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1

Primary pure gastric yolk sac tumor  

PubMed Central

We describe here a case of pure gastric yolk sac tumor (YST). A 62-year-old patient underwent gastrectomy with D2 dissection. The histological report confirmed the diagnosis of YST and that two of the 14 regional lymph nodes removed were metastatic. Three courses of PEB regimen chemotherapy were delivered subsequently. Three months later the patient experienced dysphagia from stenosis of the anastomosis and a computerized tomography scan showed tumor recurrence with peritoneal nodules; the patient died one year after surgery. The origin of gastric YST is unclear but involvement of migrating germ cells during embryonic development or multipotential neoplastic protoepithelial cells of the gastric mucosa have been suggested. Generally the prognosis of gastric YST is poor and the standard therapeutic approach beyond surgery is still uncertain.

Magni, Elena; Sonzogni, Angelica; Zampino, Maria Giulia

2010-01-01

2

Spinal cord compression of primary extragonadal giant yolk sac tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Case report.Objective:To report an adult male patient with a primary extragonadal giant yolk sac tumor presenting with acute spinal cord compression.Setting:Faculty of Medicine, University of Dicle, Diyarbakir, Turkey.Method:A 31-year-old man was referred to our department with a diagnosis of Pott's disease, a complaint of back pain and gait difficulty for 2 weeks. Neurological examination showed spastic paraparesis and hypoesthesia

A Guzel; M Tatli; D Belen; H Seckin

2007-01-01

3

Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia  

PubMed Central

Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml) and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

2011-01-01

4

Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.

2012-01-01

5

A case of intraocular yolk sac tumor in a child and its pathogenesis.  

PubMed

While yolk sac tumor is one of the most common malignant germ cell tumors occurring in young children, it is rarely found in extragonadal sites. We report a case of intraocular yolk sac tumor in a 4-year-old boy. The diagnosis was confirmed by histologic examination and by the rapid normalization of serum alpha-fetoprotein level following enucleation. We propose that yolk sac cells can potentially migrate into the eye at 22 days of embryonic life during neural tube formation, when the head and tail of the neuropore open contemporaneously and communicate with the amniotic cavity. PMID:20006831

Fujino, Takahiro; Okamura, Akiko; Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Nakayama, Keiko; Inoue, Masami; Nakayama, Masahiro

2009-12-01

6

Oral extragonadal yolk sac tumor in a patient with Aicardi syndrome: putative origin and differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

We report, for the first time, a primary oral presentation of a germ cell yolk sac tumor in a 4-year-old girl with Aicardi syndrome. The diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and histogenesis are discussed. PMID:22225777

Burch-Smith, Rhonda; Ordonez, Nelson G; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Ater, Joann L; El Naggar, Adel K

2012-01-04

7

Mixed Germ Cell Tumor with Extensive Yolk Sac Tumor Elements in the Frontal Lobe of an Adult  

PubMed Central

Intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) in unusual locations are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a yolk sac tumor in the frontal lobe in a middle-aged patient. A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for headache and nausea. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an enhanced mass lesion with a marked cyst component. The serum alpha-fetoprotein (?FP) level was extremely high. Histological examination of specimens after subtotal removal revealed a primary mixed germ cell tumor with extensive yolk sac tumor elements, often referred to as an intracranial “yolk sac tumor.” The preoperative diagnosis of NGGCTs in unusual age and locations is extremely difficult. Clinicians should consider the possibility of NGGCTs, including yolk sac tumors, when intracranial tumors with unusual MRI findings are encountered.

Takahashi, Toshihide; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Masuda, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Taiki; Shibuya, Makoto; Matsumura, Akira

2012-01-01

8

Primary paratesticular yolk sac tumor: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Paratesticular germ cell tumors are extremely rare. A 12-month-old boy with yolk sac tumor involving only the paratesticular tissue is reported. Pre-operatively raised alpha fetoprotein levels fell to normal levels after high inguinal orchiectomy. This appears to be the youngest and only the 3rd case reported in the English literature.

Lyngdoh, Toijam Soni; Menon, Prema; Jain, Richa; Das, Ashim

2013-01-01

9

Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.  

PubMed

Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for ?-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor. PMID:23604259

Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

2013-04-19

10

Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor, Endometrioid-Like Yolk Sac Tumor, and Y-Chromosomal Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are rare neoplasms, accounting for less than 0.2% of ovarian tumors. The endometrioid-like variant of yolk sac tumor (YST) is very rare, and the most extensive series reported only 8 cases. We present a case of ovarian SLCT with endometrioid-like YST in a patient with a 46,XX karyotype with Y-chromosomal material. A 26-year-old woman had undergone

Ugo De Giorgi; Daniele Turci; Emilia Crisanti; Maria Grazia Cantù; Anna Cappellini; Maurizio Marangolo

2003-01-01

11

Left ovarian gonadoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young woman.  

PubMed

Gonodoblastomas with ovarian germ cell tumors other than dysgerminoma coexists very rarely with yolk sac tumor (YST). Because of this rarity, we report a case of gonadoblastoma with YST. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with an abdomino-pelvic mass. Ultrasonographical examinations revealed a 15X14 cm heterogenous pelvic mass with calcific foci in the left adnexal area. Macroscopically, the resected mass was oval and measured 18X15X15 cm and weighed 3150 gm. Histological examination showed both gonadoblastic and YST areas. There were many gonadoblastic nests in the subcapsular areas of the tumor. The gonadoblastic nests were composed of large and small cells. The YST areas showed enteric differentiation and numerous hyaline globules. Immunohistochemical examination may help in the diagnosis of these gonadoblastoma with YST. PMID:20551554

Gelincik, Ibrahim; Ozen, Suleyman; Bayram, Irfan

12

Potentially lethal damage repair and its inhibitory effect of caffeine in two yolk sac tumor cell lines with different radiosensitivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In order to investigate the role of potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) in cellular radiosensitivity, PLDR and its inhibitory effect by caffeine was examined. In addition, cell cycle distribution was also examined. Materials and methods: Two rat yolk sac tumor cell lines, NMT-1 and NMT-1R, with different radiosensitivities in vitro were used. The capacity for PLDR was examined using

Tetsuo Akimoto; Norio Mitsuhashi; Hiroko Matsumoto; Hideyuki Sakurai; Katsuya Maebayashi; Keiko Higuchi; Miwako Nozaki; Hideo Niibe

1999-01-01

13

Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare malignant tumor originating from germ cells. YST normally originates from the gonads, rarely occurring in extragonadal sites. We report a 35-year-old man with YST arising in the omentum, which is the first reported case of a primary YST of the omentum in an adult male. The patient presented to the community hospital with abdominal distension. A CT scan showed thickening of the omentum with ascites. The patient underwent open biopsy of the omental mass. The Pathology Department of the hospital could not make a definitive diagnosis at that time, and the tumor was considered a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin with features of primary colorectal cancer based on the immunohistochemistry (IHC) findings of the biopsy specimen (CK7–/CK20+ and CDX-2+). He was then referred to our hospital. We found that serum ?-fetoprotein was abnormally elevated to 7,144 ng/ml (normal <10.0), and reevaluation of the biopsy specimen revealed microcystic or reticular patterns of tumor cells with Schiller-Duval bodies typical of YST. The present case suggests that IHC is a very useful diagnostic tool for subtyping CUP but should be interpreted in the context of clinical and morphological findings.

Harano, Kenichi; Ando, Masashi; Sasajima, Yuko; Yunokawa, Mayu; Yonemori, Kan; Shimizu, Chikako; Tamura, Kenji; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

2012-01-01

14

Establishment and Characterization of an Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor Cell Line Reveals Possible Involvement of Nkx2.5 in Tumor Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is rare and highly malignant. Up to the present, there have been no cell lines of human ovarian YST constructed and, therefore, no studies on their cell function. The purpose of this study was to establish a human ovarian YST cell line to be able to identify a target for novel molecular-based therapy. Methods:

Kiyosumi Shibata; Hiroaki Kajiyama; Eiko Yamamoto; Mikio Terauchi; Kazuhiko Ino; Akihiro Nawa; Fumitaka Kikkawa

2008-01-01

15

The stage I yolk sac tumor of testis in children younger than 2 years, chemotherapy or not?  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumor is the most frequent germ cell tumor of testis in children. For stage I yolk sac tumor of testis in children younger than 2 years, high inguinal orchiectomy alone has been the standard treatment, with a cure rate of at least 75%. Here, we compare the treatment results of receiving chemotherapy or no chemotherapy after orchiectomy, to analyze the role of chemotherapy. From February 1987 to January 1997, 22 children younger than 2 years, with stage I yolk sac tumor of testis, were included in the study. All patients had high inguinal orchiectomy without retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. Initial diagnostic imaging studies included computed tomographic scan of abdomen, chest radiography, and long bone survey. Clinical stage I was defined as a tumor completely resected with no evidence of local regional lymph node involvement or distant metastases. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was assessed at diagnosis. After orchiectomy, diagnosis, and staging, patients were stratified into two treatment groups, with or without chemotherapy, according to the decision of the parents. Ten children received chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin (PVB, modified "Einhorn regimen") for 12 weeks. The remaining 12 patients were followed up according to a "wait and see" policy. Determination of AFP was performed monthly during the first postoperative year, every other month during the second year, every 3 months during the third year, every 6 months during the fourth year, and yearly until the fifth postoperative year at least. The duration of follow-up ranged from 3 months to 119 months (median, 53 months). The Kaplan-Meier plot estimated an overall survival rate of 91.6% at 7 years after diagnosis. Among the 12 patients without chemotherapy, 2 children had relapses at 4 and 6 months after diagnosis, respectively. One was cured with PVB chemotherapy. The other patient died with refractory lung metastasis, in spite of intensive multimodality salvage therapy. The Kaplan-Meier plot showed a survival rate of 80% at 7 years and a relapse-free survival rate of 81.8% at 5 years after diagnosis. All children receiving chemotherapy were alive and free from relapse. There was no significant treatment-related toxicity. Our results may suggest that PVB chemotherapy after orchiectomy is an affective and safe regimen for stage I yolk sac tumor of testis in children younger than 2 years. Instead of four courses of PVB as used here, two or three courses could be enough. To elucidate the necessity for chemotherapy and to determine the number of courses of PVB needed (if chemotherapy is given), a randomized study of more cases is warranted. PMID:9615319

Liu, H C; Liang, D C; Chen, S H; Liu, F L; Chang, P Y; Sheu, J C; Wang, N L

16

Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology unit for evaluation of bilateral breast budding, pubic hair and vaginal bleeding. On examination, we found that her breast enlargement and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner III. A thorough workup revealed a large mass in her right ovary. Magnetic resonance imaging ofher brain showed that her pituitary gland was normal. A hormonal assay revealed high levels of estradiol, 280 to 375pmol/L; progesterone, 5.3?nmol/L; testosterone 38.9?pg/mL; and androstenedione, 4.1?ng/mL. Her basal and stimulated levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were low. Tumor markers levels were high, with a total inhibin of 1,069U/L and an alpha-fetoprotein of 987??g/L. Her chromosomes were normal (46XX). Our patient underwent an explorative laparotomy and a solid tumor localized to her right ovary was identified. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumorwith a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she was started on treatment with chemotherapy. Our patient is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis during eight months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion Although a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass and precocious puberty.

2012-01-01

17

Endometrial carcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation and elevated serum ?-hCG: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Endometrial carcinoma with a germ cell tumor component is a rare event. Here we report a uterine neoplasm with a unique combination of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and mixed germ cell malignant elements. A 28-year-old woman with abnormal vaginal bleeding, an abdominal mass, and elevated alfa-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) levels had a history of biopsy of an omental mass and chemotherapy in another hospital one month before her referral to our department. Histologic examination of the mass removed from the omentum revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy, and removal of metastatic disease were then undertaken at our hospital. Postoperative chemotherapy was given. Eight months postoperatively, serum alfa-fetoprotein and ?-hCG rose again. Cases with primary yolk sac tumors of the endometrium or endometrial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation in the literature were reviewed.

Ji, Mingliang; Lu, Yan; Guo, Lina; Feng, Fengzhi; Wan, Xirun; Xiang, Yang

2013-01-01

18

Hematopoiesis in the yolk sac: more than meets the eye.  

PubMed

The first blood cells observed in the embryo are large nucleated erythroblasts generated in blood islands of the extraembryonic yolk sac. These unique red cells have been termed primitive because of their resemblance to nucleated erythroblasts of nonmammalian species. It is now widely assumed that hematopoiesis in the yolk sac is "primitive" and that "definitive" hematopoiesis has its origins in the aorta/gonad/mesonephros (AGM) region. Recent studies of yolk sac hematopoiesis have challenged several aspects of this paradigm. First, primitive erythropoiesis in mammals shares many features with definitive erythropoiesis, including progressive erythroblast maturation leading to the circulation of enucleated erythrocytes. Second, the emergence of primitive erythroid progenitors in the yolk sac prior to somitogenesis may be associated with the macrophage and megakaryocyte lineages, raising the possibility that "primitive" hematopoiesis may be multilineage in nature. Third, a second wave of hematopoietic progenitors emerge from the yolk sac during early somitogenesis that consists of multiple myeloid lineages that are temporally and spatially associated with definitive erythroid progenitors. These "definitive" hematopoietic progenitors expand in numbers in the yolk sac and are thought to seed the fetal liver and generate the first definitive blood cells that rapidly emerge from the liver. Recent findings support a model of hematopoietic ontogeny in which the conceptus' first maturing blood cells and committed progenitors are provided by the yolk sac, allowing survival until AGM-derived hematopoietic stem cells can emerge, seed the liver and differentiate into mature blood cells. PMID:16140150

McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

2005-09-01

19

Acute abdomen secondary to rare yolk sac tumour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 36-year-old woman presented unwell, with abdominal pain. A pelvic mass was found and being investigated but when she deteriorated\\u000a and became peritonitic. An emergency laparotomy was performed and she required a pelvic clearance for a Stage IIB ovarian\\u000a tumour, later confirmed as a yolk sac tumour. Accurate staging and tumour-reductive surgery strongly affects the prognosis\\u000a of yolk sac tumours.

Hooman Soleymani Majd; Sally Ann Turner; Kiyoshi Choji; Khin Lwin; Christopher B-Lynch

2009-01-01

20

Lacrimal sac tumors.  

PubMed

This is a clinicopathologic study of 115 lacrimal sac neoplasms in adults (mean 52 years). The most common presenting signs and symptoms were epiphora (53%), recurrent dacryocystitis (38%), and/or lacrimal sac mass (36%). The tumors were divided into epithelial (82 cases) and nonepithelial (33 cases) neoplasms. Benign epithelial tumors included squamous and transitional cell papillomas (32), oncocytomas (4), and benign mixed tumors (2). The malignant epithelial neoplasms included squamous cell carcinoma (22), transitional cell carcinoma (5), adenocarcinoma (4), mucoepidermoid (3), adenoid cystic (3), and poorly differentiated carcinoma (1). The nonepithelial tumors consisted of fibrous histiocytoma (13), lymphoid lesions (10), malignant melanoma (6), hemangiopericytoma (1), lipoma (1), granulocytic sarcoma (1), and neurofibroma (1). Review of the literature, including our own series, discloses a 55% malignancy rate for tumors originating in the lacrimal sac. Malignant epithelial neoplasms, especially invasive transitional cell carcinoma, often recur locally and can metastasize and be fatal. Epithelial malignancies tend to grow along the epithelium of the lacrimal drainage system, and thus cure is dependent on a wide surgical excision of the tumor and of the entire lacrimal drainage system (canaliculi, sac, and nasolacrimal duct) combined with a lateral rhinostomy and radiation therapy. PMID:7947444

Stefanyszyn, M A; Hidayat, A A; Pe'er, J J; Flanagan, J C

1994-09-01

21

Yolk sac tumour involving floor of mouth: case report.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumour is a rare malignant tumour of germ cell origin that usually arises from the gonads. It is extremely rare in the head and neck. We present a case of a yolk sac tumour that involved the floor of the mouth in a 14-month-old Chinese girl. The diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination that showed characteristic Schiller-Duval bodies, and immunohistochemical examination that showed ?-fetoprotein being expressed within the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. The patient died 4 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a yolk sac tumour of the floor of mouth that has been reported in an English journal. PMID:22560784

Zhang, Q; Huang, Y; Bao, C Y; Li, L J

2012-05-03

22

Yolk sac-derived primitive erythroblasts enucleate during mammalian embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enucleated definitive erythrocytes of mammals are unique in the animal king- dom. The observation that yolk sac- derived primitive erythroid cells in mam- mals circulate as nucleated cells has led to the conjecture that they are related to the red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds that remain nucleated throughout their life span. In mice, primitive red cells express

Paul D. Kingsley; Jeffrey Malik; Katherine A. Fantauzzo; James Palis

2004-01-01

23

Characterization of yolk sac proteins of Bos indicus cattle embryos.  

PubMed

The yolk sac is an embryonic membrane that is essential for the embryo's initial survival in many mammals. It also plays an important role in the production of proteins necessary for development. We studied proteins of the yolk sac in bovine embryos at up to 40 days of gestation. We examined the yolk sac of 17 bovine embryos at different gestational periods, measuring ?-fetoprotein, ?-1-antitrypsin, and transferrin. This experiment was carried out by Western blot technique, associated with electrophoresis on a 6% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel. Mouse monoclonal antibody anti-human-?-fetoprotein, mouse antibody anti-human-transferrin and rabbit polyclonal anti-human-?-1-antitrypsin were used as primary antibodies, and conjugated peroxidase as a secondary antibody. We detected the three proteins in some of the yolk sac samples; however, the bands in some specimens (samples) were weak, maybe a result of poor antigen-antibody reaction, since the antibodies used in this study were not specific to bovine proteins. The fact that weak bands appeared might be due to a weak cross-reaction. PMID:23212331

Matsumoto, F S; Oliveira, V C; Mançanares, C A F; Ambrosio, C E; Miglino, M A

2012-11-14

24

Development of yolk sac inversion in Galea spixii and Cavia porcellus (Rodentia, Caviidae).  

PubMed

Caviomorph development includes an inverted yolk sac. Since principle processes are not understood, we investigated its differentiation in Galea and re-examined material from the guinea pig. Galea showed the typical caviomorph conditions in blastocyst development and the nature of the definitive yolk sac, formed of the visceral layer that became villous, proliferative, vascularized and attached to the uterus and placenta. In contrast to what was known before, in both species parts of the parietal yolk sac and a yolk sac cavity were temporarily present. Data suggest that early yolk sac development in caviomorphs is more complex than thought before. PMID:22809674

de Oliveira, M F; do Vale, A M; Favaron, P O; Vasconcelos, B G; de Oliveira, G B; Miglino, M A; Mess, A

2012-07-17

25

BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF YOLK SAC INFECTION IN BROILER CHICKS IN SULAIMANI DISTRICT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 140 diseased or dead broiler chicks obtained from three different sources in Sulaimani city were necropsied; yolk sac samples from these chicks were cultured and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to 8 systemic antimicrobial agents. Unabsorbed yolk sac was observed in 112 chicks associated with signs of septicemia in many cases. These unabsorbed yolk

SUHA A. HUSSEINA; ALI H. HASSANB; RIZGAR R. SULAIMANC

26

INCIDENCE AND MICROBIOLOGY OF UNABSORBED YOLK SACS (ATTACHED OR FREE FLOATING) IN COMMERICAL BROILERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the developing avian embryo, the main energy source is yolk. Towards the end of the incubation period, the remaining yolk sac is internalized into the abdominal cavity. At hatch, yolk comprises 20% of the chick’s body weight and provides the nutrients for growth. The yolk should be depleted an...

27

Identification and Characterization of Hematopoietic Stem Cells from the Yolk Sac of the Early Mouse Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yolk sac is the first site of hematopoiesis in the mammalian embryo. However, little is known about the initial stem cells in the yolk sac. We have isolated hematopoietic stem cells from early mouse embryonic yolk sac by using a sequential protocol of nonadherence to plastic, density gradient centrifugation, immunocytoadherence, and cell sorting. Isolated, nonadherent, density <1.077-g\\/cm^3, surface antigen

Hua Huang; Robert Auerbach

1993-01-01

28

Parallel Doppler assessment of yolk sac and intervillous circulation in normal pregnancy and missed abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed yolk sac morphology and vascularity and intervillous blood flow in normal early pregnancy and missed abortion. Transvaginal colour and pulsed Doppler were used in a prospective analysis of 87 normal pregnancies and 48 missed abortions between 6 and 12 weeks gestation. The Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used to calculate the difference in yolk sac diameter and vascularity

A. Kurjak; S. Kupesic

1998-01-01

29

IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

30

Retained Caseous Yolk Sac in a Burmese Python (Python molurus bivittatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retained yolk sacs are common in the domestic chicken and account for consid- erable morbidity and mortality during late em- bryonic development and within the first 10 days of life. What is believed to be the first recorded instance of a retained caseous yolk sac and its successful surgical removal from a Bur- mese python (Python molurus Invittatus) is re-

M. S. Bodri; M. J. Hendrick; R. T. O'Brien; K. K. Sadanaga

31

Endolymphatic sac tumor and otalgia  

PubMed Central

Otalgia is a common complaint seen by general practitioners, but its etiology is vast. Rarely, otalgia could be secondary to a neoplasm. We describe a case of otalgia and ear discharge in which the imaging revealed a rare neoplasm, an endolymphatic sac tumor, which contributed to the patient's symptoms. The primary diagnosis was made via characteristic imaging features that were later confirmed by histology.

Kershen, Michael L.; Skaggs, Lauren; Bhatki, Amol; Gilbert, Steven C.; Gomez, Conan E.; Opatowsky, Michael J.

2013-01-01

32

An unusual feature of yolk sac placentation in Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae).  

PubMed

We studied the development of the inverted yolk sac in a New World rodent, Necromys lasiurus during early placentation. Ten implantation sites were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The yolk sac was villous near its attachment to the placenta. Elsewhere it was non-villous and closely attached to the uterus. The uterine glands were shallow and wide mouthed. They were associated with vessels and filled with secretion, suggesting the release of histotroph. This feature was absent at later stages. The intimate association of the yolk sac with specialized glandular regions of the uterus may represent a derived character condition of Necromys and/or sigmodont rodents. PMID:22541609

Favaron, P O; Carter, A M; Mess, A M; de Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A

2012-04-26

33

Endolymphatic sac tumor and otalgia.  

PubMed

Otalgia is a common complaint seen by general practitioners, but its etiology is vast. Rarely, otalgia could be secondary to a neoplasm. We describe a case of otalgia and ear discharge in which the imaging revealed a rare neoplasm, an endolymphatic sac tumor, which contributed to the patient's symptoms. The primary diagnosis was made via characteristic imaging features that were later confirmed by histology. PMID:23543975

Zarghouni, Mehrzad; Kershen, Michael L; Skaggs, Lauren; Bhatki, Amol; Gilbert, Steven C; Gomez, Conan E; Opatowsky, Michael J

2013-04-01

34

Terminal differentiation of yolk-sac erythroid cells of the Syrian hamster in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental fate of Syrian hamster yolk-sac (primitive) erythroid cells was examined in vitro. Highly purified yolk-sac erythroid cells at the polychromatophilic stage, obtained from the peripheral blood of embryos at day 10 of gestation, showed morphological and biochemical changes in our modified semi-solid culture system. Several morphological changes observed in the primitive erythroid cell cultures, such as nuclear condensation,

Kiyokazu Morioka; Reiko Minamikawa-Tachino

1991-01-01

35

Retained caseous yolk sac in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus).  

PubMed

Retained yolk sacs are common in the domestic chicken and account for considerable morbidity and mortality during late embryonic development and within the first 10 days of life. What is believed to be the first recorded instance of a retained caseous yolk sac and its successful surgical removal from a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) is reported. The snake experienced no post-operative complications and continues to be well 16 mo following surgery. PMID:2250338

Bodri, M S; Hendrick, M J; O'Brien, R T; Sadanaga, K K

1990-10-01

36

Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels.  

PubMed

In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP(+) blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP(+) fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

Sperandio, Markus; Quackenbush, Elizabeth J; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David; von Andrian, Ulrich H

2013-03-22

37

Yolk sac-derived primitive erythroblasts enucleate during mammalian embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The enucleated definitive erythrocytes of mammals are unique in the animal kingdom. The observation that yolk sac-derived primitive erythroid cells in mammals circulate as nucleated cells has led to the conjecture that they are related to the red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds that remain nucleated throughout their life span. In mice, primitive red cells express both embryonic and adult hemoglobins, whereas definitive erythroblasts accumulate only adult hemoglobins. We investigated the terminal differentiation of murine primitive red cells with use of antibodies raised to embryonic beta H1-globin. Primitive erythroblasts progressively enucleate between embryonic days 12.5 and 16.5, generating mature primitive erythrocytes that are similar in size to their nucleated counterparts. These enucleated primitive erythrocytes circulate as late as 5 days after birth. The enucleation of primitive red cells in the mouse embryo has not previously been well recognized because it coincides with the emergence of exponentially expanding numbers of definitive erythrocytes from the fetal liver. Our studies establish a new paradigm in the understanding of primitive erythropoiesis and support the concept that primitive erythropoiesis in mice shares many similarities with definitive erythropoiesis of mammals. PMID:15031208

Kingsley, Paul D; Malik, Jeffrey; Fantauzzo, Katherine A; Palis, James

2004-03-18

38

IgG is transported across the mouse yolk sac independently of Fc?RIIb  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that FcRn is the major IgG transporter in human syncytiotrophoblast and the mouse yolk sac endoderm, however the finding of a different Fc receptor Fc?RIIb (RIIb) in the human placental endothelium has suggested the existence of an additional IgG transporter. To test this hypothesis in the mouse, we utilized wild-type (RIIb+/+) mice and mice with a null mutation in the gene encoding RIIb (RIIb?/? mice). We found that while RIIb is expressed in the placental yolk sac vasculature of RIIb+/+ mice, the IgG concentrations in fetuses of RIIb+/+ mice and RIIb?/?mice are not different. This result refutes the hypothesis that yolk sac RIIb is required for transport of IgG in utero in the mouse. However, the capillary bed in the mouse yolk sac is structurally more complex than in human placenta, consisting of 3 types of cells: an RIIb-negative endothelium, a unique RIIb-bearing cell that also expresses two out of four macrophage markers but not endothelial cell or pericyte markers, and pericytes. As in the human placenta the b2 isoform of RIIb predominates in the mouse yolk sac. Remarkably only a single capillary channel rather than two channels with a loop is found in each yolk sac villus, which along with intracapillary erythrocytes, suggests that blood flow is peristaltic and mediated by pericytes. It is not clear whether RIIb in the human placental villus might contribute to IgG transport function in light of our finding that the mouse yolk sac equivalent is unnecessary in this role.

Mohanty, Sudhasri; Kim, Jonghan; Ganesan, Latha P.; Phillips, Gary S.; Hua, Keding; Jarjoura, David; Hayton, William L.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.

2011-01-01

39

Intraembryonic, but not yolk sac hematopoietic precursors, isolated before circulation, provide long-term multilineage reconstitution.  

PubMed

The relative contribution of yolk sac and intraembryonic precursors to hematopoiesis has been a matter of long-standing controversy. As reconstitution activity has so far only been found in embryonic tissues after the onset of circulation, the origin of reconstituting cells could not be formally established. Here, we separated yolk sac and intraembryonic splanchnopleura prior to circulation and maintained the explants in organ culture before transfer. Precursors derived from the intraembryonic site generated multilineage hematopoietic progeny in adult mice for more than 6 months. Yolk sac cells only provided myeloid short-term reconstitution. The results reveal a differential hematopoietic capacity of precirculation embryonic tissues in vivo, and indicate that the only cells capable of adult long-term hematopoiesis are of intraembryonic origin. PMID:11567637

Cumano, A; Ferraz, J C; Klaine, M; Di Santo, J P; Godin, I

2001-09-01

40

Targeting of both mouse neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 genes severely impairs developmental yolk sac and embryonic angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Neuropilins (NP1 and NP2) are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors that mediate developmental and tumor angiogenesis. Transgenic mice, in which both NP1 and NP2 were targeted (NP1?/?NP2?/?) died in utero at E8.5. Their yolk sacs were totally avascular. Mice deficient for NP2 but heterozygous for NP1 (NP1+/?NP2?/?) or deficient for NP1 but heterozygous for NP2 (NP1?/?NP2+/?) were also embryonic lethal and survived to E10–E10.5. The E10 yolk sacs and embryos were easier to analyze for vascular phenotype than the fragile poorly formed 8.5 embryos. The vascular phenotypes of these E10 mice were very abnormal. The yolk sacs, although of normal size, lacked the larger collecting vessels and had less dense capillary networks. PECAM staining of yolk sac endothelial cells showed the absence of branching arteries and veins, the absence of a capillary bed, and the presence of large avascular spaces between the blood vessels. The embryos displayed blood vessels heterogeneous in size, large avascular regions in the head and trunk, and blood vessel sprouts that were unconnected. The embryos were about 50% the length of wild-type mice and had multiple hemorrhages. These double NP1/NP2 knockout mice had a more severe abnormal vascular phenotype than either NP1 or NP2 single knockouts. Their abnormal vascular phenotype resembled those of VEGF and VEGFR-2 knockouts. These results suggest that NRPs are early genes in embryonic vessel development and that both NP1 and NP2 are required.

Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Asakura, Masanori; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Sanada, Shoji; Tashiro, Fumi; Niwa, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Hirota, Seiichi; Kitamura, Yukihiko; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Fujisawa, Hajime; Klagsbrun, Michael; Hori, Masatsugu

2002-01-01

41

Chloride turnover and ion-transporting activities of yolk-sac preparations (yolk balls) separated from Mozambique tilapia embryos and incubated in freshwater and seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently established a unique in vitro experimental model for mitochondrion-rich cell (MRC) research, a 'yolk-ball' incubation system, in which the yolk sac is separated from the embryonic body of Mozambique tilapia embryos and subjected to in vitro incubation. To evaluate the ion-transporting property of the yolk balls, we examined Cl - content and turnover in yolk balls incubated

Junya Hiroi; Hiroaki Miyazaki; Fumi Katoh; Ritsuko Ohtani-Kaneko; Toyoji Kaneko

2005-01-01

42

INCIDENCE AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF UNABSORBED YOLK SACS IN COMMERCIAL BROILERS PROCESSED AT SIX WEEKS OF AGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unabsorbed yolk sacs are being investigated as a possible vehicle for vertical transmission of Campylobacter and salmonellae from broiler breeder hens to broilers. However, it is unknown at what frequency unabsorbed yolk sacs exist in present day commercial broilers at the time of processing. Two ...

43

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma with yolk sac elements: a neoplasm of somatic or germ cell origin?  

PubMed

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma is an uncommon, aggressive, morphologically heterogenous tumor composed of cells derived from the 3 somatic layers. A histogenetic origin from a multipotential adult somatic stem cell with divergent differentiation has been favored over a germ cell origin. This assumption has been based on the lack of germ cell elements and, until recently, the absence of demonstrable amplification of 12p. We report a case that exhibited foci of yolk sac elements with papillary structures and intracytoplasmic periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant, ?-fetoprotein-positive, hyaline globules. An expanded area of undifferentiated cells, likely precursor cells, in the basal layer of the overlying mucosal epithelium transitions into and merges with the immature epithelial, neuroepithelial, and mesenchymal components. These previously unreported histomorphological features support the hypothesis that this tumor is a teratomatous tumor arising from pluripotent embryonic stem cells in the basal layer of the sinonasal epithelium. That notion is further supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization cytogenetic analysis, which showed a distinct subpopulation of the tumor cells with an extra copy of chromosome 12p13. PMID:20952296

Thomas, Jaiyeola; Adegboyega, Patrick; Iloabachie, Kenny; Mooring, John Wesley; Lian, Timothy

2010-04-24

44

Absence of yolk sac hematopoiesis from mice with a targeted disruption of the scl gene.  

PubMed Central

The scl gene encodes a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor which was identified through its involvement in chromosomal translocations in T-cell leukemia. To elucidate its physiological role, scl was targeted in embryonic stem cells. Mice heterozygous for the scl null mutation were intercrossed and their offspring were genotyped. Homozygous mutant (scl-/-) pups were not detected in newborn litters, and analysis at earlier time points demonstrated that scl-/- embryos were dying around embryonic day 9.5. The scl-/- embryos were pale, edematous, and markedly growth retarded after embryonic day 8.75. Histological studies showed complete absence of recognizable hematopoiesis in the yolk sac of these embryos. Early organogenesis appeared to be otherwise normal. Culture of yolk sac cells of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous littermates confirmed the absence of hematopoietic cells in scl-/- yolk sacs. Reverse transcription PCR was used to examine the transcripts of several genes implicated in early hematopoiesis. Transcripts of GATA-1 and PU.1 transcription factors were absent from RNA from scl-/- yolk sacs and embryos. These results implicate scl as a crucial regulator of early hematopoiesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Robb, L; Lyons, I; Li, R; Hartley, L; Kontgen, F; Harvey, R P; Metcalf, D; Begley, C G

1995-01-01

45

Food Habit Study of Striped Bass Post Yolk-Sac Larvae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Striped bass post yolk-sac larvae and zooplankton were sampled simultaneously during May, 1977 at three locations near the mouth of the Sassafras River in Upper Chesapeake Bay. Diel variations in post-larval stomach content volume during five 24-hour stud...

P. E. Miller

1978-01-01

46

Nonepithelial tumors of the lacrimal sac.  

PubMed

Lacrimal sac tumors are rare and mostly of epithelial origin. We conducted a clinicopathologic study of 35 cases of nonepithelial tumors of the lacrimal sac. These tumors included 13 fibrous histiocytomas, one hemangiopericytoma, one lipoma, ten lymphoid lesions, eight malignant melanomas, one granulocytic sarcoma, and one neurofibroma. Except for one 9-year-old child with fibrous histiocytoma, all neoplasms involved adults (age range, 27 to 90 years). The most common initial signs and symptoms were epiphora, chronic inflammation, or lacrimal mass. A bloody nasal discharge and bleeding from the punctum occurred in a patient with malignant melanoma. In none of the patients was the clinical diagnosis of a lacrimal sac tumor made preoperatively. Some of the nonepithelial neoplasms of the lacrimal sac can be life-threatening; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important. PMID:7977578

Pe'er, J J; Stefanyszyn, M; Hidayat, A A

1994-11-15

47

In vitro differentiation of B cells and myeloid cells from the early mouse embryo and its extraembryonic yolk sac.  

PubMed

The yolk sac is the first site of hematopoiesis during ontogeny. However, the source of early embryonic hematopoietic stem cells remains unresolved. Early studies have shown that cells obtained from day-8 and -9 extraembryonic yolk sacs can give rise to T cells and myeloid cells, whereas the embryo itself appears to lack such cells. Controversy remains as to whether it is the embryo itself or the extraembryonic yolk sac that contains the initial precursors capable of differentiating into B cells. This study used the approach of enriching hematopoietic stem cells by immunocytoadherence and studying cells isolated from within the embryo itself or from the yolk sac obtained at days 8 and 9 of mouse embryonic development. We report that on day 9, both yolk sac-derived and embryo-derived cells can give rise to B cells and myeloid cells in vitro. On day 8, however, cells isolated from the yolk sac but not from the embryo produce myeloid colonies in vitro; neither source of stem cells generates B cells. Our study suggests that myeloid precursors migrate from yolk sac to embryo earlier than has previously been reported but that the origin for B cell precursors remains to be determined. PMID:8282055

Huang, H; Zettergren, L D; Auerbach, R

1994-01-01

48

Visceral Endoderm Expression of Yin-Yang1 (YY1) Is Required for VEGFA Maintenance and Yolk Sac Development  

PubMed Central

Mouse embryos lacking the polycomb group gene member Yin-Yang1 (YY1) die during the peri-implantation stage. To assess the post-gastrulation role of YY1, a conditional knock-out (cKO) strategy was used to delete YY1 from the visceral endoderm of the yolk sac and the definitive endoderm of the embryo. cKO embryos display profound yolk sac defects at 9.5 days post coitum (dpc), including disrupted angiogenesis in mesoderm derivatives and altered epithelial characteristics in the visceral endoderm. Significant changes in both cell death and proliferation were confined to the YY1-expressing yolk sac mesoderm indicating that loss of YY1 in the visceral endoderm causes defects in the adjacent yolk sac mesoderm. Production of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) by the visceral endoderm is essential for normal growth and development of the yolk sac vasculature. Reduced levels of VEGFA are observed in the cKO yolk sac, suggesting a cause for the angiogenesis defects. Ex vivo culture with exogenous VEGF not only rescued angiogenesis and apoptosis in the cKO yolk sac mesoderm, but also restored the epithelial defects observed in the cKO visceral endoderm. Intriguingly, blocking the activity of the mesoderm-localized VEGF receptor, FLK1, recapitulates both the mesoderm and visceral endoderm defects observed in the cKO yolk sac. Taken together, these results demonstrate that YY1 is responsible for maintaining VEGF in the developing visceral endoderm and that a VEGF-responsive paracrine signal, originating in the yolk sac mesoderm, is required to promote normal visceral endoderm development.

Rhee, Siyeon; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Wallingford, Mary C.; Ortiz-Pineda, Pablo; Mager, Jesse; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

2013-01-01

49

Transport across endodermal cells of the chick yolk sac during early stages of development.  

PubMed

The endoderm of the chick yolk sac mediates the transfer of materials from the yolk mass to the embryonic circulation. There is little evidence of endocytotic activity in the area pellucida, but the endodermal cells of the area vasculosa possess many microvilli and bristle-coated pits and vesicles, as well as a canalicular system and vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm. Three tracers, horseradish peroxidase, ferritin, and latex spheres, were injected beneath the endoderm of both cultured embryos and embryos in ovo to study the pathway of uptake of extracellular materials. All tracers were sequestered in bristle-coated pits (200-500 nm in diameter) of the endodermal cells of the area vasculosa, but not those in the area pellucida. Both horseradish peroxidase and latex spheres (and probably ferritin) were incorporated into pleomorphic intracellular yolk drops through bristle-coated pits and vesicles, and then into apical vacuoles, which fuse with the intracellular yolk drops. Horseradish peroxidase and ferritin were also found within apical canaliculi. The apical junctions between endodermal cells prevented the intercellular passage of the tracers. A "topping-up" hypothesis is opposed whereby endodermal cells of the area vasculosa continually sequester extracellular yolk material, which is incorporated into a digesting intracellular yolk drop while, at the same time, digested yolk products are being transported across the vascular pole of the endoderm to the extraembryonic circulation and thence to the embryo. PMID:7223677

Mobbs, I G; McMillan, D B

1981-03-01

50

Separation of Viable 'Rickettsia typhi' from Yolk Sac and L Cell Host Components by Renografin Density Gradient Centrifugation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rickettsia typhi cultivated in the yolk sac of chicken embryos or in L cells irradiated 7 days previously was separated from host cell components by two cycles of Renografin density gradient centrifugation. Preliminary steps involved differential centrifu...

E. Weiss J. C. Coolbaugh J. C. Williams

1975-01-01

51

Copper Sulfate Toxicity to Channel Catfish Fry: Yolk Sac versus Swim-Up Fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yolk sac and swim-up fry from five separate spawns of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were exposed to dissolved copper sulfate (CuSO4) in a series of static toxicity bioassays to observe age sensitivity at 24 and 48 h in waters with two different chemistries at a temperature of 23.1 ± 0.47°C (mean ± SD). The two waters were (1) well water

David L. Straus

2008-01-01

52

Proteolytic enzymes in yolk-sac membrane of quail egg. Purification and enzymatic characterisation.  

PubMed

Degradation of yolk protein is essential for the early development of the avian embryo. In Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), proteolysis in the surrounding tissue of the yolk, the yolk-sac membrane, can be inhibited by class-specific inhibitors of cysteine proteinases as well as of aspartic proteinases. Purification of the enzymes leads to one cysteine proteinase and one aspartic proteinase with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kD and 44 kD, respectively. Both enzymes were purified in a two-chain form, although a single-chain form is also present in the homogenate of yolk-sac membrane. The cysteine proteinase was identified by NH2-terminal sequence analysis as well as by kinetic studies as a new cathepsin B from quail. Like mammalian cathepsin B, this avian cathepsin B exhibits two different kinds of proteolytic activity, an endopeptidase activity and a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase activity. Chicken egg white cystatin, a protein-aceous cysteine proteinase inhibitor, inhibits quail cathepsin B with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.3 nM. Likewise the aspartic proteinase was identified as a new cathepsin D from quail. This avian cathepsin D has a different processing site to all known mammalian cathepsins D. In quail cathepsin D one NH2-termini is homologous to amino acids 211-230 in mammalian cathepsin D. This is more than 100 amino acids downstream of the mammalian processing site. Comparison of the enzymatic properties of quail and bovine cathepsin D indicate that the different processing site has no influence on the enzymatic properties. PMID:9418005

Gerhartz, B; Auerswald, E A; Mentele, R; Fritz, H; Machleidt, W; Kolb, H J; Wittmann, J

1997-09-01

53

Yolk Sac Tumour of the Cryptorchid Testis, with an Unusual Presentation -- Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology  

PubMed Central

Yolk sac tumour is the most common germ cell tumour in infants and children, with a majority of them arising in the gonads. Rare cases of extra – gonadal germ cell tumours have been described in the literature. We are presenting here, a case of a yolk sac tumour of the cryptorchid testis in a 2 year old child, who initially presented with a mass in the left lobe of the liver, with huge ascites and which posed diagnostic difficulties. The mass was diagnosed as hepatoblastoma on Computed Tomography (CT). Subsequently, CT guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of the liver mass showed the features of a yolk sac tumour. The raised serum Alfa Foetoprotein (AFP) levels corroborated with the cytological diagnosis.

Barman, Dilip Chandra; Halder, Aniket; Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Mandal, Krishnendu; Mallick, Sanjay Kumar

2013-01-01

54

Expression and immunolocalisation of the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin in the human yolk sac and placenta across gestation.  

PubMed

Megalin and cubilin are multifunctional endocytic receptors associated with many transporting epithelia. They play an essential role in transport of nutrients through the visceral yolk sac of rodents during embryogenesis. Here, we immunolocalise them to the endodermal layer of the human yolk sac, and to the syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells of placental villi. In villi, the protein level of both receptors increased with gestation. The mRNA for megalin remained constant, while that encoding cubilin increased with gestation. These results suggest megalin and cubilin may be important in human maternal-fetal transfer, and that they increase across gestation to facilitate this function. PMID:23978537

Burke, K A; Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J; Cindrova-Davies, T

2013-08-23

55

Study on membrane recycling in the rat visceral yolk-sac endoderm using concanavalin-A conjugates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The internalization and intracellular movements of apical-cell-membrane material were investigated in the endodermal cells\\u000a of cultured visceral yolk-sacs of rats (whole-embryo culture; explanted at 10.5 days of gestation and cultured for 24h) using\\u000a horseradish peroxidase- and ferritin-labelled concanavalin A (Con-A HRP, Con-A Fer). When visceral yolk-sac endoderm was exposed\\u000a to Con-A HRP or Con-A Fer for 5 min at 4°C,

P. Kugler; A. Miki

1985-01-01

56

Biochemical changes during development of eggs and yolk-sac larvae of herring and plaice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in quantities of water, sodium, potassium, lipid and protein were compared in developing eggs and yolk-sac larvae of herring Clupes harengus L., a species with demersal eggs, and plaice Pleuronectes platessa L., a species with pelagic eggs. The principal difference between the two species was the occurrence in herring, but not in plaice of considerable increases in water content and in one or both of the above ions at three distinct stages: at fertilization, during the middle stage of egg development, and in the days immediately after hatching. Newly hatched larvae of the two species differed greatly in water content because of the difference in mass and water content of the yolk, not in the water content of the rest of the body. In herring, there were increases in sodium and potassium which coincided broadly with the increase in water content. These differences are related to the gradual acquisition of buoyancy by herring during this period, comparable with the buoyancy conferred on plaice eggs at spawning by the already hydrated, yolk. Lipid and protein, which contribute little to buoyancy, decreased steadily throughout egg and larval development in both species.

Yin, Mingchen; Craik, J. C. A.

1992-12-01

57

Apolipoprotein B-related gene expression and ultrastructural characteristics of lipoprotein secretion in mouse yolk sac during embryonic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice, the yolk sac appears to play a crucial role in nourishing the developing embryo, especially during embryonic days (E) 7-10. Lipoprotein synthesis and secre- tion may be essential for this function: embryos lacking apolipoprotein (apo) B or microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), both of which participate in the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, are apparently defective in their ability

Yuko Terasawa; Sylvaine J. Cases; Jinny S. Wong; Haris Jamil; Sumana Jothi; Maret G. Traber; Lester Packer; David A. Gordon; Robert L. Hamilton; Robert V. Farese

58

Location and identification of the collagen found in the 14.5-d rat embryo visceral yolk sac  

PubMed Central

The collagens associated with 14.5-d rat visceral yolk sacs were localized and identified by a variety of procedures. Morphological examination showed that both the visceral epithelium and mesothelium rested upon thin basement membranes, whereas the majority of the extracellular matrix consisted of a stroma containing occasional cells and abundant banded fibrils. Immunohistochemistry at the electron microscope level showed that the basement membranes specifically cross- reacted with antibodies directed against mouse basement membrane components, whereas the stroma specifically cross-reacted with antibodies directed against rat type I collagen. Extractions of acellular visceral yolk sacs and subsequent analyses showed that type I collagen components were prevalent. Furthermore, in vitro biosynthetic studies showed only the presence of type I procollagen components (or their conversion products) and alpha-fetoprotein. These findings, taken together with our previous studies on the 14.5-d rat parietal yolk sac, provide us with protein markers for studying the origin of cells in rat parietovisceral yolk sac carcinomas.

1982-01-01

59

Effects of serum concentration on some growth characteristics of cultured murine parietal yolk sac carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Murine parietal yolk sac carcinoma cells were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to determine the ultrastructural changes resulting from growth, in vitro, in media containing different serum concentrations. Cells grown in medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) formed spherical bodies, were gradually oval with numerous surface microvilli, well-organized microtubules, abundant free polysomes and a well-developed Golgi apparatus. By contrast, cells grown in 1% FBS failed to form multicellular spheres, were generally flattened over the growth surface and lacked the surface and intracellular features demonstrated when cells were grown in 10% serum. These differences could explain the alterations in the glycosylation of secreted glycoprotein associated with culture in the presence of low serum. PMID:7147224

Johnson, L D; Bergin, M E; Borg, T K

1982-01-01

60

Kr?ppel-like Factor 2 Regulated Gene Expression in Mouse Embryonic Yolk Sac Erythroid Cells  

PubMed Central

KLF2 is a Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor required for blood vessel, lung, T-cell and erythroid development. KLF2-/- mice die by embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), due to hemorrhaging and heart failure. In KLF2-/- embryos, ?-like globin gene expression is reduced, and E10.5 erythroid cells exhibit abnormal morphology. In this study, other genes regulated by KLF2 were identified by comparing E9.5 KLF2-/- and wild-type (WT) yolk sac erythroid precursor cells, using laser capture microdissection and microarray assays. One hundred and ninety-six genes exhibited significant differences in expression between KLF2-/- and WT; eighty-nine of these are downregulated in KLF2-/-. Genes involved in cell migration, differentiation and development are over-represented in the KLF2-regulated gene list. The SOX2 gene, encoding a pluripotency factor, is regulated by KLF2 in both ES and embryonic erythroid cells. Previous work had identified genes with erythroid-enriched expression in the yolk sac. The erythroid-enriched genes reelin, adenylate cyclase 7, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 2 alpha, and CD24a antigen are downregulated in KLF2-/- compared to WT, and are therefore candidates for controlling primitive erythropoiesis. Each of these genes contains a putative KLF2 binding site(s) in its promoter and/or an intron. Reelin has an established role in neuronal development. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that KLF2 directly transactivates the reelin promoter in erythroid cells, validating this approach to identify KLF2 target genes.

Redmond, Latasha C.; Dumur, Catherine I.; Archer, Kellie J.; Grayson, Dennis R.; Haar, Jack L.; Lloyd, Joyce A.

2011-01-01

61

Acclimation to heat during incubation. 2. Embryo composition and residual egg yolk sac fatty acid profiles in chicks.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to evaluate embryo composition and changes in egg yolk fatty acid composition during embryonic development as a function of incubation temperature and age of breeders. Eggs obtained from a common breeder stock at 3 ages: 32 (younger), 42 (mid age), and 65 (older) wk were divided into 2 groups and placed into 2 incubators: the control and the second where eggs were heat-acclimated (HA) at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h daily from d 10 to 18 of incubation. Body composition of embryos and chicks were measured on d 14, 18, and at hatch, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of yolk and residual egg yolk sac of chicks were analyzed before incubation and at hatch, respectively. Moisture content of embryos was highest on d 14 and then decreased regardless of parental age and incubation temperature. Moisture content of chicks at hatch from 42- and 65-wk parents were lower than those of chicks from 32-wk parents, whereas the trend in chick fat content was opposite. Incubation temperature had no effect on composition of chicks. Consistently lower cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-eicosapentaenoic (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; 22:6n-3) and cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic (20:3n-3) fatty acids in the residual yolk sac of chicks than in egg yolks before incubation may have resulted from preferential uptake from the yolk. The DHA content in the residual yolk sac was considerably higher in chicks from older parents incubated at HA, whereas, in contrast, levels of 18:3n-3 were lower. Also, chicks from younger parents in the HA treatment had lower transported 18:3n-3 and higher levels of transported DHA. It may be concluded that this process observed during the high incubation temperature may be related to a protective strategy and thus contributes to postnatal heat adaptation. PMID:18493015

Yalçin, S; Bagdatlioglu, N; Bruggeman, V; Babacanoglu, E; Uysal, I; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Siegel, P B

2008-06-01

62

Emergence of a glomus-like body in the human yolk sac: a microanatomical analysis of its structure.  

PubMed

Since the last decade the Yolk sac (YS) has been a topic of increasing interest due to the growing use of high-resolution sonography in early determination of pregnancy. Human YS shape and diameter are indicators of viability of pregnancy during the early embryonic period. Nevertheless, the major interest concerns the vital function it plays in early embryo growth and development. Two compartments are recognized in this organ: the yolk sac proper and the vitelline stalk. In this study we report the identification and partial characterization of a glomus-like body in the wall of the secondary YS in humans. A detailed structural description is also presented on the time course of formation of this new structure, at precisely sequential stages between 4-8 wk post-conception. The significance of this new compartment on the YS function is analyzed. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the microstructure of the YS and the vitelline stalk during the first 8 wk of development. Ten YSs were collected from embryos (aged between 24-50 days) obtained from emergency salpingectomies due to tubal ectopic pregnancy. From 5 wk onward a new structure was observed in the YS located near the apex of the pear-shaped yolk vesicle and closed to the connecting stalk. We designate this differentiation as glomus-like body. This structure is 1-1.5 mm long and merged from a pocket-like structure of the extraembryonic splanchnic mesoderm of the YS wall. It likely represents an area of convergence of the vascular network of the YS wall. Our findings underline the remarkable complexity of the human secondary yolk sac during early development. The detailed description of the microanatomy of this vital organ is of theoretical and practical interest in order to unravel the mechanisms used by the yolk sac to transport nutrients to the embryo. PMID:16101035

Pereda, J; Corral, E; Franchitto, G

2005-01-01

63

HoxB4 Confers Definitive Lymphoid-Myeloid Engraftment Potential on Embryonic Stem Cell and Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which primitive embryonic blood progenitors contribute to definitive lymphoid-myeloid hematopoiesis in the adult remains uncertain. In an effort to characterize factors that distinguish the definitive adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and primitive progenitors derived from yolk sac or embryonic stem (ES) cells, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of HoxB4, a homeotic selector gene implicated in

Michael Kyba; Rita C. R. Perlingeiro; George Q. Daley

2002-01-01

64

Target cells for avian myeloblastosis virus in embryonic yolk sac and relationship of cell differentiation to cell transformation.  

PubMed Central

The yolk sac of the 12-day chicken embryo retains the blast stage progenitors to cells of the myeloid lineages with a very low level of contamination by more mature myeloid cells which have begun to express the characteristic myeloid cell markers. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments have supported the hypothesis that target cells for the BAI-A strain of avian myeloblastosis virus are contained within the myeloid lineages. An assay system for avian myeloblastosis virus was developed which utilizes this yolk sac cell system and which appears to be more sensitive than previous published assays. In addition, the kinetics of a liquid culture transformation system is presented in which at least 4% of the yolk sac cell population was transformed in a relatively synchronous fashion at 2 days after infection. The morphological transformation preceded an increased rate of cell proliferation. Cell separation procedures provided a 10- to 20-fold enrichment of target cells and demonstrated that the target cell population copurifies with macrophage colony-forming cells which are the committed progenitors to the macrophage lineage. In combination with earlier work, this work demonstrated that cells committed to the macrophage lineage at all stages of differentiation may serve as target cells for infection by avian myeloblastosis virus.

Boettiger, D; Durban, E

1984-01-01

65

Structure and glycosylation of the term yolk sac placenta and uterine attachment site in the viviparous shark Mustelus canis.  

PubMed

The viviparous shark Mustelus canis nurtures its young within the uterus by means of a modified yolk sac which functions as a placenta. Two term specimens have been examined with a panel of 21 biotinylated lectins to assess whether glycans form a prominent interface between fetal and maternal tissues as in their therian counterparts. The yolk sac placenta was lined by a thin egg envelope which apposed though did not make contact with the uterine epithelium, and expressed fucosyl, N-acetyl glucosamine/lactosamine residues and some complex N-glycan, while the attached, thin ectoderm cells stained selectively with lectins from Anguilla anguilla and Arachis hypogaea indicating fucosyl and beta-galactosyl residues; other lectins bound to a variable degree. Large yolk sac endoderm cells were heavily glycosylated and expressed a wide range of glycans. The apposing uterine epithelium had two epithelial layers with distinctive patterns of glycosylation, the apical layer stained strongly with Anguilla anguilla lectin and the basal cells with lectins from Wisteria floribunda and Helix pomatia, the latter indicating plentiful N-acetyl galactosamine though both layers stained variably with other lectins also. A population of sparse, large, globular cells expressed alpha2,3-linked sialic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine oligomers. Fetal and maternal vessels were heavily glycosylated as in their therian counterparts. These data indicate a prominent role for glycans at the fetomaternal interface of these chondrichthyan fishes. PMID:15451197

Jones, C J P; Hamlett, W C

2004-11-01

66

Chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentation in Thrichomys laurentinus (Echimyidae) and the evolution of hystricognath rodents.  

PubMed

The evolutionary history of Hystricognathi is associated with major transformations in their placental system. Data so far indicate that key characters are independent from size dimensions in medium to very large species. To better understand the situation in smaller species, we analyzed placental development in a spiny rat, Thrichomys laurentinus. Fourteen individuals ranging from early implantation to near term were investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry, proliferation activity and electron microscopy. Placentation in Thrichomys revealed major parallels to the guinea pig and other hystricognath rodents with respect to the early and invasive implantation, the process of trophoblast invasion, the internal organization of the labyrinth and the trophospongium as well as the establishment of the complete inverted yolk sac placenta. In contrast to systematically related small-sized species, the placental regionalization in Thrichomys was characterized by a remarkable lobulated structure and associated growing processes. Reverse to former perspectives, these conditions represented ancient character states of hystricognaths. The subplacenta was temporarily supplied by both the maternal and fetal blood systems, a rare condition among hystricognaths. The extraplacental trophoblast originating from the subplacenta was partly proliferative in mid gestation. In conclusion, the presented results indicated that only minor variations occurred in small-sized hystricognath species, independent of their systematic interrelationships. Previous views were supported that placentation in hystricognaths followed an extraordinary stable pattern, although the group had distinct habitats in South America and Africa that were separated 30-40 million years ago. PMID:21898786

Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Mess, Andrea Maria

2011-09-06

67

Hatching egg and newly hatched chick yolk sac total IgY content at 3 broiler breeder flock ages.  

PubMed

During the first week of the posthatching period, before the immune system is mature enough to produce its own B lymphocytes, a chick's humoral immunity depends on maternal antibodies (IgY) received from the egg yolk. During incubation and after hatching, the yolk sac (YS) membrane transfers nutrients (including IgY) from the egg yolk to the developing embryo or newly hatched chick. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of breeder flock age on the total IgY content of egg yolks and chick YS from a commercial broiler breeder strain. Hatching eggs from the same broiler breeder flock were collected at 32, 40, and 55 wk of age. One group of eggs per flock age was used to determine the egg yolk total IgY content. Another group of eggs was incubated for 21.5 d, and upon hatching, the YS of newly hatched chicks were collected to determine the total IgY content. Egg and egg yolk weight increased with flock age, but YS weights did not reflect egg yolk weight. The total IgY content per gram of egg yolk increased with flock age; this fact plus the observed yolk weight increase with flock age notably increased the total IgY contained in yolks of eggs laid by 55-wk-old breeders. However, chicks hatching from 55-wk-old breeders had less IgY per gram of YS than chicks from 32- and 40-wk-old breeders. Whether there are differences in the rates of YS absorption between chicks of different breeder ages is unknown. This research provided total IgY values for broiler breeder egg yolk and chick YS of a commonly used meat-type chicken strain. Differences in egg yolk and YS total IgY contents due to flock age in this type of bird had not been previously reported. Research on the physiological consequences of YS absorption rates in chicks from different breeder ages is advised. PMID:22334753

Ulmer-Franco, A M; Cherian, G; Quezada, N; Fasenko, G M; McMullen, L M

2012-03-01

68

The developing chicken yolk sac acquires nutrient transport competence by an orchestrated differentiation process of its endodermal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

During chicken yolk sac (YS) growth, mesodermal cells in the area vasculosa follow the migrating endodermal epithelial cell (EEC) layer in the area vitellina. Ultimately, these cells form the vascularized YS that functions in nutrient transfer to the embryo. How and when EECs, with their apical aspect directly contacting the oocytic yolk, acquire the ability to take up yolk macromolecules during the vitellina-to-vasculosa transition has not been investigated. In addressing these questions, we found that with progressive vascularization, the expression level in EECs of the nutrient receptor triad, LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, changes significantly. The receptor complex, competent for uptake of yolk proteins, is produced by EECs in the area vasculosa but not in the area vitellina. Yolk components endocytosed by LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, preformed and newly formed lipid droplets, and yolk-derived very low density lipoprotein, shown to be efficiently endocytosed and lysosomally processed by EECs, probably provide substrates for resynthesis and secretion of nutrients, such as lipoproteins. In fact, as directly demonstrated by pulse-chase experiments, EECs in the vascularized, but not in the avascular, region efficiently produce and secrete lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, and/or apoA-V. In contrast, perilipin 2, a lipid droplet-stabilizing protein, is produced exclusively by the EECs of the area vitellina. These data suggest a differentiation process that orchestrates the vascularization of the developing YS with the induction of yolk uptake and lipoprotein secretion by EECs to ensure embryo nutrition. PMID:23209291

Bauer, Raimund; Plieschnig, Julia A; Finkes, Thomas; Riegler, Barbara; Hermann, Marcela; Schneider, Wolfgang J

2012-12-03

69

Mesenchymal progenitor cells from canine fetal tissues: yolk sac, liver, and bone marrow.  

PubMed

During fetal development, mesenchymal progenitor (MP) cells are co-localized in major hematopoietic territories, such as yolk sac (YS), bone marrow (BM), liver (LV), and others. Studies using mouse and human MP cells isolated from fetus have shown that these cells are very similar but not identical to adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Their differentiation potential is usually restricted to production of highly committed osteogenic and chondrogenic precursors. Such properties of fetal MP cells can be very useful for tissue regeneration, when a great number of committed precursors are required. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize MP cells from canine YS, BM, and LV in early and late stages of fetal development. Gestational stage was identified, and cell culture conditions were evaluated for efficient isolation of canine MP cells. All canine fetal MP cells expressed vimentin, nestin, and CD44 proteins. Cytokeratin 18 expression was observed in BM- and LV-MP cells, and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin expression was observed only in YS-MP cells. A small number of MP cells (5%) from LV and YS expressed Oct3/4 protein. The differentiation potential of canine fetal MP cells varied significantly: YS- and BM-MP cells differentiated into bone and cartilage, whereas LV-MP cells differentiation was limited to osteogenic fate. None of the canine fetal MP cells were able to differentiate into adipose cells. Our data suggest that canine fetal MP cells are an appropriate in vitro model to study MP biology from hematopoietic territories and they are a source of committed osteogenic and chondrogenic precursors for regenerative medicine. PMID:21529262

Wenceslau, Cristiane Valverde; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Martins, Daniele Santos; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Lizier, Nelson Foresto; Pignatari, Graciela Conceição; Kerkis, Irina

2011-09-01

70

Deficiency of Zonula Occludens-1 Causes Embryonic Lethal Phenotype Associated with Defected Yolk Sac Angiogenesis and Apoptosis of Embryonic Cells  

PubMed Central

Zonula occludens (ZO)-1/2/3 are the members of the TJ-MAGUK family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases associated with tight junctions. To investigate the role of ZO-1 (encoded by Tjp1) in vivo, ZO-1 knockout (Tjp1?/?) mice were generated by gene targeting. Although heterozygous mice showed normal development and fertility, delayed growth and development were evident from E8.5 onward in Tjp1?/? embryos, and no viable Tjp1?/? embryos were observed beyond E11.5. Tjp1?/? embryos exhibited massive apoptosis in the notochord, neural tube area, and allantois at embryonic day (E)9.5. In the yolk sac, the ZO-1 deficiency induced defects in vascular development, with impaired formation of vascular trees, along with defective chorioallantoic fusion. Immunostaining of wild-type embryos at E8.5 for ZO-1/2/3 revealed that ZO-1/2 were expressed in almost all embryonic cells, showing tight junction-localizing patterns, with or without ZO-3, which was confined to the epithelial cells. ZO-1 deficiency depleted ZO-1-expression without influence on ZO-2/3 expression. In Tjp1+/+ yolk sac extraembryonic mesoderm, ZO-1 was dominant without ZO-2/3 expression. Thus, ZO-1 deficiency resulted in mesoderms with no ZO-1/2/3, associated with mislocalization of endothelial junctional adhesion molecules. As a result, angiogenesis was defected in Tjp1?/? yolk sac, although differentiation of endothelial cells seemed to be normal. In conclusion, ZO-1 may be functionally important for cell remodeling and tissue organization in both the embryonic and extraembryonic regions, thus playing an essential role in embryonic development.

Katsuno, Tatsuya; Umeda, Kazuaki; Matsui, Takeshi; Hata, Masaki; Tamura, Atsushi; Itoh, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Kosei; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Tsukita, Shoichiro

2008-01-01

71

Quantitative studies of pinocytosis. I. Kinetics of uptake of (125I)polyvinylpyrrolidone by rat yolk sac cultured in vitro  

PubMed Central

A method is described for the in vitro culture of 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac. Tissue survival was good as judged by light and electron microscopy. The rate of pinocytic uptake of 125I-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone by the tissue was constant both within and between experiments. Within the concentration range 0.15-24 mug/ml, the 125I- labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone neither stimulated nor inhibited pinocytosis. The system offers many advantages in the quantitative study of the physical basis of pinocytosis.

1975-01-01

72

[Study on toxic effects of ammonia on embryonic and yolk-sac stage larvae of rare minnow].  

PubMed

To investigate the toxicity to fish which were exposed to ammonia during early life stages. This study choose rare minnow which is unique to China for experimental subject. Representative toxicological endpoints were observed and recorded during the development of embryo and yolk-sac stage larvae. Meanwhile, selected ammonia transporter protein Rhbg gene as a toxicity parameter to reflect the changes of rare minnow embryos Rhbg gene expression. The result shows that ammonia we have chosen in this research had an influence on many toxic effects including the hatching rate of fry, mortality rate, the slowing of heart rate and arrhythmia, unformed functional swim bladder, the decreasing of body length and weight and the occurrence of pericardium and yolk-sac edema etc. But other toxicological endpoints have relatively weak effect. The ammonia also affect the Rhbg gene expression changes, especially that of Rhbg gene at 72 hours post-fertilization distinctly. Rhbg may have important functions to facilitate ammonia transport during rare minnow embryo stages. PMID:22720585

Wang, Zhi-Jian; Lu, Zeng-Hui; Shi, Ping

2012-04-01

73

Assay and properties of rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1. cap alpha. -hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

An in vitro assay has been developed for the rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase). The subcellular location and some properties of the enzyme are described. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ produced from incubations of yolk sac homogenates was extracted, purified by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and straight- and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and measured by a competitive binding assay using chick intestinal receptor. The reaction is linear with time for up to 45 min at a substrate concentration of 80 ..mu..M and 4-6 mg/mL microsomal protein. The enzyme, located in the microsomes, requires molecular oxygen and NADPH. Metyrapone (1 x 10/sup -3/ M) was found to inhibit 1-hydroxylation, but a 90% carbon monoxide-10% oxygen atmosphere did not, leaving open the question of involvement of cytochrome P-450. Diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, a lipid peroxidase inhibitor, inhibited 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

Paulson, S.K.; Phelps, M.; DeLuca, H.F.

1986-11-04

74

Rate of pinocytic capture of macromolecular substrates by rat yolk sac incubated in serum-free culture medium.  

PubMed Central

Pinocytic activity was quantified for rat yolk sacs incubated in a medium that was either serum-free or contained 10% (v/v) of calf serum. Absence of serum from the medium caused a small increase in the rate of pinosome formation, as determined by the rates of capture of both 125I-labelled poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and [14C]sucrose. In contrast, the rates of uptake of substrates ingested by adsorptive pinocytosis were greatly enhanced when serum proteins, which compete for the same binding sites on the plasma membrane as used by adsorbing substrates, were absent. Elimination of such competition greatly simplifies the quantitative analysis of the binding process, and permitted a detailed study of the binding to the plasma membrane of formaldehyde-denatured bovine serum albumin, a protein that is rapidly digested within the lysosomal system after its pinocytic capture. Binding obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and showed a dissociation constant of approx. 1 micron, indicating the high affinity of this protein for binding sites on the surface of actively pinocytosing yolk-sac cells.

Ibbotson, G E; Williams, K E

1979-01-01

75

Papillary Endolymphatic Sac Tumor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term “aggressive papillary middle ear tumor” has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition.

Arava, S.; Soumya, R. M.; Chitragar, S.; Safaya, R.; Chandrashekhar, S. H.; Thakar, Alok

2012-01-01

76

GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) ACTIVITY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT VISCERAL YOLK-SAC DURING GESTATION WITH OR WITHOUT TRYPAN BLUE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Yolk-sacs from untreated Sprague Dawley rat conceptuses were removed on days 9-18 of gestation and examined for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activities. All enzyme activities w...

77

Folic acid supplementation affects ROS scavenging enzymes, enhances Vegf-A, and diminishes apoptotic state in yolk sacs of embryos of diabetic rats.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the extent to which maternal diabetes with or without folic acid (FA) supplementation affects mRNA levels and protein distribution of ROS scavenging enzymes, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A), folate binding protein-1 (Folbp-1), and apoptosis-associated proteins in the yolk sacs of rat embryos on gestational days 10 and 11. Commencing at conception and throughout pregnancy, half of the streptozotocin-diabetic and half of the control rats received daily FA injections. Maternal diabetes impaired vascular morphology and decreased CuZnSOD and GPX-1 gene expression in yolk sacs. Maternal diabetes also increased the levels of CuZnSOD protein, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and decreased Vegf-A protein distribution. FA treatment normalized vascular morphology, decreased mRNA levels of all three SOD isoforms and increased Vegf-A mRNA levels, rectified CuZnSOD protein distribution and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. A teratogenic diabetic environment produces a state of vasculopathy, oxidative stress, and mild apoptosis in the yolk sac. FA administration normalizes vascular morphology, diminishes apoptotic rate, and increases Vegf-A gene expression and protein distribution in the yolk sac of diabetic rats. PMID:17482424

Zabihi, Sheller; Eriksson, Ulf J; Wentzel, Parri

2007-03-31

78

The fate of homologous 125I-labelled immunoglobulin G within rat visceral yolk sacs incubated in vitro.  

PubMed

When 125I-labelled rat IgG (immunoglobulin G) is incubated in vitro with visceral yolk sacs from 17.5-day-pregnant rats, the protein is readily degraded. The major radioactive digestion product that accumulates in the medium is [125I]iodo-L-tyrosine. When rotenone (10 microM) is also present in the incubation medium, the rate of digestion of IgG is inhibited to the same extent as the rate of pinocytosis of 125I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone. Proteolysis is likewise inhibited when either NH4Cl (30 mM) or leupeptin (30 micrograms/ml) is present in the medium. The above findings strongly suggest that the observed proteolysis occurs within lysosomes. Normally, yolk sacs that have been exposed in vitro to radiolabelled substrates release radioactivity slowly when the tissue is re-incubated, unless the substrate can be degraded within lysosomes and released in the form of low-molecular-weight hydrolysis products. However, in such experiments 125I-labelled rat IgG shows quite exceptional behaviour in being rapidly released in an apparently intact form (as well as being degraded). If an agent that inhibits pinocytosis (e.g. rotenone or 2,4-dinitrophenol) is present in the incubation medium during exposure of the tissue to 125I-labelled rat IgG, it abolishes release of macromolecular radioactivity on re-incubation of the tissue. Enhanced tissue accumulation of 125I-labelled rat IgG, induced by the presence of leupeptin in the medium during the uptake phase, resulted in no concomitant increase in the amount of 125I-labelled IgG released in macromolecular form on re-incubation of the tissue. These findings indicate that the observed rapid release of 125I-labelled IgG is unlikely to represent release from lysosomes and is more compatible with release from a separate class of vesicle that does not fuse with lysosomes. PMID:6626158

Weisbecker, U; Ibbotson, G E; Livesey, G; Williams, K E

1983-09-15

79

The fate of homologous 125I-labelled immunoglobulin G within rat visceral yolk sacs incubated in vitro.  

PubMed Central

When 125I-labelled rat IgG (immunoglobulin G) is incubated in vitro with visceral yolk sacs from 17.5-day-pregnant rats, the protein is readily degraded. The major radioactive digestion product that accumulates in the medium is [125I]iodo-L-tyrosine. When rotenone (10 microM) is also present in the incubation medium, the rate of digestion of IgG is inhibited to the same extent as the rate of pinocytosis of 125I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone. Proteolysis is likewise inhibited when either NH4Cl (30 mM) or leupeptin (30 micrograms/ml) is present in the medium. The above findings strongly suggest that the observed proteolysis occurs within lysosomes. Normally, yolk sacs that have been exposed in vitro to radiolabelled substrates release radioactivity slowly when the tissue is re-incubated, unless the substrate can be degraded within lysosomes and released in the form of low-molecular-weight hydrolysis products. However, in such experiments 125I-labelled rat IgG shows quite exceptional behaviour in being rapidly released in an apparently intact form (as well as being degraded). If an agent that inhibits pinocytosis (e.g. rotenone or 2,4-dinitrophenol) is present in the incubation medium during exposure of the tissue to 125I-labelled rat IgG, it abolishes release of macromolecular radioactivity on re-incubation of the tissue. Enhanced tissue accumulation of 125I-labelled rat IgG, induced by the presence of leupeptin in the medium during the uptake phase, resulted in no concomitant increase in the amount of 125I-labelled IgG released in macromolecular form on re-incubation of the tissue. These findings indicate that the observed rapid release of 125I-labelled IgG is unlikely to represent release from lysosomes and is more compatible with release from a separate class of vesicle that does not fuse with lysosomes.

Weisbecker, U; Ibbotson, G E; Livesey, G; Williams, K E

1983-01-01

80

Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies of Baltic salmon yolk-sac fry with an experimental thiamine deficiency: relations to the M74 syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-run Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) populations are suffering from the M74 syndrome, a reproduction disorder affecting both broodfish and their progeny. The syndrome is usually manifested during the middle part of the yolk-sac fry stage and has been shown to be associated with a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Development of the disease is reversible by thiamine treatments of broodfish or

Patric Amcoff; Gun Åkerman; Ulla Tjärnlund; Hans Börjeson; Leif Norrgren; Lennart Balk

2002-01-01

81

Mortality of walleye eggs and rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae in low-pH waters in the LaCloche Mountain area, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshly fertilized eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum were incubated in the outlet waters of George Lake (pH 5.4) and sections of a nearby stream (pH 6.0, 6.6). Ten-day bioassays with yolk-sac larvae of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri were run concurrently at the walleye sites and at additional sites with low pH (4.6) and with humic water (pH 5.5). Walleye egg

PETER F. HULSMAN; PERCE M. POWLES; JOHN M. GUNN

1983-01-01

82

Globin switches in yolk sac–like primitive and fetal-like definitive red blood cells produced from human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that coculture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for 14 days with immortalized fetal hepato- cytes yields CD34 cells that can be ex- panded in serum-free liquid culture into large numbers of megaloblastic nucle- ated erythroblasts resembling yolk sac- derived cells. We show here that these primitive erythroblasts undergo a switch in hemoglobin (Hb) composition during

Caihong Qiu; Emmanuel N. Olivier; Michelle Velho; Eric E. Bouhassira

2008-01-01

83

Adult Langerhans cells derive predominantly from embryonic fetal liver monocytes with a minor contribution of yolk sac-derived macrophages.  

PubMed

Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens. In contrast to other DCs, LCs arise from hematopoietic precursors that seed the skin before birth. However, the origin of these embryonic precursors remains unclear. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify a first wave of yolk sac (YS)-derived primitive myeloid progenitors that seed the skin before the onset of fetal liver hematopoiesis. YS progenitors migrate to the embryo proper, including the prospective skin, where they give rise to LC precursors, and the brain rudiment, where they give rise to microglial cells. However, in contrast to microglia, which remain of YS origin throughout life, YS-derived LC precursors are largely replaced by fetal liver monocytes during late embryogenesis. Consequently, adult LCs derive predominantly from fetal liver monocyte-derived cells with a minor contribution of YS-derived cells. Altogether, we establish that adult LCs have a dual origin, bridging early embryonic and late fetal myeloid development. PMID:22565823

Hoeffel, Guillaume; Wang, Yilin; Greter, Melanie; See, Peter; Teo, Pearline; Malleret, Benoit; Leboeuf, Marylène; Low, Donovan; Oller, Guillaume; Almeida, Francisca; Choy, Sharon H Y; Grisotto, Marcos; Renia, Laurent; Conway, Simon J; Stanley, E Richard; Chan, Jerry K Y; Ng, Lai Guan; Samokhvalov, Igor M; Merad, Miriam; Ginhoux, Florent

2012-05-07

84

Quantitative studies of pinocytosis. II. Kinetics of protein uptake and digestion by rat yolk sac cultured in vitro  

PubMed Central

Pinocytic uptake of 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin by 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro has been examined. Uptake was followed by intracellular digestion and, after an initial period, the content of radioactivity in the tissue itself remained constant during the incubation. Radiolabel was returned to the culture medium predominantly as (125I)iodotyrosine; exocytosis of undigested protein did not occur. The rate of uptake of labeled protein, which was constant within an experiment and reproducible between experiments, was much higher than that of a nondigestible macromolecule, 125I-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone. The higher rate of uptake was a consequence of the protein entering the cells chiefly by adsorption to the plasma membrane being internalized; 125I-labeled albumin did not stimualte, nor did 125I-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone inhibit pinocytosis. Different preparations of 125I-labeled albumin had characteristically different rates of uptake, probably reflecting differences in affinity for plasma membrane receptors. The physiological significance of the findings is discussed.

1975-01-01

85

Adult Langerhans cells derive predominantly from embryonic fetal liver monocytes with a minor contribution of yolk sac-derived macrophages  

PubMed Central

Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens. In contrast to other DCs, LCs arise from hematopoietic precursors that seed the skin before birth. However, the origin of these embryonic precursors remains unclear. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify a first wave of yolk sac (YS)–derived primitive myeloid progenitors that seed the skin before the onset of fetal liver hematopoiesis. YS progenitors migrate to the embryo proper, including the prospective skin, where they give rise to LC precursors, and the brain rudiment, where they give rise to microglial cells. However, in contrast to microglia, which remain of YS origin throughout life, YS-derived LC precursors are largely replaced by fetal liver monocytes during late embryogenesis. Consequently, adult LCs derive predominantly from fetal liver monocyte-derived cells with a minor contribution of YS-derived cells. Altogether, we establish that adult LCs have a dual origin, bridging early embryonic and late fetal myeloid development.

Hoeffel, Guillaume; Wang, Yilin; Greter, Melanie; See, Peter; Teo, Pearline; Malleret, Benoit; Leboeuf, Marylene; Low, Donovan; Oller, Guillaume; Almeida, Francisca; Choy, Sharon H.Y.; Grisotto, Marcos; Renia, Laurent; Conway, Simon J.; Stanley, E. Richard; Chan, Jerry K.Y.; Ng, Lai Guan; Samokhvalov, Igor M.

2012-01-01

86

Incidental perivascular epithelioid cell tumor in an inguinal hernia sac.  

PubMed

Perivascular epithelioid tumors (PEComa) are uncommon mesenchymal neoplasms demonstrating positivity for muscular and melanocytic immuno-markers. Included in this category are angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and clear cell sugar tumors. Lesions which do not fit into these categories are classified as "not otherwise specified". We present a case of an incidentally discovered PEComa within inguinal hernia sac contents in a 70-year-old woman. It consisted of spindled and epithelioid cells with bland oval nuclei, small nucleoli and clear to light eosinophilic cytoplasm. There was no atypia or mitoses. The lesion was strongly positive for HMB45 and smooth muscle actin. Pelvic soft tissue and peritoneal PEComas are rarely reported in literature and very little is known about their prognosis. We discuss the immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and pathogenesis of PEComas. PMID:23870603

Wang, Tao; Voogjarv, Harry; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar

2013-06-14

87

Serum response factor is required for cell contact maintenance but dispensable for proliferation in visceral yolk sac endothelium  

PubMed Central

Background Endothelial-specific knockout of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) results in embryonic lethality by mid-gestation. The associated phenotype exhibits vascular failure in embryos as well as visceral yolk sac (VYS) tissues. Previous data suggest that this vascular failure is caused by alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. In the current study, we sought to more carefully address the role of SRF in endothelial function and cell contact interactions in VYS tissues. Results Tie2-Cre recombinase-mediated knockout of SRF expression resulted in loss of detectable SRF from VYS mesoderm by E12.5. This loss was accompanied by decreased expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin as well as vascular endothelial cadherin and claudin 5, endothelial-specific components of adherens and tight junctions, respectively. Focal adhesion (FA) integrins alpha5 and beta1 were largely unchanged in contrast to loss of the FA-associated molecule vinculin. The integrin binding partner fibronectin-1 was also profoundly decreased in the extracellular matrix, indicating another aspect of impaired adhesive function and integrin signaling. Additionally, cells in SRF-null VYS mesoderm failed to reduce proliferation, suggesting not only that integrin-mediated contact inhibition is impaired but also that SRF protein is not required for proliferation in these cells. Conclusions Our data support a model in which SRF is critical in maintaining functional cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion in endothelial cells. Furthermore, we provide evidence that supports a model in which loss of SRF protein results in a sustained proliferation defect due in part to failed integrin signaling.

2011-01-01

88

Endocytosis and subsequent processing of 125I-labelled immunoglobulin G by guinea pig yolk sac in vitro.  

PubMed Central

We have developed conditions for studying the binding, uptake, degradation and transport of 125I-labelled IgG by yolk sac in vitro. Specific binding to tissue at 4 degrees C and to paraformaldehyde-treated tissue at 37 degrees C was time- and temperature-dependent and showed saturation kinetics (Kd,4 degrees C = 2.9 X 10(-6) M, Kd,37 degrees C = 5.3 X 10(-6) M). Uptake was studied at 37 degrees C using untreated tissue (K uptake = 13.3 X 10(-6) M) and was inhibited by preincubation with metabolic poisons but not with cycloheximide. Tissue that had been incubated with 125I-labelled IgG at 37 degrees C released radiolabelled degradation products and intact 125I-labelled IgG into the medium. Experiments with paraformaldehyde-treated and untreated tissue showed that release of intact 125I-labelled IgG was mostly the result of ligand dissociation from surface binding sites. However, more 125I-labelled IgG was released from untreated tissue than could be accounted for solely by loss of surface-bound ligand and the difference was presumed to reflect uptake, transport and exocytosis of 125I-labelled IgG. Degradation of 125I-labelled IgG was inhibited by leupeptin and lysosomotropic amines. These drugs had no detectable effect on 125I-labelled IgG release. The results suggest that degradation and transport of IgG are not intimately related and are consistent with a previously proposed model for IgG transport via coated vesicles which do not fuse with lysosomes and for non-selective uptake into another class of vesicle which does fuse with lysosomes.

Douglas, G C; King, B F

1985-01-01

89

Endolymphatic sac tumor: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm which can be encountered sporadically or in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Here we report a sporadic case of ELST in 31-year-old man. Neither the symptoms nor a family history of VHL disease were found in the patient. CT imaging demonstrated an expansile lytic lesion of the mastoid process of the left petrous bone. MR scanning revealed a 5.2 cm × 4.7 cm × 4.2 cm mass which showed hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Histologic sections showed a papillary, cystic or glandular architecture. The papillary and glandular structures were lined by a single layer of flattened cuboidal-to-columnar cells. The stroma of the papillary fronds was richly vascularized and chronically inflamed. The tumor showed diffusely positive reactivity with cytokeratin (Pan), cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 5/6, cytokeratin 7, EMA, vimentin, CD56, and NSE and also showed variable reactivity with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and VEGF. The Ki-67 immunostain showed a proliferation index of < 1%. Because the mass was large, it was difficult to extirpate surgically. After surgery, the patient underwent gamma-knife radiosurgery for residual tumor. The findings indicate that ELST is a rare neoplasm with benign histopathological appearance and clinically destructive behavior. Because of the rarity of this tumor, it can easily be confused with other tumors such as paraganglioma, middle ear adenoma, adenocarcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid or choroid plexus papilloma. Owing to its locally aggressive nature, it is difficult to extirpate surgically when it is large. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7973320646763012

2012-01-01

90

Mortality of walleye eggs and rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae in low-pH waters in the LaCloche Mountain area, Ontario  

SciTech Connect

Freshly fertilized eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum were incubated in the outlet waters of George Lake (pH 5.4) and sections of a nearby stream (pH 6.0, 6.6). Ten-day bioassays with yolk-sac larvae of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri were run concurrently at the walleye sites and at additional sites with low pH (4.6) and with humic water (pH 5.5). Walleye egg mortality was low (25.5 - 33.5%) at pH 6.0. High mortality (90.5%) occurred between fertilization and the eyed-egg stage at the pH 5.4 site. Mortality of rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae approached 100% within 5 days at both pH 4.6 and 5.4. In contrast, total mortality was less than 3% at pH 6.0 and also in low-pH humic water (pH 5.5). The high mortality of walleye eggs in the acidic outlet waters of George Lake suggests that the acidification of this lake was responsible for the extinction of its walleye stock. The striking differences in mortality of rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae between sites of similar pH (5.4-5.5) indicated that H/sup +/-toxicity was not solely responsible for fish mortality in acid water. Results draw attention to the effects that biologically available forms of toxic metals, particularly of aluminum, have on fish survival. 26 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Hulsman, P.F.; Powles, P.M.; Gunn, J.M.

1983-01-01

91

The pinocytosis of 125I-labelled poly(vinylpyrrolidone), [14C]sucrose and colloidal [198Au]gold by rat yolk sac cultured in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The rates of uptake of 125I-labelled poly(vinylpyrrolidone), [14C]sucrose and colloidal [198Au]gold by 17.5-day rat yolk sac cultured in vitro were studied. Over a 6.5h period each substrate was accumulated at a constant and reproducible rate of approx. 2microliter/h per mg of protein. After accumulation in vitro, the three substances were released from the tissue into substrate-free medium at low rates. Sucrose present in the medium at concentrations up to 10 mg/ml was without effect on the accumulation of either [14C]sucrose or 125I-labelled poly(vinylpyrrolidone), but at higher concentrations inhibited the uptake of both substrates. Some batches of colloidal [198Au]gold had a significantly higher Endocytic Index (up to 5 microliter/h per mg of protein). The Endocytic Index of such a batch decreased with increasing substrate concentration, but colloidal gold did not decrease the Endocytic Index of 125I-labelled poly(vinylpyrrolidone). It is concluded that the three substrates enter the yolk sac by pinocytosis in the liquid phase. Those batches of colloidal [198Au]gold with higher Endocytic Indices are considered to enter also by adsorption on membrane binding-sites.

Roberts, A V; Williams, K E; Lloyd, J B

1977-01-01

92

Effects of salinity and temperature on eggs and yolk sac larvae of the greenback flounder ( Rhombosolea tapirina Günther, 1862)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenback flounder (Rhombosolea tapirina) is considered to have potential as an aquaculture species in southern Australia. Experiments were conducted to determine the optimal salinity for fertilisation and buoyancy of eggs, the optimal temperature and salinity combination for incubation of eggs, and the optimal temperature for yolk absorption. Experiments were carried out in 25 and 200 ml beakers and 31

Piers R. Hart; G. J. Purser

1995-01-01

93

Autotaxin/Lysophospholipase D-mediated Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling Is Required to Form Distinctive Large Lysosomes in the Visceral Endoderm Cells of the Mouse Yolk Sac*  

PubMed Central

Autotaxin, a lysophospholipase D encoded by the Enpp2 gene, is an exoenzyme that produces lysophosphatidic acid in the extracellular space. Lysophosphatidic acid acts on specific G protein-coupled receptors, thereby regulating cell growth, migration, and survival. Previous studies have revealed that Enpp2?/? mouse embryos die at about embryonic day (E) 9.5 because of angiogenic defects in the yolk sac. However, what cellular defects occur in Enpp2?/? embryos and what intracellular signaling pathways are involved in the phenotype manifestation remain unknown. Here, we show that Enpp2 is required to form distinctive large lysosomes in the yolk sac visceral endoderm cells. From E7.5 to E9.5, Enpp2 mRNA is abundantly expressed in the visceral endoderm cells. In Enpp2?/? mouse embryos, lysosomes in the visceral endoderm cells are fragmented. By using a whole embryo culture system combined with specific pharmacological inhibitors for intracellular signaling molecules, we show that lysophosphatidic acid receptors and the Rho-Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)-LIM kinase pathway are required to form large lysosomes. In addition, electroporation of dominant negative forms of Rho, ROCK, or LIM kinase also leads to the size reduction of lysosomes in wild-type visceral endoderm cells. In Enpp2?/? visceral endoderm cells, the steady-state levels of cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization are reduced. In addition, perturbations of actin turnover dynamics by actin inhibitors cytochalasin B and jasplakinolide result in the defect in lysosome formation. These results suggest that constitutive activation of the Rho-ROCK-LIM kinase pathway by extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid by the action of autotaxin is required to maintain the large size of lysosomes in visceral endoderm cells.

Koike, Seiichi; Keino-Masu, Kazuko; Ohto, Tatsuyuki; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Masu, Masayuki

2009-01-01

94

The influence of temperature on the development of Baltic Sea sprat ( Sprattus sprattus ) eggs and yolk sac larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2004 and 2005 we performed two sets of experiments with Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus Schneider) eggs and larvae from the Bornholm Basin simulating ten different temperature scenarios. The goal of the present\\u000a study was to analyse and parameterise temperature effects on the duration of developmental stages, on the timing of important\\u000a ontogenetic transitions, growth during the yolk

C. Petereit; H. Haslob; G. Kraus; C. Clemmesen

2008-01-01

95

Ewing's Sarcoma of the Lesser Sac Masquerading as a Pancreatic Tumor  

PubMed Central

Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is an uncommon, aggressive, and malignant tumor with a poor patient outcome. Its occurrence in the lesser sac is a rare event and to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described. The present case was clinically and radiologically misdiagnosed as a pancreatic tumor/gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Histopathology revealed a tumor with "small round cells" that were positive for CD99, confirming the diagnosis of ES/PNET. This report highlights the importance of considering Ewing's sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of intraabdominal, extraintestinal masses.

Rao, Lakshmi; Rodrigues, Gabriel; Suresh, B P

2012-01-01

96

Changes in the whole body mineral concentration of the Rainbow trout (Oncorchynchus mykiss Walbaum) yolk-sac fry exposed to various combina- tions of aluminium and calcium concentrations in two different acidic water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 12 combinations of pH (4.5 and 7.0), aluminium (4 and 8 ?mol\\/L) and calcium (10 and 100 ?mol\\/L) on survival and body mineral (Ca, Mg, K and Na) concentrations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) at the yolk-sac stage were investigated. Mortality was low (< 17%) in most combinations and increased (> 27%) in the presence of

Metin ÇALTA

97

Expression of c-onc genes: c-fos transcripts accumulate to high levels during development of mouse placenta, yolk sac and amnion.  

PubMed Central

The c-onc genes c-fos and c-fms are expressed at high levels specifically in mouse extra-embryonal tissues. Here, we report the results of a detailed analysis of expression of these genes within the developing placenta and extra-embryonal membranes (i.e., yolk sac and amnion). (i) The c-fos gene is expressed at relatively high, but nearly constant levels in the undissected placenta throughout gestation. (ii) The level of c-fos transcripts is greater than or equal to 15-fold higher in the separated outer portion of the midgestation placenta (primarily undifferentiated fetus-derived cytotrophoblast maternal decidua) relative to the inner moiety (predominantly differentiated syncytiotrophoblast). (iii) In the inner placenta and in the extra-embryonal membranes c-fos transcripts accumulate as gestation proceeds. The abundance of c-fos transcripts in the micro-surgically isolated 18th day amnion reaches a level which is two orders of magnitude greater than that in midgestation fetuses, and is thus close to the level of v-fos transcripts in virus-transformed cells. (iv) The distribution of c-fos transcripts within the developing extra-embryonal tissues is markedly different from that of the c-fms gene. It is suggested that the c-fos and c-fms proteins may participate in differentiation, growth or transport processes occurring in mouse extra-embryonal tissues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

Muller, R; Verma, I M; Adamson, E D

1983-01-01

98

Modeling transport and survival of anchoveta eggs and yolk-sac larvae in the coastal zone off central-southern Chile: Assessing spatial and temporal spawning parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrodynamic model was coupled to an individual-based model (IBM) initialized with conditions observed during 2004 to examine the influence of spatial and temporal spawning parameters on transport and survival of Engraulis ringens in central-southern Chile. Processes modeled were transport, growth, and mortality of the early stages. The results showed that spatial and temporal variations in spawning modulated the survival of anchoveta eggs and yolk-sac larvae. The resultant transport of the early stages had an important south-north direction. In terms of connectivity, the greatest transfer of eggs and larvae to the pre-recruitment zone came from four spawning zones. Retention occurred in all spawning zones and was strongest in the Gulf of Arauco and at Lebu-Corral. Mortality due to temperature and advective losses was more intense at higher latitudes (Lebu-Corral). Observed and simulated distributions of eggs and larvae were compared, and the differences are discussed herein. A conceptual model is proposed, and we discuss the relevance of IBMs as useful tools with which to assess spawning zones for purposes of management.

Soto-Mendoza, Samuel; Parada, Carolina; Castro, Leonardo; Colas, Francois; Schneider, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

99

Novel, High-Yield Red Blood Cell Production Methods from CD34-Positive Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem, Yolk Sac, Fetal Liver, Cord Blood, and Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34+ cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34+ cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6–8-week yolk sacs, 16–18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34+ cells.

Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong

2012-01-01

100

Generation of definitive hematopoietic stem cells from murine early yolk sac and paraaortic splanchnopleures by aorta-gonad-mesonephros region-derived stromal cells.  

PubMed

There is controversy as to whether murine definitive hematopoiesis originates from yolk sac (YS) or the intraembryonic region. This study reports the generation of definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from both early YS and intraembryonic paraaortic splanchnopleures (P-Sp) on AGM-S3 stromal cells derived from the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region at 10.5 days post coitum (dpc). YS and P-Sp cells at 8.5 dpc generated no definitive hematopoiesis-derived colony-forming cells in cocultures with AGM-S3 cells, but spleen colony-forming cells and HSCs capable of reconstituting definitive hematopoiesis in adult mice simultaneously appeared on day 4 of coculture. Precursors for definitive HSCs were present in YS and P-Sp at 8.0 dpc, a time when YS and embryo were not connected by blood vessels. It is proposed that precursors with the potential to generate definitive HSCs appear independently in YS and intraembryonic P-Sp and that the P-Sp or AGM region affords the microenvironment that facilitates generation of definitive hematopoiesis from precursors. PMID:11418454

Matsuoka, S; Tsuji, K; Hisakawa, H; Xu Mj; Ebihara, Y; Ishii, T; Sugiyama, D; Manabe, A; Tanaka, R; Ikeda, Y; Asano, S; Nakahata, T

2001-07-01

101

Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

2013-06-10

102

Comparison of Toxicity of Benzene Metabolite Hydroquinone in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Derived from Murine Embryonic Yolk Sac and Adult Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. However, experimental evidence supporting the association is lacking at the present time. It is believed that benzene and its metabolites target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cause toxicity and cancer in the hematopoietic system. In the current study, we compared the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major metabolite of benzene in humans and animals, on mouse embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells (YS-HSCs) and adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs were isolated and enriched, and were exposed to HQ at increasing concentrations. HQ reduced the proliferation and the differentiation and colony formation, but increased the apoptosis of both YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. However, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HQ were more apparent and reduction of colony formation by HQ was more severe in YS-HSCs than in BM-HSCs. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed in HQ-treated YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. Cyp4f18 was induced by HQ both in YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs, whereas DNA-PKcs was induced in BM-HSCs only. The results revealed differential effects of benzene metabolites on embryonic and adult HSCs. The study established an experimental system for comparison of the hematopoietic toxicity and leukemogenicity of benzene and metabolites during mouse embryonic development and adulthood.

Zhu, Jie; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Liqiao; Li, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suhan; Huang, Wenting; Wang, Liping; Yang, Tan; Ma, Qiang; Bi, Yongyi

2013-01-01

103

Comparison of toxicity of benzene metabolite hydroquinone in hematopoietic stem cells derived from murine embryonic yolk sac and adult bone marrow.  

PubMed

Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. However, experimental evidence supporting the association is lacking at the present time. It is believed that benzene and its metabolites target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cause toxicity and cancer in the hematopoietic system. In the current study, we compared the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major metabolite of benzene in humans and animals, on mouse embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells (YS-HSCs) and adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs were isolated and enriched, and were exposed to HQ at increasing concentrations. HQ reduced the proliferation and the differentiation and colony formation, but increased the apoptosis of both YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. However, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HQ were more apparent and reduction of colony formation by HQ was more severe in YS-HSCs than in BM-HSCs. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed in HQ-treated YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. Cyp4f18 was induced by HQ both in YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs, whereas DNA-PKcs was induced in BM-HSCs only. The results revealed differential effects of benzene metabolites on embryonic and adult HSCs. The study established an experimental system for comparison of the hematopoietic toxicity and leukemogenicity of benzene and metabolites during mouse embryonic development and adulthood. PMID:23940708

Zhu, Jie; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Liqiao; Li, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suhan; Huang, Wenting; Wang, Liping; Yang, Tan; Ma, Qiang; Bi, Yongyi

2013-08-05

104

Real time microfiberoptic redox fluorometry: modulation of the pyridine nucleotide status of the organogenesis-stage rat visceral yolk sac with cyanide and alloxan.  

PubMed

The surface of rat visceral yolk sacs (VYS) of intact, viable rat conceptuses were continuously monitored with a microfiberoptic sensor optimized for detection of the reduced pyridine nucleotides, NADH and NADPH. Model chemical toxins, cyanide and alloxan, were used and evaluated on the basis of their differential ability to modulate NAD(H)- and NADP(H)-dependent cellular pathways, respectively. Exposure with 2 mM sodium cyanide for 5 min caused a reversible fluorescence increase of 325 arbitrary fluorescence units (AFU) and 225 AFU on Gestational Days (GD) 10 and 11, respectively. Exposure with 40 mM alloxan for 5 min resulted in a fluorescence decrease of 170 and 120 AFU on GD 10 and 11, respectively. Glutathione (GSH) levels in the VYS, as determined by HPLC, showed a marked decrease from 27.3 +/- 2.1 to 2.9 +/- 0.4 pmol/mg protein, within the 5-min alloxan exposure period on GD 10. No decrease in GSH levels was noted for the same exposure duration on GD 11. A 2-hr pretreatment with 25 microM BCNU [(1,3 bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea], to inhibit glutathione disulfide reductase (GSSG-Rd), resulted in an elimination of the fluorescence decrease, but still led to a significant drop in GSH levels as seen on both days of gestation. These results are consistent with overall changes in intracellular pyridine nucleotide concentrations, where the relative amounts of NADPH increase significantly and disproportionately from GD 10 to 11. The net oxidation of NADPH, through GSSG-Rd activity, appears to be responsible for the alloxan-induced decrease in surface fluorescence. Conversely, the cyanide-induced fluorescence increases appear to be the result of NAD+ reduction, mediated through the inhibition of the terminal cytochrome oxidase in the electron transport chain. PMID:8545833

Thorsrud, B A; Harris, C

1995-12-01

105

Yolk spherocrystal: The structure, composition and liquid crystal template  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and composition of the yolk spherocrystal, a biomineral developed in the egg yolk sac during the incubation of a chicken embryo, were investigated through various modern analytical methods. Additionally, inside the yolk sac, yolk liquid crystal, a liquid crystalline phase of lipid developed during the incubation of the embryo, was found and investigated. The spherocrystal was found to

Hua Tong; Peng Wan; Wentao Ma; Guirong Zhong; Lianxin Cao; Jiming Hu

2008-01-01

106

Effects of Temperature on the Early Development, Growth, and Survival of Shortnose Sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum , and Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus , Yolk-Sac Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reared shortnose and Atlantic sturgeons at different temperatures after hatch and measured yolk utilization rate and efficiency\\u000a (YUE), maximum standard length, survival and development of escape response. Newly hatched Atlantic sturgeon, were smaller\\u000a in size, more efficient at utilizing yolk (incorporating yolk to body tissue) and reached developmental stages sooner than\\u000a shortnose sturgeon reared at the same temperatures (13–15C).

Ryan S. Hardy; Matthew K. Litvak

2004-01-01

107

Gene transfer to pre-hematopoietic and committed hematopoietic precursors in the early mouse Yolk Sac: a comparative study between in situ electroporation and retroviral transduction  

PubMed Central

Background Hematopoietic development in vertebrate embryos results from the sequential contribution of two pools of precursors independently generated. While intra-embryonic precursors harbour the features of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), precursors formed earlier in the yolk sac (YS) display limited differentiation and self-renewal potentials. The mechanisms leading to the generation of the precursors in both sites are still largely unknown, as are the molecular basis underlying their different potential. A possible approach to assess the role of candidate genes is to transfer or modulate their expression/activity in both sites. We thus designed and compared transduction protocols to target either native extra-embryonic precursors, or hematopoietic precursors. Results One transduction protocol involves transient modification of gene expression through in situ electroporation of the prospective blood islands, which allows the evolution of transfected mesodermal cells in their "normal" environment, upon organ culture. Following in situ electroporation of a GFP reporter construct into the YS cavity of embryos at post-streak (mesodermal/pre-hematopoietic precursors) or early somite (hematopoietic precursors) stages, high GFP expression levels as well as a good preservation of cell viability is observed in YS explants. Moreover, the erythro-myeloid progeny typical of the YS arises from GFP+ mesodermal cells or hematopoietic precursors, even if the number of targeted precursors is low. The second approach, based on retroviral transduction allows a very efficient transduction of large precursor numbers, but may only be used to target 8 dpc YS hematopoietic precursors. Again, transduced cells generate a progeny quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that of control YS. Conclusion We thus provide two protocols whose combination may allow a thorough study of both early and late events of hematopoietic development in the murine YS. In situ electroporation constitutes the only possible gene transfer method to transduce mesodermal/pre-hematopoietic precursors and analyze the earliest steps of hematopoietic development. Both in situ electroporation and retroviral transduction may be used to target early hematopoietic precursors, but the latter appears more convenient if a large pool of stably transduced cells is required. We discuss the assets and limitation of both methods, which may be alternatively chosen depending on scientific constraints.

Giroux, Sebastien JD; Alves-Leiva, Celmar; Lecluse, Yann; Martin, Patrick; Albagli, Olivier; Godin, Isabelle

2007-01-01

108

Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-05-01

109

Infantile and adult testicular germ cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most adult testicular germ cell tumors have a characteristic chromosomal abnormality that is an isochromosome 12p [i(12p)]. Furthermore, these tumors are characterized by a chromosome number in the triploid range and gains and losses of (parts of) specific chromosomes. Cytogenetic investigation of three cases of infantile testicular germ cell tumors, all diagnosed as yolk sac tumors, revealed highly abnormal karyotypes.

Jannie van Echten; Albertus Timmer; Anneke Y van der Veen; Willemina M Molenaar; Bauke de Jong

2002-01-01

110

Effects of temperature on oxygen consumption, growth, and development of embryos and yolk-sac larvae of Siganus randalli (Pisces: Siganidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs from laboratory spawnings of the coralreef fish Siganus randalli Woodland were incubated at two temperatures (27 and 30 °C). Eggs and larvae were sampled until larval starvation, while changes in oxygen consumption, growth, yolk utilization, and development were monitored. Oxygen consumption, which peaked at hatching, was higher for embryos incubated at 30 °C than at 27 °C. Rates of

L. A. Collins; S. G. Nelson

1993-01-01

111

Reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is expressed in placenta and yolk sac, as well as in cells of the developing forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, craniofacial region, eye, limb buds and heart  

PubMed Central

Background Folate is essential for cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo, tightly regulated cellular uptake processes have evolved to sustain sufficient levels of intracellular tetrahydrofolate cofactors to support biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and some amino acids (serine, methionine). Though reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is one of the major proteins mediating folate transport, knowledge of the developmental expression of RFC is lacking. We utilized in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the developmental distribution of RFC message and protein, respectively. Results In the mouse, RFC transcripts and protein are expressed in the E10.0 placenta and yolk sac. In the E9.0 to E11.5 mouse embryo RFC is widely detectable, with intense signal localized to cell populations in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart. During early development, RFC is expressed throughout the eye, but by E12.5, RFC protein becomes localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Conclusions Clinical studies show a statistical decrease in the number of neural tube defects, craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular defects and limb abnormalities detected in offspring of female patients given supplementary folate during pregnancy. The mechanism, however, by which folate supplementation ameliorates the occurrence of developmental defects is unclear. The present work demonstrates that RFC is present in placenta and yolk sac and provides the first evidence that it is expressed in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart during organogenesis. These findings suggest that rapidly dividing cells in the developing neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart may be particularly susceptible to folate deficiency.

Maddox, Dennis M; Manlapat, Anna; Roon, Penny; Prasad, Puttur; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B

2003-01-01

112

Chemotherapy Followed by Radiation Therapy in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Localized Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Pineal Parenchymal Tumor

2013-06-10

113

Flap reconstruction and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the management of temporal bone osteoradionecrosis in an endolymphatic sac tumor: case report.  

PubMed

Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare neuroectodermal neoplasms arising within the posterior petrous bone. We present a case of a 21-year-old man who presented with a 6-month history of intermittent morning headaches, fatigue, diplopia, and gait ataxia. Imaging and surgical pathology identified an adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac compressing the cerebellum and brain stem. The tumor and multiple metastases were treated with surgery, radiation, and radiosurgery. Following insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus, he developed symptomatic tension pneumocephalus secondary to radionecrosis of his petrous bone, requiring flap reconstruction and use of a programmable shunt valve complemented by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. We document here a young patient with a rare adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac. This case is unique for its initial presentation without any vestibuloauditory symptoms. Metastatic spread of ELSTs is also rare. While osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the temporal bone has been reported previously in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, this is the first time it has been presented in the context of an ELST. Tension pneumocephalus is a rare complication of skull base ORN. This is the first reported use of a programmable shunt valve and HBO therapy in the management of tension pneumocephalus. PMID:23984214

Guha, Daipayan; Menard, Cynthia; Evans, Wayne; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh

2011-07-21

114

Flap Reconstruction and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Management of Temporal Bone Osteoradionecrosis in an Endolymphatic Sac Tumor: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare neuroectodermal neoplasms arising within the posterior petrous bone. We present a case of a 21-year-old man who presented with a 6-month history of intermittent morning headaches, fatigue, diplopia, and gait ataxia. Imaging and surgical pathology identified an adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac compressing the cerebellum and brain stem. The tumor and multiple metastases were treated with surgery, radiation, and radiosurgery. Following insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus, he developed symptomatic tension pneumocephalus secondary to radionecrosis of his petrous bone, requiring flap reconstruction and use of a programmable shunt valve complemented by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. We document here a young patient with a rare adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac. This case is unique for its initial presentation without any vestibuloauditory symptoms. Metastatic spread of ELSTs is also rare. While osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the temporal bone has been reported previously in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, this is the first time it has been presented in the context of an ELST. Tension pneumocephalus is a rare complication of skull base ORN. This is the first reported use of a programmable shunt valve and HBO therapy in the management of tension pneumocephalus.

Guha, Daipayan; Menard, Cynthia; Evans, Wayne; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh

2011-01-01

115

[The value of cytology in the diagnosis of extragonadal germ cell tumors].  

PubMed

Extragonadic germinal tumors are frequently mixed tumors. When a metastatic sacrococcygeal teratoma is clinically suspected in children, a yolk-sac tumor component could be judiciously demonstrated by either an elevated serum level of alphafoetoprotein (AFP), or fine needle aspiration cytology. We report the case of a 25 month aged girl presenting a metastatic sacrococcygeal tumor (lymph node and bone metastasis) with high level of AFP (34.100 microg/ml). Fine needle aspiration cytology identified the yolk sac tumor component, characterized by papillae and glandular clusters, composed of pale isomorphic cells with vesicular and nucleolated nucleus and some intracytoplasmic hyaline globules. The yolk sac tumor component could not be identified in the sacrococcygeal surgical specimen, exclusively composed of immature teratoma. PMID:15567952

Mrad, Karima; Abid, Leila; Oubiche, Faysal; Driss, Maha; Abbes, Imene; Sassi, Samia; Ben Romdhane, Khaled

2004-09-01

116

In vitro effects of environmental salinity and cortisol on chloride cell differentiation in embryos of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, measured using a newly developed ‘yolk-ball’ incubation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the functional differentiation of chloride cells in the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, we developed a 'yolk-ball' incubation system in which the yolk sac was separated from the embryonic body and subjected to incubation in vitro. The yolk-ball preparation consists of the yolk and the covering yolk-sac membrane, which contains a rich population of chloride

KIYONO SHIRAISHI; TOYOJI KANEKO; MANABU MATSUDA; TETSUYA HIRANO; TAKAO MORI

2001-01-01

117

Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Germ cell tumors originating from the gonads may also occur in the central nervous system (CNS). They arise from primordial\\u000a germ cells that were trapped within neural tissue during the process of migration at the time of early embryogenesis [20].\\u000a Intracranial germ cell tumors include six subtypes classified by the World Health Organization: germinoma, embryonal carcinoma,\\u000a yolk sac tumor (endodermal

Kyu-Chang Wang; Seung-Ki Kim; Sung-Hye Park; Ji Hoon Phi; Byung-Kyu Cho

118

Identification of the B1 and B2 subunits of human placental laminin and rat parietal-yolk-sac laminin using antisera specific for murine laminin-beta-galactosidase fusion proteins.  

PubMed Central

Antisera raised against fusion proteins consisting of murine laminin B1 and B2 subunit sequences fused to the C-terminus of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase were tested for their subunit specificity on Western blots of deglycosylated murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) laminin. The antisera raised against B2 subunit sequences (anti-XLB2.1 and anti-XLB2.2) bound only to the EHS laminin B2 subunit. One of the antisera raised against B1 subunit sequences (anti-XLB1.2) was specific for the B1 subunit, whereas two others (anti-XLB1.1 and anti-XLB1.3) cross-reacted with the EHS laminin B2 subunit. Gold-labelled heparin-albumin was shown to bind specifically to the A subunit of deglycosylated EHS laminin on Western blots. These reagents were used to identify the homologous subunits in rat parietal-yolk-sac laminin and human placental laminin. The anti-(fusion protein) antisera identified the B1 and B2 subunits of the rat laminin, and these were similar in size to the murine EHS B subunits. Human placental laminin gave bands of 400, 340, 230, 190 and 180 kDa on reducing SDS/PAGE. The anti-(fusion protein) antisera identified the 230 and 190 kDa bands as the B1 and B2 subunits respectively. Gold-labelled heparin-albumin bound to the 400, 340 and 190 kDa bands of human placental laminin and so did not unambiguously identify a single A subunit. The human placental laminin may contain a mixture of isoforms, with alternative subunits substituting for the A subunit. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

Brown, J C; Spragg, J H; Wheeler, G N; Taylor, P W

1990-01-01

119

Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog  

PubMed Central

A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration (7.28 mmol/L; reference interval, 2.70–5.94 mmol/L), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (184 U/L; reference interval, 9–90 U/L), alanine transaminase (122 U/L; reference interval, 5–60 U/L) activity and aspartate aminotransferase (80 U/L; reference interval, 5–55 U/L) activity, severe increased total calcium concentration (16.3 mg/dL; reference interval, 8.2–12.4 mg/dL or 9.3–11.4 mg/dL), and decreased total calcium concentration (3.4 mg/dL, reference interval, 2.5–5.6mg/dL). Furthermore, testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration (38.6 pmol/L; reference interval, 3–17 pmol/L). On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, various types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Based on location and histologic features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.

Javanbakht, Javad; Tavassoli, Abbas; Sabbagh, Atefeh; Hassan, Mehdy Aghamohammmad; Samakkhah, Shohreh Alian; Shafiee, Radmehr; Lakzian, Ali; Ghalee, Vahideh Rahmani; Gharebagh, Sonia Shoja

2013-01-01

120

von Hippel-Lindau disease: Deafness due to a non-MRI-visible endolymphatic sac tumor despite targeted screening.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELSTs) of the inner ear occur in 16% of patients with the hereditary tumor syndrome von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL). ELSTs of all sizes can cause irreversible hearing loss which can, however, be prevented through early diagnosis and treatment. We aim to emphasize the challenges of prophylactic ELST screening and to explore the role of audiometry in pre-symptomatic ELST screening. Design: For a period of 17 years our patient was screened for ELSTs with inner-ear MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), audiometry, and clinical interviews. Study sample: A male vHL patient who became deaf in one ear due to a radiologically undetectable ELST. Results: Despite annual MRIs, the ELST was not visible until four months after onset of deafness when it appeared as a 1.4 × 1.4 mm tumor mass. Although his hearing was objectively within normal limits for the first 14 years, a distinct pattern of low-frequency hearing loss could retrospectively be seen at all audiometries. Conclusions: Audiometry is a candidate screening tool for detection of non-symptomatic pre-MRI-visible ELSTs, and we have initiated an international collaborative study to further determine its application. At present, we suggest an ELST screening protocol of yearly audiological assessment and inner ear MRI. PMID:24003980

Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Gimsing, Steen; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Thomsen, Carsten; Bisgaard, Marie Luise

2013-09-05

121

Case report of death from falling: Did heart tumor cause syncope?  

PubMed

A healthy man in his 30s was working on the balustrade of stairs on the second floor. He suddenly fell downstairs without saying anything. On emergency hospitalization, chest echogram showed left hemothorax. Cardiac echogram showed a floating mass from the mitral valve in the left ventricle and severe mitral regurgitation. Surgery for hemothorax and pulmonary contusion was immediately undertaken. However, bleeding from pulmonary contusion could not be controlled and he underwent cardiopulmonary arrest. Autopsy showed a white, elastic, pendulous mass in the left atrium and a white mass in the lower lobe of the left lung. Tumor histology showed a reticular pattern, Schiller-Duval bodies, eosinophilic hyaline globules, and positive staining for ?-fetoprotein. We diagnosed primary lung yolk sac tumor with metastatic intracardiac yolk sac tumor, a rare and highly malignant germ cell tumor. It usually arises in the ovaries and testes, and intracardiac yolk sac tumor is rare. Intracavitary tumors induce obstruction of inflow into and outflow from the ventricular cavity. The most common clinical presentation is dyspnea and syncope. In the present case, metastatic cardiac yolk sac tumor might have disturbed cardiac outflow and affected hemodynamics, probably causing syncope. Unfortunately, he was in a high place at that time and fell to receive pulmonary contusion that led to death. Autopsy may sometimes reveal latent diseases which might be related to the cause of death. We should perform autopsy thoroughly to diagnose not only the cause of death but also the factors leading to death. PMID:22081041

Yamamoto, Takuma; Takasu, Kosho; Emoto, Yuko; Shikata, Nobuaki; Matoba, Ryoji

2011-11-13

122

Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Young Patients With Solid Tumors That Have Relapsed or Not Responded to Treatment  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-09-27

123

NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP., SALMONELLA SEROVARS AND OTHER BACTERIA IN UNABSORBED YOLKS OF MARKET AGE COMMERCIAL BROILERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the developing avian embryo, the main energy source is the yolk. Towards the end of the incubation period, the remaining yolk sac is internalized into the abdominal cavity. At hatch, the remaining yolk comprises 20% of the chick’s body weight and provides the nutrients needed for maintenance. ...

124

Endodermal Sinus Tumor of Vagina in Infants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Endodermal sinus tumor (or Yolk Sac tumor) of the vagina is a rare malignant germcell tumor which is seen exclusively in children younger than 3 years of age. We report two cases of endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina. In both cases no radiological investigation was done and serum alpha-fetoprotein was elevated. The histopathological examination of both the tumor masses revealed vaginal endodermal sinus tumor. Periodic-acid-Schiff stain with diastase showed diastase resistant hyaline globules. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of endodermal sinus tumor in both cases. Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor is both locally aggressive and capable of metastasis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level is a useful marker for diagnosis and monitoring the recurrence of vaginal endodermal sinus tumor in infants. Early detection and therapy is important because of its aggressive nature and good response to chemotherapy.

Chauhan, Smita; Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Pallavi; Misra, Vatsala; Thakur, Brijesh

2013-01-01

125

?-Fetoprotein-Producing Non-Germ Cell Tumors of the Urological System  

PubMed Central

Elevated serum levels of ?-fetoprotein (AFP), a fetal serum protein, occur mainly in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or germ cell tumors, mainly yolk sac tumor. Rarely, other tumors of the urological system produce AFP. This article reviews the AFP-producing non-germ cell tumors of the urological tract reported to date. These include different types of tumors of the adrenal glands, kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, and testis. It is important for pathologists, urologists, and oncologists to be aware of such cases as the diagnosis affects the management plan for the patient.

El-Bahrawy, Mona

2011-01-01

126

Can tumor cell suspension serve as an optical model of tumor tissue in situ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined and compared to the optical properties of five samples obtained from xenotransplanted chick embryos chorio- allantoic membrane tumors, five samples obtained from xenotransplanted chick embryos yolk sac membrane tumors, and five samples of concentrated tumor cells suspension (small cell lung carcinoma OAT 75). The absorption coefficient (mu) a, the scattering coefficient (mu) s, the anisotropy factor g, and the reduced scattering coefficient (mu) s' were evaluated in the spectral range from 600 nm to 900 nm with a step width of 10 nm from double integrating sphere measurements using an inverse Monte Carlo technique. The results have shown that the optical properties of the concentrated tumor cell suspension are similar to those of the chorio-allantoic membrane tumor, but are essentially different from the optical properties of the yolk sac membrane tumor. Cell vitality tests have shown that the cells were alive during and after the experiments. Therefore, the tumor cell suspension can serve as an optical model of the chorio-allantoic membrane tumor in situ for testing and developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.

Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Vervoorts, Anja; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Yaroslavsky, I. V.; Moser, Joerg G.; Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim

1999-01-01

127

Two-step consumption of yolk granules during the development of quail embryos.  

PubMed

The mechanism of yolk consumption was studied morphologically and biochemically in Japanese quail Coturnix japonica. The amount of yolk granules in the yolk (or 'yolk cell') decreased in two steps during embryonic development. In the first step, during days 0-4 of incubation, the yolk-granule weight decreased at a rate of 13 mg/day. This decrease was due to segregation by endodermal cells that were newly formed in the developing yolk sac. In the second step after day 6, the decrease was drastic at a rate of 29.8 mg/day during days 6-12 and very slow thereafter. The decrease at the second step was due to the enzymatic digestion of yolk granules by cathepsin D that coexisted in yolk spheres. This digesting reaction was triggered by the solubilization of the granules with high concentrations of salts that were supplied after disruption of the limiting membrane of yolk spheres. The 'yolk cell' seemed to die around day 5 of incubation. Thus the digestion products might be taken up together with yolk lipids by endocytosis into the endodermal cells and transported to blood vessels. PMID:15206954

Yoshizaki, Norio; Soga, Marie; Ito, Yasushi; Mao, Kun Ming; Sultana, Fowzia; Yonezawa, Satoshi

2004-06-01

128

[Microglia arise from extra-embryonic yolk sac primitive progenitors].  

PubMed

Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system (CNS). Adequate microglia function is crucial for the homeostasis of the CNS in health and disease, as they represent the first line of defence against pathogens, contributing to immune responses, but are also involved in tissue repair and remodeling. It is therefore crucial to better understand microglia origin and homeostasis. Much controversy remains regarding the nature of microglial progenitors, as the exact contribution and persistence of embryonic and post-natal hematopoietic progenitors to the adult microglial pool in the steady state remained unclear. In this study, we show that post-natal hematopoietic progenitors do not significantly contribute to microglia homeostasis in the adult brain in mice. In vivo lineage tracing studies established that adult microglia derives from primitive hematopoietic progenitors that arise before embryonic day 8. These results identify microglia as an ontogenically distinct population in the mononuclear phagocyte system and have implications for the use of embryonically-derived microglial progenitors for the treatment of various brain disorders. PMID:21880259

Ginhoux, Florent; Merad, Miriam

2011-08-31

129

Sac phosphatase domain proteins.  

PubMed Central

Advances in our understanding of the roles of phosphatidylinositol phosphates in controlling cellular functions such as endocytosis, exocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton have included new insights into the phosphatases that are responsible for the interconversion of these lipids. One of these is an entirely novel class of phosphatase domain found in a number of well characterized proteins. Proteins containing this Sac phosphatase domain include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Sac1p and Fig4p. The Sac phosphatase domain is also found within the mammalian phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase synaptojanin and the yeast synaptojanin homologues Inp51p, Inp52p and Inp53p. These proteins therefore contain both Sac phosphatase and 5-phosphatase domains. This review describes the Sac phosphatase domain-containing proteins and their actions, with particular reference to the genetic and biochemical insights provided by study of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Hughes, W E; Cooke, F T; Parker, P J

2000-01-01

130

Cervical sarcoma botryoides and ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.  

PubMed

The case of a woman who developed a cervical sarcoma botryoides tumor at age 14 years and a right ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with alpha-fetoprotein production at 27 years is presented. The sarcoma botryoides was a stage 1b, 4-cm, polypoid ectocervical tumor treated by radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. The Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor was a stage 1a, 145-g mass removed piecemeal by right oophorectomy. Histologically, it was an intermediate Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with a heterologous element composed of an endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor which was producing alpha-fetoprotein. There was no histological similarity between the two tumors. The patient is alive without evidence of disease, 16 years after diagnosis of her sarcoma botryoides and 3 years after her Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. This is, to our knowledge, the third known association between these two rare gynecological tumors. The basis of the association remains unknown. PMID:9345364

Golbang, P; Khan, A; Scurry, J; MacIsaac, I; Planner, R

1997-10-01

131

Effects of temperature on yolk utilization, initial growth, and behaviour of unfed marine fish-larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature on yolk utilization, initial growth and behaviour of larvae of four species of marine fishes, i.e.,Acanthopagrus schlegeli, Engraulis japonica, Pagrus major andParalichthys olivaceus, was investigated under laboratory conditions at Hiroshima in 1989. The yolk sac was absorbed earlier with increasing temperature for all species. Morphological characters such as pectoral fin appearance, mouth opening and eye pigmentation

O. Fukuhara

1990-01-01

132

Quantitative data on blood flow during tumor PDT obtained by laser Doppler spectroscopy in the hen's egg test system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen supply is the most important requirement of type II photodynamic reactions. Prerequisite in photodynamic tumor therapy is an intact tumor blood flow during irradiation. Most photosensitizers destroy tumor vessels due to accumulation in endothelial cells. As a prerequisite to develop novel photosensitizing drugs an in-vivo test system is required to quantitatively assess for inertness of those sensitizers to the blood supply. We adapted and further developed a system capable of measuring the relative oxygen supply to heterotransplanted tumors on the yolk sac membrane (YSM) of fertilized chicken eggs.

Vervoorts, Anja; Rood, H. A.; Klotz, Marcus; Moser, Joerg G.; Rosenbruch, Martin

1995-01-01

133

Caffeine enhanced radiosensitivity of rat tumor cells with a mutant-type p53 by inducing apoptosis in a p53-independent manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiosensitizing effects of caffeine on two rat yolk sac tumor cell lines with a different p53 status were investigated. A reduction of radiation-induced G2 arrest was caused by caffeine at a concentration of 2 mM in both cell lines. The reduction of survival was observed in a combination of radiation and 2 mM caffeine only in a lower radiation

Keiko Higuchi; Norio Mitsuhashi; Jun-ichi Saitoh; Katsuya Maebayashi; Hideyuki Sakurai; Tetsuo Akimoto; Hideo Niibe

2000-01-01

134

Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

2013-05-01

135

Recurrent lacrimal sac papilloma: case report.  

PubMed

Tumors of the lacrimal sac are rare. Benign papillomas comprise approximately 40% of all neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system. They often present insidiously with symptoms of dacryostenosis or dacryocystitis. Recurrent bouts of dacryocystitis and nasolacrimal duct obstruction were reported in a 35-year-old man over a period of 13 years. A medial canthal mass was noted in the 6th year after the onset of symptoms. A tumor was discovered incidentally during surgical intervention for presumed dacryostenosis. Surgical removal of the tumor and dacryocystorhinostomy were performed. The histopathologic report turned out to be benign papiloma. Local recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. In addition to surgical excision, we applied cryotherapy and CO2 laser to prevent further recurrence. This case we presented the characteristic recurrence of lacrimal sac papilloma and implied the possibility of tumor occurrence in a patient with recurrent dacryocystitis. We must bear in mind that a recurrent dacryocystitis may be a presentation of a lacrimal sac tumor, because early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can prevent recurrence and result in a cure. PMID:10835807

Hung, S L; Ma, L

2000-02-01

136

21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs...Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are...

2009-04-01

137

21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs...Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are...

2010-04-01

138

Fibrous histiocytoma of the lacrimal sac.  

PubMed

Fibrous histiocytoma is a rare tumor whose ocular manifestations usually involve the orbit or, less commonly, the conjunctiva and ciliary body. We have treated two patients with fibrous histiocytoma of the lacrimal sac. One, a 62-year-old woman who had had hordeolum and trachoma, had a visual acuity of counting fingers at 1 m in the affected eye. The fellow eye had been enucleated ten years previously. The entire lacrimal sac was surgically removed and a brown cystic tumor measuring 28 x 12 x 10 mm was found. The second patient, a 32-year-old man, had undergone an unsuccessful dacryocystectomy for epiphora. When he underwent a dacryocystorhinostomy some months later, a mass measuring 20 x 15 x 12 mm was found in the wall of the lacrimal sac. Microscopic examination of the two excised lacrimal sacs showed that the walls were thickened by cells resembling fibroblasts and by cells resembling histiocytes. The fibroblasts were characterized by collagen production, were fusiform or oval in shape, and were arranged in bundles. The histiocytes were larger and had abundant (and sometimes vacuolated) cytoplasm. All the cells appeared to be mature. PMID:6280504

Marback, R L; Kincaid, M C; Green, W R; Iliff, W J

1982-04-01

139

SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

2013-06-01

140

In ovo peptide YY and epidermal growth factor administration and their effects on growth and yolk utilization in neonatal meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus).  

PubMed

The effects of in ovo peptide YY (PYY) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) administration on chick growth, yolk absorption and yolk stalk function in posthatch (0-5 days) meat-type or broiler chicks were determined. At Day 18 of incubation, treated eggs were injected into the air cell with 100 microl of either PYY (Trial 1) or EGF (Trial 2) at a dosage of 600 microg/kg egg weight. Saline-treated control eggs were injected similarly with 0.9% saline. At hatch, 200 microl of (51)Cr-labeled microspheres were injected into chick yolk sacs. Epidermal growth factor increased ileal wet weight adjusted for body weight as well as ileal serosal dry matter. Body weight, feed consumption and excreta weight per bird, and relative weights of the yolk sac, intestine and liver were significantly affected by age of the chick in both trials. Relative radioactivity of the yolk sac, yolk stalk, blood, liver, and kidneys were affected by bird age in Trial 2; however, there were no significant effects due to PYY or EGF treatments on relative radioactivity of the tissues and organs examined. These data suggest that PYY and EGF had no effect on yolk absorption or yolk stalk function through 5 days in the posthatch chick. PMID:11691610

Peebles, E D; Croom, J; Maslin, W R; Whitmarsh, S K; Daniel, L R; Taylor, I L

2001-11-01

141

Over-expression of HOX-8, the human homologue of the mouse Hox-8 homeobox gene, in human tumors.  

PubMed

A human ovarian yolk sac tumor cDNA library was screened for homeobox genes with an oligonucleotide probe under low stringent condition. Three homeobox genes were isolated, two of which were identified as HHO.c1 and HB24. The third was highly homologous with the mouse Hox-8 gene and was designated as HOX-8. Studies on RNAs from 25 human tumor tissues and cell lines showed that the profile of HOX-8 expression was different from those of HHO.c1 and HB24. The expression of HOX-8 was not detected in hematopoietic tumor cells, in which HHO.c1 and HB24 were highly expressed. HOX-8 was expressed at higher levels in a variety of tumors of epithelial origin than in their corresponding normal tissues more frequently than HHO.c1 and HB24. All three homeobox genes were highly expressed in a yolk sac tumor, an immature tumor of gonadal origin. These results suggest that HOX-8 plays a more important role in human tumors of epithelial origin than those of hematopoietic origin. PMID:7687426

Suzuki, M; Tanaka, M; Iwase, T; Naito, Y; Sugimura, H; Kino, I

1993-07-15

142

Endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina in children: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Malignant tumors of the vagina in infants and children are rare, with primary germ cell tumor (endodermal sinus tumor [EST]) being rarer, which carries a dismal prognosis. This tumor is often clinically mistaken as botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma and, on histopathological examination, is often misdiagnosed as clear cell adenocarcinoma. Two cases of EST of the vagina in infants aged 9 and 17 months are reported. Both the patients presented with bleeding per vagina and clinically and by ultrasonography were diagnosed as sarcoma botryoides. Both were diagnosed as primary yolk sac tumors. The serum alfa fetoprotein (AFP) level was 4325 and 9328 ng/ml, respectively. One patient aged 9 months expired 2 months after receiving chemotherapy. The other, aged 17 months, was given chemotherapy followed by surgery with reduction of the AFP levels. PMID:19679975

Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Raha, Kalpana; Sinha, Swapan K; De, Anuradha; Bera, Pranati; Pati, Shyamapada

143

Pituitary carcinoma with endolymphatic sac metastasis.  

PubMed

Pituitary carcinoma is characterized by the presence of a metastatic lesion(s) in a location non-contiguous with the original pituitary tumor. The mechanism(s) of malignant transformation are not known. A 15 year-old male was diagnosed in 1982 with a pituitary macroadenoma and acromegaly (random GH 67 ng/ml and no suppression by oral glucose). His prolactin was normal between 18 and 23 ng/ml. Transcranial resection in July 1983 was followed by radiation therapy. The tumor was immunopositive for GH and prolactin. The proliferation MIB-1 index was 0-1 %. With aqueous Octreotide 100 mcg 4× daily both GH and IGF-1 became normal. The patient was lost to follow-up and was treated by his local physician. In 2001, his IGF-1 level was 1271 ng/ml, and his random GH was 1.8-2.4 ng/ml by ILMA despite progressive increase in the dose of Sandostatin LAR to 140 mg/month in divided doses. Prolactin remained normal or minimally increased between 15 and 25 ng/ml. In 2009 he was diagnosed with the tumor in the location of left endolymphatic sac. Histological examination showed low grade pituitary carcinoma strongly immunopositive for prolactin but negative for GH. MIB-1 antibody labeled 0-5 % cells. In 2012 endoscopic resection of the pituitary tumor remnant was attempted. Immunohistochemical stains were strongly immunopositive for both prolactin and GH, similar to his original pituitary tumor. The MIB-1 proliferation index was low from 0 to 1 %. To our knowledge this is the first case of pituitary carcinoma in the endolymphatic sac region. The dichotomy between the cell population of the pituitary lesion (GH/prolactin producing) and the metastasis (purely prolactin-producing) may suggest that the metastatic pituitary lesion derived from a clone distinct from the original one. PMID:23645293

Balili, Irida; Sullivan, Steven; McKeever, Paul; Barkan, Ariel

2013-05-01

144

Cyclorraphan yolk proteins and lepidopteran minor yolk proteins originate from two unrelated lipase families.  

PubMed

Vitellogenins, cyclorraphan yolk proteins and lepidopteran minor yolk proteins are three classes of female-specific proteins that serve as an embryonic nutritional store. Similarity to vertebrate lipid-binding proteins was established for vitellogenins and yolk proteins, vitellogenins being related to apolipoprotein B and yolk proteins to lipases. Recently, similarity between yolk proteins and minor yolk proteins was reported and it was suggested that yolk proteins are more related to minor yolk proteins than to vertebrate lipases. In this study, we cloned five additional yolk proteins from the grey fleshfly Neobellieria bullata, formerly known as Sarcophaga bullata. We used this sequence data, combined with sequence data retrieved from the NCBI protein database to evaluate the yolk protein-lipase and the yolk protein-minor yolk protein relationship. We found no similarity between yolk proteins and minor yolk proteins, but we showed that yolk proteins are related to a family of lipases containing vertebrate hepatic and pancreatic lipases while minor yolk proteins are related to a family of lipases containing vertebrate gastric and lingual lipases. The fact that three different classes of yolk storage proteins show similarity to three different classes of vertebrate lipid-binding proteins strongly suggests that this lipid-binding feature is important for insect yolk storage proteins. PMID:15606810

Hens, K; Lemey, P; Macours, N; Francis, C; Huybrechts, R

2004-12-01

145

A Garlic Derivative, S-allylcysteine (SAC), Suppresses Proliferation and Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly malignant and metastatic. Currently, there is no effective chemotherapy for patients with advanced HCC leading to an urgent need to seek for novel therapeutic options. We aimed to investigate the effect of a garlic derivative, S-allylcysteine (SAC), on the proliferation and metastasis of HCC. Methodology/Principal Findings A series of in vitro experiments including MTT, colony-forming, wound-healing, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle assays were performed to examine the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of SAC on a metastatic HCC cell line MHCC97L. The therapeutic values of SAC single and combined with cisplatin treatments were examined in an in vivo orthotopic xenograft liver tumor model. The result showed that the proliferation rate and colony-forming abilities of MHCC97L cells were suppressed by SAC together with significant suppression of the expressions of proliferation markers, Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Moreover, SAC hindered the migration and invasion of MHCC97L cells corresponding with up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of VEGF. Furthermore, SAC significantly induced apoptosis and necrosis of MHCC97L cells through suppressing Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 as well as activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. In addition, SAC could significantly induce the S phase arrest of MHCC97L cells together with down-regulation of cdc25c, cdc2 and cyclin B1. In vivo xenograft liver tumor model demonstrated that SAC single or combined with cisplatin treatment inhibited the progression and metastasis of HCC tumor. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of SAC on HCC cells and suggest that SAC may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC patients.

Cheng, Qiao; Geng, Wei; Ling, Chang Chun; Li, Chang Xian; Liu, Xiao Bing; Ma, Yuen Yuen; Lo, Chung Mau; Poon, Ronnie T. P.; Fan, Sheung Tat; Man, Kwan

2012-01-01

146

Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor with pure hepatoid differentiation.  

PubMed

We describe a germ cell tumor of anterior mediastinal origin, with pure hepatoid differentiation and elevated serum AFP in a 41-year-old man. This is the first report of such a neoplasm analyzed by conventional stains and immunohistochemistry. Hepatocellular differentiation was proved by immunoreactivity with HepPar-1 and alpha-fetoproein (AFP), membranous expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA-poly) in a canalicuar pattern, and focal expression of cytokeratin 19 in abortive ductular structures. Our investigation shows that mediastinal germ cell tumors with hepatoid components typically arise in middle-aged men; they are of pure hepatoid differentiation, as demonstrated here, or exclusively associated with yolk sac structures. PMID:12530574

Theuerkauf, Ingo; Axmann, Cristoph; Wolff, Martin; Tschubel, Klaus; Fischer, Hans-Peter

2002-01-01

147

Yolk PCB and plasma retinol concentrations in shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) hatchlings.  

PubMed

To evaluate the possibilities of applying plasma retinol as a biomarker of response in seabirds exposed to chronic low levels of organochlorines, the relationship between yolk content of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and plasma retinol levels were studied in newly hatched shag chicks (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) from the coast of central Norway. The mean concentration of 29 PCB-congeners (SigmaPCB) in the yolk sac was 1.22 microgram/g ww (wet weight basis) (SD = 0.57, n = 10), or 17.99 ng/g lw (lipid weight basis) (SD = 6.26, n = 10). Expressed as TCDD-equivalents (SigmaTEQ), the exposure in the yolk sac was 43.9 pg/g ww (SD = 19.5, n = 10), or 637.1 pg/g lw (SD = 240.8, n = 10), considerably lower than the levels that have been associated with clear-cut lethal and sublethal effects such as egg mortality, hatchability, or live deformity in Phalacrocoracidae species. There were significant negative correlations between SigmaPCB ww and the variables egg volume, yolk mass, and hatchling mass. We suggest that these relationships are passive causes of a higher lipid concentration in small eggs, rather than the PCB affecting the variables. Analyses showed that there was a borderline significant positive correlation between SigmaPCB lw in yolk and plasma retinol concentration. Although the results indicate that plasma retinol level alone is a poor indicator of PCB exposure in shag hatchlings, the result may be related to the low level of contaminant exposure and the low sample size of the study. PMID:10047599

Murvoll, K M; Skaare, J U; Nilssen, V H; Bech, C; Ostnes, J E; Jenssen, B M

1999-04-01

148

Ear Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... and causing hearing loss and a buildup of earwax. Such tumors include small sacs filled with skin ... ear. Ceruminoma (cancer of the cells that produce earwax) develops in the outer third of the ear ...

149

Surgical Treatment of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Lacrimal Sac.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: We report successful management of a case with high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lacrimal sac managed by aggressive soft tissue and bony resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods: Case report. Results: A 32-year-old man was referred to us with a two-year history of epiphora and slow-growing mass in the area of the lacrimal sac. On physical examination, a firm and nontender mass was visible overlying the area of the right lacrimal sac. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a 30?mm?×?15?mm, well-enhanced soft tissue mass occupying the lacrimal fossa and extending to include the nasolacrimal duct, and FNA biopsy of the mass demonstrated high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. On this basis, the tumor, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct were removed en bloc with the frontal process of the maxilla, lateral nasal wall, lacrimal fossa, ethmoids, and anterior part of the medial orbital wall with two intraoperative frozen section examinations. Postoperatively, the patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. The clinical evaluation and positron emission tomography at 38 months showed recovery and no recurrence of the disease. Conclusions: MEC of the lacrimal sac is extremely rare and spreads locally in an aggressive manner. Despite the fact that orbital exenteration have generally been recommended for these tumors, radical surgical resections with external radiation therapy might be effective. In our case, despite the high-grade MEC, the patient underwent successful radical surgical excision and postoperative adjuvant external radiotherapy. As a result, we achieved an aesthetically satisfying result by preserving the eye and the vision. PMID:23758339

Yuksel, Dilek; Kosker, Mustafa; Saribas, Ferhat; Simsek, Saban

2013-06-12

150

Yolk-platelet formation in oocytes of Xenopus laevis (Daudin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yolk-platelet formation in the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, was studied with the electron microscope. A dual mode of formation was found. One being associated with mitochondria, the other with the Golgi complex. These two ways of yolk formation are named yolk formation I and yolk formation II respectively. Yolk formation I involves an extensive uptake of pinocytotic vesicles,

Udo M. Spornitz; Annetrudi Kress

1971-01-01

151

AN ETIOLOGIC CONSIDERATION OF DONOVANIA GRANULOMATIS CULTIVATED FROM GRANULOMA INGUINALE (THREE CASES) IN EMBRYONIC YOLK  

PubMed Central

1. A microorganism identical with that originally described by Anderson has been cultivated in pure strain from two additional cases of granuloma inguinale by means of inoculating the yolk of chick embryos with uncontaminated human tissue containing Donovan bodies. 2. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the three isolated strains are described and discussed. 3. This microorganism has been cultivated in vitro only in media containing embryonic yolk. It failed to grow on any of a variety of artificial media. 4. It has not proved to be pathogenic for common experimental animals. 5. The Donovan body is reproduced in the epithelial cells of the yolk sac and in the yolk. The microorganism evidently reproduces both extracellularly and intracellularly. 6. The microorganism produces in culture antigens that elicit immune reactions in the skin and serum of granuloma inguinale patients. 7. This microorganism is judged to be a bacterium and the etiological agent of granuloma inguinale. 8. It is proposed that these strains of the bacterium be the type of a new genus, Donovania, in recognition of Donovan's original description of the pathognomonic bodies of granuloma inguinale; and that the specific name granulomatis be applied to designate its relationship to the characteristic lesion of the disease.

Anderson, Katherine; DeMonbreun, W. A.; Goodpasture, E. W.

1945-01-01

152

Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-07-01

153

Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

2013-07-01

154

Determination of the Thecal Sac Ending Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Clinical Applications in Craniospinal Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose : To determine level of the thecal sac ending in unaffected individuals of young age-group and in patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) seeding tumor using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Material and Method : MRI of the lumbosacral spine of 253 cases (age range 1-40 years) had been reviewed. Of these, 20 cases were known having CSF seeding tumors. Two

Sith Phongkitkarun

155

Krüppel-like factor 2 regulated gene expression in mouse embryonic yolk sac erythroid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

KLF2 is a Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor required for blood vessel, lung, T-cell and erythroid development. KLF2?\\/? mice die by embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), due to hemorrhaging and heart failure. In KLF2?\\/? embryos, ?-like globin gene expression is reduced, and E10.5 erythroid cells exhibit abnormal morphology. In this study, other genes regulated by KLF2 were identified by comparing E9.5 KLF2?\\/?

Latasha C. Redmond; Catherine I. Dumur; Kellie J. Archer; Dennis R. Grayson; Jack L. Haar; Joyce A. Lloyd

2011-01-01

156

Primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac: the first reported case.  

PubMed

Primary lacrimal sac tumor is extremely rare, and moreover, glandular tumor is exceptional. Herein, we described the first documented case of primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac. A 79-year-old Japanese female presented with persistent swelling of her left lower eyelid. Computed tomography demonstrated an irregular-shaped tumor involving the left lacrimal sac, lower eyelid, sinonasal tract, and internal side of the left orbit. Biopsy from the eyelid revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Histopathological study of the resected lacrimal sac tumor revealed an infiltrative neoplastic growth that was composed of cribriform structures with comedonecrosis. The neoplastic cells had relatively rich granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and large round to oval nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli. The left cervical lymph nodes had metastatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 and androgen receptor. Moreover, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 4E-BP1, and p4E-BP1 were expressed. According to these results, an ultimate diagnosis of primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac was made. Only 9 cases of primary lacrimal sac adenocarcinoma have been reported, and this is the first reported case of ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland shows an aggressive clinical course, and the present case had multiple cervical lymph node metastases. This report is the first to demonstrate that mTOR pathway proteins, which are central proteins involved in carcinogenesis, are activated in ductal adenocarcinoma. Therefore, mTOR inhibitor may be a potential candidate for treatment of this highly aggressive carcinoma. PMID:24040460

Ishida, Mitsuaki; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Kohzaki, Hideaki; Arikata, Masahiko; Shimizu, Takeshi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

2013-08-15

157

Apolipoprotein E gene expression correlates with endogenous lipid nutrition and yolk syncytial layer lipoprotein synthesis during fish development.  

PubMed

During embryogenesis of teleost fish, the formation of a yolk syncytial layer (YSL) enables the resorption of the yolk reserves and development up to the larval stage. We have examined the changes of the yolk cell structure in relation to yolk and oil-globule lipid utilization during development of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). After encapsulation by the YSL, resorption of the single, large oil globule occurred predominantly after yolk resorption and was slower in fasting larvae. The YSL was in contact with an enlarged perisyncytial space, but no vascular network or red blood cells were present within the walls of the yolk sac. Intrasyncytial channels infiltrated by pigmented lining cells were observed in the YSL surrounding the oil globule. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has a prominent role in lipid metabolism because of its ability to interact with lipoprotein receptors. We performed molecular cloning of the putative low-density lipoprotein-receptor binding domain of turbot apoE. In situ hybridization analysis revealed a very high level of apoE transcripts in the YSL, while no expression could be detected in the intestine. YSL apoE expression was correlated with the synthesis of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. An extraordinarily high number of VLDL particles were poured into the perisyncytial space, and intrasyncytial channels enabled the transfer of yolk- and oil globule-derived lipids to the developing embryo or larva. The pattern of apoE mRNA distribution in relation to YSL lipoprotein synthesis indicates that apoE expression is a suitable molecular marker for monitoring endogenous lipid nutrition during the endoexotrophic period of teleost fish development. PMID:10867821

Poupard, G; André, M; Durliat, M; Ballagny, C; Boeuf, G; Babin, P J

2000-05-01

158

Egg yolk antibodies for passive immunity.  

PubMed

The avian egg contains all of the necessary nutrients and growth factors required for the developing embryo, including antibodies that are transported from the blood of the hen into the egg yolk to provide immunity to the chick. Since the discovery of egg yolk antibodies, now called immunoglobulin Y (IgY), in the late 1800s, this process has been harnessed to produce antigen-specific yolk antibodies for numerous applications in the medical and research fields, including in areas such as diagnostics and proteomics. However, one of the most valuable and promising areas of IgY research is its use for passive immunization to treat and prevent human and animal diseases. The following review covers the key features and advantages of IgY and the production and purification of IgY from the egg yolk, as well as highlights some of the most promising applications of egg yolk antibodies in human and veterinary medicine. PMID:22136128

Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Mine, Yoshinori

2011-11-28

159

SAC Headquarters Underground Command Center Cutaway Axonometric Offutt ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SAC Headquarters Underground Command Center - Cutaway Axonometric - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

160

Sisters of the sinuses: cetacean air sacs.  

PubMed

This overview assesses some distinguishing features of the cetacean (whale, dolphin, porpoise) air sac system that may relate to the anatomy and function of the paranasal sinuses in terrestrial mammals. The cetacean respiratory tract has been modified through evolution to accommodate living in water. Lack of paranasal sinuses in modern cetaceans may be a diving adaptation. Bone-enclosed air chambers are detrimental, as their rigid walls may fracture during descent/ascent due to contracting/re-expanding air volumes. Flexible-walled "sinuses" (extracranial diverticula) are a logical adaptation to diving. Odontocetes (toothed whales) exhibit several pairs of paranasal air sacs. Although fossil evidence indicates that paranasal sinuses occur in archaeocetes (ancestors/relatives of living cetaceans), it is not known whether the paranasal sacs derive from these sinuses. Sac pigmentation indicates that they derived from invaginations of the integument. Unlike sinuses, paranasal sacs are not circumferentially enclosed in bone, and therefore can accommodate air volume changes that accompany diving pressure changes. Paired pterygoid sacs, located ventrally along the cetacean skull, connect the pharynx and middle ear cavities. Mysticetes (baleen whales) have a large midline laryngeal sac. Although cetacean air sacs do not appear to be homologous to paranasal sinuses, they may serve some analogous respiratory, vocal, or structural functions. For example, these sacs may participate in gas exchange, thermoregulation, resonance, and skeletal pneumatization. In addition, they may subserve unique aquatic functions, such as increasing inspiratory volume, mitigating pressure-induced volume change, air shunting to reduce respiratory dead space, and facilitating underwater sound production and transmission. PMID:18951477

Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

2008-11-01

161

Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-05-01

162

21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs...Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by...

2009-04-01

163

21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs...Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by...

2010-04-01

164

Yolk organelles and their membranes during vitellogenesis of Xenopus oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The yolk platelets ofXenopus laevis have been studied by thin-section and freeze-fracture electron microscopy to characterize the boundary membrane during yolk\\u000a formation. Throughout vitellogenesis, large yolk platelets are in close contact with smaller nascent yolk organelles. Two\\u000a types of primordial yolk platelets (I and II) have been discriminated. After membrane fusion these precursors can be completely\\u000a incorporated into the main

H.-P. Richter

1989-01-01

165

Effectivity of pazopanib treatment in orthotopic models of human testicular germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Cisplatin (CDDP) resistance in testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is still a clinical challenge, and one associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this work was to test pazopanib, an anti-tumoral and anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitor, and its combination with lapatinib (an anti-ErbB inhibitor) in mouse orthotopic models of human testicular GCTs. Methods We used two different models of human testicular GCTs orthotopically grown in nude mice; a CDDP-sensitive choriocarcinoma (TGT38) and a new orthotopic model generated from a metastatic GCT refractory to first-line CDDP chemotherapy (TGT44). Nude mice implanted with these orthotopic tumors were treated with the inhibitors and the effect on tumoral growth and angiogenesis was evaluated. Results TGT44 refractory tumor had an immunohistochemical profile similar to the original metastasis, with characteristics of yolk sac tumor. TGT44 did not respond when treated with cisplatin. In contrast, pazopanib had an anti-angiogenic effect and anti-tumor efficacy in this model. Pazopanib in combination with lapatinib in TGT38, an orthotopic model of choriocarcinoma had an additive effect blocking tumor growth. Conclusions We present pazopanib as a possible agent for the alternative treatment of CDDP-sensitive and CDDP-refractory GCT patients, alone or in combination with anti-ErbB therapies.

2013-01-01

166

21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

2013-04-01

167

Egg Yolk antibody and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hen transfers her serum immumnoglobulin G to the egg yolk (IgY) and gives im|munity to her offspring. Therefore, the hen\\u000a egg can be an effective supplier of a large amount of antigen specific antibody that accumulates in the egg yolk. Antigen\\u000a specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as pure

Mujo Kim; Shinji Higashiguchi; Yoshitomo Iwamoto; Han-Chul Yang; Hong-Yon Cho; Hajime Hatta

2000-01-01

168

Yolk synthesis in ovarian follicles of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomous synthesis of yolk proteins in ovarian follicles ofDrosophila melanogaster was analyzed. Vitellogenic follicles were labelled with35S-methionine in vitro and the newly synthesized yolk proteins were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Possible contamination of the follicle preparations caused by adhering fat body cells could be excluded by culturing follicles in males prior to labelling in vitro. When labelled follicles

Herwig O. Gutzeit

1980-01-01

169

[Ultrastructure of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The ovarian endodermal sinus tumor is a relatively rare type of malignant neoplasm. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells proved to have numbers of ribosomes, glycogen granules and well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the mitochondria. The photomicroscopically visible hyaline globules were observed as round homogeneous non-structural substances both in and outside the cytoplasm. It was surmised that it is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The tumor cells could be classified into three types on the basis of the forms of cytoplasmic organella and intracellular homogeneous spheres. The first type of cell proved to be well-developed cytoplasmic organella, with a few small spheres and a large aggregate of glycogen granules and ribosomes. The second type of cell proved to have extensive non-structural cytoplasm and a number of largesized spheres. The third type was deemed to be of the intermediate type. In other words, it was assumed that morphological changes were responsible for the tumor cells changing from the first type to the second type. A similarity was noted between these ultrastructures and the yolk sac endodermal cells of the very initial stage, therefore the name endodermal sinus tumor was assumed to be adequate. PMID:6165792

Yoshida, M; Murakami, M; Nakajima, H; Yamabe, T

1980-06-01

170

Presence, isolation and characterization of yolk DNA from chicken eggs.  

PubMed

Yolk DNA was detected with immunocytochemistry in fertilized chicken eggs. Yolk spheres were purifield with Ficoll-400 density gradient centrifugation, followed by extraction of DNA therein. Yolk DNA is sensitive to various restriction endonucleases. but shows no obvious bands, demonstrating its sequence heterogeneity. There is only a little, if any, methylated CpG in yolk DNA. judgmg from MspI and HpII digestion. Southern blot indicated that the sequence of yolk DNA accounts for a small portion of that of genomic DNA. Its uniqueness suggests that yolk DNA may play a crucial role in early development of chickens. PMID:18425630

Lijun, S; Lei, Y; Chuchu, C

1998-06-01

171

BAM Media M84: Liver-Veal-Egg Yolk Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M84: Liver-Veal-Egg Yolk Agar. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M84 Liver-Veal-Egg Yolk Agar. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

172

Making Cake Doughnut Mixes with Yolk-Containing Egg Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mix contains flour, sugar, shortening, skim milk solids, dried egg yolk, salt and baking powder. The main feature of the method concerns the preparation and the utilization of yolk products exhibiting moderate heatenduced change (that is, having a pro...

T. F. Sugihara L. Kline

1964-01-01

173

Histopathology after Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Meniere's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The putative goal of sac surgery in Meniere’s syndrome is to promote the flow of endolymph from the labyrinth to the endolymphatic sac, and thereby relieving hydrops. There is scant published histopathological data whether sac surgery actually accomplishes this goal. Objective To determine if sac surgery relieves hydrops by examining the histopathologic changes in temporal bones obtained from individuals who had undergone sac surgery during life for Meniere’s syndrome. Methods Temporal bones were examined from 15 patients who had sac surgery. Data was collected on presence and severity of hydrops, histology of the sac, and whether the procedure relieved vertigo. Results The surgery failed to expose the sac in 5 cases; 4 of the 5 had relief from vertigo. The sac was exposed, but the shunt failed to reach the lumen of the sac in 8 cases; 4 of the 8 had relief from vertigo. The shunt was successfully placed within the lumen of the sac in two cases; both cases failed to experience relief from vertigo. Endolymphatic hydrops was present in all 15 cases. Conclusion Endolymphatic sac surgery does not relieve hydrops in patients with Meniere’s syndrome. Yet, sac surgery relieves vertigo in some patients, but the mechanism of such symptomatic relief remains unknown.

Chung, Jong Woo; Fayad, Jose; Linthicum, Fred; Ishiyama, Akira; Merchant, Saumil N.

2011-01-01

174

Presence, isolation and characterization of yolk DNA from chicken eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yolk DNA was detected with immunocytochemistry in fertilized chicken eggs. Yolk spheres were purifield with Ficoll-400 density\\u000a gradient centrifugation, followed by extraction of DNA therein. Yolk DNA is sensitive to various restriction endonucleases.\\u000a but shows no obvious bands, demonstrating its sequence heterogeneity. There is only a little, if any, methylated CpG in yolk\\u000a DNA. judgmg from MspI and HpII digestion.

Lijun Sun; Lei Yu; Chuchu Chen

1998-01-01

175

The Egg Yolk Reaction of Aerobic Sporing Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

yolk medium. The yolk reaction was due to the action of phospholipinase produced by the organisms. As in the case of Cl. we&hii a-toxin, the yolk curd-forming activity of B. cereus and B. mycoides also was associated with haemolytic activity. The substances responsible for these activities appear to be sirhilar, and may be identical. The yolk reaction has proved useful

C. A. McGAUGHEY; H. P. CHu

1989-01-01

176

Range of Validity of SAC Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAC method is a semi-empirical method for analysing the emission lines of ions, having a complex spectrum, like Fe^+. The method and the assumptions it makes, are discussed. Radiative transfer calculations are needed to check their ranges of validity.

Friedjung, M.

177

Comparing and Contrasting NAEYC and SACS Accreditation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to describe, compare, and contrast an early childhood departmental accreditation process from the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and a college/university-wide accreditation process from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). The history of higher education…

Isaacs, Mary Ruth

2010-01-01

178

13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

179

8. SAC command center underground structure, building 501, basement entry, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SAC command center underground structure, building 501, basement entry, machine room, April 11, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

180

72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

181

11. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

182

10. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building 501, circa 1980 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

183

75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

184

76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

185

12. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building 501, circa 1960 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

186

9. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

187

Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe

Hiroyuki Ishibashi; Tsuneo Ishiguchi; Takashi Ohta; Ikuo Sugimoto; Hirohide Iwata; Tetsuya Yamada; Masao Tadakoshi; Noriyuki Hida; Yuki Orimoto; Seiji Kamei

2010-01-01

188

Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

2011-01-01

189

Egg size, postembryonic yolk, and survival ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonates of many species are dependent upon a post-embryonic yolk (PEY), a residual of the energy reserve of the developing embryo. Offspring hatching from large eggs have relatively more PEY than offspring from small eggs. Among daphniid Cladocera, large species produce larger eggs than smaller species. We have found that the proportional amount of energy reserve in eggs of five

C. E. Goulden; L. Henry; D. Berrigan

1987-01-01

190

Egg yolk protein gels and emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg yolk remains a key ingredient of a number of food products. Yet, its main functional properties, e.g. emulsifying ability and gel structure formation, upon heating, have not attracted the attention of too many researchers specializing in the area of food colloids. It is not surprising then that there have been only very few major advances in the field over

V Kiosseoglou

2003-01-01

191

Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

2011-01-01

192

RNF4 is a growth inhibitor expressed in germ cells but not in human testicular tumors.  

PubMed

The RING-finger protein RNF4 modulates both steroid-receptor-dependent and basal transcription and interacts with a variety of nuclear proteins involved in cell growth control. RNF4 is expressed at very high levels in testis and at much lower levels in several other tissues. We show that in germ cells RNF4 expression is strongly modulated during progression of spermatogonia to spermatids, with a peak in spermatocytes. Analysis of human testicular germ cell tumors shows that RNF4 is not expressed in all tumors analyzed including seminomas, the highly malignant embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac, and mixed germ cell tumors. We also show that the ectopically expressed RNF4 gene inhibits cell proliferation of both somatic and germ cell tumor-derived cells. Mutation of critical cysteine residues in the RING finger domain abolished the RNF4 growth inhibition activity. Our results suggest that the lack of RNF4 expression may play a role in the progression of testicular tumors. PMID:11583949

Pero, R; Lembo, F; Di Vizio, D; Boccia, A; Chieffi, P; Fedele, M; Pierantoni, G M; Rossi, P; Iuliano, R; Santoro, M; Viglietto, G; Bruni, C B; Fusco, A; Chiariotti, L

2001-10-01

193

Modified grading system for clinical outcome of intracranial non-germinomatous malignant germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the clinical outcome of intracranial non-germinomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs). All histologically proven cases of NGMGCTs treated in Shanghai Huashan Hospital, Fudan University were reviewed. A total of 39 cases were analyzed. There were 15 mixed germ cell tumors, 15 immature teratomas, 7 embryonal carcinomas and 2 yolk sac tumors. Patients were treated surgically first, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Some patients also received gamma knife surgery. The common 5-year survival rate was 36.8%. According to Matsutani’s grading system, the 5-year actuarial survival rate for patients in the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 45.8 and 14.3%, respectively. Individual analysis of each type of tumor showed that the median survival time of embryonal carcinoma was 27 months, which is very close to that of the intermediate group (28 months). We therefore classified embryonal carcinoma into the intermediate group where the 5-year actuarial survival rate for patients in the new intermediate prognosis group was 42.6%. Further analysis of immature teratoma cases found that the 5-year survival rate of patients with immature teratoma who received gamma knife surgery is 100%. This rate exhibited a significant difference (P=0.0049) compared to that of patients who did not undergo gamma knife surgery. In conclusion, we consider surgery as the first choice of treatment although for different histologis, the type of the tumor should be treated separately.

HUANG, XIANG; ZHANG, RONG; MAO, YING; ZHOU, LIANG-FU

2010-01-01

194

Extragonadal germ cell tumors: a fine-needle aspiration biopsy study.  

PubMed

Germ cell tumors (GCT) are neoplasms that originate predominately in the ovary and testis. Tumors of germ cell origin only very uncommonly arise in extragonadal sites. We have diagnosed ten primary malignant extragonadal GCT arising in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, liver, and sacrococcygeal region by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Patient ages ranged from 1 to 54 years; the majority were males. Our series included three seminomas, three yolk sac tumors (YST), one choriocarcinoma, one embryonal carcinoma, and two mixed, poorly differentiated GCT. In aspirates, seminomatous elements are dissociated with uniform mononucleate cells having large vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli. A tigroid background is produced with Diff-Quik-stained smears. YST yields cohesive clusters of cells with large nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm, and extracellular hyaline matrix (spheres or hyaline globules). Giant multinucleate tumor cells are seen in choriocarcinoma. Embryonal carcinoma yields cellular smears of hyperchromatic cells with scant cytoplasm arranged predominantly in glandular or papillary formations. Ultrastructural (four cases) and immunocytochemical (seven cases) studies of aspirated material corroborated our cytologic interpretations. Aneuploid tumor cells were found by flow cytometry in aspirated material from a YST. Subsequent histologic examinations were performed on eight, and all were confirmatory. Although extragonadal GCT are relatively uncommon, they need to be considered in FNAB material from midline mass lesions. Ancillary studies were useful in confirming their diagnosis. PMID:7621717

Collins, K A; Geisinger, K R; Wakely, P E; Olympio, G; Silverman, J F

1995-05-01

195

Laparoscopic pancreatic cystgastrostomy: the lesser sac technique.  

PubMed

Management of pancreatic pseudocysts has remained largely unchanged during the past century. Excision and drainage procedures remain the mainstay of therapy for large, persistent, or symptomatic pseudocysts. Laparoscopic approaches to the management of pancreatic pseudocysts have been previously described. The lesser sac approach is an effective means of creating a hemostatic cystgastrostomy through a single posterior gastrotomy. This procedure is performed by creating a cystotomy and posterior wall gastrotomy through which an endoscopic stapler is applied. The cystotomy-gastrotomy is closed using laparoscopically placed sutures. An endoscope is inserted into the stomach and pseudocyst at the conclusion of the procedure to ensure an airtight anastomosis. The lesser sac approach to pancreatic cystgastrostomy allows for a minimally invasive approach to the management of pancreatic pseudocysts using a single gastrotomy. PMID:11444753

Roth, J S; Park, A E

2001-06-01

196

The cul-de-sac phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

96% of cul-de-sac entrances made by 36 rats exhibited homolaterality of turns inside and outside of the blind alley; i.e., the turns inside and outside of the alley were in the same direction. With symmetrically located paths the incidence of homolaterality reached 98.4%. The frequency of homolaterality of turns increased directly with the logarithm of the number of successive trials.

L. S. Tsai

1931-01-01

197

Thermomechanical reliability of SAC leadfree alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, thermo-mechanical reliability of four different low-silver SnAgCu (SAC) lead free alloys is investigated in a harsh thermal environment of -55 to 125°C. Four configuration of test boards were assembled all having identical 100 I\\/O, 0.8mm pitch chip array ball grid array (CABGA) packages. Previous researchers have demonstrated the superior performance of low-silver leadfree alloys in shock and

Pradeep Lall; Robert Hinshaw; Ranjit Pandher; Mahendra Harsha; Jeff Suhling

2010-01-01

198

The SAC-D/Aquarius mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the SAC-D/Aquarius Mission is to contribute to the understanding of the whole Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. The measurements performed by this observatory shall contribute to a better interpretation of oceanic circulation and the prediction of its changes, as well as its effects on the Earth climate and the water cycle. The SAC-D/Aquarius Mission comprises the SAC-D satellite provided by CONAE, NASA Aquarius instrument for measuring sea salinity, CONAE instruments, included the New InfraRed Scanner Technology (NIRST) camera, the K-band radiometers, which will provided complementary surface temperature measurements, surface winds, rainfall and characteristics of sea ice. A high sensitivity Optical Camera and the Data Collection Transceptor complete the set of Argentine instruments that shall be designed and built by CONAE with the participation of other scientific organizations in the country. Another possible contributions are: the LAGRANGE instrument of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), devoted to observations of GPS satellite occultations in order to supply information about the atmosphere temperature, pressure and water vapor pressure contents and the SODAD instrument of the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), for the measurement of the properties of micrometeorites and space debris. This set of instruments was defined taking into account the Cycles of Space Information II and III of the National Space Program, which refer to coastal and oceanic studies, sea-atmosphere-land interactions, global phenomena such as El Niño and emergency management This Mission will be positioned into orbit in September 2008, by a NASA provided Delta II spacecraft. The command, control, monitoring and data acquisition shall be in charge of CONAE's Córdoba Ground Station. The analysis and interpretation of data shall be performed by a considerable number of scientists, who have already held a first meeting with an attendance of over 70 professionals from our country and abroad, where subjects associated to dissemination and use of the SAC-D/Aquarius Mission results were discussed, in addition to the strictly scientific themes. In a second meeting, to be held next April, there will be also researchers from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and NASA's HYDROS satellite missions in order to coordinate international working groups on sea salinity and soil moisture. The main characteristics of the SAC-D/Aquarius Mission and its instruments are reported in this paper.

Colomb, F. R.; Lagerloef, G.

199

[Avian yolk antibodies in diagnosis and research].  

PubMed

Hens were immunized with bacterial polysaccharide (alginate), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and potato viruses (PVA, PVS, PVM, PVX, and PVY). The antibodies were isolated noninvasively from the yolks of laid eggs. The purified yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) were tested in an array of various assays and diagnostic techniques. The methods employed were precipitation reactions, immun-electrophoresis, ELISA (after biotinylation of IgY), immuno-gold electron microscopy, and western and immuno blotting. Some of these methods had to be modified according to the special requirements of avian antibodies. The special handling of this animal system is described in regard to antibody production. The results demonstrate that IgY derived from hens can replace IgG produced by traditional methods in mammals. The advantages of this alternate animal system are emphasized in respect to animal care, high productivity, and special suitability of avian antibodies for certain diagnostic purposes. PMID:9035974

Gross, M; Speck, J

1996-10-01

200

An anatomical study of the respiratory air sacs in ostriches.  

PubMed

An accurate description of the number, location and relative position of the air sacs and their diverticula in the ostrich is essential for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of air sacculitis in this bird. The air sacs were studied in ten ostriches of varying ages by latex or silicone casting of the respiratory tract and dissection. Results revealed that the air sacs of the ostrich conform to the general pattern in birds. Cervical, lateral and medial clavicular, cranial and caudal thoracic, and abdominal air sacs are present. The left and right medial clavicular air sacs fuse with each other ventrally to the trachea to form a single, median compartment. A unique, large gastric diverticulum which covers the caudal aspects of the proventriculus and gizzard originates from the median compartment of the clavicular air sac. The lateral clavicular air sacs and their diverticula are similar to those of other bird species, with the exception that humeral diverticula are absent. Both abdominal air sacs are relatively small, with the left sac being the larger. Perirenal and femoral diverticula, similar to those found in other bird species, are present. However, the entire femur is aerated by the femoral diverticulum which also forms a large, subcutaneous division caudally and caudo-laterally to the femur. The presence of this subcutaneous part has practical implications for injury and intramuscular injections. The number and location of ostia connecting the air sacs to the bronchial tree are generally similar to those reported in other bird species. PMID:10689704

Bezuidenhout, A J; Groenewald, H B; Soley, J T

1999-12-01

201

Occurrence of waxy?textured yolk in the egg of the domestic hen (gallus domesticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. An unusual yolk material (waxy yolk) was identified in some hard boiled yolks of one strain of domestic hen. Its structure was consistent with it being formed from normal yolk through disruption of the yolk spheres. These are normally stable during even long periods of storage.2. Formation occurs mainly after ovulation, during passage of the egg down the oviduct;

A. B. Gilbert; Marion A. Walker; D. Waddington; Margaret M. Perry; S. G. Tullett

1987-01-01

202

Chicken egg yolk antibodies for cytokinin analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production, isolation, and purification of specific chicken immunoglobulins (Igs) against three main groups of naturally\\u000a occurring cytokinins are reported. The specific Igs directed against, respectively, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin riboside,\\u000a and isopentenyladenosine are extracted from the egg yolk and used in radioimmunoassays that allow the quantification in parallel\\u000a of pmol of the cytokinins in plant extracts. As little as 50

P. Redig; E. Prinsen; N. Schryvers; H. Van Onckelen

1996-01-01

203

Strain-rate effects on mechanical properties for SAC387 and SAC105-Y solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, solder alloy of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC387) and Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-Y (SAC105-Y), where Y is a small addition of a fourth element, were tested at room temperature to study the strain-rate-dependent elastic modulus and yield strength of the solder. Nano-indentation tests were conducted at various strain rates from 10-3 to 101 1\\/s by using the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) technique. Microstructures

Luhua Xu; Kok Ee Tan; John H. L. Pang

2008-01-01

204

Migratory constraints on yolk precursors limit yolk androgen deposition and underlie a brood reduction strategy in rockhopper penguins.  

PubMed

Hormonally mediated maternal effects link maternal phenotype and environmental conditions to offspring phenotype. The production of lipid-rich maternal yolk precursors may provide a mechanism by which lipophilic steroid hormones can be transported to developing yolks, thus predicting a positive correlation between yolk precursors in mothers and androgen levels in eggs. Using rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), which produce a two-egg clutch characterized by extreme egg-size dimorphism, reversed hatching asynchrony and brood-reduction, we examined correlations between circulating concentrations of the primary yolk-precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and levels of yolk androgens. Previous work in Eudyptes penguins has shown that egg-size dimorphism is the product of migratory constraints on yolk precursor production. We predicted that if yolk precursors are constrained, androgen transport to developing yolks would be similarly constrained. We reveal positive linear relationships between maternal VTG and androgens in small A-eggs but not larger B-eggs, which is consistent with a migratory constraint operating on the A-egg. Results suggest that intra-clutch variation in total yolk androgen levels depends on the production and uptake of yolk precursors. The brood reduction strategy common to Eudyptes might thus be best described as the result of a migratory constraint. PMID:22809718

Crossin, Glenn T; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; Williams, Tony D; Eens, Marcel; Quillfeldt, Petra

2012-07-18

205

Effects of Egg and Yolk Weights on Yolk Antibody (IgY) Production in Laying Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Twenty 35-wk-old chickens, including 10 Single Comb,White,Leghorn,(SCWL) and,10 Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens, were used to examine the effects of egg,and,yolk,weights,on,egg,yolk,antibody,(IgY) production,in the two,strains of chickens,immunized with BSA. The SCWL chickens,had,a greater (P 0.05) between the SCWL and,RIR chickens. Similarities between,the two,strains of hens,were,also observed,in protein and total IgY contents,(expressed as the percentage,of wet weight,of yolk) and,the percentage,of BSA-specific

X. LI; T. NAKANO; H. H. SUNWOO; B. H. PAEK; H. S. CHAE; J. S. SIM

206

Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Mass; Neoplasm ... removed for cosmetic reasons. Benign tumors of the brain may be removed because of their location or harmful effect on the surrounding normal brain tissue. If a tumor is cancer, possible treatments ...

207

Periocular dirofilariasis mimicking lacrimal sac mucocoele.  

PubMed

Abstract Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by filarial nematodes belonging to the genus dirofilariae. Dirofilaria is commonly seen in dogs, cats and other carnivorous animals world wide. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex, Anopheles and Aedes are the vectors and the humans are either incidental hosts or dead-end hosts. It affects lungs, liver and other visceral organs. Ocular involvement is rarely been reported. We present a case of 51-year-old female from Kerala, the southern State of India presented with a mass mimicking lacrimal sac mucocoele whose biopsy is proved to be dirofilariasis. PMID:23895409

Pauly, Marian; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Hussain, Rameez N; Anantharaman, Giridhar

2013-07-29

208

First Argentine scientific satellite - SAC I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans for SAC I, an Argentine scientific satellite to be launched at the next solar maximum to an orbit with altitude 500 km, period 95 min, and inclination 97 deg to study high-energy-particle interactions in the solar atmosphere, are summarized. The history and organization of the project are traced; the scientific goals and instrumentation are characterized; and the proposed spacecraft configurations is illustrated with drawings. Lists of equipment parameters are provided, and the project status (at the end of the definition and feasibility studies) is discussed.

Sanchez Pena, M.; Machado, M. E.

1984-10-01

209

Properties of RR Tel using SAC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAC method is a semi-empirical method of analysing the emission lines of ions with a complicated spectrum like Fe+. In a common work with Mrs. D. Kotnik-Karuza, we applied the method to the symbiotic RR Tel. We were able to obtain information on the excitation temperature, non-LTE effects, the radius of the line formation region and the column density. All these results support formation of the emission lines in the wind of the cool giant component. It was possible to determine a minimum mass loss rate for this star.

Friedjung, Michael; Kotnik-Karuza, D.; Selvelli, P. L.

2001-05-01

210

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147...147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests...Inspector, the eggs which are used in egg yolk testing must be selected from...

2009-01-01

211

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147...147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests...Inspector, the eggs which are used in egg yolk testing must be selected from...

2010-01-01

212

Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Intraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical\\u000a significance of sac pressure measurement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during\\u000a EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial

Hiroyuki Ishibashi; Tsuneo Ishiguchi; Takashi Ohta; Ikuo Sugimoto; Hirohide Iwata; Tetsuya Yamada; Masao Tadakoshi; Noriyuki Hida; Yuki Orimoto; Seiji Kamei

2010-01-01

213

The Major Yolk Proteins of Higher Diptera Are Homologs of a Class of Minor Yolk Proteins in Lepidoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

  In most oviparous animals, including insects, vitellogenin (Vg) is the major yolk protein precursor. However, in the higher\\u000a Diptera (cyclorrhaphan flies), a class of proteins homologous to lipoprotein lipases called yolk polypeptides (YP) are accumulated\\u000a by oocytes instead of Vg, which is not produced at all. Lepidopterans (moths) produce Vg as the major yolk protein precursor,\\u000a but also manufacture a

Thomas W. Sappington

2002-01-01

214

Endolymphatic sac tumour. A case report.  

PubMed

We present the case of a patient with an endolymphatic sac tumour (ELST). This rare tumour entity has only recently been defined and despite a well characterized clinical appearance misdiagnosis as jugular paraganglioma is frequent. A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our Neurosurgical Department with a mass lesion extending from the left temporal bone to the cerebello-pontine angle (CPA). Radiological features were high vascularization, contrast enhancement and destruction of the os petrosum. After preoperative angiographic embolization the tumour was removed in two surgical interventions, first via a lateral suboccipital approach and second by petrosectomy. The lesion proved to be a typical endolymphatic sac tumour by a synopsis of histological, radiological and clinical features. ELST should be taken into consideration in patients with mass lesions in the cerebellopontine angle destroying the petrous bone and resembling paraganglioma. Since slow growth rate and lack of metastases are particular features of ELST, complete resection of the tumour results in long survival times without adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy. PMID:11731743

Nestler, U; Winking, M; Huegens-Penzel, M; Kuchelmeister, K; Boeker, D K

2001-09-01

215

STUDIES ON AMPHIBIAN YOLK: 1. The Ultrastructure of the Yolk Platelet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yolk platelcts of mature eggs and young embryonic cells of all amphibian species studied ( Rana pipiens, Triturus pyrrhogaster, Diemictylus viridescens, Rana nigromaculata, and Bufo vulgaris) have a superficial layer of fine particles or fibrils (ca. 50 A in diameter), a central main body with a crystalline lattice structure, and an enclosing membrane approximately 70 A in thickness. Electron

S. Karasaki

1963-01-01

216

Procathepsin and acid phosphatase are stored in Musca domestica yolk spheres.  

PubMed

Yolk spheres present in mature invertebrate oocytes are composed of yolk proteins and proteolytic enzymes. In the fly Musca domestica, yolk proteins are degraded during embryogenesis by a cathepsin-like proteinase that is stored as a zymogen. An acid phosphatase is also active in the yolk spheres during Musca embryogenesis. In this paper we show that procathepsin and acid phosphatase are initially stored by a different pathway from the one followed by yolk protein precursors. Both enzymes are taken up by the oocytes and transitorily stored into small vesicles (lysosomes) surrounding the early yolk spheres. Fusion of both structures, the early yolk spheres and lysosomes, creates the mature yolk spheres. PMID:11119768

Ribolla; Bijovsky; de Bianchi AG

2001-03-01

217

Origin of Yolk in the Eggs of Scolopendra  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a previous paper (Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. Biol. Sci., October 1924) on the eggs of the centipede, Lithobius forficatus, one of us (V. N.) described two kinds of yolk, albuminous and fatty. The albuminous yolk is preceded by nucleolar extrusions of a remarkable type, and its origin seems to be associated with them, although no evidence could be adduced

Vishwa Nath; Tasdique Husain

1926-01-01

218

Chicken oocyte growth: receptor-mediated yolk deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the rapid final stage of growth, chicken oocytes take up massive amounts of plasma components and convert them to yolk. The oocyte expresses a receptor that binds both major yolk lipoprotein precursors, vitellogenin (VTG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). In the present study, in vivo transport tracing methodology, isolation of coated vesicles, ligand- and immuno-blotting, and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry

Xinvi Shen; Ernst Steyrer; Helmut Retzek; Esmond J. Sanders; Wolfgang J. Schneider

1993-01-01

219

21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution...liquid egg yolks. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is generally...preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is...

2009-04-01

220

Environmental influence on yolk steroids in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).  

PubMed

The egg yolk serves as a significant source of maternally derived steroids that are available to the embryo during early development. Altered deposition of yolk steroids can change the developmental trajectory of the embryo and have long lasting or permanent consequences. Alligators from contaminated environments have shown significant reproductive and developmental dysfunction, and it is unclear if altered deposition of yolk steroids could be a contributing factor. Alligator eggs were collected from Lake Woodruff (a reference lake), Lake Apopka (a site of known agricultural contamination), and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) (home of the Kennedy Space Center and a site of heavy metal contamination). The yolks of eggs at embryonic stages 12 (prior to sex determination) and 24 (post-sex determination) were evaluated for concentrations of progesterone, 17-beta estradiol, and testosterone. Yolk concentrations of progesterone were significantly lower at embryonic stage 12 in eggs from Lake Apopka and MINWR when compared to eggs from Lake Woodruff. Yolk concentrations of 17-beta estradiol were significantly lower at embryonic stage 12 in eggs from MINWR when compared to the other two sites. Reductions in yolk 17-beta estradiol concentrations from embryonic stage 12 to 24 were significantly attenuated in eggs from MINWR versus that of Lakes Woodruff and Apopka. This study suggests that altered deposition of yolk steroids, and possibly differential utilization by the embryo, could be a contributory mechanism in the reproductive and developmental abnormalities seen in alligators from contaminated locales. PMID:20650885

Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Albergotti, Lori C; McCoy, Michael W; Mutz, Jessica; Guillette, Louis J

2010-07-21

221

Congenital teratoma: a clinicopathologic study of 22 fetal and neonatal tumors.  

PubMed

Extragonadal teratoma is the most common congenital tumor. The prognostic significance of the grade of immaturity and the presence of small foci of conventional yolk sac tumor (YST) in fetal and neonatal teratomas have not been determined. We report detailed histologic studies of 22 congenital teratomas, including eight tumors resected in utero for developing hydrops, and correlate the histologic features with initial serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and clinical outcome. All fetal tumors that required in utero intervention were grade 3 immature teratomas, with admixed conventional YST in 44%. Among tumors resected postnatally, those presenting in utero were more commonly immature (71% vs. 50%). All initial post-surgical serum AFP levels were high, as expected in a neonate. No correlation was found between AFP elevation above the mean for gestational age and the presence of YST, hepatic differentiation, or immature endodermal glands in the tumor. Among 15 survivors with follow-up, 5 patients had malignant mixed germ cell tumors (immature teratoma with foci of conventional YST) and 5 had immature teratomas with foci of hepatic differentiation or immature endodermal glands with subnuclear vacuoles (so-called "well-differentiated YST"). No patient has developed recurrent or metastatic disease after treatment by complete surgical excision alone (mean follow-up, 37.6 months). The clinical behavior of congenital teratomas is determined predominantly by whether or not the tumor can be completely resected and in our study did not correlate with the grade of the teratoma or with the presence or absence of foci of hepatic tissue, immature intestinal glands, or foci of conventional YST. PMID:15613854

Heerema-McKenney, Amy; Harrison, Michael R; Bratton, Barbara; Farrell, Jody; Zaloudek, Charles

2005-01-01

222

DNA Binding and Bending by Sac7d is Stepwise.  

PubMed

Which came first? Using thermodynamic cycles constructed from experimental measures of the binding free energy and free energy simulations, we have shown that binding of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius protein Sac7d to DNA occurs before DNA bending, thus indicating that a conformational selection mechanism is unlikely to be operative in Sac7d binding. PMID:23853062

Spiriti, Justin; van der Vaart, Arjan

2013-07-12

223

Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities.  

PubMed

In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or absence of air sacs is correlated with the anatomy of the hyoid bone, a probable minimum and maximum date of the loss of air sacs can be estimated from fossil hyoid bones. Australopithecus afarensis still had air sacs about 3.3 Ma, while Homo heidelbergensis, some 600 000 years ago and Homo neandethalensis some 60 000 years ago, did no longer. The reduced distinctiveness of articulations produced with an air sac is in line with the hypothesis that air sacs were selected against because of the evolution of complex vocal communication. This relation between complex vocal communication and fossil evidence may help to get a firmer estimate of when speech first evolved. PMID:22078314

de Boer, Bart

2011-11-10

224

Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrae of sauropod dinosaurs are characterized by complex architecture involv- ing laminae, fossae, and internal chambers of various shapes and sizes. These structures are inter- preted as osteological correlates of a system of air sacs and pneumatic diverticula similar to that of birds. In extant birds, diverticula of the cervical air sacs pneumatize the cervical and anterior thoracic vertebrae.

Mathew J. Wedel

2003-01-01

225

83. SAC control center administration section and underground structure elevations ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

83. SAC control center administration section and underground structure elevations and sections, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

226

82. SAC control center underground structure sections and unit substation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. SAC control center underground structure sections and unit sub-station details, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

227

86. SAC control center administration section underground structure and theater ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

86. SAC control center administration section underground structure and theater sections and elevations, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

228

Adrenergic innervation of the human endolymphatic sac.  

PubMed

Adrenergic innervation of the human endolymphatic sac (ES) has not been verified previously. To investigate this question a sensitive histofluorescence method for visualization of catecholamines and serotonin, using a solution composed of sucrose-potassium phosphate-glyoxylic acid (SPG) in cryostat sections, was employed. Three human ES specimens were obtained during surgery for acoustic neuroma. Distinct fluorescence in the subepithelial tissue, indicating the presence of monoaminergic neurones and their axonal varicosities, was observed. SPG-positive terminal nerve fibres around small ES capillaries and subendothelially were also seen. Like the effects of sympathetic stimulation elsewhere in the human body, the ES might respond to such stimulation with, for example, vasoconstriction and increased transepithelial water transport. Since the ES is thought to be responsible for maintaining inner ear fluid homeostasis, adrenergic influence could be important for it to function properly. PMID:7825435

Birgerson, L; Friberg, U; Rask-Andersen, H; Widenfalk, B

1994-09-01

229

Physicochemical Properties of Sn-Zn and SAC + Bi Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying the discharge crucible (DC) method, the viscosity, density, and surface tension were determined for Sn-9Zn and Sn-2.92Ag-0.4Cu-3.07Bi (SAC + Bi) alloys. For comparison, the dilatometric, maximum bubble pressure, and capillary flow methods were used for measurements of these same physicochemical properties for the Sn-2.92Ag-0.4Cu-3.07Bi (SAC + Bi) alloy. The measurements were performed for Sn-9Zn and SAC + Bi alloys in the temperature range from 513 K to 723 K and 530 K to 1180 K, respectively. The experimental data obtained show that addition of Bi to SAC increases the density and decreases the surface tension and viscosity in comparison with SAC solder. Additionally it was found that the properties studied by different methods (maximum bubble pressure, dilatometric, capillary flow, and discharge crucible) were almost identical.

Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstru?, Janusz; G?sior, W?adys?aw; Henein, Hani

2013-02-01

230

Chicken oocyte growth: receptor-mediated yolk deposition.  

PubMed

During the rapid final stage of growth, chicken oocytes take up massive amounts of plasma components and convert them to yolk. The oocyte expresses a receptor that binds both major yolk lipoprotein precursors, vitellogenin (VTG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). In the present study, in vivo transport tracing methodology, isolation of coated vesicles, ligand- and immuno-blotting, and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry were used for the analysis of receptor-mediated yolk formation. The VTG/VLDL receptor was identified in coated profiles in the oocyte periphery, in isolated coated vesicles, and within vesicular compartments both outside and inside membrane-bounded yolk storage organelles (yolk spheres). VLDL particles colocalized with the receptor, as demonstrated by ultrastructural visualization of VLDL-gold following intravenous administration, as well as by immunocytochemical analysis with antibodies to VLDL. Lipoprotein particles were shown to reach the oocyte surface by passage across the basement membrane, which possibly plays an active and selective role in yolk precursor accessibility to the oocyte surface, and through gaps between the follicular granulosa cells. Following delivery of ligands from the plasma membrane into yolk spheres, proteolytic processing of VTG and VLDL by cathepsin D appears to correlate with segregation of receptors and ligands which enter disparate sub-compartments within the yolk spheres. In small, quiescent oocytes, the VTG/VLDL receptor was localized to the central portion of the cell. At onset of the rapid growth phase, it appears that this pre-existing pool of receptors redistributes to the peripheral region, thereby initiating yolk formation. Such a redistribution mechanism would obliterate the need for de novo synthesis of receptors when the oocyte's energy expenditure is to be utilized for plasma membrane synthesis, establishment and maintenance of intracellular topography and yolk formation, and preparation for ovulation. PMID:8393385

Shen, X; Steyrer, E; Retzek, H; Sanders, E J; Schneider, W J

1993-06-01

231

The fatty acid composition of oophagous tadpoles ( Chirixalus eiffingeri) fed conspecific or chicken egg yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the lipid content and fatty acid composition of (1) the egg yolk of three anuran species (Chirixalus eiffingeri, Rhacophorus moltrechti and Buergeria robustus) and chicken eggs; and (2) C. eiffingeri tadpoles fed conspecific eggs or chicken egg yolk. Anuran and chicken egg yolk contained more non-polar than polar lipids but the proportions varied among species. Chicken egg yolk

Chen-Huei Huang; Min-Fang Liang; Yeong-Choy Kam

2003-01-01

232

Crystalline yolk spheroids in Drosophila melanogaster oocyte: Freeze fracture and two-dimensional reconstruction analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major sites of energy storage during oogenesis in the Drosophila melanogaster oocyte are the ?- and ?-yolk spheres. By applying biochemical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) immunogold techniques we found that the ?-yolk spheres contain mainly polysaccharides, while the three main yolk proteins (YPs) are stored in the ?-yolk spheres of the developing oocyte. Moreover, by using high-resolution TEM

Issidora S. Papassideri; Ioannis P. Trougakos; Kevin R. Leonard; Lukas H. Margaritis

2007-01-01

233

Procathepsin and acid phosphatase are stored in Musca domestica yolk spheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yolk spheres present in mature invertebrate oocytes are composed of yolk proteins and proteolytic enzymes. In the fly Musca domestica, yolk proteins are degraded during embryogenesis by a cathepsin-like proteinase that is stored as a zymogen. An acid phosphatase is also active in the yolk spheres during Musca embryogenesis. In this paper we show that procathepsin and acid phosphatase are

Paulo E. M Ribolla; A. Tania Bijovsky; Antonio G de Bianchi

2001-01-01

234

Egg Yolk-Coagulating Enzyme in the Semen and Cowper's Gland of the Goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

GLYCINE egg yolk and egg yolk citrate, prepared by mixing equal volumes of 4 per cent glycine and egg yolk and 3.6 per cent sodium citrate and egg yolk, were used in an attempt to extend the volume of ejaculated goat semen and to preserve the motility and fertility of the spermatozoa. With semen diluted twenty times it was found

A. Roy

1957-01-01

235

Total laparoscopic hysterectomy with obliterated anterior cul-de-sac  

PubMed Central

Endometriosis may in severe cases lead to obliteration of the anterior and/or posterior cul-de-sacs in the female pelvis. The anterior cul-de-sac is generally less commonly affected. This type of cases usually presents a challenge for the operating surgeon, whether via open route or through laparoscopy. In this paper, we present an illustrative case and explain our technique for dealing with a scarred and totally obliterated anterior cul-de-sac because of endometriosis during total laparoscopic hysterectomy.

Walid, M. Sami; Heaton, Richard L.

2010-01-01

236

A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

Kozlowski, C. P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

2009-01-01

237

Antioxidant activity of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates in a linoleic acid oxidation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates in a linoleic acid system were investigated. Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates were prepared by enzymic hydrolysis of fat-free egg-yolk protein, which led to the main peak of the molecular mass distribution of lower than 1000. Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates showed strong antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid oxidation system as compared with the egg-yolk protein

Senji Sakanaka; Yumi Tachibana; Noriyuki Ishihara; Lekh Raj Juneja

2004-01-01

238

A Case of Recurrent Schneiderian Papilloma of the Lacrimal Sac Invading the Nasal Cavity  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old man presented with a history of chronic epiphora, discharge from the right eye, and a palpable mass in the medial canthal area. Irrigation of the lacrimal system revealed bloody discharge. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined heterogeneous enhanced mass filling the lacrimal sac and upper nasolacrimal duct (NLD). A wide excision and surgical biopsy were performed. Histopathology showed the tumor to be an exophytic Schneiderian papilloma with moderate to severe dysplasia. Three months later, the mass was found to be invading the nasal cavity through the NLD. Endoscopic histopathological evaluation confirmed that it was identical to the originally identified papilloma.

Jang, Ji Hye; Choe, Mi Sun

2009-01-01

239

A comparison of the creep behaviour of joint-scale SAC105 and SAC305 solder samples under shear conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the creep behavior of joint-scale Sn1.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder samples under shear loading. The basis of the comparison is experimentally derived Anand viscoplastic constitutive models for the alloys. A series of monotonic constant shear stress and constant shear strain rate tests was conducted at temperatures of 20°C, 50°C, 75°C and 100°C for SAC105 in order

Cillian Burke; Jeff Punch

2012-01-01

240

79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

241

Qualitative Analysis of Supervision in SAC Minuteman ICBM Maintenance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supervision is a large part of managing the SAC Minuteman ICBM maintenance production effort by providing important factors which lead to job satisfaction and motivation in subordinates. The people who manage, supervise, and perform missile maintenance ar...

S. W. Fancher

1983-01-01

242

The structure of the yolk of the hen's egg as studied by electron microscopy. I. The yolk of the unincubated egg.  

PubMed

A description of the fine structure of the yolk of the unincubated hen's egg has been provided, which will serve as a basis for further studies on yolk digestion. The gross components of the yolk (that is, free-floating lipid drops, yellow and white yolk spheres together with their enclosed lipid subdroplets, and aqueous protein fluid) could be recognized by phase contrast and low power electron microscopy. The majority of the lipid drops, whether free floating or enclosed within yolk spheres, were composed of particles about 30 to 60 A in diameter. The protein component of the yolk was found to consist of round profiles about 250 A in diameter. The surfaces of the yolk spheres were of three types, and it is difficult to decide which represents the true structure although reasons are given for believing that yolk spheres are not normally enclosed by membranes identical with cell membranes. PMID:13866859

BELLAIRS, R

1961-10-01

243

[Purification and clinical application of egg yolk immunoglobulins].  

PubMed

IgY antibodies, also called egg yolk immunoglobulins, are the only immunoglobulins in egg yolk and transferred in the female from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to embryos and neonates. Using hens instead of mammals as the immunization host brings a number of advantages: Eggs are cheap and readily available; antibody levels in yolks are high; IgY isolation is fast and simple; and what is more; IgY neither binds the rheumatoid factor nor reacts to the mammalian complement factor. All these differences make IgY technology more widely applicable, such as in the production of polyclonal antibodies against various antigens, immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy, and many medical areas in both animals and human. IgY also has a good prospect in human immunocontraception. PMID:18390185

Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Chun; Huang, Yu-Feng

2008-02-01

244

21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the liquid egg yolks...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The hydrogen peroxide solution used shall comply with the...

2013-04-01

245

Soft template synthesis of yolk/silica shell particles.  

PubMed

Yolk/shell particles possess a unique structure that is composed of hollow shells that encapsulate other particles but with an interstitial space between them. These structures are different from core/shell particles in that the core particles are freely movable in the shell. Yolk/shell particles combine the properties of each component, and can find potential applications in catalysis, lithium ion batteries, and biosensors. In this Research News article, a soft-template-assisted method for the preparation of yolk/silica shell particles is presented. The demonstrated method is simple and general, and can produce hollow silica spheres incorporated with different particles independent of their diameters, geometry, and composition. Furthermore, yolk/mesoporous silica shell particles and multishelled particles are also prepared through optimization of the experimental conditions. Finally, potential applications of these particles are discussed. PMID:20437501

Wu, Xue-Jun; Xu, Dongsheng

2010-04-01

246

21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

2013-04-01

247

BAM Media M51: Egg Yolk Emulsion, 50%  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Drain ethanol. Crack eggs aseptically and discard whites. Remove egg yolks with sterile syringe or wide-mouth pipet. Place ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

248

21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...glucose-removing procedures are: (1) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution...liquid egg yolks. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is...

2010-04-01

249

The craniofacial air sac systetn of Mesozoic birds (Aves)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds are characterized by pneumatization of their skeletons by epithelial diverticula from larger, air-filled cavities. The diverticula-or 'air sacs'-that invade the postcranium result from outgrowths of the lungs; postcranial pneumaticity has been very well studied. Much more poorly understood are the air sacs that pneumatize the skull. Study of craniofacial pneumaticity in modern birds (Neornithes) indicates the presence of two

LAWRENCE M. WITMER

1990-01-01

250

Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases.  

PubMed

The clinicopathologic features of 46 patients with germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components (GCTSC) involving either the primary site or their metastases were studied. There were 43 men and 3 women aged 17 to 74 years. Twenty-three tumors arose in the mediastinum, 2 in the retroperitoneum, and 21 in the gonads. The germ cell component consisted of pure mature or immature teratoma (23 cases), teratoma mixed with other seminomatous or nonseminomatous components (17), pure seminoma (2), intratubular germ cell neoplasia (1), and yolk sac tumor (1). The SC included embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (29), angiosarcoma (6), leiomyosarcoma (4), undifferentiated sarcoma (3), myxoid liposarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1), malignant "triton" tumor (1), and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (1). Immunohistochemical studies were carried out in 34 cases with appropriate results supporting the diagnoses. Metastases containing both GCT and SC were observed in 6 cases, metastases of SC alone in 4, and metastases containing only GCT elements in 3. All patients were treated by cisplatinum-based chemotherapy plus other agents followed by surgery. Clinical follow-up was available in 40 patients (1 to 96 mo; mean=24 mo). Thirty-two of 40 patients either died of tumor (25/40; 62.5%) or were alive with advanced, progressive disease (7/40; 17.5%), and only 8/40 (20%) were alive and free of disease between 5 to 40 months (mean=18 mo). Comparison of these patients with an age-matched and stage-matched control group of patients with GCT without SC showed statistically significant differences in survival between the 2 cohorts (P

Malagón, Hugo Domínguez; Valdez, Ana María Cano; Moran, Cesar A; Suster, Saul

2007-09-01

251

Meiosis error and subsequent genetic and epigenetic alterations invoke the malignant transformation of germ cell tumor.  

PubMed

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to arise from primordial germ cells (PGCs) that undergo epigenetic reprogramming. To explore the mechanisms of GCT formation, we analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphism array comparative genomic hybridization patterns and the methylation status of 15 tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of two imprinted genes, H19 and SNRPN, in 28 children with GCTs. Three GCTs with 25-26 segmental uniparental disomies (UPDs), heterozygous centromeric regions, and a highly methylated SNRPN DMR may have occurred through meiosis I error. Three other GCTs with whole UPD and homozygous centromeric regions of all chromosomes may have occurred through endoreduplication of a haploid set in an ovum or testis. The other 22 GCTs had heterozygous centromeric regions of all chromosomes and no or a small number of segmental or whole UPDs and may have developed from premeiotic PGCs before imprint erasure or a reestablishment of imprinting. Gain and amplification of 3p24-p22 and 20q13-q13, and loss and UPD of 1p36-p35, 4q21-q21, 5q11-q13, and 6q26-qter were found in five or more tumors. 1p36-p35 loss was frequent, and found in 19 tumors; RUNX3 residing at 1p36 was methylated in the promoter regions of 16 tumors. Two yolk sac tumors with many segmental UPDs or whole UPD of all chromosomes had gain of 20q13-q13 and loss of 1p36-p35, and seven or eight methylated TSGs. These genetic and epigenetic alterations may have caused malignant transformation because they were rarely found in teratomas with segmental or whole UPDs. PMID:23225212

Ichikawa, Mizuho; Arai, Yasuhito; Haruta, Masayuki; Furukawa, Shinsuke; Ariga, Tadashi; Kajii, Tadashi; Kaneko, Yasuhiko

2012-12-08

252

Preparation and detection of egg yolk antibody against Streptococcus pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against Streptococcus pneumonia is significant to solve the problem of antibiotic resistance and to seek a new therapy of treating, suppressing Streptococcus pneumonia infection. Therefore, we immunized laying hens with antigen of Streptococcus pneumonia and extracted, purified IgY from the yolks of eggs by the acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer dilution, polyethylene glycol 6000 and

Duan Liu; Juan Su; Kun Zhang; Suqing Zhao; Wubiao Zhu

2010-01-01

253

Composition, accumulation and utilization of yolk lipids in teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid reserves in teleost eggs are stored in lipoprotein yolk and, in some species, a discrete oil globule. Lipoprotein yolk lipids are primarily polar lipids, especially phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and are rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Oil consists of neutral lipids and is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Egg lipids are derived

Murray D. Wiegand

1996-01-01

254

Giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac.  

PubMed

One hundred and seventy-nine patients with 237 hernias of the groin who were at high risk for recurrence after classic hernioplasty were operated upon; the procedure of giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac (GPRVS) was used. The patients in this series had predominantly recurrent and re-recurrent hernias. However, a few were obese with bilateral primary direct hernias and some had associated connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. GPRVS eliminates hernias of the groin by rendering the peritoneum inextensible by placing, in the preperitoneal space, a large prosthesis that extends far beyond the borders of the myopectineal orifice. The myopectineal orifice is the weak spot at which all hernias of the groin begin and is bounded by the rectus, oblique abdominal and iliopsoas muscles and the pectin of the pubis. In bilateral GPRVS, the peritoneum of both groins is reinforced with a single prosthesis inserted in the preperitoneal space through the midline. In unilateral GPRVS, the mesh envelops the peritoneum of a single groin. This simplifies the operation and makes it suitable for surgical centers that perform outpatient operations. The prosthesis with the best physical characteristics for GPRVS is Mersilene (polyester fiber). Unsutured prostheses of polypropylene and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) may not adhere at the far edges, leading to a failure and recurrence. The over-all recurrence rate in this series of problem hernias was 3.7 per cent, which is extremely good. However, the rate becomes outstanding if recurrences resulting from meshes unsuitable for GPRVS are excluded. PMID:2814751

Wantz, G E

1989-11-01

255

Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair  

SciTech Connect

PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

Ishibashi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ishibash@aichi-med-u.ac.j [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Japan); Kamei, Seiji [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2010-10-15

256

Four Cases of Invasive Anterior Mediastinal Tumors Definitively Diagnosed by the Chamberlain Procedure.  

PubMed

Percutaneous needle biopsy, commonly used for a definitive diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors, is sometimes inconclusive because of the small size of the biopsy specimens and the histologic heterogeneity of the tumors. We herein report 4 cases of invasive anterior mediastinal tumors, in which the definitive diagnosis was made using the Chamberlain procedure. [Case 1] A 33-year-old man was found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor on chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT). The tumor was histologically diagnosed as thymic carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma) using the Chamberlain procedure. After 3 courses of preoperative chemotherapy, the patient underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. He remains well, 35 months after the biopsy. [Case 2] A 17-year-old boy was found to have a tumor in the anterior mediastinum on chest CT. His serum alpha-fetoprotein level was elevated to 2,461 ng/mL. Histological diagnosis of yolk sac tumor was confirmed using the Chamberlain procedure. He was treated with one course of chemotherapy, followed by surgery; he remains well 57 months after the biopsy. [Case 3] A 72-year-old man was found, on chest X-ray and CT, to have a left upper anterior mediastinal tumor with invasion of the subclavian vessels. The tumor was confirmed histologically as thymic (sarcomatoid) carcinoma using the Chamberlain procedure. Despite 2 courses of chemotherapy, the tumor continued to enlarge and metastasized to the lung and bone. The patient died 7 months after the biopsy. [Case 4] A 62-year-old woman under treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was found, on a chest X-ray, to have a right anterior mediastinal tumor. Histological diagnosis using the Chamberlain procedure suggested lymphoproliferative disorder, and the RA medication was discontinued. This was followed by a decrease in the tumor size and avoidance of invasive surgery. The patient remains well, 15 months after the biopsy. [Conclusion] The Chamberlain procedure proved useful for definitive diagnosis in all 4 cases of invasive anterior mediastinal tumors. We recommend the Chamberlain procedure for biopsy since it enables safe, rapid, and successful collection of tissue samples. PMID:23574996

Shimizu, Junzo; Kamesui, Tadashi; Moriya, Makio; Murata, Shuichi; Nakanishi, Isao; Sasaki, Motoko; Minato, Hiroshi

2013-04-11

257

Characterization of yolk DNA from Xenopus laevis oocytes ovulated in vitro.  

PubMed

High molecular weight DNA was isolated from the yolk platelets of Xenopus laevis oocytes ovulated in vitro. Yolk DNA has the same buoyant density in CsCl gradients as mitochondrial and nuclear DNAs, and, like them, it is double-stranded. Yolk DNA behaves like nuclear DNA, and not like mitochondrial DNA, upon renaturation after denaturation. The molecules are always linear. Cytochemical and biochemical controls preclude the possibility that the yolk DNA might be contaminated by nuclear or mitochondrial DNA. We conclude that the yolk DNA is an endogenous component of the yolk platelets. PMID:4113867

Hanocq, F; Kirsch-Volders, M; Hanocq-Quertier, J; Baltus, E; Steinert, G

1972-05-01

258

Relationship between primary and metastatic testicular germ cell tumors: a clinicopathologic analysis of 100 cases.  

PubMed

Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) commonly metastasize to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes (RPLNs). We evaluated 100 cases of RPLN dissection specimens with viable GCTs after chemotherapy and compared them with their corresponding orchiectomy specimens. The mean age of patients was 28 years (range, 15-58 years). The testicular tumors consisted of mixed GCT (n = 72), teratoma (n = 18), seminoma (n = 4), embryonal carcinoma (n = 3), yolk sac tumor (n = 1), and no viable tumor (n = 2). Somatic malignant components were found in 5 cases. The metastatic tumors in the RPLNs consisted of only teratoma (n = 77) and non-teratomatous GCT (n = 23). Twenty-one patients had only teratoma in the RPLNs but not in the testis, and 10 patients had metastatic non-teratomatous GCT components that were not observed in the testis. Six patients had somatic malignant components in the RPLNs, but only one of them had such a component in the testis. Overall, 13 patients died of disease in a mean of 42 months, and the patients with only teratoma in the RPLNs had a lower mortality rate (9%) than those with non-teratomatous components (26%) (P = .044). One patient with somatic components in the primary GCT and 3 patients with somatic components in the metastases died of disease. Our study demonstrates that there is frequent discordance of histologic composition between primary and metastatic testicular GCTs. Teratoma is the most common component in treated GCTs and is usually associated with a more favorable clinical outcome than non-teratomatous GCTs. The presence of somatic components in the RPLNs metastasis indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:23856516

Tarrant, William P; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Guo, Charles C

2013-07-12

259

Molecular biomarkers as potential targets for therapeutic strategies in human testicular germ cell tumors: an overview.  

PubMed

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), the most common malignancy in males between 15 and 34 years of age and the most frequent cause of death from solid tumors in this age group. TGCTs can be subdivided into seminoma and non-seminoma germ cell tumors (NSGCTs), including embryonal cell carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and teratoma. Seminomas and NSGCTs do not only present distinctive clinical features, but they also show significant differences as far as therapy and prognosis are concerned. Seminomas are highly sensitive to both radiation and chemotherapy, with a good prognosis, non-seminomas are sensitive to platinum-based combination chemotherapy and are less susceptible to radiation, with the exception of teratomas. The different therapeutic outcome might be explained by inherent properties of the cells from which testicular neoplasia originate. The unique treatment sensitivity of TGCTs is unexplained so far, but it is likely to be related to intrinsic molecular characteristics of the PGCs/gonocytes, from which these tumors originate. Many discovered bio-markers including OCT3/4, SOX2, SOX17, HMGA1, HMGA2, PATZ1, GPR30, Aurora B, estrogen receptor ?, and others have given further advantages to discriminate between histological subgroups. In addition, therapeutic approaches for the treatment of TGCTs have been proposed: humanized antibodies against receptors/surface molecules on cancer cells, inhibitors of serine-threonine, and tyrosine kinases, and others. The mini-review will be an overview on the molecular alterations identified in TGCTs and on novel targeted antineoplastic strategies that might help to treat chemotherapy resistant TGCTs. PMID:23359388

Chieffi, Paolo; Chieffi, Sergio

2013-08-01

260

Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks.  

PubMed

Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 3.03 ng g(-1) lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ?PBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ?PBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 0.053 ng g(-1) lipid). The ?-isomer was the dominant contributor to ?HBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ?PBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ?HBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study. PMID:21623506

Rawn, D F K; Sadler, A; Quade, S C; Sun, W-F; Lau, B P-Y; Kosarac, I; Hayward, S; Ryan, J J

2011-06-01

261

Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks  

PubMed Central

Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g?1 lipid (median = 3.03 ng g?1 lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ?PBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ?PBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g?1 lipid (median = 0.053 ng g?1 lipid). The ?-isomer was the dominant contributor to ?HBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ?PBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ?HBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study.

Rawn, D.F.K.; Sadler, A.; Quade, S.C.; Sun, W.-F.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Kosarac, I.; Hayward, S.; Ryan, J.J.

2011-01-01

262

The short-circuited everted sac of rat colon mucosa.  

PubMed

A short-circuited preparation of everted rat colon sacs is described. The serosal current electrode is a AgAgCl wire. A cylindrical agar bridge or AgAgCl electrode may be employed on the mucosal side. Effects of Ag+ ions liberated from the electrodes on ion transport could not be demonstrated. Fluid and sodium are absorbed ad bicarbonate secreted. Potassium and chloride movements are not significantly different form zero. The preparation remains stable for at least 2 h. Sodium absorption is diminished by 50% and bicarbonate secretion abolished in the absence of glucose. In principle, similar ion transport properties were found as in Ussing-chamber preparations. The advantage of the everted sac is the capability of measuring net transport of fluid and electrolytes simultaneously and directly because of the large surface/inner volume ratio of the sac. PMID:7232872

Goerg, K J; Wanitschke, R; Soergel, K H; Wood, C M; Nell, G

1981-01-01

263

SAC-C mission, an example of international cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission developed as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. The SAC-C satellite was successfully launched by a Delta II rocket on November 21, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. The purpose of this mission is to carry out observations which bear interest both for the USA and Argentina, thus contributing effectively to NASA's Earth Science Program and to CONAE's National Space Program. The inclusion of SAC-C in the “morning constellation”, jointly with NASA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1 and Terra, is another example of an important international cooperation which strengthens the output of any single mission.

Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Nollmann, I.

2004-01-01

264

Arf tumor suppressor and miR-205 regulate cell adhesion and formation of extraembryonic endoderm from pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

Induction of the Arf tumor suppressor (encoded by the alternate reading frame of the Cdkn2a locus) following oncogene activation engages a p53-dependent transcriptional program that limits the expansion of incipient cancer cells. Although the p19Arf protein is not detected in most tissues of fetal or young adult mice, it is physiologically expressed in the fetal yolk sac, a tissue derived from the extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn). Expression of the mouse p19Arf protein marks late stages of ExEn differentiation in cultured embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from either embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. Arf inactivation delays differentiation of the ExEn lineage within EBs, but not the formation of other germ cell lineages from pluripotent progenitors. Arf is required for the timely induction of ExEn cells in response to Ras/Erk signaling and, in turn, acts through p53 to ensure the development, but not maintenance, of the ExEn lineage. Remarkably, a significant temporal delay in ExEn differentiation detected during the maturation of Arf-null EBs is rescued by enforced expression of mouse microRNA-205 (miR-205), a microRNA up-regulated by p19Arf and p53 that controls ExEn cell migration and adhesion. The noncanonical and canonical roles of Arf in ExEn development and tumor suppression, respectively, may be conceptually linked through mechanisms that govern cell attachment and migration.

Li, Chunliang; Finkelstein, David; Sherr, Charles J.

2013-01-01

265

Effect of Dry Chicken Egg Yolk on White Mouse Susceptibility to Plague.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests of cortisone, novoembichine (nitrogen mustard), sodium glycocholate, and fresh chicken egg yolk as preparations to increase the susceptibility of white mice to the plague bacillus showed that fresh egg yolk is the most potent both in number of anima...

L. A. Timofeeva

1964-01-01

266

BAM Media M95: Mannitol-Egg Yolk-Polymyxin (MYP) Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M95: Mannitol-Egg Yolk-Polymyxin (MYP) Agar. January 2001. ... M95 Mannitol-Egg Yolk-Polymyxin (MYP) Agar. Base. Beef extract, 1 g. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

267

Yolk steroid hormones and sex determination in reptiles with TSD.  

PubMed

In reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the temperature at which the eggs are incubated determines the sex of the offspring. The molecular switch responsible for determining sex in these species has not yet been elucidated. We have examined the dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during embryonic development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, and the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and have found that yolk estradiol (E(2)) responds differentially to incubation temperature in both of these reptiles. Based upon recently reported roles for E(2) in modulation of steroidogenic factor 1, a transcription factor known to be significant in the sex differentiation process, we hypothesize that yolk E(2) is a link between temperature and the gene expression pathway responsible for sex determination and differentiation in at least some of these species. Here we review the evidence that supports our hypothesis. PMID:12849957

Elf, P K

2003-07-01

268

Mobilization of ectopic yolk in Gallus gallus domesticus: a novel reverse lipid transport process.  

PubMed

In many oviparous animals, bursting type atresia of ovarian follicles occurs during the reproductive cycle, resulting in the escape of yolk into the extracellular compartment. In birds, this ectopic yolk is rapidly cleared by an unknown process that involves the appearance of yolk-engorged macrophage-like cells. To study this unique type of lipid transport, we injected young male chickens intra-abdominally with egg yolk. Absorption of egg yolk from the body cavity markedly increased the triacylglyceride-rich fraction (TRL) of plasma lipoproteins and was coincident with increased levels of plasma triacylglycerides (TAGs) but not non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Thus, the transport of yolk lipids from the abdominal cavity appears to occur in lipoproteins and be more similar to the transport of hepatic TAGs to the periphery via lipoproteins than to transport of adipose TAGs to the periphery via NEFAs released by the action of lipases. When macrophages were exposed to yolk in vitro, they quickly phagocytized yolk; however, it is unclear whether this level of phagocytosis contributes significantly to total yolk clearance. Instead, the chicken macrophage may function more as a facilitator of yolk clearance through the modification of yolk lipoproteins and the regulation of the local and systemic immune response to ectopic yolk. Yolk appears to be anti-inflammatory in nature. Yolk did not increase levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and IFN? either in vivo or in vitro; in fact, yolk dampened many inflammatory changes caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Conversely, LPS-induced inflammation retarded yolk clearance from the abdominal cavity and plasma TAG levels. PMID:23348941

Cornax, Ingrid; Walzem, Rosemary L; Larner, Craig; Macfarlane, Ronald D; Klasing, Kirk C

2013-01-24

269

Effects of Egg Yolk Source on the Cryopreservation of Stallion Spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to determine whether replacement of chicken egg yolk, as a component of freezing extenders, with egg yolk from other avian species would improve the post-thaw motility and percentage of intact acrosomes of stallion spermatozoa. In the first experiment, substitution of chicken egg yolk with chukar egg yolk, as a component of the lactose–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid extender, improved (P

Gary W. Webb; Codi L. Burris; Sarah E. Harmon; Rachel H. Baker

2011-01-01

270

Membranes during yolk-platelet development in oocytes of the toad Bufo marinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oocytes of the toad Bufo marinus have been studied by means of thin section and particularly freeze-fracture electron microscopy to characterize the cytoplasmic membranes around the yolk organelle, and the storage of yolk material in precursors and platelets. This appears to be a previously unknown type of yolk-platelet formation. During yolk-organelle development from the primordial precursor to the bi-partite fully

H.-P. Richter

1987-01-01

271

Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by chicken egg yolk antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The aim was to evaluate the ability of egg yolk antibody (IgY) in blocking Staphylococcus aureus growth in vitro.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus (ATCC 33593). Specific IgY against S. aureus was obtained from the yolks of their eggs with a carrageenan solution. IgY was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot and

Marco Cesar Cunegundes Guimarães; Lívia Gomes Amaral; Letícia Batista Azevedo Rangel; Ian Victor Silva; Claudia Gomes Fernandes Matta; Marcos Fernando Rezende de Matta

2009-01-01

272

Chromosome X-encoded Cancer/Testis antigens are less frequently expressed in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors than in seminomas  

PubMed Central

Cancer/Testis (CT) antigens are normally only expressed in germ cells and yet are aberrantly activated in a wide variety of human cancers. Most chromosome X-encoded CT antigens (CT-X) show restricted expression in pre-meiotic germ cells in adult testis, except for the expression of SPANX in post-meiotic germ cells. In the present study, the expression of eight CT-X antigens (MAGE-A, NY-ESO-1, GAGE, MAGE-C1/CT7, MAGE-C2/CT10, CT45, SAGE1, and SPANX) in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors was evaluated immunohistochemically, including 24 embryonal carcinomas, 20 yolk sac tumors, 9 teratomas, and 3 choriocarcinomas, and the results were compared to our previous study of 77 classic seminomas and 2 spermatocytic seminomas. SPANX was not detected in any germ cell tumors tested. Spermatocytic seminoma showed strong expression of all CT-X antigens tested (except SPANX), reflecting their origin from adult CT-Xpositive pre-meiotic germ cells. Classic seminomas, originating from prenatal gonocytes, showed widely variable frequency of CT-X antigen expression, ranging from > 80% (CT7, CT10, CT45, and GAGE), 63% (MAGE-A), 18% (NY-ESO-1) to only 4% (SAGE1). In comparison, non-seminomatous germ cell tumors expressed CT-X antigens much less frequently and usually only in small subsets of tumor cells. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) were mostly CT-X-negative, even in CT-X positive classic seminomas. These findings indicate that CT-X antigens are not expressed in the fetal precursor cells for germ cell tumors, and their expression likely reflects germ cell differentiation of the neoplastic cells (in seminomas) or aberrant gene activation as cancer antigens (in non-seminomatous tumors).

Chen, Yao-Tseng; Cao, Dengfeng; Chiu, Rita; Lee, Peishan

2013-01-01

273

Chicken Egg Yolk Enhances Focus Formation by Subgroup B, C and D Rous Sarcoma Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Focus formation by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) was significantly enhanced when virus was incubated with the saline fraction of chloroform extracted chicken egg yolk, prior to infecting chicken embryo cells. The enhancement was restricted to members of RSV subgroups B, C and D and was proportional to yolk dilution. Subgroup A virus was never affected. In all, IO8 yolk

KARIN SANDELIN

1976-01-01

274

Yolk granules are differentially acidified during embryo development in the stick insect Carausius morosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly laid eggs of stick insects comprise a unique fluid ooplasm that is gradually partitioned into a number of yolk granules by invasion of secondary vitellophages. This study aimed at establishing how yolk granules become acidified in the course of embryonic development. Data show that acidified yolk granules are rather scarce and randomly distributed in vitellophages of early embryos, while

Anna Maria Fausto; Gabriella Gambellini; Massimo Mazzini; Antonella Cecchettini; Massimo Masetti; Franco Giorgi

2001-01-01

275

Distribution and origin of steroid hormones in the yolk of Japanese quail eggs (Coturnix coturnix japonica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yolk of avian eggs contains steroid hormones, which may influence the development and behaviour of hatched birds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the concentration as well as the distribution of various gonadal steroids in the yolk spheres of quail eggs. Steroid concentrations of dissected yolk layers were analysed after alcoholic extraction using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs)

R. Hackl; V. Bromundt; J. Daisley; K. Kotrschal; E. Möstl

2003-01-01

276

Endocytosis of the major yolk proteins of the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia: Uptake kinetics and interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oocytes of Lepidopteran insects take up several yolk proteins in defined proportions even though their relative availability in the hemolymph changes during the several days required to complete yolk formation in all the eggs. There are three hemolymph yolk precursors, vitellogenin, microvitellogenin and lipophorin; one precursor, paravitellogenin is produced in the ovary. The control mechanism for their proportional endocytosis

Kulakosky

1989-01-01

277

The specificity of yolk protein uptake in cyclorrhaphan diptera is conserved through evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Yolk proteins are transported from the hemolymph into the oocytes of insects during vitellogenesis by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Since other hemolymph proteins, both native and foreign, are not accumulated in the oocyte, the process of uptake is selective for yolk proteins. Peptide domains within the yolk proteins must therefore be involved in receptor recognition. With the longterm aim of identifying

Alberto Martinez; Mary Bownes

1992-01-01

278

Egg Yolk Layers Vary in the Concentration of Steroid Hormones in Two Avian Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternally derived steroid hormones are known to be present in the yolks of avian eggs; however, the physiological mechanisms involved in their deposition remain largely unexplored. Investigations of steroid production by avian follicles have demonstrated temporal differences in the concentrations of progesterone, 17?-estradiol, and testosterone during yolk formation. Because yolk is deposited peripherally in concentric spheres as the oocyte develops,

J. L. Lipar; E. D. Ketterson; V. Nolan; J. M. Casto

1999-01-01

279

Recent advances concerning the functional properties of egg yolk low-density lipoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hen egg yolk is a natural supramolecular assembly of lipids and proteins with different organisation levels. These assemblies consist mainly of interactions between proteins and phospholipids, and these interactions are essential in view to understand and to control the production of food made with yolk, and particularly emulsions. Yolk is a complex system containing several particles in suspension in a

M. ANTON

280

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147...Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests...Authorized Agent or State Inspector, the eggs which are used in egg yolk testing...

2013-01-01

281

Therapeutic Efficacy of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulins Against Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infection in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: The focus of this report was to assess the role of passive immunization using immunoglobulins derived from chicken egg yolk in protection against M. gallisepticum infection in chickens. Immunoglobulins were produced by egg yolk technology. ELISA was used to evaluate their immunoreactivity and western immunoblotting demonstrated that chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins Y (IgY) were capable of recognizing M.

H. M. Elsheikha; A. T. Abbas; M. M. Abdel Aziz; L. M. Elshabiny

2008-01-01

282

Maternal serum and yolk hormone concentrations in the placental viviparous bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among vertebrates, maternal transfer of hormones to offspring has been studied extensively in mammals (placental transfer) and more recently in oviparous birds and reptiles (yolk transfer). The placental viviparous bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo, allows the investigation of both yolk and placental hormone transfers in a single organism. In this species, yolk provides nutrition for the first half of embryonic development

Charles A. Manire; L. E. L. Rasmussen; James Gelsleichter; David L. Hessc

2004-01-01

283

Endoscopic examination of snakes by access through an air sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), three royal pythons (Python regius) and 15 Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were examined endoscopically by access through the air sac. The snakes were immobilised in a ventral position using a half-open anaesthetic system with assisted ventilation and a mixture of isoflurane and oxygen. The rigid endoscope was introduced percutaneously and the internal structure of

V. Jekl; Z. Knotek

2006-01-01

284

Structure of the Compensation Sac in two Ascophoran Bryozoans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmer established two groups of ascophoran bryozoans on structural differences in the compensation sac (ascus) and the frontal wall, although both he and Silen believed that the frontal wall of both groups is deposited within a simple ventral fold of 'frontal membrane'. Such a fold would be expected to secrete a wall consisting of mineral and\\/or organic successions disposed symmetrically

R. Tavener-Smith; A. Williams

1970-01-01

285

Midline nasal dermoids presenting like discharging lacrimal sac mucocoeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of midline intranasal dermoid cysts presenting like discharging lacrimal sac mucocoeles in children are described. The diagnosis of this rare condition is suggested by the presence of midline nasal cutaneous dimples, although these may be associated with isolated anomalies such as nasal dermoid cyst, encephalocoele or glioma.

Irene Whelehan; Geoffrey E Rose

1995-01-01

286

45. SAC conference room 2A8, second floor, Dwing, building 500, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. SAC conference room 2A8, second floor, D-wing, building 500, looking southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

287

Cryoprotective and contraceptive properties of egg yolk as an additive in rooster sperm diluents.  

PubMed

The addition of chicken egg yolk to semen extenders is thought to reduce the fertilizing potential of rooster spermatozoa--but not (or at least not as much) that of other avian species. The aim of the present study was to determine whether quail egg yolk, a novel extender additive, provides advantages over chicken egg yolk in the cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. Experiments were also performed to determine whether the harmful effect of egg yolk occurs during cryopreservation or during fertilization after artificial insemination. Heterospermic rooster semen samples were divided into aliquots and cooled in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based medium containing 15% chicken egg yolk, 15% quail egg yolk or no egg yolk at all. The viability of spermatozoa of cooled samples (5 °C) without egg yolk were less viable (P<0.01) than those of samples containing either type of egg yolk. The same aliquots were then cryopreserved for 15 days. Thawed spermatozoa preserved without egg yolk showed lower motility (P<0.001) and viability (P<0.001) than those in samples diluted with either type of egg yolk extender. No eggs were fertilized when hens were inseminated with semen that had been diluted with chicken egg yolk. The fertilization rate was only slightly higher when sperm diluted with quail egg yolk was used (1.5%). The best results were obtained when no egg yolk was used (13.8%). These results show that the addition of egg yolk of either type protects rooster sperm cells against cold shock and during freezing and thawing, but exerts a contraceptive effect in the genital tract of the hen. PMID:22771759

Santiago-Moreno, Julián; Castaño, Cristina; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Coloma, Miguel A; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Prieto, María T; Campo, Jose L

2012-07-04

288

SAC-C mission, an example of international cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In comp liance with the objectives established in the National Space Program, Argentina in Space 1997-2008 ((Plan Espacial Nacional, Argentina en el Espacio 1997-2008), the National Commission on Space Activities (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales - CONAE) undertook the design, construction, and launching of the SAC-C satellite in close collaboration with NASA. The purpose of this Mission is to carry out observations of interest both for the USA and Argentina, thus contributing effectively to NASA's Earth Science Program and to CONAE's National Space Program. The SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. Ten instruments on board the SAC-C perform different studies related to the ground and sea ecosystems, the atmosphere and the geomagnetic field. There are also technological experiments for determination of the satellite attitude and velocity as well as for the studies of the influence of space radiation on advanced electronic components . The inclusion of SAC-C in the AM Constellation, jointly with NASA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1 and Terra, is another example of important international cooperation which synergies the output of any single Mission. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken including several jointly sponsored technical workshops and collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments. A flight campaign of the NASA AVIRIS instrument was performed in Argentine during January and February 2001, for calibration of SAC-C and EO 1 cameras and the development of joint scientific works. In Cordoba Space Center a jointly operated ground GPS reference site was installed and three Aeronet stations are working in Argentine as part of the world net.

Colomb, F.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Nollmann, I.

289

Multiplication of Salmonella enteritidis on the yolk membrane and penetration to the yolk contents at 30 degrees C in an in vitro egg contamination model.  

PubMed

Refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) to consumers of contaminated eggs. Although the nutrient-rich yolk interior is an uncommon location for SE contamination in freshly laid, naturally contaminated eggs, migration across the vitelline membrane could lead to rapid bacterial multiplication even when the initial site of deposition is outside the yolk. Multiplication on the yolk membrane (before, or in addition to, multiplication within the yolk contents) could be another source of increased risk to consumers. The present study used an in vitro egg contamination model to compare the abilities of four strains of SE to either multiply in association with the yolk membrane or migrate through that membrane to reach the yolk contents during 36 h of incubation at 30 degrees C. After inoculation onto the exterior surface of intact, whole yolks, all four SE strains penetrated the vitelline membrane to reach the yolk contents (at an overall frequency of 11.5%) after 12 h of incubation. The mean log concentration of SE was significantly higher in whole yolks (including yolk membranes) than in yolk contents at both 12 h (0.818 versus 0.167 CFU/ ml) and 36 h (2.767 versus 1.402 CFU/ml) of incubation. These results demonstrate that SE multiplication on the vitelline membrane may both precede and exceed multiplication resulting from penetration into the yolk contents during the first 36 h of unrefrigerated storage, reinforcing the importance of rapid refrigeration for protecting consumers from egg-transmitted illness. PMID:18810876

Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Guard-Bouldin, Jean; Holt, Peter S

2008-09-01

290

Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n?=?162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant

D. F. K. Rawn; A. Sadler; S. C. Quade; W.-F. Sun; B. P.-Y. Lau; I. Kosarac; S. Hayward; J. J. Ryan

2011-01-01

291

Antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitory oligopeptides from chicken egg yolks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oligopeptides of 1 KDa or less were obtained by hydrolysis of chicken egg yolks with a crude enzyme, and by dialysis with a semipermeable membrane filter. Since the extracted peptides had an inhibitory action on the activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro, they were orally administered at 20, 100 and 500 mg\\/kg body weight to spontaneously hypertensive rats

Hiroshi Yoshii; Norihide Tachi; Riichiro Ohba; Osamu Sakamura; Hidemaro Takeyama; Toru Itani

2001-01-01

292

Vitellogenin transport and yolk formation in the quail ovary.  

PubMed

Morphological and biochemical investigations were made on the yolk formation in ovaries of the quail Coturnix japonica. Morphologically, two ways of nutrient uptake were observed in follicles. In small oocytes of white follicles, vitellogenin (VTG) was taken up through fluid-phase endocytosis which was assisted by follicular lining bodies. The lining bodies were produced in follicle cells. They adhered to the lateral cell membrane, moved along the membrane in the direction of the enclosed oocyte and were posted to the tips of the microvilli. These tips, now with lining bodies, were pinched off from the main cell body, engulfed by indented cell membranes of the oocyte, and transported to yolk spheres. In large oocytes of yellow follicles, VTG and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) were taken up through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The VTG and VLDL particles diffused through the huge interspaces between follicle cells, and once in oocytes were transported to yolk spheres via coated vesicles. Immunohistochemistry showed that the VTG resides on or near the surface of the follicle cell membrane at the zona radiata whereas the cathepsin D resides at or near the oocytic cell membranes. Tubular and round vesicles in the cortical cytoplasm of oocytes were also stained with both antisera, suggesting that these vesicles are the sites where the VTG is enzymatically processed by cathepsin D. Upon analysis by SDS-PAGE, a profile similar to that of yolk-granule proteins was produced by incubating VTG with a quail cathepsin D of 40 kD. PMID:12832822

Ito, Yasushi; Kihara, Machiko; Nakamura, Etsuko; Yonezawa, Satoshi; Yoshizaki, Norio

2003-06-01

293

Induction of yolk formation in hemipteran previtellogenic oocytes (Dysdercus intermedius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yolk formation has been studied in previtellogenic oocytes of the telotrophic-meroistic ovariole of the red cotton bug Dysdercus intermedius (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) in the absence of the follicular epithelium (“skinned oocytes”). Early preparation for endocytosis was seen by urea gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, which showed that cytosolic clathrin (light chain) is already present in the previtellogenic trophocyte-oocyte syncytium. The ability of

FRANK DITTMANN; MARTINA BICZKOWSKI

1995-01-01

294

Dialkylphosphatidylcholine and egg yolk lecithin for emulsification of various triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesized saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and egg yolk lecithin (EYL) were investigated to explore their influence on particle sizes in emulsions when dispersing various triglycerides (TG). One of four different kinds of synthesized saturated PC (DLPC, DMPC, DPPC and DSPC) or three different kinds of EYL (purified EYL (PEL) and hydrogenated purified EYL with two different iodine values (IV), R-20 and

Tomoko Nii; Fumiyoshi Ishii

2005-01-01

295

Ultrastructure of the Developing and Fertilized Embryo Sac of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amaranthus hypochondriacus embryo sac development was investigated before and after fertilization. During the early stages of development, the young embryo sac displays three antipodal cells at the chalazal pole that degenerate very early in the maturation process, before the synergids and egg cell are completely differentiated. The mature embryo sac is composed only of the female germ unit. The synergid

SÍLVIA COIMBRA; ROBERTO SALEMA

1999-01-01

296

Ultrastructure of the Developing and Fertilized Embryo Sac of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amaranthus hypochondriacus embryo sac development was investigated before and after fertilization. During the early stages of development, the young embryo sac displays three antipodal cells at the chalazal pole that degenerate very early in the maturation process, before the synergids and egg cell are completely dierentiated. The mature embryo sac is composed only of the female germ unit. The synergid

C OIMBRA; R OBERTO S ALEMA

297

Bull semen in vitro fertility after cryopreservation using egg yolk LDL: a comparison with Optidyl ®, a commercial egg yolk extender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have been previously isolated and identified as the cryoprotective fraction of yolk. The effect of LDL on sperm motility after freezing–thawing has been reported, but no study has been made to assess the effect of LDL on bull semen fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility of bull semen cryopreserved in the presence

Lamia Amirat; Daniel Tainturier; Laëtitia Jeanneau; Chantal Thorin; Olivier Gérard; Jean Luc Courtens; Marc Anton

2004-01-01

298

Calcium-regulated fusion of yolk granules is important for yolk degradation during early embryogenesis of Rhodnius prolixus Stahl.  

PubMed

This study examined the process of membrane fusion of yolk granules (YGs) during early embryogenesis of Rhodnius prolixus. We show that eggs collected at days 0 and 3 after oviposition contain different populations of YGs, for example day-3 eggs are enriched in large YGs (LYGs). Day-3 eggs also contain the highest free [Ca(2+)] during early embryogenesis of this insect. In vitro incubations of day-0 YGs with [Ca(2+)] similar to those found in day-3 eggs resulted in the formation of LYGs, as observed in vivo. Fractionation of LYGs and small YGs (SYGs) and their subsequent incubation with the fluorescent membrane marker PKH67 showed a calcium-dependent transference of fluorescence from SYGs to LYGs, possibly as the result of membrane fusion. Acid phosphatase and H(+)-PPase activities were remarkably increased in day-3 LYGs and in calcium-treated day-0 LYGs. Both fractions were found to contain vitellins as major components, and incubation of YGs with calcium induced yolk proteolysis in vitro. Altogether, our results suggest that calcium-induced membrane fusion events take part in yolk degradation, leading to the assembly of the yolk mobilization machinery. PMID:17170157

Ramos, I B; Miranda, K; de Souza, W; Oliveira, D M P; Lima, A P C A; Sorgine, M H F; Machado, E A

2007-01-01

299

Teratogenic effects of amniotic sac puncture: a mouse model.  

PubMed Central

The possibility of an association between chorionic villus sampling (cvs) and limb abnormalities has prompted a review of the relevant experimental data. Although a vascular aetiology is favoured by many at present, the possibility exists that a proportion of cases may be caused by oligohydramnios secondary to inadvertent amniotic sac puncture. A mouse model of amniotic puncture syndrome has been developed to study the craniofacial and limb abnormalities produced by this procedure. Pregnant mice were anaesthetised and a laparotomy performed. One uterine horn was exteriorised, and the amniotic sacs punctured through the wall of the uterus with either a 21 gauge or a 25 gauge needle. The conceptuses in the contralateral uterine horn acted as controls. The mice were all killed on d 19 of pregnancy (day of finding a vaginal plug = d 1 of pregnancy) by cervical dislocation, and the morphological features of the embryos examined in detail. In a preliminary study, amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 of pregnancy, with either a 21 or a 25 gauge needle. Since the highest rates of palatal defects and limb deformities were observed following amniotic sac puncture using a 21 gauge needle, when this procedure was carried out on either d 13 or 14 of pregnancy, the main study was undertaken using a 21 gauge needle on these two days of pregnancy. Of 102 embryos in which amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 13, 53% survived to d 19. Of the latter, 35% had a cleft palate, 61% had one or more morphologically abnormal limbs, and 43% had an abnormal tail. When amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 14 of pregnancy, of 83 embryos subjected to this procedure, 81% survived to d 19. Of the latter, 27% had a cleft palate, 39% had one or more morphologically abnormal limbs, and 19% had an abnormal tail. In the controls, of 86 and 61 embryos isolated respectively from the d 13 and 14 mice, the survival rates were 97 and 90%, respectively. Palatal, limb and tail abnormalities were not observed in the control series. Tentative relationships are drawn between cvs and amniocentesis-associated abnormalities, the Robin sequence and their rodent phenocopies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

MacIntyre, D J; Chang, H H; Kaufman, M H

1995-01-01

300

Pediatric germ cell tumors and maternal vitamin supplementation: A Children's Oncology Group Study  

PubMed Central

Maternal vitamin supplementation has been linked to a reduced risk of several pediatric malignancies. We examined this relationship in a study of childhood germ cell tumors (GCTs). Subjects included 278 GCT cases diagnosed <15 years during 1993-2001 at a United States or Canadian Children's Oncology Group Institution and 423 controls that were ascertained through random digit dialing matched to cases on sex, and age within one year. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for the association between GCTs and maternal vitamin use at several time points during and around pregnancy. In models controlling for the child's age, sex, household income, and maternal education, any maternal vitamin use during the 6 months prior to conception through nursing was associated with a non-significant reduced risk of GCTs (OR=0.7; 95% CI 0.0.4-1.2). Inverse associations were observed for both extragonadal (OR=0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.6) and gonadal (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.3-1.1) tumors and for dysgerminoma/seminoma (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.2-1.3) and teratoma (OR=0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.9) but not yolk sac tumors (OR=1.1; 95% CI 0.5-2.3). No consistent patterns were found with respect to vitamin use during the periconceptional period (6 months before pregnancy and first trimester) or first trimester specifically. In conclusion, while our study suggests that maternal vitamin supplementation may reduce the risk or pediatric GCTs in the offspring, the small study size and limitations inherent to observational studies must be considered when interpreting these results.

Johnson, Kimberly J.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Ross, Julie A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Shu, Xiao Ou

2009-01-01

301

Molecular Characteristics of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors and Comparison With Testicular Counterparts: Implications for Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/?-catenin and TGF-?/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors.

Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E.; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Abeler, Vera M.

2013-01-01

302

SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced components (ICARE), provided by CNES will permit improvement of risk estimation models for radiation effect on last generation integrated circuit technology. . On June 14th, 2000 CONAE and NASA signed an amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding for the SAC-C mission in order that the SAC-C satellite, were included in a constellation - named "Morning Constellation". It is integrated by USA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1, Terra, and Argentine SAC-C that feature on-board instruments from the United States, Argentina, Denmark, Italy, France, and Japan. The four satellite tracks on the Earth's surface are the same, their orbital height being 705 km and their inclination, 98.21 degrees. They cross the Equator at 10:00, 10:01, 10:15, and 10:30 hours, respectively (local time). Satellites comply with the World Wide Reference System. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken and will be presented in this paper. Several jointly sponsored technical workshops have been held, and also collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments have been made. One of the objectives of the AM Constellation is the collaboration in the case of emergencies, NASA and CONAE agreed to give preference in those situation in the planification of their satellite acquisitions. From all the possible hazardous events, the most important for the country are fire and floods. In relation to fires, CONAE is presently adapting and developing the algorithms for using MODIS data to generate a fire map product. Additionally research on fire detection is carried out using the data from the HSTC camera. In relation to flooding, CONAE works in cooperation to national institutions providing the data and, in some cases, producing flood extent maps. In particular MMRS data is demonstrating to be very effective due to its spectral and radiometric resolutions, and its large swath which is well suited for extended countries like Argentina.

Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

2002-01-01

303

Steatorrhoea in rats with an intestinal cul-de-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steatorrhoea in rats with an intestinal cul-de-sac is mainly due to malabsorption of alimentary fats but faecal lipids of endogenous origin are also increased. Steatorrhoea depends on the site of the blind loop in the small intestine and is mainly caused by bacterial proliferation in the lumen of the gut. The aetiological role of Gram-positive anaerobic microbes, especially Clostridium welchii,

P. P. Hoet; H. Eyssen

1964-01-01

304

Thermal cycling fatigue analysis of SAC387 solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to simulate a thermal cycling test result for a PBGA assembly with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder joints subject to thermal cycling of -40°C to +125°C. The PBGA assembly was modeled using a 3D-quarter 1\\/8th octant model of the PBGA assembly. Two constitutive models for the SAC387 solder were investigated using the Anand Viscoplastic

Chandra Williams; Kok Ee Tan; John H. L. Pang

2010-01-01

305

SAC HD45677 FeII emission lines analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aurelie observations of the probably Herbig Ae/Be star HD45677 are analysed using the SAC method applied to the various FeII and CrII emission lines components. A comparison with V380 Ori show that FeII lines are opticaly thinner for the object studied. Consequently HD45677 appears to be less evolved than V380 Ori, probably in the phase where the disk is disappearing.

Muratorio, Gérard; Friedjung, Michael

2001-05-01

306

SAC-B GaAs solar array  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the electrical and mechanical design of the GaAs solar array of SAC-B, an Argentinian scientific satellite, planned for launch in 1995 into a 550-km circular orbit by Pegasus vehicle. The solar array is made up of four deployable wings, embodying approximately 1000 LPE GaAs solar cells, (30 x 41 sq mm), capable of providing about 215 W

L. Brambilla; A. Caon; R. Contini; G. D'Accolti; E. Rossi; G. Verzeni; C. Flores; F. Paletta; G. Pedrazzoli; M. Grattarola

1993-01-01

307

S-Allylcysteine reduces breast tumor cell adhesion and invasion.  

PubMed

Previous studies show that aqueous garlic extract and its derivatives (e.g. S-allylcysteine [SAC]) prevent carcinogen-induced breast tumorigenesis. However, investigations testing the effect of SAC on later stages of breast tumorigenesis and/or metastasis have produced mixed results. Here we show that SAC significantly reduced anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, and sub-lethal SAC-treatment altered mammary tumor cell adhesion and invasion through components of the extracellular matrix. We provide evidence to suggest increased expression of E-cadherin and reduced MMP-2 expression and activity are partially responsible for inhibition of mammary tumor cell invasion by SAC. Because E-cadherin and MMP-2 are important in cancer metastasis, these results suggest a link between SAC induction of E-cadherin and reduction of MMP2 activity with the inhibition of cell motility and invasion; thus providing evidence that events leading to breast cancer metastasis are repressed by sub-lethal SAC-treatment. PMID:18190785

Gapter, Leslie A; Yuin, Ong Zhan; Ng, Ka-Yun

2008-01-09

308

Endoscopic examination of snakes by access through an air sac.  

PubMed

Sixteen boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), three royal pythons (Python regius) and 15 Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were examined endoscopically by access through the air sac. The snakes were immobilised in a ventral position using a half-open anaesthetic system with assisted ventilation and a mixture of isoflurane and oxygen. The rigid endoscope was introduced percutaneously and the internal structure of the lungs and the air sac, and the shape, size and external surface of the liver were visible in the cranial direction. In the smaller snakes the bifurcation and caudal part of the trachea could be viewed, provided the endoscope was positioned in a retrograde orientation. The caudal orientation of the endoscope made it possible to view the gall bladder and the size, shape and surface of the spleen. In some cases, the pancreas and the surface of the stomach and colon could be monitored. Endoscopy through the air sac also made it possible to check the major veins in the coelom. The snakes were monitored for at least 30 days after the intervention and no changes in their respiratory function or general health were observed. PMID:16565339

Jekl, V; Knotek, Z

2006-03-25

309

Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.  

PubMed

To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

2011-12-09

310

Synchronous verrucous carcinoma and inverted papilloma of the lacrimal sac: Case report and clinical update.  

PubMed

Inverted papilloma is a benign epithelial tumor of the nasal cavity. It is known to coexist with malignancy in 5 to 13% of cases, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common malignancy. Another associated malignancy, one that is extremely rare, is verrucous carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, no case of verrucous carcinoma occurring alone or in association with another neoplasm has been described in the nasolacrimal system. We report a case of synchronous verrucous carcinoma and inverted papilloma of the lacrimal sac in a 47-year-old man. The patient presented with epiphora, nasal obstruction, swelling of the left medial canthus, and drainage of a foul-smelling fluid from the left nostril. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging detected the presence of a large mass occupying the left nasal cavity and sinuses with extension into the nasopharynx. In addition, bony invasion of the anteroinferomedial wall of the left orbit was noted with extension of the tumor into the orbit itself, which resulted in lateral displacement of the left medial rectus muscle. The patient underwent endoscopic debulking of the left sinonasal lesion. Of note, the surgery had to be completed in stages because of excessive blood loss. Histopathologic examination of the intranasal component of the tumor identified it as an inverted papilloma. One month after the intranasal resection, a left dacryocystectomy was performed; histopathologic examination revealed that an invasive verrucous squamous cell carcinoma had arisen within the inverted papilloma. PMID:24170467

Gustafson, Cheryl; Einhorn, Eugene; Scanlon, Mary H; Morgenstern, Kenneth E; Howlett, Paul J; Cohen, Noam A

311

Egg yolk environment differentially influences physiological and morphological development of broiler and layer chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Maternal effects are important in epigenetic determination of offspring phenotypes during all life stages. In the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), transgenerational transfer of egg yolk factors may set the stage for morphological and physiological phenotypic differences observed among breeds. To investigate the effect of breed-specific yolk composition on embryonic broiler and layer chicken phenotypes, we employed an ex ovo, xenobiotic technique that allowed the transfer of broiler and layer chicken embryos from their natural yolks to novel yolk environments. Embryonic day two broiler embryos developing on broiler yolk culture medium (YCM) had significantly higher heart rates than layer embryos developing on layer YCM (176±7 beats min(-1) and 147±7 beats min(-1), respectively). Broiler embryos developing on layer YCM exhibited heart rates typical of layer embryos developing normally on layer YCM. However, layer embryo heart rates were not affected by development on broiler YCM. Unlike O(2) consumption, development rate and body mass of embryos were significantly affected by exposure to different yolk types, with both broiler and layer embryos displaying traits that reflected yolk source rather than embryo genotype. Analysis of hormone concentrations of broiler and layer egg yolks revealed that testosterone concentrations were higher in broiler yolk (4.63±2.02 pg mg(-1) vs 3.32±1.92 pg mg(-1)), whereas triiodothyronine concentrations were higher in layer yolk (1.05±0.18 pg mg(-1) vs 0.46±0.22 pg mg(-1)). Thus, a complex synergistic effect of breed-specific genotype and yolk environment exists early in chicken development, with yolk thyroid hormone and yolk testosterone as potential mediators of the physiological and morphological effects. PMID:21270311

Ho, Dao H; Reed, Wendy L; Burggren, Warren W

2011-02-15

312

Egg yolk phosvitin and functional phosphopeptides--review.  

PubMed

Phosphopeptides are among the most interesting biomolecules with characteristic molecular structure and functions. They usually contain clusters of phosphoserines, which can effectively bind calcium and iron, and inhibit formation of insoluble calcium phosphates or iron complexes. Therefore, phosphopeptides can increase calcium or iron bioavailability and prevent lipid oxidation in foods. Milk protein casein has been currently used by industry to produce phosphopeptides. Egg yolk phosvitin is considered as the most phosphorylated protein found in the nature. Phosvitin from egg yolk can be much better source for producing phosphopeptides with varying sizes and functions than casein because it contains much greater number of phosphates in the molecule than casein. However, still phosvitin has not been subjected to considerable attention with regard to bioactive peptides production. PMID:21806612

Samaraweera, Himali; Zhang, Wan-gang; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

2011-08-01

313

CHAMP and SAC-C atmospheric occultation results and intercomparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Argentine Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C) Earth science missions, launched in 2000, carry a new generation of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers for radio occultation sounding of the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere. Though the occultation concept for obtaining profiles of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and moisture was proven in 1995 with GPS/MET, concurrent measurements from CHAMP and SAC-C present the first opportunity for a preliminary evaluation of three central claims: (1) GPS soundings are effectively free of instrumental bias and drift; (2) individual temperature profiles are accurate to <0.5 K between ~5 and 20 km; and (3) averaged profiles for climate studies can be accurate to <0.1 K. These properties imply that a weak climate trend can be monitored and detected in less than a decade and studied by different instruments at different times with no external calibration. While this detection cannot by itself tell us the source of the climate change, whether natural and anthropogenic, this detection is a prerequisite to answer the more difficult problem of understanding the cause of change. In this paper, these three claims are evaluated by comparing nearby CHAMP and SAC-C profiles. Of nearly 130,000 profiles examined, 212 pairs occurring within 30 min and 200 km of one another were found. Profile pairs agree to <0.86 K (68% confidence interval) and to within 0.1 K in the mean between 5 and 15 km altitude, after removing the expected variability of the atmosphere. If the errors in CHAMP and SAC-C are assumed to be uncorrelated, this implies that individual profiles are precise to <0.6 K between 5 and 15 km. Individual comparisons show closest agreement near the tropopause and display finer resolution than and substantially different temperatures from numerical weather model analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Comparisons between CHAMP and SAC-C largely indicate precision; however, several features observed in common, especially near the tropopause, tend also to indicate accuracy. Limitations of previous experiments (e.g., GPS/MET) in probing the lower troposphere have significantly improved with CHAMP and SAC-C, with the majority of profiles (60%) descending to the lowest 0.5 km. This is expected to increase to 90-95% with future system improvements. However, the N-bias problem encountered in GPS/MET is also present in CHAMP and SAC-C, and it is expected to be much reduced once open loop tracking is implemented. Examples are selected to illustrate lower tropospheric sensing, including detection of the planetary boundary layer height. For the first time, such performance is achieved with GPS Antispoofing encryption on. Daily occultations currently number ~350-400 this is expected to reach over 1000 in the near future, rivaling the number of semidaily radiosonde launches. With several new missions in planning, this may increase tenfold in the next 3-8 years, making GPS sounding a potentially significant input to numerical weather prediction and climate research.

Hajj, G. A.; Ao, C. O.; Iijima, B. A.; Kuang, D.; Kursinski, E. R.; Mannucci, A. J.; Meehan, T. K.; Romans, L. J.; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Yunck, T. P.

2004-03-01

314

Generation and application of chicken egg-yolk antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that the use of chicken as immunization host brings many advantages to the production of polyclonal antibodies, the generation of egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) is rarely chosen. In this review, we report on the fast and efficient method for generation and affinity purification of IgY, in this case raised against the ?-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). The

M Tini; U. R Jewell; G Camenisch; D Chilov; M Gassmann

2002-01-01

315

Immunoglobulin Y Levels in Egg Yolk From Three Chicken Genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laying hens are very efficient producers of antibodies and provide an interesting alternative for large-scale production of specific antibodies. These antibodies also have biochemical advantages over mammalian antibodies (e.g. rabbit antibodies) that can be used to improve immunoassays where antibodies are used. The concentration of IgY in egg yolk is an important production parameter. The purpose of this study was

David Carlander; Martin Wilhelmson; Anders Larsson

2003-01-01

316

Primary Epitopes of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies to Peptidophosphogalactomannan†  

PubMed Central

Egg yolks from hens immunized with peptidophosphogalactomannan (pPGalManii), which contains 10 phosphocholine diester residues and is secreted by Penicillium fellutanum, contain antibodies against 5-O-?-d-galactofuranosyl epitopes. These epitopes were the only significant determinants in pPGalManii. Approximately 60-fold less pPGalManii (1.6 ?M galactofuran chains) was required for 50% inhibition than galactofurano-oligosaccharides or pPGalMan containing two galactofuranosyl residues per chain.

Tuekam, Brigitte A.; Bonetti, Sandra J.; Gander, John E.

1998-01-01

317

Oil droplets and yolk spheres during development of Medaka embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sizes of oil droplets (globules) and the yolk sphere in the Medaka Oryzias latipes egg were measured in the developmental period from fertilization to hatching. Oil droplets coalesced with one another in\\u000a the process of shifting toward the vegetal pole, and a single large oil droplet was finally located at the vegetal pole region\\u000a in most eggs 2 days post-fertilization.

Takashi Iwamatsu; Tomokazu Muramatsu; Hirokuni Kobayashi

2008-01-01

318

Yolk mobilization in perch, Perca fluviatilis L., embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

During embryogenesis of the perch, Perca fluviatilis L., a gradual proteolysis of yolk proteins was revealed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting and was comparable to other teleosts. A 118 kDa polypeptide was processed in two 96 and 18 kDa descendants; further proteolysis produced two peptides of 64 and 31 kDa. Ultrastructure and immunocytochemistry were used to compare electrophoresis patterns with morphological

J. Krieger; R. Fleig

1999-01-01

319

Rheology and microstructure of heat-induced egg yolk gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of native egg yolk undergoing a thermal-induced sol-gel transition was studied by using temperature controlled small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements. The critical gel point was determined according to Winter’s criterion: 1) from the measurements of storage and loss moduli as a function of heating time at different frequencies, and 2) from the exponents of the power law mechanical

Felipe Cordobés; Pedro Partal; Antonio Guerrero

2004-01-01

320

MUTATION OF SAC1, AN ARABIDOPSIS SAC DOMAIN PHOSPHOINOSITIDE PHOSPHATASE, CAUSES ALTERATIONS IN CELL MORPHOGENESIS, CELL WALL SYNTHESIS, AND ACTIN ORGANIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

SAC (for suppressor of actin) domain proteins in yeast and animals have been shown to modulate the levels of phosphoinositides, thereby regulating several cellular activities such as signal transduction, actin cytoskeleton organization, and vesicle trafficking. Nine genes encoding SAC domain-contai...

321

Does a Myelomeningocele Sac Compared to No Sac Result in Decreased Postnatal Leg Function following Maternal Fetal Surgery for Spina Bifida Aperta?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A fetus with large sac S1 myelomeningocele (MMC) but bilateral talipes prompted the question, ‘Does the presence or size of an MMC sac affect postnatal leg function?’ Study Design: An MMC database with prenatal, birth, and a minimum of 1-year follow-up evaluation was reviewed. All fetuses had in-utero MMC repair at 20 + 0 to 25 + 6 weeks

R. Douglas Wilson; Mark P. Johnson; Michael Bebbington; Alan W. Flake; Holly L. Hedrick; Leslie N. Sutton; N. Scott Adzick

2007-01-01

322

Effect of egg yolk on growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 7H12 liquid medium  

SciTech Connect

Of 92 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum specimens, 86 showed growth in two types of 7H12 broth, one with egg yolk and the other without egg yolk. In addition, two strains grew only in plain 7H12 broth without yolk, and four others were recovered only in the medium supplemented with egg yolk. The radiometrically detected growth was higher in the presence of egg yolk, corresponding to a higher number of CFU per milliliter in these cultures. The improvement of growth in 7H12 broth supplemented with egg yolk was most noticeable in cultures isolated from sputum specimens having a low number of acid-fast bacilli in the smear and producing only a few colonies on solid media.

Kononov, Y.; Ta, K.D.; Heifets, L.

1988-07-01

323

Occurrence of waxy-textured yolk in the egg of the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus).  

PubMed

An unusual yolk material (waxy yolk) was identified in some hard boiled yolks of one strain of domestic hen. Its structure was consistent with it being formed from normal yolk through disruption of the yolk spheres. These are normally stable during even long periods of storage. Formation occurs mainly after ovulation, during passage of the egg down the oviduct; only rarely could it be found in the larger follicles of the ovarian hierarchy. In the flock of birds examined the incidence of eggs with waxy yolk was 75% of all eggs laid over a 7 d period. Of the 173 birds tested, the eggs of only 17 birds were totally unaffected; all eggs of 82 birds contained this material. The results of a hatchability trial indicated this material had no apparent influence on the embryo or hatchability. PMID:3567683

Gilbert, A B; Walker, M A; Waddington, D; Perry, M M; Tullett, S G

1987-03-01

324

A new membrane based process to isolate immunoglobulin from chicken egg yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the importance of eggs as a source of specific antibodies has been well recognised, the generation of egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) is rarely chosen due to the peculiar composition of egg yolk and the lack of specific affinity ligands. In this work, we report a novel membrane based two-stage ultrafiltration process to isolate IgY from egg yolk. The effects

Jianguo Liu; Juan Yang; Hai Xu; Junren Lu; Zhanfeng Cui

2010-01-01

325

Quail egg yolk: a novel cryoprotectant for the freeze preservation of Poitou jackass sperm.  

PubMed

For many years, attempts have been made to establish a sperm bank for the Poitou jackass population which is threatened with extinction. Unfortunately, no cryopreservation technique has ever been described for spermatozoa of this species. In an attempt to find a suitable technique, we studied the relative effectiveness of chicken egg yolk and quail egg yolk in preserving the motility and characteristics of movement of Poitou jackass spermatozoa during the freezing-thawing process. Semen was diluted to 60 x 10(6) sperm/ml in a preservation medium containing 4% (v/v) glycerol with 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, or 20% (v/v) of chicken or quail egg yolk. The chemical composition of these two eggs was compared. Effects were assessed using an automated analyzer which measured curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), and the velocity of the average path. Linearity was defined as VSL/VCL x 100. The amplitude of the lateral head displacement was also measured. It was found that after the freeze-thaw process, quail egg yolk improved the percentages of motile and progressively undulating spermatozoa and the movement characteristics compared with chicken egg yolk. The optimal concentration of quail egg yolk was 10%. The general composition of the two types of egg yolk were similar, but quail egg yolk contained significantly more phosphatidylcholine, less phosphatidylethanolamine, and a smaller ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids than chicken egg yolk. The improvement of motility for frozen-thawed Poitou jackass spermatozoa using frozen-thawed quail egg yolk compared to chicken egg yolk may be due to the differences in composition of the two yolks. PMID:9200823

Trimeche, A; Anton, M; Renard, P; Gandemer, G; Tainturier, D

1997-06-01

326

Egg yolk layers vary in the concentration of steroid hormones in two avian species.  

PubMed

Maternally derived steroid hormones are known to be present in the yolks of avian eggs; however, the physiological mechanisms involved in their deposition remain largely unexplored. Investigations of steroid production by avian follicles have demonstrated temporal differences in the concentrations of progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone during yolk formation. Because yolk is deposited peripherally in concentric spheres as the oocyte develops, differences in the production of follicular hormones during yolk formation should be manifested in differences in the localization of steroids within layers of the yolk. To investigate this hypothesis we analyzed steroid hormone concentrations in layers of individual eggs of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). We found that in the dark-eyed junco the concentration of progesterone is significantly greater at the periphery of the yolk, while the concentration of 17beta-estradiol is significantly greater near the center of the yolk. We also found in both the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird that the concentration of testosterone remains constant from the interior to the intermediate layers of the yolk and then drops sharply between the intermediate and exterior layers. The patterns of hormone localization that we found agree with those predicted by studies of temporal changes in steroidogenesis in the maturing follicle of the chicken, thus suggesting that within-yolk variation in yolk steroid concentrations in the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird reflects temporal differences in the pattern of follicular steroidogenesis. Variation in the concentration of hormones among yolk layers presents a methodological concern for studies that involve the removal of yolk samples from viable eggs for subsequent hormonal analysis. This variation also has implications for the timing of embryonic exposure to steroid hormones. PMID:10417235

Lipar, J L; Ketterson, E D; Nolan, V; Casto, J M

1999-08-01

327

Structural heterogeneity of yolk spheres in hierarchical follicles from hen ovary: a histochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Four types of yolk spheres with variable structure, chemical composition and frequency of occurrence in yolk plasma of hierarchical follicles (F4, F3, F2 and F1 with diameters of 10·0, 15·5, 20·0 and 35·0 mm, respectively) of the hen ovary were identified using histochemical methods for localising lipids, carbohydrates and proteins.2.?Yolk spheres of the first type (YS1) had a phospholipoprotein membrane

R. K. Parshad; R. Kaur; J. K. Natt

2008-01-01

328

Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.  

PubMed

Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk. PMID:20308406

Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

2010-04-01

329

Secretion of fatty and albuminous yolk by Golgi bodies in Stomopneustes variolaris, Lamarck  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The Golgi bodies in the oocytes of Stomopneustes secrete both fatty and albuminous yolk grains.2.The Golgi vasicle enlarges into a vacuole inside which fatty yolk appears to be deposited. The Golgirim does not undergo any transformation.3.Prior to secretion of albuminous yolk the mitochondria clump together. The Golgi vesicles by rupture give rise to scale or batonette like bodies. These attach

M. K. Subramaniam; R. Gopala Aiyar

1936-01-01

330

YOLK PROTEIN UPTAKE IN THE OOCYTE OF THE MOSQUITO AEDES AEGYPTI. L  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Yolk proteins are thought,to enter certain eggs by a process akin to micropinocytosis but the detailed mechanism,has not been,previously depicted. In this study the formation,of protein yolk was,investigated in the mosquito,Aedes aegypti L. Ovaries were fixed in phos- phate-buffered osmium tetroxide, for electron microscopy, before and at intervals after a meal of blood. The deposition of protein yolk in

T. F. Roth; K. R. Porter

1964-01-01

331

Emulsifying characterization of hens egg yolk proteins in oil-in-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsifying properties of egg yolk as a function of pH and oil volume were studied. Egg yolk proteins formed larger emulsion particles at pH 3 and the mean droplet size of the emulsions was decreased with increasing pH. A linear relationship between turbidity and mean droplet size of egg yolk emulsions could not be obtained. This may be due to

Yoshinori Mine

1998-01-01

332

Yolk degradation in tick eggs: I. Occurrence of a cathepsin L-like acid proteinase in yolk spheres.  

PubMed

In crude extracts of eggs of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata, maximum degradation of vitellin is at pH 3-3.5, whereas no proteolysis is detected at neutral or weakly acidic pHs. Acidic proteolysis is maintained at high level throughout embryonic development, and rapidly decreases in the larva, during the high phase of yolk degradation. Proteinase, acid phosphatase, and N-acetylglucosaminidase are localized within the yolk spheres; these can be considered as lysosomal-like organelles containing both substrate (vitellin) and the degradative machinery. Proteolytic activity has been essentially attributed to a cathepsin L-like enzyme through substrate specificity and inhibitors. The molecular weight is 37,000 to 39,000 as shown using gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE activity gels. At neutral pH the enzyme binds to vitellin, as demonstrated by gel filtration and PAGE under nondenaturing conditions. Acid proteinase activity at pH 5-6 is undetectable both with proteins and synthetic substrates, but is strongly increased after preincubation at pH 3-4. Activation at low pH could be important in the regulation of yolk degradation. PMID:2134178

Fagotto, F

1990-01-01

333

Presence of inoculated Campylobacter and Salmonella in unabsorbed yolks of male breeders raised as broilers.  

PubMed

Day-old male broiler breeder chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and raised as broilers. For Experiment 1, at 5 wk of age, the broilers were orally inoculated with a 10(6) cfu/ml of a characterized strain of Campylobacter jejuni and a cocktail (three naladixic acid-resistant strains) of Salmonella serovars. One week after inoculation, the birds were euthanatized and defeathered. The abdominal cavity was examined and any unabsorbed yolk material (and remaining yolk stalk) and ceca were aseptically removed for microbiological analyses. For each pooled sample (two birds per pool), an aerobic plate count (APC), an Enterobacteriaceae (ENT) count, and a test for the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella was performed. For Experiment 2, at 5 wk of age, the broilers were orally inoculated with 10(5) cfu/ml of a characterized strain of Campylobacter jejuni. One week after inoculation, the birds (n = 20) were killed, defeathered, and the yolk stalk, attached yolk, or free-floating yolk and ceca were individually analyzed for presence of Campylobacter. For Experiment 1, the Salmonella-inoculated birds had 2/12 ceca and 0/12 unabsorbed yolk samples positive for Salmonella. The average yolk APC was log10 3.4 cfu/g and the average ENT was log10 1.9 cfu/g. For the Campylobacter-inoculated birds, 12/12 ceca and 9/12 unabsorbed yolk samples were positive for Campylobacter. The average yolk APC was log10 3.5 cfu/g and the average ENT was log10 3.1 cfu/g. For Experiment 2, the inoculated Campylobacter birds had 19/20 ceca, 5/20 free floating yolks, and 19/20 yolk stalks positive. In Experiment 1, the inoculated Campylobacter colonized the ceca in every instance and were present in 75% of the unabsorbed yolks. Alternatively, the inoculated Salmonella were not found in any of the unabsorbed yolks and only rarely in the ceca. In Experiment 2, the inoculated Campylobacter was found in very high numbers in the yolk and internal body samples. Determining to what extent these internal bodies and unabsorbed yolks play in bacterial colonization and contamination of the birds at processing has not been determined. The next step will be to determine the incidence of unabsorbed yolks and presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in these bodies of commercial broilers at processing. PMID:17039845

Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Buhr, R J; Northcutt, J K; Fairchild, B D; Mauldin, J M

2006-09-01

334

Distribution and origin of steroid hormones in the yolk of Japanese quail eggs (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

The yolk of avian eggs contains steroid hormones, which may influence the development and behaviour of hatched birds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the concentration as well as the distribution of various gonadal steroids in the yolk spheres of quail eggs. Steroid concentrations of dissected yolk layers were analysed after alcoholic extraction using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone. To monitor the uptake of testosterone into the yolk, radioactive testosterone was injected i.m. into six female quails. The radioactivity of yolk layers of subsequently laid eggs was measured by liquid scintillation counting. Progesterone concentrations were highest in the outer layer (median: 2265 nmol/kg). Androstenedione (median: 453 nmol/kg), as the major androgen, and testosterone (median: 99 nmol/kg) reached their highest concentrations in interior layers, whereas in the centre the concentration of all three hormones was low. No significant variation of steroid levels in yolk layers of subsequently laid eggs was found. The highest radioactivity was detected in the outer yolk layer in those eggs laid 1 day after injection and in subsequently laid eggs was measured nearer to the centre. These results indicated local origin of the steroid hormones especially because of the result that only 0.1% of the radioactivity entered the yolk. We conclude that steroid concentrations in the yolk layers reflected progesterone and androgen production of the cells of the follicular wall at the time. PMID:12677460

Hackl, R; Bromundt, V; Daisley, J; Kotrschal, K; Möstl, E

2003-04-02

335

A follicle cell contribution to the yolk spheres of moth oocytes.  

PubMed

The incorporation of H(3)-histidine and H(3)-glucosamine by ovarian follicles of cecropia moths during incubation in female blood was followed autoradicgraphically. Labeling was most prominent in the follicle cells, the spaces between these cells, and the nascent yolk spheres in the oocyte cortex. Results of pulse-chase experiments and the fact that viable follicle cells were required for normal yolk sphere labeling indicated that the endogenous component of the yolk was provided by the follicle cells via the intercellular spaces. The material was accumulated by the oocyte in the absence of blood proteins, suggesting an independent role in yolk formation. PMID:18631490

Anderson, L M; Telfer, W H

1969-01-01

336

The value of a neighborhood street with reference to the cul-de-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides empirical evidence from Halifax, Nova Scotia, confirming the view that the type of neighborhood street can affect home values. The study identifies two categories of streets-the cul-de-sac and the grid-and measures their impacts on home value. The hypothesis that the cul-de-sac would attract premium values was supported by the study. In this study, the cul-de-sac generated a

Paul K. Asabere

1990-01-01

337

Some Factors Determining the Order of Elimination of Culs-de-sac in the Maze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five white rats were put through an animal maze with nine culs-de-sac until the correct pathway was run nine times out of ten without any observable tendency to enter a cul-de-sac. The experiment was undertaken with a view to determine the kind of relation existing between the positions of the culs-de-sac and their temporal order of elimination, and the relative

C. J. Warden

1923-01-01

338

The Sac10b Homolog in Methanococcus maripaludis Binds DNA at Specific Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sac10b protein family, also known as Alba, is widely distributed in Archaea. Sac10b homologs in thermophilic Sulfolobus species are very abundant. They bind both DNA and RNA with high affinity and without sequence specificity, and their physiological functions are still not fully understood. Mma10b from the euryarchaeote Methanococcus maripaludis is a mesophilic member of the Sac10b family. Mma10b is

Yuchen Liu; L. Guo; R. Guo; R. L. Wong; H. Hernandez; J. Hu; Y. Chu; I. J. Amster; W. B. Whitman; L. Huang

2009-01-01

339

Active oxygen scavenging activity of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates and their effects on lipid oxidation in beef and tuna homogenates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates were prepared by the enzymic hydrolysis of fat-free egg-yolk protein. The active oxygen scavenging activity, of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates, was investigated using several methods. Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates suppressed discoloration of ?-carotene, strongly as compared with the control in ?-carotene bleaching method. Superoxide-scavenging activity of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates was measured using the xanthine–xanthine oxidase system. Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates

Senji Sakanaka; Yumi Tachibana

2006-01-01

340

Caspase-3 mediated release of SAC domain containing fragment from Par-4 is necessary for the sphingosine-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor protein that selectively activates and induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. The cancer specific pro-apoptotic function of Par-4 is encoded in its centrally located SAC (Selective for Apoptosis induction in Cancer cells) domain (amino acids 137–195). The SAC domain itself is capable of nuclear entry, caspase activation, inhibition of NF-?B activity, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the precise mechanism(s) of how the SAC domain is released from Par-4, in response to apoptotic stimulation, is not well explored. Results In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that sphingosine (SPH), a member of the sphingolipid family, induces caspase-dependant cleavage of Par-4, leading to the release of SAC domain containing fragment from it. Par-4 is cleaved at the EEPD131G site on incubation with caspase-3 in vitro, and by treating cells with several anti-cancer agents. The caspase-3 mediated cleavage of Par-4 is blocked by addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, caspase-3 specific inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO, and by introduction of alanine substitution for D131 residue. Moreover, suppression of SPH-induced Akt dephosphorylation also abrogated the caspase dependant cleavage of Par-4. Conclusion Evidence provided here shows that Par-4 is cleaved by caspase-3 during SPH-induced apoptosis. Cleavage of Par-4 leads to the generation of SAC domain containing fragment which may possibly be essential and sufficient to induce or augment apoptosis in cancer cells.

2013-01-01

341

Angiotropic lymphoma occurring in a lacrimal sac oncocytoma  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of angiotropic variant of diffuse large B cell lymphoma within a benign oncocytoma of the lacrimal sac. The occurrence of this rare lymphoma within a benign neoplasm has not been documented previously. An 87 year old woman presented with a swelling over the area of the left lacrimal sac, which histological examination revealed to be an oncocytoma. Many small blood vessels within the tumour were filled with large cytologically atypical cells, which stained positively for leucocyte common antigen and a B cell antigen, CD20, confirming the presence of a large B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of angiotropic type. Angiotropic lymphoma is a very rare and usually highly aggressive variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which classically involves the central nervous system and skin, but has been described within most organs. Its occurrence within a benign neoplasm is probably coincidental, although a close association between oncocytic epithelium and normal lymphoid cells is recognised in Warthin’s tumour of salivary and lacrimal glands.

O'Connor, S R; Tan, J H-Y; Walewska, R; Brown, L J R; Lauder, I

2002-01-01

342

Detection of Chlamydia (Bedsonia) in Certain Infections of Man. I. Laboratory Procedures: Comparison of Yolk SAC and Cell Culture for Detection and Isolation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 37 specimens derived from suspected cases of chlamydial infection, together with appropriate control specimens, were examined for the presence of microorganisms of the genus Chlamydia by 2 different laboratory procedures performed in parallel, ...

F. B. Gordon I. A. Harper A. L. Quan J. D. Treharne R. S. C. Dwyer

1969-01-01

343

The influence of different salinity conditions on egg buoyancy and development and yolk sac larval survival and morphometric traits of Baltic Sea sprat ( Sprattus sprattus balticus Schneider)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMARY: The small pelagic sprat (Sprattus sprattus) is a key ecologic player in the Baltic Sea. However, there is long- term variability in recruitment which is thought to be influenced by fluctuations in abiotic and biotic conditions experienced during the early life stages. This study concentrates on the influence of different ambient salinities on sprat egg development, egg buoyancy and

Christoph Petereit; HANS-HARALD HINRICHSEN; Rüdiger Voss; Gerd Kraus; Marko Freese; Catriona Clemmesen

2009-01-01

344

Effect of temperature on viability and axial muscle development in embryos and yolk sac larvae of the Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cod (Gadus morhua L.) eggs may develop and hatch within temperatures of ?1.5 to 12?°C, but little is known about the effects of very low temperatures\\u000a on larval characteristics. Eggs of the Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) were incubated at 1, 5 or 8?°C from Day 1 after fertilisation until hatching, and transferred to 5?°C after hatching. Histological\\u000a samples of

T. F. Galloway; E. Kjørsvik; H. Kryvi

1998-01-01

345

[Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin and its application in medicine].  

PubMed

Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a major immunoglobulin from birds, amphibians and reptiles. IgY does not activate mammalian complement system, and does not bind to mammalian rheumatoid factors, protein A or G. In addition, it has a high yield, and is easy to extract and purify. With these advantages, IgY has been widely used in veterinary science, functional food and bio-products, and proved potential application for disease control and treatment. This paper reviews biological characteristics of IgY, its extraction, purification, and application in immunodiagnosis and treatment. PMID:20232639

Cai, Yu-Chun; Chen, Jia-Xu

2009-12-01

346

The effects of diet on plasma and yolk steroids in lizards (Anolis carolinensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Steroids present in egg yolk have been shown to vary as a result of numerous social and environmental influences and to produce both positive and negative phenotypic outcomes in offspring. In the present study, we examined how quality of the diet affects plasma and yolk steroids in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), a lizard species with genotypic sex determination.

Matthew B. Lovern; Amber L. Adams

2008-01-01

347

Concentrations of steroid hormones in layers and biopsies of chelonian egg yolks.  

PubMed

The actions of circulating hormones, although relatively well understood for adults, are largely unknown for their developing embryos. Transfer of maternal hormones to the egg is known to occur in oviparous species, and recently the presence of hormonally heterogeneous yolk layers has been described in two avian species. To investigate the possibility of a similar phenomenon occurring in chelonian species, egg yolk layers were analyzed in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) and the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), two species that exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination. There was a similar pattern of hormonally heterogeneous yolk layers in both species: concentrations of progesterone and testosterone were significantly higher in the external yolk layer while concentrations of 17beta-estradiol were significantly higher in the intermediate and internal layers. This pattern of hormone deposition concurs with previously published studies of plasma hormone profiles from females of temperate-zone turtle species. Yolks of freshly laid eggs were also sampled using a biopsy technique to examine the concordance of early yolk hormone concentrations and offspring sex. No relationship was found between yolk hormone concentrations and individual offspring sex. Previous work showing that maternally derived yolk estradiol concentrations are correlated with female-biased sex ratios was, however, replicated. These findings suggest that offspring sex is influenced, in part, by the maternal hormone environment. PMID:11161774

Bowden, R M; Ewert, M A; Lipar, J L; Nelson, C E

2001-01-01

348

Yolk hormone levels in the eggs of snapping turtles and painted turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although yolk steroids appear to play important roles in the development, growth, and behavior of some birds, their effects in oviparous reptiles are largely unknown. These investigations were initiated to determine initial levels of steroid hormones in the yolks of eggs from two turtle species. Clutches of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) eggs were collected

P. K Elf; J. W Lang; A. J Fivizzani

2002-01-01

349

Anti Echis carinatus venom antibodies from chicken egg yolk: Isolation, purification and neutralization efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

High titer antibodies (IgY) were raised in egg yolk of white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) by immunizing with the venom of Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper or carpet viper), an Indian venomous snake belonging to the family Viperidae. The anti-snake venom antibodies (antivenom) were isolated from egg yolk by the water dilution method, enriched by 19% sodium sulfate precipitation

K. Paul; J. Manjula; E. P. Deepa; Z. E. Selvanayagam; K. A. Ganesh; P. V. Subba Rao

2007-01-01

350

Quail Egg Yolk: A Novel Cryoprotectant for the Freeze Preservation of Poitou Jackass Sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, attempts have been made to establish a sperm bank for the Poitou jackass population which is threatened with extinction. Unfortunately, no cryopreservation technique has ever been described for spermatozoa of this species. In an attempt to find a suitable technique, we studied the relative effectiveness of chicken egg yolk and quail egg yolk in preserving the motility

Abdesselem Trimeche; Marc Anton; Philippe Renard; Gilles Gandemer; Daniel Tainturier

1997-01-01

351

Habituation to humans affects yolk steroid levels and offspring phenotype in quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field as well as in the laboratory, human-generated stress responses are reduced in adult animals previously habituated to humans in comparison to non-habituated individuals. In birds, yolk steroid levels vary with maternal environment and condition. We tested the hypothesis that the experience of female birds with humans could affect yolk steroids levels and offspring phenotype. Two groups of

Aline Bertin; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Cécilia Houdelier; Sophie Lumineau; Erich Möstl; Alexandra Kuchar; Katharina Hirschenhauser; Kurt Kotrschal

2008-01-01

352

Studies on the Origin of Yolk. II. Oogenesis of the Scolopendra, Otostigmus Feae (Pocock)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 11 Text-figures. IN a previous paper (1924) on the egg of the centipede, Lithobius f orficatus, one of us (V. N.) described two kinds of yolk, albuminous and fatty. The albuminous yolk is pre- ceded by nucleolar extrusions of a remarkable type, and its origin seems to be associated with them, although no evidence could be adduced that they

Yishwa Nath

353

Embryo and Yolk Compositional Relationships in Broiler Hatching Eggs During Incubation1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental relationships between yolk, embryo body, and embryo liver compositions dur- ing incubation were determined in two trials. In Trial 1, embryo body moisture, fat, and CP contents and embryo liver moisture and fat contents were determined. In Trial 2, relative yolk weights, moisture, fat, and fatty acid con- tents, relative wet and dry embryo weights and moisture contents, and

E. DAVID PEEBLES; LUMU LI; SHERMAN MILLER; TOMAS PANSKY; SHARON WHITMARSH; MICKEY A. LATOUR; PATRICK D. GERARD

354

Why is there sequence similarity between insect yolk proteins and vertebrate lipases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major proteins stored in the yolk of developing oocytes are thought to provide a nutritional store for utilization during embryogenesis. They seem to fall into two major families of proteins. The first are called vitellogenins and are found in frog, chicken, nematode, fish, and some insects such as the boll weevil. The other group are called yolk proteins and

Mary Bownea

355

PRESENCE OF VARIOUS NATURALLY OCCURRING BACTERIA IN UNABSORBED YOLKS OF SIX WEEK OLD COMMERCIAL BROILERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial broilers (6 weeks of age) were obtained from a processing plant after defeathering but prior to evisceration and transported to the laboratory. Each carcass was hung on a shackle by the feet and aseptically cut open. From the carcasses, the free floating unabsorbed yolk, yolk stalk, att...

356

SAC and SAC-CI calculations of excitation and circular dichroism spectra of straight-chain and cyclic dichalcogens.  

PubMed

Accurate quantum-chemical calculations of the excitation energies and the rotatory strengths of dichalcogens R-Ch-Ch-R (Ch = S, Se, Te) were carried out with the symmetry adapted cluster (SAC) and SAC-configuration interaction (CI) methods. A series of straight-chain molecules (dihydrogen dichalcogenide, dimethyl dichalcogenide, and (+)-bis(2-methylbutyl) dichalcogenide) and one cyclic molecule (2,3-(R,R)-dichalcogenadecalin) were adopted for comparative analysis. The calculated excitation and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were in good agreement with experimental ones (Laur, P. H. A. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Organic Selenium and Tellurium Compounds; Cagniant, D., Kirsch, G., Eds.; Universite de Metz: Metz, 1979; pp 219-299) within 0.3 eV. The fitting CD spectra also reasonably reproduced the experimental ones. In all the molecules adopted, the first and second lowest bands were assigned to the n-sigma(Ch-Ch) transition and the third and fourth lowest bands to the n-sigma(Ch-R) transition. The first and second lowest bands apparently depended on the R-Ch-Ch-R dihedral angle, suggesting that the orbital energies of two sigma(Ch-Ch) change with the R-Ch-Ch-R dihedral angle. This calculated trend agrees with two empirical rules: the C(2) rule and the quadrant rule. PMID:16913679

Seino, Junji; Honda, Yasushi; Hada, Masahiko; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

2006-08-24

357

Fat body expressed yolk protein genes in Hyphantria cunea are related to the YP4 follicular epithelium yolk protein subunit gene of pyralid moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA clones for two of the yolk proteins, YP1 and YP2, produced by the fat body of the moth, Hyphantria cunea , were sequenced and found to be homologous to the follicular epithelium yolk proteins of pyralid moths. Both cDNA clones coded for polypeptides of 290 residues and the deduced amino acid sequence identity between YP1 and YP2 was very

H. M. Cheon; H. J. Kim; C. Y. Yun; H. J. Lee; I. H. Lee; P. D. Shirk; S. J. Seo

2003-01-01

358

Transfer kinetics to egg yolk and modeling residue recovered in yolk of readily metabolized molecules: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons orally administered to laying hens.  

PubMed

The kinetic of transfer into egg yolk of Persistent Organic Pollutants with contrasting properties regarding biotransformation and bioaccumulation was investigated. Twenty-four Hy line hens, aged 26weeks, were orally administered, during 1 or 3 consecutive days, 6mg of a mixture of three PAHs (phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene) in equal amounts (w:w) or 3mg of lindane per kg body weight daily. Each day, contaminants were administered 1h after oviposition in one gelatin capsule. Eggs were collected daily during the 12d following the first dosing. Concentrations of PAHs and their main hydroxylated metabolites in yolk were determined using HPLC coupled with fluorimetric detection, while lindane was analysed by GC-ED. At the end of the experiment, hens were sacrified and preovulatory yolks were collected and weighed. All three PAHs were recovered in yolks, mainly as metabolites, indicating an active biotransformation of these compounds in hens. Within 10d, PAHs and metabolites concentrations in yolks were back to initial values. However, the recovery rate of these compounds to yolk calculated over the 12-d experiment, was very low, reaching 0.089%, 0.034% and 0.006% for Phe, Pyr and B[a]P, respectively. Daily deposition of yolk and of PAHs and metabolites were found to be directly proportional, indicating that no significant body storage of these PAHs occurred and that they were rapidly hydroxylated after ingestion. In contrast, lindane and yolk deposition could not be related. Storage of lindane in body fat explains its slower elimination via eggs. PMID:20060565

Fournier, Agnès; Feidt, Cyril; Dziurla, Marie-Antoinette; Grandclaudon, Christine; Jondreville, Catherine

2010-01-08

359

Motility of Bovine Spermatozoa Stored at 5° C. when Extended in Mixtures of Yolk-Citrate, Yolk-Glycine, Whole Milk, Skimmilk, and Glycerol[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Four semen samples were collected from each of three bulls. Each semen sample was divided into a glycerolated (7.5%) and a nonglycerolated group. Each group was ex- tended 1:24 into ten different extenders at an initial temperature of 32 ° C. The extenders were egg yolk-citrate (YC), whole milk (WM), skimmilk (SM), and egg yolk-glycine (YG), and their combinations

J. L. Albright; M. H. Ehlers; R. E. Erb

1958-01-01

360

Production of hen egg yolk immunoglobulins simultaneously directed against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in the same egg yolk.  

PubMed

The present study was an attempt to raise hen egg yolk Ig (IgY) simultaneously directed against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in the same egg yolk. The immunopotentiating effect of 2 different adjuvants -- Freund's adjuvants (FA) and immunostimulating complexes matrix (IM) -- on antibody response was also evaluated. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMP) were selected as target antigens. The ISA Brown hens, specific-Salmonella spp.-free status, divided into 6 groups were intramuscularly injected with a mono-compound antigen preparation: SE-OMP (treatment SE-FA or SE-IM) or ST-OMP (treatment ST-FA or ST-IM), or a combined antigen preparation: (1/2) SE-OMP and (1/2) STOMP (treatment SEST-FA or SEST-IM). Titers of antibodies in yolk were evaluated biweekly with ELISA. There was no antigen x adjuvant interaction on antibody titers. Anti-SE IgY titers in hens that received treatment SEST-FA or SEST-IM were statistically similar (P > 0.05) as compared with those obtained from hens immunized with treatment SE-FA or SE-IM. Anti-ST IgY titers in hens immunized with treatment SEST-FA or SEST-IM were slightly lower than those of hens that received treatment ST-FA or ST-IM. The cross-reactivity of anti-SE IgY, induced by treatment SE-FA or SE-IM, with ST-OMP antigen and that of anti-ST IgY, induced by ST-FA or ST-IM, with SE-OMP antigen were arbitrarily assessed on d 43 and 155 by ELISA. The average cross-reactivity of anti-SE IgY with ST-OMP antigen was 71.7%. The average cross-reactivity of anti-ST IgY with SE-OMP antigen was 78.8%. In FA groups, antibody titers were found higher (P < 0.05) than those in IM groups. Furthermore, no extensive lesions or clinical abnormalities were detected in hens injected with FA. These findings showed the opportunity to raise IgY antibody against 2 Salmonella serovars in the same yolk and that FA was more efficient than IM in mediating antibody response. PMID:18079447

Chalghoumi, R; Théwis, A; Portetelle, D; Beckers, Y

2008-01-01

361

Predicting liquid-phase thermodynamic properties using COSMO-SAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting thermodynamic properties of liquids remains a significant challenge in both academia and industry. This is because molecules in the liquid phase are relatively close together but are not arranged in an ordered structure. The COSMO-SAC model uses quantum and statistical mechanics to predict the thermodynamic properties of liquids. In this thesis, a variety of efforts have been made to improve the accuracy of this model. The most successful of these involves the inclusion of dispersion interactions in mixture calculations, which reduces the average prediction error for activity coefficients by over 30%. It has also been demonstrated that the misfit energy—the traditional interaction energy used in all known COSMO-based models—is limited in its ability to model intermolecular interactions. A variety of attempts to improve the electrostatics of the model have been made, but these have had little effect on the overall accuracy. These include use of an expanded hydrogen bonding description, use of an alternate molecular surface construction method, and incorporation of three-dimensional considerations. These results, coupled with the observed improvement obtained from including dispersion interactions, suggest that the greatest weakness in the model is the handling of electrodynamics (how molecules polarize one another), and that future efforts to improve the model should target this area. In addition, the model has been parameterized for the ADF density functional software package, thus making it available to a wider audience. Results are approximately equivalent to those obtained with DMol3, the only package for which a published parameterization was previously available. Of significance, the ADF implementation allows one of the adjustable model parameters to be eliminated. Also, a correlation was found between experimental liquid volumes and the quantum-based molecular volumes employed in COSMO-SAC. This eliminates the need to provide experimental volumes to the model. Finally, a Windows-based graphical user interface for COSMO-SAC has been developed. This expands the availability of the model to anyone with only a general familiarity with thermodynamics. Without this, use is restricted to those with an in-depth knowledge of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and computer programming.

Burnett, Russell I.

362

A comparison of the protective action of chicken and quail egg yolk in the cryopreservation of Spanish ibex epididymal spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg yolk-based diluents provide adequate cryoprotection for the sperm of several mammalian species. Traditionally, chicken egg yolk has been used as additive for the freeze preservation of spermatozoa because of its wide availability. Variations in the chemical composition of the egg yolk of different avian species appear to influence the protection afforded during cooling, freezing, and thawing. The aim of

Julian Santiago-Moreno; Miguel A. Coloma; Adolfo Toledano-Díaz; Amelia Gómez-Brunet; Antonio Pulido-Pastor; Amancia Zamora-Soria; Juan A. Carrizosa; Baltasar Urrutia; Antonio López-Sebastián

2008-01-01

363

Low density lipoproteins extracted from hen egg yolk by an easy method: cryoprotective effect on frozen–thawed bull semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hen egg yolk is widely used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders in order to protect the spermatozoa against cold shock. The protective action of yolk is largely presumed to be due to low density lipoproteins (LDL). In recent years, arguments concerning the presence of cryoprotective antagonists in egg yolk, have reinforced interest in the use of only

M Moussa; V Martinet; A Trimeche; D Tainturier; M Anton

2002-01-01

364

For uptake of yolk precursors, epithelial cell-oocyte gap junctional communication is required by insects representing six different orders  

Microsoft Academic Search

For uptake of vitellogenin protein into nascent yolk spheres, communication through open gap junction channels between the follicle epithelium and oocyte is required by six different insects representing six different orders. It was recently shown in the hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus, that endocytic uptake of yolk protein resulting in the formation of nascent yolk spheres depended upon an intact epithelium communicating

Stacy L Waksmonski; Richard I Woodruff

2002-01-01

365

Fatty acid profiles of processed chicken egg yolks.  

PubMed

The fatty acid compositions of egg yolks subjected to industrial processing treatments, namely, homogenization, pasteurization, drying, and "omega-3-enrichment", were studied. In general, the total contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 n-9, and C18:2 n-6 fatty acids accounted for close to 90% of the total fatty acids. Statistical analysis of the data revealed correlations among the fatty acids; significant differences existed depending on the egg source and type of processing. Yolk samples enriched with omega-3 fatty acids clustered together owing to their higher C16:0, C16:1 n-7, C18:3 n-6, and C24:0 contents. Nonpasteurized/non-heat-treated samples formed another cluster because of their higher C18:1 n-11 and C18:1 n-9 contents, and the remaining samples formed another group due to their higher proportions of C18:0, C18:2 n-6, and C20:4 n-6. The relative proportions of essential fatty acids were similar in the four types of samples examined. PMID:16910716

Tesedo, Javier; Barrado, Enrique; Sanz, M Angeles; Tesedo, Angel; de la Rosa, Francisco

2006-08-23

366

Generation and application of chicken egg-yolk antibodies.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that the use of chicken as immunization host brings many advantages to the production of polyclonal antibodies, the generation of egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) is rarely chosen. In this review, we report on the fast and efficient method for generation and affinity purification of IgY, in this case raised against the alpha-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). The IgY antibody was successfully applied in a variety of methods and a number of different species for HIF-1alpha detection. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, the IgY antibody recognized the native HIF-1 complex. The IgY antibody also detected HIF-1alpha protein on Western blots with extracts derived from human, monkey, pig, dog and mouse cell lines grown under hypoxic conditions. Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation experiments using the IgY antibody allowed detection and subcellular localization of HIF-1alpha in the nuclei of hypoxic cells. Chicken antibody production brings great benefit concerning the welfare of the immunized animals, due to non-invasive antibody harvesting with the added convenience of simple egg collection. An additional advantage is the fast and simple IgY isolation from egg yolk. IgY technology is a great improvement and should be considered as a good alternative to conventional polyclonal antibody production in mammals. PMID:11867282

Tini, M; Jewell, U R; Camenisch, G; Chilov, D; Gassmann, M

2002-03-01

367

Isolation of immunoglobulin from egg yolk by anionic polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Isolation conditions of immunoglobulin in egg yolk (IgY) were optimized by the addition of various levels of Na-alginate (Alg), lambda-carrageenan (lambda-Cg), Na-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and pectin (PC) to 6-fold diluted yolk. The mixtures were then reacted at pH 4.0-6.0 for 30 min. The optimal isolation conditions of IgY for Alg, lambda-Cg, and CMC were at the 0.1% level and at pH 5.0, while those for PC were at the 0.15% level and at the same pH. The remaining lipid and remaining protein in the supernatants thus obtained was 0.5-3.8% and 10-17%, respectively, and more than 90% of lipoproteins were precipitated. The IgY recovery was determined to be 33-74% by means of single radial immunodiffusion method when IgY was isolated under the optimal conditions. PC showed the best recovery of IgY, while lambda-Cg provided the least. The interactions between polysaccharides and lipoproteins were mainly ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bonds as determined by the addition (0-2.0 M) of NaSCN or urea to the polysaccharide-lipoprotein precipitates. PMID:10775340

Chang, H M; Lu, T C; Chen, C C; Tu, Y Y; Hwang, J Y

2000-04-01

368

Maternal corticosterone is transferred into the egg yolk.  

PubMed

Hormones deposited in the avian egg are considered in many studies to influence or to adjust offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions in an adaptive way. Several studies demonstrated an effect of corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, injected into the egg on the developing chick, but the injection of steroids in the egg is far from mimicking the natural distribution of the hormone in the egg. Other studies applied a stressor or corticosterone to the mother. However it is still debated whether an increase of circulating corticosterone in the mother translates into higher concentrations of corticosterone in the egg. Therefore, we investigated in captive barn owls Tyto alba whether circulating corticosterone in egg-laying females elevated within a physiological range, resulted in the deposition of corticosterone in eggs. We found that an increase in circulating corticosterone in the mother within the naturally occurring range translated into elevated concentrations of corticosterone in the yolk of subsequently laid eggs, indicating a specific time frame and yolk layer of corticosterone deposition. We conclude that increasing maternal plasma corticosterone within a naturally occurring range is an efficient tool to increase corticosterone concentration in the egg and to manipulate conditions for the developing embryo. PMID:22580154

Almasi, Bettina; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Müller, Claudia; Brill, Sandra; Wagner, Hermann; Jenni, Lukas

2012-05-10

369

Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

Hodges, Linda C.

1995-12-01

370

Conjugated linoleic acids alter the fatty acid composition and physical properties of egg yolk and albumen.  

PubMed

Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the fatty acid composition of different egg compartments after storage were studied. Four dietary treatments [supplemented with safflower oil (SAFF, control group), DHA, CLAs plus DHA (CAD), and CLAs alone] were administered to Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. Eggs from the different treatment groups were collected and stored for 10 weeks at 4 degrees C before analysis. Fatty acids from the yolk (yolk granules and plasma), egg albumen, and vitelline membrane were analyzed by gas chromatography. The yolk of eggs from hens given CLAs had significantly higher amounts of saturated fatty acids, typically 16:0 and 18:0, but lower amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared to eggs from the control group (SAFF). CLA content was highest in the yolk and present in both neutral and polar lipids, with the greatest concentrations in neutral lipids. DHA was incorporated mainly into yolk polar lipids. Lipids in yolk plasma and granules contained similar amounts of CLAs. The fatty acid compositions of vitelline membrane and egg albumen mirrored that of the egg yolk. CLA supplementation resulted in hard and rubbery yolks when compared to hard-cooked eggs from the control group. This study showed that feeding CLAs to hens led to accumulation of the isomers in polar and neutral lipids of the egg yolk and that these isomers migrated into egg albumen. Because the sensory properties of hard-cooked eggs were negatively affected by the enrichment of a mixture of CLA isomers in this study, further research should be conducted to evaluate how the different isomers alter the properties of egg yolk and albumen so that the quality of designed eggs containing CLAs and DHA can be improved. PMID:14582988

Watkins, Bruce A; Feng, Shulin; Strom, Anna K; DeVitt, Amy A; Yu, Liangli; Li, Yong

2003-11-01

371

An Isolated Venous Sac as a Novel Site for Cell Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Transplanting pancreatic islets is of significant interest for type 1 diabetes mellitus. After intraportal injection of islets, inferior engraftment and eventual loss of transplanted islets constitute major limitations. Therefore, alternative approaches will be helpful. Here, we evaluated in animals whether an isolated venous sac would support survival of transplanted islets, along with correction of hyperglycemia. Methods Pancreatic islets isolated from adult Lewis rats were transplanted either into an isolated venous sac made from lumbar vein or into the portal vein of syngeneic rats. The integrity and vascular organization of the venous sac was determined by studies of the local microcirculation. The engraftment, survival, and function of transplanted islets were analyzed by histology, including endocrine function in situ and by glycemic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Results Transplanted islets showed normal morphology with insulin expression in isolated venous sac during the long term. Transplanted islets received blood supply from vasa vasorum and had access to drainage through venous tributaries in the venous sac. This resulted in restoration of euglycemia in diabetic rats. Removal of islet graft-bearing venous sac in diabetic rats led to recurrence of hyperglycemia. By contrast, euglycemia was not restored in rats treated by intraportal transplantation of islets. Conclusions We demonstrated that pancreatic islets successfully engrafted and functioned in the isolated venous sac with ability to restore euglycemia in diabetic rats. Therefore, the isolated venous sac offers a new site for transplantation of pancreatic islets. This would be clinically beneficial as an alternative to intrahepatic islet transplantation.

Kakabadze, Zurab; Shanava, Koba; Ricordi, Camillo; Shapiro, A.M. James; Gupta, Sanjeev; Berishvili, Ekaterine

2013-01-01

372

Finite Element Analysis of Stresses Developed in the Blood Sac of a Left Ventricular Assist Device  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research is to develop a 3D finite element (FE) model of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to predict stresses in the blood sac. The hyperelastic stress-strain curves for the segmented poly(ether polyurethane urea) blood sac were determined in both tension and compression using a servo-hydraulic testing system at various strain rates. Over the range of strain rates studied, the sac was not strain rate sensitive, however the material response was different for tension versus compression. The experimental tension and compression properties were used in a FE model that consisted of the pusher plate, blood sac and pump case. A quasi-static analysis was used to allow for nonlinearities due to contact and material deformation. The 3D FE model showed that blood sac stresses are not adversely affected by the location of the inlet and outlet ports of the device and that over the systolic ejection phase of the simulation the prediction of blood sac stresses from the full 3D model and an axisymmetric model are the same. Minimizing stresses in the blood sac will increase the longevity of the blood sac in vivo.

Haut Donahue, T. L.; Dehlin, W.; Gillespie, J.; Weiss, W.J.; Rosenberg, G.

2009-01-01

373

Observations on enzymatically isolated, living and fixed embryo sacs in several angiosperm species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique has been developed for isolating embryo sacs (ESs) by enzymatic maceration. Ovules were macerated in a mixture of pectinase, cellulase and, in some cases, snailase and pectolyase Y-23. The ovular tissues were removed and the ESs were isolated in toto. Embryo sacs were isolated from both fixed and fresh ovules of Antirrhinum majus L., Helianthus annuus L. and

C. Zhou; H. Y. Yang

1985-01-01

374

Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Interaction of Typical Sac10b Family Proteins with DNA  

PubMed Central

The Sac10b protein family is regarded as a family of DNA-binding proteins that is highly conserved and widely distributed within the archaea. Sac10b family members are typically small basic dimeric proteins that bind to DNA with cooperativity and no sequence specificity and are capable of constraining DNA negative supercoils, protecting DNA from Dnase I digestion, and do not compact DNA obviously. However, a detailed understanding of the structural basis of the interaction of Sac10b family proteins with DNA is still lacking. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Mth10b, an atypical member of the Sac10b family from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ?H, at 2.2 Å. Unlike typical Sac10b family proteins, Mth10b is an acidic protein and binds to neither DNA nor RNA. The overall structure of Mth10b displays high similarity to its homologs, but three pairs of conserved positively charged residues located at the presumed DNA-binding surface are substituted by non-charged residues in Mth10b. Through amino acids interchanges, the DNA-binding ability of Mth10b was restored successfully, whereas the DNA-binding ability of Sso10b, a typical Sac10b family member, was weakened greatly. Based on these results, we propose a model describing the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions of typical Sac10b family proteins with DNA that explains all the characteristics of the interactions between typical Sac10b family members and DNA.

Liu, Xi; Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yao, Hong-Wei; Ge, Meng; Pan, Xian-Ming

2012-01-01

375

Ditheophylline succinate: transfer of theophylline across everted rat intestinal sacs.  

PubMed

The cumulative theophylline transfer rate across 10-cm everted rat intestinal sacs incubated at 37 degrees in pH 7.4 Krebs phosphate buffer was determined. A suspension of ditheophylline succinate ( a potential prodrug of theophylline) and a solution of theophylline at equimolar concentration were evaluated to determine the magnitude of the difference between the cumulative theophylline transfer rates from the two preparations. A linear concentration dependency for the rate across the intestinal wall was evidenced. The theophylline formation rate from ditheophylline succinate suspended in pH 7.4 Krebs buffer at 37 degrees followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The observed difference (fourfold) between the cumulative transfer rates estimated for the theophylline solution and the ditheophylline succinate suspention was attributed to the prevailing theophylline concentration in the mucosal solutions. The biopharmaceutical implication of these observations are discussed. PMID:29956

Sanvordeker, D R

1978-10-01

376

Performances of the SAC-D NIRST flight model radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America and the Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales of Argentina. Jointly developed by CONAE and the Canadian Space Agency, the New IR Sensor Technology (NIRST) instrument will monitor high temperature events. NIRST has one band in the mid-wave infrared and two bands in the thermal infrared. The baseline design of the NIRST is based on microbolometer technology developed jointly by INO and the CSA. This paper will first present an overview of the design of the NIRST camera module. The manufacturing and qualification activities for the Flight Model will be described and key performance parameters, as measured during the verification campaign, will be reported.

Leclerc, Mélanie R.; Marchese, Linda; Côté, Patrice; Châteauneuf, François; Chevalier, Claude; Marraco, Hugo; Ngo Phong, Linh

2009-08-01

377

On modelling SAC's regions in early type atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test the ideas that probably DACs are not unknown absorption spectral lines, but spectral lines (satellite absorption components) of the same ion and the same wavelength as a main spectral line, shifted at different ??. In addition, DACs are not always discrete absorption spectral lines, but in most cases lines that are blended among themselves as well as with the main spectral line. This means that when we deal with a significant spectral line, which is accompanied by satellite absorption components, we should not regard them as independent spectral lines, but as a unified formation which must be dealt with as one spectral line splited into a series of components. For these reasons we prefer to name them Satellite Absorption Components (SACs) and not discrete Absorption components (DACs).

Danezis, E.; Lyratzi, E.; Nikolaidis, D.; Stathopoulou, M.; Theodossiou, E.; Drakopoulos, C.; Soulikias, A.; Antoniou, A.

2003-10-01

378

Effect of refrigeration on in vitro penetration of Salmonella enteritidis through the egg yolk membrane.  

PubMed

Internally contaminated eggs have been implicated as leading sources of transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) to humans. Although SE is not often deposited inside the nutrient-rich yolks of naturally contaminated eggs, penetration through the vitelline membrane to reach the yolk contents could result in rapid bacterial multiplication. In previous studies, such penetration has been observed occasionally at warm temperatures during experiments with in vitro egg contamination models. The present study was conducted to determine whether refrigeration affects the frequency of in vitro SE penetration of the egg yolk membrane. After inoculation of small numbers of SE onto the outside of the vitelline membranes of intact yolks, immediate refrigeration of contaminated samples prevented the penetration of SE into the egg yolk contents during 24 h of storage. However, SE penetrated inside the yolk contents in 4% of contaminated egg samples refrigerated after 2 h of storage at 30 degrees C, 15% of samples refrigerated after 6 h of storage at 30 degrees C, and 40% of samples stored at 30 degrees C for 24 h (48 samples per treatment group). These results highlight the value of prompt refrigeration for restricting the opportunities for SE to multiply to high numbers inside the yolks of contaminated eggs. PMID:16786867

Gast, Richard K; Holt, Peter S; Guraya, Rupa

2006-06-01

379

Negative effects of yolk testosterone and ticks on growth in canaries.  

PubMed

Maternal yolk hormones in bird eggs are thought to adjust the offspring to the post-hatching environment. This implies that the effects of maternal yolk hormones should vary with the post-hatching environment, but to date such context-dependency has largely been ignored. We experimentally increased yolk testosterone concentrations in canary eggs and simultaneously manipulated the post-hatching context via an experimental tick-infestation of the chicks. This allows us to evaluate the context-dependency of hormone-mediated maternal effects, as it has previously been shown that ectoparasites alter the maternal yolk androgen deposition. The experimental tick infestation reduced growth in chicks from sham-treated eggs, indicating harmful effects of this ectoparasite in canaries. Chicks from testosterone-treated eggs were not affected in their development by ticks, suggesting lower ectoparasite vulnerability. But this may also be due to the fact that experimentally elevated yolk testosterone levels impaired growth even under parasite-free conditions. This contrasts previous studies, but these studies often manipulated first laid eggs, while we used eggs of subsequent laying positions. Later laid eggs are presumably of lower quality and contain higher yolk testosterone concentrations. Thus, the effects of elevated yolk testosterone on growth may be dose-dependent or vary with the egg quality, suggesting prenatal context-dependency. PMID:21898851

Vergauwen, Jonas; Heylen, Dieter; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

2011-09-06

380

Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

Hahn, D. Caldwell

2011-01-01

381

The specificity of yolk protein uptake in cyclorrhaphan diptera is conserved through evolution.  

PubMed

Yolk proteins are transported from the hemolymph into the oocytes of insects during vitellogenesis by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Since other hemolymph proteins, both native and foreign, are not accumulated in the oocyte, the process of uptake is selective for yolk proteins. Peptide domains within the yolk proteins must therefore be involved in receptor recognition. With the long-term aim of identifying these domains and to open the possibility of understanding the molecular basis of receptor-mediated endocytosis of yolk proteins, we began investigating how well this mechanism has been conserved in evolution. We studied the uptake of yolk proteins from 13 different Drosophila species and five other dipteran species, namely, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga argyrostoma, Musca domestica, Lucilia servicata, and Protophormia terrae-novae, into the ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila funebris. The results from these experiments showed that in all cases the foreign yolk proteins were taken up by the host ovaries, indicating that the mechanism and peptide domains of the yolk proteins involved in recognition of the receptor have been well conserved in dipteran evolution. PMID:1487828

Martinez, A; Bownes, M

1992-11-01

382

Embryo and yolk compositional relationships in broiler hatching eggs during incubation.  

PubMed

Developmental relationships between yolk, embryo body, and embryo liver compositions during incubation were determined in two trials. In Trial 1, embryo body moisture, fat, and CP contents and embryo liver moisture and fat contents were determined. In Trial 2, relative yolk weights, moisture, fat, and fatty acid contents, relative wet and dry embryo weights and moisture contents, and relative wet and dry liver weights and moisture contents were determined. In Trial 1, embryo moisture decreased sigmoidally between Days 6 and 21, whereas embryo fat increased between Days 12 and 21 of incubation; embryo CP displayed sequential fluctuations throughout incubation. However, an overall significant decrease in embryo CP occurred between Days 6 and 21. Liver fat content increased between Days 12 and 21, whereas liver moisture decreased through Day 18, with a subsequent increase by Day 21. In Trial 2, relative yolk weight and moisture content decreased, whereas percentage yolk lipid content increased between Days 6 and 15. Relative wet and dry embryo weights changed in a similar manner, with rapid increases between Days 12 and 18 of incubation. Embryo moisture and CP were negatively correlated to embryo fat content. Furthermore, relative embryo and liver DM were related to yolk palmitic acid concentration, whereas yolk oleic acid was correlated only with liver DM. In conclusion, embryos and their livers displayed differential accumulations of moisture and DM during incubation, and these differences exhibited distinctive associations with various yolk fatty acids. PMID:10536793

Peebles, E D; Li, L; Miller, S; Pansky, T; Whitmarsh, S; Latour, M A; Gerard, P D

1999-10-01

383

Distribution of yolk polypeptides in the follicle cells during the differentiation of the follicular epithelium in Sarcophaga bullata egg follicles.  

PubMed

In S. bullata, the ovaries contribute to the synthesis of yolk polypeptides. A specific antiserum for yolk polypeptides was used to visualize the presence of yolk polypeptides in the follicle cells during their differentiation. After vitellogenesis has started, all follicle cells contain yolk polypeptides. The squamous follicle cells covering the nurse cells and the border cells lose yolk polypeptides before mid-vitellogenesis, whereas the follicle cells over the oocyte contain yolk polypeptides until after late vitellogenesis. All follicle cells are immunonegative afterwards. In vitro translation of poly(A)+ RNA demonstrated that the presence of yolk polypeptide mRNA correlates well with follicle cell immunopositivity for yolk polypeptides. This suggests that the follicle cells synthesize the ovarian yolk polypeptides. Differences in cellular and nuclear morphology, total and poly(A)+ RNA synthesis and the rate of yolk polypeptide synthesis were shown to be correlated with the presence or absence of yolk polypeptides in the differentiating follicular epithelium. The possible relationship between these different aspects of follicle cell differentiation, follicle cell polyploidy and the extracellular current pattern around follicles are discussed. PMID:3449367

Geysen, J; Cardoen, J; De Loof, A

1987-09-01

384

Potential impact of therapeutic warfarin treatment on type II endoleaks and sac shrinkage rates on midterm follow-up examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Successful endovascular aortic aneurysm repair depends on exclusion and spontaneous thrombosis of the aneurysm sac. The need for chronic postoperative anticoagulation therapy could limit the applicability of this technology with delay or prevention of sac thrombosis resulting in endoleak formation and altered remodeling of the aneurysm sac. The purpose of this study was the determination of whether chronic therapeutic

Ronald M. Fairman; Jeffrey P. Carpenter; Richard A. Baum; Robert A. Larson; Michael A. Golden; Clyde F. Barker; Marc E. Mitchell; Omaida C. Velazquez

2002-01-01

385

A modified yolk biopsy technique improves survivorship of turtle eggs.  

PubMed

Nongenetic maternal contributions, such as steroid hormones, have received much attention in recent years because they have the potential to influence offspring phenotype. Research in oviparous taxa has demonstrated that there is among-species variability in their response to these maternal contributions. However, studies in chelonians and crocodilians have been hampered by the fact that techniques involving egg manipulations that breach the eggshell routinely result in massive egg mortality. In this study, we present an improved yolk manipulation technique that resulted in increased egg survival (in excess of 70% survival) in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) and that may be broadly applicable to other species. By elevating survival to a level on par with other oviparous taxa, this method permits a more thorough exploration of reptilian egg physiology and allows for studies that examine traits in both the egg and the resulting hatchling. PMID:19193061

Bowden, Rachel M; Smithee, Lauren; Paitz, Ryan T

386

Lesser sac endoscopy and laparoscopy in pancreatic carcinoma definitive diagnosis, staging and palliation.  

PubMed

Laparoscopy with lesser sac endoscopy (LSE) were used in combination from 1987 to 1992 in 103 patients for differentiation between pancreatic carcinoma and other peripancreatic pathology, staging, and palliation. LSE identified pancreatic carcinoma in 38 patients; pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma in 2 patients; pancreatic cystadenoma in 3 patients; pancreatic adenoma in 1 patient; pancreatic metastases from liver in 2 patients; and pancreatic cysts in 5 patients. False negative diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma occurred in two cases. Nontumor pancreatic pathology was revealed in 10 patients. Specifically, acute pancreatitis was found in four patients, and chronic pancreatitis was found in six patients. Extrapancreatic cancers were identified in 15 patients: retroperitoneal extraorgan tumors were found in 2 patients; extrahepatic biliary tract cancer in 6 patients; gallbladder cancer in 1 patient; liver cancer in 3 patients; and stomach cancer in 1 patient. In five cases no pathology was found. Overall correct definitive diagnosis was established in 101 patients. Sensitivity of laparoscopy with LSE for pancreatic carcinoma diagnosis proved to be 95 per cent (38 of 40 patients), for pancreatic tumors diagnosis 96.22 per cent (51 of 53 patients); specificity of the method 100 per cent; and accuracy of diagnosis 98 per cent (101 of 103 patients). Thus, the accuracy of the method was as high as the accuracy of combination of all known modalities. Criteria of unresectability were revealed with the combination of LSE and laparoscopy in 75 per cent (30 of 40 cases) of pancreatic carcinoma. Moreover, laparoscopy allowed palliation of pancreatic carcinoma. Laparoscopic cholecystostomy was performed in 10 patients, and laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy with enteroenterostomy was performed in 6 patients. PMID:9731805

Charukhchyan, S A; Lucas, G W

1998-09-01

387

A comparison of the protective action of chicken and quail egg yolk in the cryopreservation of Spanish ibex epididymal spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Egg yolk-based diluents provide adequate cryoprotection for the sperm of several mammalian species. Traditionally, chicken egg yolk has been used as additive for the freeze preservation of spermatozoa because of its wide availability. Variations in the chemical composition of the egg yolk of different avian species appear to influence the protection afforded during cooling, freezing, and thawing. The aim of the present study was to assess the use of quail egg yolk as a novel additive for the epididymal spermatozoa of a threatened wild ruminant species-the Spanish ibex-and to compare its efficacy with chicken egg yolk. Epididymal spermatozoa were diluted using a Tris-citric acid-glucose medium (TCG) composed of 3.8% Tris (w v(-1)), 2.2% citric acid (w v(-1)), 0.6% glucose (w v(-1)), 5% glycerol (v v(-1)), and 6% egg yolk (v v(-1)). Sperm masses from the right epididymes were diluted with TCG-6% chicken egg yolk medium, while those from the left were diluted with TCG-6% quail egg yolk. The thawed spermatozoa preserved with TCG-6% quail egg yolk extender exhibited lower motility (P<0.001), membrane integrity (P<0.001), and viability (P<0.01) than those diluted with the TCG-6% chicken egg yolk extender. The fertility of spermatozoa frozen in TCG-6% chicken egg yolk tended to be higher than in those frozen with TCG-6% quail egg yolk (63.3% vs 36.4%, P=0.19). These results show that quail egg yolk offers no advantages over chicken egg yolk in the cryopreservation of Spanish ibex epididymal spermatozoa. PMID:18571154

Santiago-Moreno, Julian; Coloma, Miguel A; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Gómez-Brunet, Amelia; Pulido-Pastor, Antonio; Zamora-Soria, Amancia; Carrizosa, Juan A; Urrutia, Baltasar; López-Sebastián, Antonio

2008-05-20

388

Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery. Subjects and methods The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis. Results The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%), among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%), followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%). All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7%) were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%), the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%). The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or a history of allergic conjunctivitis. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci showed a significantly higher detection rate in diabetic patients than nondiabetic patients (20.3% versus 7.0%, P < 0.05). The percentage of all isolates resistant to levofloxacin, cefmenoxime, and tobramycin was 14.0%, 15.2%, and 17.9%, respectively, with no significant differences among these drugs. Conclusion The high bacterial isolation rate in patients >60 years old and the high methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolation rate in patients with diabetes are important to consider for prevention of perioperative infections.

Suto, Chikako; Morinaga, Masahiro; Yagi, Tomoko; Tsuji, Chieko; Toshida, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

389

XPS of oxygen atoms on Ag(111) and Ag(110) surfaces: accurate study with SAC/SAC-CI combined with dipped adcluster model.  

PubMed

O1s core-electron binding energies (CEBE) of the atomic oxygens on different Ag surfaces were investigated by the symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method combined with the dipped adcluster model, in which the electron exchange between bulk metal and adsorbate is taken into account properly. Electrophilic and nucleophilic oxygens (O(elec) and O(nuc)) that might be important for olefin epoxidation in a low-oxygen coverage condition were focused here. We consider the O1s CEBE as a key property to distinguish the surface oxygen states, and series of calculation was carried out by the Hartree-Fock, Density functional theory, and SAC/SAC-CI methods. The experimental information and our SAC/SAC-CI results indicate that O(elec) is the atomic oxygen adsorbed on the fcc site of Ag(111) and that O(nuc) is the one on the reconstructed added-row site of Ag(110) and that one- and two-electron transfers occur, respectively, to the O(elec) and O(nuc) adclusters from the silver surface. PMID:23677698

Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

2013-05-16

390

Effects of SAC on oxidative stress and NO availability in placenta: potential benefits to preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of fetal growth restriction and perinatal mortality, which involves oxidative stress and vasodilator signaling disorder. S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) is one of the most abundant compounds in garlic extracts, and possesses several biological activities. This research was designed to investigate the protective effects of SAC against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative insults, as well as the effects on NO/cGMP signaling pathway in placenta. We used TEV-1 cells and placental explants to detect the effects of SAC. TEV-1 cells and human placental explants were separately exposed to SAC, H(2)O(2), or a combination of H(2)O(2) and SAC. Intracellular ROS was detected by flow cytometry; the NO level was detected by an NO metabolites (NOx) assay; the cGMP level was simultaneously measured by the method of radioimmunoassay; the expression of eNOS in TEV-1 cells was measured by immunochemistry and Western blot. Our findings showed that H(2)O(2) treatment increased ROS productions in TEV-1 cells and significantly decreased cGMP and NO level either in TEV-1 cells or explants compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). The expression of eNOS in TEV-1 cells also significantly decreased in H(2)O(2) treated group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Co-treatment of H(2)O(2) and SAC significantly decreased ROS productions, and increased NO, cGMP and eNOS level compared to the H(2)O(2) treated alone groups (p < 0.05), which were all reverted back to near control levels. Further more, SAC treatment increased NO and cGMP level of TEV-1 cells and explants in a dose-dependent manner even at non-oxidative stress status (p < 0.05). However, when the TEV-1 cells were cultured in the presence of NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) and NO donor (SNP), additional SAC treatment still significantly increased the NO level in comparison with SAC non-treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that ROS (H(2)O(2)-mediated) can induce insults to NO/cGMP pathway, while SAC could antagonize this insult. And SAC also possesses the ability to increase NO and cGMP level at non-oxidative stress status in TEV-1 cells and placenta explants. SAC is therefore hypothesized to be a potential drug for PE treatment. PMID:22405339

Yu, J; Feng, L; Hu, Y; Zhou, Y

2012-03-08

391

Observational Opportunities with the CUBIC Experiment on SAC-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CUBIC experiment on the SAC-B satellite is now collecting data on the Diffuse X-Ray Background and bright point sources over an energy range of 0.2 - 10 keV with energy resolution ranging from 40 - 160 eV over this bandpass. CUBIC observations, several of which are discussed in other posters at this session, provide 2 - 4 high quality spectra per week. CUBIC was built as a PI-class instrument, and at present data rights are divided between Penn State (90%) and Leicester University (10%). We present the observing plan for the first six months of CUBIC operations. We are currently collaborating with several astronomers who are not on the CUBIC team but have expressed interest in one or more of these targets. We invite additional collaborations on targets which are not currently assigned to a specific observer. In order to make these data more accessible to the astronomical community, we are proposing to institute a modest Guest Investigator program. If supported by ADP funding, this would permit observing requests from outside astronomers and would place a large fraction of the CUBIC data in a public archive at the HEASARC.

Nousek, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Moskalenko, E. I.

1996-12-01

392

Adnexal and cul-de-sac abnormalities: transvaginal sonography.  

PubMed

Sixty-seven patients selectively chosen from 354 undergoing conventional transabdominal (TA) sonography for evaluation of a clinically suspected adnexal mass subsequently underwent transvaginal (TV) sonography either because the TA sonograms were technically suboptimal or because it was not possible to characterize with certainty an abnormality identified with TA sonography. TV sonography added diagnostically useful information in 25 of 28 patients with cystic pathologic changes in the adnexa uteri. Eight of 12 patients with tuboovarian abscess and nonspecific adnexal masses visualized with TA sonography had tube-shaped fluid collections characteristic of pyosalpinx identified with TV sonography. TV sonography added diagnostically useful information in all seven patients with diseases of the cul-de-sac (rectouterine fossa) and allowed differentiation of adnexal from primary uterine disease in three patients with TA sonograms on which findings were equivocal. It also expedited the diagnosis of a tubal pregnancy in ten of 14 patients and was useful in the detection of adhesions and perforated intrauterine devices. These results indicate that adjunctive TV sonography can provide important diagnostic information. PMID:3275977

Lande, I M; Hill, M C; Cosco, F E; Kator, N N

1988-02-01

393

SAC-B GaAs solar array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the electrical and mechanical design of the GaAs solar array of SAC-B, an Argentinian scientific satellite, planned for launch in 1995 into a 550-km circular orbit by Pegasus vehicle. The solar array is made up of four deployable wings, embodying approximately 1000 LPE GaAs solar cells, (30 x 41 sq mm), capable of providing about 215 W at 28 V at EOL. The mechanical structure of each panel comprises an aluminum honeycomb structure with carbon fiber skins; the active facesheet is covered with an insulating layer of kapton/fiberglass. Each panel is attached via a pair of hinges to the spacecraft body while a restraint/release mechanism holds the other panel edge to the spacecraft. Different considerations have been taken into account for the electrical and mechanical design of the solar array: geometrical constraints of the Pegasus static envelope and the satellite for the panel dimensioning, mission degradation factors, minimization of the magnetic moment, and realiability requirements. Several environmental tests (including thermal vacuum and vibration) are foreseen at panel and/or satellite level to verify performances during the mission.

Brambilla, L.; Caon, A.; Contini, R.; D'Accolti, G.; Rossi, E.; Verzeni, G.; Flores, C.; Paletta, F.; Pedrazzoli, G.; Grattarola, M.

1993-10-01

394

Deformation and creep in the human chorioamniotic sac.  

PubMed

This paper presents a review of physical principles involved in deformation and creep in the human chorioamniotic membrane. These are definable rheological properties found in many materials. Experimental data are presented on 66 human fetal membranes. A difference in the stress tolerance between preterm and term membranes is demonstrated. A computer model has been devised which allows for the calculation of changes in thickness of the membrane at the point of fracture. This computer model allows for the study of the physical property of the tissue in ways which have not previously been suggested. The model suggests that the pathophysiology related to rupture of the membrane is based on changes in the thickness of this tissue occurring secondary to acute and chronic stress applications. The data derived in these experiments suggest a possible physical model for rupture of the membranes; they also introduce questions regarding the anatomic and biochemical makeup of the chorion and the amnion and the respective role that each plays in maintaining the integrity of the human chorioamniotic sac. PMID:453271

Lavery, J P; Miller, C E

1979-06-15

395

Allergy Reactions in Persons Inoculated Cutaneously with Live Egg-Yolk Tularemia Vaccine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Live egg-yolk tularemia vaccine used cutaneously causes in the human organism the same special intradermal allergy reaction to tularemia as does transferred tularemia itself. The intradermal allergy reaction as a response to live tularemia vaccine is a sp...

S. S. Dyachenko O. P. Khyzhynska S. H. Buyalo

1968-01-01

396

Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the expression of the genes for yolk protein of Drosophila melanogaster and the tissue specific function of the regulatory element which activates transcription in vivo. 70 refs., 8 figs.

Lossky, M.; Wensink, P.C. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

1995-12-01

397

Effect of retinyl palmitate supplementation on egg yolk retinol and cholesterol concentrations in quail.  

PubMed

1. The purpose of this study was to assess the incorporation of retinol into quail egg yolk and cholesterol concentration in response to supplementation with different quantities of retinyl palmitate (600, 1200, 2400 and 4800 microg). 2. Supplementations were performed weekly for 4 weeks and the yolk retinol was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. 3. The results showed a progressive increase in the incorporation of retinol into the egg yolk in response to supplementation, reaching values 384% higher than control values. 4. At the end of supplementation we observed a significant decrease in egg yolk retinol concentrations with supplementations of 2400 and 4800 microg, the most enduring showing high retinol contents even after 3 weeks. 5. Supplementation increased egg weight but neither egg production nor cholesterol levels were significantly altered. PMID:18704794

Ramalho, H M M; Dias da Silva, K H; Alves dos Santos, V V; dos Santos Cavalcanti, J; Dimenstein, R

2008-07-01

398

A yolk protein mutant leads to defects in the secretion machinery of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The three yolk proteins of Drosophila melanogaster are synthesized in the fat body and ovarian follicle cells. A mutation in yolk protein 3, YP3S1, has been described in which the leader sequence is not cleaved from the protein. We describe here ultrastructural and molecular studies on the YP3S1 mutant and show that the mutant protein enters the secretory pathway and forms precipitates, often as electron dense material in excessive elaborations of the plasma membrane. Females homozygous for YP3S1 lay fewer eggs than wild type flies and these embryos are less viable. The abnormal ultrastructure of the yolk spheres observed suggests that whilst YP3 is not completely essential for viability, it is required for normal yolk sphere morphogenesis. PMID:10445299

Butterworth, F M; Burde, V S; Mauchline, D; Bownes, M

1999-04-01

399

Physiological constraints and the influence of diet on fatty acids in the yolk of gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua.  

PubMed

Avian yolk fatty acids (FA) composition is influenced by two main factors: maternal diet and genetic factors that regulate FA metabolism. However, due to embryonic developmental requirements, yolk FA are thought to be physiologically constrained and less useful for dietary and trophic studies. We assessed the relative contributions of diet and physiological constraints in determining the yolk FA composition of a marine bird, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) by comparing FA signatures of yolks and prey between a captive, controlled- feeding experiment and a wild population. Captive and wild yolk FA signatures differed even though both groups' yolk lipids were composed primarily of three FA (16:0, 18:0 and 18:1n-9). Differences were due to FA occurring in relatively low abundance, but which mirrored differences in the FA composition of diets. However, yolk FA signatures were correlated across three penguin species suggesting that common developmental constraints can be relatively more important than species-specific differences in diet or egg-laying physiology. While yolk FA are constrained, several minor components of yolk FA are reflective of diets and the calibration coefficients resulting from this study have the potential to be incorporated into predictive models and allow for quantitative dietary and trophic studies using FA analysis of penguin egg yolks. PMID:22327194

Polito, Michael J; Koopman, Heather N; Able, Stephanie; Walsh, Jennifer; Goebel, Michael E

2012-02-12

400

Neutralization of the pharmacological effects of Cobra and Krait venoms by chicken egg yolk antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-month-old white leghorn chickens were immunized with 50?g of Common Cobra (Naja naja) and 30?g of Krait venoms (Bungarus caeruleus) to generate antivenom antibodies against the venom antigen. Chickens received booster doses of increasing concentrations of venom at 14 days time intervals to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. The antivenom from immunized chicken egg yolk was extracted by

S. Meenatchisundaram; G. Parameswari; A. Michael; S. Ramalingam

2008-01-01

401

Sequences in antibody molecules important for receptor-mediated transport into the chicken egg yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of antibodies are transported into the yolk of the chicken’s egg. We have identified several regions within the antibody molecule important for its uptake into the egg yolk. An intact Fc and hinge region but not the Fc-associated carbohydrate are required for transport. Our data suggest that the CH2\\/CH3 interface is recognized by the receptor responsible for immunoglobulin

Sherie L. Morrison; Mansoor S. Mohammed; Letitia A. Wims; Ryan Trinh; Robert Etches

2002-01-01

402

Chicken egg yolk-supplemented medium and the serum-free growth of normal mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Supplementation of tissue culture medium with chicken egg yolk can support the proliferation of low density bovine vascular\\u000a and corneal endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells maintained on basement lamina-coated dishes. The optimal growth-promoting\\u000a effect was observed at concentrations of 7.5 to 10% egg yolk (vol\\/vol). The average doubling time of bovinn vascular endothelial\\u000a cells during their logarithmic growth

D. K. Fujii; D. Gospodarowicz

1983-01-01

403

Passive protection effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins on enterovirus 71 infected mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the passive protective efficiency of immunoglobulin in yolk (IgY) specific against human enterovirus type 71 (EV71). The antibody was raised by intramuscular immunization to 10 White Leghorn hens, with inactivated human EV71 serving as the antigen. The titer and specificity of the antibody were analyzed from purified IgY in the egg yolks

Jenn-Fa Liou; Chih-Wei Chang; Jui-jane Tailiu; Chun-Keung Yu; Huan-Yao Lei; Lih-Ren Chen; Chein Tai

2010-01-01

404

Egg Yolk as a Source of Antibodies for Human Parathyroid Hormone (hPTH) Radioimmunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickens were immunized with synthetic hPTH peptides 1–34 and 53–84. Serum from the best responder of each group was compared with IgG obtained from yolk of eggs layed by the same chicken, showing similar properties. A simple method for purification of IgG from yolk is described, allowing the obtaining of substantial amounts of anti-hPTH IgG without the need for bleeding

José Gilberto H. Vieira; Marli A. D. Oliveira; Ewaldo M. K. Russo; Rui M. B. Maciel; Aparecido B. Pereira

1984-01-01

405

Production of Egg Yolk Coloring Material by a Fermentation Process1  

PubMed Central

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was cultivated in a yeast propagator, for the production of biomass and carotenoids. A spray-dried preparation of the yeast was incorporated into the diets of laying chickens for the promotion of egg yolk color. Several aspects of the effect of media on growth and carotenogenesis of pigmented yeast were examined. Addition of 1 to 2% of Rhodotorula yeast to the feeding mixture considerably improved egg yolk color. The possibility of using carotenogenic yeasts as a feed supplement is suggested.

Schwarz, Y.; Margalith, P.

1965-01-01

406

A yolk protein mutant leads to defects in the secretion machinery of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three yolk proteins ofDrosophila melanogasterare synthesized in the fat body and ovarian follicle cells. A mutation in yolk protein 3,YP3S1, has been described in which the leader sequence is not cleaved from the protein. We describe here ultrastuctural and molecular studies on theYP3S1mutant and show that the mutant protein enters the secretory pathway and forms precipitates, often as electron

F. M. Butterworth

1999-01-01

407

Trans-order yolk protein can stimulate endocytic activity in Drosophila oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellogenins (Vgs) and mature yolk from some non-Dipteran insects can be recognized by Drosophila melanogaster oocyte Vg receptors and incorporated via receptor-mediated endocytosis into nascent yolk spheres (NYS). It had previously been assumed that only Vgs of Drosophila or other Dipterans could be so endocytosed. Drosophila ovarian follicles from 4-day old females were incubated in the presence of physiological salt

Patrick T. Brown; Richard I. Woodruff

2011-01-01

408

Penetration of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella heidelberg into Egg Yolks in an In Vitro Contamination Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Eggs that harbor Salmonella in their edible contents pose a significant risk of transmitting,disease to consumers.,Although,Salmonella deposition,inside yolks does not usually occur at a high frequency,in naturally contaminated eggs, bacterial penetration through the vi- tellinemembranecouldleadtorapidandextensivemulti- plication in the nutrient-rich yolk contents. The present study used an in vitro egg contamination,model,to assess the ability of Salmonella strains to penetrate,the vitelline

R. K. Gast; P. S. Holt; T. Murase

409

Evaluation of potent odorants in heated egg yolk by aroma extract dilution analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg yolk was extracted using the method of Likens-Nickerson (simultaneous distillation\\/extraction). The resulting aroma extract, which smelled characteristic of heated egg yolk was analysed by aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Of 41 odorants that were detected, 19 could be identified. Compounds with high flavour dilution factors were methional, phenyl acetaldehyde, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, 1-octen-3-one and ( E, E)-2,4-decadienal.

Christoph Cerny; Renée Guntz

2004-01-01

410

A surgical window to access the obliterated posterior cul-de-sac at vaginal hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo perform vaginal hysterectomy and adnexectomy without laparoscopic assistance in women with ovarian endometriosis by accessing the posterior cul-de-sac via the posterior uterocervical–broad ligament space.

Shirish S. Sheth

2009-01-01

411

Laparoscopic Mobilization of the Rectosigmoid and Excision of the Obliterated Cul-de-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study ObjectiveTo evaluate the feasibility and surgical and clinical outcomes of laparoscopic excision of anterior recto- sigmoid wall endometriosis and en bloc dissection of the obliterated cul-de-sac.

Jackie Hollett-Caines; George A. Vilos; Deborah Anne Penava

2003-01-01

412

Oxyphil cell adenoma (oncocytoma) of the lacrimal sac. Review of the literature.  

PubMed

A case of oncocytoma of the lacrimal sac is presented. An 84-year-old woman with a mass in the lacrimal sac area and epiphora was operated with excision. Histological and electron microscopic examination revealed it to be an oncocytic adenoma. Oncocytic tumours of the lacrimal sac are very rare and to our knowledge this is the 14th case to be reported. Oncocytomas are composed of polyhedric cells with abundant oxyphil cytoplasm which is granular and contains large numbers of abnormal mitochondria. Non-neoplastic oncocytes may arise from the secretory epithelium of the sac in various chronic inflammatory states. They may also occur at an old age, as a result of the normal aging process. PMID:7976277

Domanski, H; Ljungberg, O; Andersson, L O; Schele, B

1994-06-01

413

Endovascular conversion with femorofemoral bypass as a treatment of endotension and aneurysm sac enlargement.  

PubMed

We report a case of a patient treated with a Gore Excluder endograft for AAA in November 2003 with subsequent aneurysm sac enlargement in the absence of an identified endoleak. The patient had a Type I endoleak treated with a Palmaz stent at the neck and later developed a Type II endoleak treated with translumbar coil embolization. This was successful with absence of pressure in the sac after the procedure and stable aneurysm size over the next nine months. Surveillance of the patient with both CT and ultrasound then revealed an increase in the aortic sac diameter in the absence of endoleak. A Cook Zenith converter was used to reline this PTFE endograft. Subsequently, imaging showed aneurysm sac shrinkage. This is a report of endotension with aneurysm expansion following Gore Excluder placement which was treated successfully with a dacron endograft. PMID:17264023

Smith, Stephen T; Clagett, G Patrick; Arko, Frank R

2007-02-01

414

Coagulopathy Associated with Sac Reperfusion for Reversing Paraplegia After Endovascular Repair of Type II Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm.  

PubMed

Sac perfusion may be helpful in preventing or reversing spinal cord injury after endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms and it has been used as an adjunct to the standard physiologic measures of sustained hypertension and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Coagulopathy as a result of endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair has been reported, and very rare cases of treatment after repair of these endoleaks have been described. We report a 73-year-old man who had endovascular repair of a type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm with a branched stent graft. Sac reperfusion was initiated to manage postoperative paraplegia. The paraplegia partially resolved but severe hemorrhagic complications developed that were attributed to sac perfusion-related hyperfibrinolysis. Discontinuation of sac perfusion resolved the coagulopathy but resulted in paraplegia. PMID:23988546

Lioupis, Christos; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Clough, Rachel; Matharu, Nick; Modarai, Bijan; Carrell, Tom; Taylor, Peter

2013-08-26

415

Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (?C ? 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.

2012-12-01

416

Studies on the effect of supplementing boar semen cryopreservation media with different avian egg yolk types on in vitro post-thaw sperm quality.  

PubMed

Fertility after insemination of cryopreserved boar semen is currently below that of fresh semen. In an attempt to improve the post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of boar sperm, semen was frozen using an adapted Westendorf method in which the chicken egg yolk was replaced by either duck or quail egg yolk. The different composition of the yolk types, particularly the amount of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, were thought to potentially afford a greater level of protection to sperm against damage during freezing and thawing. Sperm frozen in medium containing chicken egg yolk displayed higher motility immediately after thawing, but there was no difference in the motility of sperm frozen with different types of egg yolk 3 or 6 h after thawing and maintenance at 37 degrees C. Sperm frozen in media containing chicken or duck egg yolk had a higher proportion of intact acrosomes immediately after thawing than sperm frozen in medium containing quail egg yolk, but 6 h after thawing and maintenance at 37 degrees C the sperm that had been frozen in medium containing chicken egg yolk had a higher proportion of intact acrosomes than the sperm frozen in media containing duck or quail egg yolk. Analysis of the composition of the different yolk types showed that the basic components of the yolks were similar, but the ratios of fatty acids and phospholipid classes differed. Duck egg yolk had more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than chicken egg yolk, which had more MUFA than quail egg yolk. Duck egg yolk contained more phosphotidylinositol (PI) than chicken or quail egg yolks and quail egg yolk contained more phosphotidylserine than either chicken or duck egg yolks. The differences in post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of boar sperm when frozen in media containing the different types of egg yolk may be due to the variation in composition. PMID:16420332

Bathgate, R; Maxwell, W M C; Evans, G

2006-02-01

417

Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1)?Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2)?Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3)?Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4)?Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic. In addition, we conclude: (5)?The advent of avian unidirectional lung ventilation is not possible to pinpoint, as osteological correlates have yet to be identified for uni- or bidirectional lung ventilation. (6)?The origin and evolution of avian air sacs may have been driven by one or more of the following three factors: flow-through lung ventilation, locomotory balance, and/or thermal regulation.

Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

2008-01-01

418

Yolk and albumen corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid by white versus brown caged laying hens.  

PubMed

Maternal stress in birds can have permanent transgenerational effects through the transmission of stress hormones to offspring via the egg yolk. Previous studies have shown that White Leghorn hens show a heightened response to stress compared with Hy-Line Brown hens, producing significantly more corticosterone and displaying longer bouts of tonic immobility after handling, whereas baseline levels of corticosterone are similar between the strains. We tested the hypothesis that higher stress responsiveness would correspond to chronic accumulation and thus higher concentrations of corticosterone in egg yolks after exposure to stressors associated with routine maintenance. Eggs were collected from white and brown hens that were undisturbed except for daily feeding and routine egg collections. Corticosterone was quantified in plasma, egg yolks, and albumen and compared between strains. We predicted that corticosterone concentrations in yolk would be higher in eggs from white versus brown hens but that albumen corticosterone would not differ between strains due to the short term of albumen deposition. As predicted, yolk corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in eggs produced by white hens, approximately twice those found in eggs laid by brown hens. Plasma and albumen concentrations of corticosterone were similar between groups. These results suggest that offspring hatching from eggs laid by White Leghorn hens are exposed to significantly more corticosterone through concentration in the egg yolk, which could permanently imprint offspring physiology and behavior. PMID:20548080

Navara, K J; Pinson, S E

2010-07-01

419

Crystalline yolk spheroids in Drosophila melanogaster oocyte: freeze fracture and two-dimensional reconstruction analysis.  

PubMed

The major sites of energy storage during oogenesis in the Drosophila melanogaster oocyte are the alpha- and beta-yolk spheres. By applying biochemical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) immunogold techniques we found that the beta-yolk spheres contain mainly polysaccharides, while the three main yolk proteins (YPs) are stored in the alpha-yolk spheres of the developing oocyte. Moreover, by using high-resolution TEM of freeze fractured or cryosectioned follicles, we identified the existence of crystalline structures within the alpha-yolk spheres of the mature oocyte. Our subsequent two-dimensional reconstruction analysis revealed that the unit cell of the crystal is about 113 Angstrom x 113 Angstrom. Assuming that the repeating unit is a cylinder of about 110 Angstrom in length and 25 Angstrom in diameter this cylinder would then have a volume of about 50,000 cubic Angstrom, which corresponds to about 40 kDa of protein. This size fits quite well with the known molecular weight of about 40-45 kDa for each of the three D. melanogaster YPs. Overall, our study identifies for the first time the supramolecular arrangement of the alpha-yolk spheres constituent molecules and provides direct evidence for the "natural" crystallization, and therefore the efficient packaging, of the YPs during oogenesis. PMID:17292389

Papassideri, Issidora S; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Leonard, Kevin R; Margaritis, Lukas H

2007-01-13

420

Rapid decline in the concentrations of three yolk steroids during development: is it embryonic regulation?  

PubMed

Maternally derived yolk steroids have been found to elicit both short-term and long-term effects on offspring phenotype. Paradoxically, their effects can be strikingly specific given the often substantial concentrations present at oviposition, and they do not appear to uniformly affect all steroid-sensitive processes. To better understand the dynamics of yolk steroids across embryonic development, we quantified levels of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol at 5-day intervals throughout development in eggs of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) incubated at both male- and female-producing temperatures. We also assessed the effect of season on yolk steroid levels. For all steroids assayed, the concentrations in yolk declined significantly by day 15 of embryonic development despite large differences in initial concentrations among steroids. We found that estradiol was the only steroid whose initial concentration varied significantly with season, while only the decline in testosterone was affected by incubation temperature. These findings illustrate the complex nature of yolk steroid dynamics and suggest that maternal steroids may be rapidly degraded or subject to embryonic processing, emphasizing the need for studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms through which yolk steroids may elicit their effects. PMID:19523390

Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M

2009-01-31

421

YOLK PROTEIN UPTAKE IN THE OOCYTE OF THE MOSQUITO AEDES AEGYPTI. L  

PubMed Central

Yolk proteins are thought to enter certain eggs by a process akin to micropinocytosis but the detailed mechanism has not been previously depicted. In this study the formation of protein yolk was investigated in the mosquito Aedes aegypti L. Ovaries were fixed in phosphate-buffered osmium tetroxide, for electron microscopy, before and at intervals after a meal of blood. The deposition of protein yolk in the oocyte was correlated with a 15-fold increase in 140 mµ pit-like depressions on the oocyte surface. These pits form by invagination of the oocyte cell membrane. They have a 20 mµ bristle coat on their convex cytoplasmic side. They also show a layer of protein on their concave extracellular side which we propose accumulates by selective adsorption from the extraoocyte space. The pits, by pinching off from the cell membrane become bristle-coated vesicles which carry the adsorbed protein into the oocyte. These vesicles lose the coat and then fuse to form small crystalline yolk droplets, which subsequently coalesce to form the large proteid yolk bodies of the mature oocyte. Preliminary radioautographs, and certain morphological features of the fat body, ovary, and midgut, suggest that the midgut is the principal site of yolk protein synthesis in the mosquito.

Roth, Thomas F.; Porter, Keith R.

1964-01-01

422

Social Cohesiveness, Territoriality, and Holiday DecorationsThe Influence of Cul-de-Sacs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altman's territoriality theory was used as a framework for examining neighborhood attachment. We hypothesized that attachment would be manifested in interrelated patterns of neighboring behaviors, attitudes indicating that the block was a secondary territory, and individual and communal displays of holiday decorations. Design features of cul-de-sacs were hypothesized to contribute to greater degrees of block attachment on cul-de-sacs than on

Barbara B. Brown; Carol M. Werner

1985-01-01

423

Tonicity of human tear fluid sampled from the cul-de-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 'freezing point' depression technique was used to determine the osmolality of 384 samples of tear fluid originating from the middle of the lower tear prism and the lower cul-de-sac of one eye of each of 12 young adults. Tear fluid from the cul-de-sac (mean 341.0 mosm\\/kg) was found overall to be significantly hypertonic (p less than 0.0001) relatively to

W J Benjamin; R M Hill

1989-01-01

424

Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLiving birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only

Paul C. Sereno; Ricardo N. Martinez; Jeffrey A. Wilson; David J. Varricchio; Oscar A. Alcober; Hans C. E. Larsson; Tom Kemp

2008-01-01

425

Molecular mechanisms underlying ectopic otoconia-like particles in the endolymphatic sac of embryonic mice.  

PubMed

Otoconin-90, the principal otoconial matrix protein, provided a tool to investigate the molecular mechanism of otoconial morphogenesis. The endolymphatic sac of the embryonic chick and guinea pig contain otoconia. Here, we show that the embryonic mouse transiently expresses ectopic otoconia in the endolymphatic sac. Massive precipitate of otoconin-90-positive material is detectable in the lumen of the endolymphatic sac between embryonic day 14.5 and 17.5 with frequent accretion into more heavily staining otoconia-like particles. Otoconin-90 was also localized at the surface and the interior of epithelial cells lining the endolymphatic sac as well as incorporated into free floating cells. In contrast, in situ hybridization failed to detect mRNA in the endolymphatic duct and sac, even though the adjacent nonsensory vestibular structures are heavily stained. Because of ample expression of otoconin-90 protein in the absence of the corresponding mRNA, we conclude that the luminal otoconin-90 is imported via longitudinal flow from the vestibular compartments, where both mRNA and protein are strongly expressed. Because of absence of mRNA, the expression of the corresponding protein by the epithelia lining the endolymphatic sac can only be explained by a resorptive process, as previously proposed on the basis of the movement of luminal macromolecules. The data do not support the previous hypothesis that the transient expression of otoconia-like particles of the endolymphatic sac represents a vestigial phenomenon from the amphibian stage, since amphibia express ample mRNA encoding otoconin-22 in the endolymphatic sac system. PMID:15276677

Ignatova, Elena G; Thalmann, Isolde; Xu, Baogang; Ornitz, David M; Thalmann, Ruediger

2004-08-01

426

Fertilization in Nicotiana tabacum : ultrastructural organization of propane-jet-frozen embryo sacs in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovules of Nicotiana tabacum L. were cryofixed with a propane-jet freezer and freeze-substituted in acetone to examine technique-dependent changes in pre- and post-fertilization embryo sacs using rapidly frozen material. Freezing quality was acceptable in 10% of the embryo sacs in the partially dissected ovules, with ice-crystal damage frequently evident in vacuoles and nuclei. One of the two synergids begins to

B. Q. Huang; G. W. Strout; S. D. Russell

1993-01-01

427

SAC-CI study of the excited states of free base tetrazaporphin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAC (symmetry adapted cluster)/SAC-CI method is applied to calculations of the ground and excited states of free base tetrazaporphin (FBTAP). The electronic spectrum is reproduced in fairly good agreement with experiments, and unknown absorption bands in the energy region higher than 4 eV are predicted. The effect of meso-tetraaza-substitution on the excited states of porphin macrocycle explains why the compound is colored, as in the closely related compounds, phthalocyanines, used as pigments.

Toyota, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Jun-ya; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

1996-03-01

428

The Ashbya gossypii fimbrin SAC6 is required for fast polarized hyphal tip growth and endocytosis.  

PubMed

Ashbya gossypii has been an ideal system to study filamentous hyphal growth. Previously, we identified a link between polarized hyphal growth, the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis with our analysis of the A. gossypii Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP)-homolog encoded by the AgWAL1 gene. Here, we studied the role of AgSAC6, encoding a fimbrin in polarized hyphal growth and endocytosis, and based on our functional analysis identified genetic interactions between AgSAC6 and AgWAL1. SAC6 mutants show severely reduced polarized growth. This growth phenotype is temperature dependent and sac6 spores do not germinate at elevated temperatures. Spores germinated at 30°C generate slow growing mycelia without displaying polarity establishment defects at the hyphal tip. Several phenotypic characteristics of sac6 hyphae resemble those found in wal1 mutants. First, tips of sac6 hyphae shifted to 37°C swell and produce subapical bulges. Second, actin patches are mislocalized subapically. And third, the rate of endocytotic uptake of the vital dye FM4-64 was reduced. This indicates that actin filament bundling, a conserved function of fimbrins, is required for fast polarized hyphal growth, polarity maintenance, and endocytosis in filamentous fungi. PMID:21237627

Jorde, Sigyn; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen

2011-01-14

429

Design of the SAC-D/NIRST camera module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America (USA) and the Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission targets the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Jointly developed by CONAE and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the New IR Sensor Technology (NIRST) instrument will monitor high temperature events on the ground related to fires and volcanic events, and will measure their physical parameters. Furthermore, NIRST will take measurements of sea surface temperatures mainly off the coast of South America as well as other targeted opportunities. NIRST has one band in the mid-wave infrared centered at 3.8 um with a bandwidth of 0.8 um, and two bands in the thermal infrared, centered respectively at 10.85 and 11.85 um with a bandwidth of 0.9 um. The temperature range is from 300 to 600 K with an NEDT < 0.5 K for the mid-infrared band and from 200 to 400 K with an NEDT < 0.4 K for the thermal bands. The baseline design of the NIRST is based on micro-bolometer technology developed jointly by INO and the CSA. Two arrays of 512x3 uncooled bolometric sensors will be used to measure brightness temperatures. The instantaneous field-of-view is 534 microradians corresponding to a ground sampling distance of 350 m at the subsatellite point. A pointing mirror allows a total swath of +/- 500 km. This paper describes the detailed design of the NIRST camera module. Key performance parameters are also presented.

Gauvin, Jonny; Châteauneuf, François; Marchese, Linda; Coté, Patrice; Leclerc, Mélanie; Chevalier, Claude; Marraco, Hugo; Phong, Linh N.

2007-10-01

430

[Immunoaffinity purification of specific immunoglobulin from egg yolk].  

PubMed

Immunoaffinity column (Sepharose-4B) was made with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and used to isolate anti-BSA antibody from egg laid by hens which were immunized with BSA. Polyclonal antibody was eluted under different conditions (pH 5.0-2.8) because of its different affinity against antigen. SDS-PAGE and double-immunodiffusion analysis confirmed that antibody isolated from egg yolk was electrophoretically pure and specific. According to the separation aim in this paper, the final elution buffer was 0.1 mol/L glycine-HCl buffer, pH 2.8. The final antibody yield was higher than 90%. As a new development in chromatographic media, POROS has its maximum pressure limit of 21 MPa. It has been widely used because of its high performance, high flow and large capacity. The sugar residue of the antibody was then oxidized and coupled to the hydrazide activated POROS HY. Pure targeted protein (BSA) was obtained through the POROS HY column. The tendency of specific antibody production was investigated during the immunization period. The amount of specific antibody has increased obviously after boost immunization. PMID:12552692

Chen, T B; Li, L; Xu, X H; Zhang, R Z; Rao, P F

1999-11-01

431

Evolution of yolk protein genes in the Echinodermata.  

PubMed

Vitellogenin genes (vtg) encode large lipid transfer proteins (LLTPs) that are typically female-specific, functioning as precursors to major yolk proteins (MYPs). Within the phylum Echinodermata, however, the MYP of the Echinozoa (Echinoidea + Holothuroidea) is expressed by an unrelated transferrin-like gene that has a reproductive function in both sexes. We investigated egg proteins in the Asterozoa (Asteroidea + Ophiuroidea), a sister clade to the Echinozoa, showing that eggs of the asteroid Parvulastra exigua contain a vitellogenin protein (Vtg). vtg is expressed by P. exigua, a species with large eggs and nonfeeding larvae, and by the related asterinid Patiriella regularis which has small eggs and feeding larvae. In the Asteroidea, therefore, the reproductive function of vtg is conserved despite significant life history evolution. Like the echinozoan MYP gene, asteroid vtg is expressed in both sexes and may play a role in the development of both ovaries and testes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that a putative Vtg from the sea urchin genome, a likely pseudogene, does not clade with asteroid Vtg. We propose the following sequence as a potential pathway for the evolution of YP genes in the Echinodermata: (1) the ancestral echinoderm produced YPs derived from Vtg, (2) bisexual vtg expression subsequently evolved in the echinoderm lineage, (3) the reproductive function of vtg was assumed by a transferrin-like gene in the ancestral echinozoan, and (4) redundant echinozoan vtg was released from stabilizing selection. PMID:23017023

Prowse, Thomas A A; Byrne, Maria

432

Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Physical Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Liquid Egg Yolk During Frozen Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Raw,yolk,of 1-d-old eggs,was,either subjected,to linear electron beam,irradiation at ~2.5 kGy dosage,or,not,processed.,Both irradiated,and,non- processed,egg yolk samples,were,stored at ?15 C after irradiation. Testing was conducted on 0, 1, 7, 15, 30, and 60 d of storage. Development,of storage,modulus,(G?) was delayed in irradiated samples after 7 d, which suggests,that less structure was,developed,in irradiated egg yolk than in nonprocessed,egg yolk during,storage. Irradiated samples,retained,more,soluble

S. Huang; T. J. Herald; D. D. Mueller

433

Inter-species variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large range of differences in yolk testosterone among the seven passerine species examined, with significant differences between those at the high end (song sparrow Melospiza melodia, red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, and house sparrow, Passer domesticus) and those at the low end (eastern phoebe Sayornis phoebe, and house finch Carpodacus mexicanus). We also found that the testosterone level in cowbird eggs was intermediate in relation to host species levels and was significantly lower than that in three common cowbird hosts (song sparrow, red-winged blackbird, and house sparrow), but not significantly different from three others. Geographical comparisons of yolk testosterone levels in all cowbird subspecies and populations from several regions showed no significant differences, though a trend that deserves further exploration was the pattern of lowest level in the ancestral population of cowbirds in the central prairies and of highest level in the northwestern population where range invasion occurred approximately 40 years ago. The levels of 17 beta-estradiol were similar in the seven songbird species examined, which is consistent with current hypotheses that this hormone plays a role in embryonic sexual differentiation. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the large differences observed among species in absolute level of yolk testosterone are the relevant focal point or whether target tissue sensitivity differences mediate the effects of this yolk steroid, particularly between parasitic and non-parasitic species.

Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Wu, J.M.; Igl, L.D.; Ottinger, M.A.

2005-01-01

434

Inter-species variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large range of differences in yolk testosterone among the seven passerine species examined, with significant differences between those at the high end (Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia , Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, and House Sparrow, Passer domesticus ) and those at the low end (Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe, and House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus ). We also found that the testosterone level in cowbird eggs was intermediate in relation to host species levels and was significantly lower than that in three common cowbird hosts (Song Sparrow, Red-winged Blackbird, and House Sparrow), but not significantly different from three others. Geographical comparisons of yolk testosterone levels in all cowbird subspecies and populations from several regions showed no significant differences, though a trend that deserves further exploration was the pattern of lowest level in the ancestral population of cowbirds in the central prairies and of highest level in the northwestern population where range invasion occurred approximately 40 years ago. The levels of 17 betaestradiol were similar in the seven songbird species examined, which is consistent with current hypotheses that this hormone plays a role in embryonic sexual differentiation. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the large differences observed among species in absolute level of yolk testosterone are the relevant focal point or whether target tissue sensitivity differences mediate the effects of this yolk steroid, particularly between parasitic and non-parasitic species.

Hahn, D. C.; Hatfield, J. S.; Abdelnabi, M.; Wu, J.; Igl, L. D.; Ottinger, M. A.

2005-01-01

435

Endocytosis of the major yolk proteins of the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia: Uptake kinetics and interactions  

SciTech Connect

The oocytes of Lepidopteran insects take up several yolk proteins in defined proportions even though their relative availability in the hemolymph changes during the several days required to complete yolk formation in all the eggs. There are three hemolymph yolk precursors, vitellogenin, microvitellogenin and lipophorin; one precursor, paravitellogenin is produced in the ovary. The control mechanism for their proportional endocytosis is not known. In this thesis, the author describe the purification of all four proteins and the radiolabeling of the hemolymph precursors. The radiolabeled proteins were tested with an in vitro incubation system to assess the biological activity of the proteins and the reliability of the incubation methods. All of the labeled probes were transferred from the incubation medium to yolk spheres within the oocyte in a saturable, energy-dependent, and stage-specific manner. The rates of uptake were similar to the estimated rates of uptake in situ. The concentration dependence of in vitro uptake was investigated and found to be consistent with in situ concentrations and the composition of yolk in mature eggs. Two precursors, vitellogenin and lipophorin, competed for uptake indicating that they share a common binding site while the third, microvitellin, did not compete with the others. Though vitellogenin and lipophorin competed for uptake, only vitellogenin displayed the unique ability to increase the uptake rate of microvitellin and fluid in vitro.

Kulakosky, P.C.

1989-01-01

436

Changes in sex steroid levels in yolks of the leghorn chicken, Gallus domesticus, during embryonic development.  

PubMed

Yolk steroid hormones have been documented to have growth and behavior effects on hatchlings in several avian species. The purpose of these investigations was to determine initial levels of androstenedione (A), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E(2)), and testosterone (T), and document any changes in those hormones during the course of embryonic development in the Leghorn chicken, Gallus domesticus. Eggs were collected, labeled for hen of origin and egg sequence, incubated at 37.8 degrees C, and sacrificed at predetermined times during development. The embryos were staged, the yolk material collected, homogenized and hormones extracted. A, DHT, E(2), and T were separated via column chromatography and hormone levels determined using radioimmunoassays (RIAs). Results indicate a significant decrease in A and T during embryonic development, similar to that reported by our laboratory for the alligator, with A levels being significantly greater initially than levels of all other hormones. Changes in DHT mirrored changes in T levels. Chicken E(2) yolk content dynamics differ from those we have measured in both the turtle and the alligator. After an initial decline, E(2) in the yolks of chicken eggs undergoes a significant increase at the end of development, between embryonic stages 40 and 45 (days 14 and 20 of development). As the increase is much larger than could be accounted for by hormones present in the yolk material, this may represent early embryonic production of steroid hormones by the developing gonads. PMID:12410608

Elf, Pamela K; Fivizzani, Albert J

2002-11-01

437

KNApSAcK-3D: a three-dimensional structure database of plant metabolites.  

PubMed

Studies on plant metabolites have attracted significant attention in recent years. Over the past 8 years, we have constructed a unique metabolite database, called KNApSAcK, that contains information on the relationships between metabolites and their expressing organism(s). In the present paper, we introduce KNApSAcK-3D, which contains the three-dimensional (3D) structures of all of the metabolic compounds included in the original KNApSAcK database. The 3D structure for each compound was optimized using the Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94), and a multiobjective genetic algorithm was used to search extensively for possible conformations and locate the global minimum. The resulting set of structures may be used for docking studies to identify new and potentially unexpected binding sites for target proteins. The 3D s