationship between various quality parameters and bulgur cooking properties. The models involving two variables; the vitreousness and the dry gluten contents for the durum wheat samples and SDS sedimentation test value and wheat protein content for the bread wheat samples resulted in the highest R2 for the TOM value. PMID:11890049

Ozboy, O; Kksel, H

2002-02-01

445

Milk yield, udder health and reproductive performance in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds.  

PubMed

Organic dairy farming is an expanding segment of the dairy sector where cow management differs from the conventional model in many respects. Thus, a comparative evaluation of disease and welfare status in organically and conventionally managed dairy cows is required. Assessment of milk yield, udder health and reproductive performance (RP) was done in 20 organically and 20 conventionally managed Swedish dairy herds. In accordance with earlier findings we confirmed lower milk yield in organic cows. Udder health and RP were chosen as indicators of animal health in view of their clinical relevance and the availability of appropriate data bases providing good background knowledge for further animal health assessment. No obvious differences were found in the investigations of somatic cell count (SCC) profiles or time to veterinary-treated cases of mastitis between organically and conventional managed cows. Pregnancy success at first insemination, an appropriate measurement of RP with biological interpretation and background, did not reveal any difference between management types, whereas the hazard rate-ratio (HR) of having a calving-interval was significantly lower (HR=0.71) in organically managed cows. The calving-interval is an important financial determinator in dairy production, but it is not considered an optimal indicator of biologic relevance as it partially reflects farmer decisions. In conclusion, the organically managed cows in this study did not differ from conventionally managed cows in udder health or RP, with the exception of calving interval. PMID:19607734

Fall, Nils; Emanuelson, Ulf

2009-07-16

446

Agricultural Management Practices Explain Variation in Global Yield Gaps of Major Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continued expansion and intensification of agriculture are key drivers of global environmental change. Meeting a doubling of food demand in the next half-century will further induce environmental change, requiring either large cropland expansion into carbon- and biodiversity-rich tropical forests or increasing yields on existing croplands. Closing the yield gaps between the most and least productive farmers on current agricultural lands is a necessary and major step towards preserving natural ecosystems and meeting future food demand. Here we use global climate, soils, and cropland datasets to quantify yield gaps for major crops using equal-area climate analogs. Consistent with previous studies, we find large yield gaps for many crops in Eastern Europe, tropical Africa, and parts of Mexico. To analyze the drivers of yield gaps, we collected sub-national agricultural management data and built a global dataset of fertilizer application rates for over 160 crops. We constructed empirical crop yield models for each climate analog using the global management information for 17 major crops. We find that our climate-specific models explain a substantial amount of the global variation in yields. These models could be widely applied to identify management changes needed to close yield gaps, analyze the environmental impacts of agricultural intensification, and identify climate change adaptation techniques.

Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

2010-12-01

447

Capsule endoscopy for obscure GI bleeding: therapeutic yield of follow-up procedures.  

PubMed

Positive findings on capsule endoscopy (CE) often prompt a follow-up procedure with therapeutic intent. Our purpose was to review the therapeutic yield of subsequent procedural interventions based on positive CE findings. The medical records of all patients who underwent CE between June 2002 and February 2005 for obscure bleeding were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-two patients had follow-up procedures based on positive capsule findings. In this group, angiodysplasia was the most common CE finding (n=30), with therapeutic intervention performed in 16 cases (53%). Fresh blood without clear lesion was the second most common finding (n=9), with therapeutic intervention performed in 6 cases (67%). Overall, a therapeutic intervention was performed in 33 of the 52 follow-up procedures (63%). Positive capsule findings directed further procedural investigation in 52 cases, with a high therapeutic yield of 63% in those cases. The long-term efficacy of such interventions warrants further investigation. PMID:17357840

Baichi, Matthew M; Arifuddin, Razi M; Mantry, Parvez S

2007-03-15

448

Modulus and yield stress of drawn LDPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modulus and yield stress were investigated in drawn low density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Uniaxially drawn polymeric films usually show high values of modulus and yield stress, however, studies have normally only been conducted to identify the structural features that determine modulus. In this study small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), thermal shrinkage, birefringence, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to examine, directly and indirectly, the structural features that determine both modulus and yield stress, which are often closely related in undrawn materials. Shish-kebab structures are proposed to account for the mechanical properties in drawn LDPE. The validity of this molecular/morphological model was tested using relationships between static mechanical data and structural and physical parameters. In addition, dynamic mechanical results are also in line with static data in supporting the model. In the machine direction (MD), "shish" and taut tie molecules (TTM) anchored in the crystalline phase account for E; whereas crystal lamellae with contributions from "shish" and TTM determine yield stress. In the transverse direction (TD), the crystalline phase plays an important roll in both modulus and yield stress. Modulus is determined by crystal lamellae functioning as platelet reinforcing elements in the amorphous matrix with an additional contributions from TTM and yield stress is determined by the crystal lamellae's resistance to deformation.

Thavarungkul, Nandh

449

Autoantibodies and their significance in myositis.  

PubMed

Myositis autoantibodies continue to be the subject of substantial interest, with several significant recent developments. Recent studies have emphasized that anti-Jo-1 or other antisynthetases can be associated with interstitial lung disease, even in the absence of myositis. Anti-Jo-1 autoantibody levels were shown to correlate with disease activity over time. Immunization of mice with anti-Jo-1 led to muscle and lung inflammation, reminiscent of human disease. The complexity of the antibody picture in myositis continues to increase. Several new autoantibodies have been described or better characterized. Among these were a new antisynthetase reactive with phenylalanyl-transfer RNA synthetase (anti-Zo); an autoantibody that immunoprecipitates 155- and 140-kD proteins and was common in children but seemed to be associated with malignancy in adults; and an autoantibody to a small ubiquitin-like modifier--activating enzyme associated with dermatomyositis and interstitial lung disease. These findings have significant clinical implications and suggest promising areas of further research. PMID:18662515

Targoff, Ira N

2008-08-01

450

Spectral reflectance indices as a selection criterion for yield improvement in wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and methods of study. Yield in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a complex trait and influenced by many environmental factors, and yield improvement is a daunting task for wheat breeders. Spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) have been used to study different physiological traits in wheat. SRIs have the potential to differentiate genotypes for grain yield. SRIs strongly associated with grain yield can be used to achieve effective genetic gain in wheat under different environments. Three experiments (15 adapted genotypes, 25 and 36 random sister lines derived from two different crosses) under irrigated conditions, and three experiments (each with 30 advanced genotypes) under water-limited conditions were conducted in three successive years in Northwest Mexico at the CIMMYT (International Maize and wheat Improvement Center) experimental station. SRIs and different agronomic data were collected for three years, and biomass was harvested for two years. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between SRIs and grain yield, between SRIs and biomass, realized and broad sense heritability, direct and correlated selection responses for grain yield, and SRIs were calculated. Findings and conclusion. Seven SRIs were calculated, and three near infrared based indices (WI, NWI-1 and NWI-2) showed higher level of genetic and phenotypic correlations with grain yield, yield components and biomass than other SRIs (PRI, RNDVI, GNDVI, and SR) under both irrigated and water limiting environments. Moderate to high realized and broad sense heritability, and selection response were demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. High efficiency of correlated response for yield estimation was demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. The ratio between the correlated response to grain yield based on the three NIR based indices and direct selection response for grain yield was very close to one. The NIR based indices showed very high accuracy in selecting superior genotypes for grain yield under both well-watered and water-limited conditions. These results demonstrated that effective genetic gain in grain yield improvement can be achieved by making selections with the three NIR based indices.

Babar, Md. Ali

451

Serum and CSF immunological findings in ALS.  

PubMed

Serum and CSF immunological findings were analysed in 37 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS patients had significantly higher mean values of serum IgG and complement component C4 and significantly lower mean value of total haemolytic titre of complement (THC) compared with normal controls. Incidence of immune complexes (ICs) was significantly higher in sera of ALS patients than in normal controls. There was no significant difference regarding mean serum levels of IgM, IgA, and complement components C3 and Factor B between patients and controls. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage was found in 46% of patients. Intrathecal IgG synthesis was detected in six patients (16%). These results support the hypothesis of immune system involvement in ALS. PMID:2017904

Apostolski, S; Nikoli?, J; Bugarski-Prokopljevi?, C; Mileti?, V; Pavlovi?, S; Filipovi?, S

1991-02-01

452

Yield losses induced by African cassava mosaic virus in relation to the mode and the date of infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield reduction of cassava infected with African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) was greater when plants were infected from the outset as cuttings than later by the whitefly vector Bemisia tabacl. Early infection by B. tabaci caused greater losses than late infection. When symptoms first appeared, more than four months after planting, there was no significant yield reduction. Yield reductions in

D. Fargette; C. Fauquet

1988-01-01

453

Using Landsat TM data to model corn and soybean yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early research in agriculture used remotely sensed data mostly for the identification of spectral signatures, where crop type/area classification would depend on data acquired from hand-held or truck-mounted instruments. Through time different approaches were taken for crop type/area classification, such as a systematic sampling of inventory ground data that were used later for training and testing using image processing techniques. Later, technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were used for application to precision agriculture. These new tools provided a better meaning to understand and analyze the complex variability of the crop-soil-atmosphere system to estimate crop yields. The present research used data collected in the Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) in 1998 and two Landsat thematic Mapper images (July and August) to analyze the crop variability. Ground truth parameters, such as chlorophyll, leaf area index (LAI), and electricity conductivity, were collected throughout the growing season. In addition, vegetation indexes (VI) such as the Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), simple vegetation index (SVI), soil adjusted ratio vegetation index (SARVI), were computed for the two images. Both ground truth data and VI's were statistically analyzed with yield measurements taken with an on-the-go yield monitor to estimate a best fit yield model for use with soybeans and corn. The correlation analysis within a Landsat pixel reported SVI52 (r = 0.62), SVI53 (r = 0.56), and SVI54 (r = 0.53) as the most significant relationships. The results from the ground truth data vs. on-the-go yields reported total clay (%) (r = 0.90), leaf area (r = 0.76), and tissue plant analysis (r = 0.73) A stepwise regression analysis was performed using the Landsat TM images and the VI's selected. A series of linear models were evaluated taking into account the Landsat TM and yield while varying the scale (1 pixel to 16 30-m pixels). The same stepwise regression analysis were performed but adding the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the Electrical Conductivity (EC) which resulted in the best coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.94, R 2 = 0.98, and R2 = 0.96 for plots 100, 200, and 300, respectively). A stepwise regression analysis was also explored with standardized yields. The resulted models allowed exploring the use of a crop independent model. The corn and soybeans yield models developed with the 1998 data were used in two extra images (1991 and 1992) to test the models

Candanedo Guevara, Martin Edmundo

2001-07-01

454

Seasonal changes in milk production and fertility in high yielding dairy cows in a desert climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactational performance and fertility of high yielding Friesan dairy cows in a hot desert climate were analysed for summer and winter differences. The herd is situated in the Negev desert of Israel.Contrary to all previous reports,milk yield was significantly higher in summer than in winter; furthermore fertility was not lower in the hot months. The daily range in summer

J. Kali; M. Morag; S. Amir

1968-01-01

455

Does pollen "neighborhood" affect yield in lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.)?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proximally growing individuals of wild, lowbush blueberry vary widely in yield despite being cultivated under similar environmental conditions. We recently established that the relative self-fertility of the bearing plant is a significant predictor of its outcross yield. Further, although the spec...

456

Effect of laser priming on canola yield and its components under salt stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of laser priming at different irradiation times on canola yield and its components under saline conditions were investigated. The results showed that laser priming had a positive effect on yield and its components and caused yield increase under saline conditions. Increase in salt levels had a negative and significant effect on seed yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, pod length and plant height. The results showed that 45-min laser priming had the strongest effect on yield and yield components and reduced significantly the adverse effects of salinity. By contrast, laser radiation applied for 60 and 75 min, resulted in a dramatic decrease in yield and its components. Correlation coefficients between the attributes showed that canola yield had a positive and significant correlation with plant height, number of seeds, pod per main branch and lateral branches, length of pod and number of lateral branches. Effects of laser and salinity were significant on lateral branch pod length but not on main branch pods.

Mohammadi, S. K.; Shekari, F.; Fotovat, R.; Darudi, A.

2012-02-01

457

Growth Parameter and Yield Component Response of Field Corn to Simulated Acid Rain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yiel...

W. L. Banwart P. M. Porter E. L. Ziegler J. J. Hassett

1988-01-01

458

Continuous Defectivity Improvements and Impact on High Density Metal-Insulator- Metal (HDMIM) Capacitor Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motorola's continuous improvement methodology and focus on defectivity has paid significant dividends in the form of record wafer yields and in particular record High Density Metal-Insulator-Metal (HDMIM) capacitor yields. The institution of a defectivity program has identified defect generators within the process flow and efforts to reduce defectivity at the sputtered layer of the bottom plate and evaporated layer of

James Cotronakis; Martin Clarke; Ray Lawrence; Jan Campbell; Craig Gaw

459

Soil temperature, soil moisture and maize yield from mulched and unmulched tropical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of mulching on maize yield was investigated for luvisol and cambisol tropical soils during 197072. The increase in grain yield by mulching was 46, 52 and 22 per cent respectively, for 1970, 1971 and 1972. Mulched plants had higher growth rate and vigour and chlorotic symptoms of nutritional disorders were observed only for unmulched plants. Mulching significantly decreased

Ratan Lal

1974-01-01

460

Fantastic yields in the system of rice intensification: fact or fallacy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of natural resources, genes, weather and management systems largely determines maximum crop yields. Recently, one of those elements was portrayed as the key to releasing hitherto unrecognized, but significant, untapped growth potential in rice. That element, the system of rice intensification (SRI), is an unconventional management system developed in Madagascar, where it was reported to increase rice yields

J. E Sheehy; S Peng; A Dobermann; P. L Mitchell; A Ferrer; Jianchang Yang; Yingbin Zou; Xuhua Zhong; Jianliang Huang

2004-01-01