Sample records for yielded significant findings

  1. Finding Statistically Significant Communities in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lancichinetti, Andrea; Radicchi, Filippo; Ramasco, José J.; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Community structure is one of the main structural features of networks, revealing both their internal organization and the similarity of their elementary units. Despite the large variety of methods proposed to detect communities in graphs, there is a big need for multi-purpose techniques, able to handle different types of datasets and the subtleties of community structure. In this paper we present OSLOM (Order Statistics Local Optimization Method), the first method capable to detect clusters in networks accounting for edge directions, edge weights, overlapping communities, hierarchies and community dynamics. It is based on the local optimization of a fitness function expressing the statistical significance of clusters with respect to random fluctuations, which is estimated with tools of Extreme and Order Statistics. OSLOM can be used alone or as a refinement procedure of partitions/covers delivered by other techniques. We have also implemented sequential algorithms combining OSLOM with other fast techniques, so that the community structure of very large networks can be uncovered. Our method has a comparable performance as the best existing algorithms on artificial benchmark graphs. Several applications on real networks are shown as well. OSLOM is implemented in a freely available software (http://www.oslom.org), and we believe it will be a valuable tool in the analysis of networks. PMID:21559480

  2. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Responsible...a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR...considered in the EA, environmental factors considered, and project impacts; and (2) A brief...

  3. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Responsible...a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR...considered in the EA, environmental factors considered, and project impacts; and (2) A brief...

  4. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Responsible...a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR...considered in the EA, environmental factors considered, and project impacts; and (2) A brief...

  5. 46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...significant impact on the quality of the human environment of the United States or of the global commons, a finding of no significant impact...not have a significant effect on the human environment and why, therefore, an environmental...

  6. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Findings of no significant impact. 1021.322 Section...Findings of no significant impact. (a) DOE shall...not have a significant effect on the human environment...essential to render the impacts of the proposed action...essential to render the impacts of the proposed...

  7. 16 CFR 1021.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant impact shall cite and be...refer to anticipated effects upon the environment...reason(s) why those effects will not be significant...reasons why the overall impact on the environment...

  8. Genetic Diversity and Soybean Yield: Finding the Balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on national production statistics since 1924, average soybean yield in the U.S. has increased at a nearly steady rate of 22 kg ha-1 year-1. It is possible to show some changes in this rate depending on how these past 85 years are divided, but two conclusions seem evident. Soybean yield has not...

  9. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g (Earth's gravity), and the emergence of face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals late in the coarsening process (as small crystallites lost particles to the slow ripening of large crystallites). Significant quantitative findings from the microgravity experiments have been developed describing complex interactions among crystallites during the growth process, as concentration fields overlap in the surrounding disordered phase. Time-resolved Bragg scattering under microgravity captures one effect of these interactions quite conclusively for the sample at a volume fraction of 0.528. From the earliest time until the sample is almost fully crystalline, the size and overall crystallinity grow monotonically, but the number of crystallites per unit volume (number density) falls. Apparently nucleation is slower than the loss of crystallites because of the transfer of particles from small to large crystals. Thus, coarsening occurs simultaneously with growth, rather than following the completion of nucleation and growth as is generally assumed. In the same sample, an interesting signature appears in the apparent number density of crystallites and the volume fraction within the crystallites shortly before full crystallinity is reached. A brief upturn in both indicates the creation of more domains of the size of the average crystallite simultaneous with the compression of the crystallites. Only the emergence of dendritic arms offers a reasonable explanation. The arms would be "seen" by the light scattering as separate domains whose smaller radii of curvature would compress the interior phase. In fiscal year 1999, numerous papers, a doctoral dissertation, and the PHaSE final report were produced. Although this flight project has been completed, plans are in place for a follow-on colloid experiment by Chaikin and Russel that employs a light microscope within Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. PHaSE is providing us with a deeper understanding of the nure of phase transitions. The knowledge derived has added to the understandin

  10. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant...1308 Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant...part 402; Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties, 36 CFR part 800....

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940—Finding of No...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940—Finding of No...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940—Finding of No...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940—Finding of No...

  15. SIMPLE MACHINE PERFUSION SIGNIFICANTLY ENHANCES HEPATOCYTE YIELDS OF ISCHEMIC AND FRESH RAT LIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Basak E.; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Price, Gavrielle; Luitje, Martha; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L.; Uygun, Korkut

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of viable hepatocytes is a significant bottleneck in cell transplantation, drug discovery, toxicology, tissue engineering, and bioartificial assist devices, where trillions of high-functioning hepatocytes are needed annually. We took the novel approach of using machine perfusion to maximize cell recovery, specifically from uncontrolled cardiac death donors, the largest source of disqualified donor organs. In a rat model, we developed a simple 3 hour room temperature (20±2°C) machine perfusion protocol to treat non-premedicated livers exposed to 1 hour of warm (34°C) ischemia. Treated ischemic livers were compared to fresh, fresh-treated and untreated ischemic livers using viable hepatocyte yields and in vitro performance as quantitative endpoints. Perfusion treatment resulted in both a 25-fold increase in viable hepatocytes from ischemic livers, and a 40% increase from fresh livers. While cell morphology and function in suspension and plate cultures of untreated warm ischemic cells was significantly impaired, treated warm ischemic cells were indistinguishable from fresh hepatocytes. Further, a strong linear correlation between tissue ATP and cell yield enabled accurate evaluation of the extent of perfusion recovery. Maximal recovery of warm ischemic liver ATP content appears to be correlated with optimal flow through the microvasculature. These data demonstrate that the inclusion of a simple perfusion-preconditioning step can significantly increase the efficiency of functional hepatocyte yields and the number of donor livers that can be gainfully utilized. PMID:25431743

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940—Finding of No Significant...

  17. 78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ...Docket No. 50-409; NRC-2013-0168] La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...Federal Regulations (10 CFR) for the La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) facility and Independent Spent Fuel...

  18. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on...

  19. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on...

  20. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on...

  1. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on...

  2. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission...Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.35 Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on...

  3. 77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant...Environmental Assessment (EA) associated with a solar generation project. The EA was prepared...loan or loan guarantee to Turning Point Solar LLC (Turning Point Solar) for the...

  4. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  5. Rediscovery rate estimation for assessing the validation of significant findings in high-throughput studies.

    PubMed

    Ganna, Andrea; Lee, Donghwan; Ingelsson, Erik; Pawitan, Yudi

    2015-08-01

    It is common and advised practice in biomedical research to validate experimental or observational findings in a population different from the one where the findings were initially assessed. This practice increases the generalizability of the results and decreases the likelihood of reporting false-positive findings. Validation becomes critical when dealing with high-throughput experiments, where the large number of tests increases the chance to observe false-positive results. In this article, we review common approaches to determine statistical thresholds for validation and describe the factors influencing the proportion of significant findings from a 'training' sample that are replicated in a 'validation' sample. We refer to this proportion as rediscovery rate (RDR). In high-throughput studies, the RDR is a function of false-positive rate and power in both the training and validation samples. We illustrate the application of the RDR using simulated data and real data examples from metabolomics experiments. We further describe an online tool to calculate the RDR using t-statistics. We foresee two main applications. First, if the validation study has not yet been collected, the RDR can be used to decide the optimal combination between the proportion of findings taken to validation and the size of the validation study. Secondly, if a validation study has already been done, the RDR estimated using the training data can be compared with the observed RDR from the validation data; hence, the success of the validation study can be assessed. PMID:25256289

  6. Delayed Carcass Deboning Results in Significantly Reduced Cook Yields of Boneless Skinless Chicken Thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boneless skinless chicken thighs are a new deboned poultry product in the retail market. Three trials were conducted to investigate the effect of postmortem carcass deboning time on the cook yields of boneless skinless chicken thighs as well as boneless skinless chicken breasts. Broiler carcasses ...

  7. Is intravenous contrast necessary for detection of clinically significant extracolonic findings in patients undergoing CT colonography?

    PubMed Central

    Alkandari, LAA; Haaland, B; Low, W; Tan, C H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether intravenous contrast (IVC) is necessary for detection of extracolonic findings (ECFs) in patients undergoing CT colonography (CTC). Methods: We performed a retrospective review of CT findings in 179 cases of CTC studies performed over 18 months where both pre-contrast (NECT) and post-contrast (CECT) scans were performed in the prone and supine positions, respectively, in the same patients. All ECFs were recorded on a per patient basis and graded according to the colonography reporting and data system classification. Results: There was no significant change in E grade for the cohort (p?=?0.171) between the NECT and CECT scans. On the CECT scans, additional findings were detected in 49.1% of patients. Overall, there were 27/179 (15.1%) patients graded E3 and 18/179 (10.1%) patients graded E4 on the CECT study. Compared with the NECT study, there was a decrease of 12.9% of patients graded E3 and no change in the number of patients graded E4. Conclusion: With IVC administration, additional ECFs are detected in nearly half of all patients. However, there was no increase in the number of patients with clinically significant lesions. The risk–benefit ratio of routine IVC administration for CTC in symptomatic patients thus requires further evaluation. Advances in knowledge: This study reviews the utility of IVC in CTC and is thus relevant to current clinical practice at many institutions. PMID:24625066

  8. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. {section}4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus Milling

    2004-09-23

    Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

  11. [Granular media calcinosis of the aorta. Structural findings, historical review and pathogenetic significance].

    PubMed

    Mohr, W; Görz, E

    2001-12-01

    Granular mediacalcinosis of the aorta seems to be a forgotten phenomenon that had been intensively investigated at the beginning of the past century. Without knowledge of this older literature we were, first of all, astonished to find in histological sections from aortic aneurysms, appearing "normal" in the H&E stain, severe calcifications of the media in von Kóssa and Alizarin red S stained sections. Therefore, 24 operation specimens of aneurysms were investigated with several morphological methods. In all cases, light microscopy exhibited granular medial calcification with a slight increase of the severity in specimens from older patients. Scanning electron microscopy on paraffin sections revealed calcified globules with diameters of about 1 micron localized between the elastic laminae. By transmission electron microscopy these calcospherites occupied the space between the elastic laminae. X-ray microanalysis exhibited high amounts of calcium and phosphorus and a smaller amount of magnesium. This atomic composition supports the findings of Reid and Andersen (69) indicating that these calcifications are due to the deposition of whitlockite. These morphological findings are supplemented by a review of the older literature. The biological significance of this calcification remains unknown. On the one hand, it may be responsible for the increasing stiffness of the aorta in older age groups--and, on the other hand, a pathogenetic role for the development of dissecting aneurysms cannot be excluded. This may be supported by the effect of beta-aminopropionitril in lathyric rats with destruction of the interlaminar fibers, described by Nakashima and Sueishi (65): it seems possible that a focal increased calcification in the human aorta may disturb the connection between the elastic laminae, thus, facilitating their separation. PMID:11826833

  12. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-01

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems.

  13. Cochlear implantation with hearing preservation yields significant benefit for speech recognition in complex listening environments

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, René H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Skarzynski, Henryk; Lorens, Artur; Polak, Marek; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Roland, Peter; Buchman, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of having preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear for speech recognition in complex listening environments. Design The current study included a within subjects, repeated-measures design including 21 English speaking and 17 Polish speaking cochlear implant recipients with preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear. The patients were implanted with electrodes that varied in insertion depth from 10 to 31 mm. Mean preoperative low-frequency thresholds (average of 125, 250 and 500 Hz) in the implanted ear were 39.3 and 23.4 dB HL for the English- and Polish-speaking participants, respectively. In one condition, speech perception was assessed in an 8-loudspeaker environment in which the speech signals were presented from one loudspeaker and restaurant noise was presented from all loudspeakers. In another condition, the signals were presented in a simulation of a reverberant environment with a reverberation time of 0.6 sec. The response measures included speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and percent correct sentence understanding for two test conditions: cochlear implant (CI) plus low-frequency hearing in the contralateral ear (bimodal condition) and CI plus low-frequency hearing in both ears (best aided condition). A subset of 6 English-speaking listeners were also assessed on measures of interaural time difference (ITD) thresholds for a 250-Hz signal. Results Small, but significant, improvements in performance (1.7 – 2.1 dB and 6 – 10 percentage points) were found for the best-aided condition vs. the bimodal condition. Postoperative thresholds in the implanted ear were correlated with the degree of EAS benefit for speech recognition in diffuse noise. There was no reliable relationship among measures of audiometric threshold in the implanted ear nor elevation in threshold following surgery and improvement in speech understanding in reverberation. There was a significant correlation between ITD threshold at 250 Hz and EAS-related benefit for the adaptive SRT. Conclusions Our results suggest that (i) preserved low-frequency hearing improves speech understanding for CI recipients (ii) testing in complex listening environments, in which binaural timing cues differ for signal and noise, may best demonstrate the value of having two ears with low-frequency acoustic hearing and (iii) preservation of binaural timing cues, albeit poorer than observed for individuals with normal hearing, is possible following unilateral cochlear implantation with hearing preservation and is associated with EAS benefit. Our results demonstrate significant communicative benefit for hearing preservation in the implanted ear and provide support for the expansion of cochlear implant criteria to include individuals with low-frequency thresholds in even the normal to near-normal range. PMID:23446225

  14. 78 FR 146 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...Finding of No Significant Impact for the Longhorn Pipeline Reversal Project AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  15. 75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ...significant increase in occupational or public radiation exposures. With regard to potential...effluents, air quality or noise. The proposed action...significant increase in occupational or public radiation exposure. Environmental...

  16. AIDS and significant others: findings from a preliminary exploration of needs.

    PubMed

    Greif, G L; Porembski, E

    1988-01-01

    Virtually nothing is known about the impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on significant others. Significant others have needs, and often these persons become valuable sources of emotional and physical support for the person with AIDS. Data from interviews with 11 significant others suggest a number of considerations for work with this distressed population. PMID:3229679

  17. The significance of age on symptoms and urodynamic- and cystoscopic findings in benign prostatic hypertrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Simonsen; B. Møller-Madsen; T. Dørflinger; J. P. Nørgåard; H. S. Jørgensen; E. Lundhus

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate influence of age on symptomatology and objective parameters in benign prostatic hypertrophy, preoperative findings in 199 unselected patients during one year were analysed. Symptoms of bladder instability increased with age, as did incidence of uninhibited detrusor contractions and bladder trabeculation, whereas maximum urine flow and obstructive complaints decreased, although prostatic size was the same. In the oldest age

  18. 75 FR 70707 - Detroit Edison Company; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...shipments from the Fermi-1 decommissioning project. Those rail...the probability of an accident occurring. The proposed...November, 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory...

  19. 77 FR 49457 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...Draft Environmental Assessment for removing salt cedar...required Environmental Assessment (EA) the USIBWC has...such as historical or cultural resources, park lands...significant scientific, cultural, or historic resources...in the environmental assessment, it is the...

  20. 75 FR 11946 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...significant adverse effect on the probability...to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination...are needed. No effects on the aquatic or...2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory...

  1. 76 FR 50170 - Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...Natural Resources Conservation Service Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding of No Significant...being prepared for the rehabilitation of Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia. FOR FURTHER...

  2. 78 FR 70529 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer...transferring the land and real estate at the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) in Clemson...10 acres of land and facilities at the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS)...

  3. MR Imaging Findings of Rathke's Cleft Cysts: Significance of Intracystic Nodules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo Mok Byun; Lyong Kim

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rathke's cleft cysts often may be difficult to differentiate from other intrasellar or suprasellar masses on radiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to describe the significance of intracystic nodules, a diagnostic characteristic found in Rathke's cleft cysts, on MR images. METHODS: A retrospective review of MR studies was conducted for 13 patients who, after pathologic

  4. Finding the Intersection of the Learning Organization and Learning Transfer: The Significance of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jun Hee; Callahan, Jamie L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to develop a conceptual framework delineating the key dimension of the learning organization which significantly influences learning transfer. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing previous studies and synthesizing the results associated with the following four relationships:…

  5. Wharton's Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Future of Regenerative Medicine? Recent Findings and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kalaszczynska, Ilona; Ferdyn, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Around 5 million annual births in EU and 131 million worldwide give a unique opportunity to collect lifesaving Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC). Evidences that these cells possess therapeutic properties are constantly accumulating. Collection of WJ-MSC is done at the time of delivery and it is easy and devoid of side effects associated with collection of adult stem cells from bone marrow or adipose tissue. Likewise, their rate of proliferation, immune privileged status, lack of ethical concerns, nontumorigenic properties make them ideal for both autologous and allogeneic use in regenerative medicine applications. This review provides an outline of the recent findings related to WJ-MSC therapeutic effects and possible advantage they possess over MSC from other sources. Results of first clinical trials conducted to treat immune disorders are highlighted. PMID:25861624

  6. Clinical significance of the finding of subarachnoid blood on CT scan after head injury.

    PubMed

    Kakarieka, A; Braakman, R; Schakel, E H

    1994-01-01

    The population analysed consisted of 268 out of 819 patients of a European nimodipine multicentre trial on severe head injury, whose first CT scan after injury showed signs of subarachnoid bleeding. The study demonstrated the importance of traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (tSAH) per se as a prognostic factor. The outcome of patients with tSAH is significantly worse than that of patients whose first CT does not show subarachnoid blood (noSAH). The outcome was unfavourable (dead, persistent vegetative state, severe disability) in 60% of tSAH patients compared to 30% of noSAH patients (p < 0.001). The difference in mortality was 42% vs. 14% (p < 0.001). The six month follow-up of tSAH patients complying with the study protocol and treated with intravenous nimodipine, 2 mg per hour for 7 days, showed a statistically significant reduction of unfavourable outcome from 66% to 51% (p < 0.05), compared to placebo treated patients. PMID:7998486

  7. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  8. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  9. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  10. Frequency and Clinical Significance of Previously Undetected Incidental Findings Detected on Computed Tomography Simulation Scans for Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Naoki, E-mail: naokinak@luke.or.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tsunoda, Hiroko [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu [Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan); Akahane, Keiko; Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: All CT simulation images were first interpreted prospectively by radiation oncologists and then double-checked by diagnostic radiologists. The official reports of CT simulation images for 881 consecutive postoperative breast cancer patients from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Potentially important incidental findings (PIIFs) were defined as any previously undetected benign or malignancy-related findings requiring further medical follow-up or investigation. For all patients in whom a PIIF was detected, we reviewed the clinical records to determine the clinical significance of the PIIF. If the findings from the additional studies prompted by a PIIF required a change in management, the PIIF was also recorded as a clinically important incidental finding (CIIF). Results: There were a total of 57 (6%) PIIFs. The 57 patients in whom a PIIF was detected were followed for a median of 17 months (range, 3-26). Six cases of CIIFs (0.7% of total) were detected. Of the six CIIFs, three (50%) cases had not been noted by the radiation oncologist until the diagnostic radiologist detected the finding. On multivariate analysis, previous CT examination was an independent predictor for PIIF (p = 0.04). Patients who had not previously received chest CT examinations within 1 year had a statistically significantly higher risk of PIIF than those who had received CT examinations within 6 months (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.50; p = 0.01). Conclusions: The rate of incidental findings prompting a change in management was low. However, radiation oncologists appear to have some difficulty in detecting incidental findings that require a change in management. Considering cost, it may be reasonable that routine interpretations are given to those who have not received previous chest CT examinations within 1 year.

  11. 77 FR 32173 - Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact: Union and Henderson Counties, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ...the Finding of No Significant Impact: Union and Henderson Counties, KY AGENCY: Federal...Project between Morganfield and Henderson in Union and Henderson Counties, Kentucky. The...cities of Morganfield and Henderson, in Union and Henderson Counties, and US 60 is...

  12. Especially significant new component of N2O quantum yield in the UV photolysis of O3 in air.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sheo S

    2005-10-13

    This paper presents an alternate three-component model for the density ([M]) and temperature (T) dependence of the N2O quantum yields (phi(N2O), in the UV photolysis of O3 in air, from Estupiñán et al.'s (ENLCW's) high-quality experiments that were a breakthrough in the pressure and T coverage. The three components consist of a new [M]-independent component, the ENLCW-discovered [M]1 component, and the [M]2-dependent component found by Kajimoto and Cvetanovic. The [M]1 component is T independent. The weak T dependence of ENLCW's phi(N2O) results from the T dependence of the other two components. The agreement of the three-component model with the observed phi(N2O) is much better than that of ENLCW's one-component (T-dependent linear-in-[M]) model. For example, the percentage residual for a significant two-thirds of all data is better than +/-8% in the three-component model compared to only one-third for the ENLCW model. The improvements due to the three-component model are real in the sense that they are obvious despite the experimental error bars in that pressure-temperature domain where the reality is expected to reveal itself in the ENLCW experiment. Also, the new [M]-independent component is nonzero positive at a very high confidence level of 97.5%, sharply contrasting with the current perception. The [M]-independent component is especially significant despite being small compared to the dominant [M]1 component. It implies N2O formation from excited O3, tentatively O3(3B1), immune from ENLCW and Prasad controversy over the origin of the [M]1 component. In the suggested interpretation, the [M]0 component varies linearly with [O3] in the photolyzed O3/air mixture. Further experiments with [O3] fixed at various amounts, while the air density and temperature are varied, could check the interpretation. Further computational-chemistry studies to better characterize the low-lying triplet states of O3 would also help. PMID:16332009

  13. Finding of no significant impact for the tritium facility modernization and consolidation project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1222) for the proposed modernization and consolidation of the existing tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issueing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. Age-dependent yield of screening for undetected atrial fibrillation in stroke patients: the Find-AF study.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Rolf; Weber-Krüger, Mark; Seegers, Joachim; Edelmann, Frank; Wohlfahrt, Janin; Wasser, Katrin; Gelbrich, Götz; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Stahrenberg, Raoul; Liman, Jan; Gröschel, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Diagnosis of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) in stroke patients is challenging, but highly clinically relevant. The percentage of stroke patients with permanent AF increases with age, but limited data are available for the age-dependent yield of paroxysmal AF by Holter monitoring. Patients with acute cerebral ischemia were included into the prospective observational Find-AF study. Patients free from AF at presentation received 7 day Holter monitoring. We calculated the percentage of otherwise undetected paroxysmal AF and the number needed to screen for age groups under 60 years, and in 5 year clusters from the age of 60 up to 85 and older. 272 patients were included, 43 (15.8 %) had AF at admission, 33 patients with paroxysmal AF were identified by 7 day Holter (n = 29) or medical history (n = 4).The yield of 7 day Holter ECG clearly increased with older age (p = 0.004): <60 years: 5 %, 60-64 years: 5 %, 65-69 years: 7 %, 70-74 years: 11 %, 75-79 years: 13 %, 80-84 years: 25 %, ? 85 years: 39 %. The number needed to screen (NNS) to find one patient with paroxysmal AF decreased with age: ? 60 years: 18, 60-64 years: 20, 65-69 years: 14, 70-74 years: 9, 75-79 years: 8, 80-84 years: 4, ? 85 years: 3, respectively. In patients <65 years, all AF cases were detected by Holter ECG. The percentage of paroxysmal AF in stroke patients increases with age. The 7 day Holter ECG is most efficient in elderly patients. PMID:23632947

  15. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI).

  16. Finding of no significant impact proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  17. Clinically significant missense variants in human GALNT3, GALNT8, GALNT12, and GALNT13 genes: intriguing in silico findings.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muhammad Ramzan M; Nasir, Jamal; Al-Aama, Jumana Yousuf

    2014-02-01

    Aberrant glycosylation by N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferases (GALNTs) is a well-described pathological alteration that is widespread in hereditary diseases, prominently including human cancers, familial tumoral calcinosis and hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia. In this study, we integrated different computational tools to perform the in silico analysis of clinically significant mutations (nsSNPs/single amino acid change) at both functional and structural levels, found in human GALNT3, GALNT8, GALNT12, and GALNT13 genes. From function and structure based insights, mutations encoding R162Q, T359K, C574G, G359D, R297W, D303N, Y396C, and D313N substitutions were concordantly predicted highly deleterious for relevant GALNTs proteins. From intriguing findings, T359K-GALNT3 was simulated with high contribution for disease susceptibility (tumor calcinosis) as compared to its partner variant T272K (Ichikawa et al. [2006] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 91:4472-4475). Similarly, the prediction of high damaging behavior, evolutionary conservation and structural destabilization for C574G were proposed as major contributing factors to regulate metabolic disorder underlying tumor calcinosis and hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome. In case of R297W-GALNT12, prediction of highly deleterious effect and disruption in ionic interactions were anticipated with reduction in enzymatic activity, associated with bilateral breast cancer and primary colorectal cancers. The second GALNT12 mutation (D303N)-known splice variant-was predicted with disease severity as a result of decrease in charge density and buried behavior neighboring the catalytic B domain. In the lack of adequate in silico data about systematic characterization of clinically significant mutations in GALNTs genes, current study can be used as a significant tool to interpret the role of GALNTs reaction chemistry in disease-association risks in body. PMID:24038392

  18. 75 FR 16517 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...No Significant Impact AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental Assessment and...No Significant Impact; Correction...county for Perry Nuclear Plant. This action...Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation,...

  19. 75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based on its finding of...agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. On November 16,...

  20. 76 FR 52022 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment No. 64 for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...proposed action to significantly impact land use, geology, soils, water resources, ecological resources, meteorology, climatology, air quality, endangered and threatened species, historic and cultural resources. The staff also does not expect...

  1. 75 FR 21659 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMIISSION UNITED STATES...Significant Impact for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation...International Boundary and Water Commission, United States...and FONSI for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation...International Boundary and Water Commission; 4171...

  2. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  3. Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors, new approach for treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia, review of the literature, original findings, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Vasiliadis, Ioannis; Gontoras, Nikos; Kolovou, Vana; Hatzigeorgiou, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    The genetic causes of cholesterol metabolism disorders usually lead to premature atherosclerosis. The most well recognized genetically caused hypercholesterolemia is familial hypercholesterolemia. Although the disease is well known, as the discovery of low-density lipoprotein receptor, the classical treatment with lipid-lowering drugs (statins, fibrates, ezetimibe, colesevelam) is still not adequate and new options are seeking. This review is an attempt to analyze the microsomal transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors as a new approach for treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia, to reviews the literature according to MTP inhibitors and finally to provide original findings. PMID:25604780

  4. FatiGO: a web tool for finding significant associations of Gene Ontology terms with groups of genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fátima Al-shahrour; Ramón Díaz-uriarte; Joaquín Dopazo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Summary: We present a simple but powerful procedure to extract Gene Ontology terms that are significantly over or under-represented in sets of genes within the context of a genome-scale experiment (DNA microarray, proteomics, etc.). Said procedure has been implemented as a web application, FatiGO, allowing for easy and interactive querying. FatiGO, which takes the multiple-testing nature of statistical contrast

  5. [Recording cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Part 2: influencing factors, evaluation of findings and clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Hörmann, K; Pfaar, O

    2010-11-01

    VEMP measurements are subject to various influencing factors: patient age, threshold, sound intensity and frequency. Using air (AC) and bone conduction (BC) the vestibular receptors and afferents of the otolith organs can be activated to varying degrees. Recordings of cervical (cVEMP) and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) are clinically possible. AC-cVEMP are primarily an indicator of the sacculocollic reflex pathway. Together with findings on the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) and complimentary otolith tests, VEMP enable otolith function analysis of each side separately. In addition, the distinction between combined or isolated canal and otolith dysfunction in terms of subtyping and patterns of damage in mono- and bilateral disorders, such as vestibular neuritis or bilateral vestibulopathy, is possible. Moreover, VEMP is relevant in terms of prognostic and therapeutic considerations as well as expert assessments. PMID:20963394

  6. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings of leptomeningeal contrast enhancement after pediatric posterior fossa tumor resection and its significance.

    PubMed

    Loree, Jonathan; Mehta, Vivek; Bhargava, Ravi

    2010-07-01

    In this report, the authors illustrate the potential shortfalls of early postoperative MR imaging following resection of a posterior fossa tumor. The authors present the cases of a 10-month-old boy and a 14-year-old boy with posterior fossa tumors that were surgically resected and monitored immediately postoperatively with MR imaging. The MR imaging study obtained immediately postresection while the children were still anesthetized revealed enhancing elements in both patients, which were suggestive of leptomeningeal metastases. When this signal was followed on subsequent MR images, it was no longer visible. The patients are both recurrence free at the time of this publication. These cases demonstrate that early postoperative MR imaging findings for leptomeningeal metastases may be unreliable after excision of posterior fossa tumors and may have potential implications for intraoperative MR imaging techniques currently under development. PMID:20593993

  7. Finding of No Significant for the Closure of the High-Level Waste Tanks in F-and H-Areas at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1996-07-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOEEA-1164) for the proposed closure of the high-level waste tanks in F- and H-Areas on the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients. PMID:23925855

  9. Findings from NSABP Protocol No. B-04: comparison of radical mastectomy with alternative treatments. II. The clinical and biologic significance of medial-central breast cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, B.; Wolmark, N.; Redmond, C.; Deutsch, M.; Fisher, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    Findings from 1665 women with primary breast cancer, treated at 34 NSABP institutions in Canada and the United States, have failed to demonstrate that patients with medial-central tumors had a greater probability of developing distant metastases or dying than did those with lateral tumors despite the greater incidence of internal mammary (IM) node involvement when tumors are medial-central in location. A comparison of patients with similar clinical nodal status and tumor location who were treated either by radical mastectomy (RM) or by total mastectomy plus radiation therapy (TM + RT) failed to indicate that radiation of IM nodes reduced the probability of distant treatment failure (TF) or mortality. When findings from patients having equivalent clinical nodal status and tumor location treated by TM alone or TM + RT were compared, it was found that the addition of RT failed to alter the probability of the occurrence of a distant TF or of death. This was despite the fact that in the nonradiated group two putative sources of further tumor spread, i.e., positive axillary and IM nodes, were left unremoved and untreated. The findings provide further insight into the biologic significance of the positive lymph node and confirm our prior contention that positive regional lymph nodes are indicators of a host-tumor relationship which permits the development of metastases and that they are not important investigators of distant disease.

  10. Disruption of glutamate-glutamine-GABA cycle significantly impacts on suicidal behaviour: survey of the literature and own findings on glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Tausch, Anne; Wagner, Rebecca; Steiner, Johann; Seeleke, Patrick; Walter, Martin; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-11-01

    The aetiology of suicide is complex and still not completely understood. The present communication, which consists of two parts, aims to shed some light on the role of amino acidergic neurotransmission in suicide. In the first part we provide an overview of the literature showing that with the exception of certain gamma-aminobutyric acid transporters, virtually all components of the glutamate-glutamine- gamma-aminobutyric acid cycle are, in some way or other, abnormal in suicide victims, which indicates a prominent involvement of the glutamatergic and gammaaminobutyric acidergic neurotransmitter systems in suicidal behaviour. In the second part we present own immunohistochemical findings showing that densities of glutamine synthetase expressing glial cells in the mediodorsal thalamus as well as in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex of schizophrenic suicide completers are significantly elevated compared with controls and non-suicide individuals with schizophrenia, thus calling into question the belief that cerebral glutamine synthetase deficit is indicative of suicidal behaviour. PMID:24040807

  11. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. Revised Finding of No Significant Impact for Expansion and Operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site (10/29/03)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-29

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1194) in 1997 for the expansion and operation of the existing Central Shops Borrow Pit (i.e., SRS Facility 632-G) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. This EA was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 15400-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE determined that the action was not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) was not required, and DOE issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) dated March 13, 1997. In an effort to provide the site with cost-effective future landfill capacity for construction and demolition (C&D) debris/structural fill, DOE is considering redefining the closure of the 632-G facility to encompass the permitted disposal of inert C&D debris into the excavation areas, which would then be closed as per regulatory requirements. Based on the existing infrastructure at the 632-G facility that would support a permitted Part III C&D Landfill, DOE has concluded that the environmental impacts of the proposed use of the excavated portions of this facility as an inert debris landfill is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required, and DOE is issuing this revised FONSI.

  13. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-31

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

  14. Pathologic findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project: prognostic significance of erbB-2 protein overexpression in primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Paik, S; Hazan, R; Fisher, E R; Sass, R E; Fisher, B; Redmond, C; Schlessinger, J; Lippman, M E; King, C R

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the prognostic significance of erbB-2 overexpression, immunohistochemical staining for the erbB-2 protein was performed on sections from paraffin blocks of 292 primary invasive breast cancers obtained from women enrolled in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) protocol B-06. Positive reaction indicative of erbB-2 overexpression was observed on tumor cells in 62 (21%) samples. Women whose cancers were judged to have erbB-2 overexpression had a significantly worse overall survival (P = .0012) with twice the mortality rate of women without detectable erbB-2 expression. No statistically significant effect was evident for disease-free survival (P = .22). In multivariate analysis, detection of erbB-2 overexpression was the second most predictive independent variable for survival after nodal status. Overexpression of erbB-2 was more common among tumors of poor nuclear grade (29%) than those of good nuclear grade (12%). The association of erbB-2 overexpression with decreased survival was evident only among women with tumors of good nuclear grade. In this subgroup, erbB-2 overexpression was associated with an approximately fivefold increase in mortality rate (P = .00001). The combined predictive value of erbB-2 overexpression and nuclear grade was evident regardless of their lymph node status. These results provide evidence that detection of erbB-2 overexpression may be an independent prognostic variable for patient survival. Moreover, when combined with evaluation of nuclear grade, it may be possible to use immunostaining for erbB-2 protein to identify patients at increased risk from within a relatively low-risk group. PMID:1967301

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-05-27

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action regarding an upgrade of the Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). Potential environmental consequences associated with the proposed action and alternative actions are provided. DOE proposes to design, build, and operate a new WWTF, consistent with the requirements of Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 317, ''Design Criteria for Sewage Systems,'' capable of supporting current and future wastewater treatment requirements of the Plant. Wastewater treatment at Pantex must provide sufficient operational flexibility to meet Pantex Plant's anticipated future needs, including potential Plant mission changes, alternative effluent uses, and wastewater discharge permit requirements. Treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water maybe used for irrigation on DOE-owned agricultural land. Five factors support the need for DOE action: (1) The current WWTF operation has the potential for inconsistent permit compliance. (2) The existing WWTF lies completely within the 100-year floodplain. (3) The Pantex Plant mission has the potential to change, requiring infrastructure changes to the facility. (4) The life expectancy of the existing facility would be nearing its end by the time a new facility is constructed. (5) The treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water would have a beneficial agricultural use through irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following factors are present and of concern at the proposed action site on Pantex Plant: (1) Periodic wastewater effluent permit exceedances; (2) Wetlands protection and floodplain management; (3) Capability of the existing facility to meet anticipated future needs of Pantex (4) Existing facility design life; and (5) Use of treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water for irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and no further analysis was conducted: (1) State or national parks, forests, or other conservation areas; (2) Wild and scenic rivers; (3) Natural resources, such as timber, range, soils, minerals; (4) Properties of historic, archeological, or architectural significance; (5) Native American concerns; (6) Minority and low-income populations; and (7) Prime or unique farmland. In this document, DOE describes the proposed action and a reasonable range of alternatives to the proposed action, including the ''No-Action'' alternative. The proposed action cited in the ''U.S. Department of Energy Application for a Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Modifying Permit to Dispose of Waste, No. 02296,'' December 1998, included the construction of a new wastewater treatment facility, a new irrigation storage pond, and the conversion of the current wastewater treatment facility into an irrigation storage pond. Although a permit modification application has been filed, if a decision on this EA necessitates it, an amendment to the permit application would be made. The permit application would be required for any of the alternatives and the filing does not preclude or predetermine selection of an alternative considered by this EA. This permit change would allow Pantex to land-dispose treated wastewater by irrigating agricultural land. This construction for the proposed action would include designing two new lagoons for wastewater treatment. One of the lagoons could function as a facultative lagoon for treatment of wastewater. The second lagoon would serve as an irrigation storage impoundment (storage pond), with the alternative use as a facultative lagoon if the first lagoon is out of service for any reason. The new facultative lagoon and irrigation water storage pond would be sited outside of the 100-year flood plain. The existing WWTF lagoon would be used as a storage pond for treated wastewater effluent for irrigation water, as needed. The two new lagoons would be li

  16. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Construction and Operation of the Molecular Foundry at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-03-07

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) proposes to build a six-story, approximately 86,500 gross square foot (gsf) Molecular Foundry building; and an adjacent 8,000 gsf, partly below-grade Central Utility Plant building (for a combined 94,500 gsf), to be funded and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The buildings would be located on an approximately 2 1/2-acre site in the southeastern portion of the LBNL facility in the Oakland-Berkeley hills. The site is on mostly undeveloped slopes between Building 72, which is the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Building 66, which is the Surface Science and Catalysis Laboratory (SSCL). The Molecular Foundry building would include laboratories, offices, and conference and seminar rooms; the Central Utility Plant would also serve as the foundation for 16 surface parking spaces. A new plaza and pedestrian bridges would connect or provide ready access between the proposed Molecular Foundry building and adjacent scientific buildings. The Proposed Action would extend Lee Road approximately 350 feet, and widen a portion of the road to accommodate two-way traffic. The Molecular Foundry would be staffed and/or used by an estimated 137 persons, of whom an estimated 59 would be staff persons, 36 would be students, and 42 would be visitors (i.e., visiting scientists) to the Center. The Proposed Action would require removal of an existing paved 18-space parking lot and retaining walls, as well as excavation into an undeveloped hillside. Approximately two-dozen mature trees would be removed along with approximately one-dozen saplings. The Proposed Action would replant or replace trees, generally in-kind and in or around the site. LBNL anticipates it would reuse all soil excavated for the Molecular Foundry to construct the new Lee Road extension and widen the existing roadway. This Proposed Action would be a resource for the Department of Energy's participation in the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). Nanotechnology is the design, fabrication, characterization, and use of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter at the nanometer-length scale. Nanoscience will develop the understanding of building blocks at the nanometer-length scale and the methods by which they are assembled into multi-component devices. Alternatives to the Proposed Action include a reduced size building configuration, location of the building on a different on-site location, and a No Action alternative. Several off-site alternatives were considered but were not found to reasonably meet the purpose and need for the Proposed Action. Of the reasonable alternatives analyzed, the Proposed Action is found to best meet DOE's purpose and need for action. Although the Proposed Action would take place on a partially developed site that is generally surrounded by existing buildings and roads, the site is near to designated Critical Habitat of the Federally-listed Alameda Whipsnake. To minimize any potential but unexpected impact to the Alameda whipsnake, several mitigation measures are proposed. In addition, the Proposed Action would result in minor increases in stormwater runoff, air pollutant emissions, visual quality impacts, noise impacts, and the potential to disturb unanticipated archaeological resources. It would produce marginal increases in traffic and parking demand, as well as incremental demand increases for water, energy, wastewater treatment, waste disposal, and public services. The following impact is found to be potentially significant without mitigation in this Environmental Assessment: Although the site is not located in USFWS-designated critical habitat, due to the potential for Alameda whipsnake movement into the project area, mitigation measures would be implemented to ensure that whipsnakes are protected to the greatest extent possible during project construction.

  17. A Methodology for Finding Significant Network Hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DongJin Lee; Nevil Brownlee

    2007-01-01

    Much work has been done on observing and determining application types for network traffic flows. This is non-trivial because newer applications often encrypt their packets and do not use default port numbers. Also, application updates or protocol changes could vary the distributions of flow behaviors and patterns, resulting in complicated identification methods. We propose a different approach, in which we

  18. Increasing Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize yield improvement in the 20th century represents one of the great success stories of plant breeding and agronomy. Maize grain yield in the United States has increased on average by 0.122 metric tons per hectare per year since 1945 (Figure 1). This is in sharp contrast to essentially zero gain ...

  19. Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R. [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Besson, D. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Pedlar, T. K. [Luther College, Decorah, Iowa 52101 (United States); Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K. [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] (and others)

    2009-05-01

    We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

  20. Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Testing and Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has completed an Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Test. Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the Department has determined that the proposed action, the relocation of the Department's heat source and radioisotope power system operations, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  1. Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

  2. Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups.

    PubMed

    Dar, Manzoor H; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

  3. Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article may help the user understand the concept of statistical significance and the meaning of the numbers produced by The Survey System. This article is presented in two parts. The first part simplifies the concept of statistical significance as much as possible; so that non-technical readers can use the concept to help make decisions based on their data. The second part provides more technical readers with a fuller discussion of the exact meaning of statistical significance numbers.

  4. Propagation of Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

  5. Measurement and significance of the equilibrium reaction C-13/+/ + /C-12/O yields C-12/+/ + /C-13/O for alteration of the C-13/C-12 ratio in interstellar molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. D.; Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory measurements using the ion-cyclotron resonance technique yield a rate constant of 2 by 10 to the -10th power cu cm/sec at 300 K for the isotope exchange C-13(+) + (C-12)O yields C-12(+) + (C-13)O. According to the usual ideas about ion-molecule reactions, this rate constant should also be appropriate at temperatures not exceeding about 100 K. Then the observed C-13/C-12 ratio obtained from radio observation of interstellar molecules may be either larger or smaller than the actual value in the interstellar medium by factors of 2 or so. If the ratio is altered from the actual interstellar value, it will not be the same in all molecules, and CO will tend to have the highest value. The chief astronomical uncertainty for the occurrence of this isotope fractionation is the abundance of 'unobservable' molecules which can react rapidly with C(+): e.g., O2, H2O, CO2, and CH4. If their abundance is greater than about one-tenth that of CO, the isotope fractionation will be inhibited.

  6. Proper patient selection yields significant and sustained reduction in systolic blood pressure following renal artery stenting in patients with uncontrolled hypertension: long-term results from the HERCULES trial.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Bates, Mark C; Sullivan, Timothy M; Bachinsky, William B; Popma, Jeffrey J; Peng, Lei; Omran, Hend L; Jaff, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    The Safety and Effectiveness Study of the Herculink Elite Renal Stent to Treat Renal Artery Stenosis (HERCULES) trial is a prospective, multicenter trial evaluating the safety, effectiveness, and durability of the RX Herculink Elite renal stent system (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Park, IL) in select patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and uncontrolled hypertension. A total of 202 patients were enrolled between August 2007 and October 2009. The primary endpoint, 9-month binary restenosis, was 10.5% determined by core laboratory adjudicated duplex ultrasound and/or angiography. Additional analyses included changes in blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, renal function (RF), major adverse events (MAEs) (death, ipsilateral nephrectomy, and embolic events resulting in kidney damage), and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) between baseline and 36 months. Freedom from MAE was 98.5% at 30 days. At 36 months, freedom from death, nephrectomy, and CD-TLR were 90.1%, 100%, and 91.8%, respectively. After 30 days there were no site-reported embolic events resulting in kidney damage. The mean baseline systolic blood pressure of 162±18 mm Hg significantly decreased postprocedure and through 36 months (mean systolic blood pressure 141 mm Hg [P<.0001] and 146 mm Hg [P<.0001], respectively). No differences were noted in antihypertensive medications or RF compared with baseline. The HERCULES trial demonstrated sustained clinically and statistically significant reduction in SBP in patients with uncontrolled HTN. Coupled with the low core laboratory-adjudicated in-stent restenosis, acceptable procedural complication rates (1.5%), and <10% CD-TLR, the study suggests that there may be a role for renal artery stenting using contemporary stent technology. PMID:24909590

  7. Practical Strategies for Achieving High Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High yields are considered to be any level of yields significantly higher than the maximum county level yields. Producers often use the county level yields as their metric to determine their status among the rest of the producers in the county and to normalize for any potential local weather variat...

  8. An Innovative Approach to Plant Utility Audits Yields Significant Results

    E-print Network

    Robinson, J. E.; Moore, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    , Corporation St. Albert, Alberta Canada ABSTRACT This paper presents innovative methods to conduct powerhouse audits when applying advanced energy management to utility systems. Specifically, a new class of Energy Management and Reporting Systems...

  9. 1.2.3. To find the point of intersection of the two lines 2x + 3y = 6 and x -y = 1, we solve the system: Subtracting twice the second row from the first row yields the equation: 5y = 4. Therefore: y = 4/5.

    E-print Network

    Marcotte, Patrice

    EXAMPLES 1.2.3. To find the point of intersection of the two lines 2x + 3y = 6 and x - y = 1, we solve the system: 2x+3y=6 x- y=1. Subtracting twice the second row from the first row yields the equation: 5y = 4. Therefore: y = 4/5. Substituting in the second equation, we get: x = 1 + y = 1 + 4/5 = 9

  10. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  11. Age matters in the prevalence and clinical significance of ultra-high-risk for psychosis symptoms and criteria in the general population: Findings from the BEAR and BEARS-kid studies

    PubMed Central

    Schimmelmann, Benno G; Michel, Chantal; Martz-Irngartinger, Alexandra; Linder, Caroline; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of psychosis is an important topic in psychiatry. Yet, there is limited information on the prevalence and clinical significance of high-risk symptoms in children and adolescents as compared to adults. We examined ultra-high-risk (UHR) symptoms and criteria in a sample of individuals aged 8-40 years from the general population of Canton Bern, Switzerland, enrolled from June 2011 to May 2014. The current presence of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and brief intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) and the fulfillment of onset/worsening and frequency requirements for these symptoms in UHR criteria were assessed using the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes. Additionally, perceptive and non-perceptive APS were differentiated. Psychosocial functioning and current non-psychotic DSM-IV axis I disorders were also surveyed. Well-trained psychologists performed assessments. Altogether, 9.9% of subjects reported APS and none BLIPS, and 1.3% met all the UHR requirements for APS. APS were related to more current axis I disorders and impaired psychosocial functioning, indicating some clinical significance. A strong age effect was detected around age 16: compared to older individuals, 8-15-year olds reported more perceptive APS, that is, unusual perceptual experiences and attenuated hallucinations. Perceptive APS were generally less related to functional impairment, regardless of age. Conversely, non-perceptive APS were related to low functioning, although this relationship was weaker in those below age 16. Future studies should address the differential effects of perceptive and non-perceptive APS, and their interaction with age, also in terms of conversion to psychosis. PMID:26043337

  12. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  13. Wafer yield prediction by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Asada

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of yield from the production lines is concentrated at a high-yield area and tapers down to the lower-yield area. Production management would find it useful if the yield of individual wafers could be forecast. The yield is determined by the variability of electrical characteristics and dust. In this study, only the variability of electrical characteristics was discussed. One

  14. Yield: Mainstream Delimited Continuations Roshan P. James

    E-print Network

    Sabry, Amr

    Yield: Mainstream Delimited Continuations Roshan P. James Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana@indiana.edu Abstract Many mainstream languages have operators named yield that share common semantic roots but differ significantly in their details. We present the first known formal study of these mainstream yield operators

  15. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...time to receive comments from the public. The time period will reflect the magnitude of the proposed action and its potential for controversy. The greater the magnitude of the proposed action or its potential for controversy, the longer...

  16. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...time to receive comments from the public. The time period will reflect the magnitude of the proposed action and its potential for controversy. The greater the magnitude of the proposed action or its potential for controversy, the longer...

  17. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...time to receive comments from the public. The time period will reflect the magnitude of the proposed action and its potential for controversy. The greater the magnitude of the proposed action or its potential for controversy, the longer...

  18. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...magnitude of the proposed action and its potential for controversy...magnitude of the proposed action or its potential for controversy...case in terms of its potential environmental impacts...If the proposed action would be located...

  19. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...magnitude of the proposed action and its potential for controversy...magnitude of the proposed action or its potential for controversy...case in terms of its potential environmental impacts...If the proposed action would be located...

  20. 74 FR 5715 - Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-01-30

    ...and the reentry and recovery of the Dragon reentry capsule in the ocean. The EA...consequences of reentry/recovery of the Dragon reentry capsule. Additionally, the EA...license from the FAA for the reentry of the Dragon capsule. The FAA is using the EA to...

  1. 73 FR 4040 - Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-01-23

    ...The EA also analyzed the reentry of the Dragon reentry capsule, which would be carried...Omelek Island and/or the reentry of Dragon reentry vehicle. The issuance of a FONSI...launch vehicles or the reentry of the Dragon capsule. It also must meet all...

  2. What's new: finding significant differences in network data streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Cormode; S. Muthukrishnan

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring and analyzing network traffic usage pat- terns is vital for managing IP Networks. An important problem is to provide network managers with information about changes in traffic, informing them about \\

  3. Significant findings concerning the production of Italian Renaissance lustred majolica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper the main results obtained, over a period of more than ten years, from a series of studies concerning the characterization of Italian Renaissance lustred majolicas (from Gubbio and Deruta, Umbria, Italy) are presented. Lustre decoration is a well-known technique, consisting in the application of a thin metallic iridescent film, containing silver and copper nanoparticles, over a previously glazed ceramic object. The technique had its origin in Persia (IX century), was imported by Moorish in Spain, and then developed in central Italy during the Renaissance period. Numerous analytical techniques (among which, ETASS, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM-EDX) have been employed for the characterization of lustred ceramic shards, allowing one to acquire information on both lustre chemical composition and nanostructure. In this way it was shown how some technological parameters, such as the firing conditions, are mandatory to obtain the final result. The presence of a specific marker of the lustre Italian production, i.e., cosalite (Pb2Bi2S5), has been also highlighted. From the study of the ceramic body composition (by means of XRD and ICP-OES and in particular of chemometric techniques) acquired on more than 50 ceramic shards it was possible to discriminate between Deruta and Gubbio production, in this way allowing one to assign objects of uncertain provenance to a specific site. Finally, the most interesting results obtained studying excellent lustred masterpieces from Renaissance belonging to important museums are here presented. In particular, with the use of nondestructive techniques (PIXE, RBS, and portable XRD), the production of Mastro Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio was investigated. By means of the same analytical approach, one of the first examples of lustre in Italy (the famous Baglioni's albarello) was examined, and the controversial question of its attribution to Italian production was scientifically faced.

  4. Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    APE of this Proposed Action and would not be impacted. Based on the results of the recent literature search and Class III intensive survey, as well as previous surveys and...

  5. 7 CFR 760.811 - Rates and yields; calculating payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...that show there is a significant difference in yield or value based on a distinct and separate end use of the crop. Despite potential differences in yield or values, separate rates or yields will not be established for crops with...

  6. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961–2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key aspect of global food availability.

  7. Finding trails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Morris; Kobus Barnard

    2008-01-01

    We present a statistical learning approach for finding recreational trails in aerial images. While the problem of recognizing relatively straight and well defined roadways in digital images has been well studied in the literature, the more difficult problem of extracting trails has received no attention. However, trails and rough roads are less likely to be adequately mapped, and change more

  8. Finding Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-08-27

    In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

  9. Factor Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jamie Piecora

    2000-01-01

    In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

  10. Effects of geoengineering on crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2011-12-01

    The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as market shares of agricultural output may change with the different spatial pattern of climate change. More importantly, geoengineering by SRM does not address a range of other detrimental consequences of climate change, such as ocean acidification, which could also affect food security via effects on marine food webs. Finally, SRM poses substantial anticipated and unanticipated risks by interfering with complex, not fully understood systems. Therefore, despite potential positive effects of SRM on crop yields, the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

  11. The impact of data integration on yield enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Smith; C. Gondran

    1996-01-01

    Yield enhancement engineering usually focuses on three areas of interest: investigation of low yielding lots (or lots with abnormal fail signatures), elimination of in-line defect process excursions and improvement of baseline product yield. These tasks require that engineers digest the data necessary to lead them to what needs to be done to find root cause for a given yield issue.

  12. HDS + cracking ups capacity, yields

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, J.B.; Steed, P.V.

    1984-05-28

    Operation of atmospheric residual desulfurization units for catalytic cracker feed treatment at two Phillips Petroleum Co. refineries has resulted in benefits to both refinery operations. At Phillips' Sweeny and Borger, Tex., facilities, the new operations have resulted in greater flexibility in the choice of crude charge to refineries. Additionally, these facilities have provided a significant increase gasoline and distillate yields, decrease in the yield of residual fuel oil despite an increase in the amount of heavy crude charged. This article presents operating data from each of these refineries in the form of operation comparisons before and after installation of the new facilities to show the benefits from the hydrotreating-catalytic cracking scheme.

  13. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J.; Geruschat, Duane R.; Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the “yield to pedestrian” sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds), and can feasibly be incorporated into microsimulation algorithms to model driver yielding at roundabouts. PMID:24619314

  14. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

  15. Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico–US cross-border migration

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuaizhang; Krueger, Alan B.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is expected to cause mass human migration, including immigration across international borders. This study quantitatively examines the linkages among variations in climate, agricultural yields, and people's migration responses by using an instrumental variables approach. Our method allows us to identify the relationship between crop yields and migration without explicitly controlling for all other confounding factors. Using state-level data from Mexico, we find a significant effect of climate-driven changes in crop yields on the rate of emigration to the United States. The estimated semielasticity of emigration with respect to crop yields is approximately ?0.2, i.e., a 10% reduction in crop yields would lead an additional 2% of the population to emigrate. We then use the estimated semielasticity to explore the potential magnitude of future emigration. Depending on the warming scenarios used and adaptation levels assumed, with other factors held constant, by approximately the year 2080, climate change is estimated to induce 1.4 to 6.7 million adult Mexicans (or 2% to 10% of the current population aged 15–65 y) to emigrate as a result of declines in agricultural productivity alone. Although the results cannot be mechanically extrapolated to other areas and time periods, our findings are significant from a global perspective given that many regions, especially developing countries, are expected to experience significant declines in agricultural yields as a result of projected warming. PMID:20660749

  16. Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

  17. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  18. The Fingerprint of Climate Trends on European Crop Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Lobell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Europe has experienced a stagnation of some crop yields since the early-1990s as well as statistically-significant warming during the growing-season. While it has been argued that these two are causally connected, no previous studies have formally attributed long-term European yield trends to a changing climate. Here we present two statistical tests based on the distinctive spatial pattern of climate change impacts and adaptation, and explore their power under a range of parameter values. We show that statistical power for the identification of climate change impacts is high in many settings, but that power for identifying adaptation is almost always low. Applying these test to European agriculture, we find evidence that long-term temperature and precipitation trends have reduced continent-wide wheat, maize, and barley yields by 2.7%, 1.1%, and 3.9% respectively, and have increased sugarbeet yields by 1.0%. This can account for approximately 10% of the yield stagnation in Europe, with changes in agricultural and environmental policies likely explaining the remainder.

  19. Weed competition and dry bean yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

  20. Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

  1. Yields of hawthorn Crataegus monogyna berries under different hedgerow management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H Sparks; T Martin

    1999-01-01

    Yields of hawthorn berries under different hedgerow management treatments were examined in experimental hedgerows at Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire, UK. Statistically significant differences existed between the management treatments with yields per unit area of hedgerows unmanaged for more than a decade out-yielding managed hedgerows by an order of magnitude. These differences were further inflated if yields were considered per unit length

  2. Study of the B{yields}X(3872)({yields}D*{sup 0}D{sup 0})K decay

    SciTech Connect

    Aushev, T. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zwahlen, N.; Bay, A.; Louvot, R.; Schneider, O.; Vervink, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Adachi, I.; Haba, J.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Sakai, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; Wicht, J.; Yamauchi, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-02-01

    We present a study of B{yields}X(3872)K with X(3872) decaying to D*{sup 0}D{sup 0} using a sample of 657x10{sup 6} BB pairs recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Both D*{sup 0{yields}}D{sup 0{gamma}} and D*{sup 0{yields}}D{sup 0{pi}0} decay modes are used. We find a peak of 50.1{sub -11.1}{sup +14.8} events with a mass of (3872.9{sub -0.4-0.5}{sup +0.6+0.4}) MeV/c{sup 2}, a width of (3.9{sub -1.4-1.1}{sup +2.8+0.2}) MeV/c{sup 2} and a product branching fraction B(B{yields}X(3872)K)xB(X(3872){yields}D*{sup 0}D{sup 0})=(0.80{+-}0.20{+-}0.10)x10{sup -4}, where the first errors are statistical and the second ones are systematic. The significance of the signal is 6.4{sigma}. The difference between the fitted mass and the D*{sup 0}D{sup 0} threshold is calculated to be (1.1{sub -0.4-0.3}{sup +0.6+0.1}) MeV/c{sup 2}. We also obtain an upper limit on the product of branching fractions B(B{yields}Y(3940)K)xB(Y(3940){yields}D*{sup 0}D{sup 0}) of 0.67x10{sup -4} at 90% CL.

  3. Estimating Corn Grain Yields 

    E-print Network

    Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne

    2009-06-12

    . Plan and prepare for sample and data collection. 2. Collect field samples and record data. 3. Analyze the data using the interactive grain yield calculator in the Appendix. Plan and prepare for sample and data collection Predetermine sample locations... when calculating the grain yield estimate. Refer to Fig 1 to see examples of small, medium, and large kernels. Collect field samples and record data 1. Sample area. Select a length of row that is similar to the surrounding rows. Position your...

  4. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  5. Finding Extreme Subdwarfs

    E-print Network

    J. L. Marshall

    2007-12-06

    I develop a new technique to identify M-type extreme subdwarfs (esdMs) and demonstrate that it is substantially more efficient than previous methods. I begin by obtaining spectroscopy and improved photometry of a sample of 54 late-type halo candidates using the rNLTT reduced proper motion (RPM) diagram. From spectroscopy, I find that four of these are esdMs, three of which were previously unknown. From the improved photometry, I show that all four lie in a narrow RPM corridor that contains only 4 non-esdMs. Hence, with good photometry (i.e., without spectroscopy), it appears possible to select esdM candidates with a 50% esdM yield. This is more than an order of magnitude more efficient than previous methods.

  6. Minimizing Significant Figure Fuzziness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lawrence D.; Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the principles and problems associated with the use of significant figures. Explains uncertainty, the meaning of significant figures, the Simple Rule, the Three Rule, and the 1-5 Rule. Also provides examples of the Rules. (ML)

  7. Yield gaps and yield relationships in US soybean production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of yield gaps (YG) (potential yield – farmer yield) provides some indication of the prospects for increasing crop yield to meet the food demands of future populations. Quantile regression analysis was applied to county soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yields (1971 – 2011) from Kentuc...

  8. Tests of Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lacey, Michelle

    This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

  9. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    E-print Network

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  10. Practical approaches to incidental findings in brain imaging research

    PubMed Central

    Illes, J.; Kirschen, M.P.; Edwards, E.; Bandettini, P.; Cho, M.K.; Ford, P.J.; Glover, G.H.; Kulynych, J.; Macklin, R.; Michael, D.B.; Wolf, S.M.; Grabowski, T.; Seto, B.

    2008-01-01

    A decade of empirical work in brain imaging, genomics, and other areas of research has yielded new knowledge about the frequency of incidental findings, investigator responsibility, and risks and benefits of disclosure. Straightforward guidance for handling such findings of possible clinical significance, however, has been elusive. In early work focusing on imaging studies of the brain, we suggested that investigators and institutional review boards must anticipate and articulate plans for handling incidental findings. Here we provide a detailed analysis of different approaches to the problem and evaluate their merits in the context of the goals and setting of the research and the involvement of neurologists, radiologists, and other physicians. Protecting subject welfare and privacy, as well as ensuring scientific integrity, are the highest priorities in making choices about how to handle incidental findings. Forethought and clarity will enable these goals without overburdening research conducted within or outside the medical setting. PMID:18227420

  11. Electronic Process Limited Yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary W. Maier; Shawn Smith

    2000-01-01

    Today's industry is expanding the high performance microprocessor market into the consumer market place. This market requires very low cost, high reliability, stricter SPQL levels, and very high yields. A New Diagnostic Methodology is required to meet these new demands. This paper addresses a broad scope of issues from Product Design and Manufacturing Test, to Diagnostic and Data Analysis Tools.

  12. Biotechnology of Forest Yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Farnum; Roger Timmis; J. Laurence Kulp

    1983-01-01

    Silvicultural and genetic manipulation of Douglas fir and loblolly pine plantations have increased their productivity 70 and 300 percent, respectively, over natural forests on the same sites. Yet these intensively managed plantations are achieving less than 50 percent of their potential productivity. Future increases in yield will result from optimization of nutritional treatments, control of noncrop vegetation, and advances in

  13. Teaching Significant Figures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy H. Logan

    1964-01-01

    It is suggested that students would not be so careless about significant figures if they could actually see a demonstration of figures which are not significant. Such a demonstration is described, as is a simple teaching machine designed to give students facility in identifying insignificant figures in their calculations.

  14. YIELD IMPROVEMENT CASE STUDY: STACKED SPRING CAPS

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Engineering, UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, Iowa City, IA 2 Vice President - Technology, STEEL FOUNDER'S SOCIETY the findings of a yield improvement study performed for a 3" spring cap cast from WCB steel. The original mold through the riser. Caps produced from this design were similar to the original caps in terms of welding

  15. Finding overlapping images Finding overlapping images

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Finding overlapping images #12;Finding overlapping images · Close-range image sets are often unordered · no "natural" order of acquisition · no systematic block structure · How to find images to match? · obvious idea: try all pairs - does not scale to big projects · 1'000 images 499'500 pairs · 10'000 images

  16. How Big Was It? Getting at Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M.; Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most coveted pieces of information in the wake of a nuclear test is the explosive yield. Determining the yield from remote observations, however, is not necessarily a trivial thing. For instance, recorded observations of seismic amplitudes, used to estimate the yield, are significantly modified by the intervening media, which varies widely, and needs to be properly accounted for. Even after correcting for propagation effects such as geometrical spreading, attenuation, and station site terms, getting from the resulting source term to a yield depends on the specifics of the explosion source model, including material properties, and depth. Some formulas are based on assumptions of the explosion having a standard depth-of-burial and observed amplitudes can vary if the actual test is either significantly overburied or underburied. We will consider the complications and challenges of making these determinations using a number of standard, more traditional methods and a more recent method that we have developed using regional waveform envelopes. We will do this comparison for recent declared nuclear tests from the DPRK. We will also compare the methods using older explosions at the Nevada Test Site with announced yields, material and depths, so that actual performance can be measured. In all cases, we also strive to quantify realistic uncertainties on the yield estimation.

  17. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  18. 3. There was found a significant linear regression of average milk yield on ketosis and significant curvilinear regressions of average herd milk yield on milk fever, on fertility

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -WHITE AND LOWLAND RED-WHITE K. CHUDOBA J. JABLONSKA Institute of Animal Breeding and Technology of Animal Production LOCUS TRANSFERRIN AND THE BREEDING QUALITY TRAITS OF COUNTRY CATTLE RACE : LOWLAND BLAK-white the relations between the breeding value of traits : birth weight, daily gain of weight, weight in 365th day

  19. Statistical significance of combinatorial regulations

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Aika; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Tsuda, Koji; Sese, Jun

    2013-01-01

    More than three transcription factors often work together to enable cells to respond to various signals. The detection of combinatorial regulation by multiple transcription factors, however, is not only computationally nontrivial but also extremely unlikely because of multiple testing correction. The exponential growth in the number of tests forces us to set a strict limit on the maximum arity. Here, we propose an efficient branch-and-bound algorithm called the “limitless arity multiple-testing procedure” (LAMP) to count the exact number of testable combinations and calibrate the Bonferroni factor to the smallest possible value. LAMP lists significant combinations without any limit, whereas the family-wise error rate is rigorously controlled under the threshold. In the human breast cancer transcriptome, LAMP discovered statistically significant combinations of as many as eight binding motifs. This method may contribute to uncover pathways regulated in a coordinated fashion and find hidden associations in heterogeneous data. PMID:23882073

  20. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  1. Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duckworth, William

    Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "Â?Â?Practice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

  2. Measures of Clinical Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HELENA CHMURA KRAEMER; GEORGE A. MORGAN; NANCY L. LEECH; JEFFREY A. GLINER; JERRY J. VASKE; ROBERT J. HARMON

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral scientists are interested in answering three basic questions when examining the relationships between vari- ables (Kirk, 2001). First, is an observed result real or should it be attributed to chance (i.e., statistical significance)? Sec- ond, if the result is real, how large is it (i.e., effect size)? Third, is the result large enough to be meaningful and useful (i.e.,

  3. Sustainable Management in Crop Monocultures: The Impact of Retaining Forest on Oil Palm Yield

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Felicity A.; Edwards, David P.; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ?23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

  4. Historical Significant Events Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Historical Significant Events Imagery database (HSEI) is maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). It contains hundreds of selected satellite images capturing some of the more important weather and environmental events over the last 30 years. One can search for images of a specific type of event or for a specific date range, go to a " What's New" section for images added in the past 7 days, or visit a "Most Popular" section for frequently-requested images. The images can be viewed on-line or downloaded for free, or one can order hardcopy matte or glossy finish prints for a small fee. Image dates range from 1960 (the first image from space) to present, and cover phenomena such as dust storms, fire, floods, hurricanes, snow cover, oil spills, severe weather and volcanoes.

  5. The realistic energy yield potential of GaAs-on-Si tandem solar cells: a theoretical case study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haohui; Ren, Zekun; Liu, Zhe; Aberle, Armin G; Buonassisi, Tonio; Peters, Ian Marius

    2015-04-01

    Si based tandem solar cells represent an alternative to traditional compound III-V multijunction cells as a promising way to achieve high efficiencies. A theoretical study on the energy yield of GaAs on Si (GaAs/Si) tandem solar cells is performed to assess their energy yield potential under realistic illumination conditions with varying spectrum. We find that the yield of a 4-terminal contact scheme with thick top cell is more than 15% higher than for a 2-terminal scheme. Furthermore, we quantify the main losses that occur for this type of solar cell under varying spectra. Apart from current mismatch, we find that a significant power loss can be attributed to low irradiance seen by the sub-cells. The study shows that despite non-optimal bandgap combination, GaAs/Si tandem solar cells have the potential to surpass 30% energy conversion efficiency. PMID:25968803

  6. Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

  7. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  8. Analyzing the Designs of Planet-Finding Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savransky, Dmitry; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Cady, Eric

    2010-04-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of direct detection planet-finding missions using space telescopes. This framework generates simulations of complete missions, with varying populations of planets, to produce ensembles of mission simulations, which are used to calculate distributions of mission science yields. We describe the components of a mission simulation, including the complete description of an arbitrary planetary system, the description of a planet-finding instrument, and the modeling of a target system observation. These components are coupled with a decision-modeling algorithm that allows us to automatically generate mission timelines with simple mission rules that lead to an optimized science yield. Along with the details of our implementation of this algorithm, we discuss validation techniques and possible future refinements. We apply this analysis technique to four mission concepts whose common element is a 4 m diameter telescope aperture: an internal pupil mapping coronagraph with two different inner working angles, an external occulter, and the THEIA XPC multiple distance occulter. The focus of this study is to determine the ability of each of these designs to achieve one of their most difficult mission goals-the detection and characterization of Earthlike planets in the habitable zone. We find that all four designs are capable of detecting on the order of five Earthlike planets within a 5 yr mission, even if we assume that only one out of every 10 stars has such a planet. The designs do differ significantly in their ability to characterize the planets they find. Along with science yield, we also analyze fuel usage for the two occulter designs, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of the mission concepts.

  9. Exact significance test for Markov order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethel, S. D.; Hahs, D. W.

    2014-02-01

    We describe an exact significance test of the null hypothesis that a Markov chain is nth order. The procedure utilizes surrogate data to yield an exact test statistic distribution valid for any sample size. Surrogate data are generated using a novel algorithm that guarantees, per shot, a uniform sampling from the set of sequences that exactly match the nth order properties of the observed data. Using the test, the Markov order of Tel Aviv rainfall data is examined.

  10. Final state interactions for B{yields}VV charmless decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ladisa, Massimo; Laporta, Vincenzo; Nardulli, Giuseppe; Santorelli, Pietro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Bari, Italy Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Italy Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    We estimate final state interactions in the B-meson decays into two light vector mesons by the Regge model. We consider Pomeron exchange and charmed Regge trajectories that can relate intermediate charmed particles to the final state. The Regge poles have various helicity-flip residues, which allows a change from the longitudinal to transverse polarization. In this way a significant reduction of the longitudinal polarization fraction can be produced. In the factorization approximation we find agreement with recent data from the BABAR and Belle Collaborations in the B{yields}K*{phi} decay channel, as a result of an appropriate choice of semileptonic form factors and Regge exchanges. On the other hand, data for the K*{rho} decay channels appear more elusive. The soft effects discussed in the present paper are based on a model of Regge trajectories that is shown to reproduce correctly in the noncharmed case the Regge phenomenology of light mesons.

  11. Tensile Yielding of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Srivastava, Deepak; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The tensile yielding of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been studied using Molecular Dynamics simulations and a Transition State Theory based model. We find a strong dependence of the yielding on the strain rate. A critical strain rate has been predicted above/below which yielding strain of a MWCNT is larger/smaller than that of the corresponding single-wall carbon nanotubes. At experimentally feasible strain rate of 1% /hour and T = 300K, the yield strain of a MWCNT is estimated to be about 3-4 % higher than that of an equivalent SWCNT (Single Wall Carbon Nanotube), in good agreement with recent experimental observations.

  12. Observation of B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}and evidence for B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, A.; Rozanska, M.; Kapusta, P.; Matyja, A.; Ostrowicz, W.; Stypula, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Adachi, I.; Higuchi, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.; Sakai, Y.; Schuemann, J.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    We present measurements of B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}and B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}decays in a data sample of 657x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We find 446{sub -56}{sup +58} B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}events with a significance of 8.1 standard deviations, and 146{sub -41}{sup +42} B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}events with a significance of 3.5 standard deviations. The latter signal provides the first evidence for this decay mode. The measured branching fractions are B(B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}})=(2.12{sub -0.27}{sup +0.28}(stat){+-}0.29(syst))% and B(B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}})=(0.77{+-}0.22(stat){+-}0.12(syst))%.

  13. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding. PMID:25911836

  14. Improving photosynthesis and yield potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Amthor

    Crop yield is fundamentally related to the (a) amount of solar radiation absorbed; (b) efficiency of solar energy use in photosynthesis;\\u000a (c) translocation of photosynthate to sinks, especially sinks later harvested; (d) capacity for growth in sinks; (e) efficiency\\u000a of converting photosynthate to new biomass; and (f) metabolic cost of maintenance. Yield potential has been defined as the yield of

  15. Some short-term effects of changing to lower yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, B.D.; Royston, D.; Jones, J.G.

    1985-10-01

    The rate of clearance from the lung of the hydrophilic tracer molecule /sup 99m/Tc DTPA was used to investigate the short-term effects on lung epithelial function when smokers switched to cigarettes with lower yields of tobacco smoke constituents. Two separate studies were performed. In the first study, subjects smoked conventional mid- and low-tar cigarettes. The second study used two specially manufactured cigarettes with similar tar and nicotine yields, but differing carbon monoxide yields. Neither study demonstrated any significant improvement in /sup 99m/Tc DTPA clearance. The yields of carbon monoxide determined under standard machine smoking conditions implied that there would be a 44 percent reduction in exposure to carbon monoxide when subjects switched from smoking conventional mid-tar to low-tar cigarettes. However, measurements of carboxyhemoglobin showed that the smokers compensated for the lower yields and their exposure was reduced by only 11 percent. Similarly, in the second study, the subjects reduced their exposure by 7 percent instead of the expected 44 percent. Urine nicotine/cotinine excretion measurements in this study indicated that there was no complimentary increase in nicotine absorption suggesting the possibility that subjects may be able to regulate their intake of individual components of the cigarette smoke. Thus, the unexpected result from this study was the finding that cigarette smokers could, in some way, regulate their intake of smoke from cigarettes of different composition so as to maintain a constant exposure of smoke constituents.

  16. Uncertainties in Supernova Yields I: 1D Explosions

    E-print Network

    Patrick A. Young; Chris L. Fryer

    2006-12-22

    Theoretical nucleosynthetic yields from supernovae are sensitive to both the details of the progenitor star and the explosion calculation. We attempt to comprehensively identify the sources of uncertainties in these yields. In this paper we concentrate on the variations in yields from a single progenitor arising from common 1-dimensional methods of approximating a supernova explosion. Subsequent papers will examine 3-dimensional effects in the explosion and the progenitor, and trends in mass and composition. For the 1-dimensional explosions we find that both elemental and isotopic yields for Si and heavier elements are a sensitive function of explosion energy. Also, piston-driven and thermal bomb type explosions have different yields for the same explosion energy. Yields derived from 1-dimensional explosions are non-unique.

  17. Effect of Damping and Yielding on the Seismic Response of 3D Steel Buildings with PMRF

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Achintya; Rodelo-López, Ramon Eduardo; Bojórquez, Eden

    2014-01-01

    The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases. The results show the limitations of the commonly used static equivalent lateral force procedure where local and global response parameters are reduced in the same proportion. It is concluded that estimating the effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of steel buildings by using simplified models may be a very crude approximation. Moreover, the effect of yielding should be explicitly calculated by using complex 3D MDOF models instead of estimating it in terms of equivalent viscous damping. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions. PMID:25097892

  18. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

  19. Rx for low cash yields.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Chris

    2003-10-01

    Certain strategies can offer not-for-profit hospitals potentially greater investment yields while maintaining stability and principal safety. Treasury inflation-indexed securities can offer good returns, low volatility, and inflation protection. "Enhanced cash" strategies offer liquidity and help to preserve capital. Stable value "wrappers" allow hospitals to pursue higher-yielding fixed-income securities without an increase in volatility. PMID:14560584

  20. Genetic Insight into Yield-Associated Traits of Wheat Grown in Multiple Rain-Fed Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianshan; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2012-01-01

    Background Grain yield is a key economic driver of successful wheat production. Due to its complex nature, little is known regarding its genetic control. The goal of this study was to identify important quantitative trait loci (QTL) directly and indirectly affecting grain yield using doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Hanxuan 10 and Lumai 14. Methodology/Principal Findings Ten yield-associated traits, including yield per plant (YP), number of spikes per plant (NSP), number of grains per spike (NGS), one-thousand grain weight (TGW), total number of spikelets per spike (TNSS), number of sterile spikelets per spike (NSSS), proportion of fertile spikelets per spike (PFSS), spike length (SL), density of spikelets per spike (DSS) and plant height (PH), were assessed across 14 (for YP) to 23 (for TGW) year × location × water regime environments in China. Then, the genetic effects were partitioned into additive main effects (a), epistatic main effects (aa) and their environment interaction effects (ae and aae) by using composite interval mapping in a mixed linear model. Conclusions/Significance Twelve (YP) to 33 (PH) QTLs were identified on all 21 chromosomes except 6D. QTLs were more frequently observed on chromosomes 1B, 2B, 2D, 5A and 6B, and were concentrated in a few regions on individual chromosomes, exemplified by three striking yield-related QTL clusters on chromosomes 2B, 1B and 4B that explained the correlations between YP and other traits. The additive main-effect QTLs contributed more phenotypic variation than the epistasis and environmental interaction. Consistent with agronomic analyses, a group of progeny derived by selecting TGW and NGS, with higher grain yield, had an increased frequency of QTL for high YP, NGS, TGW, TNSS, PFSS, SL, PH and fewer NSSS, when compared to low yielding progeny. This indicated that it is feasible by marker-assisted selection to facilitate wheat production. PMID:22363596

  1. Find a Plume, Find a Vent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This classroom activity gives students an appreciation for the difficulties deep sea researchers must face in order to find hydrothermal vents. Working in small groups, students can complete this Web investigation in a single class period. The printable handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions that prompt students to use what they already know about mid-ocean ridges to hypothesize about how scientists locate deep sea vents, detailed directions for a Web research project that takes them on a virtual deep sea journey investigating hydrothermal vents, and a worksheet that helps students apply their building knowledge to locate a vent in the northern Pacific Ocean.

  2. [Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

  3. FindSounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    FindSounds.com is new search engine devoted to finding sample sounds and sound effects on the Web. The easy-to-use search feature offers variables including the file formats AIFF, .wav, and .au; mono or stereo; resolution; sample rate; and maximum file size up to two megabytes; as well as simply the subject of the sound. For those who might feel overwhelmed, there is also a partial directory of sounds in order to help users get started. After users find the sound-types they are looking for, they may also choose the Find Sounds Like This One button, which will find up to 100 audio files on the Web that most closely match the given file. For users aiming to find their own matches on the Web, the free downloadable Comparisonics Audio Player shows a colored sound wave image of the sound file. All or part of this soundwave may be highlighted and searched on the Web for matches.

  4. Cotton Response to 1-Methylcyclopropene Under Different Light Regimes and Growth Stages: Lint Yield and Yield Components

    E-print Network

    Carden, Charles Warren

    2010-10-12

    imposed at four developmental stages of growth: pinhead square (PHS), first flower (FF), peak flower (PF), and boll development (BD). Data pooled over both years indicated that there were no significant differences in yield for 1-MCP treatments; however...

  5. Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends

    E-print Network

    Huybers, Peter

    Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends Marena Lin and Peter Huybers Department decomposition of wheat yields 5 4.1 U.S. county-level wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2 French departmental wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5

  6. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability.

  7. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

  8. Find a Plume, Find a Vent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This classroom activity will give students an appreciation for the difficulties deep sea researchers must face in order to find hydrothermal vents. Working in small groups, students can complete this Web investigation in a single class period. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions that prompt students to use what they already know about mid-ocean ridges to hypothesize about how scientists locate deep sea vents. In addition, it has detailed directions for a Web research project that takes them on a virtual deep sea journey, investigating hydrothermal vents and a worksheet that helps students apply their knowledge to locate a vent in the northern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Observation of B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Wang, M.-Z.; Chang, P.; Hou, W.-S.; Shiu, J.-G.; Wei, J.-T. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Bakich, A. M.; McOnie, S.; Peak, L. S.; Varvell, K. E.; Yabsley, B. D. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Balagura, V.; Danilov, M.; Liventsev, D.; Mizuk, R.; Pakhlova, G.; Solovieva, E. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bhardwaj, V. [Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Bischofberger, M. [Nara Women's University, Nara (Japan)] (and others)

    2009-12-01

    We study charmless B{sup +} meson decays to the p{lambda}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final state using a 605 fb{sup -1} data sample collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. There are significant signals found with the p{lambda} mass peaking near threshold. The observed branching fraction for nonresonant B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is (5.92{sub -0.84}{sup +0.88}(stat){+-}0.69(syst))x10{sup -6} with a significance of 9.1 standard deviations. We also observe the intermediate three-body decay B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}{rho}{sup 0} with a branching fraction of (4.78{sub -0.64}{sup +0.67}(stat){+-}0.60(syst))x10{sup -6} and a significance of 9.5 standard deviations, and find a hint of a B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}f{sub 2}(1270) signal. No other intermediate three-body decay is found in this study.

  10. Increased upconversion quantum yield in plasmonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhalawany, A.; Hayenga, W. E.; He, S.; Lantigua, C.; Johnson, N. J. J.; Almutairi, A.; Khajavikhan, M.

    2014-09-01

    Upconversion processes have found widespread applications in drug delivery, bio-imaging and solar-cells. In this paper we present a theoretical model that analyzes the impact of a plasmonic shield structure on the quantum yield of upconversion nanoparticles. We use this model to assess the efficiency of NaYF4: Tm3+ Yb3+/NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles when embedded in a polymer matrix and covered by a metallic can-like structure. We find that as a result of this specific plasmonic structure, the upconversion luminescence from NIR to UV can be increased by a factor of 30.

  11. UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR YIELD IMPROVEMENT

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    methods (active heating and cooling, directional solidifi- cation) Novel yield improvement techniques are being developed promoting directional solidification through a variety of active heating/cooling schemes CASTING THROUGH DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OFFICE OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES ENERGY EFFICIENCY

  12. Finding bugs is easy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hovemeyer; William Pugh

    2004-01-01

    Many techniques have been developed over the years to automatically find bugs in software. Often, these techniques rely on formal methods and sophisticated program analysis. While these techniques are valuable, they can be difficult to apply, and they aren't always effective in finding real bugs. Bug patterns are code idioms that are often errors. We have implemented automatic detectors for

  13. High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

  14. Regressions by leaps and bounds and biased estimation techniques in yield modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquina, N. E. (principal investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was observed that OLS was not adequate as an estimation procedure when the independent or regressor variables were involved in multicollinearities. This was shown to cause the presence of small eigenvalues of the extended correlation matrix A'A. It was demonstrated that the biased estimation techniques and the all-possible subset regression could help in finding a suitable model for predicting yield. Latent root regression was an excellent tool that found how many predictive and nonpredictive multicollinearities there were.

  15. A paradox for significant freedom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Almeida

    2003-01-01

    According to one view about significant freedom a moral agent has significant freedom in doing A at a time t if an only if A is morally significant for the agent and the agent’s options at t are not logically entailed by any set of propositions describing facts or causal laws holding antecedent to t .A morally significant action is

  16. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high-yield plantations could be further analyzed by considering whether they help depress global prices, reducing incentives to expand elsewhere (Angelsen and Kaimowitz 2001). The significance of the study goes well beyond the bounds of Ucayli, and highlights risks to Amazonian forests from oil palm expansion (Butler and Laurance 2010). Oil palm is an astoundingly profitable and productive crop, with typical oil yields more than ten times that of soy. Some have even argued that oil palm is innately land sparing because it would take substantially more land for all other oil-bearing crops to provide the same output. However, most production gains from oil palm have occurred through increased area rather than increased yield, and in many cases expansion has been through forest clearing (Koh and Wilcove 2008, Gibbs et al 2010). The findings of Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) are particularly significant considering that the booming palm oil sectors in Indonesia and Malaysia, which currently produce over 80% of the world's product, are facing a host of pressures that constrain future area expansion. Malaysia has little remaining land suited for plantations and Indonesia faces intensifying international scrutiny over the future of their forestlands. Consequently, the Amazon basin is widely considered the new frontier, with more than half of its forest area suitable for palm oil cultivation (Butler and Laurance 2010) and growing incentives from Brazil's Program for the Sustainable Production of Oil Palm, which aims to utilize degraded lands and spur reforestation efforts. Their results also illuminate another key issue, namely the constraints faced by large-scale producers when they seek to expand plantation area. Emerging demand-side conservation efforts, such as the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), assume that already cleared and non-forested lands are freely available. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) hint at the obstacles to using such cleared lands, which is that they are inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these c

  17. Down-regulation of Glucan, Water-Dikinase activity in wheat endosperm increases vegetative biomass and yield.

    PubMed

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Bowerman, Andrew F; Li, Zhongyi; Sirault, Xavier; Furbank, Robert; Pritchard, Jenifer R; Bloemsma, Marianne; Cavanagh, Colin R; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K

    2012-09-01

    A novel mechanism for increasing vegetative biomass and grain yield has been identified in wheat (Triticum aestivum). RNAi-mediated down-regulation of Glucan, Water-Dikinase (GWD), the primary enzyme required for starch phosphorylation, under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, resulted in a decrease in starch phosphate content and an increase in grain size. Unexpectedly, consistent increases in vegetative biomass and grain yield were observed in subsequent generations. In lines where GWD expression was decreased, germination rate was slightly reduced. However, significant increases in vegetative growth from the two leaf stage were observed. In glasshouse pot trials, down-regulation of GWD led to a 29% increase in grain yield while in glasshouse tub trials simulating field row spacing and canopy development, GWD down-regulation resulted in a grain yield increase of 26%. The enhanced yield resulted from a combination of increases in seed weight, tiller number, spikelets per head and seed number per spike. In field trials, all vegetative phenotypes were reproduced with the exception of increased tiller number. The expression of the transgene and suppression of endogenous GWD RNA levels were demonstrated to be grain specific. In addition to the direct effects of GWD down-regulation, an increased level of ?-amylase activity was present in the aleurone layer during grain maturation. These findings provide a potentially important novel mechanism to increase biomass and grain yield in crop improvement programmes. PMID:22672098

  18. Multiple exciton generation in nano-crystals revisited: Consistent calculation of the yield based on pump-probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Khadga J.; Ma, Fei; Zheng, Kaibo; Zidek, Karel; Mousa, Abdelrazek; Abdellah, Mohamed A.; Messing, Maria E.; Wallenberg, L. Reine; Yartsev, Arkadi; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2013-07-01

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) is a process in which more than one exciton is generated upon the absorption of a high energy photon, typically higher than two times the band gap, in semiconductor nanocrystals. It can be observed experimentally using time resolved spectroscopy such as the transient absorption measurements. Quantification of the MEG yield is usually done by assuming that the bi-exciton signal is twice the signal from a single exciton. Herein we show that this assumption is not always justified and may lead to significant errors in the estimated MEG yields. We develop a methodology to determine proper scaling factors to the signals from the transient absorption experiments. Using the methodology we find modest MEG yields in lead chalcogenide nanocrystals including the nanorods.

  19. Observation of B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup -}{tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} Decay at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Matyja, A.; Rozanska, M.; Bozek, A.; Lesiak, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Adachi, I.; Brodzicka, J.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakamura, I.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ozaki, H. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)] (and others)

    2007-11-09

    We report an observation of the decay B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup -}{tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} in a data sample containing 535x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We find a signal with a significance of 5.2{sigma} and measure the branching fraction B(B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup -}{tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(2.02{sub -0.37}{sup +0.40}(stat){+-}0.37(syst)) = %. This is the first observation of an exclusive B decay with a b{yields}c{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} transition.

  20. Multiple exciton generation in nano-crystals revisited: Consistent calculation of the yield based on pump-probe spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Khadga J.; Ma, Fei; Zheng, Kaibo; Zidek, Karel; Mousa, Abdelrazek; Abdellah, Mohamed A.; Messing, Maria E.; Wallenberg, L. Reine; Yartsev, Arkadi; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2013-01-01

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) is a process in which more than one exciton is generated upon the absorption of a high energy photon, typically higher than two times the band gap, in semiconductor nanocrystals. It can be observed experimentally using time resolved spectroscopy such as the transient absorption measurements. Quantification of the MEG yield is usually done by assuming that the bi-exciton signal is twice the signal from a single exciton. Herein we show that this assumption is not always justified and may lead to significant errors in the estimated MEG yields. We develop a methodology to determine proper scaling factors to the signals from the transient absorption experiments. Using the methodology we find modest MEG yields in lead chalcogenide nanocrystals including the nanorods. PMID:23887181

  1. Immunological findings in autism.

    PubMed

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    The immunopathogenesis of autism is presented schematically in Fig. 1. Two main immune dysfunctions in autism are immune regulation involving pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoimmunity. Mercury and an infectious agent like the measles virus are currently two main candidate environmental triggers for immune dysfunction in autism. Genetically immune dysfunction in autism involves the MHC region, as this is an immunologic gene cluster whose gene products are Class I, II, and III molecules. Class I and II molecules are associated with antigen presentation. The antigen in virus infection initiated by the virus particle itself while the cytokine production and inflammatory mediators are due to the response to the putative antigen in question. The cell-mediated immunity is impaired as evidenced by low numbers of CD4 cells and a concomitant T-cell polarity with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 subsets toward Th2. Impaired humoral immunity on the other hand is evidenced by decreased IgA causing poor gut protection. Studies showing elevated brain specific antibodies in autism support an autoimmune mechanism. Viruses may initiate the process but the subsequent activation of cytokines is the damaging factor associated with autism. Virus specific antibodies associated with measles virus have been demonstrated in autistic subjects. Environmental exposure to mercury is believed to harm human health possibly through modulation of immune homeostasis. A mercury link with the immune system has been postulated due to the involvement of postnatal exposure to thimerosal, a preservative added in the MMR vaccines. The occupational hazard exposure to mercury causes edema in astrocytes and, at the molecular level, the CD95/Fas apoptotic signaling pathway is disrupted by Hg2+. Inflammatory mediators in autism usually involve activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Proinflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and TARC), and an anti-inflammatory and modulatory cytokine, TGF-beta1, are consistently elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:16512356

  2. Agricultural management practices to sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Whitehead, Wayne F; Singh, Bharat P

    2003-08-20

    In the past several decades, agricultural management practices consisting of intensive tillage and high rate of fertilization to improve crop yields have resulted in the degradation of soil and environmental qualities by increasing erosion and nutrient leaching in the groundwater and releasing greenhouses gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), that cause global warming in the atmosphere by oxidation of soil organic matter. Consequently, management practices that sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities are needed. This paper reviews the findings of the effects of tillage practices, cover crops, and nitrogen (N) fertilization rates on crop yields, soil organic carbon (C) and N concentrations, and nitrate (NO3)-N leaching from the soil. Studies indicate that conservation tillage, such as no-till or reduced till, can increase soil organic C and N concentrations at 0- to 20-cm depth by as much as 7-17% in 8 years compared with conventional tillage without significantly altering crop yields. Similarly, cover cropping and 80-180 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) fertilization can increase soil organic C and N concentrations by as much as 4-12% compared with no cover cropping or N fertilization by increasing plant biomass and amount of C and N inputs to the soil. Reduced till, cover cropping, and decreased rate of N fertilization can reduce soil N leaching compared with conventional till, no cover cropping, and full rate of N fertilization. Management practices consisting of combinations of conservation tillage, mixture of legume and nonlegume cover crops, and reduced rate of N fertilization have the potentials for sustaining crop yields, increasing soil C and N storage, and reducing soil N leaching, thereby helping to improve soil and water qualities. Economical and social analyses of such practices are needed to find whether they are cost effective and acceptable to the farmers. PMID:12941975

  3. Effect of Sowing Methods and NPK Levels on Growth and Yield of Rainfed Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the response of rainfed maize to sowing methods and NPK levels, an experiment was undertaken during kharif of 2011 and 2012 at Dryland (Kerawa) Agriculture Research Station, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Budgam. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with combination of 2 sowing methods (flat sowing, 75?cm apart rows, and ridge sowing, 75?cm apart ridges) and 3 fertility levels (60?:?40?:?20, 75?:?50?:?30, and 90?:?60?:?40 N?:?P2O5?:?K2O?kg?ha?1) with three replications. Various growth characters, namely, plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, number of days to different phenological stages, and yield, and yield contributing characters namely, cob length, number of grains cob?1, cob diameter (cm), and 100-seed weight (g), were significantly higher with S2 over S1 during both the years of experimentation. Fertilizer levels F3 (90?:?60?:?40) and F2 (75?:?50?:?30) at par with one another produced significant increase in growth and yield characters, namely, plant height, leaf area index, dry matter production at different growth stages, cob length, number of cobs plant?1, number of grains cob?1, and 100-seed weight over F1 (60?:?40?:?20). Significantly higher grain yield was recorded with fertilizer level F3 (90?:?60?:?40) being at par with F2 (75?:?50?:?30) and showed significant increase over F1 (60?:?40?:?20) with superiority of 5.4 and 5.7 per cent during 2011 and 2012, respectively. The findings of the study concluded that ridge method of sowing of maize with NPK levels of 75?:?50?:?30?kg?ha?1 showed better performance of crop in terms of growth, yield, and yield attributes.

  4. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  5. Find a Dermatologist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Virgin Islands, U.S. Yemen Zimbabwe Doctor's Last Name: City: State: Choose a State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas ... cancer screening . Use these tips to Be Sun Smart ® . Get the scoop on dermatologists' top tips. Find ...

  6. Find a Free Clinic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Membership Benefits Members Only Area Login Find a Free or Charitable Clinic Search for clinics near ... Within ... 7 8 9 … next › last » National Association of Free & Charitable Clinics Address 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 600 ...

  7. Find a Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    Find the locations of NCI-designated cancer centers by area, region, state, or name that includes contact information to help health care providers and cancer patients with referrals to clinical trials.

  8. Find a Physician

    MedlinePLUS

    ... newly diagnosed patients, finding a doctor who understands sarcoidosis can be difficult — the FSR Physicians’ Directory can ... professional society of internists. Medical Specialists Who Treat Sarcoidosis (in alphabetical order) Since sarcoidosis is a multi- ...

  9. ChemTeacher: Significant Figures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Significant Figures page includes resources for teaching students about understanding and using significant figures in calculations.

  10. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ?1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ?250 (n m(-2)) and ?300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ?5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Western's Hoover Dam Bypass Project Phase II (Double-Circuiting a Portion of the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead No.1 230-kV Transmission Line, Clark County, Nevada)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-27

    The U.S. Highway 93 (U.S. 93) Hoover Dam Bypass Project calls for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Western Area Power Administration (Western) to remove its Arizona and Nevada (A&N) Switchyard. As a result of this action, Western must reconfigure its existing electrical transmission system in the Hoover Dam area. Western proposes to double-circuit a portion of the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead No.1 Transmission Line (see Figure 1-1). Double-circuiting is the placement of two separate electrical circuits, typically in the form of three separate conductors or bundles of conductors, on the same set of transmission line structures. The old Henderson-Hoover 230-kV Transmission Line would become the new Henderson-Mead No.1 and would extend approximately eight miles to connect with the Mead Substation. Western owns, operates, and maintains the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7, and Henderson-Hoover electrical power transmission lines. Additionally, approximately 0.25 miles of new right-of-way (ROW) would be needed for the Henderson-Mead No.1 when it transfers from double-circuiting with the Hoover-Mead No.7 to the Hoover-Mead No.5 at the Boulder City Tap. The proposed project would also involve a new transmission line ROW and structures where the Henderson-Mead No.1 will split from the Hoover-Mead No.5 and enter the northeast corner of the Mead Substation. Lastly, Western has proposed adding fiber optic overhead ground wire from the Hoover Power Plant to the Mead Substation on to the Henderson-Mead No.1, Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 Transmission Lines. The proposed project includes replacing existing transmission line tower structures, installing new structures, and adding new electrical conductors and fiber optic cables. As a consequence of these activities, ground disturbance may result from grading areas for structure placement, constructing new roads, improving existing roads for vehicle and equipment access, and from installing structures, conductors, and fiber optic cables. Project construction activities would be conducted within the existing 200-foot transmission line ROW and 50-foot access road ROW, although new spur access roads could occur outside of existing ROWs. As lead Federal agency for this action under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Western must ensure that adverse environmental effects on Federal and non-Federal lands and resources are avoided or minimized. This Environmental Assessment (EA) is intended to be a concise public document that assesses the probable and known impacts to the environment from Western's Proposed Action and alternatives, and reaches a conclusion about the significance of the impacts. This EA was prepared in compliance with NEPA regulations published by the Council on Environmental Quality (40 CFR 1500-1508) and implementing procedures of the Department of Energy (10 CFR 1021).

  12. How significant is nocturnal sap flow?

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Nocturnal sap flow (Qn) has been found to occur across many taxa, seasons and biomes. There is no general understanding as to how much Qn occurs and whether it is a significant contribution to total daily sap flow (Q). A synthesis of the literature and unpublished data was made to determine how significant is Qn, as a proportion of Q (%Qn), across seasons, biomes, phylogenetic groups and different thermometric sap flow methods. A total of 98 species were analysed to find that %Qn, on average, was 12.03% with the highest average dataset of 69.00%. There was significantly less %Qn in winter than in other temperate seasons, and significantly less %Qn in the wet season than in the dry season. The equatorial and tropical biomes had significantly higher %Qn than the warm temperate and nemoral biomes. The heat ratio method (HRM) and the thermal dissipation (TDP) method had significantly higher %Qn than the heat balance method. Additional analysis between HRM and TDP found HRM to have significantly higher %Qn in winter, wet season and various biomes. In all but one out of 246 cases Qn occurred, demonstrating that Qn is significant and needs to be carefully considered in sap flow and related studies. PMID:24990866

  13. hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Frederick J.

    hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield The FINANCE menu Bond Yield Practice solving for the yield of a bond #12;hp calculators HP 50g Bond Yield hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Bond Yield The FINANCE menu as Beg if chosen. To exit from this data entry screen, press the $ key. Figure 2 The HP 50g Financial

  14. Yield potential of Asparagus officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Moon

    1976-01-01

    Yield of individual plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. ‘Mary Washington 500W’ grown from seed is very variable. Yield can be improved by selection on plant sex, specific vegetative characters, or yield itself. A study of yield variation among plants in an experimental population showed that an all-male population would yield 35% more than a population with about equal numbers

  15. Disseminate your findings.

    PubMed

    Grant, Maria J

    2012-03-01

    While research training often takes place during every day practice, for the majority of library and information professionals, essential training will have been received as part of the dissertation element of their degree. However, there is a danger that important dissertation study findings are not disseminated if, for example, the student has moved onto a new job. The Health Information and Libraries Journal seek to address this research/practice gap with the introduction of a new feature 'Dissertations into Practice' specifically tasked with providing a safe and structured environment for students to disseminate their dissertation project findings. PMID:22335284

  16. Dawn: Find a Meteorite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Risvey

    2005-01-01

    This activity introduces the importance of meteorites to the understanding of the origin of the Solar System. Finding meteorites can be difficult because most meteorites look like Earth rocks to the casual or untrained eye. Even to the trained eye, recognizing meteorites can be difficult. Since scientists believe that some meteorites are pieces of the asteroid Vesta, they may be very old remnants of the Solar System in its earliest stages. This activity provides information and insight that allows participants to share scientists' expectations, based on meteoritic samples, of what we will find when the NASA's Dawn Mission visits Vesta and Ceres.

  17. FindTutorials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    FindTutorials offers hundreds of tutorials and professional online IT and Softskills training courses that are available for a variety of disciplines and skill levels. In addition, it offers an online e-mail system, an IT job database with thousands of daily updated positions, and a host of additional resources on internet training skills. With simple to use navigational tools and a "sophisticated in-house developed site search", finding information to meet your requirements merely takes the click of a button.

  18. Over-reporting significant figures—a significant problem?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Hawkins; Tony Badrick; Peter E. Hickman

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundExcessive use of significant figures in numerical data gives a spurious impression of laboratory imprecision to clinicians. We describe reporting practices in 24 Asia-Pacific laboratories, assess whether these reporting formats and those used in the literature can be justified based on actual laboratory performance and outline how to choose the appropriate number of significant places.

  19. Compounded Perturbations Yield Ecological Surprises

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Edward A.

    Compounded Perturbations Yield Ecological Surprises Robert T. Paine,1* Mia J. Tegner,2 and Edward A or age to first reproduction of the species of interest seem to be the important metrics for scaling/infrequent catastrophes, to be central to much traditional ecology; such directional or cyclical changes stimulated

  20. Finding the Sweet Spot

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners will discover how to find the "sweet spots" on a baseball bat. Whenever an object is struck, it vibrates in response. These vibrations travel in waves up and down the length of the object. At one point, called "the node," the waves always cancel each other out. The "sweet spot" is actually a node!

  1. Everybody Find a Rock

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, younger students will learn to recognize the properties of selected rocks. After participating in a read-aloud, the students will examine a variety of polished rocks, and take a walk outside to find their own rocks. As a closure activity, they are directed to explore other unique rocks at home and bring them in for class discussion and sorting.

  2. Find a Podiatrist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Yukon Territory Zip / Postal Code: The closest podiatrist may not be in your zip code. Please use the mile radius search OR enter just the first 3 digits of your zip code to find the ...

  3. Find A Grave

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Looking for genealogical information about long deceased relatives can often prove to be troubling and at times expensive, to say nothing of locating where they might be buried in order to pay your respects. Find a Grave is an excellent way to locate the burial places of family and friends, and it is completely free of charge. From their site, visitors can search for the graves of relatives and ancestors by typing in their surname, which will allow the search engine to query over 3.8 million burial records. Additionally, visitors can search through different cemeteries and make their own contributions to the Web site about family members and other loved ones. Along with making contributions to the site's database (a prime reason that the site has so many burial records), visitors make join discussion forums or share their success stories about locating burial sites and so on. For visitors looking to find the burial place of a famous individual, Find A Grave has another massive database, searchable by name, location, and date, with many of the entries containing a photograph of the famous individual and some brief biographical information. While the subject of death is a rather emotive and personal one, Find A Grave has done a fine job of providing an important information source for many individuals, attested to by the many success stories posted on the site.

  4. Unhappiness and Job Finding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Gielen; Jan van Ours

    It is puzzling that people feel quite unhappy when they become unemployed, while at the same time active labor market policies are needed to bring unemployed back to work more quickly. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we investigate whether there is indeed such a puzzle. First, we find that nearly half of the unemployed do not experience a

  5. Unhappiness and job finding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne C. Gielen

    2012-01-01

    It is puzzling that people feel quite unhappy when they become unemployed, while at the same time active labor market policies are needed to bring unemployed back to work more quickly. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we investigate whether there is indeed such a puzzle. First, we find that nearly half of the unemployed do not experience a

  6. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  7. Shaky Word Find

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This student worksheet provides a word find puzzle as a review of scientific terms associated with tectonic activity. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Shaky Quake. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

  8. [Utterly unanticipated findings].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2015-05-01

    There are now a number of cases in which non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has detected signs of cancer in pregnant women. These unexpected findings raise a number of difficult questions regarding their communication to the patient as well as the wording of informed consent forms. PMID:26059309

  9. Intelligence: New Findings and Theoretical Developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Nisbett; Joshua Aronson; Clancy Blair; William Dickens; James Flynn; Diane F. Halpern; Eric Turkheimer

    2012-01-01

    We review new findings and new theoretical developments in the field of intelligence. New findings include the following: (a) Heritability of IQ varies significantly by social class. (b) Almost no genetic polymorphisms have been discovered that are consistently associated with variation in IQ in the normal range. (c) Much has been learned about the biological underpinnings of intelligence. (d) \\

  10. Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

  11. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

  12. P Values and Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hopkins, Will G.

    This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

  13. Temporal associations between low body condition, lameness and milk yield in a UK dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Green, L E; Huxley, J N; Banks, C; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has hypothesised that cows in low body condition become lame. We tested this in a prospective longitudinal study. Body condition score (BCS), causes of lameness and milk yield were collected from a 600-cow herd over 44-months. Mixed effect binomial models and a continuous outcome model were used to investigate the associations between lameness, BCS and milk yield. In total, 14,320 risk periods were obtained from 1137 cows. There were 1510 lameness treatments: the most common causes of lameness were sole ulcer (SU) (39%), sole haemorrhage (SH) (13%), digital dermatitis (DD) (10%) and white line disease (WLD) (8%). These varied by year and year quarter. Body condition was scored at 60-day intervals. BCS ranged from 1 to 5 with a mean of 2.5, scores were higher in very early lactation but varied widely throughout lactation; approximately 45% of scores were <2.5. The key finding was that BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for lameness in the following 0-2 months and >2-4 months for all causes of lameness and also specifically for SU/WLD lameness. BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for SH in the following 0-2 months but not >2-4 months. There was no such association with DD. All lameness, SU/WLD, SH and DD were significantly more likely to occur in cows that had been lame previously, but the effect of BCS was present even when all repeat cases of lameness were excluded from the analysis. Milk yield was significantly higher and fell in the month before treatment in cows lame with SU/WLD but it was not significantly higher for cows that were treated for DD compared with non-lame cows. These findings support the hypothesis that low BCS contributes to the development of horn related claw lameness but not infectious claw diseases in dairy cows. One link between low BCS and lameness is a thin digital cushion which has been proposed as a trigger for claw horn disease. Cows with BCS 2 produced more milk than cows with BCS 2.5, however, this was only approximately 100 kg difference in yield over a 305-day lactation. Given the increased risk of lameness in cows with BCS 2, the direct costs of lameness and the small variability in milk yield by BCS, preventing cows from falling to BCS<2.5 would improve cow welfare and be economically beneficial. PMID:24183787

  14. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  15. Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

    2014-11-01

    Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

  16. Find That Planet!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students use internet resources to learn about celestial coordinates, and how to use an emphemeris to locate planets on a horizon sky map. The sky maps are then used for outdoor observing. A more advanced application has students draw maps in celestial coordinates. They first learn about the celestial coordinate system astronomers use and then they generate a position, or ephemeris, for a planet at a certain time on a certain night and plot that position on an appropriate sky map. While engaged in this activity, students will learn to use star maps for finding a planet, plot a planet path on star maps with coordinate grids, and be able to find out when a planet is visible.

  17. Finding Pulsars at Parkes

    E-print Network

    R. N. Manchester

    2000-09-26

    There are many reasons why it is important to increase the number of known pulsars. Not only do pulsar searches continue to improve statistical estimates of, for example, pulsar birthrates, lifetimes and the Galactic distribution, but they continue to turn up interesting and, in some cases, unique individual pulsars. In the early days of pulsar astronomy, the Molonglo radio telescope led the world as a pulsar detection instrument. However, the Parkes radio telescope, with its frequency versatility and greater tracking ablility, combined with sensitive receivers and powerful computer detection algorithms, is now the world's most successful telescope at finding pulsars. The Parkes multibeam survey, begun in 1997, by itself will come close to doubling the number of known pulsars. Parkes has also been very successful at finding millisecond pulsars, especially in globular clusters. One third of the known millisecond pulsars have been found in just one cluster, 47 Tucanae.

  18. 78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...no-action alternative. Based on the...the EA, DLA Energy has determined...of the EA. Alternatives Considered: The EA for DLA Energy's Mobility...market, and DLA Energy's continued...and approve alternative fuels,...

  19. 76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...resource areas in its evaluation: Land use; transportation; socioeconomics; air quality; water quality and use; geology and soils; ecology...request does not require altering the site footprint nor does it change the operating...

  20. Chariton Valley Biomass Project Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-07-11

    Switchgrass is a warm-weather, native Iowa grass that grows well on marginal land. It has been identified and extensively studied for its potential as a biomass energy crop, especially its potential for use as co-fire feedstock in coal-burning plants. In this environmental assessment (EA), the term ''co-fire'' refers to the burning of switchgrass in the OGS boiler in conjunction with coal, with the goal of reducing the amount of coal used and reducing emissions of some objectionable air pollutants associated with coal combustion. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to provide partial funding for (1) the design and construction of a biomass (switchgrass [Panicum virgatum]) storage, handling, and conveying system into the boiler at the Ottumwa Generating Station (OGS) near Chillicothe, Iowa; (2) operational testing of switchgrass as a biomass co-fire feedstock at OGS; and (3) ancillary activities related to growing, harvesting, storing, and transporting switchgrass in areas of the Rathbun Lake watershed. Chillicothe is in Wapello County on the south side of the Des Moines River, approximately 16 kilometers (10 miles) northwest of Ottumwa, Iowa, and 130 kilometers (80 miles) southeast of Des Moines. The OGS is a 725-megawatt (MW) maximum output, low-sulfur, pulverized coal-burning plant jointly owned by several Iowa utilities and operated by Alliant Energy. The plant is located about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) northwest of Chillicothe, Iowa, on the Des Moines River. The following three-phase switchgrass co-fire test campaign has been planned and partially implemented at OGS: During Phase 1, which occurred from November 2000 through January 2001, Alliant Energy conducted Co-fire Test 1 at OGS. Phase 2 testing, the Proposed Action, would consist of two additional co-fire tests. Co-fire Test 2, which would utilize some residual equipment from Co-fire Test 1 and also test some new equipment, is currently planned for September/October 2003. It would be designed to test and demonstrate the engineering and environmental feasibility of co-firing up to 11.3 tonnes (12.5 tons) of switchgrass per hour and would burn a maximum of 5,440 tonnes (6,000 tons) of switchgrass. Co-fire Test 3, which is tentatively planned for winter 2004/2005, would test the long-term (approximately 2,000 hours) sustainability of processing 11.3 tonnes (12.5 tons) per hour. Co-fire Test 3 would be conducted using a proposed new process building and storage barn that would be constructed at the OGS as part of the Proposed Action. Phase 3, commercial operations, may occur if Phase 2 indicated that commercial operations were technically, environmentally, and economically feasible. Continuous, full-scale commercial operations could process up to 23 tonnes (25 tons) of switchgrass per hour, generate 35 MW per year of OGS's annual output, and replace 5 percent of the coal burned at OGS with switchgrass. Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development Inc. (Chariton Valley RC&D), a rural-development-oriented, non-profit corporation (Chariton Valley RC&D 2003a) and Alliant Energy would implement Phase 3 at their discretion after the completion of the Phase 2 co-fire tests. DOE's Proposed Action would support only Phase 2 testing; that is, Co-fire Tests 2 and 3. DOE has no plans to provide financial support for the commercial operations that would be performed during Phase 3. The new construction that DOE proposes to partially fund would include a new switchgrass processing facility and equipment and a new storage barn that would be used for Co-fire Test 3. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental impacts that could result from the Proposed Action. It also evaluates the impacts that could occur if DOE decided not to partially fund the Proposed Action (the No Action Alternative). No other action alternatives are analyzed because (1) no generating plants other than OGS have the installed infrastructure and operating experience necessary to conduct Phase 2 co-fire testing, and (2) the Rathbun Lake watershed is the only viable

  1. 77 FR 25209 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...to 10 CFR 30.11 and 35.19. The purpose of the proposed exemption is to authorize the licensee, Franciscan St. Anthony Healt---Crown Point, to continue the use of brachytherapy sealed sources previously authorized by the NRC, but that have...

  2. SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS RELATED TO FORMATION OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS IN THE PRESENCE OF CHLORAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the drinking water industry is to produce safe, potable water for its consumers at the lowest possible cost. As the definition of acceptable quality changes via federal regulations, many communities are experiencing difficulty in meeting the objective. Of...

  3. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  4. The Csajág mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius): Late Pleniglacial finds from Hungary and their chronological significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lajos Katona; János Kovács; László Kordos; Bálint Szappanos; Isván Linkai

    The Csajág mammoths were discovered during road construction work in June 2006. The skeletal remains are well preserved in an Upper Pleistocene loess deposit. This revealed the skeletons were an adult female woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) of estimated age 24–25 years, largely complete except for the skull; and the partial skeleton of a juvenile of age 6–7 years at death.

  5. 78 FR 21919 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ...html. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: (210) 466-1590 or email: USARMY.JBSA.AEC.MBX@mail.mil. Brenda S. Bowen, Army Federal Register Liaison Officer. [FR Doc. 2013-08615 Filed 4-11-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  6. 75 FR 65294 - Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...associated with the Holland Cliff to Hewitt Road 230 kV Transmission proposal in Calvert...Station in Calvert County to the existing Hewitt Road Switching Station in St. Mary's...Calvert switching station to the existing Hewitt Road switching station; (4) the...

  7. 77 FR 77118 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...least 5 feet of clean soil. The USDA estimates...monitoring groundwater contamination and performing characterization...migration of radioactive contamination to soil or groundwater because the source of the contamination will be removed....

  8. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...Post-Panamax vessels are wider and taller ships with deeper drafts that will be able to traverse through the Panama Canal once improvements on the canal are completed in 2014. The expanded purpose of the Bayonne Bridge project is to improve the...

  9. 76 FR 74069 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ...installation and operation of a temporary water- delivery system in the event of an emergency that affects the water supply to the Jordanelle Special Service District (JSSD) Keetley Water Treatment Plant at Jordanelle Reservoir....

  10. 76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site...Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site...suborbital launches and landings of the Grasshopper Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)...

  11. Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Mission: Significant Findings, Evolving Research, and Outstanding Science Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Curtis; G. Crowley; R. Meier; D. J. Strickland; L. J. Paxton; A. Christensen; D. Morrison

    2005-01-01

    The GUVI instrument on TIMED has revolutionized our view of the thermospheric response to geomagnetic activity. GUVI provides global images of the thermospheric composition, which is an important driver of the ionospheric electron density. For the November 2003 storm, we present global simulations of the I-T response, using the model as a framework to interpret the changes observed by GUVI

  12. Finding of no significant impact for the State Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), DOE/EA 1068, to assess the environmental impacts associated with the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). DOE previously funded SECP projects under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). The State Energy Efficiency Programs Improvements Act of 1990 (SEEPIA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) amended EPCA to broaden the range of state initiatives qualifying for Federal assistance under the SECP. The PEA presents a general analysis of the potential environmental effects associated with broad types of projects that can be funded under the SECP. It does not analyze specific environmental effects or alternatives associated with individual energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy projects. Individual actions are to be evaluated in detail on a project-by-project basis to determine whether their impacts fall within the bounding analysis of the impacts analyzed in the SECP PEA.

  13. 77 FR 71198 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ...Eureka, CA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Management Programs; U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...phase of HBPP Unit 3 decommissioning commenced. Active decommissioning...there are no postulated accidents for HBPP that are...

  14. 76 FR 28480 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...longer any special nuclear material (SNM) located...consequences from radiological accidents; and (vi) the requirements...there is no longer any nuclear fuel in the 10 CFR...conserve resources for decommissioning activities. Environmental...or consequences of accidents, no changes are...

  15. 76 FR 8382 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact For...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...hazards or impacts to the environment were identified. The...quality of the human environment. Environmental Impacts...quality of the human environment. Agencies and Persons...nature, and will not affect listed species or critical...Facilities.'' 5. Defense Logistics Agency request...

  16. Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; van Loon, E. E.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the expansion of Naluabaale Dam in Uganda for the declining water level in the lake. However, Lake Victoria does not receive water from a large catchment area: most of its water comes from rain that falls directly over the huge surface of the lake. For this reason, climatic contributions cannot be ignored in the recent declining. This research aims at analyzing the contribution of rainfall over the lake area between the years 1998 and 2008. Least squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is applied on 400 cycles of TOPEX/Poseidon and 232 cycles of Jason1 altimeter data along with monthly TRMM data from 1998 to 2008 to reveal the specific frequencies. From our results, yearly, half-yearly and seasonal frequencies along with a long term frequency are clearly visible in the Lake Victoria level variations. Key words. Lake Victoria, Least Squares Spectral Analysis, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, TRMM

  17. Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Forootan; M. A. Sharifi; E. E. van Loon

    2009-01-01

    Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX\\/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the

  18. The clinical significance of Doppler findings in fetal middle cerebral artery during labor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Kassanos; Charalambos Siristatidis; Nikolaos Vitoratos; Emmanouel Salamalekis; George Creatsas

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate fetal intracranial circulation, relative to peripheral blood flow, during labor with abnormal cardiotocographic (CTG) patterns, using three non-invasive methods. (2) To determine the utility of monitoring middle cerebral artery (MCA) Doppler during labor. Interventions: Fetuses were assessed using simultaneous CTG, pulse oximetry, and Doppler ultrasonography of both the MCA and umbilical artery (UA) to measure the

  19. 78 FR 65607 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Availability of the Final Environmental...FONSI) of the Kika de la Garza Subtropical Research Center (KSARC) AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  20. 75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...of the CBF and associated pedestrian bridge are not likely to result...the proposed international pedestrian crossing is not likely to...other noise sources and safety considerations. The reasonableness...including an international pedestrian bridge, would not have...

  1. 77 FR 7610 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...University of California, Irvine Nuclear Reactor Facility AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear...University of California, Irvine Nuclear Reactor Facility (UCINRF),...

  2. 77 FR 48131 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...enhance resource efficiency with a broad focus on increased sustainability. It is based on the following concepts: (1) Producing...the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Energy and Sustainability), OASA(IE&E), 110 Army Pentagon, Room 3D453,...

  3. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP...effluent releases that effect radiation exposures to plant workers...permit are needed. No effects on the aquatic or terrestrial...James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant,...

  4. 76 FR 66334 - Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...SMALL. Public & Occupational Health...SMALL. Public & Occupational Health-- MODERATE...SMALL to MODERATE. Noise...MODERATE. Public & Occupational Health...occupational radiological dose exposures that would be...

  5. 76 FR 34273 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Special Nuclear Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...cultural resources; socioeconomics, environmental justice, and land use; floodplains and flood risk; seismic effects; climatology and meteorology; nuclear plant safety and security; radiological effects; radiological waste; and spent fuel...

  6. Kalispell Maintenance Headquarters Project : Environmental Assessment and Findings of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    The facilities needed to maintain and repair Bonneville Power Administration (BPA`s) electrical equipment in northwest Montana are currently in two locations: A maintenance headquarters at the Kalispell Substation, and a temporary leased facility south of Kalispell. The present situation is not efficient. There is not enough space to accommodate the equipment needed at each site, and coordination and communication between the two sites is difficult. Also, two sites means duplication of equipment and facilities. BPA needs a single, centralized facility that would efficiently accommodate all the area`s maintenance activities and equipment. BPA proposes to build a maintenance headquarters facility consisting of 2 to 4 single-story buildings totaling about 35,000 square feet (office spaces and workshop areas); an open-ended vehicle storage building (carport style); a fenced-in storage year; a storage building for flammables, herbicides, and hazardous wastes; and a parking lot. The facility would require developing about 6 to 10 acres of land. Two sites are being considered for the proposed project (see the attached map for locations). This report is the environmental assessment of the two options.

  7. 78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...storm events, current containment capacity may be insufficient to fully control Rio Grande flooding, with risks to personal safety and potential property damage, as well as risks to the railroad system. Design alternatives were conducted and...

  8. 76 FR 65541 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...Impact Related to Exemption From Certain Requirements for the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2, License DPR-039 and...of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 73.55 for the Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS) Units 1 and 2. This...

  9. 75 FR 63519 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...Draft EA will be available at the following public libraries: Unicoi County Public Library, 201 Nolichucky Avenue, Erwin, Tennessee...423-753-1800. Greeneville/Green County Public Library, 210 North Main Street, Greeneville,...

  10. 75 FR 6067 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...concentration limit (ACL) be set for selenium at the point of compliance wells equal to 0.05 mg/L. This requested selenium value is equal to the U.S. Environmental...maximum contaminant level (MCL) for selenium in drinking water. WNI has...

  11. Finding of no significant impact; Atlantic Richfield Company and Intalco Aluminum Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    On February 27, 1989, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Opinion and Order No. 301 to Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) conditionally authorizing the importation of Canadian natural gas for use in its refinery near Ferndale, Washington. On February 28, 1989, the DOE issued Opinion and Order No. 302 to Intalco Aluminum Corporation (Intalco) conditionally authorizing the importation of Canadian natural gas for use in its aluminum smelting plant near Ferndale, Washington. However, both conditional orders provided that the issues raised in the proceedings would be reexamined upon subsequent completion of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for the Ferndale Pipeline project and that the final action would then be taken on the conditional orders. The DOE reviewed the project and determined that the pipeline project would not affect the quality of the environment.

  12. 76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...disposed of wastes containing low levels of hydrogen-3 (tritium) and carbon-14 by incineration. The licensee also disposed...about 19 millicuries (0.7 gigabecquerels) of hydrogen-3 (tritium) and about 13 millicuries (0.47 gigabecquerels) of...

  13. 69 FR 67300 - Household Water Well System Program; Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-11-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Household Water Well System Program; Notice...will implement the Household Water Well System Program (HWWSP...Environmental Scientist, RUS, Water and Environmental...

  14. 77 FR 8903 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...to allow for the use of M5\\TM\\ alloy fuel rod cladding for Renewed Facility...provides requirements for reactors containing uranium oxide fuel pellets clad in either zircaloy...allow the licensee the use of M5\\TM\\ alloy fuel rod cladding at HNP. The...

  15. 69 FR 43830 - Finding of No Significant Impact for the Mobile Launch Platform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-07-22

    ...realistically test sensors (radars, [[Page...telemetry, and optical systems), ballistic...onboard the MLP. The sensors that would be tested...telemetry, and optical systems. Examples...High-Accuracy Optical Tracking System...MLP. Additional sensor systems may be...

  16. 77 FR 66874 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...Maryland this 2nd day of November, 2012. Rosemary T. Hogan, Chief, Structural, Geotechnical, and Seismic Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Research. [FR Doc. 2012-27185 Filed 11-6-12; 8:45 am]...

  17. 78 FR 4134 - Availability of the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...Army must achieve force reductions as it transitions from major combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, while reducing spending without sacrificing critical national defense capabilities. The draft FNSI considers a proposed action under which the...

  18. 75 FR 25301 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...Environmental Monitoring, Water Resources, Geology, Soils, Air Quality, Demography, Biota...environmental monitoring, water resources, geology, soils, air quality, demography, biota...environmental monitoring, water resources, geology, soils, air quality, demography,...

  19. Sputter yield of curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbassek, Herbert M.; Bradley, R. Mark; Nietiadi, Maureen L.; Möller, Wolfhard

    2015-04-01

    The mean sputter yield produced by the impact of a single ion depends on the radii of curvature of the target surface at the point of impact. Using the Sigmund model of ion sputtering, we develop analytical formulas for this dependence for the case in which the radii of curvature are large compared to the size of the ion-induced collision cascade; both locally perpendicular and oblique ion impact are considered. The sputter yield is increased for impact on convex surfaces. The influence of surface curvature along the incident-ion azimuth and perpendicular to it are discussed separately. Our analytical results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations for the specific case of 20 keV Ar ion impact on a cylindrical nanowire consisting of amorphous silicon. We also extend the results for this case to small radii of curvature using both Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.

  20. Yield Enhancement of Digital Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Space Redundancy and Local Reconfiguration*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Yield Enhancement of Digital Microfluidics-Based Biochips Using Space Redundancy and Local to avoid faulty elements. Digital microfluidics- based biochips are also amenable to redundancy-based yield. As microfluidics-based biochips become more complex, manufacturing yield will have significant influence

  1. Yield response of spring wheat to increasing densities of spring oats and various forms

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Agronomy Yield response of spring wheat to increasing densities of spring oats and various forms; accepted 11 August 1993) Summary — Reductions in the yields of spring wheat (cv Bastion) caused for each of the 3 experimental years. Wheat yield losses were significantly greater on oat-infested plots

  2. Electron-Yield Enhancement in a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator Driven by Asymmetric Laser Pulses

    E-print Network

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Electron-Yield Enhancement in a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator Driven by Asymmetric Laser Pulses W. P on electron yield from a laser wakefield accelerator has been experimentally studied using > 1019 cmÿ3 plasmas to significantly enhance the electron yield compared to pulses with a gentle rise and negative chirp. Theory

  3. Green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Gallatin 50): Effects of plant population density on yield and quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Field; S. Nkumbula

    1986-01-01

    The yield and quality of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Gallatin 50) was determined after sowing the crop at 150, 300, 380, and 450 mm between-row distances and within-row distances of 70 or 140 mm. Total pod yield and the yield of processable pods ( > 50 mm in length) showed significant quadratic responses to increasing plant population density.

  4. Yield impacting systematic defects search and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Qingxiu; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xing; Ning, Jay; Cheng, Guojie; Chen, Shijie; Zhang, Gary; Vikram, Abhishek; Su, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Despite great effort before design tapeout, there are still some pattern related systematic defects showing up in production, which impact product yield. Through various check points in the production life cycle endeavor is made to detect these defective patterns. It is seen that apart from the known defective patterns, slight variations of polygon sizes and shapes in the known defective patterns also cause yield loss. This complexity is further compounded when interactions among multiple process layers causes the defect. Normally the exact pattern matching techniques cannot detect these variations of the defective patterns. With the currently existing tools in the fab it is a challenge to define the 'sensitive patterns', which are arbitrary variations in the known 'defective patterns'. A design based approach has been successfully experimented on product wafers to detect yield impacting defects that greatly reduces the TAT for hotspot analysis and also provides optimized care area definition to enable high sensitivity wafer inspection. A novel Rule based pattern search technique developed by Anchor Semiconductor has been used to find sensitive patterns in the full chip design. This technique allows GUI based pattern search rule generation like, edge move or edge-to-edge distance range, so that any variations of a particular sensitive pattern can be captured and flagged. Especially the pattern rules involving multiple process layers, like M1-V1-M2, can be defined easily using this technique. Apart from using this novel pattern search technique, design signatures are also extracted around the defect locations in the wafer and used in defect classification. This enhanced defect classification greatly helps in determining most critical defects among the total defect population. The effectiveness of this technique has been established through design to defect correlation and SEM verification. In this paper we will report details of the design based experiments that were successfully run on multiple process layers in production device.

  5. Yield issues with local interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henis, Neil B.; Bolton, Scott; Montez, Ruben; Legg, James; Kim, Sung; Vuong, Quong

    1998-08-01

    We report here on process integration issues in the interconnect module of advanced microprocessor. We show how stresses in certain layers can affect yield and result in novel failure mechanisms in other layers. The paper will follow the history of a yield crash from beginning to end. We show how the problem was isolated, how yields were raised once the issues were fixed, and how an understanding of the issues involved can allow us to construct a more robust process from the beginning, therefore minimizing the possibility of such problems occurring in the first pace. The particular work here involves interactions of TiN with TEOS layers, and shows how local interconnect shorting can be caused by interactions between all of these layers. Stress effects in the as deposited TEOS films, although not obvious, can play a large role in determining whether or not problems occur. We also will examine how supposedly identical tools, or even two chambers within one tool can produce dramatically different end results in terms of film properties.

  6. Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site. PMID:23673936

  7. Significant Communities in Large Sparse Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Lindholm, Johan; Derlén, Mattias; Rosvall, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Researchers use community-detection algorithms to reveal large-scale organization in biological and social networks, but community detection is useful only if the communities are significant and not a result of noisy data. To assess the statistical significance of the network communities, or the robustness of the detected structure, one approach is to perturb the network structure by removing links and measure how much the communities change. However, perturbing sparse networks is challenging because they are inherently sensitive; they shatter easily if links are removed. Here we propose a simple method to perturb sparse networks and assess the significance of their communities. We generate resampled networks by adding extra links based on local information, then we aggregate the information from multiple resampled networks to find a coarse-grained description of significant clusters. In addition to testing our method on benchmark networks, we use our method on the sparse network of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) case law, to detect significant and insignificant areas of law. We use our significance analysis to draw a map of the ECJ case law network that reveals the relations between the areas of law. PMID:22479433

  8. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  9. The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays

    SciTech Connect

    Achasov, N. N., E-mail: achasov@math.nsc.ru [Russina Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

  10. Find-It! Consumer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the Washington State Library, Find-It! Consumer provides links to and information about over 100 consumer safety and protection Websites. Annotated Websites concerning Washington State or the entire United States may be searched by keyword or browsed by topic. The librarians have included a wonderful section on Top Searches, which gives guides to information and resources on a broad range of subjects, from insecticide in food to choosing an Internet service provider. Up-to-date recalls and new consumer information are also highlighted.

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage in the cat: cytological findings.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, G M; Quinn, P J

    1989-01-01

    Cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from the lungs of specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats from birth to maturity and from adult conventional cats were enumerated and identified. The predominant cell type recovered was the pulmonary alveolar macrophage from all ages of both SPF and conventional cats. Other cell types included eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Lavage of conventional cats yielded significantly more eosinophils and neutrophils than were recovered from SPF cats. PMID:2527589

  12. Topsoil Depth Effects on Crop Yields as Affected by Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott; Cruse, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topsoil (A-horizon) depth is positively correlated with crop productivity; crop roots and available nutrients are concentrated in this layer; topsoil is critical for nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Its loss or reduction can be considered an irreversible impact of soil erosion. Climatic factors such as precipitation and temperature extremes that impose production stress further complicate the relationship between soil erosion and crop productivity. The primary research objective was to determine the effects of soil erosion on corn and soybean yields of loess and till-derived soils in the rain-fed farming region of Iowa. Data collection took place from 2007 to 2012 at seven farm sites located in different major soil regions. Collection consisted of 40 to 50 randomly selected georeferenced soil probe locations across varying erosion classes in well drained landscape positions. Soil probes were done to a minimum depth of 100 cm and soil organic carbon samples were obtained in the top 10 cm. Crop yields were determined utilizing georeferenced harvest maps from yield monitoring devices and cross referenced with georeferenced field data points. Data analysis targeted relationships between crop yields versus soil organic carbon contents (SOC) and crop yields versus topsoil depths (TSD). The variation of yield and growing season rainfall across multiple years were also evaluated to provide an indication of soil resiliency associated with topsoil depth and soil organic carbon levels across varying climatic conditions. Results varied between sites but generally indicated a greater yield potential at thicker TSD's and higher SOC concentrations; an annual variation in yield response as a function of precipitation amount during the growing season; largest yield responses to both TSD and SOC occurred in the driest study year (2012); and little to no significant yield responses to TSD occurred during the wettest study year (2010). These results were not representative for all seven sites. Of the sites sampled, five showed similar yield responses while two sites did not indicate a response, and results varied between corn and soybean crops. The results indicate the potential for crop yield sensitivity and lost production due to thinning topsoil depths and lost soil organic carbon is likely associated with soil erosion. This yield sensitivity appeared to increase during drier years as thinner topsoils typically have lower water retention capacity. Minimal yield response during the wettest year further suggests that topsoil plays a critical role in plant-soil water relations.

  13. EMPIRICALLY DERIVED INTEGRATED STELLAR YIELDS OF Fe-PEAK ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R. B. C.; Cowan, John J. [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer, E-mail: henry@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: jsobeck@uchicago.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We present here the initial results of a new study of massive star yields of Fe-peak elements. We have compiled from the literature a database of carefully determined solar neighborhood stellar abundances of seven iron-peak elements, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and then plotted [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] to study the trends as functions of metallicity. Chemical evolution models were then employed to force a fit to the observed trends by adjusting the input massive star metallicity-sensitive yields of Kobayashi et al. Our results suggest that yields of Ti, V, and Co are generally larger as well as anticorrelated with metallicity, in contrast to the Kobayashi et al. predictions. We also find the yields of Cr and Mn to be generally smaller and directly correlated with metallicity compared to the theoretical results. Our results for Ni are consistent with theory, although our model suggests that all Ni yields should be scaled up slightly. The outcome of this exercise is the computation of a set of integrated yields, i.e., stellar yields weighted by a slightly flattened time-independent Salpeter initial mass function and integrated over stellar mass, for each of the above elements at several metallicity points spanned by the broad range of observations. These results are designed to be used as empirical constraints on future iron-peak yield predictions by stellar evolution modelers. Special attention is paid to the interesting behavior of [Cr/Co] with metallicity-these two elements have opposite slopes-as well as the indirect correlation of [Ti/Fe] with [Fe/H]. These particular trends, as well as those exhibited by the inferred integrated yields of all iron-peak elements with metallicity, are discussed in terms of both supernova nucleosynthesis and atomic physics.

  14. Finding the Biotic Fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    The deepest extent of inhabited rock, known as the biotic fringe, is determined by the interplay of geochemical and biochemical reaction rates. As a consequence it is unlikely that a single parameter, such as temperature, will be generally diagnostic. More probably, shifting combinations of compositional factors, together with temperature and pressure changes, will determine the position and dynamic movements of the biotic fringe. As an example, during serpentinization the biotic fringe may be determined by the depletion of carbon through carbonate precipitation or abiotic organic synthesis at mineral surfaces at temperatures and pressures that are readily inhabited elsewhere. During other weathering, diagenetic and alteration processes, the transition from sterile to populated may be determined by supply rates of reductants, oxidants, nutrients, or their diverse combinations. Where geochemical composition and mineral catalysts permit rapid abiotic organic synthesis and redox equilibration, microbes are unlikely to be able to compete. This is especially true if such conditions inhibit the function of enzymatic catalysts. As abiotic rates slow, opportunities for catalysis emerge as can the biotic fringe where enzymes can function effectively. There are many ways to turn this conceptual model into one that makes quantitative predictions. Rates of many abiotic redox and organic synthesis reactions are amenable to experimental study, and parallel biotic rate experiments yield particularly useful results. Likewise, determining how enzymes are inactivated at the limits of their function will add explicit biochemical constraints. Exploring for the biotic fringe in the subsurface involves using compositional data to evaluate apparent temperatures of equilibration that reveal anomalous approaches to redox equilibrium at conditions where abiotic rates are insufficient. Meanwhile, sampling the inhabitants of the biotic fringe will reveal surprising extents of enzyme behavior.

  15. Finding high yield genes in weedy red rice to improve new cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice (Oryza rufipogon) is a weedy, wild relative of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that is considered a major pest in rice production fields. However, researchers have found that it can be a valuable source of disease and insect resistance genes. Researchers with USDA ARS and Cornell University ...

  16. Expert Witnesses: Voices Of Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Oerlemans; Lesley Vidovich

    2005-01-01

    Michael Fullan in 1991 made the comment that little was known about how students viewed educational change, as no one had\\u000a thought to ask them. There is a small but growing literature seeking the views of students on a range of issues associated\\u000a with schooling. This paper reports the findings of a study of students’ perceptions of top–down educational change,

  17. Yield learning model for integrated circuit package

    E-print Network

    Balasubramaniam, Gaurishankar

    1996-01-01

    from chronic yield loss. . 5 Yield due to chronic yield loss. . 6 Time series model. . 7 Estimation of regression coefficients. . . 14 . 16 . 17 . 18 8 Impact of excursions. . . . 19 9 Effect of volume in line. . . . . . 20 10 Impact... of experience level. 11 Final spreadsheet model. . 12 Values for factors. . 21 . . . . 22 . . . . . 23 13 Final yield. . . . . . 24 14 Predicted yield - chronic and excursions. . . 25 15 Percentage rating for PQFP - absolute metric model. . . . . 16...

  18. Yield Loss in Soybean Caused by Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Young, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    Yields of four soybean cultivars were measured for 4 years in a field infested with Heterodera glycines race 3 and in a field infested with H. glycines race 14. Cultivars included Hutcheson (susceptible to both races), Deltapine 415 (resistant to race 3 and susceptible to race 14), Asgrow 5979 (resistant to both races), and Harwig (resistant to both races as well as most other known races of H. glycines). Although no above-ground symptoms of nematode infection were visible, mean yield was 16-32% greater for Asgrow 5979 than for Hutcheson. Yield for Dehpiue 415 was similar to that of Asgrow 5979 in the field infested with race 3 and similar to that of Hutcheson in the race 14-infested field. Hartwig produced lower yields than Asgrow 5979 in both fields. Yield differences, particularly between Asgrow 5979 and Hutcheson, were attributed primarily to nematodes because both cultivars have been shown to produce similar yields in the absence of H. glycines. This study illustrates the importance of knowing which race of the nematode is prevalent in a field and demonstrates that the nematode can cause significant yield loss in the absence of visible symptoms of infection. PMID:19277181

  19. Electron yields from spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, K.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Photoyields and secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics were determined under UHV conditions for a group of insulating materials used in spacecraft applications. The SEE studies were carried out with a pulsed primary beam while photoyields were obtained with a chopped photon beam from a Kr resonance source with major emission at 123.6 nm. This provides a photon flux close to that of the Lyman alpha in the space environment. Yields per incident photon are obtained relative to those from a freshly evaporated and air oxidized Al surface. Results are presented for Kapton, FEP Teflon, the borosilicate glass covering of a shuttle tile, and spacesuit outer fabric.

  20. Significant potential for lower costs.

    PubMed

    Renecle, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Switching to LED lighting has, specialist supplier of such technology, Exled maintains, 'proven to be one of the most significant cost-saving activities hospitals can undertake'. Alongside the financial gains, other benefits include higher levels of patient satisfaction with lighting 'quality' and ambience, and improved environmental credentials. Here Exled MD, Michael Renecle, discusses LED lighting in healthcare in some detail, offers useful pointers on specification, examines some of the 'significant savings and environmental improvements' available to those 'making the switch', and considers the positive experiences of a number of NHS Trusts who have done so. PMID:25282981

  1. The sinister significance of dysphagia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Grannell; S. Kelly; S. Shannon; A. L. Chong; T. N. Walsh

    2001-01-01

    Background  The majority of patients presenting with oesophageal cancer have symptoms for more than three months and advanced disease\\u000a at presentation. Most appear unaware of the significance of dysphagia as a symptom. Cancer awareness programmes focus on symptoms\\u000a such as lumps and bleeding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  To sample the level of public awareness of the potentially sinister significance of the symptom of dysphagia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A

  2. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered. PMID:24520967

  3. FindArticles.com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new service is a partnership between LookSmart and the Gale Group, a publisher of research and reference materials for libraries, businesses, and information technologists. The site offers free access to the full-text of articles published in over 350 magazines and journals dating from 1998. Users can search the database by keyword and by one of the nine subject categories (Arts & Entertainment, Computers & Technology, Reference & Education, Sports, etc.). Search returns include article title, periodical, and short description, with a link to the full-text, which is conveniently and quickly displayed at the FindArticles site, though with numerous advertising banners. Visitors can also view a list of the publications indexed, alphabetically or by subject. Periodical listings include a one-sentence description and a link to their Website. Despite the banners and other commercial content (the bills must be paid, after all) this site is a very useful reference source, indexing many leading journals and magazines.

  4. Sclerosing cholangitis: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Teefey, S A; Baron, R L; Rohrmann, C A; Shuman, W P; Freeny, P C

    1988-12-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in the detection of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary systems was assessed by comparing CT scans of 20 cases of PSC with cholangiographic findings. In 16 of 19 cases of extrahepatic duct disease demonstrated with cholangiography, CT demonstrated abnormalities of the common hepatic duct, or bile duct, including duct stenosis, mural nodularity, duct dilatation, wall thickening, and mural enhancement. CT demonstrated intrahepatic disease in all 20 cases, including duct dilatation, duct stenosis, pruning, and beading. CT was superior to cholangiography in characterization of the status of the intrahepatic duct system in 11 of 20 cases. In addition, CT demonstrated extrabiliary complications of PSC in 12 cases and superimposed cholangiocarcinoma in three cases. While cholangiography remains the standard for diagnosis and follow-up of PSC, CT can provide valuable information about the extent and complications of the disease. PMID:3055028

  5. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content. PMID:25794725

  6. Status and Significance of Credentialing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Dorothea

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination…

  7. Determining the significance of MGUS.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Giampaolo

    2014-01-16

    In this issue of Blood, Turesson et al study the risk of progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to lymphoplasmacellular and myeloid malignancies in a large population, validating current risk factors and adding immunoparesis as a predictor of progression. PMID:24434993

  8. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant

  9. Significant Figures in Speed Records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Dines

    1929-01-01

    I HAD hoped that someone more competent than myself would have replied to Col. O'Gorman's letter, in which, in NATURE of Mar. 30, he offered an apologia for recording Sir Henry Segrave's speed to 8 significant figures, but probably most readers of this journal do not consider that motor speed records form a subject with which they are intimately concerned.

  10. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

    2009-01-01

    Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand. PMID:19956624

  11. Significant Enhancement of Neutralino Dark Matter Annihilation

    E-print Network

    Bringmann, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Indirect searches for the cosmological dark matter have become ever more competitive during the past years. Here, we report the first full calculation of leading electroweak corrections to the annihilation rate of supersymmetric neutralino dark matter. We find that these corrections can be huge, partially due to contributions that have been overlooked so far. Our results imply a significantly enhanced discovery potential of this well motivated dark matter candidate with current and upcoming cosmic ray experiments, in particular for models with somewhat small annihilation rates at tree level.

  12. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Patra, Phani B; Patra, Sayani

    2015-05-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  13. Changes in yields and their variability at different levels of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, Katelin

    2015-04-01

    An assessment of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming is crucial to inform the political discussion about mitigation targets as well as for the inclusion of climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) that generally only provide global mean temperature change as an indicator of climate change. While there is a well-established framework for the scalability of regional temperature and precipitation changes with global mean temperature change we provide an assessment of the extent to which impacts such as crop yield changes can also be described in terms of global mean temperature changes without accounting for the specific underlying emissions scenario. Based on multi-crop-model simulations of the four major cereal crops (maize, rice, soy, and wheat) on a 0.5 x 0.5 degree global grid generated within ISI-MIP, we show the average spatial patterns of projected crop yield changes at one half degree warming steps. We find that emissions scenario dependence is a minor component of the overall variance of projected yield changes at different levels of global warming. Furthermore, scenario dependence can be reduced by accounting for the direct effects of CO2 fertilization in each global climate model (GCM)/impact model combination through an inclusion of the global atmospheric CO2 concentration as a second predictor. The choice of GCM output used to force the crop model simulations accounts for a slightly larger portion of the total yield variance, but the greatest contributor to variance in both global and regional crop yields and at all levels of warming, is the inter-crop-model spread. The unique multi impact model ensemble available with ISI-MIP data also indicates that the overall variability of crop yields is projected to increase in conjunction with increasing global mean temperature. This result is consistent throughout the ensemble of impact models and across many world regions. Such a hike in yield volatility could have significant policy implications by affecting food prices and supplies.

  14. Serologic laboratory findings in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Félix Fernández; Maroun, Marie-Claire

    2011-11-01

    Autoantibodies are extremely promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancer, and have the potential to promote early diagnosis and to make a large impact by improving patient outcome and decreasing mortality. Moreover, autoantibodies may be useful reagents in the identification of subjects at risk for cancer, bearing premalignant tissue changes. Great efforts are being made in many laboratories to validate diagnostic panels of autoantibodies with high sensitivity and specificity that could be useful in a clinical setting. It is likely that prospective studies of sufficiently large cohorts of patients and controls using high-throughput technology may allow the identification of biomarkers with diagnostic significance, and perhaps of discrete antigen phenotypes with clinical significance. The identification of TAAs may also be essential for the development of anticancer vaccines, because autoantibodies found in cancer sera target molecules involved in signal transduction, cell-cycle regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, playing important roles in carcinogenesis. On this basis, molecular studies of antigenantibody systems in cancer promise to yield valuable information on the carcinogenic process. TAAs identified by serum antibodies in cancer sera can be natural immunogenic molecules, useful as targets for cancer immunotherapy. An important problem encountered in the practice of medicine is the identification of healthy individuals in the general population who unknowingly are at high risk of developing cancer. For the rheumatologist, a related problem is the identification of those patients with rheumatic diseases who are at high risk for developing a malignant process. These problems encountered in the fields of cancer and the rheumatic diseases can in the future be helped by new diagnostic instruments based on antibodies. The need for promoting the early diagnosis of cancer is a recognized major public health problem in need of significant research support for the validation of multiple promising but inconclusive studies, with the intention of producing diagnostic panels of autoantibodies in various types of cancers. Cancer developing in patients with rheumatic diseases is also an important problem requiring prospective longterm follow-up studies of patients with rheumatic diseases, particularly because some of the new biologic therapies seem to increase the cancer risk. It is possible that a panel of autoantibodies common to patients with cancer and the rheumatic diseases may prove to be of value in the identification of those patients with ADs at high risk for neoplasms. PMID:22075195

  15. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text. PMID:23046816

  16. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

  17. Yield performance of cacao propagated by somatic embryogenesis and grafting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve cacao (Theobroma cacao) clones propagated by grafting and somatic embryogenesis and grown on an Ultisol soil were evaluated for five years under intensive management at Corozal, Puerto Rico. Preliminary data showed no significant differences between propagation methods for yield of dry beans ...

  18. A Study of Variance Reduction Techniques for Estimating Circuit Yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale E. Hocevar; Michael R. Lightner; Timothy N. Trick

    1983-01-01

    The efficiency of several variance reduction techniques (in particular, importance sampling, stratified sampling, and control variates) are studied with respect to their application in estimating circuit yields. This study suggests that one essentially has to have a good approximation of the region of acceptability in order to achieve significant variance reduction. Further, all the methods considered are based, either explicitly

  19. Inhaler Reminders Significantly Improve Asthma Patients' Use of Controller Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... daily inhaler reminders for missed doses plus adherence feedback via a monitoring device clipped to the inhaler, ... location. The authors’ findings demonstrate that reminders and feedback for controller inhaler use significantly improve treatment adherence ...

  20. GGE Biplot Analysis of Oil Yield in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Bhan; S. Pal; B. L. Rao; A. K. Dhar; M. S. Kang

    2005-01-01

    Six varieties\\/strains belonging to three species of Cymbopogon, viz., C. flexuosus, C. khasianus and C. pendulus, or their hybrids, were evaluated for oil yield across four years (1997-98-2000-01) as very limited information is available on variety-by-environment interaction from multi-environment trials. The main effects, varieties and years, were significant, but variety-by-year interaction was not significant. Log-transformation of data reduced coefficients of

  1. Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, tar and nicotine yields

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Saliba, Najat; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) use has become a global phenomenon, with numerous product variations. One variation is a class of products marketed as “tobacco-free” alternatives for the “health conscious user”. In this study toxicant yields from waterpipes smoked using conventional tobacco-based and tobacco-free preparations were compared. A human-mimic waterpipe smoking machine was used to replicate the puffing sequences of 31 human participants who completed two double-blind ad libitum smoking sessions in a controlled clinical setting: once with a tobacco-based product of their choosing and once with a flavor-matched tobacco-free product. Outcome measures included yields of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, volatile aldehydes, nicotine, tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from both waterpipe preparations contained substantial quantities of toxicants. Nicotine yield was the only outcome that differed significantly between preparations. These findings contradict advertising messages that “herbal” waterpipe products are a healthy alternative to tobacco products. PMID:22406330

  2. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...or findings suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  3. Clinical Significance of Precipitous Labor

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Background Precipitous labor is defined as expulsion of the fetus within less than 3 hours of commencement of regular contractions. We retrospectively examined our cases of precipitous labor to identify the clinical significance and perinatal outcomes following precipitous labor in singleton vertex deliveries. Methods A retrospective population-based study was conducted comparing women with singleton precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes by comparing patients with precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration in 0 and two-parous singleton pregnant women. Results Using a multivariate analysis, precipitous labor in nulliparous women was independently associated with teenagers (adjusted OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 0.99 - 2.95, P = 0.049), preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.70, P < 0.01) and hypertensive disorders (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.19 - 2.65, P < 0.01), while in two-parous women, it was independently associated with hypertensive disorders (adjusted OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.33 - 5.24, P < 0.01). No significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding maternal or neonatal complications on both nulliparous and two-parous women. Conclusion Although precipitous labor was associated with hypertensive disorders in singleton vertex deliveries, it was not associated with maternal or neonatal outcomes. PMID:25584099

  4. Universality in fragment inclusive yields from Au+Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insolia, A.; Tuvè, C.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J. M.; Tincknell, M. L.; Wang, S.; Warren, P. G.; Wieman, H. H.; Wolf, K. L.

    2001-11-01

    The inclusive light fragment (Z?7) yield data in Au+Au reactions, measured by the EOS Collaboration at the LBNL Bevalac, are presented and discussed. For peripheral collisions the measured charge distributions develop progressively according to a power law which can be fitted by a single ? exponent independently of the bombarding energy in the range 250-1200 A MeV. In addition to this universal feature, we observe that the location of the maximum in the individual yields of different charged fragments shift towards lower multiplicity as the fragment charge increases from Z=3 to Z=7. This trend is common to all six measured beam energies. Moments of charge distributions and correlations among different moments are reported. Finally, the THe,DT thermometer has been constructed for central and peripheral collisions using the double yield ratios of He and D, T projectile fragments. The measured nuclear temperatures are in agreement with experimental findings in other fragmentation reactions.

  5. Yield and quality of forages grown on mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenstler, W.F.; Henry, D.S.

    1980-12-01

    Pasture or hayland is a potential use for much of the reclaimed mined land in Kentucky. To determine the usefulness of several species for forage production, two study areas were established, one in the eastern coal fields, the second in the western coal fields. Eight species were seeded in eight different mixtures at each location. Each plot was harvested twice each year to determine yield, and samples were analyzed to determine percent protein, DMD, and sugar. Analysis of variance of the data show that there are significant differences in yield, stand, percent protein and percent DMD among the different species. There is also a significant difference in the yield of the same species between the two study areas. In eastern Kentucky, two mixtures, switchgrass-Interstate sericea lespedeza and Caucasian bluestem-Appalow sericea lespedeza yielded more hay than tall fescue-Interstate sericea, the standard of comparison. In western Kentucky, all seeding mixtures yielded more than the tall fescue Interstate mixture. There is no difference in stand among the species in eastern Kentucky. In western Kentucky, Caucasian bluestem, tall fescue, and switchgrass have better stands than other species.

  6. Weather yield model for the semi tropical region (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Syed Faizan; Asif, K. H.; Gilani, Amjad Hussain

    1992-09-01

    Weather models are essential tools for checking of the effect of the weather elements in terms of their effect on the production of the crop. This research is an attempt to see the effect of only two variables i.e., temperature and rainfall for the division Faisalabad (semitropical region of Pakistan). The model fitted is of the linear form: Y= a+ bX 1+ cX 2, the values of a,b,c have been found. The expected yield has been calculated by using the aridity indices X 1 and X 2 and the result in the form of coefficient of determination R 2 has been found equal to 0.166. The significance of the regression coefficient has been tested, which shows that the contribution to the yield from aridity index at germination and that at ripening is significant. The wheat yields are the results of a wide variety of variables, most of which show varying degree of relationship with one another, some positive and some negative in terms of output. These variables may be technology, fertilizers, pesticides, epidemics, kinds of seeds used, market price of crop and the area under cultivation etc, which can be the source of variation in the wheat yield. Since rainfall during germination and temperature at the ripening periods are the necessary factors for the yield of wheat, for this purpose these parameters have been studied in order to their contribution.

  7. Stress localization, stiffening and yielding in a model colloidal gel

    E-print Network

    Jader Colombo; Emanuela Del Gado

    2014-06-16

    We use numerical simulations and an athermal quasi-static shear protocol to investigate the yielding of a model colloidal gel. Under increasing deformation, the elastic regime is followed by a significant stiffening before yielding takes place. A space-resolved analysis of deformations and stresses unravel how the complex load curve observed is the result of stress localization and that the yielding can take place by breaking a very small fraction of the network connections. The stiffening corresponds to the stretching of the network chains, unbent and aligned along the direction of maximum extension. It is characterized by a strong localization of tensile stresses, that triggers the breaking of a few network nodes at around 30% of strain. Increasing deformation favors further breaking but also shear-induced bonding, eventually leading to a large-scale reorganization of the gel structure at the yielding. At low enough shear rates, density and velocity profiles display significant spatial inhomogeneity during yielding in agreement with experimental observations.

  8. Yield model development project implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambroziak, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

  9. Wheat yield forecasts using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Leaf area index and percentage of vegetative cover, two indices of crop yield developed from Landsat multispectral scanning data, are discussed. Studies demonstrate that the Landsat indicators may be as highly correlated with winter wheat yield as estimates based on traditional field sampling methods; in addition, the Landsat indicators may account for variations in individual field yield which are not explainable by meteorological data. A simple technique employing early-season Landsat data to make wheat yield predictions is also considered.

  10. Analyzing the designs of planet finding missions

    E-print Network

    Savransky, D; Cady, E

    2009-01-01

    We present an extended framework for the analysis of direct detection planet finding missions using space telescopes. We describe the components of a design reference mission (DRM), including the complete description of an arbitrary planetary system, the description of a planet finding instrument, and the modeling of an observation at an arbitrary time. These components are coupled with a decision modeling algorithm, which allows us to automatically generate DRMs with simple mission rules that lead to an optimized science yield. This automated DRM generation is then employed to perform a Monte Carlo analysis to produce the distribution of science deliverables and costs for a mission concept. Along with the details of our implementation of this algorithm, we discuss validation techniques and possible future refinements. We apply this analysis technique to three mission concepts: an internal pupil mapping coronagraph, an external occulter, and the THEIA XPC concept (also an occulter based design). The focus of ...

  11. Corn residue removal effects on subsequent yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn residue is used for forage and feed, but residue removal effects on soil properties and yield is a concern. Residue removal effects on corn yields and soil organic carbon is site specific. Removing 50% of the residue from rainfed sites reduced corn yield by 1.9 bu/acre, whereas removing 40% of ...

  12. Three essays on weather and crop yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian Yu

    2011-01-01

    The general theme of this dissertation is the study of impacts of weather variability on crop yields, with each chapter addressing a specific topic related to this theme. Chapter 2 tests the hypothesis that corn and soybeans have become more drought tolerant by regressing county yields on a drought index and time. Results indicate that corn yield losses from drought

  13. Yield function development for aluminum alloy sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Barlat; Y. Maeda; K. Chung; M. Yanagawa; J. C. Brem; Y. Hayashida; D. J. Lege; K. Matsui; S. J. Murtha; S. Hattori; R. C. Becker; S. Makosey

    1997-01-01

    In this work, yield surfaces were measured for binary aluminum-magnesium sheet samples which were fabricated by different processing paths to obtain different microstructures. The yielding behavior was measured using biaxial compression tests on cubic specimens made from laminated sheet samples. The yield surfaces were also predicted from a polycrystal model using crystallographic texture data as input and from a phenomenological

  14. Possible future directions in crop yield forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines present and future possible applications of remote sensing to crop yield forecasting. It is concluded that there are ways in which Landsat data could be used to assist in crop yield forecasting using present technology. A framework for global crop yield forecasting which uses remote sensing, meteorological, field and ancillary data, as available, is proposed for the future.

  15. Yawning and its physiological significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  16. Yawning and its physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  17. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  18. QCD Corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg at B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Yanqing; Zhang Yujie [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chao Kuangta [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-04-24

    In heavy quarkonium production, the measured ratio R{sub cc}={sigma}[J/{psi}+cc+X]/{sigma}[J/{psi}+X] at B factories is much larger than existing theoretical predictions. To clarify this discrepancy, in nonrelativistic QCD we find the next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD correction to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg can enhance the cross section by about 20%. Together with the calculated NLO result for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+cc, we show that the NLO corrections can significantly improve the fit to the ratio R{sub cc}. The effects of leading logarithm resummation near the end point on the J/{psi} momentum distribution and total cross section are also considered. Comparison of the calculated cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg with the observed cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+non-(cc) is expected to provide unique information on the issue of color-octet contributions.

  19. Responses of wheat grain yield and quality to seed rate in central part of Oltenia, Romania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liviu OLARU; Gheorghe MATEI

    Five winter wheat cultivars with different origin have been tested during three years at Agricultural Research Development Simnic-Craiova inside of a two factors experiment with two seed rates: 550 and 275 grains per square meter. To find out the influence of this technological aspect on wheat yield and its quality for each variant have been studied yield and quality indicators

  20. Driver Behavior in Yielding to Sighted and Blind Pedestrians at Roundabouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geruschat, Duane R.; Hassan, Shirin E.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated drivers' behavior in yielding the right-of-way to sighted and blind pedestrians who stood at different stopping distances from the crosswalk lines at entry and exit lanes at two different roundabouts. The findings demonstrate that drivers' willingness to yield to pedestrians is affected by whether they are attempting to cross…

  1. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16-80131, Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-10

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M {sub sun}, or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  2. From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

  3. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer.

    PubMed

    Kortei, N K; Dzogbefia, V P; Obodai, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2?cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5?m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the compost heights (0.8?m and 1.5?m). The yield on compost height of 1.5?m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of 0.8?m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1?:?1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1?:?1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5?m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1?:?1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom. PMID:25580299

  4. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer

    PubMed Central

    Kortei, N. K.; Dzogbefia, V. P.; Obodai, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2?cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5?m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the compost heights (0.8?m and 1.5?m). The yield on compost height of 1.5?m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of 0.8?m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1?:?1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1?:?1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5?m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1?:?1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom. PMID:25580299

  5. Late Foliar Diseases in Wheat Crops Decrease Nitrogen Yield Through N Uptake Rather than Through Variations in N Remobilization

    PubMed Central

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Roche, Romain; Bancal, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims French wheat grains may be of little value on world markets because they have low and highly variable grain protein concentrations (GPC). This nitrogen-yield to yield ratio depends on crop nitrogen (N) fertilization as well as on crop capacity to use N, which is known to vary with climate and disease severity. Here an examination is made of the respective roles that N remobilization and post-anthesis N uptake play in N yield variations; in particular, when wheat crops (Triticum aestivum) are affected by leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and Septoria tritici blotch (teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola). Methods Data from a 4-year field experiment was used to analyse N yield variations in wheat crops grown either with a third or no late N fertilization. Natural aerial epidemics ensured a range of disease severity, and fungicide ensured disease-free control plots. The data set of Gooding et al. (2005, Journal of Agricultural Science 143: 503–518) was incorporated in order to enlarge the range of conditions. Key Results Post-anthesis N uptake accounted for a third of N yield whilst N remobilization accounted for two-thirds in all crops whether affected by diseases or not. However, variations in N yield were highly correlated with post-anthesis N uptake, more than with N remobilization, in diseased and also healthy crops. Furthermore, N remobilization did not significantly correlate with N yield in healthy crops. These findings matched data from studies using various wheat genotypes under various management and climatic conditions. Leaf area duration (LAD) accurately predicted N remobilization whether or not crops were diseased; in diseased crops, LAD also accurately predicted N uptake. Conclusions Under the experimental conditions, N yield variations were closely associated with post-anthesis N uptake in diseased but also in healthy crops. Understanding the respective roles of N uptake and N remobilization in the case of diseased and healthy crops holds the promise of better modelling of variations in N yield, and thus in GPC. PMID:18660494

  6. Iris mammillations: significance and associations.

    PubMed

    Ragge, N K; Acheson, J; Murphree, A L

    1996-01-01

    Iris mammillations are rarely described, distinctive villiform protuberances that can cover the iris. In the majority of reported cases they are unilateral and sporadic, and are seen in association with oculodermal melanosis. In past literature and current clinical practice they are frequently confused with the iris nodules seen in neurofibromatosis type 1. Their clinical significance is not established, although it has been suggested that iris mammillations may be an external sign of ocular hypertension or intraocular malignancy. We report a series of 9 patients between the ages of 3 and 28 years with iris mammillations. The mammillations appear as regularly spaced, deep brown, smooth, conical elevations on the iris, of uniform height or increasing in height as the pupil margin is approached. They often overlie a naevus or an exceptionally deeply pigmented iris, such as that seen in melanosis oculi. One case had an associated ciliary body mass. They tend to occur in more highly pigmented ethnic groups and can be dominantly inherited. Iris mammillations may occur in association with systemic conditions including phakomatosis pigmentovascularis type IIb and neurofibromatosis type 1 when they may even coexist with iris hamartomas. PMID:8763309

  7. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  8. Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

  9. Significant improvements in children's health.

    PubMed

    Tam, L

    1994-01-01

    The field report from PLAN field offices in Sucre and Altiplano in Bolivia, Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic, and Amatitlan in Guatemala provides a summary of survey results pertaining to diarrheal disease control, immunizations, and nutrition. The PLAN sites are rural with the exception of the periurban slum surrounding Santo Domingo, which has better access to health services. Interviews were conducted among mothers with children aged 0-23 months in project areas, with the exception of Altiplano and Santo Domingo which included nonproject areas for comparative purposes. The results for diarrhea disease control are that an estimated 90% of episodes can be successfully treated at home. Evaluation is made of the timeliness and coverage of immunizations, the degree of management of diarrhea at home and at the health facility, and the extent of exclusive breast feeding in the first 4 months, and total breast feeding with food supplementation in the first year of life. The conclusion is that the four field offices make a significant and positive impact on children aged 0-23 months. PMID:12179561

  10. Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus: Clinical Findings and Pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lela A. Lee

    2004-01-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus is an uncommon disease associated with maternal autoantibodies to proteins of the Ro\\/La (SSA\\/SSB) family. The clinical findings most often reported are third- degree heart block and cutaneous lupus lesions, but a significant number of children have cardiomyopathy, hepatobiliary disease, or hematologic cytopenias. The consistent presence of maternal autoantibodies and the transient nature of the disease implicate

  11. Assets and Barriers to Finding Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this intact-groups, quasi-experimental study, 115 unemployed job seekers who utilized federally funded labour market interventions were compared on program usage (long- or short-term), personality, personal meaning, employability skills, job search length, and pain and suffering. Results did not find significant differences in program usage or…

  12. Runge Kutta integrators yield optimal regularization schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Andreas

    2005-04-01

    Asymptotic regularization (also called Showalter's method) is a theoretically appealing regularization scheme for an ill-posed problem Tx = y, T acting between Hilbert spaces. Here, Tx = y is stably solved by evaluating the solution of the evolution equation u'(t) = T*(y - Tu(t)), u(0) = 0, at a properly chosen finite time. For a numerical realization, however, we have to apply an integrator to the ODE. Fortunately all properties of asymptotic regularization carry over to its numerical realization: Runge-Kutta integrators yield optimal regularization schemes when stopped by the discrepancy principle. In this way a common analysis is obtained for such different regularization schemes as, for instance, the Landweber iteration and the iterated Tikhonov-Phillips method which are generated by the explicit and implicit Euler integrators, respectively. Furthermore it turns out that inconsistent Runge-Kutta schemes, which are useless for solving ODEs, lead to optimal regularizations as well which can even be more efficient than regularizations from consistent Runge-Kutta integrators. The presented computational examples illustrate the theoretical findings and demonstrate that implicit schemes outperform the explicit ones.

  13. Coxibs: a significant therapeutic opportunity.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Davide; Adami, Silvano

    2010-12-01

    Pain is the main reason why people decide to see a doctor; hence, the widespread use of anti-inflammatory drugs which were specifically developed to control pain and inflammation. One of the main causes of pain is represented by osteoarticular conditions, the most common one being arthrosis. Paracetamol is universally indicated as the therapy of first choice in degenerative pathologies of the joints, although it is often insufficient to control adequately the clinical picture and less efficacious than anti-inflammatory drugs. These latter, however, especially when taken chronically, exhibit an unfavourable safety profile. The most common side effect of anti-inflammatory drugs is gastric discomfort; coxibs - COX-2 selective inhibitors - were developed to solve this problem. The use of these drugs, relative to conventional NSAIDs, is associated to a significantly lesser gastroduodenal ulcer rate and to fewer clinically relevant complications, as well as to a smaller rate of treatment discontinuation due to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. From a clinical and practical standpoint, the use of coxibs is associated to a remarkably reduced risk of gastroduodenal lesions, similar as the one resulting from the combination of a conventional NSAID and a proton-pump inhibitor. By adding a proton-pump inhibitor to a coxib, such risk seems to become virtually non-existent, even in a high risk population and regardless of ASA administration. It is important to stress that the better tolerability of coxibs does not imply an inferior anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving efficacy, especially with regard to etoricoxib, whose efficacy is at least equivalent as other competing NSAIDs, even in quite severe and complex musculoskeletal pain models. This clear-cut advantage of coxibs at gastric level clashed against a documented increased cardiovascular (CV) risk, which led to the much-talked-about withdrawal of rofecoxib from the market. The most credited pathogenetic hypothesis to explain the association between chronic use of coxibs and CV risk seems to be related to a trombophilic effect due to an imbalance of prothrombotic and antithrombotic factors. Several observational and case-control studies, however, led to suspect that conventional NSAIDs share with coxibs an increased cardiovascular risk; such suspicion was experimentally confirmed by the MEDAL trial. In this trial, the cardiovascular risk of thrombosis among patients who were treated on a long-term basis with a coxib (etoricoxib) was shown to be similar as the risk observed in patients receiving a conventional NSAID (diclofenac). In conclusion, coxibs represent a valid therapeutic option in the treatment of patients with osteoarticular conditions. In terms of cardiovascular risk their efficacy is associated to a similar safety profile as conventional NSAIDs, whereas the gastrointestinal risk related to coxibs seems to be significantly lesser. PMID:22530460

  14. Skin findings in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; Danback, Joshua R; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the skin and vascular elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%), and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity), and E (Young's modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  15. Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

  16. Biosynthesis of high yield fatty acids from Chlorella vulgaris NIES-227 under nitrogen starvation stress during heterotrophic cultivation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Chu, Fei-Fei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-09-15

    In this study the heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris NIES-227 fed with glucose was investigated systematically using six media types; combinations of nitrogen repletion/depletion and phosphorus repletion/limitation/depletion. It was found that a high yield of fatty acids (0.88 of fed glucose-COD) and a high content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) (89% of dry weight) were obtained under nitrogen starved conditions. To our knowledge it is the first report on such high COD conversion yield and FAME content in microalgae. The dominant fatty acid (>50%) was methyl oleate (C18:1), a desirable component for biodiesel synthesis. FAME content under nitrogen starved conditions was significantly higher than under nitrogen sufficient conditions, while phosphorus had no significant influence, indicating that nitrogen starvation was the real "fatty acids trigger" in heterotrophic cultivation. These findings could simplify the downstream extraction process, such as the extrusion of oil from soybeans, and could reduce operating costs by improving the fatty acid yield from waste COD. PMID:26081436

  17. Accretionary orogens: definition, character, significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawood, P. A.; Kroener, A.; Windley, B. F.

    2003-04-01

    Classic models of orogens involve a Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing with orogenesis related to continent-continent collision. Such models fail to explain the geological history of a significant number of orogenic belts throughout the world in which deformation, metamorphism and crustal growth took place in an environment of on-going plate convergence. These belts are termed accretionary orogens but have also been refereed to as non-collisional orogens, Pacific-type orogens, Turkic-type and exterior orogens. Accretionary orogens evolve in generally curvilinear belts comprising dominantly mafic to silicic igneous rocks and their sedimentary products and accumulated largely in marine settings. They are variably deformed and metamorphosed by tectono-thermal events aligned parallel to, and punctuating, facies trends. Accretionary orogens form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere and consist of magmatic arcs systems along with material accreted from the downgoing plate and eroded from the upper plate. Deformational features include structures formed in extension and compressive environments during steady-state convergence (arc/backarc vs. accretionary prism) that are overprinted by short regional compressive orogenic events. Orogenesis takes place through coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion over-riding the downgoing plate. The Circum-Pacific region provides outstanding examples of accretionary orogens. The Pacific formed during breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic and has never subsequently closed, resulting in a series of overall ocean-ward younging orogenic systems that have always faced an open ocean, yet have been the sites of repeated tectono-thermal events and continental growth. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products and include Archean greenstone belts, the Paleoproterozoic Birimian orogen (W. Africa), the Arabian-Nubian shield (Pan African) and Paleozoic orogens in Asia.

  18. Spectral reflectance indices for estimating yield and water content in spring wheat genotypes under well irrigated, water stress, and high temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Mario

    Scope and Method of Study. Alternative methods for selecting, detecting, and identifying higher yielding genotypes in wheat breeding programs are important for obtaining major genetic gains. The water indices can be used as an indirect selection tool because of their strong association with different physiological and yield components. Diverse spring wheat advanced lines were used, which corresponded to three international trials developed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT); 24th Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT) with 25 lines, 11th Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT) with 40 lines, and 11th High Temperature Wheat Yield Trial (HTWYT) with 18 lines. Two other experiments also employed advanced lines for testing the relationship between water indices and water content parameters (10-16 lines) and for evaluating the influence of morphological traits (20 lines) over the water indices. Several water indices and other reflectance indices were estimated at three growth stages (booting, heading, and grain filling) using a field portable spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Devices, Boulder, CO). Field plots were planted in Northwest Mexico during three growing seasons (2006, 2007, and 2007). Grain yield, biomass, and some water status parameters were determined in diverse experiments. Findings and Conclusions. There were high correlations (phenotypic and genetic) between grain yield and the water indices showing high heritability, response to selection and correlated response, relative selection efficiency, and efficiency in selecting the higher yielding genotypes. Two water indices showed the strongest relationships (NWI-1 and NWI-3) for all the parameters determined in the well irrigated, water stress, and high temperature environments. In addition, the water indices were related with parameters commonly employed for assessing the crop water status ( i.e., water potential) during booting, anthesis and grain filling under water stress conditions. Finally, our results demonstrated that the relationship between the water indices and grain yield was affected mainly by erect leaves and spike orientation. The potential for employing the water indices for selecting high yielding lines represents a significant advantage in breeding programs because the top yielding lines can be selected in an accurate, inexpensive, and easy manner. In addition, the best high yielding lines maintained high canopy water content under water stress conditions.

  19. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens.

    PubMed

    Kameka, Amber M; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-10-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macrophages within the spleen and lungs of chickens up to 4 d post-treatment. This finding suggests that, in order to obtain depletion of macrophages in chickens for greater than 5 d, it is necessary to administer clodronate liposomes 4 d apart. The study also showed that 2 treatments of clodronate liposomes at 4-day intervals resulted in the depletion of macrophages for up to 10 d. The findings of the present study will encourage more precise studies to be done on the potential roles of macrophages in immune responses and in the pathogenesis of microbial infections in chickens. PMID:25355996

  20. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC: Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    “Gain-of-function” and “loss-of-function” studies in human cancer cells and analysis of a transgenic mouse model have convincingly established that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC performs a seminal role in regulating proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance, the salient defining hallmarks of cancer. These observations are strongly buttressed by clinicopathologic correlations of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC expression in a diverse array of cancers distinguishing AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC as an independent biomarker for highly aggressive metastatic disease with poor prognosis. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has been shown to be a marker predicting response to chemotherapy, and serum anti-AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC antibody titer also serves as a predictor of advanced stages of aggressive cancer. However, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the localization of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC protein in the nucleus or cytoplasm of cancer cells and the utility of nuclear or cytoplasmic AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC to predict the course and prognosis of disease. This chapter provides a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature to emphasize the common and conflicting findings relative to the clinical significance of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in cancer. PMID:23889987

  1. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kameka, Amber M.; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T.; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P.; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macrophages within the spleen and lungs of chickens up to 4 d post-treatment. This finding suggests that, in order to obtain depletion of macrophages in chickens for greater than 5 d, it is necessary to administer clodronate liposomes 4 d apart. The study also showed that 2 treatments of clodronate liposomes at 4-day intervals resulted in the depletion of macrophages for up to 10 d. The findings of the present study will encourage more precise studies to be done on the potential roles of macrophages in immune responses and in the pathogenesis of microbial infections in chickens. PMID:25355996

  2. Find an Endocrinology - Thyroid Specialist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an Endocrinology – Thyroid Specialist Find an Endocrinology – Thyroid Specialist Please tell your thyroidologist that the ATA referred ... services of physicians listed in this “Find a Specialist” resource. The physicians and surgeons listed have indicated ...

  3. Finding Out about Fireworks Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page Finding Out About Fireworks Safety KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Safe > Playing It Safe Outdoors and on the Road > Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Print A A A Text ...

  4. Resilience of catchment sediment yield to climate perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Wiel, Marco; Lipkowski, Emily

    2015-04-01

    It is commonly thought that catchment sediment yield is largely governed by allogenic controls acting on the catchment. Under this paradigm, variations in climatic, tectonic or anthropogenic forcing are directly transmitted to the catchment sediment yield. The sediment yield thus represents a temporal signature of the governing external forces. This paradigm, however, has been challenged by recent research, which has shown that autogenic controls from within the catchment can significantly affect and, in some cases, overwrite the allogenic signal in the sediment yield signal. In these cases the catchment sediment yield can be considered to be resilient to external perturbation. On the other hand, it also has been shown that, in some other cases, the allogenic signal can indeed be transmitted efficiently through the catchment, without too much distortion by the autogenic controls. In these latter cases, the sediment yield signal, and hence the downstream sediment deposits, can be a reliable archive of past environmental forcing. This study uses computer simulation to investigate the autogenic resilience of catchment sediment yields. Specifically, it investigates allogenic signal preservation in catchment sediment yield in the context of climate signals. It is hypothesized that 1) the resilience of the catchment sediment yield signal is largely determined by the catchment's spatial heterogeneity (of topography, vegetation, soil properties, ...) and the external signal's temporal heterogeneity and amplitude; and 2) catchment resilience is inversely correlated with spatial heterogeneity and positively correlated with the temporal heterogeneity and amplitude of the allogenic signal. This hypothesis is tested using a set of similar catchments, but with different relief ranges, different levels of topographic smoothness, different sediment distributions, and different artificial vegetation covers. These catchments are subjected to a range of rainfall scenarios over a 300-year simulation period, using the CAESAR landscape evolution model. Results confirm that the sediment yields in the more homogeneous catchments are less resilient and better preserve the signal from all rainfall scenarios, whereas the more heterogeneous catchments are more resilient and only preserve those climate signals with higher amplitudes or larger wavelengths.

  5. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas.

    PubMed

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-01-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961-2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains. PMID:26054055

  6. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-01-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961–2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains. PMID:26054055

  7. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    SciTech Connect

    A.C. Wahl

    2002-05-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

  8. The Impact of Microstructure on Yield Strength Anisotropy in Linepipe Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatsurya, P. K. C.; Misra, R. D. K.; Mulholland, M. D.; Manohar, M.; Hartmann, J. E.

    2014-05-01

    We describe here the effect of microstructure on the yield strength anisotropy in high-strength microalloyed linepipe steels. The anisotropy in steel with ferrite-bainite microstructure was lower compared to the steel with ferrite-pearlite microstructure and is attributed to the significant difference in their transformation texture components, {112}<110> and {332}<113>. The yield strength anisotropy is discussed in terms of crystal plasticity concept involving estimation of average orientation factor and its relation to yield strength.

  9. Characteristics of water-well yields in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutphin, David M.; Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Burton, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mean yields and the numbers of wells drilled are presented for 35 rock types containing 4,115 wells in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia. Analysis of variance of the well yields shows that Harper's Formation phyllite and Catoctin Formation metabasalt have yields significantly different from those of other rock types. Preliminary variography has identified an anisotropy that roughly parallels the general compressional trend of the Blue Ridge.

  10. Compatibility requirements for yield-line mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Denton

    2001-01-01

    Yield-line analysis proves a powerful and convenient method for establishing the peak load capacity of reinforced concrete slabs. Its application requires compatible mechanisms to be postulated, comprising rigid regions intersecting at yield-lines where relative rotations may occur. A systematic procedure is described for checking the compatibility of postulated yield-line mechanisms. The similarity between this method and equilibrium requirements in a

  11. Climate Effects on Corn Yield in Missouri(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qi; Buyanovsky, Gregory

    2003-11-01

    Understanding climate effects on crop yield has been a continuous endeavor aiming at improving farming technology and management strategy, minimizing negative climate effects, and maximizing positive climate effects on yield. Many studies have examined climate effects on corn yield in different regions of the United States. However, most of those studies used yield and climate records that were shorter than 10 years and were for different years and localities. Although results of those studies showed various influences of climate on corn yield, they could be time specific and have been difficult to use for deriving a comprehensive understanding of climate effects on corn yield. In this study, climate effects on corn yield in central Missouri are examined using unique long-term (1895 1998) datasets of both corn yield and climate. Major results show that the climate effects on corn yield can only be explained by within-season variations in rainfall and temperature and cannot be distinguished by average growing-season conditions. Moreover, the growing-season distributions of rainfall and temperature for high-yield years are characterized by less rainfall and warmer temperature in the planting period, a rapid increase in rainfall, and more rainfall and warmer temperatures during germination and emergence. More rainfall and cooler-than-average temperatures are key features in the anthesis and kernel-filling periods from June through August, followed by less rainfall and warmer temperatures during the September and early October ripening time. Opposite variations in rainfall and temperature in the growing season correspond to low yield. Potential applications of these results in understanding how climate change may affect corn yield in the region also are discussed.

  12. Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 Muon Yield Comparisons for Different ICOOL Versions and Lattices X. Ding Front End, Nov. 23, 2010 parameters of 11 and 13GeV from interpolation) · Take the muon/pion/kaons at z=0 m from MARS output (Field of Running MARS #12;4 Muon Yield from Different Versions of ICOOL with ST2a-BNL Input Deck #12;5 Muon Yield

  13. Yield stress of cemented tungsten carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Wanagel, J.

    1975-01-01

    Cemented tungsten carbide yields plastically at room temperature in the presence of a large hydrostatic pressure component. By approximate analysis of the state of stress in supported opposed anvils and by measurement of the pressure at which the anvil tips exhibit a permanent deviation from planarity, we have obtained the yield stress of such materials. Our value for the yield stress of a 3% cobalt cemented tungsten carbide is 86 kbar.

  14. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  15. PROCESS YIELD AND CAPABILITY INDICES DANIEL GRAU

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . An application on high-tech paint is also presented. KEYWORDS Asymmetric tolerances, Process capability indices, Process centering, Process yield 1. INTRODUCTION Process capability indices are widely used

  16. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

  17. Comparative yield estimation via shock hydrodynamic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

    1991-06-01

    Shock TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured shock Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the main focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Effect of Intercropping on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. LIMBANI

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the growth and yield of cucumber and okra grown in an intercropped system. Okra as 1-row or 2-row was intercropped with cucumber. Sole cropping of okra resulted in higher number of fruits plant-1, yield plant -1 and yield hectare -1 though the differences in these values and 1-row okra intercrop were not significant.

  19. Yield losses induced by African cassava mosaic virus in relation to the mode and the date of infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fargette; C. Fauquet

    1988-01-01

    Yield reduction of cassava infected with African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) was greater when plants were infected from the outset as cuttings than later by the whitefly vector Bemisia tabacl. Early infection by B. tabaci caused greater losses than late infection. When symptoms first appeared, more than four months after planting, there was no significant yield reduction. Yield reductions in

  20. Online physical activity information: will typical users find quality information?

    PubMed

    Bonnar-Kidd, Kelly K; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Dan

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluated physical activity Web sites to determine quality, accuracy, and consistency with principles of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). Three keyword searches were conducted using 4 search engines to find a sample of N = 41 Web sites. Three raters evaluated the Web sites using the JAMA benchmarks to assess quality and American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for physical activity to determine accuracy, as well as checking for inclusion of EPPM variables. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance with least squares means. Only 22% of the sites were high quality, none were highly accurate, and most were consistent with the EPPM. Quality ratings were weakly associated with accuracy. Educational and .net sites were rated significantly higher in quality and accuracy, and government sites were most consistent with the EPPM. Quality Web sites were more often found by using Yahoo and Google. "Exercise" yielded more accurate results, whereas "physical activity" and "fitness" produced more Web sites consistent with the EPPM. It is encouraging that most sites incorporated EPPM concepts; however, quality and accuracy were poor, leaving physical activity information seekers at risk for disease and injury. PMID:19280460

  1. Statistical significance test for transition matrices of atmospheric Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vautard, Robert; Mo, Kingtse C.; Ghil, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Low-frequency variability of large-scale atmospheric dynamics can be represented schematically by a Markov chain of multiple flow regimes. This Markov chain contains useful information for the long-range forecaster, provided that the statistical significance of the associated transition matrix can be reliably tested. Monte Carlo simulation yields a very reliable significance test for the elements of this matrix. The results of this test agree with previously used empirical formulae when each cluster of maps identified as a distinct flow regime is sufficiently large and when they all contain a comparable number of maps. Monte Carlo simulation provides a more reliable way to test the statistical significance of transitions to and from small clusters. It can determine the most likely transitions, as well as the most unlikely ones, with a prescribed level of statistical significance.

  2. New stopping criteria for iterative root finding

    PubMed Central

    Nikolajsen, Jorgen L.

    2014-01-01

    A set of simple stopping criteria is presented, which improve the efficiency of iterative root finding by terminating the iterations immediately when no further improvement of the roots is possible. The criteria use only the function evaluations already needed by the root finding procedure to which they are applied. The improved efficiency is achieved by formulating the stopping criteria in terms of fractional significant digits. Test results show that the new stopping criteria reduce the iteration work load by about one-third compared with the most efficient stopping criteria currently available. This is achieved without compromising the accuracy of the extracted roots. PMID:26064544

  3. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

  4. Azide resistant mutants of Acetobacterdiazotrophicus and Azospirillum brasilense increase yield and nitrogen content of cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj Sharma; Manjula Vasudeva

    2005-01-01

    Evolution of symbiotic plant-microbe interactions has provided mankind a powerful and environment-friendly means to increase yield of agricultural crops. Here, we report that some azide resistant mutants of two microbial strains can significantly enhance the productivity of cotton varieties, as an attractive and cheap biological substitute of chemical fertilizers, for improved yield of an important cash crop, without any untoward

  5. REGIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND SURFACE TEMPERATURES PREDICTING COTTON YIELDS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo A. Baigorria; James W. Hansen; Neil Ward; James W. Jones; James J. O'Brien

    Research has shown strong relationship s between ENSO phase and climate in the southeastern USA during the boreal winter. Crop yields in this region are significantly affected by ENSO phase due to predictable patterns of climate during this time of the year. However, both climate during the boreal summer months and cotton yields in this region show little or no

  6. Yield of Mungbean as Affected by Different Durations of Weed Competition under High Phosphorus Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MUHAMMAD NAEEM; SAEED AHMED; ZAHID A. CHEEMA

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the competitive behaviour of weeds at different levels of phosphorus, on the growth and yield of mungbean. Number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, 1000-grain weight and grain yield of mungbean was found to be significantly higher with application of phosphorus. The application of phosphorus beyond 50 kg ha-1 was

  7. Bioinoculants: a sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways. PMID:24097367

  8. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity.

    PubMed

    Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change. PMID:25581316

  9. Plasma nicotine levels after smoking cigarettes with high, medium, and low nicotine yields.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Wilson, C; Patel, U A; Feyerabend, C; Cole, P V

    1975-01-01

    Plasma nicotine three minutes after smoking a cigarette was measured in 10 sedentary workers in mid-morning and five hours later on four typical working days. The average mid-morning level after they had been smoking their usual cigarettes (mean nicotine yield 1-34 ng) was 150-4 nmol/l (24-4 ng/ml) (range 95-6-236-7 nmol/l (15-5-38-4 ng/ml)). Despite great variation between smokersthe mid-morning levels of each smoker were fairly consistent over the four mornings and correlated 0-82 with their carboxyhaemoglobin levels. After continuing to smoke their usual brand or switching to a high-nicotine brand (3-2 mg) average afternoon levels of 185-6 and 180-0 nmol/6 (30-1 and 29-2 ng/ml) respectively were not significantly higher than the morning levels, but after switching to low-nicotine cigarettes (0-14 mg) the plasma nicotine dropped to an average of 52-4 nmol/l (8-5 ng/ml). The changes between morning and afternoon while smoking usual or high-nicotine cigarettes showed marked individual variation. The findings suggest that the plasma nicotine level just after a cigarette depends more on the way the cigarette is smoked than on its nicotine yield or the number which have been smoked over the preceding few hours. PMID:1168517

  10. Hydrostatic stress dependent yield of 7075-T6 aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Benzley, S.E.; Priddy, T.G.; Soo Hoo, M.S.

    1980-03-01

    Tension and compression tests on notched cylindrical bars made of 7075-T6 aluminum have been conducted as a part of an investigation of the mechanics of ductile fracture. The compression tests showed significantly stiffer behavior in the nonlinear portion of the experiment than those found from the tension tests. This difference was accounted for by incorporating a hydrostatic stress dependent yield model in the analysis of the experiment. The model was verified by comparing finite element calculations with the actual experimental results.

  11. Supervised learning methods in sort yield modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Hu

    2009-01-01

    Supervised learning consists of a large variety of methods that explore data relationships. The techniques described in this paper cover those methods that are robust and relevant to semiconductor data, sufficiently simple for use by non-statisticians, and proven effective in yield modeling. We first apply the classification and regression tree (CART) technique to detect the source of yield variations from

  12. Improved Yield Estimation by Trellis Tension Monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most yield estimation practices for commercial vineyards rely on hand-sampling fruit on one or a small number of dates during the growing season. Limitations associated with the static yield estimates may be overcome with Trellis Tension Monitors (TTMs), systems that measure dynamically changes in t...

  13. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle reduces production expenses and could increase profitability if yields are not adversely affected. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both ...

  14. Porphyrins XIII: Fluorescence spectra and quantum yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Seybold; Martin Gouterman

    1969-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra, quantum yields, natural radiative lifetimes, and absorption oscillator strengths are reported for a number of porphyrins in benzene solution. Emission yields for free base, Mg-, and Zn-phthalocyanine in 1-chloronaphthalene solution are also reported. The phthalocyanines are considerably more fluorescent than the porphyrins, and this is attributed mainly to their shorter radiative lifetimes. The heavy atom effect on fluorescence

  15. THE ZONES PROJECTS: UNDERSTANDING SOYBEAN YIELD VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two regional projects funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and the United Soybean Board are entitled Mapping of Soil and Field Characteristics to Understand Soybean Yield and Using Remotely Sensed Data to Diagnose Soybean Yield Limiting Factors. These projects were developed in resp...

  16. ROOTSTOCK INFLUENCE ON YIELD OF 'HASS' AVOCADO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme Thomas

    The orchard yield of avocados in Australia has remained static for many years. With the lowering of returns, relative to the late 1970s, we, as an industry, need to address the reduced economic viability of production in Australia. As a part of my management, I have individual yield records of all of my trees. The data clearly shows that some

  17. Secondary electron yields of solar system ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszcynsky, David M.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Goertz, Christoph K.

    1992-01-01

    The secondary electron yields of H2O, CO2, NH3, and CH3OH ices have been measured as a function of electron beam energy in the 2- to 30-keV energy range. The ices were produced on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cold finger and transferred under vacuum to a SEM where the yield measurements were made. The imaging capabilities of the SEM provide a means of correlating the yield measurements with the morphology of the ices and are also used to monitor charging effects. The yields were determined by measuring the amplified current from a secondary electron detector and calibrating this current signal with the amplified current signal from samples of metals with known secondary electron yields. Each of the measured yields is found to decrease with an increase in energy in the 2- to 30-keV range. Estimates are given for the maximum secondary electron yield Y(max) of each ice and the energy at which this maximum yield occurs. Implications for the charging of solar system ice grains are discussed.

  18. Yield prediction by sampling IC layout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard A. Allan

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports a survey sampling-based methodology for critical area and other property estimates of IC layout. A software implementation of the method, Edinburgh yield estimator sampling (EYES) is presented. The EYES tool implements the survey sampling-based methodology for critical area estimation enabling the yield prediction of ULSI chips. The method requires an analysis of only a small fraction of

  19. Multiple criterion optimization with yield maximization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL R. LIGHTNER; STEPHEN W. DIRECTOR

    1981-01-01

    A number of recent papers have described circuit optimization methods in which maximizing yield was the sole design criterion. However, in actual practice there are many competing design criteria such as minimizing power and area, maximizing speed, etc., as well as maximizing yield. In this paper the techniques of Multiple Criterion Optimization (MCO) are used to provide a framework within

  20. Castleman's disease of the kidney: Sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Chin Chin; Cheah, Foong Koon; Wong, Siew Kune

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of rare Castleman's disease of the kidney that mimicked a renal neoplasm with emphasis on the imaging and histologic findings. A 47-year-old man presented with dyspeptic symptoms. Ultrasound revealed a vascular, heterogeneous mass in the left kidney. Multiphasic CT scan confirmed an enhancing lesion with enlarged left para-aortic lymph nodes suspicious for nodal metastases. The provisional diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma. Percutaneous biopsy yielded a diagnosis of Castleman's disease of the hyaline-vascular type. Despite advancement in imaging modalities, differentiation of hyaline-vascular variant of Castleman's disease from hypervascular renal neoplasm remains difficult and the final diagnosis requires histopathological confirmation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 43:438-442, 2015. PMID:24947075

  1. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and Spain in both considered drought events, however slightly less severe for 2012 than for 2005. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor droughts' impacts on crops productions and yields in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno, 2010: A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J. Climate, 23, 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45.

  2. Climate change: implications for the yield of edible rice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangqian; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Global warming affects not only rice yield but also grain quality. A better understanding of the effects of climate factors on rice quality provides information for new breeding strategies to develop varieties of rice adapted to a changing world. Chalkiness is a key trait of physical quality, and along with head rice yield, is used to determine the price of rice in all markets. In the present study, we show that for every ?1% decrease in chalkiness, an increase of ?1% in head rice yield follows, illustrating the dual impact of chalk on amount of marketable rice and its value. Previous studies in controlled growing conditions report that chalkiness is associated with high temperature. From 1980-2009 at IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines, annual minimum and mean temperatures, and diurnal variation changed significantly. The objective of this study was to determine how climate impacts chalkiness in field conditions over four wet and dry seasons. We show that low relative humidity and a high vapour pressure deficit in the dry season associate with low chalk and high head rice yield in spite of higher maximum temperature, but in the opposite conditions of the wet season, chalk is high and head rice yield is low. The data therefore suggest that transpirational cooling is a key factor affecting chalkiness and head rice yield, and global warming per se might not be the major factor that decreases the amount and quality of rice, but other climate factors in combination, that enable the crop to maintain a cool canopy. PMID:23776635

  3. Search for the CP-Violating Decays {upsilon}(4S){yields}B{sup 0}B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}+J/{psi}({eta}{sub c})K{sub S}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, O.; Hazumi, M.; Adachi, I.; Haba, J.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ozaki, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sumisawa, K.; Takasaki, F.; Tanaka, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; Yamauchi, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)] (and others)

    2007-11-23

    We report the first search for CP-violating decays of the {upsilon}(4S) using a data sample that contains 535x10{sup 6} {upsilon}(4S) mesons with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. A partial reconstruction technique is employed to enhance the signal sensitivity. No significant signals were observed. We obtain an upper limit of 4x10{sup -7} at the 90% confidence level for the branching fractions of the CP violating modes, {upsilon}(4S){yields}B{sup 0}B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}+J/{psi}({eta}{sub c})K{sub S}{sup 0}. Extrapolating the result, we find that an observation with 5{sigma} significance is expected with a 30 ab{sup -1} data sample, which is within the reach of a future super B factory.

  4. Dual-energy CT for the diagnosis of gout: an accuracy and diagnostic yield study

    PubMed Central

    Bongartz, Tim; Glazebrook, Katrina N; Kavros, Steven J; Murthy, Naveen S; Merry, Stephen P; Franz, Walter B; Michet, Clement J; Veetil, Barath M Akkara; Davis, John M; Mason, Thomas G; Warrington, Kenneth J; Ytterberg, Steven R; Matteson, Eric L; Crowson, Cynthia S; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the accuracy of dual-energy CT (DECT) for diagnosing gout, and to explore whether it can have any impact on clinical decision making beyond the established diagnostic approach using polarising microscopy of synovial fluid (diagnostic yield). Methods Diagnostic single-centre study of 40 patients with active gout, and 41 individuals with other types of joint disease. Sensitivity and specificity of DECT for diagnosing gout was calculated against a combined reference standard (polarising and electron microscopy of synovial fluid). To explore the diagnostic yield of DECT scanning, a third cohort was assembled consisting of patients with inflammatory arthritis and risk factors for gout who had negative synovial fluid polarising microscopy results. Among these patients, the proportion of subjects with DECT findings indicating a diagnosis of gout was assessed. Results The sensitivity and specificity of DECT for diagnosing gout was 0.90 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.97) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.93), respectively. All false negative patients were observed among patients with acute, recent-onset gout. All false positive patients had advanced knee osteoarthritis. DECT in the diagnostic yield cohort revealed evidence of uric acid deposition in 14 out of 30 patients (46.7%). Conclusions DECT provides good diagnostic accuracy for detection of monosodium urate (MSU) deposits in patients with gout. However, sensitivity is lower in patients with recent-onset disease. DECT has a significant impact on clinical decision making when gout is suspected, but polarising microscopy of synovial fluid fails to demonstrate the presence of MSU crystals. PMID:24671771

  5. Agronomic differences in growth and yield between BT and conventional cotton treated with mepiquat chloride

    E-print Network

    Underbrink, Shelley Marie

    1999-01-01

    a.i. ha?¹. Data collected in the experiment included plant height, node number, dry weight, yield, and plant mappings. Data were analyzed using regression, ANOVA, LSD, and ANCOVA. Significant differences in plant height were observed between...

  6. Optimal swarm formation for odor plume finding.

    PubMed

    Marjovi, Ali; Marques, Lino

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach to the problem of odor plume finding by a network of swarm robotic gas sensors, and finds an optimal configuration for them, given a set of assumptions. Considering cross-wind movement for the swarm, we found that the best spatial formation of robots in finding odor plumes is diagonal line configuration with equal distance between each pair of neighboring robots. We show that the distance between neighboring pairs in the line topology depends mainly on the wind speed and the environmental conditions, whereas, the number of robots and the swarm's crosswind movement distance do not show significant impact on optimal configurations. These solutions were analyzed and verified by simulations and experimentally validated in a reduced scale realistic environment using a set of mobile robots. PMID:25415939

  7. A comparison of period finding algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Drake, Andrew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Donalek, Ciro; Duan, Victor; Maker, Allison

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of popular period finding algorithms applied to the light curves of variable stars from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, MACHO and ASAS data sets. We analyse the accuracy of the methods against magnitude, sampling rates, quoted period, quality measures (signal-to-noise and number of observations), variability and object classes. We find that measure of dispersion-based techniques - analysis of variance with harmonics and conditional entropy - consistently give the best results but there are clear dependences on object class and light-curve quality. Period aliasing and identifying a period harmonic also remain significant issues. We consider the performance of the algorithms and show that a new conditional entropy-based algorithm is the most optimal in terms of completeness and speed. We also consider a simple ensemble approach and find that it performs no better than individual algorithms.

  8. Universality in fragment inclusive yields from Au + Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insolia, A.; Tuvè, C.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Ritter, H. G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J.; Tincknell, M. L.; Wang, S.; Warren, P. G.; Wieman, H. H.; Wienold, T.; Wolf, K. L.

    2000-04-01

    The inclusive light fragment (Z<=7) yield data in Au+Au reactions, measured by the EOS Collaboration at the LBNL Bevalac, are presented as a function of multiplicity. Moving from central to peripheral collisions the measured charge distributions develop progressively according to a power law which can be fitted, within errors, by a single ? exponent independently of the bombarding energy except for the data at 250A MeV. In addition, the location of the maximum in the individual yields of different charged fragments, for a given beam energy, shifts towards lower multiplicity as the fragment charge increases from Z=3 to Z=7. This trend is common to all six measured beam energies. Moments of charge distribution are also reported. The universal features observed in the present Au + Au data are consistent with previous experimental findings in the Au + C multifragmentation reaction at 1A GeV.

  9. Dynamics and yielding of binary self-suspended nanoparticle fluids.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akanksha; Yu, Hsiu-Yu; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Choudhury, Snehashis; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-07-14

    Yielding and flow transitions in bi-disperse suspensions of particles are studied using a model system comprised of self-suspended spherical nanoparticles. An important feature of the materials is that the nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the absence of a solvent. Addition of larger particles to a suspension of smaller ones is found to soften the suspensions, and in the limit of large size disparities, completely fluidizes the material. We show that these behaviors coincide with a speeding-up of de-correlation dynamics of all particles in the suspensions and are accompanied by a reduction in the energy dissipated at the yielding transition. We discuss our findings in terms of ligand-mediated jamming and un-jamming of hairy particle suspensions. PMID:26053059

  10. MAPPING COTTON YIELD VARIABILITY USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY AND YIELD MONITOR DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased availability of airborne hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acqui...

  11. Finding Areas on Dot Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article contains investigative activities to assist students in constructing formulas out of an understanding of the area of geometric shapes. Included with this article are a "Finding Areas on Square Dot Paper Activity Sheet" and a "Finding Areas on Triangle Dot Paper Activity Sheet." (Contains 1 table and 11 figures.)

  12. Finding Articles Social Sciences Inquiry

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Finding Articles Social Sciences Inquiry Info Lit @ Mac Nora Gaskin Reference Librarian Mills Articles in the Social Sciences 1. Finding references to articles 2. Getting the articles 3. Downloading and Social Sciences INNIS -- Business THODE -- Science and Engineering HEALTH Sciences #12;Inquiry 1SS3 Mills

  13. Imaging findings of splenic hamartoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ri-Sheng Yu; Shi-Zheng Zhang; Jian-Ming Hua

    AIM: To assess CT and MR manifestations and their diagnostic value in splenic hamartoma with review of literatures. METHODS: We described a woman who was accidentally found to have a splenic tumor by ultrasound of the abdomen. CT and MR findings of this splenic hamartoma were proved by pathology retrospectively. RESULTS: The CT and MR findings in this case included

  14. Finding events in noisy signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Smith; S. Shahid; A. Vernier; N. Mtetwa; Lab d'Informatique

    2007-01-01

    We produce a formal description of the problem of finding events in noisy signals. The particular problem of finding action potentials in noisy electrophysiological recordings is examined, and a method based on simulation of the underlying processes is used to assess different signal interpretation techniques. We discuss the broader application of this approach.

  15. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen addition on the yield and yield components of soybeans 

    E-print Network

    Gambaudo, Sebastian Pedro

    1983-01-01

    EFFECT OF INOCULATION AND NITROGEN ADDITION ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEANS A Thesis by SEBASTIAN PEDRO GAMBAUDO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Ma3or Sub3ect: Agronomy EFFECT OF INOCULATION AND NITROGEN ADDITION ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEANS A Thesis Sebastian Pedro Gambaudo Approved as to style and content by: rank M. Hons (Co...

  16. Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

    Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

  17. Carbon monoxide yields of cigarettes and their relation to nicotine yield and type of filter.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Cole, P V; Idle, M S; Adams, L

    1975-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) yields of 11 popular brands of British cigarette, two types of cigarette containing tobacco-substitute, and one brand of cigar were measured under standardized conditions. Yields of the conventional cigarettes ranged from 5.0 to 20.2 mg per cigarette (1.3 to 4.7% by volume). The cigar yielded 81.7 mg (10.0%) CO and the two semi-synthetic cigarettes 17.2 (4.2%) and 28.2 mg (6.2%) CO. Puff-by-puff analysis showed an increase in CO concentration as a cigarette is smoked. In brands with nicotine yields over 1.0 mg no relationship was apparent between nicotine yield and CO yield, and the filters of cigarettes in this category did not appear to reduce the CO yield. In the low nicotine cigarettes with ventilated filters there appeared to be some correlation between nicotine yield and CO yield, and these filters were highly effective in reducing CO yield, owing mainly to the ventilation. We suggest that official publication of CO yields might motivate manufacturers to produce cigarettes with lower yields. PMID:1139234

  18. MAIZE YIELD POTENTIAL: CRITICAL PROCESSES AND SIMULATION MODELING IN A HIGH-YIELDING ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate parameters describing processes of maize (Zea mays L.) growth and grain yield production in high-yielding, irrigated conditions provide a system for studying grain yield potential in different environments. In this study we measured maize leaf area index (LAI), the light extinction coeffic...

  19. Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery and Yield Monitor Data for Mapping Cotton Yield Variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenghai Yang; James H. Everitt; Joe M. Bradford; Dale Murden

    2004-01-01

    Increased availability of hyperspectral imagery necessitates the evaluation of its potential for precision agriculture applications. This study examined airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. Hyperspectral images were acquired using an airborne imaging system from two cotton fields during the 2001 growing season, and yield data were collected from the

  20. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Julie M.; Dean, Rebecca F.; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S.; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles. PMID:24648220

  1. Spectral reflectance indices as a selection criterion for yield improvement in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babar, Md. Ali

    2005-11-01

    Scope and methods of study. Yield in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a complex trait and influenced by many environmental factors, and yield improvement is a daunting task for wheat breeders. Spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) have been used to study different physiological traits in wheat. SRIs have the potential to differentiate genotypes for grain yield. SRIs strongly associated with grain yield can be used to achieve effective genetic gain in wheat under different environments. Three experiments (15 adapted genotypes, 25 and 36 random sister lines derived from two different crosses) under irrigated conditions, and three experiments (each with 30 advanced genotypes) under water-limited conditions were conducted in three successive years in Northwest Mexico at the CIMMYT (International Maize and wheat Improvement Center) experimental station. SRIs and different agronomic data were collected for three years, and biomass was harvested for two years. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between SRIs and grain yield, between SRIs and biomass, realized and broad sense heritability, direct and correlated selection responses for grain yield, and SRIs were calculated. Findings and conclusion. Seven SRIs were calculated, and three near infrared based indices (WI, NWI-1 and NWI-2) showed higher level of genetic and phenotypic correlations with grain yield, yield components and biomass than other SRIs (PRI, RNDVI, GNDVI, and SR) under both irrigated and water limiting environments. Moderate to high realized and broad sense heritability, and selection response were demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. High efficiency of correlated response for yield estimation was demonstrated by the three NIR based indices. The ratio between the correlated response to grain yield based on the three NIR based indices and direct selection response for grain yield was very close to one. The NIR based indices showed very high accuracy in selecting superior genotypes for grain yield under both well-watered and water-limited conditions. These results demonstrated that effective genetic gain in grain yield improvement can be achieved by making selections with the three NIR based indices.

  2. Spectrally-Based Assessment of Crop Seasonal Performance and Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kancheva, Rumiana; Borisova, Denitsa; Georgiev, Georgy

    The rapid advances of space technologies concern almost all scientific areas from aeronautics to medicine, and a wide range of application fields from communications to crop yield predictions. Agricultural monitoring is among the priorities of remote sensing observations for getting timely information on crop development. Monitoring agricultural fields during the growing season plays an important role in crop health assessment and stress detection provided that reliable data is obtained. Successfully spreading is the implementation of hyperspectral data to precision farming associated with plant growth and phenology monitoring, physiological state assessment, and yield prediction. In this paper, we investigated various spectral-biophysical relationships derived from in-situ reflectance measurements. The performance of spectral data for the assessment of agricultural crops condition and yield prediction was examined. The approach comprisesd development of regression models between plant spectral and state-indicative variables such as biomass, vegetation cover fraction, leaf area index, etc., and development of yield forecasting models from single-date (growth stage) and multitemporal (seasonal) reflectance data. Verification of spectral predictions was performed through comparison with estimations from biophysical relationships between crop growth variables. The study was carried out for spring barley and winter wheat. Visible and near-infrared reflectance data was acquired through the whole growing season accompanied by detailed datasets on plant phenology and canopy structural and biochemical attributes. Empirical relationships were derived relating crop agronomic variables and yield to various spectral predictors. The study findings were tested using airborne remote sensing inputs. A good correspondence was found between predicted and actual (ground-truth) estimates

  3. Sources of interannual yield variability in JULES-crop and implications for forcing with seasonal weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. E.; Falloon, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    JULES-crop is a parametrisation of crops in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). We investigate the sources of the interannual variability in the modelled maize yield, using global runs driven by reanalysis data, with a view to understanding the impact of various approximations in the driving data and initialisation. The standard forcing dataset for JULES consists of a combination of meteorological variables describing precipitation, radiation, temperature, pressure, specific humidity and wind, at subdaily time resolution. We find that the main characteristics of the modelled yield can be reproduced with a subset of these variables and using daily forcing, with internal disaggregation to the model timestep. This has implications in particular for the use of the model with seasonal forcing data, which may not have been provided at subdaily resolution for all required driving variables. We also investigate the effect on annual yield of initialising the model with climatology on the sowing date. This approximation has the potential to considerably simplify the use of the model with seasonal forecasts, since obtaining observations or reanalysis output for all the initialisation variables required by JULES for the start date of the seasonal forecast would present significant practical challenges.

  4. Significant Cancer Prevention Factor Extraction: An Association Rule Discovery Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesmin Nahar; Kevin S. Tickle; A. B. M. Shawkat Ali; Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is increasing the total number of unexpected deaths around the world. Until now, cancer research could not significantly\\u000a contribute to a proper solution for the cancer patient, and as a result, the high death rate is uncontrolled. The present\\u000a research aim is to extract the significant prevention factors for particular types of cancer. To find out the prevention factors,

  5. Yields and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes at LOHENGRIN and ISOLDE

    E-print Network

    Köster, U

    1999-01-01

    Yields of radioactive nuclei were measured at two facilities: the recoil separator LOHENGRIN at the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble and the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN in Geneva. At LOHENGRIN the yields of light charged particles were measured from thermal neutron induced ternary fission of several actinide targets: 233U, 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and 245Cm. Thin targets are brought into a high neutron flux. The produced nuclei leave these with the recoil obtained in the fission reaction. They are measured at different energies and ionic charge states. After corrections for the experimental acceptance, the time behaviour of the fission rate and the ionic charge fraction, the yields are integrated over the kinetic energy distribution. Comparing these yields with the predictions of various ternary fission models shows that the most abundant nuclides are well reproduced. On the other hand the models overestimate significantly the production of more "exotic" nuclides with an extreme N/Z ratio. Therefore ...

  6. Shock Timing and Yield Sensitivity Studies for NIF Ignition Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    OLSON,RICHARD E.

    1999-11-23

    A cryogenic, {beta}-layered NIF ignition capsule with a beryllium ablator that employs a BeO dopant (2% O) for opacity control is described. The design has an optimized yield of 12 MJ and uses a ''reduced drive'' hohlraum temperature pulse shape that peaks at {approx}250 eV. Shock timing sensitivity calculations have been performed for this capsule design. Individual uncertainties of (1) {approx}200 ps in the timing of the ''footpulse; (2) {approx}5% in the x-ray flux of the foot pulse and first step; (3) {approx}10% in the ablator EOS; or (4) {approx} 5 {micro}m in the DT ice layer thickness each have a significant impact on thermonuclear yield. Combined uncertainties have greater impact than isolated, individual issues. For example, a combination of uncertainties of: 200 ps in the foot + 2 eV in the foot + 5 pm in the DT thickness results in a calculation that produces only {approx}1% of the original design yield. A second, more speculative, capsule concept utilizing a liquid DT ablator is also discussed. This design produces a 5 MJ yield in a 250 eV peak drive calculation.

  7. Shock Timing and Yield Sensitivity Studies for NIF Ignition Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    OLSON,RICHARD E.

    1999-11-08

    A cryogenic, {beta}-layered NIF ignition capsule with a beryllium ablator that employs a BeO dopant (2% O) for opacity control is described. The design has an optimized yield of 12 MJ and uses a reduced drive hohlraum temperature pulse shape that peaks at {approx} 250 eV. Shock timing sensitivity calculations have been performed for this capsule design. Individual uncertainties of: (1) {approx}200 ps in the timing of the foot pulse; (2) {approx}5% in the x-ray flux of the foot pulse and first step; (3) {approx}10% in the ablator EOS; or (4) {approx} 5 {micro}m in the DT ice layer thickness each have a significant impact on thermonuclear yield. Combined uncertainties have greater impact than isolated, individual issues. For example, a combination of uncertainties of 200 ps in the foot + 2 eV in the foot + 5 {micro}m in the DT thickness results in a calculation that produces only {approx} 1% of the original design yield. A second, more speculative, capsule concept utilizing a liquid DT ablator is also discussed. This design produces a 5 MJ yield in a 250 eV peak drive calculation.

  8. Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    Zhang2, * 1 College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China 2 Department tested in the field for many years and a few are waiting for the approval of commercial release at US selected for biotechnological application include gen

  9. Small difference in international normalized ratio may yield a significant impact on prioritizing patients listed for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sarvary, E; Seregely, Zs; Fazakas, J; Kovacs, F; Gaal, I; Beko, G; Varga, J; Kobori, L; Nemes, B; Gorog, D; Varga, M; Langer, R M; Monostory, K; Jaray, J; Gerlei, Zs

    2010-01-01

    Priority for liver transplantation is currently based on the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. The aim of our study was to assess in detail the contribution of international normalized ratio (INR) differences for MELD scores because of interlaboratory variability. The samples from 92 cirrhotic patients were measured on different systems combining three coagulometers and three thromboplastin products to determine variations in INR and MELD score. The INR differences among the first four systems varied between 0 and 0.2, resulting in MELD differences of 0 to 2. The MELD scores of 92 patients changed only among 10 possible integers so that normally 2 to 10 patients shared the same MELD value. In some cases, one MELD score difference resulted in a 10 superpositioning on the waiting list. Including one more system (mechanical vs optical) into our investigations achieved a five MELD difference. Supposing an extreme situation where one patient competes with his or her lowest, all the other with their highest possible score (and visa versa), the difference may be even 20 positions, overturning the complete waiting list. In conclusion substantial interlaboratory differences in MELD score have profound clinical consequences. PMID:20692471

  10. Potential well yields from unconsolidated deposits in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive groundwater protection plan, developed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 1985, identified the need to delineate significant aquifers within the state. A map of the unconsolidated aquifers in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins was compiled from available data on the surficial geology and well yields. It delineates the significant unconsolidated aquifers and indicates the potential yield of wells that tap these aquifers. The potential well yield is categorized into three ranges: < 10 gal/min; 10 to 100 gal/min; and > 100 gal/min. No yield range is given for till, but some large diameter or dug wells in till may yield up 10 gal/min. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Variation in canopy duration in the perennial biofuel crop Miscanthus reveals complex associations with yield.

    PubMed

    Robson, Paul R H; Farrar, Kerrie; Gay, Alan P; Jensen, Elaine F; Clifton-Brown, John C; Donnison, Iain S

    2013-05-01

    Energy crops can provide a sustainable source of power and fuels, and mitigate the negative effects of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel use. Miscanthus is a perennial C4 energy crop capable of producing large biomass yields whilst requiring low levels of input. Miscanthus is largely unimproved and therefore there could be significant opportunities to increase yield. Further increases in yield will improve the economics, energy balance, and carbon mitigation of the crop, as well as reducing land-take. One strategy to increase yield in Miscanthus is to maximize the light captured through an extension of canopy duration. In this study, canopy duration was compared among a diverse collection of 244 Miscanthus genotypes. Canopy duration was determined by calculating the number of days between canopy establishment and senescence. Yield was positively correlated with canopy duration. Earlier establishment and later senescence were also both separately correlated with higher yield. However, although genotypes with short canopy durations were low yielding, not all genotypes with long canopy durations were high yielding. Differences of yield between genotypes with long canopy durations were associated with variation in stem and leaf traits. Different methodologies to assess canopy duration traits were investigated, including visual assessment, image analysis, light interception, and different trait thresholds. The highest correlation coefficients were associated with later assessments of traits and the use of quantum sensors for canopy establishment. A model for trait optimization to enable yield improvement in Miscanthus and other bioenergy crops is discussed. PMID:23599277

  12. Sediment yield following severe volcanic disturbance—A two-decade perspective from Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, J. J.; Pierson, T. C.; Dinehart, R. L.; Costa, J. E.

    2000-09-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions perturb water and sediment fluxes in watersheds; consequently, posteruption sediment yields can exceed pre-eruption yields by several orders of magnitude. Annual suspended-sediment yields following the catastrophic 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption were as much as 500 times greater than typical background level, and they generally declined nonlinearly for more than a decade. Although sediment yields responded primarily to type and degree of disturbance, streamflow fluctuations significantly affected sediment-yield trends. Consecutive years (1995 1999) of above-average discharge reversed the nonlinear decline and rejuvenated yields to average values measured within a few years of the eruption. After 20 yr, the average annual suspended-sediment yield from the 1980 debris-avalanche deposit remains 100 times (104 Mg [megagrams]/km2) above typical background level (˜102 Mg/km2). Within five years of the eruption, annual yields from valleys coated by lahar deposits roughly plateaued, and average yields remain about 10 times (103 Mg/km2) above background level. Yield from a basin devastated solely by a blast pyroclastic current diminished to background level within five years. These data demonstrate long-term instability of eruption-generated detritus, and show that effective mitigation measures must remain functional for decades.

  13. A survey of DNA motif finding algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Das, Modan K; Dai, Ho-Kwok

    2007-01-01

    Background Unraveling the mechanisms that regulate gene expression is a major challenge in biology. An important task in this challenge is to identify regulatory elements, especially the binding sites in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for transcription factors. These binding sites are short DNA segments that are called motifs. Recent advances in genome sequence availability and in high-throughput gene expression analysis technologies have allowed for the development of computational methods for motif finding. As a result, a large number of motif finding algorithms have been implemented and applied to various motif models over the past decade. This survey reviews the latest developments in DNA motif finding algorithms. Results Earlier algorithms use promoter sequences of coregulated genes from single genome and search for statistically overrepresented motifs. Recent algorithms are designed to use phylogenetic footprinting or orthologous sequences and also an integrated approach where promoter sequences of coregulated genes and phylogenetic footprinting are used. All the algorithms studied have been reported to correctly detect the motifs that have been previously detected by laboratory experimental approaches, and some algorithms were able to find novel motifs. However, most of these motif finding algorithms have been shown to work successfully in yeast and other lower organisms, but perform significantly worse in higher organisms. Conclusion Despite considerable efforts to date, DNA motif finding remains a complex challenge for biologists and computer scientists. Researchers have taken many different approaches in developing motif discovery tools and the progress made in this area of research is very encouraging. Performance comparison of different motif finding tools and identification of the best tools have proven to be a difficult task because tools are designed based on algorithms and motif models that are diverse and complex and our incomplete understanding of the biology of regulatory mechanism does not always provide adequate evaluation of underlying algorithms over motif models. PMID:18047721

  14. A general algorithm for finding transitions along lines in colored images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ra ´ ul Rojas

    One primary issue in computer vision is to find edges in images. Edges are important because they yield object boundaries, whose determination is necessary for object recogni- tion, object tracking and localization. In this paper we propose the \\

  15. Prognostic significance of whole-body MRI in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Hillengass, J; Weber, M-A; Kilk, K; Listl, K; Wagner-Gund, B; Hillengass, M; Hielscher, T; Farid, A; Neben, K; Delorme, S; Landgren, O; Goldschmidt, H

    2014-01-01

    Radiological skeletal survey or computed tomography are currently applied to assess bone diseases in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (whole-body MRI) allows detecting the infiltration of clonal cells in nearly the whole bone marrow compartment even before bone destruction has occurred. Those MRI results (i.e., patterns of bone marrow infiltration) have been demonstrated to be of prognostic significance in patients with symptomatic as well as asymptomatic multiple myeloma. We have therefore analyzed the findings of whole-body MRI in 137 consecutive individuals with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). A focal infiltration pattern was detected in 23.4% of patients. Presence and number of focal lesions as well as value of M-Protein were of independent prognostic significance for progression into a symptomatic disease requiring systemic treatment (P=0.02; P<0.0001 and P=0.0005, respectively). Lower homogeneous signal intensities in T1-weighted images were related to a physiologically higher bone marrow cellularity in younger individuals (P=0.002). We conclude that whole-body MRI identifies patients with focal accumulations of presumably monoclonal cells in bone marrow with prognostic impact concerning the risk of progression into symptomatic disease. PMID:23958921

  16. Fast detection of manufacturing systematic design pattern failures causing device yield loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Denmat, Jean-Christophe; Feldman, Nelly; Riewer, Olivia; Yesilada, Emek; Vallet, Michel; Suzor, Christophe; Talluto, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    Starting from the 45nm technology node, systematic defectivity has a significant impact on device yield loss with each new technology node. The effort required to achieve patterning maturity with zero yield detractor is also significantly increasing with technology nodes. Within the manufacturing environment, new in-line wafer inspection methods have been developed to identify device systematic defects, including the process window qualification (PWQ) methodology used to characterize process robustness. Although patterning is characterized with PWQ methodology, some questions remain: How can we demonstrate that the measured process window is large enough to avoid design-based defects which will impact the device yield? Can we monitor the systematic yield loss on nominal wafers? From device test engineering point of view, systematic yield detractors are expected to be identified by Automated Test Pattern Generator (ATPG) test results diagnostics performed after electrical wafer sort (EWS). Test diagnostics can identify failed nets or cells causing systematic yield loss [1],[2]. Convergence from device failed nets and cells to failed manufacturing design pattern are usually based on assumptions that should be confirmed by an electrical failure analysis (EFA). However, many EFA investigations are required before the design pattern failures are found, and thus design pattern failure identification was costly in time and resources. With this situation, an opportunity to share knowledge exists between device test engineering and manufacturing environments to help with device yield improvement. This paper presents a new yield diagnostics flow dedicated to correlation of critical design patterns detected within manufacturing environment, with the observed device yield loss. The results obtained with this new flow on a 28nm technology device are described, with the defects of interest and the device yield impact for each design pattern. The EFA done to validate the design pattern to yield correlation are also presented, including physical cross sections. Finally, the application of this new flow for systematic design pattern yield monitoring, compared to classic inline wafer inspection methods, is discussed.

  17. Effects of substrate moisture content, log weight and filter porosity on shiitake (Lentinula edodes) yield.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Liu, Ping; Wang, Xin; Royse, Daniel J

    2008-11-01

    Production costs for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) are on the rise in the United States due to increasing expenses including materials, labor and energy. Increased yield and improved bioconversion of raw materials may improve grower profit margins and may help reduce the cost of shiitake to the consumer. Two crops (Crop 1 and 2) of shiitake were grown to evaluate effects of three substrate moisture contents (50%, 55% and 60%), two log weights (2.7 and 3.2kg) and three porosities of bag filter (low, medium and high) on mushroom yield (g/log) and biological efficiency (BE). Yield data were collected under controlled environmental conditions for two breaks. The formulation with 55% substrate moisture gave the highest yield and BE. Higher mushroom yields were produced from heavier logs (3.2kg), but BE was not significantly affected. Filter porosity significantly affected yield and BE in Crop 1 but not in Crop 2. Significant interactions were observed for log moisture content x filter porosity for both crops. There were no significant two-way interactions observed for filter porosity x log weight or three-way interactions observed for moisture content x filter porosity x log weight. Maximum yields were obtained from 3.2kg logs with a substrate moisture content of ca. 55% using medium or low porosity-filtered bags. This study may provide growers with additional information to better optimize production practices and become more efficient and competitive. PMID:18485700

  18. The role of climatic variables in winter cereal yields: a retrospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qunying; Wen, Li

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effects of observed climate including [CO2] on winter cereal [winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum), barley ( Hordeum vulgare) and oat ( Avena sativa)] yields by adopting robust statistical analysis/modelling approaches (i.e. autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average, generalised addition model) based on long time series of historical climate data and cereal yield data at three locations (Moree, Dubbo and Wagga Wagga) in New South Wales, Australia. Research results show that (1) growing season rainfall was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yield at all locations considered; (2) [CO2] was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields in all cases except wheat and barley yields at Wagga Wagga; (3) growing season maximum temperature was significantly, negatively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields at Dubbo and Moree (except for barley); and (4) radiation was only significantly correlated with oat yield at Wagga Wagga. This information will help to identify appropriate management adaptation options in dealing with the risk and in taking the opportunities of climate change.

  19. The role of climatic variables in winter cereal yields: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qunying; Wen, Li

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effects of observed climate including [CO2] on winter cereal [winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativa)] yields by adopting robust statistical analysis/modelling approaches (i.e. autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average, generalised addition model) based on long time series of historical climate data and cereal yield data at three locations (Moree, Dubbo and Wagga Wagga) in New South Wales, Australia. Research results show that (1) growing season rainfall was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yield at all locations considered; (2) [CO2] was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields in all cases except wheat and barley yields at Wagga Wagga; (3) growing season maximum temperature was significantly, negatively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields at Dubbo and Moree (except for barley); and (4) radiation was only significantly correlated with oat yield at Wagga Wagga. This information will help to identify appropriate management adaptation options in dealing with the risk and in taking the opportunities of climate change. PMID:24763659

  20. A 1200-micron MAMBO survey of the GOODS-N field: a significant population of submillimetre drop-out galaxies

    E-print Network

    Greve, T R; Scott, D; Ivison, R J; Borys, C; Conselice, C J; Bertoldi, F

    2008-01-01

    We present a 1200-micron image of the Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey North (GOODS-N) field, obtained with the Max Planck Millimeter Bolometer array (MAMBO) on the IRAM 30-m telescope. The survey covers a contiguous area of 287 square arcmin to a near-uniform noise level of ~0.7mJy/beam. After Bayesian flux deboosting, a total of 30 sources are recovered (>=3.5sigma). An optimal combination of our 1200-micron data and an existing 850-micron image from the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) yielded 33 sources (>=4sigma). We combine our GOODS-N sample with those obtained in the Lockman Hole and ELAIS-N2 fields (Scott et al. 2002; Greve et al. 2004) in order to explore the degree of overlap between 1200-micron- and 850-micron-selected galaxies (hereafter SMGs), finding no significant difference between their 850-micron to 1200-micron flux density distributions. However, a noise-weighted stacking analysis yields a significant detection of the 1200-micron-blank SCUBA sources, whereas no signi...

  1. The Squeeze Flow of Yield Stress Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabideau, Brooks D.; Lanos, Christophe; Coussot, Philippe

    2008-07-01

    A systematic study of squeeze flow (SF) is presented using different concentrations of carbopol with varying yield stresses. A constant volume of sample is placed between two parallel plates and a series of 3 constant force steps applied; each lasting 8 minutes, allowing the sample to achieve a limiting height before the next force is applied. The yield stress of each fluid can be calculated from the limiting height as predicted by SF theory. In this study, the reliability of SF for the determination of the yield stress is analyzed through comparison with precise rheometrical tests. The rheometrical data is combined with SF theory to obtain the predicted dynamic height evolution. The predicted height evolution represents the results of the SF experiments quite nicely. Ultimately, the yield stress values determined from the SF experiments and those of the precise rheometrical tests are in good agreement.

  2. A World Average of Fluorescence Yield Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, R.

    2011-09-01

    Twelve measurements of air fluoescence yield made by six different groups are put into a common format then averaged. The methods used to convert them are described. The results obtained by Rosado et al. are also averaged.

  3. Revenue impacts of airline yield management

    E-print Network

    Mak, Chung Yu

    1992-01-01

    In the highly competitive airline industry today, Yield or Revenue Management is extremely important to the survival of any carrier. Since fares are generally matched by all carriers to be competitive, the ability of an ...

  4. Soil properties affecting wheat yields following drilling-fluid application.

    PubMed

    Bauder, T A; Barbarick, K A; Ippolito, J A; Shanahan, J F; Ayers, P D

    2005-01-01

    Oil and gas drilling operations use drilling fluids (mud) to lubricate the drill bit and stem, transport formation cuttings to the surface, and seal off porous geologic formations. Following completion of the well, waste drilling fluid is often applied to cropland. We studied potential changes in soil compaction as indicated by cone penetration resistance, pH, electrical conductivity (EC(e)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), extractable soil and total straw and grain trace metal and nutrient concentrations, and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'TAM 107') grain yield following water-based, bentonitic drilling-fluid application (0-94 Mg ha(-1)) to field test plots. Three methods of application (normal, splash-plate, and spreader-bar) were used to study compaction effects. We measured increasing SAR, EC(e), and pH with drilling-fluid rates, but not to levels detrimental to crop production. Field measurements revealed significantly higher compaction within areas affected by truck travel, but also not enough to affect crop yield. In three of four site years, neither drilling-fluid rate nor application method affected grain yield. Extractions representing plant availability and plant analyses results indicated that drilling fluid did not significantly increase most trace elements or nutrient concentrations. These results support land application of water-based bentonitic drilling fluids as an acceptable practice on well-drained soils using controlled rates. PMID:16091622

  5. Evidence for the Suppressed Decay B{sup -}{yields}DK{sup -}, D{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Horii, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Onuki, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Trabelsi, K.; Adachi, I.; Haba, J.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kichimi, H.; Nishida, S.; Sakai, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; Wicht, J. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Arinstein, K.; Aulchenko, V.; Eidelman, S.; Gabyshev, N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-10

    The suppressed decay chain B{sup -}{yields}DK{sup -}, D{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, where D indicates a D{sup 0} or D{sup 0} state, provides important information on the CP-violating angle {phi}{sub 3}. We measure the ratio R{sub DK} of the decay rates to the favored mode B{sup -}{yields}DK{sup -}, D{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} to be R{sub DK}=[1.63{sub -0.41}{sup +0.44}(stat){sub -0.13}{sup +0.07}(syst)]x10{sup -2}, which indicates the first evidence of the signal with a significance of 4.1{sigma}. We also measure the asymmetry A{sub DK} between the charge-conjugate decays to be A{sub DK}=-0.39{sub -0.28}{sup +0.26}(stat){sub -0.03}{sup +0.04}(syst). The results are based on the full 772x10{sup 6} BB pair data sample collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector.

  6. Find a NCCAOM Certified Practitioner

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NCCAOM Certified Diplomate. The NCCAOM Find a Practitioner Directory is a voluntary directory designed to be used by the public to ... Dipl. ABT (NCCAOM) ® . Please note that since this directory is voluntary, not all certified Diplomates will be ...

  7. EEG Findings and Sleep Deprivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tartara; A. Moglia; R. Manni; C. Corbellini

    1980-01-01

    EEG findings after sleep deprivation in 452 cases are reported. Effectiveness and specificity of this activating method in the field of epilepsy both in adult and in younger people are emphasized.Copyright © 1980 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. NAOS -- finding NAOMI guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, A. C.

    Observations made with the NAOMI adaptive optics system on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) usually require a guide star located close to the target object being observed. This manual describes how to find such guide stars. It documents the NAOS package whose purpose is precisely to find suitable guide stars and also describes various related items of software. Details of the potential guide stars are produced as tabular lists in text files, finding charts and tables in a format suitable for input into GAIA or CURSA. This document is aimed at astronomers who are planning to observe with the NAOMI adaptive optics system on the WHT and need to find guide stars for their target objects.

  9. Can You Find the Pattern?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Korth

    2005-10-27

    Here are some fun games to see if you can figure out the next piece of the pattern. Use these Marble patterns to review how patterns work. Finish four marble patterns. Check your work. Mr. Cracker needs to find the secret code before the evil Dr. Soup. Can you help Mr. Cracker find the number code. Choose the easy level and play two games. Complete the spooky number sequences and send the ghosts back to their haunted house. Here ...

  10. Cyclic fatty acid yields from linseed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Eisenhauer; R. E. Beal; E. L. Griffin

    1963-01-01

    Increased yields of saturated cyclic fatty acids which are fluid at ?50C have been obtained from linseed oil. Depending on\\u000a reaction conditions, yields varied from 20–42 g of cyclic acids per 100 g of linseed oil. Solvent ratios of 6, 3, and 1.5?1;\\u000a catalyst concentrations of 10, 30, 60, and 100%; and reaction temps of 225, 275, 295, and 325C

  11. Barley yield increases with undersown Lepidium campestre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnulf Merker; Dennis Eriksson; Nils-Ove Bertholdsson

    2010-01-01

    The potential new oil crop Lepidium campestre (field cress) was undersown with long and short row distances in spring barley in three-year trials with eight replications. Plots with no undersowing were used as controls. The purpose was to assess the effect on barley-grain yield of the oil crop and its seed-yield potential. In the plots without undersowing, with long and

  12. LACIE: Wheat yield models for the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative model determining the relationship between weather conditions and wheat yield in the U.S.S.R. was studied to provide early reliable forecasts on the size of the U.S.S.R. wheat harvest. Separate models are developed for spring wheat and for winter. Differences in yield potential and responses to stress conditions and cultural improvements necessitate models for each class.

  13. Comparison of photoluminescence quantum yield of single gold nanobipyramids and gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Rao, Wenye; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yuanzhao; Li, Tao; Wu, Lijun

    2015-03-24

    Fluorescent gold nanoparticles with high quantum yield are highly desirable for optical imaging in the fields of biology and materials science. We investigate the one-photon photoluminescence (PL) properties of individual gold nanobipyramids (GNBs) and find they are analogous to those of the extensively studied gold nanorods (GNRs). By combining PL and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements with discrete dipole approximation (DDA) simulations, we obtain the PL quantum yield of single GNRs and GNBs. Compared to GNRs in the similar surface plasmon resonance range, the PL quantum yield of GNBs is found to be doubled. The stronger field intensity around GNBs can explain their higher PL quantum yields. Our research would provide deeper understanding of the mechanism of PL from gold nanoparticles as well as be beneficial for finding out optical imaging labels with high contrast. PMID:25665929

  14. Significance of modeling internal damping in the control of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Inman, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several simple systems are examined to illustrate the importance of the estimation of damping parameters in closed-loop system performance and stability. The negative effects of unmodeled damping are particularly pronounced in systems that do not use collocated sensors and actuators. An example is considered for which even the actuators (a tip jet nozzle and flexible hose) for a simple beam produce significant damping which, if ignored, results in a model that cannot yield a reasonable time response using physically meaningful parameter values. It is concluded that correct damping modeling is essential in structure control.

  15. The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

    2014-05-01

    Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

  16. Estimating and enhancing methane yield from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    El-Fadel, M. [American Univ. of Beirut (United Kingdom); Findikakis, A.N.; Leckie, J.O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Methane gas is an energy source that can be produced from the decomposition of organic materials in municipal solid waste landfills. The feasibility of exploiting this source of energy is continually increasing due to continuing trends in population increase and urbanization resulting in significant increases in solid waste production and potential methane generation. Indeed, during the last decade, there has been considerable growth in the number of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems. This paper describes estimation methods used in assessing methane yield and generation rates from municipal solid waste landfills. Parameters affecting methane generation rates and models used to predict these rates are described. The effect of controlling the refuse bacterial content as a management practice to enhance methane yield was evaluated using a gas generation-microbial growth model that is based on the sequential degradation of organic materials in anaerobic systems. 185 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Fluorescence quantum yield of verteporfin is independent of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Tim; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy dosimetery and treatment planning is affected by the concentration of photosensitizer in a given tissue, and these values are often estimated based on measurements of fluorescence in the region to be treated. Some studies with benzoporphyrin derivate monoacid ring a (BPD-MA) showed a significant increase in fluorescence quantum yield with deoxygenation of the solution, indicating a possible oxygen sensitive switch in intersystem crossing or reverse intersystem crossing. The experiments done in this paper show that at oxygenation levels found in vivo the variation in fluorescence quantum yield of liposomal BPD-MA (verteporfin) is negligible for changes in solution oxygenation. The results from all of the experiments show that it is not necessary to measure the oxygenation of tissues when calculating the concentration of verteporfin from fluorescence measurements, so that dosimetry calculations based upon photosensitizer levels would not be affected by the tissue oxygenation. This greatly simplifies the dosimetry process with verteporfin.

  18. Measurement of CP violating asymmetries in B{sup 0{yields}}K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays with a time-dependent Dalitz approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nakahama, Y.; Aihara, H.; Iwasaki, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Sumisawa, K.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Higuchi, T.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ozaki, H.; Sakai, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    We report a measurement of CP violating asymmetries in B{sup 0}(B{sup 0}){yields}K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays with a time-dependent Dalitz approach. This analysis is based on a data sample of 657x10{sup 6} BB pairs accumulated at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. As the result of an unbinned maximum likelihood fit to the selected candidates, the mixing-induced and direct CP violation parameters {phi}{sub 1}{sup eff} and A{sub CP} are obtained for B{sup 0{yields}{phi}}(1020)K{sub S}{sup 0}, B{sup 0{yields}}f{sub 0}(980)K{sub S}{sup 0}, and other B{sup 0{yields}}K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays. We find four solutions that describe the data. There are {phi}{sub 1}{sup eff}(B{sup 0{yields}{phi}}(1020)K{sub S}{sup 0})=(32.2{+-}9.0{+-}2.6{+-}1.4) deg.; {phi}{sub 1}{sup eff}(B{sup 0{yields}{phi}}(1020)K{sub S}{sup 0})=(26.2{+-}8.8{+-}2.7{+-}1.2) deg.; {phi}{sub 1}{sup eff}(B{sup 0{yields}{phi}}(1020)K{sub S}{sup 0})=(27.3{+-}8.6{+-}2.8{+-}1.3) deg.; and {phi}{sub 1}{sup eff}(B{sup 0{yields}{phi}}(1020)K{sub S}{sup 0})=(24.3{+-}8.0{+-}2.9{+-}5.2) deg. The values for the CP violating phase in B{sup 0{yields}{phi}}(1020)K{sub S}{sup 0} are similar, but other properties of the Dalitz plot are quite different for the four solutions. These four solutions have consistent {phi}{sub 1}{sup eff} values for all three B-meson decay channels and none of them deviates significantly from the values measured in B{yields}(cc)K{sup 0} decays with the currently available statistics. In addition, we find no significant direct CP violation.

  19. Biological significance of prolactin in gynecologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Levina, Vera V; Nolen, Brian; Su, YunYun; Godwin, Andrew K; Fishman, David; Liu, Jinsong; Mor, Gil; Maxwell, Larry G; Herberman, Ronald B; Szczepanski, Miroslaw J; Szajnik, Marta E; Gorelik, Elieser; Lokshin, Anna E

    2009-06-15

    There is increasing evidence that prolactin (PRL), a hormone/cytokine, plays a role in breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers via local production or accumulation. Elevated levels of serum PRL in ovarian and endometrial cancers have been reported, indicating a potential role for PRL in endometrial and ovarian carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that serum PRL levels are significantly elevated in women with a strong family history of ovarian cancer. We show dramatically increased expression of PRL receptor in ovarian and endometrial tumors as well as in endometrial hyperplasia, signifying the importance of PRL signaling in malignant and premalignant conditions. PRL mRNA was expressed in ovarian and endometrial tumors, indicating the presence of an autocrine loop. PRL potently induced proliferation in several ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. Binding of PRL to its receptor was followed by rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase 1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, CREB, ATF-2, and p53 and activation of 37 transcription factors in ovarian and endometrial carcinoma cells. PRL also activated Ras oncogene in these cells. When human immortalized normal ovarian epithelial cells were chronically exposed to PRL, a malignant transformation occurred manifested by the acquired ability of transformed cells to form clones, grow in soft agar, and form tumors in severe combined immunodeficient-beige mice. Transformation efficiency was diminished by a Ras inhibitor, providing proof that PRL-induced transformation uses the Ras pathway. In summary, we present findings that indicate an important role for PRL in ovarian and endometrial tumorigenesis. PRL may represent a risk factor for ovarian and endometrial cancers. PMID:19491263

  20. Intermittent flow in yield-stress fluids slows down chaotic mixing.

    PubMed

    Wendell, D M; Pigeonneau, F; Gouillart, E; Jop, P

    2013-08-01

    We present experimental results of chaotic mixing of Newtonian fluids and yield-stress fluids using a rod-stirring protocol with a rotating vessel. We show how the mixing of yield-stress fluids by chaotic advection is reduced compared to the mixing of Newtonian fluids and explain our results, bringing to light the relevant mechanisms: the presence of fluid that only flows intermittently, a phenomenon enhanced by the yield stress, and the importance of the peripheral region. This finding is confirmed via numerical simulations. Anomalously slow mixing is observed when the synchronization of different stirring elements leads to the repetition of slow stretching for the same fluid particles. PMID:24032940

  1. Nitrate leaching, yields and carbon sequestration after noninversion tillage, catch crops, and straw retention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E M; Munkholm, L J; Olesen, J E; Melander, B

    2015-05-01

    Crop management factors, such as tillage, rotation, and straw retention, need to be long-term to allow conclusions on effects on crop yields, nitrate leaching, and carbon sequestration. In 2002, two field experiments, each including four cash crop rotations, were established on soils with 9 and 15% clay, under temperate, coastal climate conditions. Direct drilling and harrowing to two different depths were compared to plowing with respect to yield, nitrate N leaching, and carbon sequestration. For comparison of yields across rotations, grain and seed dry matter yields for each crop were converted to grain equivalents (GE). Leaching was compared to yields by calculating yield-scaled leaching (YSL, g N kg GE), and N balances were calculated as the N input in manure minus the N output in products removed from the fields. Direct drilling reduced yields, but no effect on leaching was found. Straw retention did not significantly increase yields, nor did it reduce leaching, while fodder radish ( L.) as a catch crop was capable of reducing nitrate leaching to a low level. Thus, YSL of winter wheat ( L.) was higher than for spring barley ( L.) grown after fodder radish due to the efficient catch crop. Soil organic carbon (SOC) did not increase significantly after 7 yr of straw incorporation or noninversion tillage. There was no correlation between N balances calculated for each growing season and N leaching measured in the following percolation period. PMID:26024267

  2. Heritability and expected selection response for yield traits in blanched asparagus.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Ileana; López Anido, Fernando; Cravero, Vanina; Asprelli, Pablo; Cointry, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Despite the continuous breeding that has been conducted with asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) since the beginning of the last century, there is little information on parameters for predicting direct and indirect selection response. Yield traits for blanched asparagus production were studied along a two-year period in a half-sib family population planted in Zavalla, Argentina. Half-sib family mean heritability values were low for total yield and marketable spear number (0.31 and 0.35), intermediate for marketable yield and total spear number (0.55 and 0.64), and relatively high for spear diameter and spear weight (0.75 and 0.74). An average increase in marketable yield of 15.9% is expected after each cycle of selection of the top 5% of the families. Total yield failed to express significant genetic correlations with any of the yield components; meanwhile marketable yield showed highly significant relations with market spear number (0.96) and spear weight (0.89). Indirect selection response over yield components (CRx) failed to be advantageous over direct selection (Rx), since the ratio CRx/Rx was always equal or below unity. PMID:15841437

  3. The relationship between identity, intimacy, and midlife well-being: findings from the Rochester Adult Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Joel R; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Schwartz, Seth J; Huang, Shi

    2012-06-01

    The present study used longitudinal data on 182 adults between the ages of 20 and 54 (104 men, 78 women) from the Rochester Adult Longitudinal Study (RALS), assessed on four occasions, to test the hypothesis that identity and intimacy during the course of early and middle adulthood predict well-being at midlife. A cross-lagged panel model was estimated yielding the following findings: (a) Scores on both scales during the college years predicted midlife satisfaction-intimacy directly, and identity through the course of development from ages 20 to 54; moreover, identity in midlife, but not intimacy, was significantly linked with well-being at this same point in time; and (b) identity and intimacy unexpectedly did not predict one another over time, having been controlled for factor stability in identity and intimacy over time. The findings are discussed in terms of Erikson's psychosocial theory of development and the developmental moments and historical cohorts that characterize the present sample. PMID:22201333

  4. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22634487

  5. Identification of saline soils with multi-year remote sensing of crop yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Gurrola, F C; Valenzuela, L

    2006-10-17

    Soil salinity is an important constraint to agricultural sustainability, but accurate information on its variation across agricultural regions or its impact on regional crop productivity remains sparse. We evaluated the relationships between remotely sensed wheat yields and salinity in an irrigation district in the Colorado River Delta Region. The goals of this study were to (1) document the relative importance of salinity as a constraint to regional wheat production and (2) develop techniques to accurately identify saline fields. Estimates of wheat yield from six years of Landsat data agreed well with ground-based records on individual fields (R{sup 2} = 0.65). Salinity measurements on 122 randomly selected fields revealed that average 0-60 cm salinity levels > 4 dS m{sup -1} reduced wheat yields, but the relative scarcity of such fields resulted in less than 1% regional yield loss attributable to salinity. Moreover, low yield was not a reliable indicator of high salinity, because many other factors contributed to yield variability in individual years. However, temporal analysis of yield images showed a significant fraction of fields exhibited consistently low yields over the six year period. A subsequent survey of 60 additional fields, half of which were consistently low yielding, revealed that this targeted subset had significantly higher salinity at 30-60 cm depth than the control group (p = 0.02). These results suggest that high subsurface salinity is associated with consistently low yields in this region, and that multi-year yield maps derived from remote sensing therefore provide an opportunity to map salinity across agricultural regions.

  6. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull

    PubMed Central

    Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

    2013-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  7. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  8. A Budyko approach to assessing catchment deforestation impacts on the water yield to global wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Joshua; Woodward, Craig; Shulmeister, James

    2015-04-01

    Reduced evapotranspiration (ET) through the conversion of forest to grass and the resultant increase in streamflow water yields are well established, however the consequences for the water balance of standing bodies of water within catchments have received comparatively less attention. Evaluating these impacts at the annual time scale, and across the globe is difficult to parametrise using conventional water balance models, however the relative simplicity of the Budyko hypothesis enables such a first order analysis. One widely used Budyko approach allows ET to be differentiated according to a single parameter, and existing data suggests ET can be reduced by ~1/3 following the conversion from forest to grass across a wide range of precipitation inputs. Using global databases of wetlands, aridity index, and current vs original forest cover, we find the water available to wetlands can increase by up to 15% of precipitation in relatively humid climates where complete deforestation has occurred. This is significant since it may convert previously ephemeral systems to permanent wetlands, or create entirely new wetlands. Moreover, a conservative estimate based on our datasets suggests 9-12% of global wetlands are significantly affected by this change in hydrology due to deforestation. Human impact studies in lake and wetland systems rarely test for changes in hydrology, and thus this effect is largely unrecognised. The latitudinal structure of these impacts, sensitivity to degree of deforestation, and sensitivity to the assumption of the 1/3 ET reduction are also explored.

  9. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Giovanna; Toreti, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as warm spells and heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Since the most sensitive period for winter wheat in the Italian Peninsula is May-June, early heat waves from 1985 to 2013 are here identified and characterised. Then, their impact on annual durum wheat yields from 1995 to 2013 is investigated by using durum wheat yield time series retrieved from the Italian National Institute of Statistics - ISTAT for the most important (in term of durum wheat production) 39 areas. Results confirm, as expected, the 2003 peak in the time series of heat wave intensities and highlight other significant events, for instance in 2006, 2007 and 2009. In 2003, the development and growth of durum wheat were greatly influenced by heat stress, as shown by the very low values of durum wheat yields, exceeding -52% in southern Italy. However, the negative peak of yield anomalies (-65%) is recorded in south-eastern Italy in 2009. Results also show a high percentage (w.r.t. the total number of years with significant negative yield anomaly) of concurrent early heat waves/significant negative yield anomaly in many of the investigated areas. In the other areas (e.g., Sicily), lower numbers of concurrent events could be caused by the late occurrence of the early heat waves, i.e., after durum wheat maturity.

  10. Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

    2012-04-01

    Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not well defined in the suspension rheology we tested three types of measurement in determination of yield stress. Two methods utilized cone-plate geometry performing creep test (stress controlled) and variable shear rate test and one utilized narrow-gap concentric cylinder geometry with variable shear rate. Herschel-Bulckley model can be successfully applied to variable shear-rate tests to determine yield stress. Creep test and H-B model give almost identical yield stress, for instance 45±5Pa at 2.5wt%. At the gel volume fraction of 50% yield stress emerges and it increases with the increase of the concentration of gel powder. This critical value roughly corresponds to the random loose packing fraction while the viscosity begins to increase at lower fraction.

  11. Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter

    E-print Network

    Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville

    2015-02-18

    We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.

  12. Lithography yield check for IC design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Lynn; Chen, Ting

    2005-05-01

    As the semiconductor industry goes into the 65nm generation, designs become more complex, mask cost increases exponentially, and the industry is pushing very hard on the lithography process. It is more and more challenging to achieve and maintain acceptable yield. Yield is not only a problem for the Fabs but also an issue that has to be considered by the chip designers. In order to save turn around time, save mask and process development cost and improve the yield, the lithography problems need to be resolved at the design stage. The designers need to be aware of the lithography behavior of their design and be able to modify the design if it causes yield problems in the lithography process. In this paper, we discuss a new tool, a Litho Yield Checker, which can be run stand-alone but is also fully integrated with a Layout Editor, that provides its user with an easy way to visualize how the layouts are to be printed on wafer, and see the common process window (CPW) for the most important locations in the design.

  13. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior at Unsignalized Crosswalks

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Bastian J.; Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2011-01-01

    This research explores factors associated with driver yielding behavior at unsignalized pedestrian crossings and develops predictive models for yielding using logistic regression. It considers the effect of variables describing driver attributes, pedestrian characteristics and concurrent conditions at the crosswalk on the yield response. Special consideration is given to ‘vehicle dynamics constraints’ that form a threshold for the potential to yield. Similarities are identified to driver reaction in response to the ‘amber’ indication at a signalized intersection. The logit models were developed from data collected at two unsignalized mid-block crosswalks in North Carolina. The data include ‘before’ and ‘after’ observations of two pedestrian safety treatments, an in-street pedestrian crossing sign and pedestrian-actuated in-roadway warning lights. The analysis suggests that drivers are more likely to yield to assertive pedestrians who walk briskly in their approach to the crosswalk. In turn, the yield probability is reduced with higher speeds, deceleration rates and if vehicles are traveling in platoons. The treatment effects proved to be significant and increased the propensity of drivers to yield, but their effectiveness may be dependent on whether the pedestrian activates the treatment. The results of this research provide new insights on the complex interaction of pedestrians and vehicles at unsignalized intersections and have implications for future work towards predictive models for driver yielding behavior. The developed logit models can provide the basis for representing driver yielding behavior in a microsimulation modeling environment. PMID:21852892

  14. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior at Unsignalized Crosswalks.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Bastian J; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2011-07-01

    This research explores factors associated with driver yielding behavior at unsignalized pedestrian crossings and develops predictive models for yielding using logistic regression. It considers the effect of variables describing driver attributes, pedestrian characteristics and concurrent conditions at the crosswalk on the yield response. Special consideration is given to 'vehicle dynamics constraints' that form a threshold for the potential to yield. Similarities are identified to driver reaction in response to the 'amber' indication at a signalized intersection. The logit models were developed from data collected at two unsignalized mid-block crosswalks in North Carolina. The data include 'before' and 'after' observations of two pedestrian safety treatments, an in-street pedestrian crossing sign and pedestrian-actuated in-roadway warning lights.The analysis suggests that drivers are more likely to yield to assertive pedestrians who walk briskly in their approach to the crosswalk. In turn, the yield probability is reduced with higher speeds, deceleration rates and if vehicles are traveling in platoons. The treatment effects proved to be significant and increased the propensity of drivers to yield, but their effectiveness may be dependent on whether the pedestrian activates the treatment.The results of this research provide new insights on the complex interaction of pedestrians and vehicles at unsignalized intersections and have implications for future work towards predictive models for driver yielding behavior. The developed logit models can provide the basis for representing driver yielding behavior in a microsimulation modeling environment. PMID:21852892

  15. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) for regional yield trials: a comparison to additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-P. Piepho

    1994-01-01

    Multilocation trials are often used to analyse the adaptability of genotypes in different environments and to find for each environment the genotype that is best adapted; i.e. that is highest yielding in that environment. For this purpose, it is of interest to obtain a reliable estimate of the mean yield of a cultivar in a given environment. This article compares

  16. Effect of Corporate Governance on Bond Ratings and Yields: The Role of Institutional Investors and Outside Directors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Bhojraj; Partha Sengupta

    2003-01-01

    This article provides evidence linking corporate governance mechanisms to higher bond ratings and lower bond yields. Governance mechanisms can reduce default risk by mitigating agency costs and monitoring managerial performance and by reducing information asymmetry between the firm and the lenders. We find firms that have greater institutional ownership and stronger outside control of the board enjoy lower bond yields

  17. FIND OUT MORE FUTURE FACE

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    or poison. DanBayley/iStockphoto DRUG DEVELOPMENT BigPicture DRUG STORE: A toxin from a marine snailon FIND OUT MORE ISSUE 7 JANUARY 2008 FUTURE FACE: What will we use drugs for in the future into the development of new medicines. So far, so rosy. But while providing immense benefits, drugs are not the perfect

  18. MEMS AO for Planet Finding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  19. Help me Find my Relationship!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-11-12

    In this lesson, students will investigate the relationship between angles when parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Students will identify angles, find angle measures, and they will use the free application GeoGebra (see download link under Suggested Technology) to provide students with a visual representation of angles relationships.

  20. Triangles: Finding Interior Angle Measures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-11-25

    In this lesson plan, students will start with a hands-on activity and then experiment with a GeoGebra-based computer model to investigate and discover the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem. Then they will use the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem to write and solve equations and find missing angle measures in a variety of examples.

  1. ., 22. Findings Exposure to testosterone

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    ., 22. Findings Exposure to testosterone in the uterus has some unexpected effects on females, with males and females distributed randomly within each of the two horns of her uterus. We knew from earlier fetus in the last Mouse embryos lined up in the uterus, above, each in its own amniotic sac. A huddle

  2. Finding Cryptography in Object Code

    SciTech Connect

    Jason L. Wright

    2008-10-01

    Finding and identifying Cryptography is a growing concern in the malware analysis community. In this paper, a heuristic method for determining the likelihood that a given function contains a cryptographic algorithm is discussed and the results of applying this method in various environments is shown. The algorithm is based on frequency analysis of opcodes that make up each function within a binary.

  3. Finding Geography Using Found Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Functional literacy is important in both English/language arts and geography. Using the "found poetry" strategy, students will summarize a piece of text, identify main ideas and find geographic connections. While using young adult literature is a great way to incorporate geography into English/language arts classroom, understanding of geography…

  4. New physics contribution to B{yields}K{pi} decays in soft collinear effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huitu, K. [Department of Physics, and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Khalil, S. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, 11837 (Egypt) and Department of Mathematics, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Cairo, 11566 (Egypt)

    2010-05-01

    We analyze the 5{sigma} difference between the CP asymmetries of the B{sup 0{yields}}K{sup +{pi}-} and B{sup +{yields}}K{sup +{pi}0} decays within the soft collinear effective theory. We find that in the standard model, such a big difference cannot be achieved. We classify then the requirements for the possible New Physics models, which can be responsible for the experimental results. As an example of a New Physics model we study minimal supersymmetric models, and find that the measured asymmetry can be obtained with nonminimal flavor violation.

  5. Analyzing Landscape Effects on Corn and Soybean Yield and Yield Risk from a Large Yield Monitor Dataset

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yield variability is due to a variety of factors including many manageable variables such as genetics, weeds and pests, drainage, irrigation, and nutrient supply, but many factors cannot be managed and/or they have un-manageable interactions with climate. Therefore climate and it’s interaction...

  6. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  7. Impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation on the global yields of major crops.

    PubMed

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J; Sakurai, Gen; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Brown, Molly E; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring and prediction of climate-induced variations in crop yields, production and export prices in major food-producing regions have become important to enable national governments in import-dependent countries to ensure supplies of affordable food for consumers. Although the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) often affects seasonal temperature and precipitation, and thus crop yields in many regions, the overall impacts of ENSO on global yields are uncertain. Here we present a global map of the impacts of ENSO on the yields of major crops and quantify its impacts on their global-mean yield anomalies. Results show that El Niño likely improves the global-mean soybean yield by 2.1-5.4% but appears to change the yields of maize, rice and wheat by -4.3 to +0.8%. The global-mean yields of all four crops during La Niña years tend to be below normal (-4.5 to 0.0%). Our findings highlight the importance of ENSO to global crop production. PMID:24827075

  8. Biomass Production in Switchgrass across the United States: Database Description and Determinants of Yield

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Davis, Ethan B. [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Borsuk, Mark E. [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental to deriving a sustainable supply of cellulosic feedstock for an emerging biofuels industry is understanding how biomass yield varies as a function of crop management, climate, and soils. Here we focus on the perennial switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and compile a database that contains 1190 observations of yield from 39 field trials conducted across the United States. Data include site location, stand age, plot size, cultivar, crop management, biomass yield, temperature, precipitation, and information on land quality. Statistical analysis revealed the major sources of variation in yield. Frequency distributions of yield for upland and lowland ecotypes were unimodal, with mean ({+-}SD) biomass yields of 8.7 {+-} 4.2 and 12.9 {+-} 5.9 Mg ha-1 for the two ecotypes, respectively. We looked for, but did not find, bias toward higher yields associated with small plots or preferential establishment of stands on high quality lands. A parametric yield model was fit to the data and accounted for one-third of the total observed variation in biomass yields, with an equal contribution of growing season precipitation, annual temperature, N fertilization, and ecotype. The model was used to predict yield across the continental United States. Mapped output was consistent with the natural range of switchgrass and, as expected, yields were shown to be limited by precipitation west of the Great Plains. Future studies should extend the geographic distribution of field trials and thus improve our understanding of biomass production as a function of soil, climate, and crop management for promising biofuels such as switchgrass.

  9. Stellar yields of rotating first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    First stars, also called population III stars, are born in the earliest universe without any heavy elements. These stars are the first nuclear reactor in the universe and affect their circumstances emitting synthesized materials. Not only the stellar evolution, but also their chemical yields have many distinctive characteristics. We have modeled evolution of population III stars including effect of stellar rotation. Internal mixing induced by rotation naturally results in primary nitrogen production. Evolution of rotating massive stars is followed until the core collapse phase. The new Pop III yield model will consistently explain the observed abundances of metal-poor systems.

  10. Operation of the yield estimation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccrary, D. G.; Rogers, J. L.; Hill, J. D. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    The organization and products of the yield estimation subsystem (YES) are described with particular emphasis on meteorological data acquisition, yield estimation, crop calendars, weekly weather summaries, and project reports. During the three phases of LACIE, YES demonstrated that it is possible to use the flow of global meteorological data and provide valuable information regarding global wheat production. It was able to establish a capability to collect, in a timely manner, detailed weather data from all regions of the world, and to evaluate and convert that data into information appropriate to the project's needs.

  11. Advances in Yield Calibration of Scintillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan T. M. de Haas; Pieter Dorenbos

    2008-01-01

    By means of a photomultiplier tube, a Si-photodiode, and a Si-avalanche photodiode, the absolute scintillation yield of recently developed LaBr3:Ce, LaCl3:Ce, and (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce scintillators and traditional Lu2SiO5:Ce, Bi4Ge3O12, NaI:Tl, CsI:Tl, and CsI:Na scintillators were determined. These are all well known scintillators that cover emission wavelengths from 250 nm to 750 nm. By comparing the scintillation yield independently measured with the

  12. Statistical Modelling and Deconvolution of Yield Meter Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frede Aakmann Tøgersen; Rasmus Waagepetersen

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of mapping spatial variation of yield in a field using data from a yield monitoring system on a combine harvester. The unobserved yield is assumed to be a Gaussian random field and the yield monitoring system data is modelled as a convolution of the yield and an impulse response function. This results in an unusual

  13. Anthocyanin yields of clonal wild carrot cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Dougall; D. L. Vogelien

    1990-01-01

    The anthocyanin yields in clonal populations of wild carrot suspension cultures were measured after four patterns of cloning and selection. These patterns were:1.serial selection of high yielding clones,2 and 3.one selection of a low yielding clone followed by serial selection of high yielding clones,4.serial selection of low yielding clones.

  14. Yielding to Stress: Recent Developments in Viscoplastic Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmforth, Neil J.; Frigaard, Ian A.; Ovarlez, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The archetypal feature of a viscoplastic fluid is its yield stress: If the material is not sufficiently stressed, it behaves like a solid, but once the yield stress is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. Such behavior characterizes materials common in industries such as petroleum and chemical processing, cosmetics, and food processing and in geophysical fluid dynamics. The most common idealization of a viscoplastic fluid is the Bingham model, which has been widely used to rationalize experimental data, even though it is a crude oversimplification of true rheological behavior. The popularity of the model is in its apparent simplicity. Despite this, the sudden transition between solid-like behavior and flow introduces significant complications into the dynamics, which, as a result, has resisted much analysis. Over recent decades, theoretical developments, both analytical and computational, have provided a better understanding of the effect of the yield stress. Simultaneously, greater insight into the material behavior of real fluids has been afforded by advances in rheometry. These developments have primed us for a better understanding of the various applications in the natural and engineering sciences.

  15. Statistical modeling of SRAM yield performance and circuit variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qi; Chen, Yijian

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we develop statistical models to investigate SRAM yield performance and circuit variability in the presence of self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) process. It is assumed that SRAM fins are fabricated by a positivetone (spacer is line) self-aligned sextuple patterning (SASP) process which accommodates two types of spacers, while gates are fabricated by a more pitch-relaxed self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) process which only allows one type of spacer. A number of possible inverter and SRAM structures are identified and the related circuit multi-modality is studied using the developed failure-probability and yield models. It is shown that SRAM circuit yield is significantly impacted by the multi-modality of fins' spatial variations in a SRAM cell. The sensitivity of 6-transistor SRAM read/write failure probability to SASP process variations is calculated and the specific circuit type with the highest probability to fail in the reading/writing operation is identified. Our study suggests that the 6-transistor SRAM configuration may not be scalable to 7-nm half pitch and more robust SRAM circuit design needs to be researched.

  16. Interactions of climatic factors affecting milk yield and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.K.; Rodriguez, L.A.; Wilcox, C.J.; Collider, R.J.; Bachman, K.C.; Martin, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of interactions of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and solar radiation on milk yield and constituent traits. Effects of climate variables and their interactions were significant but small in most cases. Second order regression models were developed for several variables. Six were examined in detail: Holstein and Jersey milk yields, Holstein fat and Feulgen-DNA reflectance percent, and Jersey protein percent and yield. Maximum temperature had greatest influence on each response, followed by minimum relative humidity and solar radiation. Optimum conditions for milk production were at maximum temperatures below 19. 4/degree/C, increasing solar radiation, and minimum relative humidity between 33.4 and 78.2% (cool sunny days, moderate humidity). Maximum Holstein fat percent of 3.5% was predicted for maximum temperatures below 30.8/degree/C, minimum relative humidity below 89%, and solar radiation below 109 Langleys; actual mean Holstein fat percent was 3. 35%. Optimum climatic conditions for Jersey protein percent were at maximum temperature of 10.6/degree/C with solar radiation at 300 Langleys and relative humidity at 16% (cool sunny days, low humidity). Because noteworthy interactions existed between climate effects, response surface methodology was suitable for determining optimum climatic conditions for milk production.

  17. The use of large-area spectral data in wheat yield estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, T. L.; Thompson, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Large-area relations between satellite spectral data and end-of-season crop yield were investigated. Green Index Number (GIN) values from Landsat MSS data of sample segments throughout the U.S. Great Plains winter wheat belt in 1978 were correlated to county USDA-SRS reported yields. A linear relation between GIN and yield appeared to exist up to GIN values of 40 or 50, covering cases of severe to moderate stress. In a test on 1978 Texas winter wheat at the county level, GIN values for sample segments in the counties were used in conjunction with an agronomic-meteorological yield model. The combined fit explained significantly more of the observed yield variation at the county level than the agromet model alone.

  18. Influence of seasonal weather and climate variability on crop yields in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Iain

    2013-07-01

    The climatic sensitivity of four important agriculture crops (wheat, barley, oats, potatoes) in a northern temperate bioclimatic region is investigated using national-level yield data for 1963-2005. The climate variables include monthly and annual meteorological data, derived bioclimatic metrics, and the North Atlantic Oscillation index. Statistical analysis shows that significant relationships between yield and climate vary depending on the crop type and month but highlight the influence of precipitation (negative correlation) and sunshine duration (positive correlation) rather than temperature. Soil moisture deficit is shown to be a particular useful indicator of yield with drier summers providing the best yields for Scotland as a whole. It is also tentatively inferred that the sensitivity of these crops, particularly wheat and barley, to soil moisture deficits has increased in recent years. This suggests that improved crop yields are optimised for dry sunny years despite the continued prevalence of considerable inter-annual variability in seasonal weather.

  19. Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants.

    PubMed

    Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp; Waller, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development. PMID:21150264

  20. Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants

    PubMed Central

    Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development. PMID:21150264

  1. Influence of seasonal weather and climate variability on crop yields in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Brown, Iain

    2013-07-01

    The climatic sensitivity of four important agriculture crops (wheat, barley, oats, potatoes) in a northern temperate bioclimatic region is investigated using national-level yield data for 1963-2005. The climate variables include monthly and annual meteorological data, derived bioclimatic metrics, and the North Atlantic Oscillation index. Statistical analysis shows that significant relationships between yield and climate vary depending on the crop type and month but highlight the influence of precipitation (negative correlation) and sunshine duration (positive correlation) rather than temperature. Soil moisture deficit is shown to be a particular useful indicator of yield with drier summers providing the best yields for Scotland as a whole. It is also tentatively inferred that the sensitivity of these crops, particularly wheat and barley, to soil moisture deficits has increased in recent years. This suggests that improved crop yields are optimised for dry sunny years despite the continued prevalence of considerable inter-annual variability in seasonal weather. PMID:22960748

  2. The Impact of Climate and Its Variability on Crop Yield and Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As the global population grows and the climate changes, having a secure food supply is increasingly important especially under water stressed-conditions. Although irrigation is a positive climate adaptation mechanism for agriculture, it has a potentially negative effect on water resources. It is therefore important to understand how crop yields due to irrigation are affected by climate variability and how irrigation may buffer against climate, allowing for more resilient agricultural systems. Efforts to solve these barely exposed questions can benefit from comprehending the influence of climate variability on crop yield and irrigation water use in the past. To do this, we use historical climate data?irrigation water use data and rainfed and irrigated crop yields over the US to analyze the relationship among climate, irrigation and delta crop yields, gained by subtracting rainfed yield from irrigated yield since 1970. We find that the increase in delta crop yield due to irrigation is larger for certain climate conditions, such that there are optimal climate conditions where irrigation provides a benefit and other conditions where irrigation proves to have marginal benefits when temperature increased to certain degrees. We find that crop water requirements are linked to potential evapotranspiration, yet actual irrigation water use is largely decoupled from the climate conditions but related with other causes. This has important implications for agricultural and water resource system planning, as it implies there are optimal climate zones where irrigation is productive and that changes in water use, both temporally and spatially, could lead to increased water availability without negative impacts on crop yields. Furthermore, based on the exposed relationship between crop yield gained by irrigation and climate variability, those models predicting the global harvest will be redress to estimate crop production in the future more accurately.

  3. ``Find-the-Flaw'' Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Daniel F.

    2011-05-01

    A physics teacher assigns problems to his or her students not to keep them indoors during sunny days, but to strengthen and deepen their understanding of the universe. Every problem has not only an answer, but also a "moral to the story"—a reason why that question and that answer are interesting and probing. It is an unfortunate fact that our rush to find the answer can obscure the moral and, even worse, obscure the very idea that a moral exists. For more than a decade, I have assigned "find-the-flaw" physics problems in which the answer to the problem is given and where the only point of the problem is to build "moral of the story" insight.

  4. Primary hepatic sarcomas: CT findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ri-Sheng Yu; Ying Chen; Biao Jiang; Liu-Hong Wang; Xiu-Fang Xu

    2008-01-01

    Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may\\u000a have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography\\u000a (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma\\u000a (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma\\u000a (including

  5. Angiographic findings in tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Neeman, Ziv; Wood, Bradford J

    2003-01-01

    Tumor calcinosis is uncommon, typically manifesting as paraarticular, extracapsular soft tissue deposits containing amorphous calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate, with associated hydroxyapatite crystal. CT and MRI are the primary diagnostic radiological tools evaluating these lesions. Primary treatment is early surgical excision with wide margins, as there is a high recurrence rate. We describe the angiographic findings in tumoral calcinosis, demonstrating hypervascularity beyond the calcified mass periphery. Exact margin definition with angiography may influence management and surgical approach. PMID:12727056

  6. Mammographic Findings Following Reduction Mammoplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Danikas; Spero J. V. Theodorou; George Kokkalis; Katerina Vasiou; Konstantina Kyriakopoulou

    2001-01-01

    .   Breast reduction mammoplasty is becoming an increasingly common procedure. A baseline mammogram is recommended after 35 years\\u000a of age as the most effective method for detection of small breast cancers. A prospective study was conducted for the evaluation\\u000a of the mammographic findings after reduction mammoplasty. During the last 7 years, 113 patients over 35 years of age underwent\\u000a bilateral

  7. Yield and Temporal Yield Variability Under Conventional and Alternative Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year to year variation in yield is an inherit risk associated with crop production and many growers rely on intensive mechanical or chemical inputs to secure crop yields in the face of fluctuating environmental conditions. However, as interest in alternative approaches to crop management which are ...

  8. High Temperature Effects on Cotton Yield, Yield Components, and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with all biological processes, an optimum temperature range exists for cotton growth. This research tests the upper threshold of that optimum temperature range by investigating how cotton growth and development, lint yield production, yield components, and fiber quality were affected by higher t...

  9. Effects of Salinity on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Rice at Different Seeding Densities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linghe Zeng; Michael C. Shannon

    2000-01-01

    management options for rice growers. One possible management option in dealing with salinity-induced de- One possible management option for growers in dealing with de- creases in rice production is to compensate yield reduc- creases in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by salinity is to compensate yield reduction by increasing seeding density. Our tion by increasing seeding density. objectives were

  10. Stochastic Volatilities and Correlations of Bond Yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BING HAN; Mark Grinblatt; Jean Helwege; Jason Hsu; Jingzhi Huang; Andrew Karolyi; Monika Piazzesi; Pedro Santa-Clara; Kenneth Singleton

    2007-01-01

    I develop an interest rate model with separate factors driving innovations in bond yields and their covariances. It features a flexible and tractable affine structure for bond covariances. Maximum likelihood estimation of the model with panel data on swaptions and discount bonds implies pricing errors for swaptions that are almost always lower than half of the bid-ask spread. Furthermore, market

  11. Squeeze Flow of Yield Stress Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelot, David; Yarin, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The squeeze flow of yield stress materials are investigated using a non-invasive optical technique. In the experiments, cylindrically-shaped samples of Carbopol solutions and Bentonite dispersions are rapidly compressed between two transparent plates using a constant force and the instantaneous cross-sectional area is recorded as a function of time using a high speed CCD camera. Furthermore, visualization of the boundary reveals that the no-slip condition holds. In addition, shear experiments are conducted using parallel-plate and vane viscometers. The material exhibits first a fast stage of squeezing in which the normal stresses dominate and viscosity plays the main role. Then, the second (slow) stage sets in where the material exhibits a slow deformation dominated by yield stress. At the end, the deformation process is arrested by yield stress. The material response is attributed to the Bingham-like or Herschel-Bulkley-like rheological behavior. Squeeze flow is developed into a convenient and simple tool for studying yield stress materials. This work is supported by the United States Gypsum Corp.

  12. NUTRIENTS AND HIGH YIELDS: NEED FOR CONCERN?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands for grain production for use as food will increase as the world population increases. At the same time there is a decrease in the amount of cultivated land for grain production. This dictates an increase in yield per unit area and more inputs into crop production, i.e., fertiliz...

  13. Auger yield calculations for medical radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boon Q.; Kibédi, Tibor; Stuchbery, Andrew E.

    2015-04-01

    Auger yields from the decays of 71Ge, 99mTc, 111In and 123-125I have been calculated using a Monte Carlo model of the Auger cascade that has been developed at the ANU. In addition, progress to improve the input data of the model has been made with the Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method.

  14. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  15. Do symmetry constraints yield exact solutions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Xiu Ma; Min Chen

    2007-01-01

    Two classes of natural symmetry constraints are introduced and analyzed for the Sharma–Tasso–Olver equation. Through those symmetry constraints, the phenomenon is exhibited that symmetry constraints do not always yield exact solutions. It is also explained why such phenomenon can happen in the symmetry theory.

  16. Energy yield of black locust biomass fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.W.; Carpenter, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    Detailed analysis of 2 to 10-year-old black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L). biomass components provided an accurate energy content and energy yield determinationa as well as an index defining a relative ceiling on the delivered cost for black locust biomass in comparison with other fuels such as coal and forest residues. Total energy content of individual biomass components ranged from 20.97 X 10/sup 6/ J/kg for leaf tissue to 19.23 X 10/sup 6/ J/kg for current years' growth. Annual total energy yields ranged from 33.75 to 76.79 X 10/sup 9/ J/ha/yr for 3 and 9-year-old stands, respectively. Nine-year-old stands also exhibited the highest annual net whole-tree and woody biomass (whole-tree less foliage) energy yields of 32.71 and 30.73 X 10/sup 9/ J/ha/yr. The net annual energy yield were consistently greater for whole-tree biomass compared with woody biomass due to foliage included in the whole-tree biomass. The relative cost indices maintained a high degree of variability between comparison fuels. Bituminous coal and forest residues were lowest with an overall mean cost index for woody biomass of $13.28/mt and $13.72/mt, respectively. Woody biomass maintained a greater relative index than whole-tree biomass over all age classes due to its inherently higher conversion efficiency. 18 references.

  17. DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

  18. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  19. Yield advances in peanut - weed control effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in weed management are a contributing factor to advancements in peanut yield. Widespread use of vacuum planters and increased acceptance of narrow row patterns enhance weed control by lessening bareground caused by skips and promoting quick canopy closure. Cultivation was traditionall...

  20. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle may potentially reduce production expenses for Louisiana sugarcane growers. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both on an annual basis and ...