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1

To find or not to find a first “significant” job  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we look at school-to-work transitions in Spain. We distinguish between significant and non-significant jobs and show that educational investment enhances access to a first significant job compared to a non-significant one. We also find strong differences between men and women: education attainment provides a clearer differentiating device for women than for men, whatever field of education females

Cecilia Albert verdú; Luis Toharia Cortés; María A. Davia Rodríguez

2008-01-01

2

40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Responsible...a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR...considered in the EA, environmental factors considered, and project impacts; and (2) A brief...

2013-07-01

3

40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01...13 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL...QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.13 Finding...significant effect on the human environment and for which an...

2013-07-01

4

Appropriateness, endoscopic findings and contributive yield of pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the predictability of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guideline with regard to appropriate endoscopic practice in children, positive endoscopic findings and contributive yield in clinical practice. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective analysis, conducted at the Department of Paediatrics, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia. All children who had esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy from January 2008 to June 2011 were included. An endoscopy was considered appropriate when its indication complied with the NASPGHAN and ASGE guideline. All endoscopic findings were classified as either positive (presence of any endoscopic or histologic abnormality) or negative (no or minor abnormality, normal histology); effecting a positive contributive (a change in therapeutic decisions or prognostic consequences) or non-contributive yield (no therapeutic or prognostic consequences). RESULTS: Overall, 76% of the 345 procedures (231 EGD alone, 26 colonoscopy alone, 44 combined EGD and colonoscopy) performed in 301 children (median age 7.0 years, range 3 months to 18 years) had a positive endoscopic finding. Based on the NASPGHAN and ASGE guideline, 99.7% of the procedures performed were considered as appropriate. The only inappropriate procedure (0.3%) was in a child who had EGD for assessment of the healing of gastric ulcer following therapy in the absence of any symptoms. The overall positive contributive yield for a change in diagnosis and/or management was 44%. The presence of a positive endoscopic finding was more likely to effect a change in the therapeutic plan than an alteration of the initial diagnosis. A total of 20 (5.8%) adverse events were noted, most were minor and none was fatal. CONCLUSION: The NASPGHAN and ASGE guideline is more likely to predict a positive endoscopic finding but is less sensitive to effect a change in the initial clinical diagnosis or the subsequent therapeutic plan.

Lee, Way Seah; Zainuddin, Hafizah; Boey, Christopher CM; Chai, Pei Fan

2013-01-01

5

Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g (Earth's gravity), and the emergence of face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals late in the coarsening process (as small crystallites lost particles to the slow ripening of large crystallites). Significant quantitative findings from the microgravity experiments have been developed describing complex interactions among crystallites during the growth process, as concentration fields overlap in the surrounding disordered phase. Time-resolved Bragg scattering under microgravity captures one effect of these interactions quite conclusively for the sample at a volume fraction of 0.528. From the earliest time until the sample is almost fully crystalline, the size and overall crystallinity grow monotonically, but the number of crystallites per unit volume (number density) falls. Apparently nucleation is slower than the loss of crystallites because of the transfer of particles from small to large crystals. Thus, coarsening occurs simultaneously with growth, rather than following the completion of nucleation and growth as is generally assumed. In the same sample, an interesting signature appears in the apparent number density of crystallites and the volume fraction within the crystallites shortly before full crystallinity is reached. A brief upturn in both indicates the creation of more domains of the size of the average crystallite simultaneous with the compression of the crystallites. Only the emergence of dendritic arms offers a reasonable explanation. The arms would be "seen" by the light scattering as separate domains whose smaller radii of curvature would compress the interior phase. In fiscal year 1999, numerous papers, a doctoral dissertation, and the PHaSE final report were produced. Although this flight project has been completed, plans are in place for a follow-on colloid experiment by Chaikin and Russel that employs a light microscope within Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. PHaSE is providing us with a deeper understanding of the nure of phase transitions. The knowledge derived has added to the understandin

Doherty, Michael P.

2000-01-01

6

Significance of smoking machine toxicant yields to blood-level exposure in waterpipe tobacco smokers  

PubMed Central

Background The global rise in tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) has made understanding its health consequences imperative. One key to developing this understanding is identifying and quantifying carcinogens and other toxicants present in waterpipe smoke. To do so, the toxicant yield of machine-generated waterpipe smoke has been measured. However, the relevance of toxicant yields of machine-generated smoke to actual human exposure has not been established. Methods In this study, we examined whether CO and nicotine yields measured using a smoking machine programmed to replicate the puffing behavior of 31 human participants who smoked a waterpipe could reliably predict these participant’s blood-level exposure. In addition to CO and nicotine, yields of PAH, volatile aldehydes, NO, and “tar” were measured. Results We found that when used in this puff-replicating manner, smoking machine yields are highly correlated with blood-level exposure (Nicotine: r>0.76, p<0.001; CO: r>0.78, p<0.001). Total drawn smoke volume was the best predictor of toxicant yield and exposure, accounting for approximately 75–100% of the variability across participants in yields of NO, CO, volatile aldehydes and “tar”, and blood-level CO and normalized nicotine. Conclusions Machine-based methods can be devised in which smoke toxicant yields reliably track human exposure. Impact This finding indicates the basic feasibility of valid analytical laboratory evaluation of tobacco products for regulatory purposes.

Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

7

76 FR 74069 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the...Sub-Area Agricultural Water to Municipal Industrial...Sub-Area Agricultural Water to Municipal & Industrial Water Conversion. ADDRESSES...Finding of No Significant Impact may be accessed on...

2011-11-30

8

33 CFR 230.11 - Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01... Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 230.11 Section...11 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT... Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). A FONSI...

2013-07-01

9

Venous ultrasound testing for suspected thrombosis: incidence of significant non-thrombotic findings.  

PubMed

Duplex ultrasound (US) is used to "rule out" deep venous thrombosis (DVT), but can also diagnose other causes of leg pain or swelling in Emergency Department (ED) patients. Recent literature suggests that US imaging is unnecessary among patients with low or moderate clinical probability of DVT with a normal D-dimer. We attempted to determine the incidence of clinically important incidental findings detected using venous US imaging in patients with suspected lower extremity DVT. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all ultrasounds performed by the non-invasive vascular laboratory on ED patients > 18 years old. Results were classified: normal, DVT, or incidental finding. The latter were classified as clinically significant major findings if the diagnosis led to immediate and specific treatment to prevent morbidity, or clinically significant minor findings. A total of 484 US studies were reviewed; 179 were excluded (arterial studies, penetrating trauma, upper extremity US). Findings among 305 studies were: 238 (78%) normal, 28 (9%) DVT, and 39 (12%) incidental findings. Among 39 incidental findings, 10 were clinically significant major findings and 29 clinically significant minor findings. Clinically significant major findings included: pseudoaneurysm, arterial occlusive disease, vascular graft complication, compartment syndrome, and tumor. Among 38 abnormal US studies that required immediate treatment, DVT comprised 74% (95% confidence interval 59%-85%) and important major incidental findings 26% (95% confidence interval 14%-41%). Among ED patients who underwent US to evaluate leg pain and swelling, 26% of positive studies showed clinically important findings other than DVT. Further research is needed to determine if D-dimer plus a clinical probability tool will include or exclude the patients with clinically significant major findings. PMID:18325713

Sutter, Mark E; Turnipseed, Samuel D; Diercks, Deborah B; Samuel, Peter; White, Richard H

2009-01-01

10

76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0782...ER-FRL-9000-7] Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding...Significant Impact (FONSI) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

2011-12-23

11

78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2013-0168] La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Regarding an Exemption Request AGENCY...10 CFR) for the La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) facility and...

2013-07-31

12

Proposed finding of no significant impact for the Sakakawea Medical Center coal-fired heating plant  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (the Department) has prepared an environmental assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0949) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposed action at the Sakakawea Medical Center (the Center) in Hazen, North Dakota. The proposed action would replace the existing No. 2 fuel oil-fired boilers supplemented by electric reheat with a new coal-fired hot water heating plant, using funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-0949, the Department has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended. Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (Finding).

Not Available

1994-07-01

13

NASA Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Mission: Significant Findings and Evolving Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission has had an extremely productive four years since its launch in December 2001. During this time, TIMED observations have provided an unprecendented view of the basic structure of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere (ITM) system and also documented the impacts of the tropospheric and stratospheric weather, varying solar EUV radiation and x-ray flares, geomagnetic storms powered by solar corona mass ejections, and the powerful high speed streams of energetic particles. This paper gives a summary of TIMED's scientific accomplishments over the past four years, its significant findings and current evolving research topics.

Yee, J.; Christensen, A.; Russell, J.; Killeen, T.; Woods, T.; Kozyra, J.; Smith, A.; Fritts, D.; Forbes, J.; Mayr, H.; Solomon, S.; Talaat, E.; Paxton, L.; Mlynczak, M.

2005-12-01

14

Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

1999-04-01

15

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

1999-02-22

16

Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2000-05-24

17

Finding of no significant impact resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0887, for the proposed thermal stabilization (controlled oxidation) of plutonium, to take place in Building 707, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. The stabilization action would include post-stabilization characterization and on-site movement of stabilized material. Public meetings were held on July 7 and October 6, 1993, to discuss the scope and analyses in the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of stabilization, stabilization in other buildings at Rocky Flats, shipping off-site for stabilization, and no action. The public and the State were provided 60 days to comment on the EA, and comments received were responded to as needed in the final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

Not Available

1994-02-01

18

Student-led exercise sessions yield significant fitness gains for Alzheimer's patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when they are losing skills in virtually all arenas of life, persons with Alzheimer's disease can experience significant, esteem-building achievements in physical fitness and mood through supervised participation in an exercise program. The effects of physical exercise plus cognitive and social stimulation on persons with early stage Alzheimer's disease were assessed in a longitudinal study. Twenty-four such

Sharon M. Arkin

2003-01-01

19

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of...Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1308 Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings...

2013-10-01

20

Department of Energy finding of no significant impact, Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator, Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As part of the DOE`s need to maintain the capability of producing tritium in support of its historic and near-term stewardship of the nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile, the agency has recently completed a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling. The Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Technical Area (TA) 53, LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico (DOE-EA-1147), March 1996, analyzes the DOE proposal to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end, low-energy section of the accelerator at LANL. LEDA would be incrementally developed and tested in five separate stages over the next seven years. LEDA would be located at an existing building at TA-53; the LEDA components would be tested in order to verify equipment and prototype design and resolve related performance and production issues for future full-scale operation at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the event the APT plant is built. Production operations would not occur at LANL under the proposed action. The US DOE finds that there would be no significant impact from proceeding with its proposal to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end, low-energy section of the accelerator, at TA-53, LANL. Based on the environmental assessment that analyses the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to design, build, and test prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action which would significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, no environmental impact statement is required for this proposal.

NONE

1996-08-01

21

21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental assessments and findings of no...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.51...

2013-04-01

22

Significant improvement in islet yield and survival with modified ET-Kyoto solution: ET-Kyoto/Neutrophil elastase inhibitor.  

PubMed

Although islet transplantation can achieve insulin independence in patients with type 1 diabetes, sufficient number of islets derived from two or more donors is usually required to achieve normoglycemia. Activated neutrophils and neutrophil elastase (NE), which is released from these neutrophils, can directly cause injury in islet grafts. We hypothesized that inhibition of NE improves islet isolation and islet allograft survival. We tested our hypothesis by examining the effects of modified ET-Kyoto solution supplemented with sivelestat, a NE inhibitor (S-Kyoto solution), on islet yield and viability in islet isolation and the effect of intraperitoneally injected sivelestat on islet graft survival in a mouse allotransplant model. NE and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 increased markedly at the end of warm digestion during islet isolation and exhibited direct cytotoxic activity against the islets causing their apoptosis. The use of S-Kyoto solution significantly improved islet yield and viability. Furthermore, treatment with sivelestat resulted in significant prolongation of islet allograft survival in recipient mice. Furthermore, serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-? at 1 and 2 weeks posttransplantation were significantly higher in islet recipients than before transplantation. Our results indicated that NE released from activated neutrophils negatively affects islet survival and that its suppression both in vitro and in vivo improved islet yield and prolonged islet graft survival. The results suggest that inhibition of NE activity could be potentially useful in islet transplantation for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22472201

Machida, Tomohiko; Tanemura, Masahiro; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Tanida, Tsukasa; Wada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Ito, Toshinori; Nagano, Hiroaki; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Sawa, Yoshiki

2013-01-01

23

[Significance of psychopathological findings for early detection and prognosis of intracranial tumors].  

PubMed

Psychic findings of 266 patients suffering from cerebral tumor have been analysed. Psychopathological findings, therefore, were among the most frequent symptoms, at the same time being the second most frequent primary symptom after headache. Disturbance of consciousness and orientation were primarily an indication of malign tumors with increase in cerebral pressure whereas disturbance of motive and cognitive functions were more an indication of slowly growing tumors. Despite the same kind of tumors, same localisation and same duration of anamnesis psychic primary symptoms and disturbance of consciousness and orientation have been found considerably more frequently in older patients than in younger patients. PMID:3749356

Sachs, B

1986-06-01

24

The significance of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings in sphenoid sinus agenesis.  

PubMed

Agenesis of the sphenoid sinuses is a very rarely encountered anatomic variation. Findings on magnetic resonance imaging can mislead the radiologist and clinician. Therefore, the gold standard for diagnosis is computed tomography (CT) of the paranasal sinuses. We present the case of a 28-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with a 3-month history of headache. CT of the paranasal sinuses revealed isolated bilateral sphenoid sinus agenesis. PMID:24526479

Uzun, Lokman; Sagun, Omer Faik; Seferoglu, Bulent; Etlik, Omer; Mahmutyazicioglu, Kamran

2014-02-01

25

77 FR 71198 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...public. Therefore, because the current Humboldt Bay site emergency program provides...result in a significant change in current environmental impacts. The environmental...Letter dated June 19, 2012, ``Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit 3...

2012-11-29

26

Finding Missing Heritability in Less Significant Loci and Allelic Heterogeneity: Genetic Variation in Human Height  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common variants associated with complex traits in human populations. Thus far, most reported variants have relatively small effects and explain only a small proportion of phenotypic variance, leading to the issues of ‘missing’ heritability and its explanation. Using height as an example, we examined two possible sources of missing heritability: first, variants with smaller effects whose associations with height failed to reach genome-wide significance and second, allelic heterogeneity due to the effects of multiple variants at a single locus. Using a novel analytical approach we examined allelic heterogeneity of height-associated loci selected from SNPs of different significance levels based on the summary data of the GIANT (stage 1) studies. In a sample of 1,304 individuals collected from an island population of the Adriatic coast of Croatia, we assessed the extent of height variance explained by incorporating the effects of less significant height loci and multiple effective SNPs at the same loci. Our results indicate that approximately half of the 118 loci that achieved stringent genome-wide significance (p-value<5×10?8) showed evidence of allelic heterogeneity. Additionally, including less significant loci (i.e., p-value<5×10?4) and accounting for effects of allelic heterogeneity substantially improved the variance explained in height.

Zhang, Ge; Karns, Rebekah; Sun, Guangyun; Indugula, Subba Rao; Cheng, Hong; Havas-Augustin, Dubravka; Novokmet, Natalija; Durakovic, Zijad; Missoni, Sasa; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Rudan, Pavao; Deka, Ranjan

2012-01-01

27

Amplification of the RARA gene in acute myeloid leukemia: significant finding or coincidental observation?  

PubMed

Oncogene amplification resulting in aberrant expression, although common in solid tumors, is rare in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is mostly associated with amplification of MYC, RUNX1, and MLL genes. Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) and other target sequences at 17p11.2 often represent the amplicons expressed in breast cancer, not in AML. We present a unique case of a 59-year-old female with a history of breast cancer, now presenting with pancytopenia and bilateral infiltration with effusion in nodules of the right upper lobe of the lung. She was diagnosed with AML-M5. Chromosome analysis demonstrated a hypodiploid clone with complex numerical/structural abnormalities including 5q deletion, monosomy 7, as well as structurally rearranged chromosome 11 and several marker chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed amplification of RARA, loss of 7q, monosomy 7, loss of DEK (6p23), and additional copies of NUP214 (9q34) and MLL (11q23). Additional FISH studies showed both ERBB2 and TOP2A genes, which were co-amplified on one of the marker chromosomes. The follow-up bone marrow did not yield any metaphases, but FISH was normal for all probes, including RARA. After a short remission, the patient relapsed and showed clonal evolution. Additional case reports are necessary to assess whether RARA amplification in hematologic malignancies serves as an independent prognostic factor. PMID:20804918

Asleson, Anna D; Morgan, Vickie; Smith, Stephen; Velagaleti, Gopalrao V N

2010-10-01

28

75 FR 70707 - Detroit Edison Company; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2010-0357; FERMI, Unit 2] Detroit Edison Company; Environmental...License No. NFP-43, issued to Detroit Edison Company (DECo, the...staff has concluded that the changes would not significantly affect...Analysis Report. There will be no change to radioactive effluents...

2010-11-18

29

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes--Statistical Significance versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used to quantify the degree of practical significance of study results. This paper gives an introduction to the computation and interpretation of effect sizes from the perspective of the consumer of the research literature. The key points made are: (1) "ES" is a useful indicator of the…

Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang

2004-01-01

30

Finding the Intersection of the Learning Organization and Learning Transfer: The Significance of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article aims to develop a conceptual framework delineating the key dimension of the learning organization which significantly influences learning transfer. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing previous studies and synthesizing the results associated with the following four relationships:…

Kim, Jun Hee; Callahan, Jamie L.

2013-01-01

31

UCLA study finds survival significantly increased in early breast cancer after treatment with Herceptin and chemotherapy:  

Cancer.gov

Treating women with early stage breast cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and the molecularly targeted drug Herceptin significantly increases survival in patients with a specific genetic mutation that results in very aggressive disease, a researcher with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center reported Wednesday.

32

Extracolonic Findings on CT Colonography Increases Yield of Colorectal Cancer Screening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of extracolonic findings when screening is undertaken by CT colonography (CTC). We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients completing a screening CTC from August 2003 to June 2006 at Walter Re...

C. Maydonovitch G. R. Veerappan J. R. Choi J. S. Pak M. R. Ally

2010-01-01

33

An algorithm for finding biologically significant features in microarray data based on a priori manifold learning.  

PubMed

Microarray databases are a large source of genetic data, which, upon proper analysis, could enhance our understanding of biology and medicine. Many microarray experiments have been designed to investigate the genetic mechanisms of cancer, and analytical approaches have been applied in order to classify different types of cancer or distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue. However, microarrays are high-dimensional datasets with high levels of noise and this causes problems when using machine learning methods. A popular approach to this problem is to search for a set of features that will simplify the structure and to some degree remove the noise from the data. The most widely used approach to feature extraction is principal component analysis (PCA) which assumes a multivariate Gaussian model of the data. More recently, non-linear methods have been investigated. Among these, manifold learning algorithms, for example Isomap, aim to project the data from a higher dimensional space onto a lower dimension one. We have proposed a priori manifold learning for finding a manifold in which a representative set of microarray data is fused with relevant data taken from the KEGG pathway database. Once the manifold has been constructed the raw microarray data is projected onto it and clustering and classification can take place. In contrast to earlier fusion based methods, the prior knowledge from the KEGG databases is not used in, and does not bias the classification process--it merely acts as an aid to find the best space in which to search the data. In our experiments we have found that using our new manifold method gives better classification results than using either PCA or conventional Isomap. PMID:24595155

Hira, Zena M; Trigeorgis, George; Gillies, Duncan F

2014-01-01

34

Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings.  

PubMed

Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical-maybe even a legal-obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

McGuire, Amy L; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma'n H; Clayton, Ellen Wright

2014-05-01

35

78 FR 17468 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Finding of No Significant Impact/Record of Decision (FONSI/ROD) for the 2020 Improvement Project for Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport (MSP), Minneapolis, MN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION:...

2013-03-21

36

Functional significance of predischarge exercise thallium-201 findings following intravenous streptokinase therapy during acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine which predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging pattern(s) best correlate with myocardial salvage following intravenous streptokinase therapy (IVSK). Myocardial salvage was defined as improvement in regional left ventricular function determined by two-dimensional echocardiography between the time of admission and time of discharge in 21 prospectively studied patients receiving IVSK within 4 hours of chest pain. All patients had coronary angiography 2 hours following IVSK. Whereas 16 of the 21 patients (76%) had patent infarct-related vessels, only seven (33%) showed significant improvement in regional function at hospital discharge. Eleven patients demonstrated persistent defects (PD), and five each showed delayed and reverse redistribution. Patients with both delayed and reverse redistribution demonstrated significant improvement in regional left ventricular function score, while those with PD did not (+3.9 +/- 3.3 versus -0.5 +/- 2.9, p = 0.004). All other clinical, exercise, electrocardiographic, scintigraphic, and angiographic variables were similar between all patients, with the exception of the interval between chest pain and the institution of IVSK, which was longer in patients with reverse compared to delayed redistribution (3.5 +/- 0.4 versus 2.2 +/- 0.4 hours, p = 0.001). It is concluded that both delayed and reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging are associated with myocardial salvage, defined as serial improvement in regional systolic function. Despite a high infarct vessel patency rate in patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving IVSK within 4 hours of onset of symptoms, only one third demonstrated improvement in regional function that was associated with either delayed or reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging.

Touchstone, D.A.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Watson, D.D.; Tedesco, C.; Kaul, S.

1988-12-01

37

Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

NONE

1996-05-01

38

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

N /A

1999-04-28

39

Frequency and Clinical Significance of Previously Undetected Incidental Findings Detected on Computed Tomography Simulation Scans for Breast Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: All CT simulation images were first interpreted prospectively by radiation oncologists and then double-checked by diagnostic radiologists. The official reports of CT simulation images for 881 consecutive postoperative breast cancer patients from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Potentially important incidental findings (PIIFs) were defined as any previously undetected benign or malignancy-related findings requiring further medical follow-up or investigation. For all patients in whom a PIIF was detected, we reviewed the clinical records to determine the clinical significance of the PIIF. If the findings from the additional studies prompted by a PIIF required a change in management, the PIIF was also recorded as a clinically important incidental finding (CIIF). Results: There were a total of 57 (6%) PIIFs. The 57 patients in whom a PIIF was detected were followed for a median of 17 months (range, 3-26). Six cases of CIIFs (0.7% of total) were detected. Of the six CIIFs, three (50%) cases had not been noted by the radiation oncologist until the diagnostic radiologist detected the finding. On multivariate analysis, previous CT examination was an independent predictor for PIIF (p = 0.04). Patients who had not previously received chest CT examinations within 1 year had a statistically significantly higher risk of PIIF than those who had received CT examinations within 6 months (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.50; p = 0.01). Conclusions: The rate of incidental findings prompting a change in management was low. However, radiation oncologists appear to have some difficulty in detecting incidental findings that require a change in management. Considering cost, it may be reasonable that routine interpretations are given to those who have not received previous chest CT examinations within 1 year.

Nakamura, Naoki, E-mail: naokinak@luke.or.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tsunoda, Hiroko [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu [Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan); Akahane, Keiko; Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-11-01

40

76 FR 37842 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1 License DPR-012, York...requirements in 10 CFR part 73 and 10 CFR 50.54(p) for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) Unit 1. This...

2011-06-28

41

Association between industry funding and statistically significant pro-industry findings in medical and surgical randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Conflicting reports exist in the medical literature re- garding the association between industry funding and pub- lished research findings. In this study, we examine the associa- tion between industry funding and the statistical significance of results in recently published medical and surgical trials. Methods: We examined a consecutive series of 332 randomized trials published between January 1999 and June

Mohit Bhandari; Jason W. Busse; Dianne Jackowski; Victor M. Montori; Holger Schünemann; Sheila Sprague; Derek Mears; Emil H. Schemitsch; Dianne Heels-Ansdell; P. J. Devereaux

2004-01-01

42

Evaluating correlations in studies of personality and behavior: Beyond the number of significant findings to be expected by chance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When large numbers of statistical tests are computed, such as in broad investigations of personality and behavior, the number of significant findings required before the total can be confidently considered beyond chance is typically unknown. Employing modern software, specially written code, and new procedures, the present article uses three sets of personality data to demonstrate how approximate randomization tests can

Ryne A. Sherman; David C. Funder

2009-01-01

43

Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Waste Disposition Activities at the Paducah Site Paducah, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1339), which is incorporated herein by reference, for proposed disposition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes, low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW), and transuranic (TRU) waste from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site (Paducah Site) in Paducah, Kentucky. All of the wastes would be transported for disposal at various locations in the United States. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment with in the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2002-11-05

44

Prognostic value of clinical and Doppler echocardiographic findings in children and adolescents with significant rheumatic valvular disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (RF) is based on clinical findings. However, during the chronic phase of the disease, the clinical approach is not sufficient for the follow-up of the patients and the Doppler echocardiography is a tool for the diagnosis of cardiac involvement. Prognostic variables that influence long-term outcomes are not well known. Methods: 462 patients with RF according to Jones criteria were studied, and followed-up from the initial attack to 13.6 ± 4.6 years. All patients underwent clinical assessment and Doppler echocardiography for the detection of heart valve involvement in the acute and chronic phases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors influencing long-term heart valve disease. Results: Carditis occurred in 55.8% and subclinical valvulitis in 35.3% patients. In the chronic phase, 33% of the patients had significant valvular heart disease. No normal Doppler echocardiography exam was observed on patients who had severe valvulitis, although heart auscultation had become normal in 13% of these. In the multivariate analysis, only the severity of carditis and the mitral and/or aortic valvulitis were associated with significant valvular heart disease. Chorea or arthritis were protective factors for significant valvular heart disease, odds ratio 0.41 (95% C.I. 0.22 – 0.77) and 0.43 (95% C.I. 0.23 – 0.82), respectively. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the use of Doppler echocardiography during RF helps to identify prognostic factors regarding the development of significant valvular heart disease. Initial severe carditis is an important factor in the long-term prognosis of chronic RHD, whereas arthritis and chore during the initial episode of RF appears to be protective. Strict secondary prophylaxis should be mandatory in high risk patients.

Araujo, Fatima Derlene da Rocha; Goulart, Eugenio Marcos Andrade; Meira, Zilda Maria Alves

2012-01-01

45

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project is a 21-megawatt (MW) wind generation project proposed by Florida Power and Light (FPL) Energy North Dakota Wind LLC (Dakota Wind) and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin). The proposed windfarm would be located in La Moure County, south central North Dakota, near the rural farming communities of Kulm and Edgeley. The proposed windfarm is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2003. Dakota Wind and other project proponents are seeking to develop the proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project to provide utilities and, ultimately, electric energy consumers with electricity from a renewable energy source at the lowest possible cost. A new 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line would be built to transmit power generated by the proposed windfarm to an existing US Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration (Western) substation located near Edgeley. The proposed interconnection would require modifying Western's Edgeley Substation. Modifying the Edgeley Substation is a Federal proposed action that requires Western to review the substation modification and the proposed windfarm project for compliance with Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332, and Department of Energy NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR Part 1021). Western is the lead Federal agency for preparation of this Environmental Assessment (EA). The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is a cooperating agency with Western in preparing the EA. This document follows regulation issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for implementing procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and is intended to disclose potential impacts on the quality of the human environment resulting from the proposed project. If potential impacts are determined to be significant, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement would be required. If impacts are determined to be insignificant, Western would complete a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). Environmental protection measures that would be included in the design of the proposed project are included.

N /A

2003-04-15

46

Clinical significance of discordant findings between pre-therapy 123I and post-therapy 131I whole body scan in patients with thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Radioactive therapy with 131I (RAI) is commonly used during the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of discordant findings between pre-RAI whole body scan (WBS) with 123I and post-RAI WBS in the management of DTC. We retrospectively evaluated 342 individuals between 2002 and 2008 who had a diagnosis of DTC and underwent RAI. All had WBS one day before RAI and WBS one week after RAI. Patients were divided into 3 groups: 1) RAI-naive subjects without known distant metastatic disease (M1); 2) patients with history of prior RAI and persistent disease (except M1); and 3) patients with known M1. In Group 1 (n=311), 7% of patients (n=22) had discordant scans, but in only 4 of these cases did this represent true disease (3 unsuspected lung and 1 mediastinal node metastasis). In the remaining 18 patients, discordant findings corresponded to physiologic or other benign causes. In group 2 (n=23), 7 subjects (30%) had discordant findings and all of the discrepant sites consisted of loco-regional nodal disease in the neck/upper mediastinum (n=6) and M1 in lung (n=1). In group 3 (n=8), 5 patients (62%) showed discordant uptake in lung and bone which corresponded to the locations of known M1. A total of 12 patients with iodine-avid M1 were identified on post-RAI WBS (3.5% of entire cohort). Pre-RAI WBS was only concordant in 3 of these cases (25%). In conclusion, the significance of pre and post-RAI WBS is highly influenced by the clinical setting. Unsuspected distant metastatic disease is infrequent in RAI-naive patients without known M1, where most discordant findings are usually due to benign explanations, and represent false positive findings in this group. In contrast, in patients with history of previous RAI or known M1, discordant results likely correspond to true disease. In our study, pre-RAI scans showed a low yield to detect iodine-avid distant metastatic disease when compared to post-RAI scans.

Bravo, Paco E; Goudarzi, Behnaz; Rana, Uzma; Filho, Paulo Togni; Castillo, Raymond; Rababy, Christopher; Ewertz, Marjorie; Ziessman, Harvey A; Cooper, David S; Ladenson, Paul W; Wahl, Richard L

2013-01-01

47

The Welsh study of mothers and babies: protocol for a population-based cohort study to investigate the clinical significance of defined ultrasound findings of uncertain significance  

PubMed Central

Background Improvement in ultrasound imaging has led to the identification of subtle non-structural markers during the 18 – 20 week fetal anomaly scan, such as echogenic bowel, mild cerebral ventriculomegaly, renal pelvicalyceal dilatation, and nuchal thickening. These markers are estimated to occur in between 0.6% and 4.3% of pregnancies. Their clinical significance, for pregnancy outcomes or childhood morbidity, is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of seven markers in the general obstetric population and establish a cohort of children for longer terms follow-up to assess the clinical significance of these markers. Methods/Design All women receiving antenatal care within six of seven Welsh Health Boards who had an 18 to 20 week ultrasound scan in Welsh NHS Trusts between July 2008 and March 2011 were eligible for inclusion. Data were collected on seven markers (echogenic bowel, cerebral ventriculomegaly, renal pelvicalyceal dilatation, nuchal thickening, cardiac echogenic foci, choroid plexus cysts, and short femur) at the time of 18 – 20 week fetal anomaly scan. Ultrasound records were linked to routinely collected data on pregnancy outcomes (work completed during 2012 and 2013). Images were stored and reviewed by an expert panel. The prevalence of each marker (reported and validated) will be estimated. A projected sample size of 23,000 will allow the prevalence of each marker to be estimated with the following precision: a marker with 0.50% prevalence to within 0.10%; a marker with 1.00% prevalence to within 0.13%; and a marker with 4.50% prevalence to within 0.27%. The relative risk of major congenital abnormalities, stillbirths, pre-term birth and small for gestational age, given the presence of a validated marker, will be reported. Discussion This is a large, prospective study designed to estimate the prevalence of markers in a population-based cohort of pregnant women and to investigate associations with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study will also establish a cohort of children that can be followed-up to explore associations between specific markers and longer-term health and social outcomes.

2014-01-01

48

75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based on its finding...agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. On November...

2010-05-03

49

76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The Animal and Plant Health Inspection...potential environmental impacts associated with...no significant impact (FONSI) regarding...have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment. The...Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

2011-07-19

50

77 FR 41351 - Bayer CropScience LP; Availability of a Finding of No Significant Impact and a Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0034] Bayer CropScience LP; Availability of a Finding...preliminary decision regarding a request from Bayer CropScience LP to extend to cotton event...118, Riverdale, MD 20737- 1238. The Bayer CropScience LP extension request,...

2012-07-13

51

The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava  

PubMed Central

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernandez, Cristhian; Pena, Ricardo

2013-01-01

52

The significance of incidental noncardiac findings in Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging: illustrated by a case.  

PubMed Central

Technetium 99m sestamibi is widely used in the evaluation of myocardial perfusion imaging. Although the aim of such imaging is cardiac evaluation, numerous other organs are included in the imaging field. Failure to identify incidental abnormal findings in these organs delays diagnosis and treatment. In common with other radiopharmaceutical agents, technetium 99m sestamibi is distributed throughout the body and accumulates in multiple tissues. When interpreting studies that involve this radiotracer, the physician must be aware of its physiologic distribution, in order to recognize abnormal uptake. We present an illustrative case in which areas of decreased tracer activity were noted incidentally during the evaluation of unprocessed single photon emission computed tomography data. These findings were due to metastasis of colon cancer to the liver. Images

Chatziioannou, S N; Alfaro-Franco, C; Moore, W H; Alanis-Williams, L; Dhekne, R D; Ford, P V

1999-01-01

53

76 FR 52022 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment No. 64 for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposed action to significantly impact land use, geology, soils, water resources, ecological resources, meteorology, climatology, air quality, endangered and threatened species, historic and cultural resources. The staff also does not expect...

2011-08-19

54

Rectal cancer staging: focus on the prognostic significance of the findings described by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Abstract High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool for multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) addressing rectal cancer. It provides anatomic information for surgical planning and allows patients to be stratified into different groups according to the risk of local and distant recurrence. One of the objectives of the MDT is the preoperative identification of high-risk patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant treatment. For this reason, the correct evaluation of the circumferential resection margin (CRM), the depth of tumor spread beyond the muscularis propria, extramural vascular invasion and nodal status is of the utmost importance. Low rectal tumors represent a special challenge for the MDT, because decisions seek a balance between oncologic safety, in the pursuit of free resection margins, and the patient’s quality of life, in order to preserve sphincter function. At present, the exchange of information between the different specialties involved in dealing with patients with rectal cancer can rank the contribution of colleagues, auditing their work and incorporating knowledge that will lead to a better understanding of the pathology. Thus, beyond the anatomic description of the images, the radiologist’s role in the MDT makes it necessary to know the prognostic value of the findings that we describe, in terms of recurrence and survival, because these findings affect decision making and, therefore, the patients’ life. In this review, the usefulness of HR MRI in the initial staging of rectal cancer and in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment, with a focus on the prognostic value of the findings, is described as well as the contribution of HR MRI in assessing patients with suspected or confirmed recurrence of rectal cancer.

2013-01-01

55

76 FR 4859 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant...significant impact relative to the control of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama...control agent to reduce the severity of Asian citrus psyllid infestations. Based...

2011-01-27

56

75 FR 78336 - Finding of No Significant Impact From the Expansion, Renovation, Operation and Maintenance of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...required for the proposed alteration of the existing border crossing since it would involve a significant modification in a piercing of the United States-Mexico border. See 75 FR 14487 (March 25, 2010). The Nogales Land Port of Entry (LPOE) was...

2010-12-15

57

FatiGO: a web tool for finding significant associations of Gene Ontology terms with groups of genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Summary: We present a simple but powerful procedure to extract Gene Ontology terms that are significantly over or under-represented in sets of genes within the context of a genome-scale experiment (DNA microarray, proteomics, etc.). Said procedure has been implemented as a web application, FatiGO, allowing for easy and interactive querying. FatiGO, which takes the multiple-testing nature of statistical contrast

Fátima Al-shahrour; Ramón Díaz-uriarte; Joaquín Dopazo

2004-01-01

58

Serial assessment of suspected myelodysplastic syndromes: significance of flow cytometric findings validated by cytomorphology, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics  

PubMed Central

The significance of flow cytometry indicating myelodysplasia without proof of myelodysplasia by cytomorphology remains to be clarified. We evaluated follow-up analyses in 142 patients analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry, cytomorphology and cytogenetics for suspected myelodysplasia without proof of myelodysplasia by cytomorphology. At initial assessment, flow cytometry indicated myelodysplasia in 64 of 142 (45.1%) patients. In 9 of 142 (6.3%) patients, cytogenetics revealed aberrant karyotypes at first evaluation that were found in 5 of 64 (7.8%) patients rated with myelodysplasia by flow cytometry. The remaining 133 patients without proof of myelodysplasia by cytomorphology and with normal karyotype underwent follow-up analyses that confirmed myelodysplasia by cytomorphology, cytogenetics or molecular genetics in 47 (35.3%) after a median interval of nine months (range 1-53 months). As far as initial flow cytometry results are concerned, this applied to 30 of 59 (50.1%) with myelodysplasia, 10 of 42 (23.8%) with “possible myelodysplasia” (minor antigen aberrancies only) and 7 of 32 (21.9%) without myelodysplasia (P=0.004). Notably, in these latter 7 patients, flow cytometry results changed at follow up to “possible myelodysplasia” (n=4) and “myelodysplasia” (n=2). These data argue in favor of including flow cytometry along with cytomorphology, cytogenetics and molecular genetics to diagnose myelodysplasia, and suggest a closer monitoring of patients with myelodysplasia-typical aberrant antigen expression found by flow cytometry.

Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Claudia; Schnittger, Susanne; Alpermann, Tamara; Haferlach, Torsten

2013-01-01

59

Rare allele of OsPPKL1 associated with grain length causes extra-large grain and a significant yield increase in rice  

PubMed Central

Grain size and shape are important components determining rice grain yield, and they are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a major grain length QTL, qGL3, which encodes a putative protein phosphatase with Kelch-like repeat domain (OsPPKL1). We found a rare allele qgl3 that leads to a long grain phenotype by an aspartate-to-glutamate transition in a conserved AVLDT motif of the second Kelch domain in OsPPKL1. The rice genome has other two OsPPKL1 homologs, OsPPKL2 and OsPPKL3. Transgenic studies showed that OsPPKL1 and OsPPKL3 function as negative regulators of grain length, whereas OsPPKL2 as a positive regulator. The Kelch domains are essential for the OsPPKL1 biological function. Field trials showed that the application of the qgl3 allele could significantly increase grain yield in both inbred and hybrid rice varieties, due to its favorable effect on grain length, filling, and weight.

Zhang, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianfei; Huang, Ji; Lan, Hongxia; Wang, Cailin; Yin, Congfei; Wu, Yunyu; Tang, Haijuan; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhang, Hongsheng

2012-01-01

60

Singlet-oxygen generation at gas-liquid interfaces: A significant artifact in the measurement of singlet-oxygen yields from ozone-biomolecule reactions  

SciTech Connect

Several ozone-biomolecule reactions have previously been shown to generate singlet oxygen in high yields. For some of these ozone-biomolecule reactions, we now show that the apparent singlet-oxygen yields determined from measurements of 1270 nm chemiluminescence were artifactually elevated by production of gas-phase singlet oxygen. The gas-phase singlet oxygen results from the reaction of gas-phase ozone with biomolecules near the surface of the solution. Through the use of a flow system that excludes air from the reaction chamber, accurate singlet-oxygen yields can be obtained. The revised singlet-oxygen yields (mol 1O2 per mol O3) for the reactions of ozone with cysteine, reduced glutathione, NADH, NADPH, human albumin, methionine, uric acid and oxidized glutathione are 0.23 +/- 0.02, 0.26 +/- 0.2, 0.48 +/- 0.04, 0.41 +/- 0.01, 0.53 +/- 0.06, 1.11 +/- 0.04, 0.73 +/- 0.05 and 0.75 +/- 0.01, respectively. These revised singlet-oxygen yields are still substantial.

Kanofsky, J.R.; Sima, P.D. (Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, Hines, IL (United States))

1993-09-01

61

Findings from NSABP Protocol No. B-04: comparison of radical mastectomy with alternative treatments. II. The clinical and biologic significance of medial-central breast cancers  

SciTech Connect

Findings from 1665 women with primary breast cancer, treated at 34 NSABP institutions in Canada and the United States, have failed to demonstrate that patients with medial-central tumors had a greater probability of developing distant metastases or dying than did those with lateral tumors despite the greater incidence of internal mammary (IM) node involvement when tumors are medial-central in location. A comparison of patients with similar clinical nodal status and tumor location who were treated either by radical mastectomy (RM) or by total mastectomy plus radiation therapy (TM + RT) failed to indicate that radiation of IM nodes reduced the probability of distant treatment failure (TF) or mortality. When findings from patients having equivalent clinical nodal status and tumor location treated by TM alone or TM + RT were compared, it was found that the addition of RT failed to alter the probability of the occurrence of a distant TF or of death. This was despite the fact that in the nonradiated group two putative sources of further tumor spread, i.e., positive axillary and IM nodes, were left unremoved and untreated. The findings provide further insight into the biologic significance of the positive lymph node and confirm our prior contention that positive regional lymph nodes are indicators of a host-tumor relationship which permits the development of metastases and that they are not important investigators of distant disease.

Fisher, B.; Wolmark, N.; Redmond, C.; Deutsch, M.; Fisher, E.R.

1981-01-01

62

Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho Department of Fish and Game Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to fund the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon Program (IDFG Program). The IDFG Program is a small-scale research and production initiative designed to increase numbers of three weak but recoverable populations of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Salmon River drainage. This would increase numbers of spring/summer chinook salmon within the Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), and reduce population fragmentation within the ESU. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1301) evaluating the proposed IDFG Program. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2000-10-12

63

A new direction for prenatal chromosome microarray testing: software-targeting for detection of clinically significant chromosome imbalance without equivocal findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To design and validate a prenatal chromosomal microarray testing strategy that moves away from size-based detection thresholds, towards a more clinically relevant analysis, providing higher resolution than G-banded chromosomes but avoiding the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) of unclear prognosis that cause parental anxiety. Methods. All prenatal samples fulfilling our criteria for karyotype analysis (n = 342) were tested by chromosomal microarray and only CNVs of established deletion/duplication syndrome regions and any other CNV >3 Mb were detected and reported. A retrospective full-resolution analysis of 249 of these samples was carried out to ascertain the performance of this testing strategy. Results. Using our prenatal analysis, 23/342 (6.7%) samples were found to be abnormal. Of the remaining samples, 249 were anonymized and reanalyzed at full-resolution; a further 46 CNVs were detected in 44 of these cases (17.7%). None of these additional CNVs were of clear clinical significance. Conclusion. This prenatal chromosomal microarray strategy detected all CNVs of clear prognostic value and did not miss any CNVs of clear clinical significance. This strategy avoided both the problems associated with interpreting CNVs of uncertain prognosis and the parental anxiety that are a result of such findings.

Bint, Susan; Irving, Melita D.; Kyle, Phillipa M.; Akolekar, Ranjit; Mohammed, Shehla N.; Mackie Ogilvie, Caroline

2014-01-01

64

Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2003-04-23

65

Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

NONE

1996-10-01

66

Revised Finding of No Significant Impact for Expansion and Operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site (10/29/03)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1194) in 1997 for the expansion and operation of the existing Central Shops Borrow Pit (i.e., SRS Facility 632-G) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. This EA was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 15400-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE determined that the action was not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) was not required, and DOE issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) dated March 13, 1997. In an effort to provide the site with cost-effective future landfill capacity for construction and demolition (C&D) debris/structural fill, DOE is considering redefining the closure of the 632-G facility to encompass the permitted disposal of inert C&D debris into the excavation areas, which would then be closed as per regulatory requirements. Based on the existing infrastructure at the 632-G facility that would support a permitted Part III C&D Landfill, DOE has concluded that the environmental impacts of the proposed use of the excavated portions of this facility as an inert debris landfill is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required, and DOE is issuing this revised FONSI.

N /A

2003-10-29

67

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative, as required by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This section provides a brief description of the locale in which the Proposed Action would take place. (5) Environmental Impacts. This section describes the range of environmental impacts, beneficial and adverse, of the Proposed Action. Impacts of alternatives briefly are discussed. (6) Permits and Regulatory Requirements. This section provides a brief description of permits and regulatory requirements for the Proposed Action. (7) Organizations Consulted. This section lists any outside groups, agencies, or individuals contacted as part of the environmental assessment preparation and/or review. (8) References. This section provides a list of documents used to contribute information or data in preparation of this environmental assessment.

N /A

1999-02-11

68

Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

N /A

2004-08-31

69

Recent Findings Regarding Maintenance of Enzootic Variants of Yersinia pestis in Sylvatic Reservoirs and Their Significance in the Evolution of Epidemic Plague  

PubMed Central

Abstract Despite the widespread presence of bubonic plague in sylvatic reservoirs throughout the world, the causative agent (Yersinia pestis) evolved in its present form within the last 20,000 years from enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Comparison of the genomes from the two species revealed that Y. pestis possesses only a few unique plasmid-encoded genes that contribute to acute disease, whereas this organism has lost about 13% of the chromosomal genes that remain active in Y. pseudotuberculosis. These losses reflect readily detectable additions, deletions, transpositions, inversions, and acquisition of about 70 insertion sequence (IS) inserts, none of which are likely to promote increased virulence. In contrast, major enzymes of intermediary metabolism, including glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf?) and aspartase, are present but not catalytically functional due to the presence of missense mutations. The latter are generally not detectable by the technology of bioinformatics and, in the case of Y. pestis, result in radical changes in the metabolic flow of carbon. As an important consequence, plague bacilli exhibit a stringent low-calcium response characterized by conversion of L-glutamate (and metabolically related amino acids) to L-aspartate with secretion of the latter into supernatant fluid at 37°C in culture media containing Na+ but lacking added Ca2+. This phenomenon also occurs in vivo and likely adversely affects the bioenergetics of host amino acid pools. Curiously, aspartase is functional in all tested enzootic (pestoides) strains of Y. pestis. These isolates are typically restricted to the ancient plague reservoirs of Central Asia and Africa and are fully virulent in members of the rodent Superfamily Muroidea but avirulent in guinea pigs and man. The implications of these findings for the distribution and ecology of Y. pestis could be significant.

Brubaker, Robert R.

2010-01-01

70

First finds of Late Tithonian and middle-late Albian radiolarian assemblages in volcanogenic-siliceous rocks of the Amur River right lower reaches and their tectonic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithological-stratigraphic study of volcanogenic-siliceous rocks developed on the left side of the Machtovaya River, a\\u000a right tributary of the Amur River, yielded the first radiolarian assemblages of the late Late Tithonian, the late Late Tithonian-early\\u000a Valanginian, and the middle-late Albian age. It is established that the stratigraphic succession of volcanogenic-siliceous\\u000a rocks in this area is composed of upper Tithonian-Valanginian

A. N. Filippov; I. V. Kemkin

2008-01-01

71

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the release of tritium from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch between 25 to 35 percent. If this proposed action is undertaken and its effectiveness is demonstrated, it may become a component of the final action in the CAP. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or prepare an environmental impact statement (EM).

N /A

1999-12-08

72

Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis  

SciTech Connect

A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A. [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others] [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); and others

1996-10-02

73

Protein Corona Significantly Reduces Active Targeting Yield  

PubMed Central

When nanoparticles (NPs) are exposed to the biological environment, their surfaces become covered with proteins and biomolecules (e.g. lipids). Here, we report that this protein coating, or corona, reduces the targeting capability of surface engineered NPs by screening the active sites of the targeting ligands.

Mirshafiee, Vahid; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Lou, Kaiyan; Cheng, Jianjun; Kraft, Mary L.

2013-01-01

74

From Bayes through Marginal Utility to Effect Sizes: A Guide to Understanding the Clinical and Statistical Significance of the Results of Autism Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this report are: (a) to trace the theoretical roots of the concept clinical significance that derives from Bayesian thinking, Marginal Utility/Diminishing Returns in Economics, and the "just noticeable difference", in Psychophysics. These concepts then translated into: Effect Size (ES), strength of agreement, clinical…

Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Koenig, Kathy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.; Paul, Rhea; Sparrow, Sara

2011-01-01

75

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

N /A

2000-03-20

76

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Expansion of the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy needs to provide additional cost-effective personal protection and public safety through expanding training and equipment testing facilities at the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) on the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1412, for expanding training and equipment testing facilities at the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Based on the analysis in the EA, and considering tribal and agency comments, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required.

N /A

2002-11-06

77

Significant Findings: Tracking the SeaWiFS Record with a Coupled Physical/Biogeochemical/Radiative Model of the Global Oceans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has observed 2.5 years of routine global chlorophyll observations from space. The mission was launched into a record El Nino event, which eventually gave way to one of the most intensive and longest-lasting La Nina events ever recorded. The SeaWiFS chlorophyll record captured the response of ocean phytoplankton to these significant events in the tropical Indo-Pacific basins, but also indicated significant interannual variability unrelated to the El Nino/La Nina events. This included large variability in the North Atlantic and Pacific basins, in the North Central and equatorial Atlantic, and milder patterns in the North Central Pacific. This SeaWiFS record was tracked with a coupled physical/biogeochemical/radiative model of the global oceans using near-real-time forcing data such as wind stresses, sea surface temperatures, and sea ice. This provided an opportunity to offer physically and biogeochemically meaningful explanations of the variability observed in the SeaWiFS data set, since the causal mechanisms and interrelationships of the model are completely understood. The coupled model was able to represent the seasonal distributions of chlorophyll during the SeaWiFS era, and was capable of differentiating among the widely different processes and dynamics occurring in the global oceans. The model was also reasonably successful in representing the interannual signal, especially when it was large, such as, the El Nino and La Nina events in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. The model provided different phytoplankton group responses for the different events in these regions: diatoms were predominant in the tropical Pacific during the La Nina but other groups were predominant during El Nino. The opposite condition occurred in the tropical Indian Ocean. Both situations were due to the different responses of the basins to El Nino. The interannual variability in the North Atlantic, which was exhibited in SeaWiFS data as a decline in the spring/summer bloom in 1999 relative to 1998, resulted in the model from a more slowly shoaling mixed layer, allowing herbivore populations to keep pace with increasing phytoplankton populations. However, several aspects of the interannual cycle were not well-represented by the model. Explanations ranged from inherent model deficiencies, to monthly averaging of forcing fields, to biases in SeaWiFS atmospheric correction procedures.

Watson, Gregg W.

2000-01-01

78

Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs  

SciTech Connect

Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Suter, Jonathan D.

2012-09-01

79

Grease Yields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is directed to lubricating grease compositions, more particularly to the use of certain agents to improve the yield of calcium base greases. The yields of grease compositions are increased by incorporating therein an oil-soluble polyglycol p...

D. W. Criddle

1965-01-01

80

Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1994-12-31

81

Measurement and significance of the equilibrium reaction C-13\\/+\\/ + \\/C-12\\/O yields C-12\\/+\\/ + \\/C-13\\/O for alteration of the C-13\\/C-12 ratio in interstellar molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements using the ion-cyclotron resonance technique yield a rate constant of 2 by 10 to the -10th power cu cm\\/sec at 300 K for the isotope exchange C-13(+) + (C-12)O yields C-12(+) + (C-13)O. According to the usual ideas about ion-molecule reactions, this rate constant should also be appropriate at temperatures not exceeding about 100 K. Then the observed

W. D. Watson; V. G. Anicich; W. T. Huntress Jr.

1976-01-01

82

Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Implementation of the Authorized Limits Process for Waste Acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1414) for the proposed implementation of the authorized limits process for waste acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, which is incorporated herein by this reference, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2002-08-06

83

Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Testing and Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has completed an Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Test. Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the Department has determined that the proposed action, the relocation of the Department's heat source and radioisotope power system operations, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2002-08-30

84

Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article may help the user understand the concept of statistical significance and the meaning of the numbers produced by The Survey System. This article is presented in two parts. The first part simplifies the concept of statistical significance as much as possible; so that non-technical readers can use the concept to help make decisions based on their data. The second part provides more technical readers with a fuller discussion of the exact meaning of statistical significance numbers.

2008-06-30

85

Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups  

PubMed Central

Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers.

Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

86

Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups.  

PubMed

Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

Dar, Manzoor H; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

87

Microwave-assisted cation exchange toward synthesis of near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots with significantly improved quantum yields through a uniform growth path.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop a reproducible and controllable microwave-assisted cation exchange approach, for the first time, to quickly synthesize high-quality, near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). These monodisperse QDs, emitting in the range of 1300-1600 nm, show a quantum yield as high as 57% that is ~1.4 times higher than that achieved by the same QDs prepared using conventional heating in an oil bath. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest reproducible value reported to date for PbS-based QDs in this emission range. More importantly, the as-synthesized PbS/CdS QDs can self-assemble nearly perfectly and easily at the micrometer scale as a result of their uniform shape and narrow size distribution. PMID:23887182

Ren, Fuqiang; Zhao, Haiguang; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Ma, Dongling

2013-09-01

88

Microwave-assisted cation exchange toward synthesis of near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots with significantly improved quantum yields through a uniform growth path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we develop a reproducible and controllable microwave-assisted cation exchange approach, for the first time, to quickly synthesize high-quality, near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). These monodisperse QDs, emitting in the range of 1300-1600 nm, show a quantum yield as high as 57% that is ~1.4 times higher than that achieved by the same QDs prepared using conventional heating in an oil bath. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest reproducible value reported to date for PbS-based QDs in this emission range. More importantly, the as-synthesized PbS/CdS QDs can self-assemble nearly perfectly and easily at the micrometer scale as a result of their uniform shape and narrow size distribution.In this study, we develop a reproducible and controllable microwave-assisted cation exchange approach, for the first time, to quickly synthesize high-quality, near-infrared emitting PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). These monodisperse QDs, emitting in the range of 1300-1600 nm, show a quantum yield as high as 57% that is ~1.4 times higher than that achieved by the same QDs prepared using conventional heating in an oil bath. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest reproducible value reported to date for PbS-based QDs in this emission range. More importantly, the as-synthesized PbS/CdS QDs can self-assemble nearly perfectly and easily at the micrometer scale as a result of their uniform shape and narrow size distribution. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: EDX, XRD, and TEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02181e

Ren, Fuqiang; Zhao, Haiguang; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Ma, Dongling

2013-08-01

89

Find Someone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a "Find Someone" list, with about 10 items, each containing a shape, number, or measurement. Can you find someone in the group with hair about 4 inches long? Someone wearing parallel lines? Someone born in the 10th month? Learners circulate, trying to find someone who matches each item on the list. To engage younger learners, base the âFind Someoneâ list on things to count: find someone wearing 7 buttons or find someone wearing 5 barrettes. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should have basic reading skills.

2010-01-01

90

Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings  

SciTech Connect

Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

1994-05-01

91

Rock Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

2006-01-01

92

32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...magnitude of the proposed action and its potential for controversy...magnitude of the proposed action or its potential for controversy...case in terms of its potential environmental impacts...If the proposed action would be located...

2013-07-01

93

Significant findings concerning the production of Italian Renaissance lustred majolica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper the main results obtained, over a period of more than ten years, from a series of studies concerning the characterization of Italian Renaissance lustred majolicas (from Gubbio and Deruta, Umbria, Italy) are presented. Lustre decoration is a well-known technique, consisting in the application of a thin metallic iridescent film, containing silver and copper nanoparticles, over a previously glazed ceramic object. The technique had its origin in Persia (IX century), was imported by Moorish in Spain, and then developed in central Italy during the Renaissance period. Numerous analytical techniques (among which, ETASS, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM-EDX) have been employed for the characterization of lustred ceramic shards, allowing one to acquire information on both lustre chemical composition and nanostructure. In this way it was shown how some technological parameters, such as the firing conditions, are mandatory to obtain the final result. The presence of a specific marker of the lustre Italian production, i.e., cosalite (Pb2Bi2S5), has been also highlighted. From the study of the ceramic body composition (by means of XRD and ICP-OES and in particular of chemometric techniques) acquired on more than 50 ceramic shards it was possible to discriminate between Deruta and Gubbio production, in this way allowing one to assign objects of uncertain provenance to a specific site. Finally, the most interesting results obtained studying excellent lustred masterpieces from Renaissance belonging to important museums are here presented. In particular, with the use of nondestructive techniques (PIXE, RBS, and portable XRD), the production of Mastro Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio was investigated. By means of the same analytical approach, one of the first examples of lustre in Italy (the famous Baglioni's albarello) was examined, and the controversial question of its attribution to Italian production was scientifically faced.

Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

2013-12-01

94

Multifocal Premature Contractions, an Ecg Finding of Grave Significance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluation of the cardiovascular system is important in determining an individual's ability to tolerate the stresses of flying. The electrocardiogram is an essential part of the cardiovascular evaluation. A case is presented of a USAF pilot of 19 years wh...

P. R. Akre

1967-01-01

95

76 FR 68260 - Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is to evaluate the potential environmental impacts from replacement of a 600 foot section of timber pile supported pier with concrete pile supports and decking. The timber pile pier section to be replaced comprises a total area of 13,400 square feet....

2011-11-03

96

Finding Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

Sciencenter

2011-08-20

97

Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

1982-01-01

98

Wafer yield prediction by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of yield from the production lines is concentrated at a high-yield area and tapers down to the lower-yield area. Production management would find it useful if the yield of individual wafers could be forecast. The yield is determined by the variability of electrical characteristics and dust. In this study, only the variability of electrical characteristics was discussed. One

M. Asada

2001-01-01

99

Lung in Dengue: Computed Tomography Findings  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue virus infection may be asymptomatic or lead to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever with or without warning signs, or severe dengue. Lower respiratory symptoms are unusual and lung-imaging data in patients with dengue are scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate lung changes associated with dengue infection, we retrospectively analyzed 2,020 confirmed cases of dengue. Twenty-nine of these patients (11 females and 18 males aged 16–90 years) underwent chest computed tomography (CT), which yielded abnormal findings in 17 patients: 16 patients had pleural effusion (the sole finding in six patients) and 11 patients had pulmonary abnormalities. Lung parenchyma involvement ranged from subtle to moderate unilateral and bilateral abnormalities. The most common finding was ground-glass opacity in eight patients, followed by consolidation in six patients. Less common findings were airspace nodules (two patients), interlobular septal thickening (two patients), and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (one patient). Lung histopathological findings in four fatal cases showed thickening of the alveolar septa, hemorrhage, and interstitial edema. Conclusions/Significance In this largest series involving the use of chest CT to evaluate lung involvement in patients with dengue, CT findings of lower respiratory tract involvement were uncommon. When abnormalities were present, pleural effusion was the most frequent finding and lung involvement was often mild or moderate and bilateral. Extensive lung abnormalities are infrequent even in severe disease and when present should lead physicians to consider other diagnostic possibilities.

Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Brum, Ana Livia Garcia; Paes, Marciano Viana; Povoa, Tiago Fajardo; Basilio-de-Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Marchiori, Edson; Borghi, Danielle Provencano; Ramos, Grazielle Viana; Bozza, Fernando Augusto

2014-01-01

100

Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields  

SciTech Connect

Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

Lobell, D

2007-04-26

101

Effects of geoengineering on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as market shares of agricultural output may change with the different spatial pattern of climate change. More importantly, geoengineering by SRM does not address a range of other detrimental consequences of climate change, such as ocean acidification, which could also affect food security via effects on marine food webs. Finally, SRM poses substantial anticipated and unanticipated risks by interfering with complex, not fully understood systems. Therefore, despite potential positive effects of SRM on crop yields, the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2011-12-01

102

Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar’s potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset—biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis—were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world’s important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar.

Crane-Droesch, Andrew; Abiven, Samuel; Jeffery, Simon; Torn, Margaret S.

2013-12-01

103

Rice yield prediction using a Support Vector Regression method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice yield prediction is the procedure to predict the rice grain weight. The objectives of the procedure are finding out whether the location is appropriate to grow rice, and reducing any risk in the investment of rice yield production. There were many researchers trying to find the precise results of rice yield prediction, however, the proposed methods are complicated and

Ratchaphum Jaikla; Sansanee Auephanwiriyakul; Attachai Jintrawet

2008-01-01

104

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

105

Reckoning wheat yield trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat yields have increased approximately linearly since the mid-twentieth century across the globe, but stagnation of these trends has now been suggested for several nations. We present a new statistical test for whether a yield time series has leveled off and apply it to wheat yield data from 47 different regions to show that nearly half of the production within our sample has transitioned to level trajectories. With the major exception of India, the majority of leveling in wheat yields occurs within developed nations—including the United Kingdom, France and Germany—whose policies appear to have disincentivized yield increases relative to other objectives. The effects of climate change and of yields nearing their maximum potential may also be important.

Lin, M.; Huybers, P.

2012-06-01

106

Detecting temporal change in watershed nutrient yields.  

PubMed

Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act. PMID:18446405

Wickham, James D; Wade, Timothy G; Riitters, Kurt H

2008-08-01

107

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

Haun, J. R.

1975-01-01

108

Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches  

PubMed Central

Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the “yield to pedestrian” sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds), and can feasibly be incorporated into microsimulation algorithms to model driver yielding at roundabouts.

Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J.; Geruschat, Duane R.; Rouphail, Nagui M.

2013-01-01

109

Calibration of neutron-yield diagnostics in attenuating and scattering environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed absolute calibrations of a fusion-neutron-yield copper-activation diagnostic in environments that significantly attenuate and scatter neutrons. We have measured attenuation and scattering effects and have compared the measurements to Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code. We find that measurements and simulations are consistent within 10%.

Hahn, K. D.; Ruiz, C. L.; Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; McWatters, B. R.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A.

2012-10-01

110

High Yield Neutron Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high yield neutron source comprising a plasma focus device in combination with a structured target is described. The plasma focus device generates a plasma sheath which focuses on a structured target in a predetermined focal region. The structured targe...

H. L. Sahlin J. H. Brownell B. L. Freeman

1978-01-01

111

Argentina corn yield model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

1984-01-01

112

Research on Family Engagement in Preventive Interventions: Toward Improved Use of Scientific Findings in Primary Prevention Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective strategies for family engagement are essential in the implementation of models directed toward the application of research findings to primary prevention practice. Although there has been limited investigation of family engagement in preventive interventions for general populations, the research has yielded several preliminary findings that warrant further study. Notably, families in eligible general populations can differ to a significant

Richard Spoth; Cleve Redmond

2000-01-01

113

THE STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 'DARK FLOW'  

SciTech Connect

We revisit recent claims of a significant detection of a bulk flow of distant galaxy clusters. We do not find a statistically significant detection of a bulk flow. Instead we find that cosmic microwave background correlations between the eight Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe channels used in this analysis decrease the inferred significance of the detection to 0.7sigma.

Keisler, Ryan, E-mail: rkeisler@uchicago.ed [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States) and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2009-12-10

114

Search for B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup 0} and B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup *0} decays  

SciTech Connect

We report a search for the rare decays B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup 0} and B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup *0} in an event sample of approximately 465x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We find no significant evidence for either mode and we set 90% probability upper limits on the branching fractions of B(B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup 0})<2.9x10{sup -6} and B(B{sup +}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup *0})<3.0x10{sup -6}.

Amo Sanchez, P. del; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V. [Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy-Le-Vieux (France); Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-11-01

115

Yielding Torque-Tube System Reduces Crash Injuries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yielding torque-tube system minimizes injuries by limiting load transferred to occupant in crash. When properly integrated into seat structure, torque tube yields in plastic deformation stage of material and maintains a relatively constant resistance to applied torque for many degrees of rotation. Yielding torque-tube system is expected to find application in aircraft and automobile industries.

Mcsmith, D. G.

1982-01-01

116

Estimates of explosive yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive yield as a function of propellant type and accident conditions was discussed along with the characteristics of propellant explosions. Three types of fuel-hypergolic, liquid oxygen-hydrocarbon, and liquid oxygen-liquid-hydrogen were considered. Data are also given on three modes (failure modes) of mixing: confinement by missile, confinement by ground surface, and high velocity impact.

1977-01-01

117

Yielding steel posts  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a yielding steel post for underground mine support. The report covers concept development, laboratory tests, modifications, and field evaluations. The objective of this work was to develop a stiff support member capable of both supporting high loads and yielding when excessive amounts of mine entry closure were present. The 6- to 7-ft steel post was designed to yield three-piece unit consisting of top and bottom telescoping legs and a separate foot bracket. It develops its load-carrying characteristics when the lower pipe, with an attached interference ring, is forced into the larger top pipe. Laboratory tests were used to determine critical loads and post performance for various post lengths. Field tests showed that the posts could perform in actual mining conditions. The post has the ability to provide support in highly yielding ground and also, because of its slender profile, enhance ventilation and provide more area for travelways and escapeways. The design is simple enough to allow for fabrication at most mine shop facilities.

Dunford, J.P.; Henton, L.N.

1989-01-01

118

Yield Physiology of Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for more than 50% of the world's population, including regions of high population density and rapid growth. Rice is produced under both upland and lowland ecosystems with about 76% of the global rice produced from irrigated lowland rice systems. The objective of this article is to discuss growth and formation of yield

N. K. Fageria

2007-01-01

119

Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notc...

P. A. Allen C. D. Wilson

2002-01-01

120

Atmospheric Fluorescence Yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric fluorescence from these showers. Accurate knowledge of the conversion from atmospheric fluorescence to energy loss by ionizing particles in the atmosphere is key to this technique. In this paper we discuss a small balloon-borne instrument to make the first in situ measurements versus altitude of the atmospheric fluorescence yield. The instrument can also be used in the lab to investigate the dependence of the fluorescence yield in air on temperature, pressure and the concentrations of other gases that present in the atmosphere. The results can be used to explore environmental effects on and improve the accuracy of cosmic ray energy measurements for existing ground-based experiments and future space-based experiments.

Adams, James H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

121

Testing the Predictive Power of Dividend Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reexamines the ability of dividend yields to predict long-horizon stock returns. The authors use the bootstrap methodology, as well as simulations, to examine the distribution of test statistics under the null hypothesis of no forecasting ability. These experiments are constructed so as to maintain the dynamics of regressions with lagged dependent variables over long horizons. They find that

William Nelson Goetzmann; Philippe Jorion

1993-01-01

122

The significance of research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When promoting the value of their research or procuring funding, researchers often need to explain the significance of their work to the community -- something that can be just as tricky as the research itself.

2014-02-01

123

Significance of Grandparents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focuses on the significance of grandparenthood to a sample of young adult grandchildren as detailed from their responses to a series of Likert-type, range of choice, and yes-no items in five distinct areas of inquiry. Results show that grandchildren do not see grandparents as old-fashioned. (Author)

Robertson, Joan F.

1976-01-01

124

Crop Yield Convergence: How Russia's Yield Performance Has Compared to Global Yield Leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether there has been cross-country convergence among yields for selected crops important to Russia and the New Independent States. The only crop that showed yield convergence globally was wheat, although several crops in sub-samples displayed convergence. In the reform era, Russian yields for several crops declined, leading to gaps between Russia and the global yield leaders that

Michael A Trueblood; Carlos Arnade

2001-01-01

125

Crop Yield Convergence: How Russia's Yield Performance Has Compared to Global Yield Leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether there has been cross-country convergence among yields for selected crops important to Russia and the New Independent States. The only crop that showed yield convergence globally was wheat, although several crops in sub-samples displayed convergence. In the reform era, Russian yields for several crops declined, leading to gaps between Russia and the global yield leaders that

Michael A Trueblood; Carlos Arnade

126

Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "ÃÂÃÂPractice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley

2009-03-05

127

Coincidence to significance.  

PubMed

This article will describe the author's entrepreneurial experiences related to challenges of initiating, negotiating and completing a health promotion project for a Fortune 500 company. The events described begin with her casual meeting of a director of the health promotion section of an international food company and wncludes with the author's final development of a significant employee injury prevention program. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate professional challenges an occupational therapist may encounter to successfully complete a corporate project. PMID:23931009

Herring, C

1989-01-01

128

Search for b{yields}u transitions in B{sup -{yields}}DK{sup -} and D*K{sup -} decays  

SciTech Connect

We report results from an updated study of the suppressed decays B{sup -}{yields}DK{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D*K{sup -} followed by D{yields}K{sup +{pi}-}, where D{sup (*)} indicates a D{sup (*)0} or a D{sup (*)0} meson, and D*{yields}D{pi}{sup 0} or D*{yields}D{gamma}. These decays are sensitive to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle angle {gamma} due to interference between the b{yields}c transition B{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*)0}K{sup -} followed by the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +{pi}-}, and the b{yields}u transition B{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*)0}K{sup -} followed by the Cabibbo-favored decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +{pi}-}. We also report an analysis of the decay B{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*){pi}-} with the D decaying into the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed mode D{yields}K{sup +{pi}-}. Our results are based on 467x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S){yields}BB decays collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. We measure the ratios R{sup (*)} of the suppressed ([K{sup +{pi}-}]{sub D}K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -}) to favored ([K{sup -{pi}+}]{sub D}K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -}) branching fractions as well as the CP asymmetries A{sup (*)} of those modes. We see indications of signals for the B{sup -}{yields}DK{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D{sub D{pi}}{sup 0}*K{sup -} suppressed modes, with statistical significances of 2.1 and 2.2{sigma}, respectively, and we measure: R{sub DK}=(1.1{+-}0.6{+-}0.2)x10{sup -2}, A{sub DK}=-0.86{+-}0.47{sub -0.16}{sup +0.12}, R{sub (D{pi}{sup 0})K}*=(1.8{+-}0.9{+-} 0.4)x10{sup -2}, A{sub (D{pi}{sup 0})K}*=+0.77{+-}0.35{+-}0.12, R{sub (D{gamma})K}*=(1.3{+-}1.4{+-}0.8)x10{sup -2},A{sub (D{gamma})K}*=+0.36 {+-}0.94{sub -0.41}{sup +0.25}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We use a frequentist approach to obtain the magnitude of the ratio r{sub B{identical_to}}|A(B{sup -}{yields}D{sup 0}K{sup -})/A(B{sup -}{yields}D{sup 0}K{sup -})|=(9.5{sub -4.1}{sup +5.1})%, with r{sub B}<16.7% at 90% confidence level. In the case of B{sup -}{yields}D*K{sup -} we find r{sub B}*{identical_to}|A(B{sup -}{yields}D*{sup 0}K{sup -})/A(B{sup -}{yields}D*{sup 0}K{sup -})|=(9.6{sub -5.1}{sup +3.5})%, with r{sub B}*<15.0% at 90% confidence level.

Amo Sanchez, P. del; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V. [Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy-Le-Vieux (France); Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-10-01

129

Feasibility and yield of screening in relatives from familial pancreatic cancer families  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a lethal disease. Over 80% of patients are found to have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Strategies to improve disease-specific outcome include identification and early detection of precursor lesions or early cancers in high risk groups. In this study we investigate whether screening at-risk relatives of familial pancreatic cancer patients is safe and has significant yield. METHODS We enrolled 309 asymptomatic at-risk relatives into our Familial Pancreatic Tumor Registry (FPTR) and offered them screening with MRCP followed by endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration if indicated. Relatives with findings were referred for surgical evaluation. RESULTS As of August 1, 2009, 109 relatives had completed at least one cycle of screening. Abnormal radiographic findings were present on initial screening in 18/109 patients (16.5%), 15 of whom underwent EUS. A significant abnormality was confirmed in 9 of 15 patients, 6 of whom ultimately had surgery for an overall diagnostic yield of 8.3% (9/109). Yield was greatest in relatives >65 years old (35% (6/17) when compared with relatives 55–65 (3% (1/31) and relatives<55 (3% (2/61). CONCLUSIONS Screening at-risk relatives from familial pancreatic cancer families has a significant diagnostic yield, particularly in relatives >65 years of age, confirming prior studies. MRCP as initial screening modality is safe and effective.

Ludwig, Emmy; Olson, Sara H; Bayuga, Sharon; Simon, Jennifer; Schattner, Mark A; Gerdes, Hans; Allen, Peter J; Jarnagin, William R; Kurtz, Robert C

2013-01-01

130

Macrocerebellum: significance and pathogenic considerations.  

PubMed

Macrocerebellum is a rare finding characterized by an abnormally large cerebellum. Only few patients with a syndromal or isolated macrocerebellum have been reported so far. This article aims to categorize the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, quantitate the macrocerebellum by volumetric analysis, characterize the neurological and dysmorphic features and cognitive outcome, and report the results of genetic analyses in children with macrocerebellum. All MR images were qualitatively evaluated for infratentorial and supratentorial abnormalities. Volumetric analysis was performed. Data about neurological and dysmorphic features, outcome, and genetic analysis were collected from clinical histories and follow-up examinations. Five patients were included. Volumetric analysis in three patients confirmed large cerebellar size compared to age-matched controls. MR evaluation showed that thickening of the cortical gray matter of the cerebellar hemispheres is responsible for the macrocerebellum. Additional infratentorial and supratentorial abnormalities were present in all patients. Muscular hypotonia, as well as impaired motor and cognitive development, was found in all patients, with ocular movement disorders in three of five patients. The five patients differed significantly in terms of dysmorphic features and involvement of extracerebral organs. Submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations were found in two patients. Macrocerebellum is caused by thickening of the cortical gray matter of the cerebellar hemispheres, suggesting that cerebellar granule cells may be involved in its development. Patients with macrocerebellum show highly heterogeneous neuroimaging, clinical, and genetic findings, suggesting that macrocerebellum is not a nosological entity, but instead represents the structural manifestation of a deeper, more basic biological disturbance common to heterogeneous disorders. PMID:22528964

Poretti, Andrea; Mall, Volker; Smitka, Martin; Grunt, Sebastian; Risen, Sarah; Toelle, Sandra P; Benson, Jane E; Yoshida, Shoko; Jung, Nikolai H; Tinschert, Sigrid; Neuhann, Teresa M; Rauch, Anita; Steinlin, Maja; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Boltshauser, Eugen

2012-12-01

131

Yield enhancement with DFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

2012-03-01

132

Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV)], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

Greenland, David

2005-11-01

133

Yield stresses in electrorheological fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and determine the static and dynamic (Bingham) yield stresses in an electrorheological (ER) fluid from a microstructural model. The model relates both these yield stresses to the electrostatic energy determined from the suspension capacitance matrix, which we developed previously for the dynamic simulation of an ER fluid. The static yield stress is determined from nonlinear elasticity strain-energy theory

J. F. Brady

1992-01-01

134

Clinical significance of translocation.  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications.

Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

1994-01-01

135

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

136

Oil convenience yields estimated under demand\\/supply shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the call option model of Milonas and Thomadakis (1997) to estimate oil convenience yields with futures\\u000a prices. We define the business cycle of a seasonal commodity with demand\\/supply shocks and find that the convenience yield\\u000a for crude oil exhibits seasonal behavior. The convenience yield for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil is the highest\\u000a in the summer,

William T. Lin; Chang-Wen Duan

2007-01-01

137

Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

1994-01-01

138

Particle mass yield from ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of second-generation products on the particle mass yield of ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis was systematically tested and quantified. The approach was to vary the relative concentrations of first- and second-generation products by controlling ozone concentration, while observing the change in particle mass yield. For all organic particle mass concentrations Morg of this study (0.5 < Morg < 230 ?g m-3), the data show that particle-phase organic material was in large part composed of second-generation products. For 0.5 < Morg <10 ?g m-3, a range which overlaps with atmospheric concentrations, the particle mass yield was not sensitive to ozone exposure, implying that the constituent molecules were rapidly produced at all investigated ozone exposures. In contrast, for Morg > 10 ?g m-3 the particle mass yield increased with ozone exposure. These different dependencies on ozone exposure with M org are explained by a combination of the ozonolysis lifetimes of the first-generation products and the volatility distribution of the resulting second-generation products. First-generation products that have short lifetimes produce low-volatility second-generation products whereas first-generation products that have long lifetimes produce high-volatility second-generation products. The ultimate particle mass yield was defined by mass-based stoichiometric yields ?0 = 0.17 ± 0.05, ?1 = 0.11 ± 0.17, and ?2 = 1.03 ± 0.30 for corresponding saturation concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ?g m-3. Terms ?0 and ?1 had low sensitivity to the investigated range of ozone exposure whereas term ?2 increased from 0.32 ± 0.13 to 1.03 ± 0.30 as the ozone exposure was increased. These findings potentially allow for simplified yet nevertheless accurate parameterizations in air quality and climate models that seek to represent the ozonolysis particle mass yield of certain classes of biogenic compounds.

Chen, Q.; Li, Y. J.; McKinney, K. A.; Kuwata, M.; Martin, S. T.

2011-11-01

139

Probing new physics in B{yields}f{sub 0}(980)K decays  

SciTech Connect

We study the hadronic decay modes B{sup {+-}}{sup (0)}{yields}f{sub 0}(980)K{sup {+-}}{sup (0)}, involving a scalar and a pseudoscalar meson in the final state. These decay modes are dominated by the loop induced b{yields}sqq(q=s,u,d) penguins along with a small b{yields}u tree level transition (for B{sup +}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sup +}) and annihilation diagrams. Therefore, the standard model expectation of direct CP violation is negligibly small and the mixing-induced CP violation parameter in the mode B{sup 0}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sub S} is expected to give the same value of sin(2{beta}), as extracted from B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S} but with opposite sign. Using the generalized factorization approach we find the direct CP violation in the decay mode B{sup +}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sup +} to be of the order of few percent. We then study the effect of the R-parity violating supersymmetric model and show that the direct CP violating asymmetry in B{sup +}{yields}f{sub 0}(980)K{sup +} could be as large as {approx}80% and the mixing-induced CP asymmetry in B{sup 0}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sub S} (i.e., -S{sub f{sub 0}}{sub K{sub S}}) could deviate significantly from that of sin(2{beta}){sub J/{psi}}{sub K{sub S}}.

Giri, A. K. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002 (India); Mawlong, B.; Mohanta, R. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500 046 (India)

2006-12-01

140

Some Considerations of the Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated are the statistical findings of the IEA International Study of Mathematics Achievement and their implications in the areas of school organization, curriculum and instruction, and socioeconmic factors. Also given are a number of criticisms of the study and its significance. (CT)

Becker, Jerry P.; McKellar, Marie T.

1971-01-01

141

Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.  

PubMed

Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ?23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

2014-01-01

142

Find a Plume, Find a Vent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity gives students an appreciation for the difficulties deep sea researchers must face in order to find hydrothermal vents. Working in small groups, students can complete this Web investigation in a single class period. The printable handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions that prompt students to use what they already know about mid-ocean ridges to hypothesize about how scientists locate deep sea vents, detailed directions for a Web research project that takes them on a virtual deep sea journey investigating hydrothermal vents, and a worksheet that helps students apply their building knowledge to locate a vent in the northern Pacific Ocean.

143

Rapid Yield and Depth Estimation from Global Calibrated Paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive test ban monitoring in terms of location has progressed significantly in recent years. However, the estimation of low yields remains a particular challenge because only limited number of teleseismic and local stations record the events. As the North Korean (NK) Explosion demonstrated, we can probably expect to have a small set of teleseismic data, some set of in-country (closed and open) regional data to estimate yield. The mb estimate from only a few station typically has large errors if calibration of mantle attenuation (t*) is not taken into account. Since stacking helps bring signals out of the noise, it becomes useful to conduct comparable analyses on neighboring events. If these auxiliary events have accurate moments, we have a means of directly estimating yields for an unknown test. The method starts with a detailed waveform inversion of natural earthquakes (M4-5) near the test site recorded by local or regional broadband stations with the Cut and Paste method which leads to accurate estimates of moment and focal mechanism. With the source parameters well known, we obtain amplitude path corrections by matching observed and synthetic teleseismic waveforms. Or alternatively, we can choose station specific t* to make the synthetic amplitude agree with the observations. We modeled three events with magnitude between M4-M5 in Korea Peninsular, and find t* of ~0.5s works for most stations for events in Korea Peninsular. We use this method of path calibration to estimate the 2006 NK Explosion at 1-2 kt using the Amchitka scaling laws and the yield estimate of the 2009 NK explosion will also be reported.

Ni, S.; Chu, R.; Helmberger, D. V.

2009-12-01

144

Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

Whitman, Robert S.

1964-01-01

145

Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

Carter, Ashley R.

2013-01-01

146

FindSounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FindSounds.com is new search engine devoted to finding sample sounds and sound effects on the Web. The easy-to-use search feature offers variables including the file formats AIFF, .wav, and .au; mono or stereo; resolution; sample rate; and maximum file size up to two megabytes; as well as simply the subject of the sound. For those who might feel overwhelmed, there is also a partial directory of sounds in order to help users get started. After users find the sound-types they are looking for, they may also choose the Find Sounds Like This One button, which will find up to 100 audio files on the Web that most closely match the given file. For users aiming to find their own matches on the Web, the free downloadable Comparisonics Audio Player shows a colored sound wave image of the sound file. All or part of this soundwave may be highlighted and searched on the Web for matches.

147

Find a Partner  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Add the math of measurement to the tasks of lining up or finding a partner for an activity. Find a partner with the same length index finger as yours. Or, find a partner with the same arm span as yours. Everyone pairs up. Then, talk about how you found your partner: How did you line up your feet to see if they were the same size? Show everyone how you measured. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.

2010-01-01

148

Improving photosynthesis and yield potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop yield is fundamentally related to the (a) amount of solar radiation absorbed; (b) efficiency of solar energy use in photosynthesis;\\u000a (c) translocation of photosynthate to sinks, especially sinks later harvested; (d) capacity for growth in sinks; (e) efficiency\\u000a of converting photosynthate to new biomass; and (f) metabolic cost of maintenance. Yield potential has been defined as the yield of

Jeffrey S. Amthor

149

Find a Plume, Find a Vent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity will give students an appreciation for the difficulties deep sea researchers must face in order to find hydrothermal vents. Working in small groups, students can complete this Web investigation in a single class period. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions that prompt students to use what they already know about mid-ocean ridges to hypothesize about how scientists locate deep sea vents. In addition, it has detailed directions for a Web research project that takes them on a virtual deep sea journey, investigating hydrothermal vents and a worksheet that helps students apply their knowledge to locate a vent in the northern Pacific Ocean.

150

PINK1 heterozygous rare variants: prevalence, significance and phenotypic spectrum.  

PubMed

Heterozygous rare variants in the PINK1 gene, as well as in other genes causing autosomal recessive parkinsonism, have been reported both in patients and healthy controls. Their pathogenic significance is uncertain, but they have been suggested to represent risk factors to develop Parkinson disease (PD). The few large studies that assessed the frequency of PINK1 heterozygotes in cases and controls yielded controversial results, and the phenotypic spectrum is largely unknown. We retrospectively analyzed the occurrence of PINK1 heterozygous rare variants in over 1100 sporadic and familial patients of all onset ages and in 400 controls. Twenty patients and 6 controls were heterozygous, with frequencies (1.8% vs. 1.5%) not significantly different in the two groups. Clinical features of heterozygotes were indistinguishable to those of wild-type patients, with mean disease onset 10 years later than in carriers of two mutations but worse disease progression. A meta-analysis indicated that, in PINK1 heterozygotes, the PD risk is only slightly increased with a non significant odds ratio of 1.62. These findings suggest that PINK1 heterozygous rare variants play only a minor susceptibility role in the context of a multifactorial model of PD. Hence, their significance should be kept distinct from that of homozygous/compound heterozygous mutations, that cause parkinsonism inherited in a mendelian fashion. PMID:18330912

Marongiu, Roberta; Ferraris, Alessandro; Ialongo, Tàmara; Michiorri, Silvia; Soleti, Francesco; Ferrari, Francesca; Elia, Antonio E; Ghezzi, Daniele; Albanese, Alberto; Altavista, Maria Concetta; Antonini, Angelo; Barone, Paolo; Brusa, Livia; Cortelli, Pietro; Martinelli, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Pezzoli, Gianni; Scaglione, Cesa; Stanzione, Paolo; Tinazzi, Michele; Zecchinelli, Anna; Zeviani, Massimo; Cassetta, Emanuele; Garavaglia, Barbara; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Valente, Enza Maria

2008-04-01

151

Yield stress and jamming in concentrated suspensions of particles in viscous liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presence of crystals significantly influences magma dynamics from mush zone inside the magma chamber to Pinian eruptions of basaltic magma with abundant microlites. We measure the strain and stress-dependent viscosity of poly-disperse suspensions of micron-size (3 -100 micron) particles in silicone oil (10-100 Pa s), at packing fraction of >70%. We find over three orders of magnitude changes in relative viscosity and yield strengths of >1000 Pa s. Particle packing fractions were determined using tap-density measurements and our results are consistent for both, simple and oscillatory shear tests. We integrate our rheological findings of yield strength, strain and strain rate dependent melt rheology to evaluate crystalline magma dynamics.

Moitra, P.; Gonnermann, H. M.

2012-12-01

152

Stellar yields for chemical evolution modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar yields are a key ingredient in chemical evolution models. Stars with masses as low as 0.9M?, which have an age less than that of our Galaxy at low metallicity, can contribute to the chemical evolution of elements. Stars less than about 8-10M? experience recurrent mixing events that can significantly change the surface composition of the envelope. Evolved stars are observed with surface enrichment in carbon, nitrogen, fluorine, and heavy elements synthesized by the slow neutron capture process (the s-process). These stars release their nucleosynthesis products through stellar outflows or winds, in contrast to massive stars that explode as core-collapse supernovae. Here I review stellar yields for stars up to 10M?, including a brief discussion of their uncertainties and shortcomings. Finally, I discuss efforts by various groups to address these issues and to provide homogeneous yields for low and intermediate-mass stars covering a broad range of metallicities.

Karakas, Amanda I.

2014-01-01

153

Finding Your Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers ways on how to find a voice when telling or sharing stories in print or in person. To find a voice, someone must: (1) Trust themselves; (2) Trust their audience whether they know they can trust them or not; (3) Be respectful in their inventions; (4) Listen to and read the stories of others; (5) Make mistakes; (6)…

Neugebauer, Bonnie

2008-01-01

154

Systems for finding people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding a previously unknown person with the skills and knowledge to answer a question or perhaps to collaborate with is an effective use of a computer?mediated communication (CMC) system. This article discusses two aspects of systems for finding people, system architectures, and organizational implications.The architectures considered are special interest groups, centralized servers, and decentralized systems. The organizational implications are the

1992-01-01

155

Exact significance test for Markov order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an exact significance test of the null hypothesis that a Markov chain is nth order. The procedure utilizes surrogate data to yield an exact test statistic distribution valid for any sample size. Surrogate data are generated using a novel algorithm that guarantees, per shot, a uniform sampling from the set of sequences that exactly match the nth order properties of the observed data. Using the test, the Markov order of Tel Aviv rainfall data is examined.

Pethel, S. D.; Hahs, D. W.

2014-02-01

156

Effect of Climate-Induced Change in Crop Yields on Emigration: The Case of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers have suggested several channels through which future global warming could trigger mass migration across country borders. This paper examines one of them by focusing on the effect of climate- induced crop failures on out-migration. Using data from Mexico, we identify and estimate elasticity of emigration with respect to changes in crop yield, which sheds light on the possible magnitudes of migrant flows for other areas of the world under different climate change scenarios. We choose Mexico as the study object as it is by far the largest migrant-sending country, with an estimated number of emigrants living in the United States to be well over 10 million. In addition, over 20% of Mexico population directly relies on the agricultural sector, which is heavily dependent on climate. For example, the prolonged drought from 1996 to 1998 in northern Mexico resulted in mass crop failures and the death of livestock. Historically, farmers have been using emigration as an adaptation strategy to cope with crop yield reductions. We first examine the relationship between corn yields and climate variables for the period of 1980-2000, using state-level data. We find significant positive effects of annual precipitation and annual average temperature, but a negative effect of summer temperature on corn yields. The effects of both annual and summer temperatures are also nonlinear. Our analyses of other crops such as wheat yield very similar results. Using Mexico Census micro data, we calculate the number of emigrants from each state for the periods of 1990-1995 and 1995-2000. We then regress changes in the number of emigrants on changes in crop yields, instrumented by changes in temperatures and precipitation. Our preferred specification gives an elasticity of -4, which suggests that a 25% reduction in crop yields would double the number of emigrants. The null hypothesis of no effect is rejected at the 5% significance level.

Oppenheimer, M.; Krueger, A. B.; Feng, S.

2009-05-01

157

Methane yield of oat husks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogas yield of solid manure from dairy cattle depends on its quality and the proportion of excreta and organic litter material contained within. The biogas yield of both faeces and straw is available in literature. Straw is a common litter material of mixed farms. However, straw is scarcely available on dairy farms. Oat husks are appropriate to replace or supplement straw

Sigrid Kusch; Britt Schumacher; Hans Oechsner; Winfried Schäfer

2011-01-01

158

Plastic Yielding at Crack Tips.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small scale plastic yielding at crack tips is studied by means of nonlocal elasticity. Plastic lines along the crack line of Mode III crack are modelled by an array of dislocations. It is shown that plastic yield begins after a definite value of load, as ...

S. B. Altan A. C. Eringen

1988-01-01

159

A significant improvement of both yield and purity during SWCNT synthesis via the electric arc process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the optimisation of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesis by the electric arc technique using so-called heterogeneous anodes filled with Ni and Y catalysts along with either graphite (large-grain or small-grain) or diamond powders. The various carbon nanophases produced were analyzed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Plasma physical properties were determined by emission spectroscopy and

A. Mansour; M. Razafinimanana; M. Monthioux; M. Pacheco; A. Gleizes

2007-01-01

160

Ocean wave energy conversion: inexpensive energy source yields significant results through simple methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumatic ocean wave energy conversion has been in existence since the early twentieth century. In pneumatic wave energy conversion, internal water motions are excited by the external water wave. Depending on the volume of water in the capture chamber, resonance with the external wave may occur. That is, the natural frequency of the rising and falling internal water column may

1986-01-01

161

Particle mass yield from ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of second-generation products on the particle mass yield of ?-caryophyllene ozonolysis was systematically tested and quantified. The approach was to vary the relative concentrations of first- and second-generation products by adjusting the concentration of ozone while observing changes in particle mass yield. For all wall-loss corrected organic particle mass concentrations Morg of this study (0.5 < Morg < 230 ?g m-3), the data show that the particle-phase organic material was composed for the most part of second-generation products. For 0.5< Morg < 10 ?g m-3, a range which overlaps with atmospheric concentrations, the particle mass yield was 10 to 20% and was not sensitive to ozone exposure, implying that the constituent molecules were rapidly produced at all investigated ozone exposures. In contrast, for Morg > 10 ?g m-3 the particle mass yield increased to as high as 70% for the ultimate yield corresponding to the greatest ozone exposures. These differing dependencies on ozone exposure under different regimes of Morg are explained by a combination of the ozonolysis lifetimes of the first-generation products and the volatility distribution of the resulting second-generation products. First-generation products that have short lifetimes produce low-volatility second-generation products whereas first-generation products that have long lifetimes produce high-volatility second-generation products. The ultimate particle mass yield was defined by mass-based stoichiometric yields ?i of ?0 = 0.17 ± 0.05, ?1 = 0.11 ± 0.17, and ?2 = 1.03 ± 0.30 for corresponding saturation concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ?g m-3. Terms ?0 and ?1 had low sensitivity to the investigated range of ozone exposure whereas term ?2 increased from 0.32 ± 0.13 to 1.03 ± 0.30 as the ozone exposure was increased. These findings potentially allow for simplified yet accurate parameterizations in air quality and climate models that seek to represent the ozonolysis particle mass yields of certain classes of biogenic compounds.

Chen, Q.; Li, Y. L.; McKinney, K. A.; Kuwata, M.; Martin, S. T.

2012-04-01

162

What does the yield curve tell us about GDP growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot, including a few things you may not expect. Previous studies find that the term spread forecasts GDP but these regressions are unconstrained and do not model regressor endogeneity. We build a dynamic model for GDP growth and yields that completely characterizes expectations of GDP. The model does not permit arbitrage. Contrary to previous findings, we predict that the

Andrew Ang; Monika Piazzesi; Min Wei

2006-01-01

163

Find a Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Find the locations of NCI-designated cancer centers by area, region, state, or name that includes contact information to help health care providers and cancer patients with referrals to clinical trials.

164

Find an Orthopaedist  

MedlinePLUS

... not appear in Find an Orthopaedist. About the AAOS AAOS Strategic Plan Membership Data Board of Directors ... Contacts Careers AAOS Staff Opportunities Physician Job Placement AAOS Policies AAOS Policies Newsroom Press Releases Public Service ...

165

Finding Dental Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Repayment Programs NIH Loan Repayment Programs Finding Dental Care NIDCR leads the nation in conducting and supporting ... the care you need. Does NIDCR provide dental care? No, NIDCR does not provide dental care or ...

166

Find Out Why  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find Out Why is the flagship publication of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Science and Engineering Outreach Programs. Each issue asks a question that is shaped around children's interests and explores questions of science, engineering,

Kenney, Mike

2000-02-01

167

Find a Dentist  

MedlinePLUS

... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Monday, July 14, 2014 About | Contact Find an ... more. Disclaimer of Liabilities The Academy of General Dentistry's (AGD) Web site provides a listing of members ...

168

Can you find it?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can you find where events in the Bible and Church History actually happened? You will need your scriptures for this activity. Preferably with a partner, but if not, by yourself, pick your two most favorite events from the Bible or from Church history. Look them up in the scriptures or, if it\\'s an event from Church history go here Church History in the Fulness of Times. Find ...

Brothom

2005-12-01

169

Acid rain and seed yields reductions in corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yields were significantly reduced on corn (Zea mays L.) plants where the silks had been exposed to an episode of simulated acid rain at pH 3.6 as compared with yields on plants with silks exposed to simulated rain of pH 5.6. The reduction in yield appeared related to a decrease in pollen germination and tube elongation associated with acidic

L. E. Craker; P. F. Waldron

2009-01-01

170

Historical Weather Conditions and Maize Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projections of maize crops response to climate based on empirical models generally show a negative response to warmer temperatures. These models typically use monthly averages of temperature or assume that the response to a high frequency warming event is independent of when it occurs in the growing season. Biophysical modeling and experimental studies indicate that crop yields are dependent on high frequency warming events and that the timing of the event can also play a significant role in crop development. This research looks to the historical record of maize yields in the United States paired with daily station data to categorize high, low, and normal yield years with the particular high frequency patterns in maximum and minimum temperature as well as precipitation that led to such yields. A multiple linear regression model is used with these patterns to predict yields. These results expand on prior empirical modeling by incorporating high frequency temporal sensitivity into the regression model. The United States is the training region for the model because of high quality weather station and crop data. The weather data are taken from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and provide daily records of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation at 1218 sites across the lower 48 states, with some records extending into the mid-19th century. The United States Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS) provides data on maize yields at the county level back to 1910, and provides state level planting and harvest time data back to 1981, at it's peak maize was produced in 2821 counties offering a wide range of different climates. The study is limited by restricting itself to the United States and maize, but could provide the basis for similar studies on a wider range of crops, geographic regions and future projections of climate change.

Butler, E.; Huybers, P.

2010-12-01

171

Observation of B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}and evidence for B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}at Belle  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}and B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}decays in a data sample of 657x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We find 446{sub -56}{sup +58} B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}events with a significance of 8.1 standard deviations, and 146{sub -41}{sup +42} B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}events with a significance of 3.5 standard deviations. The latter signal provides the first evidence for this decay mode. The measured branching fractions are B(B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}})=(2.12{sub -0.27}{sup +0.28}(stat){+-}0.29(syst))% and B(B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}})=(0.77{+-}0.22(stat){+-}0.12(syst))%.

Bozek, A.; Rozanska, M.; Kapusta, P.; Matyja, A.; Ostrowicz, W.; Stypula, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Adachi, I.; Higuchi, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.; Sakai, Y.; Schuemann, J.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

2010-10-01

172

Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

2013-12-01

173

Effect of agricultural drought on wheat yields in two selected districts located in the Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Except for some areas located in Southern Moravia, the Czech Republic is not usually considered as an agricultural drought vulnerable area. This contribution presents an analysis of drought spells influence on wheat yields in two districts (located in the inner part of Bohemia) where a significant relation between yields and drought was found. Due to high spatial variability of drought, relatively small scale of district was selected. For the influence of drought on yields assessment, the following five indexes were tested: 1) Palmer Z-index, 2) precipitation-temperature ratio (P-T index), 3) precipitation-evapotranspiration ratio (P-E index), 4) soil storage calculated using hydrological balance model BILAN, and 5) available soil water for plants calculated using another simple balance model. For analysis of drought spells and yield relationship, different aggregation periods of input parameters were used for calculations of these indexes. According to observed data analysis, yields of wheat and the tested drought indexes are significantly correlated (p ? 0.05) in districts Louny and Rakovník. The highest correlations were found for monthly sums of P-T and P-E indexes in May in periods 1970-1980 and 1996 -2006. For these indexes, two-week step data aggregation led to lower correlation than monthly aggregation step. Two-week aggregations show also high values of correlation. Simply P-E and P-T indexes exhibit higher correlations with yields than other tested indexes. More complicated Palmer Z-index, soil storage or available soil water for plant need more input parameters for calculations and these indexes contain higher uncertainty in calculations. Despite the above findings, all tested indexes (usually calculated for May aggregations) showed high correlations with wheat yields. The P-E and P-T indexes in monthly step seem to be appropriate for the prediction of the potentially reduced wheat yields in tested districts. Maximum year-on-year decrease in wheat yield (probably caused primarily by drought in May) was approx. 1000 kg.ha-1 (decrease of 26 %) in Rakovník district (year 1976); and approx. 1300 kg.ha-1(decrease of 36 %), resp. 1550 kg.ha-1(39 %) in Louny district in 1976, resp. 1998. The research is supported by the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, project No. VG20102014038. Keywords: Available soil water, Central part of Bohemia, different drought indexes, decrease in crop yields, risk analysis

Ja?ka, Lukáš; Pavlásek, Jirka; Bašta, Petr

2014-05-01

174

Slifer Measurement for Explosive Yield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests. (ERA citation 01:017194)

B. C. Benjamin D. R. Breding H. M. Miller R. C. Bass

1976-01-01

175

Multiaxial yield behaviour of polypropylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to characterize the yield behavior of polypropylene as a function of pressure and to verify the applicability of the Drucker-Prager yield function, various tests were conducted to cover a wide range of stress states from uniaxial tension and compression to multiaxial tension and confined compression. Tests were performed below and above the glass transition temperature, to study the combined effect of pressure and temperature. The pressure sensitivity coefficient as an intrinsic material parameter was determined as a function of temperature. Increasing pressure sensitivity values were found with increasing temperature, which can be related to the change in the free volume and thus, to the enhanced molecular mobility. A best-fit Drucker-Prager yield function was applied to the experimental yield stresses and an average error between the predictions and the measurements of 7 % was obtained.

Jerabek, M.; Tscharnuter, D.; Major, Z.; Ravi-Chandar, K.; Lang, R.

2010-06-01

176

Pyramidal yield criteria for epoxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile, compressive and shear yield strengths of two epoxides were measured under superposed hydrostatic pressure extending to 300 MN m-2. For both materials, the ratio of the moduli of the tensile,sT, to compressive,sC, yield stress at atmospheric pressure was approximately 3:4, as has been reported previously for a number of thermoplastics. Thes2=s3 envelope in stress space was plotted according

A. S. Wronski; M. Pick

1977-01-01

177

Dawn: Find a Meteorite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the importance of meteorites to the understanding of the origin of the Solar System. Learners will use a key to determine if samples are meteorites. Finding meteorites can be difficult because most meteorites look like Earth rocks to the casual or untrained eye. Even to the trained eye, recognizing meteorites can be difficult. Since scientists believe that some meteorites are pieces of the asteroid Vesta, they may be very old remnants of the solar system in its earliest stages. This activity provides information and insight that allows participants to share scientists' expectations, based on meteoritic samples, of what we will find when the NASA's Dawn Mission visits Vesta and Ceres.

178

Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Binding Activities and Spear Yield of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

2014-06-01

179

Finding Their Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every time Dr. Larry Shinagawa teaches his "Introduction to Asian American Studies" course at the University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, he finds that 10 to 20 percent of his students are adoptees. Among other things, they hunger to better comprehend the social and political circumstances overseas leading to their adoption. In response, UMD…

Lum, Lydia

2009-01-01

180

Find International Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Find International Clinical Trials Search for Clinical TrialsSearch NCI's list of 8,000+ clinical trials now accepting participants, or use more search options to search the set of 19,000+ clinical trials that are no longer recruiting. Search Tip:The

181

Everybody Find a Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, younger students will learn to recognize the properties of selected rocks. After participating in a read-aloud, the students will examine a variety of polished rocks, and take a walk outside to find their own rocks. As a closure activity, they are directed to explore other unique rocks at home and bring them in for class discussion and sorting.

182

Finding Monster Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students learn about the varying sizes of ocean waves, what causes the variation, and where to find giant waves. Students will learn the parts of a wave, and discuss wave height, wavelength, and wave period. They will experiment with creating waves on the National Geographic Wave Simulator and discuss how geography affects waves.

183

Finding the Sweet Spot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will discover how to find the "sweet spots" on a baseball bat. Whenever an object is struck, it vibrates in response. These vibrations travel in waves up and down the length of the object. At one point, called "the node," the waves always cancel each other out. The "sweet spot" is actually a node!

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

184

Find far fish fast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science author Nicholas Makris from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology helped to create the new fish finding tool. He says that the fish finder will help scientists better understand how fish behave. It will also let scientists calculate the number of fish in different parts of the ocean â a task that is incredibly difficult using current methods for fish counting.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2006-02-02

185

Finding out about Maps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on how and where to find maps and discusses the options that are open to geography students in terms of access to maps and spatial data sets, such as buying printed maps and downloading maps from the Internet. Addresses copyright and permission issues along with the citation of maps. (CMK)

Parry, Bob

1999-01-01

186

Find A Grave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for genealogical information about long deceased relatives can often prove to be troubling and at times expensive, to say nothing of locating where they might be buried in order to pay your respects. Find a Grave is an excellent way to locate the burial places of family and friends, and it is completely free of charge. From their site, visitors can search for the graves of relatives and ancestors by typing in their surname, which will allow the search engine to query over 3.8 million burial records. Additionally, visitors can search through different cemeteries and make their own contributions to the Web site about family members and other loved ones. Along with making contributions to the site's database (a prime reason that the site has so many burial records), visitors make join discussion forums or share their success stories about locating burial sites and so on. For visitors looking to find the burial place of a famous individual, Find A Grave has another massive database, searchable by name, location, and date, with many of the entries containing a photograph of the famous individual and some brief biographical information. While the subject of death is a rather emotive and personal one, Find A Grave has done a fine job of providing an important information source for many individuals, attested to by the many success stories posted on the site.

2000-01-01

187

Finding People by Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how to use a sampling method to find sparsely clad people in static images. People are modeled as an as- sembly of nine cylindrical segments. Segments are found us- ing an EM algorithm, and then assembled into hypotheses incrementally, using a learned likelihood model. Each as- sembly step passes on a set of samples of its likelihood to

Sergey Ioffe; David A. Forsyth

1999-01-01

188

Density Gradient Centrifugation Compromises Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Yield  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) are widely used in regenerative medicine, but recent data suggests that the isolation of BMNCs by commonly used Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation (DGC) causes significant cell loss and influences graft function. The objective of this study was to determine in an animal study whether and how Ficoll-Paque DGC affects the yield and composition of BMNCs compared to alternative isolation methods such as adjusted Percoll DGC or immunomagnetic separation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Each isolation procedure was confounded by a significant loss of BMNCs that was maximal after Ficoll-Paque DGC, moderate after adjusted Percoll DGC and least after immunomagnetic PMN depletion (25.6±5.8%, 51.5±2.3 and 72.3±6.7% recovery of total BMNCs in lysed bone marrow). Interestingly, proportions of BMNC subpopulations resembled those of lysed bone marrow indicating symmetric BMNC loss independent from the isolation protocol. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) content, determined by colony-forming units for granulocytes-macrophages (CFU-GM), was significantly reduced after Ficoll-Paque DGC compared to Percoll DGC and immunomagnetic PMN depletion. Finally, in a proof-of-concept study, we successfully applied the protocol for BMNC isolation by immunodepletion to fresh human bone marrow aspirates. Our findings indicate that the common method to isolate BMNCs in both preclinical and clinical research can be considerably improved by replacing Ficoll-Paque DGC with adapted Percoll DGC, or particularly by immunodepletion of PMNs.

Frohlich, Wenke; Schulz, Isabell

2012-01-01

189

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Western's Hoover Dam Bypass Project Phase II (Double-Circuiting a Portion of the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead No.1 230-kV Transmission Line, Clark County, Nevada)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Highway 93 (U.S. 93) Hoover Dam Bypass Project calls for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Western Area Power Administration (Western) to remove its Arizona and Nevada (A&N) Switchyard. As a result of this action, Western must reconfigure its existing electrical transmission system in the Hoover Dam area. Western proposes to double-circuit a portion of the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead No.1 Transmission Line (see Figure 1-1). Double-circuiting is the placement of two separate electrical circuits, typically in the form of three separate conductors or bundles of conductors, on the same set of transmission line structures. The old Henderson-Hoover 230-kV Transmission Line would become the new Henderson-Mead No.1 and would extend approximately eight miles to connect with the Mead Substation. Western owns, operates, and maintains the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7, and Henderson-Hoover electrical power transmission lines. Additionally, approximately 0.25 miles of new right-of-way (ROW) would be needed for the Henderson-Mead No.1 when it transfers from double-circuiting with the Hoover-Mead No.7 to the Hoover-Mead No.5 at the Boulder City Tap. The proposed project would also involve a new transmission line ROW and structures where the Henderson-Mead No.1 will split from the Hoover-Mead No.5 and enter the northeast corner of the Mead Substation. Lastly, Western has proposed adding fiber optic overhead ground wire from the Hoover Power Plant to the Mead Substation on to the Henderson-Mead No.1, Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 Transmission Lines. The proposed project includes replacing existing transmission line tower structures, installing new structures, and adding new electrical conductors and fiber optic cables. As a consequence of these activities, ground disturbance may result from grading areas for structure placement, constructing new roads, improving existing roads for vehicle and equipment access, and from installing structures, conductors, and fiber optic cables. Project construction activities would be conducted within the existing 200-foot transmission line ROW and 50-foot access road ROW, although new spur access roads could occur outside of existing ROWs. As lead Federal agency for this action under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Western must ensure that adverse environmental effects on Federal and non-Federal lands and resources are avoided or minimized. This Environmental Assessment (EA) is intended to be a concise public document that assesses the probable and known impacts to the environment from Western's Proposed Action and alternatives, and reaches a conclusion about the significance of the impacts. This EA was prepared in compliance with NEPA regulations published by the Council on Environmental Quality (40 CFR 1500-1508) and implementing procedures of the Department of Energy (10 CFR 1021).

N /A

2003-10-27

190

Corn Yield Prediction Using Climatology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of car growth and the beginning of grain fill.The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme.

Duchon, Claude E.

1986-05-01

191

Increasing crude tall oil yield  

SciTech Connect

In the kraft pulping process for softwoods and hardwood, tall oil recovery is an important part of making profit. During the past 10 years, crude tall oil (CTO) production in the U.S. and Canada has dropped. Estimated CTO yield from fresh Canadian pine is 36-40 lb/a.d. ton and from Southern U.S. 70-80 lb/a.d. ton, while the average yield of CTO is approximately 40% of available tall oil in pine wood. Besides low yield, many pulp mills fail to achieve a CTO quality that lives up to market expectations. The moisture content of CTO is reported to vary widely (1.5-3.5%), whereas it should not exceed 1.5% for marketable quality. The acid number of CTO varies in the range of 135 to 150, whereas industry standards are 145-150. At present the average sale price of CTO is approximately $150/ton. By upgrading existing plants, the yield can be increased, resulting in additional revenues. Thus, if a batch acidulation plant is replaced by a continuous acidulation plant, the yield will increase by approximately 15-50%. The capital required for installing a continuous system is approximately $1.1-1.5 million for a 500-a.d. ton/day pulp mill, requiring a payback period of approximatley 5-7 years. 7 references.

Gupta, J.

1983-10-01

192

Relationship of spectral data to grain yield variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-band hand-held radiometer data from a winter wheat field, collected on 21 dates during the spring growing season, were correlated with within-field final grain yield. Significant linear relationships were found between various combinations of the red and photographic infrared radiance data collected and the grain yield. The spectral data explained about 64 percent of the within-field grain yield variation. This variation in grain yield could not be explained using meteorological data as these were similar for all areas of the wheat field. Most importantly, data collected early in the spring were highly correlated with grain yield, a five-week time window existed from stem elongation through anthesis in which the spectral data were most highly correlated with grain yield, and manifestations of wheat canopy water stress were readily apparent in the spectral data.

Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

1980-01-01

193

Find That Planet!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use internet resources to learn about celestial coordinates, and how to use an emphemeris to locate planets on a horizon sky map. The sky maps are then used for outdoor observing. A more advanced application has students draw maps in celestial coordinates. They first learn about the celestial coordinate system astronomers use and then they generate a position, or ephemeris, for a planet at a certain time on a certain night and plot that position on an appropriate sky map. While engaged in this activity, students will learn to use star maps for finding a planet, plot a planet path on star maps with coordinate grids, and be able to find out when a planet is visible.

194

Find Arc Degree Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will introduce central angles, arcs of circles, congruent circles, and congruent arcs. Note taking time! Find the definition of a central angle, minor arc, major arc,semicircle, measure of a minor arc, and measure of a major arc from page 659 of your text from Class Zone: Class Zone Geometry Textbook Check your answers in the following links: Angles in Circles Arcs in Circles Now take notes from page 660 in your text from Class Zone ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-08

195

Finding your next CEO.  

PubMed

Hospital CEOs spend an average of just six years at one organization, and the cost of turnover is high. Finding executives to fill that top spot is more complicated thanks to a jittery economy, job candidates' worries about selling their homes and other issues. That's prompting hospitals to be more flexible in their recruitment efforts: considering older candidates, reviving succession planning, and even buying and selling CEOs' houses. PMID:19209500

Thrall, Terese Hudson

2008-12-01

196

Maximizing DNA yield for epidemiologic studies: no more buffy coats?  

PubMed

Some molecular analyses require microgram quantities of DNA, yet many epidemiologic studies preserve only the buffy coat. In Frederick, Maryland, in 2010, we estimated DNA yields from 5 mL of whole blood and from equivalent amounts of all-cell-pellet (ACP) fraction, buffy coat, and residual blood cells from fresh blood (n = 10 volunteers) and from both fresh and frozen blood (n = 10). We extracted DNA with the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, Maryland) for silica spin column capture and measured double-stranded DNA. Yields from frozen blood fractions were not statistically significantly different from those obtained from fresh fractions. ACP fractions yielded 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 66, 97) of the yield of frozen whole blood and 99.3% (95% confidence interval: 86, 100) of the yield of fresh blood. Frozen buffy coat and residual blood cells each yielded only half as much DNA as frozen ACP, and the yields were more variable. Assuming that DNA yield and quality from frozen ACP are stable, we recommend freezing plasma and ACP. Not only does ACP yield twice as much DNA as buffy coat but it is easier to process, and its yield is less variable from person to person. Long-term stability studies are needed. If one wishes to separate buffy coat before freezing, one should also save the residual blood cell fraction, which contains just as much DNA. PMID:23857774

Gail, Mitchell H; Sheehy, Tim; Cosentino, Mark; Pee, David; Diaz-Mayoral, Norma A; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Caporaso, Neil E; Pitt, Karen; Ziegler, Regina G

2013-10-01

197

Yield and utility of routine postoperative imaging after resection of brain metastases.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) is routinely performed after resection of brain metastases (BrM), regardless of whether there are specific clinical concerns about residual tumor or potential complications. Routine imaging studies contribute a significant amount to the cost of medical care, and their yield and utility are unknown. An IRB-approved retrospective chart review study was performed to analyze all craniotomies for BrM performed at our institution from 2005 to 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to quantify the yield of postoperative imaging. 218 consecutive patients underwent 226 craniotomies for BrM. In 21 cases, new or worsened neurologic deficits occurred after surgery (9.0 %), and 19 of the 21 underwent postoperative imaging. 9 of the 19 patients (47 %) had significant findings on postoperative imaging, and 2 patients required reoperation. 201 patients had no new neurologic deficits (91 %), and 23 of these patients had no postoperative imaging. Of the 178 remaining patients, 160 underwent postoperative MRI and 18 underwent postoperative CT. 9 patients (5.1 %) had unexpected adverse imaging findings; 6 had small stroke, 1 had a subdural hemorrhage and 2 had possible or definite venous sinus occlusion. None of the imaging findings led to changes in management. 182 patients underwent imaging appropriate to detect residual tumor (177 gadolinium enhanced MRI and 5 contrast enhanced CT). Of these patients, 16 were known to have small residual tumors based on intraoperative findings. Of the remaining 166 patients felt to have had gross total tumor resection, 9 (5.4 %) were found to have a small amount of residual tumor on postoperative imaging; no patient had a change in treatment plan as a result. Routine postoperative imaging in patients undergoing craniotomy for BrM has a very low yield and may not be appropriate in the absence of new neurologic deficits, or specific clinical concerns about large amounts of residual tumor or intraoperative complications. PMID:24736830

Benveniste, Ronald J; Ferraro, Nicholas; Tsimpas, Asterios

2014-06-01

198

Sediment Yields and Sediment Sources in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine-grained sediment is having an adverse effect on the living resources and habitat of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. In order to reduce sediment inputs to the Bay, it is necessary to quantify erosion rates and sediment yields and identify the significant sources of fine-grained sediment. Sediment sources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed were identified using different methods at several scales. At the Chesapeake Bay scale (165,800 km2), U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment data collected from 1985 through 2001 for 35 stations showed that 4 of the 6 highest sediment yields were in the Conestoga River Basin, Pennsylvania, which drains to the Susquehanna River. In the Susquehanna River Basin (70,190 km2), erosion rates were determined using atmospheric 10Be at 92 river outlets and confirmed that the highest rates of erosion were in the Conestoga River Basin. In three small watersheds draining to the Chesapeake Bay -- the Pocomoke River (157 km2), Little Conestoga Creek (109 km2), and Mattawoman Creek (142 km2) -- sediment sources were identified using a sediment-fingerprinting approach. In this approach, the sources of fine-grained suspended sediment in transport can be established by comparing physical and chemical properties of the suspended sediment to potential sources. In this study, suspended sediment (< 0.062 mm) collected during storm runoff was compared to upland sediment sources (cropland, construction sites, and forest) and channel corridor sources (channel banks and bed) using radionuclides (210Pb, 137Cs), stable isotopes (13C, 15N), and total C, N, and P. Preliminary results are available for two of the three watersheds. In the Pocomoke River watershed, ditch beds which were dug to drain cropland are a significant source of sediment. In the Little Conestoga Creek watershed, river banks and cropland are significant sources Erosion rates for nine cropland sites in the Little Conestoga Creek watershed were also determined with 137Cs inventories and indicated an average rate of erosion of 16.4 tons/hectare/year, which is about 25 times the sediment yield of the Little Conestoga Creek (0.65 tons/hectare/year). This finding indicates substantial sediment storage in the watershed.

Gellis, A. C.; Landwehr, J. M.; Pavich, M. J.; Hupp, C. R.; Ritchie, J. C.; Reuter, J. M.

2005-12-01

199

Resistance of titanium diboride to high-temperature plastic yielding  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline TiB2 specimens of 3 microns average grain size but free of lamellar precipitates were compression-tested to 1900/sup 0/C and 500 MPa. No plastic yielding was detected. Under such conditions, most other structural ceramics do exhibit yield behavior. The results suggest the existence of a high Peierls stress, presumably related to Ti-B bonding. This finding contrasts with a report on ZrB2 in which resistance to yielding was attributed to lamellar precipitates. 13 references.

Ramberg, J.R.; Wolfe, C.F.; Williams, W.S.

1985-03-01

200

44Sc Isomeric Yield Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

44Sc isomeric yield ratios have been measured for the three reactions 45Sc(gamma,n)44Sc, 46Ti(gamma,np)44Sc, and 45Sc(n,2n)44Sc. Scandium oxide and titanium samples were irradiated with 48-MeV bremsstrahlung to obtain the photo-induced reactions. For the (n,2n) reaction 14-MeV neutrons were used. The yields of 44Sc in the ground and isomeric states were determined by the measurement of the residual gamma activity. A statistical-model

J. R. Tatarczuk; H. A. Medicus

1966-01-01

201

FISSION GAS YIELD IN URANIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield of xenon and krypton in irradiated uranium was found to vary ; with neutron flux from 4.8 cm³(STP)\\/cm³ uranium-atom percent burnup ; at 10¹² neut\\/cm²-sec to neut\\/cm²-sec as a result of neutron ; capture by the unstable isotopes Xe¹³³ and Xe¹³⁵. These results are ; applicable only to uranium irradiated in a thermal flux The fission gas yields

1962-01-01

202

42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings. 37.53...Roentgenograms § 37.53 Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings. (a...lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than...

2009-10-01

203

42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings. 37.53...Roentgenograms § 37.53 Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings. (a...lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than...

2010-10-01

204

Neutral top pion and the rare top decays t{yields}cl{sub i}l{sub j}  

SciTech Connect

We study the rare top decays t{yields}cl{sub i}l{sub j} (l={tau} , {mu}, or e) in the framework of topcolor-assisted technicolor (TC2) models. We find that the neutral top pion {pi}{sub t}{sup 0} can produce significant contributions to these processes via the flavor changing couplings {pi}{sub t}{sup 0}tc and {pi}{sub t}{sup 0}l{sub i}l{sub j}. For the {pi}{sub t}{sup 0} mass m{sub {pi}{sub t}}=150 GeV and the parameter {epsilon}=0.08, the branching ratio Br(t{yields}c{tau}{tau}) can reach 7.1x10{sup -7}. Taking into account the constraints of the present experimental limit of the process {mu}{yields}e{gamma} on the free parameters of TC2 models, we find that the value of Br(t{yields}c{tau}{mu}){approx_equal}Br(t{yields}c{tau}e) is in the range of 1.8x10{sup -10}-1.7x10{sup -8}.

Yue Chongxing; Wang Lei; Yu Dongqi [Department of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)

2004-09-01

205

Spirit, Too, Finds Hematite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These graphs, or spectra, shows evidence for the mineral hematite in the rock dubbed 'Pot of Gold,' located at Gusev Crater. The data was taken from the surface of the rock with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer on sols 161 and 163 (June 16 and 18, 2004). The top red line is the spectrum for Pot of Gold, and the bottom blue line is for a typical basaltic, or volcanic, rock in Gusev Crater. The two large peaks in the center represent non-hematite, iron-containing minerals, while the smaller set of six peaks (two are hidden in the larger peaks) in the top spectrum is the signature of hematite. Hematite, which is found on Earth, can be formed in three different ways: in standing water; in small amounts of hot fluids (hydrothermal processes); and in volcanic rock. Scientists are planning further observations of this and other rocks in the area, which they hope will yield more insight into the hematite's origins.

2004-01-01

206

Finding Space Weather Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about searching online data archives for solar wind events. Learners will find at least three episodes of increased solar wind activity impacting Earth using direct measurements of solar wind velocity and density. Then, they will characterize each events by its rise time, the time it takes for the solar wind speed to rise from normal levels to the peak speed of the event, and the percentage increase in solar wind velocity. This is Activity 11 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum.

207

Mineral find highlights cruise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy minerals with potential commercial value were discovered last month by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in seafloor deposits off the coasts of Virginia and Georgia. The USGS sent the research vessel J. W. Powell on a 25-day cruise along the East Coast to assess the concentrations of commercially important minerals in that segment of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).Assistant Secretary of the Interior Robert Broadbent called the findings of the Powell “promising” and said they served as a “reminder of just how little we do know about the seafloor resources just a few miles offshore.”

Katzoff, Judith A.

208

Observation of B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} at Belle  

SciTech Connect

We study charmless B{sup +} meson decays to the p{lambda}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final state using a 605 fb{sup -1} data sample collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. There are significant signals found with the p{lambda} mass peaking near threshold. The observed branching fraction for nonresonant B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is (5.92{sub -0.84}{sup +0.88}(stat){+-}0.69(syst))x10{sup -6} with a significance of 9.1 standard deviations. We also observe the intermediate three-body decay B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}{rho}{sup 0} with a branching fraction of (4.78{sub -0.64}{sup +0.67}(stat){+-}0.60(syst))x10{sup -6} and a significance of 9.5 standard deviations, and find a hint of a B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}f{sub 2}(1270) signal. No other intermediate three-body decay is found in this study.

Chen, P.; Wang, M.-Z.; Chang, P.; Hou, W.-S.; Shiu, J.-G.; Wei, J.-T. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Bakich, A. M.; McOnie, S.; Peak, L. S.; Varvell, K. E.; Yabsley, B. D. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Balagura, V.; Danilov, M.; Liventsev, D.; Mizuk, R.; Pakhlova, G.; Solovieva, E. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bhardwaj, V. [Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Bischofberger, M. [Nara Women's University, Nara (Japan)] (and others)

2009-12-01

209

75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 was...phase of HBPP Unit 3 decommissioning commenced. In 2010...of Humboldt Bay Power Plant Waste for Disposal at...for Humboldt Bay Power Plant. [ML102700555...Deputy Director, Decommissioning and Uranium...

2010-11-10

210

78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the context of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement...other government agencies with energy solutions in the most effective and efficient...of the analyses performed during the preparation of the EA, I conclude that the...

2013-03-21

211

76 FR 56820 - Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...50-341; NRC-2011-0215] Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2...License No. NPF-43, issued to Detroit Edison Company (the licensee...Proposed Action The proposed change increases the emergency plan...Specifically, the proposed change requests a revision to...

2011-09-14

212

76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...period to authorize Uranium One USA, Inc. to continue ISR operations...changed to Rosatom, Uranium One USA, Inc., a daughter company...10 CFR Part 20. Uranium One USA, Inc. maintains acceptable...ADAMS), which provides text and image files of NRC's public...

2011-07-14

213

78 FR 5514 - Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact for License Renewal for Uranium One USA, Inc., Willow Creek Uranium In-Situ...control of the license and Uranium One, USA, Inc. (Uranium One) became the licensee...System (ADAMS), which provides text and image files of NRC's public documents....

2013-01-25

214

78 FR 65607 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...land and real estate at the KSARC in Weslaco, Texas to the Texas A&M University System (TAMUS). The FONSI document is based...1001 Holleman Drive East, College Station, Texas 77840; Telephone: 979-260-9449;...

2013-11-01

215

75 FR 65294 - Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...associated with the Holland Cliff to Hewitt Road 230 kV Transmission proposal in Calvert...Station in Calvert County to the existing Hewitt Road Switching Station in St. Mary's...Calvert switching station to the existing Hewitt Road switching station; (4) the...

2010-10-22

216

75 FR 63519 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations at title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR...take place at the Erwin Town Hall in Erwin, Tennessee. For one...Meeting Location: Erwin Town Hall, 211 North Main, Avenue, Erwin...10-14-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

2010-10-15

217

Amplification of the RARA gene in acute myeloid leukemia: significant finding or coincidental observation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncogene amplification resulting in aberrant expression, although common in solid tumors, is rare in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is mostly associated with amplification of MYC, RUNX1, and MLL genes. Retinoic acid receptor ? (RARA) and other target sequences at 17p11.2 often represent the amplicons expressed in breast cancer, not in AML. We present a unique case of a 59-year-old

Anna D. Asleson; Vickie Morgan; Stephen Smith; Gopalrao V. N. Velagaleti

2010-01-01

218

Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

1996-08-01

219

Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the expansion of Naluabaale Dam in Uganda for the declining water level in the lake. However, Lake Victoria does not receive water from a large catchment area: most of its water comes from rain that falls directly over the huge surface of the lake. For this reason, climatic contributions cannot be ignored in the recent declining. This research aims at analyzing the contribution of rainfall over the lake area between the years 1998 and 2008. Least squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is applied on 400 cycles of TOPEX/Poseidon and 232 cycles of Jason1 altimeter data along with monthly TRMM data from 1998 to 2008 to reveal the specific frequencies. From our results, yearly, half-yearly and seasonal frequencies along with a long term frequency are clearly visible in the Lake Victoria level variations. Key words. Lake Victoria, Least Squares Spectral Analysis, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, TRMM

Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; van Loon, E. E.

2009-04-01

220

76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle (RLV) from the McGregor test site in McGregor, Texas. The...landing vehicle. The McGregor test site is located within the city...EA and FONSI on the FAA/AST Web site at http://www.faa...Grasshopper RLV from the McGregor test site in McGregor, Texas....

2011-11-18

221

75 FR 50036 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...licensing the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) which...Corporation's Cygnus Capsule and Space Exploration Technologies Corporation's Dragon...Specialist, Office of Commercial Space Transportation, Federal...

2010-08-16

222

77 FR 76050 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon...Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...concerning a genetically engineered (GE)...

2012-12-26

223

78 FR 10620 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon...Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...concerning a genetically engineered (GE)...

2013-02-14

224

SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS RELATED TO FORMATION OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS IN THE PRESENCE OF CHLORAMINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of the drinking water industry is to produce safe, potable water for its consumers at the lowest possible cost. As the definition of acceptable quality changes via federal regulations, many communities are experiencing difficulty in meeting the objective. Of...

225

Finding of No Significant Impact: Quartz Creek Fish Barrier, September 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The upper Quartz drainage is the only one of the ten major drainages of the Flathead River watershed in Glacier National Park that is altogether free of non-native fish species and contains the Columbia River population of bull trout (Salvelinus confluent...

2004-01-01

226

INFERRING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN FMRI: FINDING BRAIN REGIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT WITHIN SUBJECT CORRELATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies answer questions about activation effects in populations of subjects. To begin with, this involves appro- priate modeling of the fMRI data at the within-subject level. This is followed by extending the model to multiple subjects. There have been several attempts toward this extension, all of which have focused on inference on a single effect of

Sumitra Purkayastha; Tor D. Wager; Thomas E. Nichols

2008-01-01

227

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes – Statistical Significance Versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used toquantify the degree of practical significanceof study results. This paper gives anintroduction to the computation andinterpretation of effect sizes from theperspective of the consumer of the researchliterature. The key points made are:1. ES is a useful indicator of the practical(clinical) importance of research resultsthat can be operationally defined frombeing ``negligible'' to

Mohammadreza Hojat; Gang Xu

2004-01-01

228

78 FR 77722 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to an Alternative Disposal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...alternative disposal of soil and soil-like wastes at the US Ecology Idaho, Inc. (USEI) disposal facility located near Grand...WEC to transfer decommissioning waste from the facility to US Ecology Idaho, Inc. (USEI), a Resource Conservation and...

2013-12-24

229

76 FR 34273 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Special Nuclear Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...cultural resources; socioeconomics, environmental justice, and land use; floodplains and flood risk; seismic effects; climatology and meteorology; nuclear plant safety and security; radiological effects; radiological waste; and spent fuel...

2011-06-13

230

75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...30, 40, and 70; Commencement of Construction Requirements; AREVA Enrichment Services...for Exemption from Commencement of Construction Requirements...application from the ``commencement of construction'' provisions of Title 10 of the...

2010-03-16

231

78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the design criteria to contain flood flows and to comply with FEMA specifications...extend 888 feet along the river and existing flood plain to the current levees...would be 8 feet tall above the flood plain and require pilings to be driven...

2013-12-11

232

New mammographic stromal deformity: what is the significance of this finding on screening mammograms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practice within the NHS Breast Screening Programme recommends surgical excision of screen detected areas of stromal deformity as differentiating carcinomas from radial scars and excluding in situ malignancy in association with radial scars is unreliable. We retrospectively reviewed all cases recalled for assessment over a 4 year period, identified to have an area of persistent stromal deformity not associated

L. I. Haigh; J. C. Liston; P. J. Carder

2001-01-01

233

77 FR 77118 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and decomposed small animal carcasses. The radioactive isotopes used at the USDA facilities and disposed as radioactive waste...be put in place to control water inflow or runoff due to precipitation. [[Page 77120

2012-12-31

234

MD Anderson study finds tamoxifen causes significant side effects in male breast cancer patients:  

Cancer.gov

About half of male breast cancer patients who take the drug tamoxifen to prevent their disease from returning report side effects such as weight gain and sexual dysfunction, which prompts more than 20 percent of them to discontinue treatment, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

235

76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...tritium) and carbon-14 by incineration. The licensee also disposed of wastes containing phosphorus-32, sulfur-35, and iodine-125 via incinerator after the radioisotopes were allowed to decay in storage. The licensee's submittal included...

2011-04-08

236

78 FR 70529 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Availability for the...Impact (FONSI) for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2013-11-26

237

Finding of no significant impact resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0887, for the proposed thermal stabilization (controlled oxidation) of plutonium, to take place in Building 707, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. The stabilization ac...

1994-01-01

238

75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Arizona, which is necessary to effectively combat the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. The environmental assessment provides...and Arizona, which is necessary to effectively combat the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. In that notice, we stated...

2010-01-15

239

78 FR 21919 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement; therefore, one will not be prepared. An electronic version of the FNSI and PEA is available for download at http://aec.army.mil/usaec/nepa/topics00.html. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: (210) 466-1590 or...

2013-04-12

240

76 FR 60557 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Company, LLC, Hematite Decommissioning Project, Hematite, MO AGENCY...John J. Hayes, Senior Project Manager, Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery Licensing...Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental...

2011-09-29

241

76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Company, LLC, Hematite Decommissioning Project, License No. SNM-33...John J. Hayes, Senior Project Manager, Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery Licensing...Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental...

2011-10-24

242

76 FR 67229 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLC, Hematite Decommissioning Project. This action is...Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS...Hayes, Senior Project Manager, Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery...Division of Waste Management and...

2011-10-31

243

[Prognosis of traumatic spinal cord lesions. Significance of clinical and electrophysiological findings].  

PubMed

The clinical examination of patients with spinal cord injury can be supplemented by electrophysiological techniques (somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP), motor-evoked potentials (MEP), electroneurography) to assess the extent and severity of a spinal cord injury. As essential advantage of these techniques in comparison with the clinical examination is that they can be reliably applied even in uncooperative patients. These techniques allow an early prognosis of the functional deficit in patients with acute spinal cord injury. Recordings of tibial nerve SSEP and MEP of the anterior tibial muscle allow to predict the outcome of ambulatory capacity, while recordings of pudendal nerve SSEP allow prognosis of the bladder function to be assessed. In tetraplegic patients median and ulnar nerve SSEP and MEP of the abductor digiti minimi muscle can indicate the development of hand function. Electroneurography allows to differentiate between the proportion of peripheral and central nervous lesions underlying the muscle paresis. This is of prognostic value with regard to the development of muscle tone and consequently for planning therapy. The electrophysiological examinations are of complementary value in the diagnostic assessment of spinal cord lesions, in the prediction of functional outcome, and in monitoring the course of neurological deficits. This is helpful for planning and selection of appropriate therapeutic approaches (e.g. functional electrical stimulation, application of botulinum toxin, splinting procedures) within the rehabilitation programme. PMID:9312682

Curt, A; Dietz, V

1997-06-01

244

[Neurological diagnosis and prognosis: significance of neurophysiological findings in traumatic spinal cord lesions].  

PubMed

The clinical examination of patients with spinal cord injury can be supplemented by electrophysiological techniques (somatosensory evoked potentials [SSEP], motor evoked potentials [MEP], and electroneuromyographic recordings [ENMG]) to assess the extent and severity of a spinal cord injury. An essential advantage of these techniques in comparison with clinical examination is that they can also be reliably applied in uncooperative patients. These techniques allow early prognosis regarding the functional deficit in patients with acute spinal cord injury. Recordings of tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials of the anterior tibial muscle serve to predict the outcome of ambulatory capacity, and pudendal nerve somatosensory evoked potentials that of bladder function. In tetraplegic patients median and ulnar nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials of the abductor digiti min. muscle may indicate the outcome of hand function at an early stage. The electroneuromyographic recordings make it possible to differentiate between the proportion of peripheral and central nervous lesion underlying a muscle paresis. This is of prognostic value in regard to the development of muscle tone and consequently for planning of therapy. The electrophysiological examinations are of complementary value in the diagnostic assessment of spinal cord lesions, in the prediction of functional outcome, and in monitoring the course of neurological deficits. This is helpful for planning and selection of appropriate therapeutic approaches within the rehabilitation programme. PMID:10893751

Curt, A

2000-06-01

245

77 FR 25209 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption Request for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...September 18, 1986 (25 years), including cesium-137 sealed sources, model numbers 1862...Radiation Therapy Resources, Inc. The cesium-137 sealed sources are not approved...In this case, however, use of the cesium-137 sources predates the SSD...

2012-04-27

246

75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including the original reclamation plan for Tailings Ponds 1, 2, and 3 Disposal Cells...groundwater remediation. The expansion of Tailings Pond Disposal Cell 2 was approved by...indirect) were previously evaluated in the Tailings Pond 2 expansion EA completed in...

2010-10-15

247

75 FR 6067 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...license to terminate the use of the tailings impoundments for disposal, and WNI was required to submit a tailings reclamation plan. On December 1, 2008...2008.......... ML083380453 Tailings Facility Proposed Amendments to LC...

2010-02-05

248

Trinidad Rancheria Well Development Project, Trinidad, California. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the States Emergency Drought Relief Act of 1991 as amended (Public Law (P.L.) 109-234), the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is distributing $40 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (P.L. 111-5) to fund emergency drought...

2010-01-01

249

Venous Ultrasound Testing for Suspected Thrombosis: Incidence of Significant Non-Thrombotic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex ultrasound (US) is used to “rule out” deep venous thrombosis (DVT), but can also diagnose other causes of leg pain or swelling in Emergency Department (ED) patients. Recent literature suggests that US imaging is unnecessary among patients with low or moderate clinical probability of DVT with a normal D-dimer. We attempted to determine the incidence of clinically important incidental

Mark E. Sutter; Samuel D. Turnipseed; Deborah B. Diercks; Peter Samuel; Richard H. White

2009-01-01

250

Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

NONE

1996-04-01

251

Fleshy palmaris longus muscle - a cadaveric finding and its clinical significance: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Palmaris longus variations may include complete agenesis, variation in the location and form of the fleshy portion, aberrancy in attachment, duplication or triplication, accessory tendinous slips, replacing elements of similar form or position. Description of case: An anomalous palmaris longus muscle was found in the right upper extremity of a 63 year-old male cadaver. The muscle was totally fleshy without a long insertion tendon. Its origin was normal, the belly was rather broad and long, fusiform at the upper half and unipennate at the lower half of the forearm, and it was toggled into a short and thick tendon. At its insertion the tendon was split forming a second thinner tendon. The thick tendon was inserted into the flexor retinaculum and the thinner one into the palmar aponeurosis. The muscle compressed the median nerve although no related symptoms were reported on the cadaver's medical history. Discussion: This variation is of clinical importance because it may cause carpal tunnel syndrome or difficulties in image interpretation by radiologists. In addition the palmaris longus muscle is an anatomical landmark for operations at the forearm and wrist and its tendon can be used as a graft.

Natsis, K; Didagelos, M; Manoli, SM; Vlasis, K; Papathanasiou, E; Sofidis, G; Nerantzidou, X

2012-01-01

252

Fluid-electrolyte responses during prolonged space flight: A review and interpretation of significant findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most important results of the Skylab studies related to fluid-electrolyte regulation are summarized. These data are the starting point of a systems analysis to study adaptation to the weightlessness environment. A summary of the systems analysis study, including an interpretation of Skylab results, is included.

Leonard, J. I.

1985-01-01

253

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

254

Regressions by leaps and bounds and biased estimation techniques in yield modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. It was observed that OLS was not adequate as an estimation procedure when the independent or regressor variables were involved in multicollinearities. This was shown to cause the presence of small eigenvalues of the extended correlation matrix A'A. It was demonstrated that the biased estimation techniques and the all-possible subset regression could help in finding a suitable model for predicting yield. Latent root regression was an excellent tool that found how many predictive and nonpredictive multicollinearities there were.

Marquina, N. E. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

255

Scintillation efficiency and ionization yield of liquid xenon for monoenergetic nuclear recoils down to 4 keV  

SciTech Connect

Liquid xenon (LXe) is an excellent material for experiments designed to detect dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). A low energy detection threshold is essential for a sensitive WIMP search. The understanding of the relative scintillation efficiency (L{sub eff}) and ionization yield of low energy nuclear recoils in LXe is limited for energies below 10 keV. In this article, we present new measurements that extend the energy down to 4 keV, finding that L{sub eff} decreases with decreasing energy. We also measure the quenching of scintillation efficiency caused by the electric field in LXe, finding no significant field dependence.

Manzur, A.; Curioni, A.; Kastens, L.; McKinsey, D. N.; Ni, K.; Wongjirad, T. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2010-02-15

256

To Seek and Find.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains speeches by Celeste Ulrich, the 1976-77 president of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. There are six speeches on the significance and meaning of physical education, six speeches on sociocultural implications of sport and physical education, and three speeches on the future of athletics and…

Ulrich, Celeste

257

Effect of Planting Pattern on Growth and Yield of Tomato-Cowpea Intercrops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were conducted in 1998 and 1999 at Ondo, Nigeria, to determine the effect of planting patterns on growth and yield of tomato-cowpea in intercropping. Planting pattern affected vegetative growth and yields of both tomatoes and cowpeas significantly. Growth and grim yields of cowpea were significantly depressed in all the crop combinations especially when paired rows of tomato were

O. R. Adeniyi; C. T. Omotunde

2001-01-01

258

Automated yield forecasting in a high product mix ASIC facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield forecasting is a key component in running a successful semiconductor fab. It is also a significant challenge for facilities such as ASIC houses, which fabricate a wide range of devices using multiple technologies. Yield forecasting takes on increased significance in these environments, with new products introduced frequently and many products running only in small numbers. An accurate yield prediction system can greatly accelerate the process of identifying design bugs, test program issues and process integration problems. To this end, we have constructed a forecasting model geared for our ASIC manufacturing line. The model will accommodate an arbitrary number of design and/or process elements, each with an associated defectivity term. In addition, we have automated the generation of the yield forecast through passively linking to the already existing EDA design tools and scripts used by LSI Logic. Once the model is constructed, an automated query engine can extract the design and process parameters for any requested device, insert the data into the forecasting model, and deliver the resulting yield prediction. The actual yield for any lot or group of lots may thus be compared to the forecast, greatly assisting yield enhancement activities. This is especially useful for prototype lots and low-volume devices, for which it eliminates a great deal of manual computation and searching of design files. Using the model in conjunction with the query engine, any deviations from expected yield performance are generated automatically, quickly and efficiently highlighting opportunities for improvement.

Barber, Duane; Giewont, Mark; Hanson, Jeff; Shen, Jun

2005-05-01

259

Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.  

PubMed

In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. PMID:22932270

Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

2012-10-11

260

Estimating R-Process Yields from Abundances of the Metal-Poor Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars provide important clues to explore stellar formation history and set significant constraints on models of the r-process. In this work, we find that the abundance patterns of the light and iron group elements of the main r-process stars are very close to those of the weak r-process stars. Based on a detailed abundance comparison, we find that the weak r-process occurs in supernovae with a progenitor mass range of ˜11-26 M?. Using the SN yields given by Heger & Woosley and the abundances of the weak r-process stars, the weak r-process yields are derived. The SNe with a progenitor mass range of 15 M? < M < 26 M? are the main sites of the weak r-process, and their contributions are larger than 80%. Using the abundance ratios of the weak r-process and the main r-process in the solar system, the average yields of the main r-process are estimated. The observed correlations of [neutron-capture/Eu] versus [Eu/Fe] can be explained by mixing of the two r-process abundances in various fractions.

Li, Hongjie; Ma, Wenjuan; Cui, Wenyuan; Zhang, Bo

2014-06-01

261

Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield: Predicting the charge yield of solar cells incorporated into a PV powered consumer product under 3D-irradiation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an innovative method to simulate the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) cells under complex, three dimensional (3D) irradiation conditions by exploiting computer aided design (CAD) software functionality. This can significantly facilitate PV energy yield simulations, because CAD software offers powerful ray-tracing and rendering features of 3D objects and sceneries. The concept is demonstrated by simulating the charge yields

N. H. Reich; W. G. J. H. M. van Sark; A. H. M. E. Reinders; H. de Wit

2009-01-01

262

An evaluation of water-yield relations in maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha(-1) for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha(-1) for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m(-3), while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m(-3) in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity. PMID:18817120

Mengü, Gülay Pamuk; Ozgürel, Mustafa

2008-02-15

263

Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data*  

PubMed Central

One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies.

Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng

2008-01-01

264

Effect of available nutrients on yield and quality of pear fruit Bartlett in Kashmir Valley India.  

PubMed

Pear is one of the most important commercial crops grown in the Kashmir valley of India. A study was conducted during 2008 to find out the effect of available nutrients on yield and quality parameters of pear cultivar "Bartlett" which revealed that nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium exhibited significant and positive relationship with fruit length (0.882, 0.856, and 0.482 mm, respectively), diameter (0.869, 0.794 and 0.458 mm, respectively), weight (0.876, 0.825 and 0.439 g, respectively), volume (0.908, 0.806 and 0.404, Cm3 respectively) and yield (0.908, 0.764 and 0.702 kg tree(-1), respectively) however, only nitrogen and phosphorus showed similar relationship with total sugars (0.833 and 0.838% respectively). The calcium indicated significant and negative relationship with fruit diameter (-0.433) and yield (-0.589), while as it showed significant and positive correlation with fruit firmness (0.442) only. The sulphur revealed significant and positive relationship with fruit length (0.440), diameter (0.434), TSS (0.482) and yield (0.729) whereas zinc, copper, iron and manganese exhibited significant and positive relationship with fruit length (0.889, 793, 0.671 and 0.619, respectively), diameter (0.875, 0.807, 0.653 and 0.576, respectively) weight (0.881, 0.784, 0.669 and 0.615, respectively), volume (0.885, 0.832, 0.692 and 0.572, respectively) TSS (0.858, 0.761, 0.735 and 0.609, respectively), total sugars (0.853, 0.890, 0.705 and 0.517, respectively) and yield (0.777, 0.618, 0.789 and 0.701, respectively). It is therefore suggested that nutrients have effect on quality and yield of pear fruits. PMID:23741793

Dar, M A; Wani, J A; Raina, S K; Bhat, M Y; Dar, M A

2012-11-01

265

Variables associated with islet yield in autologous islet cell transplantation for chronic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The goal of total pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet cell transplantation is to manage pain and prevent surgical diabetes for patients with severe chronic pancreatitis. We performed this procedure in 17 patients from November 2006 to October 2009 at Baylor University Medical Center. All patients were included in this retrospective study and were divided into two groups based on islet yield in the final product based on patient body weight: a low-yield group (<5000 IE/kg) and a high-yield group (?5000 IE/kg). There were significant differences between the two groups in the rate of pancreatic findings on computed tomography (low vs high group, 88% vs 22%: P = 0.02), Cambridge classification score for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (3.8 ± 0.2 vs 2.1 ± 0.6: P = 0.03), number of positive endoscopic ultrasonography criteria (6.0 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.4: P = 0.04), and distension score (1.9 ± 0.4 vs 3.7 ± 0.2: P = 0.006). A significant reduction in narcotics use after the operation was observed in both groups (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009 in the low and high groups, respectively, using a paired t test). Excellent graft function and glycemic control after the transplantation were also demonstrated in both groups. Patients in the high-yield group were in the early stage of chronic pancreatitis, which led to excellent pancreatic distention for islet isolation; however, the excellent clinical outcomes were observed in both low- and high-yield groups.

Takita, Morihito; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Shimoda, Masayuki; Chujo, Daisuke; Itoh, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Koji; Onaca, Nicholas; Lamont, Jeffrey P.; Lara, Luis F.; Levy, Marlon F.

2010-01-01

266

Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

267

Finding a Niche  

PubMed Central

Although I always knew I wanted to be a scientist, I didn't know I would become a cell biologist. Events in life that you would never have predicted can greatly impact your career trajectory. I have learned to let those events take me in new directions. Following a desire to investigate an understudied area of cell biology, I have found a niche. In this area, my lab is poised to contribute significantly toward understanding the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying polarized plant cell growth.

2010-01-01

268

FindArticles.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new service is a partnership between LookSmart and the Gale Group, a publisher of research and reference materials for libraries, businesses, and information technologists. The site offers free access to the full-text of articles published in over 350 magazines and journals dating from 1998. Users can search the database by keyword and by one of the nine subject categories (Arts & Entertainment, Computers & Technology, Reference & Education, Sports, etc.). Search returns include article title, periodical, and short description, with a link to the full-text, which is conveniently and quickly displayed at the FindArticles site, though with numerous advertising banners. Visitors can also view a list of the publications indexed, alphabetically or by subject. Periodical listings include a one-sentence description and a link to their Website. Despite the banners and other commercial content (the bills must be paid, after all) this site is a very useful reference source, indexing many leading journals and magazines.

269

Finding the Next Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty years ago, we knew of no planets orbiting other Sun-like stars, yet today, the roll call is nearly 1,000 strong. Statistical studies of exoplanet populations are possible, and words like "habitable zone" are heard around the dinner table. Theorists are scrambling to explain not only the observed physical characteristics but also the orbital and dynamical properties of planetary systems. The taxonomy is diverse but still reflects the observational biases that dominate the detection surveys. We've yet to find another planet that looks anything like home. The scene changed dramatically with the launch of the Kepler spacecraft in 2009 to determine, via transit photometry, the fraction of stars harboring earth-size planets in or near the Habitable Zone of their parent star. Early catalog releases hint that nature makes small planets efficiently: over half of the sample of 2,300 planet candidates discovered in the first two years are smaller than 2.5 times the Earth's radius. I will describe Kepler's milestone discoveries and progress toward an exo-Earth census. Humankind's speculation about the existence of other worlds like our own has become a veritable quest.

Batalha, Natalie M.; Kepler Team

2013-01-01

270

P Values and Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

Hopkins, Will G.

2008-12-16

271

The Applet Collection: Significant Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet is a game designed to provide practice in significant figures for beginners. Users view a number and must determine the number of significant figures. Scores are automatically tallied, with short explanations given for incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of physics applets.

Bauer, Wolfgang

2009-08-10

272

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Significant Digits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers a tutorial on significant digits. The tutorial includes an introduction to significant digits, example problems, and a series of self-paced questions. This is part of series of tutorials on physics and mathematics used in physics classes.

2008-09-03

273

Adaptive Significance of Floral Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Darwin observed the reconfiguration of pollinia in orchards and referred to it as a function to reduce self-pollination, diverse floral movements have been investigated and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain their adaptive significance. However, adaptive significance of floral movement in some species has yet to be fully explained. Increasing evidence suggests that some floral movements, which have

Cheng-Jiang Ruan

2011-01-01

274

How significant is the 'significant other'? Associations between significant others' health behaviors and attitudes and young adults' health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status). This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n?=?1212). Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat???5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

2012-01-01

275

Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.  

PubMed

Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

2010-04-01

276

Stem Cells Yield Lab-Grown Skin, Researchers Say  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stem Cells Yield Lab-Grown Skin, Researchers Say Finding might ... April 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Skin Conditions Stem Cells FRIDAY, April 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Skin that ...

277

Writing usable qualitative health research findings.  

PubMed

Scholars in diverse health-related disciplines and specialty fields of practice routinely promote qualitative research as an essential component of intervention and implementation programs of research and of a comprehensive evidence base for practice. Remarkably little attention, however, has been paid to the most important element of qualitative studies--the findings in reports of those studies--and specifically to enhancing the accessibility and utilization value of these findings for diverse audiences of users. The findings in reports of qualitative health research are too often difficult to understand and even to find owing to the way they are presented. A basic strategy for enhancing the presentation of these findings is to translate them into thematic statements, which can then in turn be translated into the language of intervention and implementation. Writers of qualitative health research reports might consider these strategies better to showcase the significance and actionability of findings to a wider audience. PMID:22745362

Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer

2012-10-01

278

Organic aerosol yields from ?-pinene oxidation: bridging the gap between first-generation yields and aging chemistry.  

PubMed

Secondary organic aerosol formation from volatile precursors can be thought of as a succession of generations of reaction products. Here, we constrain first-generation SOA formation from the ?-pinene + OH reaction and also study SOA formation from ?-pinene ozonolysis carried out without an OH scavenger. SOA yields from OH oxidation of ?-pinene are significantly higher than SOA yields from ozonolysis including an OH scavenger, and the SOA mass yields for unscavenged ozonolysis generally fall within the range of mass yields for ?-pinene ozonolysis under various conditions. Taken together, first-generation product yields parametrized with a volatility basis set fit provide a starting point for atmospheric models designed to simulate both the production and subsequent aging of SOA from this important terpene. PMID:23088520

Henry, Kaytlin M; Lohaus, Theresa; Donahue, Neil M

2012-11-20

279

Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2002-01-01

280

Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

Simonia, I.

2011-06-01

281

SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

282

The Inclining Significance of Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of race is increasing, especially for middle class blacks who, because of school desegregation, affirmative action, and other integration programs are coming into direct contact with whites for the first time for extended interaction. (Author/AM)

Willie, Charles V.

1978-01-01

283

The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays  

SciTech Connect

The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

Achasov, N. N., E-mail: achasov@math.nsc.ru [Russina Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15

284

Finding biomedical categories in Medline®  

PubMed Central

Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

2012-01-01

285

Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

2012-01-01

286

FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON BABY CORN YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fertilizer application effect being studied to evaluate the quality, yield and yield components of baby corn was conducted at the TOP\\/AVRDC field of Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng San Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Its purpose was to evaluate the effect of third fertilizer application on yield and third ear yield of baby corn. Application of different chemical fertilizer as basal and

CHALERM MALASAM

287

Impact of Defoliation on Corn Forage Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

yield. Forage yield reductions from 75% defoliation at the 7- and 11-leaf stages averaged 6 and 23%, respec- Farmers, agronomists, and crop insurance adjusters question tively. The standard industry hail damage corn leaf loss whether leaf defoliation damage caused by hail or other factors affects corn (Zea mays L.) forage yield the same as grain yield. Our objective chart (National

J. G. Lauer; G. W. Roth; M. G. Bertram

2004-01-01

288

Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures  

PubMed Central

A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets.

Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

2013-01-01

289

Strategy and tools for yield enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview on yield enhancement in a semiconductor manufacturing environment. We discuss about the technical and strategic aspects of this field. On the technical side we deal with yield metrics definitions and yield analysis tools. The strategic side includes the work of quantifying and prioritize yield loss issues. Communication of yield to other organizations, that will be involved in the team work for the search of root cause identification and corrective and preventative action plans, is a key to a successful and sustained yield enhancement. The importance of moving from end-of-line yield enhancement standpoint to a more in-line view is also outlined.

Recio, Miguel

1999-04-01

290

How informative is a negative finding in a small pharmacogenetic study?  

PubMed Central

Many pharmacogenetic studies fail to yield any statistically significant associations. Such negative findings may be due to the absence of, or inadequate statistical power to test for, an effect at the genetic variants tested. In many instances, sample sizes are small, making it unclear how to interpret the absence of statistically significant findings. We demonstrate that the amount of information that can be drawn from a negative study is improved by incorporating statistical power and the added context of well-validated pharmacogenetic effects into the interpretation process. This approach permits clearer inferences to be made about the possible range of genetic effects that may be present in, or are likely absent from, small drug studies.

Bacanu, S-A; Whittaker, J C; Nelson, M R

2012-01-01

291

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-10-01

292

Crop diversity for yield increase.  

PubMed

Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand. PMID:19956624

Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

2009-01-01

293

Crop Diversity for Yield Increase  

PubMed Central

Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean – either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

2009-01-01

294

Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized ``rules'' on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value.1,2,3,4,5,6 And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Whyhave we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at the evolution of significant figures over the last 300 years, from Newton to Millikan to modern authors, sheds some light on their purpose moving forward. While there is much discussion for7,8 and against9,10 their use, especially in chemistry, a review of earlier versions of the rules suggests that we have lost some items of value, most notably, a significant figure rule for angles. In addition, we have lost the emphasis that the significant figure rules were designed to calculate an approximate (not exact) precision. Now that the significant figure rules are ingrained into our introductory physics sequence, we would be wise to reiterate that these are just general ``rules of thumb.''

Carter, Ashley R.

2013-09-01

295

Temporal associations between low body condition, lameness and milk yield in a UK dairy herd.  

PubMed

Previous work has hypothesised that cows in low body condition become lame. We tested this in a prospective longitudinal study. Body condition score (BCS), causes of lameness and milk yield were collected from a 600-cow herd over 44-months. Mixed effect binomial models and a continuous outcome model were used to investigate the associations between lameness, BCS and milk yield. In total, 14,320 risk periods were obtained from 1137 cows. There were 1510 lameness treatments: the most common causes of lameness were sole ulcer (SU) (39%), sole haemorrhage (SH) (13%), digital dermatitis (DD) (10%) and white line disease (WLD) (8%). These varied by year and year quarter. Body condition was scored at 60-day intervals. BCS ranged from 1 to 5 with a mean of 2.5, scores were higher in very early lactation but varied widely throughout lactation; approximately 45% of scores were <2.5. The key finding was that BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for lameness in the following 0-2 months and >2-4 months for all causes of lameness and also specifically for SU/WLD lameness. BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for SH in the following 0-2 months but not >2-4 months. There was no such association with DD. All lameness, SU/WLD, SH and DD were significantly more likely to occur in cows that had been lame previously, but the effect of BCS was present even when all repeat cases of lameness were excluded from the analysis. Milk yield was significantly higher and fell in the month before treatment in cows lame with SU/WLD but it was not significantly higher for cows that were treated for DD compared with non-lame cows. These findings support the hypothesis that low BCS contributes to the development of horn related claw lameness but not infectious claw diseases in dairy cows. One link between low BCS and lameness is a thin digital cushion which has been proposed as a trigger for claw horn disease. Cows with BCS 2 produced more milk than cows with BCS 2.5, however, this was only approximately 100 kg difference in yield over a 305-day lactation. Given the increased risk of lameness in cows with BCS 2, the direct costs of lameness and the small variability in milk yield by BCS, preventing cows from falling to BCS<2.5 would improve cow welfare and be economically beneficial. PMID:24183787

Green, L E; Huxley, J N; Banks, C; Green, M J

2014-01-01

296

EMPIRICALLY DERIVED INTEGRATED STELLAR YIELDS OF Fe-PEAK ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We present here the initial results of a new study of massive star yields of Fe-peak elements. We have compiled from the literature a database of carefully determined solar neighborhood stellar abundances of seven iron-peak elements, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and then plotted [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] to study the trends as functions of metallicity. Chemical evolution models were then employed to force a fit to the observed trends by adjusting the input massive star metallicity-sensitive yields of Kobayashi et al. Our results suggest that yields of Ti, V, and Co are generally larger as well as anticorrelated with metallicity, in contrast to the Kobayashi et al. predictions. We also find the yields of Cr and Mn to be generally smaller and directly correlated with metallicity compared to the theoretical results. Our results for Ni are consistent with theory, although our model suggests that all Ni yields should be scaled up slightly. The outcome of this exercise is the computation of a set of integrated yields, i.e., stellar yields weighted by a slightly flattened time-independent Salpeter initial mass function and integrated over stellar mass, for each of the above elements at several metallicity points spanned by the broad range of observations. These results are designed to be used as empirical constraints on future iron-peak yield predictions by stellar evolution modelers. Special attention is paid to the interesting behavior of [Cr/Co] with metallicity-these two elements have opposite slopes-as well as the indirect correlation of [Ti/Fe] with [Fe/H]. These particular trends, as well as those exhibited by the inferred integrated yields of all iron-peak elements with metallicity, are discussed in terms of both supernova nucleosynthesis and atomic physics.

Henry, R. B. C.; Cowan, John J. [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer, E-mail: henry@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: jsobeck@uchicago.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2010-02-01

297

Effects of different water regimes on field-grown determinate and indeterminate faba bean ( Vicia faba L.). II. Yield, yield components and harvest index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faba bean yields are highly sensitive to variations of water availability. For indeterminate faba bean, high levels of water could promote excessive vegetative growth at the expense of pod growth. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objective of comparing the yield and harvest index of determinate and indeterminate faba bean under different water regimes and finding how the

M. D. Dennett; U. Ratnaweera; K. Nyalemegbe

1997-01-01

298

Yield of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as an adjunct to echocardiography in young infants with congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Echocardiography provides adequate preoperative imaging for most young infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). When anatomic details require further clarification, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) may be useful but adds the risks of sedation or general anesthesia for a vulnerable population. This study aimed to determine the safety of CMRI and its yield of additional significant information for this population. The study identified all infants age 90 days or younger with preoperative echocardiography and a CMRI from the period 2002-2012. Indications, complications, and imaging results were collected. The additional CMRI information was defined as "significant" if it altered surgical management or "not significant" if it did not. Associations between indications for CMRI and the likelihood of new significant findings were sought. For 137 infants (58 % male), CMRI was performed at a median age of 5 days (range, 0-89 days). The CMRI yielded additional information for 76 % (104/137) of the patients. The additional findings were significant for 69 % (72/104) of these patients. The incidence of significant new findings was similar among indication categories. All the infants were intubated. Complications occurred for 5 % of the patients, including one subject with a bradycardic event that prevented completion of the exam and six patients with transient vital sign changes that allowed exam completion. More than 50 % of young infants with CHD who underwent preoperative CMRI had new findings affecting surgical management. Among these patients, CMRI-associated complications were few and predominantly minor for intubated infants. Further studies to determine standard preoperative criteria for the use of CMRI for infants with CHD may help to define appropriate cost-effective use of this diagnostic method. PMID:24710844

Johnson, Joyce T; Molina, Kimberly M; McFadden, Molly; Minich, L LuAnn; Menon, Shaji C

2014-08-01

299

Cosmic Ray Albedo Proton Yield Correlated with Lunar Elemental Abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy cosmic rays constantly bombard the lunar regolith, producing secondary "albedo" or "splash" particles like protons and neutrons, some of which escape back to space. Two lunar missions, Lunar Prospector and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), have shown that the energy distribution of albedo neutrons is modulated by the elemental composition of the lunar regolith[1-4], with reduced neutron fluxes near the lunar poles being the result of collisions with hydrogen nuclei in ice deposits[5] in permanently shadowed craters. Here we investigate an analogous phenomenon with high energy (~100 MeV) lunar albedo protons. LRO has been observing the surface and environment of the Moon since June of 2009. The CRaTER instrument (Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation) on LRO is designed to characterize the lunar radiation environment and its effects on simulated human tissue. CRaTER's multiple solid-state detectors can discriminate the different elements in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) population above ~10 MeV/nucleon, and can also distinguish between primary GCR protons arriving from deep space and albedo particles propagating up from the lunar surface. We use albedo protons with energies greater than 60 MeV to construct a cosmic ray albedo proton map of the Moon. The yield of albedo protons is proportional to the rate of lunar proton detections divided by the rate of incoming GCR detections. The map accounts for time variation in the albedo particles driven by time variations in the primary GCR population, thus revealing any true spatial variation of the albedo proton yield. Our current map is a significant improvement over the proof-of-concept map of Wilson et al.[6]. In addition to including twelve more months of CRaTER data here, we use more numerous minimum ionizing GCR protons for normalization, and we make use of all six of CRaTER's detectors to reduce contamination from spurious non-proton events in the data stream. We find find that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. In general the yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1.1% ± 0.4% higher than the flux from the highlands. In addition there appear to be localized peaks in the albedo proton yield that are co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer. References: [1] Feldman W. C. et al. (1998) Sci-ence, 281, 1496-1500. [2] Gasnault, O. et al. (2001) GRL, 28, 3797-3800. [3] Maurice, S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04. [4] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483-486. [5] Feldman W. C. et al. (1997) JGR, 102, 25565-25574. [6] Wilson, J. K. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H23.

Wilson, J. K.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Blake, J. B.; Golightly, M. J.; Kasper, J. C.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C. J.

2012-12-01

300

Bikini Observations and Their Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

On rare occasions, events of transcendent importance are described in a paper of corresponding significance. The following presentation, prepared by two Past-Presidents of The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) who were official United States scientific observers of Operation Crossroads, is a contribution of this unusual sort. It is most earnestly commended to the thoughtful attention of the readers of the

H. Pratt; A. Van Dyck

1946-01-01

301

Perceived responsibility: structure and significance.  

PubMed

Given the postulated significance of inflated responsibility in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a need for clarification of the concept itself and a means for measuring such responsibility. Two psychometric studies were conducted in order to develop a reliable self-report scale. In the first study 291 students completed the specially constructed Responsibility Appraisal Questionnaire (RAQ). Four factors emerged: responsibility for harm, responsibility in social contexts, a positive outlook towards responsibility, and thought-action fusion (TAF). In the second study, 234 students completed a revised RAQ. Four comparable factors emerged, and the TAF subscale correlated significantly with measures of obsessionality, guilt, and depression. The correlations between TAF and obsessionality and guilt remained significant even after BDI scores were controlled. It is concluded that the broad concept of inflated responsibility needs to be qualified; the connection between inflated responsibility and OCD appears to be situation-specific and idiosyncratic. There is more inflated responsibility than there is OCD. The measured concept of inflated responsibility is multifactorial (harm, social, positive, and TAF), not unitary. The TAF factor appears to be particularly significant in OCD. PMID:7677715

Rachman, S; Thordarson, D S; Shafran, R; Woody, S R

1995-09-01

302

Public Health Significance of Neuroticism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant…

Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

303

Significance Test or Effect Size?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe and question the argument that in psychological research, the significance test should be replaced (or, at least, supplemented) by a more informative index (viz., effect size or statistical power) in the case of theory-corroboration experimentation because it has been made on the basis of some debatable assumptions about the rationale of scientific investigation. The rationale of theory-corroboration experimentation

Siu L. Chow

1988-01-01

304

Dalitz analysis of B{yields}K{pi}{sup +}{psi}{sup '} decays and the Z(4430){sup +}  

SciTech Connect

From a Dalitz plot analysis of B{yields}K{pi}{sup +}{psi}{sup '} decays, we find a signal for Z(4430){sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{psi}{sup '} with a mass M=(4443{sub -12-13}{sup +15+19}) MeV/c{sup 2}, width {gamma}=(107{sub -43-56}{sup +86+74}) MeV, product branching fraction B(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}Z(4430){sup +})xB(Z(4430){sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{psi}{sup '})=(3.2{sub -0.9-1.6}{sup +1.8+5.3})x10{sup -5}, and significance of 6.4{sigma} that agrees with previous Belle measurements based on the same data sample. In addition, we determine the branching fraction B(B{sup 0}{yields}K*(892){sup 0}{psi}{sup '})=(5.52{sub -0.32-0.58}{sup +0.35+0.53})x10{sup -4} and the fraction of K*(892){sup 0} mesons that are longitudinally polarized f{sub L}=(44.8{sub -2.7-5.3}{sup +4.0+4.0})%. These results are obtained from a 605 fb{sup -1} data sample that contains 657x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected near the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

Mizuk, R.; Balagura, V.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Liventsev, D.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Tikhomirov, I.; Uglov, T. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Adachi, I.; Dalseno, J.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Sakai, Y.; Trabelsi, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)] (and others)

2009-08-01

305

Temporal bone computed tomography findings in bilateral sensorineural hearing loss  

PubMed Central

AIM—To examine the yield of computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bones when investigating sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and to identify factors associated with CT findings.?METHODS—Retrospective analysis of 116 consecutively investigated children with bilateral SNHL at the audiology department of Great Ormond Street Hospital, London. Main outcome measures were CT results, hearing loss parameters, history, and clinical examination.?RESULTS—A total of 33 (28.4%) CT scans were identified as abnormal. Children with profound and/or progressive hearing loss and/or craniofacial abnormalities were more likely to have an abnormal CT scan and together accounted for 25 abnormal CT scans. Sex, consanguineous parents, or family history of SNHL were not associated with CT findings. Dilated vestibular aqueduct was significantly correlated with the presence of progressive SNHL.?CONCLUSIONS—All children with SNHL should undergo radiological investigation of the petrous bones/inner ear; abnormalities are more likely to be found in cases with craniofacial abnormalities, or profound or progressive hearing loss. The decision whether to perform a CT or magnetic resonance imaging will depend on scanner availability, expertise, and management considerations, but cochlear implant candidates will require both.??

Bamiou, D; Phelps, P; Sirimanna, T

2000-01-01

306

Finding the solution for incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer (RTV) and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations (IE) and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). METHODS: Prospective single center interventional study, from June 2012 to February 2013. Capsule location was systematically checked one hour after ingestion using RTV. If it remained in the stomach, the patient received 10 mg domperidone per os and the location of the capsule was rechecked after 30 min. If the capsule remained in the stomach a second dose of 10 mg of domperidone was administered orally. After another 30 min the position was rechecked and if the capsule remained in the stomach, it was passed into the duodenum by upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. The rate of IE and diagnostic yield of SBCE were compared with those of examinations performed before the use of RTV or domperidone in our Department (control group, January 2009 - May 2012). RESULTS: Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, indication, inpatient status and surgical history. The control group included 307 patients, with 48 (15.6%) IE. The RTV group included 82 patients, with 3 (3.7%) IE, P = 0.003. In the control group, average gastric time was significantly longer in patients with IE than in patients with complete examination of the small bowel (77 min vs 26 min, P = 0.003). In the RTV group, the capsule remained in the stomach one hour after ingestion in 14/82 patients (17.0%) vs 48/307 (15.6%) in the control group, P = 0.736. Domperidone did not significantly affect small bowel transit time (260 min vs 297 min, P = 0.229). The capsule detected positive findings in 39% of patients in the control group and 49% in the RTV group (P = 0.081). CONCLUSION: The use of RTV and selective administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule significantly reduces incomplete examinations, with no effect on small bowel transit time or diagnostic yield.

Cotter, Jose; de Castro, Francisca Dias; Magalhaes, Joana; Moreira, Maria Joao; Rosa, Bruno

2013-01-01

307

Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry  

SciTech Connect

The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield responded linearly to B and quadratically to P. At pH 6.5, P interacted with B and Zn. Fruit count per inflorescence was the yield component most strongly associated with yield, followed by individual fruit weight. However, these two yield components responded differently to soil-applied nutrients. Foliar nutrient levels generally did not increase with the amount of applied nutrient, but often an applied nutrient had a strong effect on the level of another nutrient. Leaf nutrient levels were often correlated with fruit levels, but foliar and fruit levels at harvest were not related to reproductive performance. The study identifies some of the problems inherent in using foliar nutrient levels to predict a yield response and demonstrates how plant responses to single nutrients depend on soil chemistry and the presence of other nutrients.

May, G.M.; Pritts, M.P. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

1993-01-01

308

Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

2003-01-01

309

Determinants of the Yield Curve - a Model for the Relationship Between Risk and Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model explaining the level and structure of bond yields and the yield curve based upon three principles. 1) Across different maturities along the yield curve, bond yields change with the proportional change in the risk or potential volatility of the bonds. 2) The incremental yield required as a bond's volatility increases by an infinitesimal amount is

Douglas H. Carr

2009-01-01

310

Boot Camp and Inmate Moral Development: No Significant Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated Project CORE (Convicted Offender Re-entry Effort), a boot camp program undertaken by the Travis County (Texas) Sheriff's Department. Though it had been anticipated that a boot camp program, with strong emphasis on responsibility and moral development, would yield increasing maturation in moral judgment, no significant increases were…

Freeman, Loyal W.

1993-01-01

311

Going Local to Find Help  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall ... the time. From the MedlinePlus page on Traumatic Brain Injury, you can use Go Local to find specific ...

312

Find an Endocrinology - Thyroid Specialist  

MedlinePLUS

... Thyroid Information > Find an Endocrinology – Thyroid Specialist Find an Endocrinology – Thyroid Specialist Please tell your thyroidologist that ... is not, and does not intend to be, an endorsement by the American Thyroid Association of the ...

313

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...findings suggesting, abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings...Readers to show an abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2013-10-01

314

Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies on race-based admissions, sports and sex, and religion and drugs suggest that: affirmative action policies were successful regarding college admissions; boys who play sports are more likely to be sexually active than their peers, with the opposite true for girls; and religion is a major factor in whether teens use cigarettes, alcohol, and…

Viadero, Debra; Coles, Adrienne D.

1998-01-01

315

Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students’ professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

Zhang, Fulei

316

Probabilistic Methods for Finding People  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding people in pictures presents a particularly difficult object recognition problem. We show how to find people by finding candidate body segments, and then constructing assemblies of segments that are consistent with the constraints on the appearance of a person that result from kinematic properties. Since a reasonable model of a person requires at least nine segments, it is not

S. Ioffe; D. A. Forsyth

2001-01-01

317

Refinery Yield Model Spreadsheet System (RYMSS) Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a description of the model logic and database associated with Version 1 of the Refinery Yield Model Spreadsheet System (RYMSS). The database consists of data tables which describe model input and yield data, including the definition...

1989-01-01

318

Improved endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography brush increases diagnostic yield of malignant biliary strictures  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine if a new brush design could improve the diagnostic yield of biliary stricture brushings. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed of all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures with malignant biliary stricture brushing between January 2008 and October 2012. A standard wire-guided cytology brush was used prior to protocol implementation in July 2011, after which, a new 9 French wire-guided cytology brush (Infinity sampling device, US Endoscopy, Mentor, OH) was used for all cases. All specimens were reviewed by blinded pathologists who determined whether the sample was positive or negative for malignancy. Cellular yield was quantified by describing the number of cell clusters seen. RESULTS: Thirty-two new brush cases were compared to 46 historical controls. Twenty-five of 32 (78%) cases in the new brush group showed abnormal cellular findings consistent with malignancy as compared to 17 of 46 (37%) in the historical control group (P = 0.0003). There was also a significant increase in the average number of cell clusters of all sizes (21.1 vs 9.9 clusters, P = 0.0007) in the new brush group compared to historical controls. CONCLUSION: The use of a new brush design for brush cytology of biliary strictures shows increased diagnostic accuracy, likely due to improved cellular yield, as evidenced by an increase in number of cellular clusters obtained.

Shieh, Frederick K; Luong-Player, Adelina; Khara, Harshit S; Liu, Haiyan; Lin, Fan; Shellenberger, Matthew J; Johal, Amitpal S; Diehl, David L

2014-01-01

319

Yield model development project implementation plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

Ambroziak, R. A.

1982-01-01

320

Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation  

PubMed Central

Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation.

Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

2012-01-01

321

Yawning and its physiological significance  

PubMed Central

Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field.

Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

2013-01-01

322

The energetic significance of cooking.  

PubMed

While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

2009-10-01

323

Universality in fragment inclusive yields from Au+Au collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusive light fragment (Z<=7) yield data in Au+Au reactions, measured by the EOS Collaboration at the LBNL Bevalac, are presented and discussed. For peripheral collisions the measured charge distributions develop progressively according to a power law which can be fitted by a single ? exponent independently of the bombarding energy in the range 250-1200 A MeV. In addition to this universal feature, we observe that the location of the maximum in the individual yields of different charged fragments shift towards lower multiplicity as the fragment charge increases from Z=3 to Z=7. This trend is common to all six measured beam energies. Moments of charge distributions and correlations among different moments are reported. Finally, the THe,DT thermometer has been constructed for central and peripheral collisions using the double yield ratios of He and D, T projectile fragments. The measured nuclear temperatures are in agreement with experimental findings in other fragmentation reactions. .

Insolia, A.; Tuvè, C.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M. L.; Wang, S.; Warren, P. G.; Wieman, H. H.; Wolf, K. L.

2001-11-01

324

Yield function development for aluminum alloy sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, yield surfaces were measured for binary aluminum-magnesium sheet samples which were fabricated by different processing paths to obtain different microstructures. The yielding behavior was measured using biaxial compression tests on cubic specimens made from laminated sheet samples. The yield surfaces were also predicted from a polycrystal model using crystallographic texture data as input and from a phenomenological

F. Barlat; Y. Maeda; K. Chung; M. Yanagawa; J. C. Brem; Y. Hayashida; D. J. Lege; K. Matsui; S. J. Murtha; S. Hattori; R. C. Becker; S. Makosey

1997-01-01

325

FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

ALDEN R. HIBBERT

326

Genetic variability and interrelationships of seed yield and yield components in switchgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the genetic variability of seed yield and yield components is limited and no information is available on correlations\\u000a among seed yield and yield components and direct and indirect effects of the yield components on seed yield in switchgrass,\\u000a Panicum\\u000a virgatum L. Accordingly, we conducted replicated experiments at Chickasha and Perkins, OK, in 1998 involving 11 lowland type switchgrass

Modan K. Das; Charles M. Taliaferro

2009-01-01

327

Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination and decreased the proportion of nonpregnant cows after 150d in milk. In light of these findings, we suggest that a short DP be applied for its economic and physiological benefits. This is highly relevant to dairy herds located in regions such as Israel, Spain, and Florida that suffer from reduced milk production during the hot season. PMID:24630671

Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

2014-05-01

328

Aspergillus bronchitis without significant immunocompromise.  

PubMed

Aspergillus bronchitis is poorly understood and described. We extracted clinical data from more than 400 referred patients with persistent chest symptoms who did not fulfill criteria for allergic, chronic, or invasive aspergillosis. Symptomatic patients with a positive culture or real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp. were reviewed. Seventeen patients fulfilled the selected criteria. Fourteen were women, with a mean age of 57 years (range 39-76). Sixteen of the patients had productive cough, eight had voluminous tenacious sputum, and seven had recurrent chest infections. Eight patients had Medical Research Council dyspnea scores of 4-5; 12 had bronchiectasis; and 13 patients grew A. fumigatus, 3 A. niger, and 1 A. terreus. Twelve of the 17 patients (71%) had elevated Aspergillus IgG (47-137 mg/L, mean 89.2) and 5 (29%) had elevated Aspergillus precipitins. Six of 12 (50%) had a major response to antifungal therapy and five of 12 (42%) patients relapsed, requiring long-term therapy. Aspergillus bronchitis is a discrete clinical entity in patients with structural lung disease but who are not significantly immunocompromised. It is distinct from asymptomatic fungal colonization and other forms of aspergillosis, and may respond to antifungal therapy. PMID:23231717

Chrdle, Ales; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Baxter, Caroline G; Felton, Timothy; Denning, David W

2012-12-01

329

Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-02-01

330

Knowledge translation of research findings  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

2012-01-01

331

Study of B{sub c{yields}}KK decay with perturbative QCD approach  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the perturbative QCD approach, we study the charmless pure weak annihilation B{sub c}{sup -{yields}}K{sup -}K{sup 0} decay and find that the branching ratio BR(B{sub c{yields}}KK){approx}O(10{sup -7}). This prediction is so tiny that the B{sub c{yields}}KK decay might be unmeasurable at the Large Hadron Collider.

Yang Yueling; Sun Junfeng; Wang Na [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

2010-04-01

332

Temperature dependence of sputtering yield of GaAs under 30 keV Ar + bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature dependence of total sputtering yield of GaAs(100) was studied by mass analyzed (sup 40)Ar(sup + ) at 30 keV. Result showed that at about 240deg C sputtering yield is minimum and with further increase in target temperature, the yield becomes higher. These findings are discussed in the light of ion channeling and thermal spike effect with the emission of

S. R. Bhattacharyya; D. Ghose; D. Basu

1994-01-01

333

Sediment Yields and Sediment Sources in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine-grained sediment is having an adverse effect on the living resources and habitat of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. In order to reduce sediment inputs to the Bay, it is necessary to quantify erosion rates and sediment yields and identify the significant sources of fine-grained sediment. Sediment sources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed were identified using different methods at

A. C. Gellis; J. M. Landwehr; M. J. Pavich; C. R. Hupp; J. C. Ritchie; J. M. Reuter

2005-01-01

334

A modular neural network approach to microelectronic circuit yield optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unpredictable variation in microelectronic circuits due to process tolerances increases significantly with increased levels of miniaturization. If ignored, the variation will result in poor manufacturing yield. If a worst-case approach is adopted, a loss of competitive edge results. This situation provides the motivation for efficient robust design of VLSI circuits, the subject of this paper. Given the need for

A. A. Ilumoka

1998-01-01

335

[Clinical significance of general movements].  

PubMed

Human fetuses and young infants have a repertoire of distinct patterns of spontaneous movements. A set of these movement patterns are known as general movements (GMs), which were defined by Prechtl as gross movements involving the whole body, and lasting from a few seconds to several minutes, or longer. GMs are characterized by the variable sequence of arm, leg, neck and trunk movements which begin gradually, wax and wane in intensity, force and speed, and end gradually. Extension and flexion movements of the arms and legs are mostly complex and variable because of superimposed rotations and frequent, slight changes in direction, which make the movements fluent and elegant. Initially GMs are complex, and then differentiate into single movements. GMs show no change during the fetal period, but change in early infancy into writhing, fidgety, oscillating, saccadic and swipes & swaps. Hadders-Algra indicated that on EMG, burst duration of phasic activity shortens, burst amplitude attenuates and tonic background decreases with development. In contrast to normal GMs that are smaller and monotonous in trajectory, abnormal GMs include poor repertoire of GMs, cramped-synchronized GMs, chaotic GMs, absent fidgety, and abnormal fidgety, that are periodic and monotonous, showing no developmental change. For example, a normal twin showed elliptic or round trajectory of GMs that became smaller with age, whereas the other with periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy had periodic and rectilinear trajectory showing no developmental change. GMs, especially fidgety, correlate with neurological prognosis of infants. Einspieler reported that GMs' sensitivity and specificity for neurological prognosis of high risk infants are 96% and 95%, respectively. Clinical significance of GMs 1. includes non-invasive, secure and easy observation, 2. high coincidence between trained observers, 3. high reliability 78-98%, mean 90% and, 4. correlation of abnormal GMs with the presence and degree of brain damage. PMID:11905008

Tsubokura, Hifumi

2002-03-01

336

Effects of Boron and Molybdenum on the Yield of Chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments on chickpea (cv. BARI Chola-5) were carried out in Calcareous Dark Grey Floodplain Soil under AEZ 11 at Jessore and Non Calcareous Grey Floodplain Soil under AEZ 13 at Rahmatpur during the rabi season of 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. The objective was to find out the optimum dose of boron and molybdenum for yield maximization. Four levels each of

N. C. SHIL; S. NOOR; M. A. HOSSAIN

2007-01-01

337

Microscopic processes during shear yielding of amorphous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study plastic deformation in two simple models for disordered solids: a bidisperse Lennard-Jones glass and a bead-spring model for polymers. Simulations for both models produce stress-strain curves that closely resemble experimental results. We find that the macroscopic yield stress sigmay under multiaxial loading conditions is well described by a pressure-modified von Mises criterion. The value of sigmay decreases linearly

Mark O. Robbins; Joerg Rottler

2002-01-01

338

Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement.  

PubMed

Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Global soybean production and yield per hectare increased steadily over the past century with improved agronomy and development of cultivars suited to a wide range of latitudes. In order to meet the needs of a growing world population without unsustainable expansion of the land area devoted to this crop, yield must increase at a faster rate than at present. Here, the historical basis for the yield gains realized in the past 90 years are examined together with potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Optimization of investment in photosynthetic enzymes, bypassing photorespiratory metabolism, engineering the electron transport chain and engineering a faster recovery from the photoprotected state are different strategies to improve photosynthesis in soybean. These potential improvements in photosynthetic carbon gain will need to be matched by increased carbon and nitrogen transport to developing soybean pods and seeds in order to maximize the benefit. Better understanding of control of carbon and nitrogen transport along with improved knowledge of the regulation of flower initiation and abortion will be needed to optimize sink capacity in soybean. Although few single targets are likely to deliver a quantum leap in yields, biotechnological advances in molecular breeding techniques that allow for alteration of the soybean genome and transcriptome promise significant yield gains. PMID:21689112

Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Yendrek, Craig R; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Long, Stephen P

2012-01-01

339

From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2010-01-15

340

The Effect of Some Agrotechnical Factors on the Herb Yield and Volatile Oil of Dragonhead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different propagation methods, mulching and nitrogen fertilization on the herb yield and volatile oil content and composition of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) were studied in order to find the optimal cultivation techniques for Finnish conditions. Transplants gave a higher herb yield than sown plants, and an oil richer in geranyl acetate. Mulching had no effect on the

B. Galambosi; Y. Holm; R. Hiltunen

1989-01-01

341

Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

2003-01-01

342

Increase in Milk Yield of Commercial Dairy Herds Fed a Microbial and Enzyme Supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial and enzyme supplement fed at 21.2 g\\/d per cow to 46 Virginia dairy herds increased the milk yield of 31 herds (17 significantly) and decreased the milk yield of 15 herds ( 7 significantly). Effects of season were important but consistent with overall results. Herds began receiving the supplement, which contained dried fermentation products of Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus

M. L. McGilliard; C. C. Stallings

1998-01-01

343

CT and MR Imaging Findings in Cerebral Toxocaral Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report serial MR findings in a 54-year-old woman with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to Tox- ocara canis infection, a parasitic disease contracted through exposure with soil contaminated by the eggs of the roundworm. MR imaging revealed several enhancing sub- cortical and white matter lesions in both lobes. Antihelmin- thic chemotherapy yielded marked improvement of the neurologic deficits and cerebral

E. Xinou; A. Lefkopoulos; M. Gelagoti; A. Drevelegas; A. Diakou; I. Milonas; A. S. Dimitriadis

344

Temporal bone computed tomography findings in bilateral sensorineural hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine the yield of computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bones when investigating sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and to identify factors associated with CT findings.METHODSRetrospective analysis of 116 consecutively investigated children with bilateral SNHL at the audiology department of Great Ormond Street Hospital, London. Main outcome measures were CT results, hearing loss parameters, history, and clinical examination.RESULTSA total of

D E Bamiou; P Phelps; T Sirimanna

2000-01-01

345

New findings presented at European breast cancer conference  

Cancer.gov

An experimental model of breast cancer has yielded exciting new insights into why some breast cancers become resistant to endocrine therapies such as tamoxifen, say researchers from the Hospital of Prato, Italy, and the Breast Center at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston. Their findings could lead to new treatments and prognostic tests for the disease.

346

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, "tar" and nicotine yields.  

PubMed

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as "tobacco-free" alternatives for the "health conscious user". In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that "herbal" waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D; Cobb, Caroline O; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-05-01

347

Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields  

PubMed Central

Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products.

Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2012-01-01

348

The clinical significance of drug craving  

PubMed Central

Although drug craving has received considerable research attention over the past several decades, to date there has been no systematic review of the general clinical significance of craving. This paper presents an overview of measurement issues of particular relevance to a consideration of use of craving in clinical settings. The paper then considers the relevance of craving across a broad array of clinical domains, including diagnosis, prognostic utility, craving as an outcome measure, and the potential value of craving as a direct target of intervention. The paper is both descriptive and prescriptive, informed by the current state of the science on craving with recommendations for the definition of craving, assessment practices, future research, and clinical applications. We conclude that craving has considerable utility for diagnosis and as a clinical outcome, and that findings from future research will likely expand the clinical potential of the craving construct in the domains of prognosis and craving as a treatment target.

Tiffany, Stephen T.; Wray, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

349

Skin findings associated with obesity.  

PubMed

We are facing an obesity epidemic in adolescents in the United States. Thus, practitioners will need to become familiar with cutaneous findings associated with obesity in order to diagnose and treat them properly. This article addresses some of the cutaneous findings associated with obesity. PMID:21815449

Mathur, Anubhav N; Goebel, Laurie

2011-04-01

350

Adult celiac disease: MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our report is to describe a spectrum of findings of celiac disease at MR enterography. MR enterography is a\\u000a non-invasive, feasible, and reproducible imaging technique for the evaluation of small bowel. Findings on MR enterography,\\u000a similar to those of conventional barium studies, may suggest a diagnosis of celiac disease.

Pasquale Paolantonio; Ernesto Tomei; Marco Rengo; Riccardo Ferrari; Paola Lucchesi; Andrea Laghi

2007-01-01

351

Imaging findings in recurrent extramedullary leukaemias  

PubMed Central

Abstract Acute leukaemias are relatively common malignancies. Treatment has advanced significantly in the recent past and there has been improved patient survival. This improved initial response is leading to an increasing number of cases of relapse. Extramedullary relapse occurs in a wide variety of locations with varying presentations, imaging findings and differentials. The pathophysiology and clinical course of recurrent extramedullary myeloid and lymphocytic leukaemias are reviewed in this article. The wide variety of imaging findings associated with many important sites of recurrence and the associated differential diagnosis are discussed and illustrated.

Smyth, L.; Harmon, M.; Flynn, C.; Sheehy, N.

2013-01-01

352

Developing a scalable model of recombinant protein yield from Pichia pastoris: the influence of culture conditions, biomass and induction regime  

PubMed Central

Background The optimisation and scale-up of process conditions leading to high yields of recombinant proteins is an enduring bottleneck in the post-genomic sciences. Typical experiments rely on varying selected parameters through repeated rounds of trial-and-error optimisation. To rationalise this, several groups have recently adopted the 'design of experiments' (DoE) approach frequently used in industry. Studies have focused on parameters such as medium composition, nutrient feed rates and induction of expression in shake flasks or bioreactors, as well as oxygen transfer rates in micro-well plates. In this study we wanted to generate a predictive model that described small-scale screens and to test its scalability to bioreactors. Results Here we demonstrate how the use of a DoE approach in a multi-well mini-bioreactor permitted the rapid establishment of high yielding production phase conditions that could be transferred to a 7 L bioreactor. Using green fluorescent protein secreted from Pichia pastoris, we derived a predictive model of protein yield as a function of the three most commonly-varied process parameters: temperature, pH and the percentage of dissolved oxygen in the culture medium. Importantly, when yield was normalised to culture volume and density, the model was scalable from mL to L working volumes. By increasing pre-induction biomass accumulation, model-predicted yields were further improved. Yield improvement was most significant, however, on varying the fed-batch induction regime to minimise methanol accumulation so that the productivity of the culture increased throughout the whole induction period. These findings suggest the importance of matching the rate of protein production with the host metabolism. Conclusion We demonstrate how a rational, stepwise approach to recombinant protein production screens can reduce process development time.

Holmes, William J; Darby, Richard AJ; Wilks, Martin DB; Smith, Rodney; Bill, Roslyn M

2009-01-01

353

Investigation of some effective factors on yield traits of Pepino (Solanum muricatum) as a new vegetable in Iran.  

PubMed

To find out the effects of media culture and foliar fertilization on some yield traits including the number of fruits per bush, mean weight of fruit, yield of per bush, long of fruits and diameter of fruits 9 months completely randomized factorial experiment (3 x 5) with four replications was conducted. Media culture treatments include 5 levels namely soil; mixture of soil and vermy compost; mixture of soil and sand; mixture of soil and peat moss and mixture of soil, sand and peat moss. Foliar fertilization treatments include 3 levels namely applying once a week, once a 3 week and no fertilization (control). The results showed that the media culture treatments on the whole of traits and foliar fertilization also on the whole of traits except yield of per bush had a significant difference (p < 0.01). In the foliar fertilization except yield per bush the once a 3 week fertilization caused highest increase than other treatments and in the media culture treatments, the mixture of soil and peat moss showed highest increase than other treatments. PMID:19579997

Nemati, S H; Karimian, Z; Tehranifar, A; Mashhadian, N V; Lakzian, A

2009-03-15

354

Systematics of Fission-Product Yields  

SciTech Connect

Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

A.C. Wahl

2002-05-01

355

Genomic abnormalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translocations involving immunoglobu- lin (Ig) loci and chromosome 13 mono- somy (13) are frequent cytogenetic find- ings in multiple myeloma (MM). Similar chromosomal aberrations have been iden- tified in the monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), but their prevalence and significance remain uncertain. Bone marrow from 72 patients with MGUS (n 62) and smoldering MM (n 10) was evaluated for

Rafael Fonseca; Richard J. Bailey; Gregory J. Ahmann; S. Vincent Rajkumar; James D. Hoyer; John A. Lust; Robert A. Kyle; Morie A. Gertz; Philip R. Greipp; Gordon W. Dewald

356

Productivity of high-yielding- crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using high-yielding varieties (lines) of several crops or applying coated urea, which releases nitrogen slowly, it was possible to achieve a very high yield corresponding to that recorded in Hokkaido, Japan. In this report, the accumulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco) and chlorophyll was investigated in leaves in relation to the productivity of high-yielding crops, including rice, winter wheat, maize,

Mitsuru Osaki; Kazuhiko Morikawa; Mika Matsumoto; Takuro Shinano; Makoto Iyoda; Toshiaki Tadano

1993-01-01

357

Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBX32 Gene in Soybean Increases Grain Yield  

PubMed Central

Crop yield is a highly complex quantitative trait. Historically, successful breeding for improved grain yield has led to crop plants with improved source capacity, altered plant architecture, and increased resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To date, transgenic approaches towards improving crop grain yield have primarily focused on protecting plants from herbicide, insects, or disease. In contrast, we have focused on identifying genes that, when expressed in soybean, improve the intrinsic ability of the plant to yield more. Through the large scale screening of candidate genes in transgenic soybean, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana B-box domain gene (AtBBX32) that significantly increases soybean grain yield year after year in multiple transgenic events in multi-location field trials. In order to understand the underlying physiological changes that are associated with increased yield in transgenic soybean, we examined phenotypic differences in two AtBBX32-expressing lines and found increases in plant height and node, flower, pod, and seed number. We propose that these phenotypic changes are likely the result of changes in the timing of reproductive development in transgenic soybean that lead to the increased duration of the pod and seed development period. Consistent with the role of BBX32 in A. thaliana in regulating light signaling, we show that the constitutive expression of AtBBX32 in soybean alters the abundance of a subset of gene transcripts in the early morning hours. In particular, AtBBX32 alters transcript levels of the soybean clock genes GmTOC1 and LHY-CCA1-like2 (GmLCL2). We propose that through the expression of AtBBX32 and modulation of the abundance of circadian clock genes during the transition from dark to light, the timing of critical phases of reproductive development are altered. These findings demonstrate a specific role for AtBBX32 in modulating soybean development, and demonstrate the validity of expressing single genes in crops to deliver increased agricultural productivity.

Preuss, Sasha B.; Meister, Robert; Xu, Qingzhang; Urwin, Carl P.; Tripodi, Federico A.; Screen, Steven E.; Anil, Veena S.; Zhu, Shuquan; Morrell, James A.; Liu, Grace; Ratcliffe, Oliver J.; Reuber, T. Lynne; Khanna, Rajnish; Goldman, Barry S.; Bell, Erin; Ziegler, Todd E.; McClerren, Amanda L.; Ruff, Thomas G.; Petracek, Marie E.

2012-01-01

358

Efficient prediction of (p,n) yields  

SciTech Connect

In the continuous deceleration approximation, charged particles decelerate without any spread in energy as they traverse matter. This approximation simplifies the calculation of the yield of nuclear reactions, for which the cross-section depends on the particle energy. We calculated (p,n) yields for a LiF target, using the Bethe-Bloch relation for proton deceleration, and predicted that the maximum yield would be around 0.25% neutrons per incident proton, for an initial proton energy of 70 MeV or higher. Yield-energy relations calculated in this way can readily be used to optimize source and (p,n) converter characteristics.

Swift, D C; McNaney, J M; Higginson, D P; Beg, F

2009-09-09

359

Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods  

SciTech Connect

Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

1991-06-01

360

Crop status evaluations and yield predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

Haun, J. R.

1976-01-01

361

[The significance of the thrombocyte crossmatching test].  

PubMed

The authors investigated the dependence of the results of the crossover test with thrombocytes and lymphocytes of the donor and serum of the recipient on the rise of thrombocytes 1 and 24 hours following administration of a thrombocyte concentrate. The clinical condition of the patient at the time of thrombocyte administration was taken into account. The donor of thrombocytes isolated in a blood element separator was selected from a panel of cca 800 subjects with previously assessed HLA antigens. A total of 36 administered concentrates was evaluated. From the assembled findings it may be concluded that the result of thromboconcentrate transfusion is significantly influenced by adverse clinical factors in the patient such as splenomegaly, haemorrhage, febrile conditions. A positive crossover lymphocytotoxic test can predict reliably the ineffectiveness of thrombocyte administration. A positive crossover test with the donor's thrombocytes does not affect significantly the success of the transfusion. It seems thus that for the fate of administered thrombocytes the presence of HLA antibodies is decisive and not the presence of specific thrombocytic antibodies. PMID:2076527

Korínková, P; Vítek, A; Prazák, J; Sejkorová, J

1990-12-21

362

Carrier multiplication yields of CdSe and CdTe nanocrystals by transient photoluminescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering semiconductors to enhance carrier multiplication (CM) could lead to increased photovoltaic cell performance and a significant widening of the materials range suitable for future solar technologies. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been proposed as a favorable structure for CM enhancement, and recent measurements by transient absorption have shown evidence for highly efficient CM in lead chalcogenide and CdSe NCs. We report here an assessment of CM yields in CdSe and CdTe NCs by a quantitative analysis of biexciton and exciton signatures in transient photoluminescence decays. Although the technique is particularly sensitive due to enhanced biexciton radiative rates relative to the exciton, kBXrad>2kXrad , we find no evidence for CM in CdSe and CdTe NCs up to photon energies ??>3Eg , well above previously reported relative energy thresholds.

Nair, Gautham; Bawendi, Moungi G.

2007-08-01

363

Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

364

Climate change influence on catchment sediment yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a change in climate are expected to be recognizable in many environmental aspects even at small spatial scales: atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, air temperature, precipitation pattern (days of snowfall translate in days of rainfall), rainfall intensity and erosivity. As a consequence, strong modifications may affect the rate of evapo-transpiration, infiltration and plant biomass production, but also of the soil erosion. To which extent climate change may affect runoff production, soil erosion and sediment transport in upland catchments is investigated here by combining data of long term precipitation, sediment yield and future climate change provided by Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with a spatially distributed modeling approach to flow generation and surface erosion. The model accounts for changes in the structure and properties of soil and vegetation cover by combining the tube-flux approach to the topographic watershed partitioning through a parsimonious parametrization of the main hydrological processes. This model is used to predict hydrological and sediment fluxes for three small catchments in Saint Gabriel mountains of Southern California under control and climate change conditions. Simulation runs using a 45 years long record of hourly precipitation, both observed and referred to a future scenario, show that climate change may induce a significant modification in the catchment response to storms, with major effects on erosion and flood flows.

Rulli, Maria Cristina; Grossi, Giovanna

2010-05-01

365

Hydration properties, soymilk and okara yield of soybean affected by agronomic factors.  

PubMed

The effects of row space and irrigation on 100-seed weight water uptake, leaching loss, soymilk, and okara yield of soybean were investigated. Row space affected leaching loss, whereas irrigation significantly altered 100-seed weight, water uptake, volume change, leaching loss, and the soymilk yield of soybeans. Irrigation on the third day resulted in desirable hydration properties. The soymilk yield significantly correlated (p < 0.01 or 0.05) to the hydration properties, e.g., 100-seed weight, water uptake, volume change, and leaching loss. A predictive regression model (R = 0.860) has been proposed for the soymilk yield. PMID:12108211

Alpaslan, M; Hayta, M

2002-06-01

366

Effects of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage on sugarcane yield.  

PubMed

Feeding by lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), larvae on sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) causes leaf damage, dead hearts, and dead plants that can result in stand and yield loss. A 2-yr greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine sugarcane variety and plant age-specific feeding responses to E. lignosellus. Plants growing from single-eye setts of three varieties were exposed to a single generation of E. lignosellus larvae beginning at the three-, five-, and seven-leaf stages. Results indicated that the physical damage and resulting yield loss of plants attacked by E. lignosellus larvae were dependent on the variety and leaf stage at which they were infested. Significantly more plant damage was observed in all three varieties when infested at the three- than at the seven-leaf stage. Larvae caused significantly more plant damage and reduced yield in CP 89-2143 than in CP 78-1628. Tiller production increased in CP78-1628 and CP 88-1762 when infested at the three-leaf stage, whereas tiller production, biomass and sugar yield decreased in CP 89-2143 when infested at all leaf stages, compared with the untreated control. There was no reduction in yield when CP 78-1628 was infested at the three- or five-leaf stages. Biomass was reduced in CP 88-1762 when plants were infested at any of the leaf stages, but sugar yield was reduced only when infested at the seven-leaf stage. These results indicate that compensation in response to E. lignosellus damage was variety dependent and declined with the delay in infestation time. PMID:21510195

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A; Webb, Susan E

2011-04-01

367

A Family Finds Its Way  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury A Family Finds Its Way Past Issues / Fall ... by a roadside bomb and suffers from traumatic brain injury (TBI). As a baby, daughter Nora, now 8, ...

368

Finding Surface Area and Volume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Using the isometric drawing tool, students build three-dimensional figures and find the surface area and volume of each figure." (from NCTM Illuminations) This is the fifth lesson of a six lesson unit.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-07-13

369

Imaging findings in Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is the most common chromosomal anomaly and is characterized by intellectual disability and a typical facies. People with Down syndrome can have abnormalities of multiple organ systems. Cardiac and respiratory system involvement is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality, although every organ system can be affected. Patients may present prenatally with findings on screening sonography. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, it is apparent at birth because of the characteristic facial features and musculoskeletal findings. Children with Down syndrome present to the radiology department at various ages depending on the severity of the specific finding. The purpose of this paper is to review the most common antenatal and postnatal imaging findings of Down syndrome as they manifest throughout the body. PMID:24737033

Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Towbin, Alexander J

2014-05-01

370

AMTA's Find a Massage Therapist  

MedlinePLUS

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371

Nitrogen utilization and biomass yield in trickle bed air biofilters.  

PubMed

Nitrogen utilization and subsequent biomass yield were investigated in four independent lab-scale trickle bed air biofilters (TBABs) fed with different VOCs substrate. The VOCs considered were two aromatic (toluene, styrene) and two oxygenated (methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)). Long-term observations of TBABs performances show that more nitrogen was required to sustain high VOC removal, but the one fed with a high loading of VOC utilized much more nitrogen for sustaining biomass yield. The ratio N(consumption)/N(growth) was an effective indicator in evaluating nitrogen utilization in the system. Substrate VOC availability in the system was significant in determining nitrogen utilization and biomass yield. VOC substrate availability in the TBAB system was effectively identified by using maximum practical concentrations in the biofilm. Biomass yield coefficient, which was driven from the regression analysis between CO(2) production rate and substrate consumption rate, was effective in evaluating the TBAB performance with respect to nitrogen utilization and VOC removal. Biomass yield coefficients (g biomass/g substrate, dry weight basis) were observed to be 0.668, 0.642, 0.737, and 0.939 for toluene, styrene, MEK, and MIBK, respectively. PMID:20609512

Kim, Daekeun; Sorial, George A

2010-10-15

372

Estimation of rice yield per unit using MODIS spectral index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first 19 bands of MODIS, covering visible to shortwave infrared spectral wavelength, were simulated by the ground-level reflectance spectra. All Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-like and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI)-like spectral indices formed by every two bands were calculated to obtain their determinate coefficients with theoretical and real yield. Results showed that combinative NIR-infrared index (b2, b19) and (b16, b19) of MODIS were strongly correlated with rice yield, specially the correlative coefficient exceeded the significant level in maturing stage, but combinative visible light index were strongly correlated with rice yield in early stage and poorly in late stage. The best spectral index were the combination of (b2, b19) and (b16, b19) in predicting rice yield in whole rice growth, if considering the spatial resolution, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was better than the two band combination of (b2, b19) and (b16, b19) and was best suitable for monitoring rice yield.

Cheng, Qian; Wu, Xiuju; Mao, Zhihua

2006-12-01

373

Yield stress anomaly in B2 FeAl  

SciTech Connect

The studies on yield stress anomaly of B2 FeAl single crystals are reviewed in this paper. A positive temperature dependence of yield stress, so-called yield stress anomaly, is observed in B2 FeAl in which excess vacancies are fully annealed out. Associated with the anomaly, characteristic asymmetry is found between tension and compression. While the strain-rate sensitivity is almost zero in the temperature range of the yield stress anomaly, the stress relaxation becomes significant with increasing temperature, indicating that a recovery process is thermally activated. It is ascertained by the two-surface trace analysis that slip transition from <111> direction at intermediate temperature to <100> at high temperature occurs around the peak temperature. Even at the peak temperature, in addition, operative slip vector for yielding is confirmed to be predominantly <111> by TEM. Also, it is observed that <111>-type superdislocations are frequently climb-dissociated in the temperature range of the anomaly. APB formation on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is energetically favorable, which is in agreement with the Flinn`s calculation for the B2 superlattice that APB energy on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is lower than that on {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane. Such an anisotropy of APB energy would offer specific driving force for the climb dissociation on <111> superdislocations. On the basis of the observed results, the anomalous strengthening behavior of B2 FeAl single crystals is discussed.

Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1996-12-31

374

Ophthalmologic findings in Aicardi syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Aicardi syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder that has been characterized classically by agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, and the finding of chorioretinal lacunae. This triad has been augmented more recently by central nervous system and ocular findings. The goal of this study is to determine how frequently other ophthalmologic findings are associated with Aicardi syndrome. Methods A single ophthalmologist recorded the ocular and adnexal findings of 40 girls with this disorder at the annual meeting of an Aicardi syndrome family support group. For each subject, the examiner performed facial anthropometrics, portable biomicroscopy, and, where feasible, indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results The most common findings were chorioretinal lacunae in 66 (88%) of 75 eyes and optic nerve abnormalities in 61 (81%) of 75 eyes. Other less common findings included persistent pupillary membrane in 4 (5%) of 79 eyes and anterior synechiae in 1 of 79 eyes (1%). Conclusions Although the ophthalmic hallmark and defining feature of Aicardi syndrome is the cluster of distinctive chorioretinal lacunae surrounding the optic nerve(s), the spectrum of ocular, papillary, and retinal anomalies varies widely, from nearly normal to dysplasia of the optic nerve and to severe microphthalmos.

Fruhman, Gary; Eble, Tanya N.; Gambhir, Nikki; Sutton, V. Reid; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.; Lewis, Richard A.

2013-01-01

375

No evidence of adverse effects on germination, emergence, and fruit yield due to space exposure of tomato seeds.  

PubMed

Seeds of 'Rutgers California Supreme' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were exposed to outer space conditions aboard the long duration exposure facility (LDEF) satellite in the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) project of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Seeds aboard the LDEF were packed in dacron bags forming four layers per sealed canister. Some of these seeds were used in Oklahoma and Florida for studies of germination, emergence, and fruit yield. Among all measured variables in three experiments, there was only one significant main effect of canister 2 versus canister 7 (for mean time to germination) and only one main effect of layer (for seedling shoot dry weight). There also were only two inconsistent canister x layer interactions in the germination tests. The contrast of Earth-based control seed versus space-exposed seed was significant four times: in Oklahoma in 1991 the mean time to germination of space-exposed seeds and the days to 50% of final germination were 0.7 days less than for Earth-based seeds, and in Florida in 1992 seedling percent emergence and shoot dry weight were increased by space exposure. Fruit yield and marketability were unaffected in plants grown from space-exposed seeds. These results support student findings from the SEEDS project, and provide evidence that tomato seeds can survive in space for several years without adverse effects on germination, emergence, and fruit yield. PMID:11539352

Kahn, B A; Stoffella, P J

1996-05-01

376

Yield stress of alumina-zirconia suspensions  

SciTech Connect

The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of alumina, zirconia, and mixed alumina-zirconia powders was measured by the vane technique as a function of solids loading, relative amounts of alumina and zirconia, and pH. At the isoelectric point (IEP), the yield stress varied as the fourth power of the solids loading. The relative ratio of alumina and zirconia particles was important in determining the yield stress of the suspension at the IEP. The yield stress of single and mixed suspensions showed a marked variation with pH. The maximum value occurred at or near the IEP of the suspension. The effect of electrical double-layer forces on the yield stress can be described on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. A normalized yield stress--that is, the ratio of the yield stress at a given pH to the yield stress at the IEP predicted by this model--showed good correlation with experimental data.

Ramakrishnan, V.; Pradip [Tata Research Development and Design Centre, Pune (India); Malghan, S.G. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

377

NEUTRON YIELDS FROM TARGETS BOMBARDED BY ELECTRONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total neutron yields from thick targets bembarded by electrons were ; measured as a function of electron energy for the range 10 to 36 Mev. Targets ; ranging in thickness from one to six radiation lengths of C, Al, Cu, Ta, Pb, and ; U were used. The yields for 1- and 6radiation-length targets of Pb at 34 Mev

W. C. Barber; W. D. George

1959-01-01

378

Pollinator shortage and global crop yield  

PubMed Central

A pollinator decline caused by environmental degradation might be compromising the production of pollinator-dependent crops. In a recent article, we compared 45 year series (1961–2006) in yield, production and cultivated area of pollinator-dependent and nondependent crop around the world. If pollinator shortage is occurring globally, we expected a lower annual growth rate in yield for pollinator-dependent than nondependent crops, but a higher growth in cultivated area to compensate the lower yield. We have found little evidence for the first “yield” prediction but strong evidence for the second “area” prediction. Here, we present an additional analysis to show that the first and second predictions are both supported for crops that vary in dependency levels from nondependent to moderate dependence (i.e., up to 65% average yield reduction without pollinators). However, those crops for which animal pollination is essential (i.e., 95% average yield reduction without pollinators) showed higher growth in yield and lower expansion in area than expected in a pollination shortage scenario. We propose that pollination management for highly pollinator-dependent crops, such us renting hives or hand pollination, might have compensated for pollinator limitation of yield.

Aizen, Marcelo A; Cunningham, Saul A; Klein, Alexandra M

2009-01-01

379

Yield Stress in Foods: Measurements and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the presence of true yield stress has been debated, it has been accepted as an engineering reality. Now, yield stress is routinely measured and used in the food industry not only for basic process calculations and manufacturing practices, but also as a test for sensory and quality indices and to determine the effect of composition and manufacturing procedures on

Adriano Sun; Sundaram Gunasekaran

2009-01-01

380

Microplastic deformation and yield strength of polycrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus, the theory considered above permits a unified description of the behavior of pure metals and certain classes of alloys in the transition stage from elastic to homogeneous macroplastic deformation. Tt accurately reflects the law of accumulation of plastic deformation up to the physical yield point and the form of the extension curve above the yield point. Its predictions as

E. F. Dudarev; E. E. Deryugin

1982-01-01

381

Design of a high yield position source  

SciTech Connect

The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) requires a positron source with a yield large enough to give equal number of positrons and electrons at the interaction point. In addition, the colliding positrons must have an emittance and bunch length similar to the electron beam. This report describes the design of a high yield positron source to give these characteristics.

Bulos, F.; DeStaebler, H.; Ecklund, S.; Helm, R.; Hoag, H.; Le Boutet, H.; Lynch, H.L.; Miller, R.; Moffeit, K.C.

1985-04-01

382

Yield prediction by sampling IC layout  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a survey sampling-based methodology for critical area and other property estimates of IC layout. A software implementation of the method, Edinburgh yield estimator sampling (EYES) is presented. The EYES tool implements the survey sampling-based methodology for critical area estimation enabling the yield prediction of ULSI chips. The method requires an analysis of only a small fraction of

Gerard A. Allan

2000-01-01

383

Porphyrins XIII: Fluorescence spectra and quantum yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence spectra, quantum yields, natural radiative lifetimes, and absorption oscillator strengths are reported for a number of porphyrins in benzene solution. Emission yields for free base, Mg-, and Zn-phthalocyanine in 1-chloronaphthalene solution are also reported. The phthalocyanines are considerably more fluorescent than the porphyrins, and this is attributed mainly to their shorter radiative lifetimes. The heavy atom effect on fluorescence

Paul G. Seybold; Martin Gouterman

1969-01-01

384

How Does Liquidity Affect Government Bond Yields?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the determinants of yield differentials between sovereign bonds in the Euro area. There is a common trend in yield differentials, which is correlated with a measure of aggregate risk. In contrast, liquidity differentials display sizeable heterogeneity and no common factor. We propose a simple model with endogenous liquidity demand, where a bond's liquidity premium depends both on

Carlo Favero; Marco Pagano; Ernst-Ludwig von Thadden

2010-01-01

385

Rain-fed fig yield as affected by rainfall distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable annual rainfall and its uneven distribution are the major uncontrolled inputs in rain-fed fig production and possibly the main cause of yield fluctuation in Istahban region of Fars Province, I.R. of Iran. This introduces a considerable risk in rain-fed fig production. The objective of this study was to find relationships between seasonal rainfall distribution and rain-fed fig production in Istahban region to determine the critical rainfall periods for rain-fed fig production and supplementary irrigation water application. Further, economic analysis for rain-fed fig production was considered in this region to control the risk of production. It is concluded that the monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall indices are able to show the effects of rainfall and its distribution on the rain-fed fig yield. Fig yield with frequent occurrence of 80 % is 374 kg ha-1. The internal rates of return for interest rate of 4, 8 and 12 % are 21, 58 and 146 %, respectively, that are economically feasible. It is concluded that the rainfall in spring especially in April and in December has negatively affected fig yield due to its interference with the life cycle of Blastophaga bees for pollination. Further, it is concluded that when the rainfall is limited, supplementary irrigation can be scheduled in March.

Bagheri, Ensieh; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza

2013-09-01

386

Yielding behavior of dense microgel glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the yielding behavior of dense suspensions of stimuli-responsive poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel particles studied by performing oscillatory shear measurements. At a volume fraction of ? = 0.6 (labeled as sample S1) the suspension is characterized to be repulsive glass by dynamic light scattering technique and showed one step yielding. Quite interestingly higher volume fraction sample (S2) prepared by osmotically compressing sample S1, showed yielding occurring in two steps. Such one step yielding behavior turning into two step yielding was reported by Pham et al [Europhys. Lett., 75, 624 (2006)] in hard-sphere repulsive colloidal glass when transformed into an attractive glass by inducing depletion attraction. We confirm the repulsive interparticle interaction between PNIPAM microgel particles turning into attractive upon osmotic compression by static light scattering measurements.

Joshi, R. G.; Tata, B. V. R.; Karthickeyan, D.

2013-02-01

387

The energetic and nutritional yields from insectivory for Kasekela chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Insectivory is hypothesized to be an important source of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet nutritional data based on actual intake are lacking. Drawing on observations from 2008 to 2010 and recently published nutritional assays, we determined the energy, macronutrient and mineral yields for termite-fishing (Macrotermes), ant-dipping (Dorylus), and ant-fishing (Camponotus) by the Kasekela chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We also estimated the yields from consumption of weaver ants (Oecophylla) and termite alates (Macrotermes and Pseudacanthotermes). On days when chimpanzees were observed to prey on insects, the time spent in insectivorous behavior ranged from <1 min to over 4 h. After excluding partial bouts and those of <1 min duration, ant-dipping bouts were of significantly shorter duration than the other two forms of tool-assisted insectivory but provided the highest mass intake rate. Termite-fishing bouts were of significantly longer duration than ant-dipping and had a lower mass intake rate, but provided higher mean and maximum mass yields. Ant-fishing bouts were comparable to termite-fishing bouts in duration but had significantly lower mass intake rates. Mean and maximum all-day yields from termite-fishing and ant-dipping contributed to or met estimated recommended intake (ERI) values for a broad array of minerals. The mean and maximum all-day yields of other insects consistently contributed to the ERI only for manganese. All forms of insectivory provided small but probably non-trivial amounts of fat and protein. We conclude that different forms of insectivory have the potential to address different nutritional needs for Kasekela chimpanzees. Other than honeybees, insects have received little attention as potential foods for hominins. Our results suggest that ants and (on a seasonal basis) termites would have been viable sources of fat, high-quality protein and minerals for extinct hominins employing Pan-like subsistence technology in East African woodlands. PMID:24698197

O'Malley, Robert C; Power, Michael L

2014-06-01

388

Optimization of printed circuit board design assembly using yield prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with optimization of printed circuit board design using yield prediction. Yield prediction of PCB assembly process can be obtained from the below presented yield model. The model is based on a combination of elements from two most used yield prediction methodologies, namely: process yield and board design yield. Due to PCB assembly process yield prediction is possible

Radek Soukup

2008-01-01

389

Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and Spain in both considered drought events, however slightly less severe for 2012 than for 2005. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor droughts' impacts on crops productions and yields in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno, 2010: A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J. Climate, 23, 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45.

Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

2014-05-01

390

Absolute 1* quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain versus absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absolute I* quantum yields were measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The temperature yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-versus-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 +/- 2% and it falls off to 53.4 +/- 2% and 44.0 +/- 4% at 284 and 248 respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I* quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I* yields. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I* yield results.

Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

1987-01-01

391

Growth parameter and yield component response of field corn to simulated acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain occurs in the midwest. Studies to date have suggested minimal yield response of field corn to acid rain. However, small but significant reductions in yield have been shown for some cultivars under extreme conditions. To define further these yield changes the study examined the effect of simulated acid rain on parameters associated with corn yield. Cultivars B73 x Mo17 and Pioneer 3377 were shielded from ambient rain by two movable rain exclusion shelters. Six simulated rain treatments were applied biweekly within these shelters through the use of a nozzle distribution system. For the most part, growth and yield parameters were unaffected by simulated rain treatment. While the only significant yield reduction was a contrast of pH 3.0 and the average of all other treatments for B73 x Mo17, the reduction appears to be the result both of slightly fewer ears and slightly less successful ear fill.

Banwart, W.L.; Porter, P.M.; Ziegler, E.L.; Hassett, J.J.

1988-01-01

392

Aerial imaging for FABs: productivity and yield aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economy of wafer fabs is changing faster for 3x geometry requirements and below. Mask set and exposure tool costs are almost certain to increase the overall cost per die requiring manufacturers to develop productivity and yield improvements to defray the lithography cell economic burden. Lithography cell cost effectiveness can be significantly improved by increasing mask availability while reducing the amount of mask sets needed during a product life cycle. Further efficiency can be gained from reducing send-ahead wafers and qualification cycle time, and elimination of inefficient metrology. Yield is the overriding die cost modulator and is significantly more sensitive to lithography as a result of masking steps required to fabricate the integrated circuit. Thus, for productivity to increase with minimal yield risk, the sample space of reticle induced source of variations should be large, with shortest measurement acquisition time possible. This paper presents the latest introduction of mask aerial imaging technology for the fab, Aera2TM for Lithography with IntenCTM, as an enabler for efficient lithography manufacturing. IntenCD is a high throughput, high density mask-based critical dimension (CD) mapping technology, with the potential for increasing productivity and yield in a wafer production environment. Connecting IntenCD to a feed forward advance process control (APC) reduces significantly the amount of traditional CD metrology required for robust wafer CD uniformity (CDU) correction and increases wafer CD uniformity. This in turn improves the lithography process window and yield and contributes to cost reduction and cycle time reduction of new reticles qualification. Advanced mask technology has introduced a new challenge. Exposure to 193nm wavelength stimulates haze growth on the mask and imposes a regular cleaning schedule. Cleaning eventually causes mask degradation. Haze growth impacts mask CD uniformity and induce global transmission fingerprint variations. Furthermore, aggressive cleaning may damage the delicate sub-resolution assist features. IntenCD based CDU fingerprint correction can optimize the regular mask cleaning schedule, extending clean intervals therefore extending the overall mask life span. This mask availability enhancement alone reduces the amount of mask sets required during the product life cycle and potentially leads to significant savings to the fab. This mask availability enhancement alone reduces the amount of mask sets required during the product life cycle and leads to significant savings to the fab. In this paper we present three case studies from a wafer production fab and a mask shop. The data presented demonstrates clear productivity and yield enhancements. The data presented is the outcome of a range of new applications which became possible by integrating the recently introduced Applied Materials Aera2TM for Lithography aerial imaging inspection tool with the litho cluster.

Englard, Ilan; Cohen, Yaron; Elblinger, Yair; Attal, Shay; Berns, Neil; Shoval, Lior; Ben-Yishai, Michael; Mangan, Shmoolik

2009-03-01

393

Universality in fragment inclusive yields from Au + Au collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusive light fragment (Z<=7) yield data in Au+Au reactions, measured by the EOS Collaboration at the LBNL Bevalac, are presented as a function of multiplicity. Moving from central to peripheral collisions the measured charge distributions develop progressively according to a power law which can be fitted, within errors, by a single ? exponent independently of the bombarding energy except for the data at 250A MeV. In addition, the location of the maximum in the individual yields of different charged fragments, for a given beam energy, shifts towards lower multiplicity as the fragment charge increases from Z=3 to Z=7. This trend is common to all six measured beam energies. Moments of charge distribution are also reported. The universal features observed in the present Au + Au data are consistent with previous experimental findings in the Au + C multifragmentation reaction at 1A GeV.

Insolia, A.; Tuvè, C.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Ritter, H. G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J.; Tincknell, M. L.; Wang, S.; Warren, P. G.; Wieman, H. H.; Wienold, T.; Wolf, K. L.

2000-04-01

394

Acid corrosive esophagitis: radiographic findings.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine esophagograms of 24 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCI) in suicide attempts were reviewed. All esophagograms were obtained in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases. In the acute and subacute phases, the radiographic findings consisted of mucosal edema, submucosal edema or hemorrhage, ulcerations, sloughing of the mucosa, atony, and dilatation. Strictures of the esophagus were present in the chronic phase. These radiographic findings were not different from those found in alkaline corrosive esophagitis. The severity of the corrosive esophagitis is considered related to the concentration, amount, viscosity, and duration of contact between the caustic agent and the esophageal mucosa. PMID:6770621

Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

1980-06-01

395

Dermoscopy Findings of Pseudolymphomatous Folliculitis  

PubMed Central

Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis (PLF), which clinically mimicks cutaneous lymphoma, is a rare manifestation of cutaneous pseudolymphoma and cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Here, we report on a 45-year-old Japanese woman with PLF. Dermoscopy findings revealed prominent arborizing vessels with small perifollicular and follicular yellowish spots and follicular red dots. A biopsy specimen also revealed dense lymphocytes, especially CD1a+ cells, infiltrated around the hair follicles. Without any additional treatment, the patient's nodule rapidly decreased. The presented case suggests that typical dermoscopy findings could be a possible supportive tool for the diagnosis of PLF.

Fujimura, Taku; Hidaka, Takanori; Hashimoto, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya

2012-01-01

396

Finding time, stopping the frenzy.  

PubMed

While the deleterious consequences of long hours of work for individuals, families and communities have previously been documented, the assumption that long hours are necessary to get the work done, especially in a world where speed is becoming increasingly critical to corporate success, has prompted little challenge. So Leslie Perlow, an assistant professor of business at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, set out to explore the necessity for the seemingly endless workdays that so many postindustrial settings require. Her study of a group of software engineers at a Fortune 500 company--identified only as the Ditto Corp--is detailed in her book, Finding Time: How Corporations, Individuals, and Families Can Benefit from New Work Practices (Cornell University Press, 1997). Perlow's research reveals a "sad and all too common tale" of workers harried by competing demands, frequent interruptions and shifting deadlines. To meet the firm's expectations, the engineers she studied sacrificed home life, focused on individual tasks to the detriment of group goals and, in many cases, eventually lost any enthusiasm they'd had for working for the company. There has been some recognition that stress and burnout may be bad for a corporation as employees become less committed, decide to leave or get fired and that this kind of turnover can hurt the firm in the longer term. But Perlow documented the additional, and quite significant, shorter-term costs to the corporation of the current way of using time at work. What she found was a "vicious time cycle:" Time pressures led to a crisis mentality, which led to "individual heroics." That is, I'll do whatever it takes to do my job--even if it means interrupting you while you try to do yours. For the engineers Perlow studied, the lack of helping, the constant interruptions and the perpetual crises--clearly illustrated by the daily log that appears on page 34--made it harder to develop products. Ultimately, they worked long hours to complete tasks they'd been too busy to do earlier because of the constant interruptions. Worse, because everyone was busy responding to crises, no one had time to prevent future crises, thus perpetuating the cycle. But as dire as the situation sometimes seemed, change was possible. The "quiet time" phase of the author's nine-month study indicated that productivity could be enhanced by structuring work time to allow the engineers intervals to work alone, uninterrupted. After this first phase, about two out of three of the 17 people involved said their productivity during quiet time was above average. Nearly as many said overall productivity was above average as well. This implies that the costs of the current way of using time exceed the benefits. The data further show that change must be collective, addressing all elements of the vicious cycle. The promising implication is that collective change could benefit everyone--corporations, individuals and families. The work process could be made more efficient and effective. At the same time, individuals could succeed at work and still have time for responsibilities outside of work; people might not have to choose so definitively between their work and their home lives. To make the necessary changes, however, will require a shift from a system that rewards individuals heroics and long hours to one that rewards individuals' contributions to their teams--without the accompanying emphasis on visible work hours. That is, there must be a shift in emphasis from individual to collective achievement. And there must be a sharing of the resulting gains in efficiency between employees and employers. In the following excerpt from her book, Perlow describes what is needed to turn a vicious time cycle into a "virtuous" one: PMID:10181929

Perlow, L A

1998-08-01

397

Remotely Sensed Rice Yield Prediction Using Multi-Temporal NDVI Data Derived from NOAA's-AVHRR  

PubMed Central

Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha?1. Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

2013-01-01

398

Characteristics of water-well yields in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mean yields and the numbers of wells drilled are presented for 35 rock types containing 4,115 wells in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia. Analysis of variance of the well yields shows that Harper's Formation phyllite and Catoctin Formation metabasalt have yields significantly different from those of other rock types. Preliminary variography has identified an anisotropy that roughly parallels the general compressional trend of the Blue Ridge.

Sutphin, David M.; Drew, L. J.; Schuenemeyer, J. H.; Burton, W. C.

2000-01-01

399

Growth and development characteristics of super-high-yielding mid-season japonica rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is one of the most important food crops in China. The realization of the super-high-yielding (SHY) type has great significance\\u000a in ensuring food security in this country. This study investigated the growth and development characteristics of the super-high-yielding\\u000a rice (grain yield > 11 t\\/hm2). Four mid-season japonica rice cultivars (including lines): Lianjiajing 2, Huajing 5, 0026 and 9823, were

Jianchang Yang; Yong Du; Changfu Wu; Lijun Liu; Zhiqin Wang; Qingsen Zhu

2007-01-01

400

The Impact of Microstructure on Yield Strength Anisotropy in Linepipe Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe here the effect of microstructure on the yield strength anisotropy in high-strength microalloyed linepipe steels. The anisotropy in steel with ferrite-bainite microstructure was lower compared to the steel with ferrite-pearlite microstructure and is attributed to the significant difference in their transformation texture components, {112}<110> and {332}<113>. The yield strength anisotropy is discussed in terms of crystal plasticity concept involving estimation of average orientation factor and its relation to yield strength.

Venkatsurya, P. K. C.; Misra, R. D. K.; Mulholland, M. D.; Manohar, M.; Hartmann, J. E.

2014-05-01

401

Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.  

PubMed

To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565

Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

2014-05-01

402

Yield loci for an anisotropic granular assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield loci of a granular material are derived in case of triaxial compression carried out at constant pressure. The theory is based upon a simple micromechanical model in which particles move according to an average, homogeneous deformation. We show how the presence of an inherent anisotropy in the aggregate (typical of laboratory samples due to depositional processes) produces a deviation of the yield loci in the stress space from the expected Mohr-Coulomb prediction. That is, when the compaction pressure in an anisotropic aggregate is increased, irreversibility associated with sliding between particles occurs and this will influence the yield function in the subsequent triaxial test. Numerical simulations support the theoretical result.

La Ragione, Luigi; Oger, Luc

2012-10-01

403

Carbon monoxide yields of cigarettes and their relation to nicotine yield and type of filter.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) yields of 11 popular brands of British cigarette, two types of cigarette containing tobacco-substitute, and one brand of cigar were measured under standardized conditions. Yields of the conventional cigarettes ranged from 5.0 to 20.2 mg per cigarette (1.3 to 4.7% by volume). The cigar yielded 81.7 mg (10.0%) CO and the two semi-synthetic cigarettes 17.2 (4.2%) and 28.2 mg (6.2%) CO. Puff-by-puff analysis showed an increase in CO concentration as a cigarette is smoked. In brands with nicotine yields over 1.0 mg no relationship was apparent between nicotine yield and CO yield, and the filters of cigarettes in this category did not appear to reduce the CO yield. In the low nicotine cigarettes with ventilated filters there appeared to be some correlation between nicotine yield and CO yield, and these filters were highly effective in reducing CO yield, owing mainly to the ventilation. We suggest that official publication of CO yields might motivate manufacturers to produce cigarettes with lower yields.

Russell, M A; Cole, P V; Idle, M S; Adams, L

1975-01-01

404

Sediment yield exceeds sediment production in arid region drainage basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use 10Be and 26Al to determine long-term sediment generation rates, identify significant sediment sources, and test for landscape steady state in Nahal Yael, an extensively studied, hyperarid drainage basin in southern Israel. Comparing a 33 yr sediment budget with 33 paired 10Be and 26Al analyses indicates that short-term sediment yield (113 138 t · km-2 · yr-1) exceeds long-term

Erik M. Clapp; Paul R. Bierman; Asher P. Schick; Judith Lekach; Yehouda Enzel; Marc Caffee

2000-01-01

405

YIELD STABILITY OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) GENOTYPES ACROSS LOCATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize genotypes vary in their response to variable environmental conditions. Twenty genotypes were tested at nine locations in Ethiopia (1,100-2,240 masl) in the 1998 cropping season to study their phenotypic yield stability. Analysis of variance and stability analysis were computed. Variances due to genotypes, environments, and G x E interaction were significant. Linear and non-linear components of G x E

Mosisa Worku; Habtamu Zelleke; Girma Taye; Benti Tolessa; Legesse Wolde; Wende Abera; Aschalew Guta; Hadji Tuna

406

Making lasting memories: Remembering the significant  

PubMed Central

Although forgetting is the common fate of most of our experiences, much evidence indicates that emotional arousal enhances the storage of memories, thus serving to create, selectively, lasting memories of our more important experiences. The neurobiological systems mediating emotional arousal and memory are very closely linked. The adrenal stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone released by emotional arousal regulate the consolidation of long-term memory. The amygdala plays a critical role in mediating these stress hormone influences. The release of norepinephrine in the amygdala and the activation of noradrenergic receptors are essential for stress hormone-induced memory enhancement. The findings of both animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that stress-induced activation of the amygdala and its interactions with other brain regions involved in processing memory play a critical role in ensuring that emotionally significant experiences are well-remembered. Recent research has determined that some human subjects have highly superior autobiographic memory of their daily experiences and that there are structural differences in the brains of these subjects compared with the brains of subjects who do not have such memory. Understanding of neurobiological bases of such exceptional memory may provide additional insights into the processes underlying the selectivity of memory.

McGaugh, James L.

2013-01-01

407

The measure and significance of Bateman's principles  

PubMed Central

Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

Collet, Julie M.; Dean, Rebecca F.; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S.; Pizzari, Tommaso

2014-01-01

408

The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.  

PubMed

Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles. PMID:24648220

Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

2014-05-01

409

Plasma nicotine levels after smoking cigarettes with high, medium, and low nicotine yields.  

PubMed Central

Plasma nicotine three minutes after smoking a cigarette was measured in 10 sedentary workers in mid-morning and five hours later on four typical working days. The average mid-morning level after they had been smoking their usual cigarettes (mean nicotine yield 1-34 ng) was 150-4 nmol/l (24-4 ng/ml) (range 95-6-236-7 nmol/l (15-5-38-4 ng/ml)). Despite great variation between smokersthe mid-morning levels of each smoker were fairly consistent over the four mornings and correlated 0-82 with their carboxyhaemoglobin levels. After continuing to smoke their usual brand or switching to a high-nicotine brand (3-2 mg) average afternoon levels of 185-6 and 180-0 nmol/6 (30-1 and 29-2 ng/ml) respectively were not significantly higher than the morning levels, but after switching to low-nicotine cigarettes (0-14 mg) the plasma nicotine dropped to an average of 52-4 nmol/l (8-5 ng/ml). The changes between morning and afternoon while smoking usual or high-nicotine cigarettes showed marked individual variation. The findings suggest that the plasma nicotine level just after a cigarette depends more on the way the cigarette is smoked than on its nicotine yield or the number which have been smoked over the preceding few hours.

Russell, M A; Wilson, C; Patel, U A; Feyerabend, C; Cole, P V

1975-01-01

410

Yukawa corrections to {gamma}{gamma}{yields}bb in the topcolor assisted technicolor models  

SciTech Connect

We study the Yukawa corrections to the {gamma}{gamma}{yields}bb cross section in the topcolor assisted technicolor models at the photon-photon colliders. We find that, for the favorable parameters, the relative corrections from pseudo-Goldstone bosons give out a 3.2%{approx}5.9% decrement of the cross section from the tree level when {radical}(s)=500 GeV, the contributions from new extended technicolor gauge bosons Z* and colored gauge bosons B are negligibly small, and the relative correction arising from new color-singlet heavy gauge boson Z{sup '} is less than -3.2%. Therefore, the total relative corrections are significantly larger than the corresponding corrections in the standard model, the general two Higgs doublet model, and the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Since these corrections are obvious for the International Linear Colliders, the process {gamma}{gamma}{yields}bb is really interesting in testing the standard model and searching for the signs of technicolor.

Huang Jinshu [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Department of Physics, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Lu Gongru [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

2008-08-01

411

How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker & Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2012) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Kinney & Graham, 1985). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.

2012-04-01

412

How to estimate yield using remote infrasound recordings?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, estimates of radiated source energy or yield are based on empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for prevailing stratospheric winds. The most commonly used relation is derived from a high explosive dataset (Whitaker and Mutschlecner, 2008). However, limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (e.g., Green et al., 2010). More realistic predictions can be achieved by using improved atmospheric specifications and measured station noise characteristics, as well as attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. An improved yield-scaling relation is considered (Le Pichon et al., 2011) which accounts for near-real time atmospheric up-dates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This relation depends on a limited number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, dominant frequencies between 0.01 and 4.0 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet). All these parameters have a significant impact on infrasound propagation. We present a first approach for source energy (yield) estimates by combining all this information which provides a realistic picture of both station specific recording conditions and infrasound propagation from source to receiver. The spectrum of a full wave-train, whereas the local background noise is removed, can be inverted to a noise-free source spectrum at a certain reference distance, which is in turn related to certain yield based on empirical relations (e.g., Glasstone & Dolan, 1977). The capability of our approach is demonstrated for the two Sayarim explosion data-sets.

Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.

2011-12-01

413

Climate change: implications for the yield of edible rice.  

PubMed

Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980-2009 at IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy. PMID:23776635

Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa

2013-01-01

414

Statistical significance test for transition matrices of atmospheric Markov chains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-frequency variability of large-scale atmospheric dynamics can be represented schematically by a Markov chain of multiple flow regimes. This Markov chain contains useful information for the long-range forecaster, provided that the statistical significance of the associated transition matrix can be reliably tested. Monte Carlo simulation yields a very reliable significance test for the elements of this matrix. The results of this test agree with previously used empirical formulae when each cluster of maps identified as a distinct flow regime is sufficiently large and when they all contain a comparable number of maps. Monte Carlo simulation provides a more reliable way to test the statistical significance of transitions to and from small clusters. It can determine the most likely transitions, as well as the most unlikely ones, with a prescribed level of statistical significance.

Vautard, Robert; Mo, Kingtse C.; Ghil, Michael

1990-01-01

415

Help me Find my Relationship!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate the relationship between angles when parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Students will identify angles, find angle measures, and they will use the free application GeoGebra (see download link under Suggested Technology) to provide students with a visual representation of angles relationships.

2012-11-12

416

Finding minimum area simple pentagons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a set P of n points in the plane, we want to find a simple, not necessarily convex, pentagon Q with vertices in P of minimum area. We present an algorithm for solving this problem in time O(nT(n)) and space O(n), where T(n) is the number of empty triangles in the set.

Jean-françois Hêche; Thomas M. Liebling

1997-01-01

417

Finding Geography Using Found Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional literacy is important in both English/language arts and geography. Using the "found poetry" strategy, students will summarize a piece of text, identify main ideas and find geographic connections. While using young adult literature is a great way to incorporate geography into English/language arts classroom, understanding of geography…

Foster, Ellen J.

2012-01-01

418

MEMS AO for Planet Finding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul

2008-01-01

419

Finding the k Shortest Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe algorithms for finding the k shortest paths connectinga given pair of vertices in a digraph (allowing cycles). Our algorithmsoutput an implicit representation of the paths as an unordered setin time O(m + n log n + k). The paths can be output in order bylength in total time O(m + n log n + k log k). We

David Eppstein

1994-01-01

420

[CT findings of pulmonary hypertension].  

PubMed

For the treatment for pulmonary hypertension (PH), the differential diagnosis of its causal diseases is essential. To determine whether X-ray CT is useful for differentiating PH, we reviewed CT findings of 53 patients (18 men and 35 women, mean age of 44.9) given a diagnosis of PH, consisting of 25 with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), 18 with chronic pulmonary embolism (cPE), 6 with Eisenmenger syndrome, 5 cases of collagen diseases, 2 of acute PE, and 1 of cor pulmonale. The intrapulmonary distribution of CT findings (ground glass opacity [GGO], mosaic attenuation, striation and/or infiltration, and interlobular septal thickening) were reviewed and scored on a 4-point scale (grade 0: no findings, 1: involving one third of the lung, 2: involving one-two thirds, and 3: diffuse distribution) by two radiologists who reached a consensus. PPH showed preferentially diffuse distribution of GGO as compared with cPE (p<0.05). However, there was no apparent relationship between the pulmonary vascular resistance and the distribution of GGO in PPH cases. The mosaic attenuation pattern was more frequent in cPE (43%) than PPH (12% ; p<0.05). Striation and/or infiltration was observed in 36% of cPE, but only 4% of PPH. Interlobular septal thickening was seen in 16% of PPH, and 0% in cPE. Evaluation of CT findings is useful to differentiate PH. PMID:16886804

Inoue, Yukio; Tanimoto, Akihiro; Sato, Toru; Kuribayashi, Sachio

2006-07-01

421

Find a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist  

MedlinePLUS

... across the web! Become part of the Academy's social network and stay on top of essential news and information about what's happening in dietetics. Find out what people are talking about and join the conversation! Social Media Policy The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics ...

422

MRI findings in Kallmann syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a neuronal migration disorder characterised by hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and anosmia or hyposmia. Five patients with clinical findings suggestive of KS were evaluated with MRI. All patients had abnormalities of olfactory system. Olfactory bulbs were ab- sent in all patients. Olfactory sulci were absent in 3 patients and hypoplastic in 2 patients. Anterior pituitary was hypo- plastic

R. Madan; Vijay Sawlani; Sushil Gupta; R. V. Phadke

423

Magellan: Principal Venus Science Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a brief summary of the science findings of the Magellan mission, principally based on data from the radar system. Future plans for Magellan include acquisition of high resolution gravity data from a nearly circular orbit and atmospheric drag and o...

R. S. Saunders

1993-01-01

424

Triangles: Finding Interior Angle Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, students will start with a hands-on activity and then experiment with a GeoGebra-based computer model to investigate and discover the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem. Then they will use the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem to write and solve equations and find missing angle measures in a variety of examples.

2012-11-25

425

Spark chamber track finding program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spark-chamber track-finding program has been written. The accuracy of the location of the track is good, and if the chamber contains many spurious sparks the computation time is much less than the time used by a least-squares fit routine. Multiple tracks can be found and interaction vertices can thereby be determined.

Arens, J. F.

1974-01-01

426

Absolute Quantum Yield Measurement of Powder Samples  

PubMed Central

Measurement of fluorescence quantum yield has become an important tool in the search for new solutions in the development, evaluation, quality control and research of illumination, AV equipment, organic EL material, films, filters and fluorescent probes for bio-industry. Quantum yield is calculated as the ratio of the number of photons absorbed, to the number of photons emitted by a material. The higher the quantum yield, the better the efficiency of the fluorescent material. For the measurements featured in this video, we will use the Hitachi F-7000 fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with the Quantum Yield measuring accessory and Report Generator program. All the information provided applies to this system. Measurement of quantum yield in powder samples is performed following these steps: Generation of instrument correction factors for the excitation and emission monochromators. This is an important requirement for the correct measurement of quantum yield. It has been performed in advance for the full measurement range of the instrument and will not be shown in this video due to time limitations. Measurement of integrating sphere correction factors. The purpose of this step is to take into consideration reflectivity characteristics of the integrating sphere used for the measurements. Reference and Sample measurement using direct excitation and indirect excitation. Quantum Yield calculation using Direct and Indirect excitation. Direct excitation is when the sample is facing directly the excitation beam, which would be the normal measurement setup. However, because we use an integrating sphere, a portion of the emitted photons resulting from the sample fluorescence are reflected by the integrating sphere and will re-excite the sample, so we need to take into consideration indirect excitation. This is accomplished by measuring the sample placed in the port facing the emission monochromator, calculating indirect quantum yield and correcting the direct quantum yield calculation. Corrected quantum yield calculation. Chromaticity coordinates calculation using Report Generator program. The Hitachi F-7000 Quantum Yield Measurement System offer advantages for this application, as follows: High sensitivity (S/N ratio 800 or better RMS). Signal is the Raman band of water measured under the following conditions: Ex wavelength 350 nm, band pass Ex and Em 5 nm, response 2 sec), noise is measured at the maximum of the Raman peak. High sensitivity allows measurement of samples even with low quantum yield. Using this system we have measured quantum yields as low as 0.1 for a sample of salicylic acid and as high as 0.8 for a sample of magnesium tungstate. Highly accurate measurement with a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude allows for measurements of both sharp scattering peaks with high intensity, as well as broad fluorescence peaks of low intensity under the same conditions. High measuring throughput and reduced light exposure to the sample, due to a high scanning speed of up to 60,000 nm/minute and automatic shutter function. Measurement of quantum yield over a wide wavelength range from 240 to 800 nm. Accurate quantum yield measurements are the result of collecting instrument spectral response and integrating sphere correction factors before measuring the sample. Large selection of calculated parameters provided by dedicated and easy to use software. During this video we will measure sodium salicylate in powder form which is known to have a quantum yield value of 0.4 to 0.5.

Moreno, Luis A.

2012-01-01

427

Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

Manatt, S. L.

1978-01-01

428

Yield Enhancement by Fault Tolerant Systolic Arrays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper interstitial fault tolerance (IFT), a technique for incorporating fault tolerance into systolic arrays in a natural manner, is discussed. IFT can be used for reliable computation or for yield enhancement. Here the author compares IFT used fo...

R. H. Kuhn

1983-01-01

429

Solar Telescope Yields Striking New Sunspot Images  

NSF Publications Database

... Yields Striking New Sunspot Images This sunspot image shows what the new camera and adaptive ... times wider than Earth, was made possible by a new high-resolution CCD camera working in conjunction ...

430

Repeated Discontinuous Yielding of 2024 Aluminum Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The repeated discontinuous yielding characteristics of 2024 aluminum alloy were determined for different conditions of solution and heat treatment and age hardening. The results are interpreted with reference to microscopic deformation mechanisms and the ...

A. Rosen S. R. Bodner

1968-01-01

431

Yields of US and Soviet nuclear tests  

SciTech Connect

Failure to account properly for geological and seismological differences between the US and Soviet test sites has led to overestimates of the yields of Soviet tests and to incorrect claims of Soviet cheating on the treaty limit of 150 kilotons.

Evernden, J.F.; Marsh, G.E.

1987-08-01

432

Spectral behavior of wheat yield variety trials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Little variation between varieties is seen at jointing, but the variability is found to increase during grain filling and decline again at maturity. No relationship is found between spectral response and yield, and when yields are segregated into various classes the spectral response is the same. Spring and winter nurseries are found to separate during the reproductive stage because of differences in dates of heading and maturity, but they exhibit similar spectral responses. The transformed normalized difference is at a minimum after the maximum grain weight occurs and the leaves begin to brown and fall off. These data of 100% ground cover demonstrate that it is not possible to predict grain yield from only spectral data. This, however, may not apply when reduced yields are caused by less-than-full ground cover

Hatfield, J. L.

1981-01-01

433

Ocklawaha River Basin Rainfall Yield Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this technical memorandum (TM) is to report the results of an investigation of the relationship between total annual rainfall and total annual yield of the Ocklawaha River Basin. This investigation was performed to support discussio...

2008-01-01

434

Breeding Improvement of Rubber Yield in Guayule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summarized are recent studies in the breeding improvements of rubber yield in guayule. Breeders working for the Emergency Rubber Project developed a number of cultivars from which seed was preserved and stored by USDA. These activars, augmented by new col...

G. P. Hanson

1980-01-01

435

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: CT and MRI findings.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to report the CT and MRI appearances of primary and metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The clinical and imaging findings of 31 patients with histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of GIST were reviewed. The CT and MRI findings were assessed independently for size, location, enhancement characteristics, and pattern of metastatic disease. The tumors were of enteric (n=13), gastric (n=12), duodenal (n=2), and rectal (n=3) origin. In one case the primary site was the mesentery, without involvement of bowel. Primary tumors were typically exophytic (79%), larger than 5 cm (84%), and inhomogeneously enhancing (84%). Central necrosis of all tumors (37%) and aneurysmal dilation of enteric tumors (33%) were less common. Metastases were most commonly to mesentery (26%) or liver (32%). Less common findings were ascites (7%) and omental caking (3%). Liver metastases were hypervascular in 92% of patients and rapidly became cystic following therapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ, USA). Lung metastases, bowel obstruction, vascular invasion, and significant lymphadenopathy were not seen in any patient. GISTs have some specific CT findings which could help differentiate them from other gastrointestinal tumors. Liver metastases became cystic following therapy, mimicking simple cysts. MRI was better than single-phase CT for assessing liver metastases, while CT was more sensitive for mesenteric metastases. PMID:15761716

Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Rajesh, Arumugam; Rushing, Daniel A; Rydberg, Jonas; Akisik, Fatih M; Henley, John D

2005-07-01

436

LACIE: Wheat yield models for the USSR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative model determining the relationship between weather conditions and wheat yield in the U.S.S.R. was studied to provide early reliable forecasts on the size of the U.S.S.R. wheat harvest. Separate models are developed for spring wheat and for winter. Differences in yield potential and responses to stress conditions and cultural improvements necessitate models for each class.

Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

1977-01-01

437

Neutron Yields from Targets Bombarded by Electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total neutron yields from thick targets bombarded by electrons were measured as a function of electron energy for the range 10 to 36 Mev. Targets ranging in thickness from one to six radiation lengths of C, Al, Cu, Ta, Pb, and U were used. The yields for 1- and 6-radiation-length targets of Pb at 34 Mev are 2.1×10-3 and

W. C. Barber; W. D. George

1959-01-01

438

Upconversion yield in glass ceramics containing silver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small silver particles are known to increase the fluorescence yield in rare-earth-doped glasses. These particles can be grown easily in glass ceramics of general composition (PbF2, GeO2, YbF3, ErF3). The authors have studied the effect of the addition of silver on the up-conversion yield due to sequential energy transfer between YbT and ErT ions. The origin and the information that

O. L. Malta; P. A. Santa-Cruz; G. Desa; F. Auzel

1987-01-01

439

Electromagnetic pulses from low-yield bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave forms of the electromagnetic pulse received from low-yield detonations were recorded for use in improving methods of estimating yields of such devices. Also, display components of the det onation locator central AN\\/GSS-5(XE-1) were evaluated. The wave forms were measured over frequency bands of 1 kc to 10 Mc and 0 to 250 kc, at a regge of about 100

G. Cantor; A. Farnochi

1960-01-01

440

Modeling sediment yields in Italian catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment yield observations, derived from 40 long-term sedimentation records in Italian reservoirs, were used to calibrate and validate the spatially distributed sediment delivery model WaTEM\\/SEDEM using the best data available at national scale. The sediment yield data set includes records from semi-natural catchments in northern Italy as well as agricultural and semi-natural basins in central and southern Italy. The average

Anton Van Rompaey; Paolo Bazzoffi; Robert J. A. Jones; Luca Montanarella

2005-01-01

441

Genotype × environment interactions for tea yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods were used to evaluate phenotypic stability in 20 tea (Camellia sinensis) genotypes, many of which are cultivated widely in East Africa. The genotypes were evaluated fo