Sample records for yolk sac tumor

  1. Yolk sac tumor of cryptorchid testis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Monisha; Sehgal, Shivali; Nangia, Anita; Chadha, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor is the most common germ cell tumor in infants and children. Majority of them arise in the gonads. Yolk sac tumor of undescended testis has been rarely diagnosed. We present a case of yolk sac tumor in right undescended testis in a 2-year-old child primarily diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. PMID:25948949

  2. Metastatic sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor: A misleading diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Nsir, Atef Ben; Darmoul, Mehdi; Arous, Sarra Ben; Hattab, Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor (YST) is an extremely rare malignant extra-gonadal germ-cell tumor, which usually succeeds to the degeneration of more common benign teratoma. We describe here an unprecedented case of conus medullaris compression by a spinal metastasis from a pure sacrococcygeal YST in a 1½ years old girl, which was misdiagnosed initially as an anal fissure and stress the need of a meticulous clinical examination and further screening in young patients presenting with sphincter disturbances.

  3. Vulvar yolk sac tumor diagnosed during pregnancy, with recurrence during subsequent second pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Moon, Ashley; Chetty, Naven; Lourie, Rohan; Shannon, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    •Vulvar yolk sac tumor (YST) is an exceptionally rare and aggressive extra-gonadal germ cell tumor, previously only described in 15 cases in the literature.•We present a unique case of vulvar YST diagnosed during pregnancy, treated with systemic chemotherapy, who subsequently recurred during a second pregnancy.•Despite salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation at recurrence, our patient succumbed to her disease, 31 months post diagnosis. PMID:26076163

  4. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma, a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Katz, Betina; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Munari, Enrico; Faraj, Sheila F; Illei, Peter B; Torbenson, Michael; Netto, George J

    2013-07-01

    SALL4 is a transcription factor that serves as a marker of yolk sac tumor. Yolk sac tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma share histologic, serologic, and immunohistochemical features. Previous studies have shown lack of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting utility in this differential diagnosis. Sixty-nine samples of hepatocellular carcinoma were retrieved from surgical pathology archives and used to construct 9 tissue microarrays. A germ cell tumor tissue microarray containing 10 yolk sac tumors was used for comparison. Extent, intensity, and pattern of nuclear SALL4 expression were assessed in each spot. Mean percentage of expression was calculated for each tumor and used during analysis. Optimal discriminatory extent of expression cutoff was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Other potential discriminatory markers including Hep Par1 were also evaluated. Forty-six percent (32/69) of hepatocellular carcinoma and all yolk sac tumors revealed at least focal expression of SALL4. A unique punctuate/clumped pattern of nuclear staining was present in 94% (30/32) of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas all yolk sac tumors displayed a diffuse finely granular nuclear staining pattern. A 25% extent of SALL4 expression cutoff was found to be optimal for the distinction of yolk sac tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma yielding a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.8%, and a positive predictive value of 66.6% for yolk sac tumor diagnosis. The addition of Hep Par1 increased the specificity (99%) and positive predictive value (90%). This is the first report of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our finding should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and yolk sac tumor. The unique punctuate/clumped pattern seen in hepatocellular carcinoma cases could be of further discriminatory value. PMID:23347651

  6. Yolk Sac Tumor of the Testis in Infants and Children: A Clinicopathologic Analysis of 33 Cases.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Kristine M; Frazier, Lindsay; Lee, Richard S; Kozakewich, Harry P W; Young, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    We report 33 pure yolk sac tumors of the testis from boys 5 to 71 months of age (mean 20.7 mo) diagnosed from 1918 to 2014. All except 1 underwent orchiectomy, with lymph node dissections (all negative) performed in 18; 21 also received chemotherapy and 12 radiotherapy. The tumors were 1.6 to 7.0 cm (mean 3.7 cm) and were nonencapsulated, with a gray to yellow, often mucoid, cut surface. The commonest pattern was reticular-microcystic, but macrocystic, papillary, endodermal sinus (Schiller-Duval bodies), labyrinthine, myxomatous, glandular, and solid patterns were also observed. Follow-up was available for 32 patients (mean 100.5 mo; range, 3 to 456 mo). Twenty-four patients (including 4 who did not receive adjuvant therapy) were without evidence of disease, 8 had metastatic disease; 5 of the latter died of tumor and 1 of treatment complications. Two patients with metastasis were cured with radiation with or without chemotherapy. Two or more of the following were associated with a poor outcome in patients presenting with stage I cases: tumor size >4.5 cm (4/6 tumors [67%]), invasion of rete testis and/or epididymis (3/7 tumors [43%]), and necrosis (6/17 tumors [35%]). In the nonmetastasizing group, 2 or more unfavorable features occurred in only 3/24 tumors (13%) (P=0.0001). It is crucial that this tumor be distinguished from the juvenile granulosa cell tumor, which occurs at a slightly younger age and has distinctive features, although there may be some morphologic overlap. The survival of young boys with testicular yolk sac tumor is very good because of both effective chemotherapy and likely, the inherent characteristics of the tumor in this age group. PMID:25828390

  7. [A case of stage IIIB2 infantile yolk sac tumor of testis achieved complete remission by "COMPE" chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Yamauchi, T; Kokuho, M; Ishibashi, K; Kawakami, S; Yonese, J; Kawai, T

    1993-12-01

    A case of metastatic infantile yolk sac tumor of testis is reported herein. The patient was 23 months old with a painless swelling of the right scrotal contents. Histological examination revealed yolk sac tumor. Six months later, the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was re-elevated and solitary lung metastasis had developed. After 4 courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP), vincristine (VCR), methotrexate (MTX), peplomycin (PEP) and Etoposide (COMPE), serum AFP was normalized and lung metastasis disappeared. He has shown no evidence of disease for 5 years with normal physical growth. Aggressive chemotherapy including CDDP might be used for Stage III infantile testicular cancer. PMID:7506867

  8. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma. PMID:26073245

  9. CT imaging of ovarian yolk sac tumor with emphasis on differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang-Kang; Zheng, Yu; Lin, Jian-Bang; Xu, Gui-Xiao; Cai, Ai-Qun; Zhou, Xiu-Guo; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms. No radiological study has been done to compare the imaging findings between this type of tumor and other ovarian tumors. Here we analyzed the CT findings of 11 pathologically proven ovarian YSTs and compared their imaging findings with 18 other types of ovarian tumors in the same age range. Patient age, tumor size, tumor shape, ascites and metastasis of two groups did not differ significantly (P?>?0.05). A mixed solid-cystic nature, intratumoral hemorrhage, marked enhancement and dilated intratumoral vessel of two groups differed significantly (P?tumors. PMID:26074455

  10. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary in a young girl with tuberous sclerosis: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Riley G; Akande, Manzilat Y; Younes, Houssam K; Jagarpu, Jawahar; Mba, Nkechi; Savell, Van H; Almond, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    •We reported the first tuberous sclerosis patient with an ovarian yolk sac tumor.•Although angiomyolipoma is a common benign tumor in TS patients, abdominal malignancies must be considered. PMID:26075992

  11. [A case of adult pure yolk sac tumor of the testis achieving pathological complete response by chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Y; Iwase, Y; Mogami, T; Hayashi, Y; Sasaki, S; Kato, M; Tugaya, M; Kohri, K

    1995-10-01

    We report a case of pure yolk sac tumor of the left testis in a 22-year-old male. He consulted a physician with left back pain and induration of his left scrotal content in December, 1992. Intravenous pyelography (IVP) revealed left hydronephrosis. Computerized tomography (CT) revealed para-aortic lymph node swelling and lung metastases. Left high inguinal orchiectomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was pure yolk sac tumor. After two courses of "COMPE" chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, peplomycin and etoposide, two courses of "high dose "COMPE" chemotherapy and three courses of "high dose COME" chemotherapy without peplomycin, he achieved a partial response (the regression rate of the pulmonary metastases and the retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis were 100% and 96.0% on CT, respectively) and the residual masses in the retroperitoneum were removed. Necrosis and xanthogranulomatous fibrosis were found in the resected material. The patient showed no evidence of disease two years after chemotherapy. PMID:8533681

  12. Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology unit for evaluation of bilateral breast budding, pubic hair and vaginal bleeding. On examination, we found that her breast enlargement and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner III. A thorough workup revealed a large mass in her right ovary. Magnetic resonance imaging ofher brain showed that her pituitary gland was normal. A hormonal assay revealed high levels of estradiol, 280 to 375pmol/L; progesterone, 5.3?nmol/L; testosterone 38.9?pg/mL; and androstenedione, 4.1?ng/mL. Her basal and stimulated levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were low. Tumor markers levels were high, with a total inhibin of 1,069U/L and an alpha-fetoprotein of 987??g/L. Her chromosomes were normal (46XX). Our patient underwent an explorative laparotomy and a solid tumor localized to her right ovary was identified. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumorwith a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she was started on treatment with chemotherapy. Our patient is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis during eight months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion Although a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass and precocious puberty. PMID:22734844

  13. Primary juxtaovarian yolk sac tumor concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma in an adult woman: a rare association

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haifen; Yu, Jihong; Tang, Jingjing; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare neoplasm that primarily occurs in the ovary in children and young women. Previously, it has been reported that the teratomatous components can be recognized in part of YSTs or appear in the contralateral ovary. Here, we report a rare case of an adult woman with a juxtaovarian YST concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma. Methods: A 47-year-old woman found a pelvic mass for nine days and subsequently underwent debulking operation. The specimens were evaluated for detailed characterizations through gross examination, microscopy and immunohistochemistry. A literature review was performed and the pathogenesis was briefly discussed about the generation of an extraovarian YST concurrent with a teratoma. Results: The right juxtaovarian tumor showed typical histological patterns of YST. Immunostaining demonstrated the YST nature of Gly-3 and AFP positive tumor cells. The ipsilateral ovarian tumor was a common mature cystic teratoma with chronic fibrotic changes. According to the differences of the origin and the differentiation of the two germ cell tumors, we suspect that the occurrence of the teratoma is earlier than the YST. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of an adult woman with a juxtaovarian YST concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma. PMID:25755817

  14. Mediastinal yolk sac tumors associated with prominent multilocular cystic changes of thymic epithelium: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Moran, C A; Suster, S

    1997-08-01

    Five cases of yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum associated with prominent thymic cystic changes are presented. The patients were five men between the ages of 17 and 22 years (mean, 19.5 yr). Clinically, four patients presented with symptoms of chest pain and shortness of breath, whereas the fifth was asymptomatic: his tumor was discovered during a routine physical examination. None of the patients had a history of previous tumor elsewhere. Grossly, the tumors were described as cystic lesions measuring between 8 and 12 cm in greatest dimension. Histologically, the tumors showed prominent cystic changes reminiscent of those observed in acquired multilocular thymic cysts, i.e., the presence of cystic cavities lined by squamous epithelium with prominent inflammatory changes, lymphoid hyperplasia, cholesterol cleft granulomas, and remnants of thymic tissue in the walls of the cysts. In addition, there was a neoplastic cellular proliferation composed of small cells with scant cytoplasm, round nuclei, and inconspicuous nucleoli adopting a reticular pattern of growth and, in some areas, embedded in abundant myxoid stroma. Numerous intra- and extracellular hyaline globules, as well as Schiller-Duval bodies, could also be identified. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive reaction with alpha-fetoprotein antibodies in the tumor cells. Follow-up information obtained in these patients showed that all had died of tumor 1 to 3 years after initial diagnosis. The present cases document another unusual but distinctive growth pattern of yolk sac tumor in the mediastinum and highlight the importance of proper sampling of cystic lesions in this location. PMID:9267822

  15. Synthesis of serum proteins by the posthaematopoietic feline yolk sac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tiedemann; W. W. Minuth

    1980-01-01

    The feline yolk sac persists even after the end of its haematopoietic phase with prominent ER-cisternae in the endoderm suggesting biosynthetic capacity. Therefore, yolk sac explants from the 54th day and 57th day were incubated with [3H]-l-leucine in order to study its protein biosynthesis. Newly synthesized proteins were discovered in sliced SDS-polyacrylamide gels by the use of scintillation technique and

  16. Bovine yolk sac: from morphology to metabolomic and proteomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Galdos-Riveros, A C; Favaron, P O; Will, S E A L; Miglino, M A; Maria, D A

    2015-01-01

    In several species, placentation involves the presence of two different membranes responsible for maternal-fetal exchanges: the yolk sac and the chorioallantoic placenta. The yolk sac plays important roles in embryonic survival, mainly during the early stages of gestation. In bovine, it is a transitional membrane that is present until day 50-70 of pregnancy. Herein, we evaluated the morphological and molecular aspects of the yolk sac of bovine embryos during 24 to 52 days of gestation. A total of 69 embryos were allocated into three groups according to the crown-rump length and estimated ages. Yolk sac samples were then subjected to morphological and molecular analysis using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. In contrast to alanine, which was observed only in Group I, during all gestational stages, we identified important metabolites such as aspartate, taurine, glycerophosphocholine, creatinine, creatine, hydrouracil, glutamate, glutamine, lactate, lysine, valine, myo-inositol, cadaverine, and choline. In addition, 314 random sequences of proteins were identified in the bovine yolk sac, and 47 of these were considered to be specific. Changes in alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen concentrations during gestation were also evaluated. In conclusion, the majority of these proteins are related to the development of secondary metabolites that are involved in the activation of other proteins and metabolites, and in signaling pathways that are responsible for maternal-fetal exchanges, activation of programmed cell death mechanisms, and cellular differentiation, and also in proteins that are responsible for the yolk sac involution that is required to establish chorioallantoic placentation. PMID:26125823

  17. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  18. Intraembryonic, but Not Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Precursors, Isolated before Circulation, Provide Long-Term Multilineage Reconstitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Cumano; José Candido Ferraz; Michèle Klaine; James P Di Santo; Isabelle Godin

    2001-01-01

    The relative contribution of yolk sac and intraembryonic precursors to hematopoiesis has been a matter of long-standing controversy. As reconstitution activity has so far only been found in embryonic tissues after the onset of circulation, the origin of reconstituting cells could not be formally established. Here, we separated yolk sac and intraembryonic splanchnopleura prior to circulation and maintained the explants

  19. Early chick mortality associated with rupture of the yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D P; Halvorson, D A

    1993-01-01

    Rupture of the yolk sac was identified in leghorn chicks from six placements of a commercial hatchery that had high mortality (up to 3%) during the first 3 days. The abdomens of these chicks were filled with cloudy yellowish fluid; kidneys were swollen, and many chicks also had severe visceral urate deposition (visceral gout). No significant bacterial growth was detected. The hatchery had recently hired new sexors. After the sexors were cautioned to handle the chicks more carefully, the problem abruptly subsided. In an experimental attempt to reproduce the condition, a graded series of doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 ml) of egg yolk were injected intraperitoneally into five groups of twenty 1-day-old chicks. Twelve of the 20 chicks that received the 4-ml dose died. They developed swollen, pale kidneys and had cloudy yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity, but no visceral urate deposition. Only six of the remaining 80 chicks that received lesser doses or no yolk died. PMID:8257362

  20. The effect of pigeon yolk sac fluid on the growth behavior of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Previous experiments have proved that thermodynamically unstable calcium carbonate vaterite can exist for long periods in the yolk sac of a pigeon embryo. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effect of in vitro mineralization of yolk sac fluid on calcium carbonate by direct precipitation. Experiments were conducted using pigeon yolk sac fluid and using lecithin extracted from pigeon yolk sac fluid as a control to investigate the regulating effects of the organic components in the embryo on the formation of the calcium carbonate precipitate. Multiple characterization methods were employed to study the various morphological patterns, sizes, crystal growth, and crystal phase transformations of the calcium carbonate precipitates as regulated by the yolk sac fluid extracted at different stages of incubation. The experimental results demonstrate that as the incubation proceeds towards the later stages, the composition and environmental features of the yolk sac fluid become more favorable for the formation of relatively unstable calcium carbonate phases with high energies of the vaterite state. The experiments conducted with extracted lecithin as the template for crystal growth yielded similar results. A large amount of organic molecules with polar functional groups carried by the yolk sac fluid have strong effects and can both initially induce the crystallization and regulate the aggregation of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, this regulation process is found to be closely related to the lecithin contained in yolk sac fluid. These observations confirm the changes in yolk sac fluid composition during incubation have significant effects on the production of vaterite, which implicates the calcium transport during embryo growth. PMID:25681477

  1. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Suk; Lee, Hwa; Chang, Minwook; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2015-01-01

    Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac. PMID:25971182

  2. Development of the inverted visceral yolk sac in three species of caviids (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae).

    PubMed

    Miglino, M A; Franciolli, A L R; de Oliveira, M F; Ambrósio, C E; Bonatelli, M; Machado, M R F; Mess, A

    2008-08-01

    Guinea pig related rodents possess numerous derived placental characters. We attempt to identify diversity within the visceral yolk sac and its association with the chorioallantoic placenta in three species of caviids, two of them possessing a capsule formed by the decidua that covers the chorioallantoic placenta. The results verify that in early pregnancy all three species have an inverted yolk sac placenta. In advanced pregnancy the species differ: Galea spixii, as representative without a capsule, bear a yolk sac in apposition to the chorioallantoic placenta with signs of exchange activity until term. Galea is similar to other caviomorphs in this respect. In Dasyprocta leporina and Cuniculus paca, the representatives possessing a capsule, the yolk sac endoderm lacks signs of substance exchange. Evidently, the presence of a capsule prevents such an interaction. The variations established here must be considered if animal models for human placentation are required which have restricted access to the chorioallantoic placenta from the outside. PMID:18586321

  3. Characterization of Definitive Lymphohematopoietic Stem Cells in the Day 9 Murine Yolk Sac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mervin C Yoder; Kelly Hiatt; Parmesh Dutt; Pinku Mukherjee; David M Bodine; Donald Orlic

    1997-01-01

    The site of origin of lymphohematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that initiate definitive blood cell production in the murine fetal liver is controversial. Contrary to reports that the preliver yolk sac does not contain definitive HSC, we observed that CD34+ day 9 yolk sac cells repopulated multiple blood cell lineages in newborn hosts for at least 1 year. Furthermore, 100 CD34+c-Kit+

  4. Development of the Inverted Visceral Yolk Sac in Three Species of Caviids (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Miglino; A. L. R. Franciolli; M. F. de Oliveira; C. E. Ambrósio; M. Bonatelli; M. R. F. Machado; A. Mess

    2008-01-01

    Guinea pig related rodents possess numerous derived placental characters. We attempt to identify diversity within the visceral yolk sac and its association with the chorioallantoic placenta in three species of caviids, two of them possessing a capsule formed by the decidua that covers the chorioallantoic placenta. The results verify that in early pregnancy all three species have an inverted yolk

  5. A bilateral primary yolk sac tumor of the lung associated with chromosome 3 polysomy: understanding the Oct 3/4 and Sox 2 interaction.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shitij; Patel, Harish; Mir, Pervez; Mishra, Sneha; Kalra, Amita; Sawhney, Harinder; Duffoo, Frantz; Macera, Mike; Abdu, Afaf; Thelmo, William

    2013-01-01

    Extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCTs) in the lung are extremely rare and their pathogenesis is poorly understood. We report a case in a 48-year-old female which was very aggressive and stained positive for primoridial germ cell markers. Interestingly, there was chromosome 3 polysomy noted. To our knowledge this is the first chromosomal aberration noted in a primary germ cell tumor of the lung. PMID:23114647

  6. Differentiation of the yolk-sac endoderm under the influence of the digestive-tract mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Masui, T

    1981-04-01

    To reveal differentiation potency of yolk-sac endoderm, this tissue from quail embryos was cultured alone or in association with digestive-tract mesenchymes of chick embryos. When yolk-sac endoderm was cultured alone in vitro, the endoderm of the area vitellina differentiated into the yolk-sac parenchyma, but the endoderm of the extraembryonic area pellucida (EEAP) failed to differentiate into yolk-sac parenchyma, and the endoderm of the area vasculosa became necrotic. When endoderm of the area vitellina was cultured in association with digestive-tract mesenchymes, all the endodermal cells developed into yolk-sac parenchymal cells after two days. Later, basophilic cells appeared among them, and differentiated into both mesenchyme-specific epithelia and intestinal-type epithelium with a striated border, and villi were also formed. Goblet cells appeared in all types of recombinations. The endoderm of the EEAP cultured with digestive-tract mesenchymes gave similar results to that of the area vitellina. In contrast, endoderm of the area vasculosa, when cultured with digestive-tract mesenchymes, became necrotic. The present investigation demonstrated that the endoderms of the area vitellina and of the EEAP differ in self-differentiation potency, and that their developmental fates can be modified by the influence of digestive-tract mesenchymes. These endoderms can differentiate into the mesenchyme-specific epithelia, though they often differentiate also into the intestinal-type epithelium. PMID:7276813

  7. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ? 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish. PMID:26035592

  8. Coexistence of Glomangioma and Yolk Sac Tumour in a Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Hatice; Gunel, Engin; Caliskan, Umran; Koksal, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Glomus tumours (GTs) primarily arise from glomus bodies that are located in the dermis layer of skin. However, they can be encountered ectopically in most parts of the body. As a result of researches done in a 17-month-old male patient who prssented to us with complaint of an increasingly growing swelling, he was diagnosed with a yolk sac tumour. Chemotherapy was started and then, he was operated. GT was found inside the tumoural mass. Our patient, who is the first case according to our knowledge, where the concurrence of yolk sac and glomus tumours was reported, has been discussed in the light of literature. PMID:24995227

  9. Transfer of IgA from albumen into the yolk sac during embryonic development in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Kaspers, B; Bondl, H; Göbel, T W

    1996-06-01

    In the chicken, maternal antibodies are transferred into the egg and subsequently transported into the developing embryo. IgG is the primary immunoglobulin isotype of the egg yolk, while IgM and IgA are mainly found in the albumen. However, considerable amounts of IgM and IgA of unknown origin are found one day prior to hatching in the yolk sac. These antibodies are not synthesized de novo by the embryo proper, thus pointing to a transfer from the albumen into the egg yolk during development. To further address this question, 125I labelled chicken IgA was injected into the albumen of freshly laid eggs. On day 21 of embryonic development, 125I-IgA was found in the yolk sac content. On average (n = 6) 36.2 +/- 7.2% of the injected radioactivity was recovered from this compartment and shown to be associated with IgA. Comparison of total IgA in the albumen of freshly laid eggs with the amounts of IgA in yolk sac content showed similar results with a 44% transfer rate. An increase of the IgA concentration in the yolk sac was first detectable between days 14 and 16 of embryonic development. These data clearly show that IgA is transferred from the albumen into the yolk sac, most likely by a transport across the yolk sac membrane. PMID:8767732

  10. Characterization of calcium carbonate crystals in pigeon yolk sacs with different incubation times.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Hu, Jingxiao; Tong, Hua

    2014-05-01

    Calcium carbonate crystals are known to form in the yolk sacs of fertile pigeon eggs at late stages of incubation. The composition and structure of these crystals were investigated, the crystallization environment was inspected, and the physical chemistry constants of the yolk fluid were determined through the incubation period. Polarized light microscopy was used to observe the generation and distribution of calcium carbonate crystals in the yolk sac. In addition, X-ray diffraction was employed to analyze the composition and crystal phase of the yolk sac. A decalcification and deproteination method was established to analyze the ultrastructure and composition of the crystals, as well as the internal relationship between inorganic and organic phases of the crystals. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate the characteristics of the crystals. Our results demonstrated that the calcium carbonate crystals were mainly composed of vaterite and calcite, with vaterite being the major component. Vaterite, a type of biomaterial generated by an organic template control, presented as a concentric hierarchical spherical structure. The organic nature of the biomaterial prevented vaterite from transforming into calcite, which is more thermodynamically stable than vaterite. Additionally, the configuration, size, and aggregation of vaterite were also mediated by the organic template. This bio-vaterite was found during the incubation period and is valuable in calcium transport during embryonic development. PMID:24602270

  11. Effects of human yolk sac endothelial cells on supporting expansion of hematopoietic stem\\/progenitor cells from cord blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liangshan Hu; Lamei Cheng; Jian Wang; Huiping Zhao; Huaxin Duan; Guangxiu Lu

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of human yolk sac-derived endothelial cells (hYSECs) on the expansion of human hematopoietic stem\\/progenitor cells (HS\\/PCs) from umbilical cord blood (UCB) in vitro, we purified hYSEC-like cells from 4–5 week human yolk sacs, which were morphologically similar to endothelial cells and expressed CD31, CD144 and vWF characteristics of endothelial cells. Then we isolated CD34+

  12. THE RESPIRATORY DEVELOPMENT OF ATLANTIC SALMON II. PARTITIONING OF OXYGEN UPTAKE AMONG GILLS, YOLK SAC AND BODY SURFACES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PATRICK R. WELLS; ALAN W. PINDER

    During post-hatch development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), O2 uptake partitioning changes from primarily cutaneous to primarily branchial. Over 80 % of post-hatch O2 uptake was cutaneous, with the yolk sac responsible for 33 % of total O2 uptake. The well- vascularized yolk sac was a less effective gas exchanger than the unperfused skin of the body, suggesting that

  13. Molecular markers of yolk sac fry development in nine families of lake trout.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Kristiina A; Paavilainen, Tiia; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Czesny, Sergiusz; Rinchard, Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Salmonids in certain areas of North America and northern Europe suffer from reproductive disturbances manifested through the death of yolk sac fry. These disturbances are referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the Great Lakes region and M74 in the Baltic Sea. Both of these syndromes have been associated with reduced concentrations of thiamine in affected females and their eggs. However, large variations in signs and mortality, both within and between the individual syndromes, have been reported. Yolk sac fry mortality (M74) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar has been shown to be associated with reduced DNA binding of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), reduced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein, decreased capillary density, and down-regulation of adult-type globin gene transcription (which is responsible for the protein part of adult hemoglobin). One of the main effects of all of these changes is reduced oxygen transport to the tissues of affected fry. In this study, the developmental patterns of HIF-1 DNA binding, VEGF protein expression, and adult-type globin gene transcription were analyzed in nine family groups of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. The results indicate that HIF-1 DNA binding and globin gene transcription increase from hatch to the end of yolk sac stage. Interindividual and between-family biological variations were detected, especially in VEGF protein expression and globin gene transcription. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using these molecular markers in investigating the etiology of EMS and making comparisons between the mechanisms of different salmonid yolk sac fry mortalities. PMID:20218502

  14. Maternal-fetal immunoglobulin transport: Studies on the binding, internalization, and release of IgG by chick yolk sac tissue and cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transported from the yolk across the endodermal cells of the yolk sac and into the fetal circulation during chick embryonic development, thus providing the chick with passive immunity until it becomes immunocompetent. Saturable, Fc-specific receptors are present on the endodermal cells and are believed to mediate this transfer. In this study, IgG receptors were shown to be present on the yolk sac endodermal cells throughout the 21 days of development, although most of the transport occurs during the last 3 days prior to hatching. Fluorescently conjugated IgG was internalized by a receptor mechanism into small apical vesicles in yolk sac endoderm throughout, but cells from 19 day yolk sacs internalized more conjugate than those from 14 day yolk sacs. This was confirmed and quantitated by assaying the internalization of {sup 125}I-IgG into yolk sac tissue. IgG was internalized by a receptor mediated mechanism, reaching a steady state level after 1 to 2 hours. Although both ages of yolk sac tissue possessed the same number of surface IgG receptors, as measured by equilibrium binding assays at 4{degree}C, 19 day yolk sac had the capacity to internalize six times as much IgG by a receptor mechanism as 14 day yolk sac.

  15. Yolk sac angiogenic defect and intra-embryonic apoptosis in mice lacking the Ets-related factor TEL.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L C; Kuo, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gilliland, D G; Golub, T R; Orkin, S H

    1997-01-01

    The TEL gene, which is frequently rearranged in human leukemias of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, encodes a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. The TEL gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development and in the adult. To determine the requirement for the TEL gene product in development we generated TEL knockout mice (TEL-/-) by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. TEL-/- mice are embryonic lethal and die between E10.5-11.5 with defective yolk sac angiogenesis and intra-embryonic apoptosis of mesenchymal and neural cells. Two-thirds of TEL-deficient yolk sacs at E9.5 lack vitelline vessels, yet possess capillaries, indicative of normal vasculogenesis. Vitelline vessels regress by E10.5 in the remaining TEL-/- yolk sacs. Hematopoiesis at the yolk sac stage, however, appears unaffected in TEL-/- embryos. Our findings demonstrate that TEL is required for maintenance of the developing vascular network in the yolk sac and for survival of selected cell types within the embryo proper. PMID:9250681

  16. Histological Analyses Demonstrate the Temporary Contribution of Yolk Sac, Liver, and Bone Marrow to Hematopoiesis during Chicken Development

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Priscila Tavares; de Oliveira, Barbara Cristina Euzébio Pereira Dias; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM) region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3) and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage. PMID:24621665

  17. Modeling murine yolk sac hematopoiesis with embryonic stem cell culture systems

    PubMed Central

    COOK, Brandoch D.

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hematopoiesis in mammals is defined by generation of primitive erythrocytes and macrophage progenitors in embryonic yolk sac. Laboratories have met the challenge of transient and swiftly changing specification events from ventral mesoderm through multipotent progenitors and maturing lineage-restricted hematopoietic subtypes, by developing powerful in vitro experimental models to interrogate hematopoietic ontogeny. Most importantly, studies of differentiating embryonic stem cell derivatives in embryoid body and stromal coculture systems have identified crucial roles for transcription factor networks (e.g. Gata1, Runx1, Scl) and signaling pathways (e.g. BMP, VEGF, WNT) in controlling stem and progenitor cell output. These and other relevant pathways have pleiotropic biological effects, and are often associated with early embryonic lethality in knockout mice. Further refinement in subsequent studies has allowed conditional expression of key regulatory genes, and isolation of progenitors via cell surface markers (e.g. FLK1) and reporter-tagged constructs, with the purpose of measuring their primitive and definitive hematopoietic potential. These observations continue to inform attempts to direct the differentiation, and augment the expansion, of progenitors in human cell culture systems that may prove useful in cell replacement therapies for hematopoietic deficiencies. The purpose of this review is to survey the extant literature on the use of differentiating murine embryonic stem cells in culture to model the developmental process of yolk sac hematopoiesis. PMID:25558247

  18. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    PubMed

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2015-07-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization. PMID:25199884

  19. The effect of temperature on embryonic and yolk-sac larval development in the burbot Lota lota.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, F; Kletzl, M; Weismann, T

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the effect of various temperature regimes on embryonic and yolk-sac larval development of the burbot Lota lota. At constant temperature regimes a high percentage of ready-to-hatch embryos, hatched larvae and normally shaped larvae was observed at the lowest temperature (2° C), which significantly decreased with increasing temperatures (4 and 6° C). No larvae hatched at 9° C. The stream temperature regime had no effect on the percentage of ready-to-hatch embryos, but significantly decreased the percentage of hatched larvae and of normally shaped larvae. The lake temperature regime did not affect the viability variables. Also an abrupt temperature increase from 2 to 4° C after 8 days and from 2 to 9° C after 48 days had no effect on the evaluated viability variables. For yolk-sac larvae no temperature related mortalities or abnormalities were observed between 2 and 9° C. PMID:22880731

  20. Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-24

    Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; Choriocarcinoma; Germinoma; Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Malignant Germ Cell Neoplasm; Extragonadal Seminoma; Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Seminoma

  1. The Developing Chicken Yolk Sac Acquires Nutrient Transport Competence by an Orchestrated Differentiation Process of Its Endodermal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Raimund; Plieschnig, Julia A.; Finkes, Thomas; Riegler, Barbara; Hermann, Marcela; Schneider, Wolfgang J.

    2013-01-01

    During chicken yolk sac (YS) growth, mesodermal cells in the area vasculosa follow the migrating endodermal epithelial cell (EEC) layer in the area vitellina. Ultimately, these cells form the vascularized YS that functions in nutrient transfer to the embryo. How and when EECs, with their apical aspect directly contacting the oocytic yolk, acquire the ability to take up yolk macromolecules during the vitellina-to-vasculosa transition has not been investigated. In addressing these questions, we found that with progressive vascularization, the expression level in EECs of the nutrient receptor triad, LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, changes significantly. The receptor complex, competent for uptake of yolk proteins, is produced by EECs in the area vasculosa but not in the area vitellina. Yolk components endocytosed by LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, preformed and newly formed lipid droplets, and yolk-derived very low density lipoprotein, shown to be efficiently endocytosed and lysosomally processed by EECs, probably provide substrates for resynthesis and secretion of nutrients, such as lipoproteins. In fact, as directly demonstrated by pulse-chase experiments, EECs in the vascularized, but not in the avascular, region efficiently produce and secrete lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, and/or apoA-V. In contrast, perilipin 2, a lipid droplet-stabilizing protein, is produced exclusively by the EECs of the area vitellina. These data suggest a differentiation process that orchestrates the vascularization of the developing YS with the induction of yolk uptake and lipoprotein secretion by EECs to ensure embryo nutrition. PMID:23209291

  2. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 ?g g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 ?g g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 ?g g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology. PMID:25527298

  3. Papillary Endolymphatic Sac Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arava, S.; Soumya, R. M.; Chitragar, S.; Safaya, R.; Chandrashekhar, S. H.; Thakar, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term “aggressive papillary middle ear tumor” has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition. PMID:22953101

  4. Effects of human yolk sac endothelial cells on supporting expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from cord blood.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liangshan; Cheng, Lamei; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Huiping; Duan, Huaxin; Lu, Guangxiu

    2006-11-01

    In order to investigate the effects of human yolk sac-derived endothelial cells (hYSECs) on the expansion of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HS/PCs) from umbilical cord blood (UCB) in vitro, we purified hYSEC-like cells from 4-5 week human yolk sacs, which were morphologically similar to endothelial cells and expressed CD31, CD144 and vWF characteristics of endothelial cells. Then we isolated CD34(+) cells from UCB in culture under three different conditions: with hematopoietic cytokines (CKs), contact-coculture or noncontact-coculture with hYSECs supplemented with CKs, and found that the contact-coculture system had the strongest expansion efficiency in the total cells' (TCs) ability to form HPP-CFCs. Erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) increased 52.35-fold, 20.26-fold and 27.77-fold, respectively, compared with pre-expansion. We detected that the mRNA of Notch ligands such as Jagged1, Delta1 and Delta4 could express in hYSECs after contacted culture with UCB-CD34(+) cells but not the noncontacted cells by RT-PCR analysis. Therefore, we concluded that the contact-coculture system supplemented with CKs could support the expansion of UCB-HS/PCs in vitro, especially high potential proliferative colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC) and BFU-E, perhaps owing to Notch signal pathway. PMID:16962340

  5. GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) ACTIVITY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT VISCERAL YOLK-SAC DURING GESTATION WITH OR WITHOUT TRYPAN BLUE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk-sacs from untreated Sprague Dawley rat conceptuses were removed on days 9-18 of gestation and examined for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activities. All enzyme activities w...

  6. Retinoid metabolism (LRAT, REH) in the yolk-sac membrane of Japanese quail eggs and effects of mono-ortho-PCBs.

    PubMed

    Boily, M H; Ndayibagira, A; Spear, P A

    2003-01-01

    Retinoids stored in the avian egg are essential for normal development, however, laboratory and field experiments suggest that they are affected by environmental contaminants. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) activity was detected in the microsomal fraction of the yolk-sac membrane of the Japanese quail at day 6 of development. LRAT activity was maximal at pH 7.0 having apparent kinetic parameters of K(m)=1.35 microM and V(max)=0.21 nmol/mg protein/h and was inhibited by the sulfhydryl modifying agent N-ethyl-maleimide. Retinol ester hydrolase (REH) activity in the microsomal fraction of the yolk-sac membrane was stimulated by the bile salt analogue 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propane sulfonate and was maximal at pH 9.0 with apparent K(m)=77 microM and V(max)=34.3 nmol/mg protein/h. Injection of the PCB congener 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl increased both REH and LRAT activities, whereas 2,3,3',4-tetrachlorobiphenyl stimulated LRAT. Yolk retinol concentration and the molar ratio retinol:retinyl palmitate were lower in the exposed eggs. Yolk retinol concentration decreased as LRAT increased (R(2)=0.89) suggesting that certain PCB congeners may affect vitamin A mobilization in ovo by increasing LRAT activity in the yolk-sac membrane. PMID:12524014

  7. DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-11

    Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  8. Mortality of walleye eggs and rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae in low-pH waters in the LaCloche Mountain area, Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER F. HULSMAN; PERCE M. POWLES; JOHN M. GUNN

    1983-01-01

    Freshly fertilized eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum were incubated in the outlet waters of George Lake (pH 5.4) and sections of a nearby stream (pH 6.0, 6.6). Ten-day bioassays with yolk-sac larvae of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri were run concurrently at the walleye sites and at additional sites with low pH (4.6) and with humic water (pH 5.5). Walleye egg

  9. Interaction of a Cationic N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide Copolymer with Rat Visceral Yolk Sacs Cultured in vitro and Rat Liver in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Anne Mccormick; Leonard C. W. Seymour; Ruth Duncan; Jind?ich Kopecek

    1986-01-01

    N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers and polycations, such as poly-L-lysine, have been proposed as potential drug delivery systems. HPMA copolymers were synthesised to contain a low percentage of tyrosinamide residues facilitating their radioiodination, and in one case also containing a cationic group. The effect of the cationic residue on the association of copolymer with rat visceral yolk sacs incubated in vitro was

  10. A morphological analysis of the transition between the embryonic primitive intestine and yolk sac in bovine embryos and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Mançanares, Celina A F; Leiser, Rudolf; Favaron, Phelipe O; Carvalho, Ana F; Oliveira, Vanessa C De; Santos, José M Dos; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Miglino, Maria A

    2013-07-01

    The yolk sac (YS) is the main source of embryonic nutrition during the period when the placenta has not yet formed. It is also responsible for hematopoiesis because the blood cells develop from it as part of the primitive embryonic circulation. The objective of this study was to characterize the transitional area between the YS and primitive gut using the techniques of light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry to detect populations of pluripotent cells by labeling with Oct4 antibody. In all investigated embryos, serial sections were made to permit the identification of this small, restricted area. We identified the YS connection with the primitive intestine and found that it is composed of many blood islands, which correspond to the vessels covered by vitelline and mesenchymal cells. We identified large numbers of hemangioblasts inside the vessels. The mesenchymal layer was thin and composed of elongated cells, and the vitelline endodermal membrane was composed of large, mono- or binucleated cells. The epithelium of the primitive intestine comprised stratified columnar cells and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. The transitional area between the YS and the primitive intestine was very thin and composed of cells with irregular shapes, which formed a delicate lumen containing hemangioblasts. In the mesenchyme of the transitional area, there were a considerable number of small vessels containing hemangioblasts. Using Oct4 as a primary antibody, we identified positive cells in the metanephros, primordial gonad, and hepatic parenchyma as well as in YS cells, suggesting that these regions contain populations of pluripotent cells. PMID:23650099

  11. Mortality of walleye eggs and rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae in low-pH waters in the LaCloche Mountain area, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Hulsman, P.F.; Powles, P.M.; Gunn, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Freshly fertilized eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum were incubated in the outlet waters of George Lake (pH 5.4) and sections of a nearby stream (pH 6.0, 6.6). Ten-day bioassays with yolk-sac larvae of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri were run concurrently at the walleye sites and at additional sites with low pH (4.6) and with humic water (pH 5.5). Walleye egg mortality was low (25.5 - 33.5%) at pH 6.0. High mortality (90.5%) occurred between fertilization and the eyed-egg stage at the pH 5.4 site. Mortality of rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae approached 100% within 5 days at both pH 4.6 and 5.4. In contrast, total mortality was less than 3% at pH 6.0 and also in low-pH humic water (pH 5.5). The high mortality of walleye eggs in the acidic outlet waters of George Lake suggests that the acidification of this lake was responsible for the extinction of its walleye stock. The striking differences in mortality of rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae between sites of similar pH (5.4-5.5) indicated that H/sup +/-toxicity was not solely responsible for fish mortality in acid water. Results draw attention to the effects that biologically available forms of toxic metals, particularly of aluminum, have on fish survival. 26 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Yolk sac endoderm is the major source of serum proteins and lipids and is involved in the regulation of vascular integrity in early chick development.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Fumie; Alev, Cantas; Jakt, Lars M; Sheng, Guojun

    2011-08-01

    An important function of the vascular system is nutrient delivery. In adult animals, this is mediated through a close contact of the mesoderm-derived vasculature with the endoderm-derived enterocytes and hepatocytes. During embryonic development, the yolk sac (YS) endoderm has been suggested to play a similar role. Physiological and molecular nature of the contact between the YS endoderm and the vasculature is not well-understood. To understand roles of the YS endoderm in early development, we used the avian model and carried out a gene expression profiling analysis of isolated area vasculosa YS endoderm tissues from embryonic day 2-4 chick embryos, covering the first 48 hr of postcirculation development. Genes involved in lipid metabolism are highly enriched, indicating an active modification of lipid components during their transfer from the yolk to the circulatory system. We also uncovered genes encoding major serum proteins and key regulators of vascular integrity. In particular, PTGDS, an enzyme controlling the last step of prostaglandin D2 production, shows high expression in the YS endoderm. Experimental introduction of prostaglandin D2 into embryonic circulation led to intraembryonic vessel rupture. These data suggest that the YS endoderm is the major, if not exclusive, source of lipid and protein constituents of the early embryonic serum and plays an important role in the regulation of vascular integrity in developing embryo. PMID:21761483

  13. Changes in the whole body mineral concentration of the Rainbow trout (Oncorchynchus mykiss Walbaum) yolk-sac fry exposed to various combina- tions of aluminium and calcium concentrations in two different acidic water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Metin ÇALTA

    The effects of 12 combinations of pH (4.5 and 7.0), aluminium (4 and 8 ?mol\\/L) and calcium (10 and 100 ?mol\\/L) on survival and body mineral (Ca, Mg, K and Na) concentrations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) at the yolk-sac stage were investigated. Mortality was low (< 17%) in most combinations and increased (> 27%) in the presence of

  14. Developmental toxicity in rats of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier results from impeded function of the inverted visceral yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Stump, D G; Holson, J F; Harris, C; Pearce, L B; Watson, R E; DeSesso, J M

    2015-04-01

    HBOC-201 is a bovine-derived, cross-linked, and stabilized hemoglobin (250kDa) in physiological saline. Daily intravenous infusions of HBOC (1.95, 3.90, or 5.85g/kg/day) during gestational days (GDs) 6-18 in Sprague-Dawley rats caused fetal mortality, reduced birth weight, and malformations. Subsequent single-day infusions (5.85g/kg/day) showed that developmental toxicity was limited to GDs 7-9 when histiotrophic nutrition via the inverted visceral yolk sac (invVYS) is essential. Histiotrophic nutrition is receptor-mediated endocytosis of bulk maternal proteins and subsequent lysosomal degradation providing amino acids and other nutrients for embryonic growth. Controls for protein content, oncotic properties, and hemoglobin content indicated that toxicity was due to hemoglobin. Rat whole embryo cultures verified HBOC interference with invVYS transport capacity and resultant deficient embryonic nutrition. These mechanisms of action are not expected to impact human development based on differences in VYS morphology and function, although a complete understanding of early human embryonic nutrition is lacking. PMID:25617809

  15. Comparison of toxicity of benzene metabolite hydroquinone in hematopoietic stem cells derived from murine embryonic yolk sac and adult bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Liqiao; Li, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suhan; Huang, Wenting; Wang, Liping; Yang, Tan; Ma, Qiang; Bi, Yongyi

    2013-01-01

    Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. However, experimental evidence supporting the association is lacking at the present time. It is believed that benzene and its metabolites target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cause toxicity and cancer in the hematopoietic system. In the current study, we compared the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major metabolite of benzene in humans and animals, on mouse embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells (YS-HSCs) and adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs were isolated and enriched, and were exposed to HQ at increasing concentrations. HQ reduced the proliferation and the differentiation and colony formation, but increased the apoptosis of both YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. However, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HQ were more apparent and reduction of colony formation by HQ was more severe in YS-HSCs than in BM-HSCs. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed in HQ-treated YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. Cyp4f18 was induced by HQ both in YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs, whereas DNA-PKcs was induced in BM-HSCs only. The results revealed differential effects of benzene metabolites on embryonic and adult HSCs. The study established an experimental system for comparison of the hematopoietic toxicity and leukemogenicity of benzene and metabolites during mouse embryonic development and adulthood. PMID:23940708

  16. Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor of the Ovary Growing into an Inguinal Hernia Sac: Report of a Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Takeuchi; Yasushi Tsuzuki; Tetsu Ando; Masao Sekihara; Takashi Hara; Takayuki Kori; Takeshi Kawakami; Yoshihiro Ohno; Hiroyuki Kuwano

    2003-01-01

    Malignant tumors presenting as an inguinal hernia are rare. We present the case of a malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary growing into an inguinal hernia sac. In this case, magnetic resonance imaging was useful in making a diagnosis of an ovarian neoplasm growing into the inguinal canal, and to the best of our knowledge, this is only

  17. Growth hormone transgenesis and polyploidy increase metabolic rate, alter the cardiorespiratory response and influence HSP expression in response to acute hypoxia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) yolk-sac alevins.

    PubMed

    Polymeropoulos, Elias T; Plouffe, Debbie; LeBlanc, Sacha; Elliott, Nick G; Currie, Suzie; Frappell, Peter B

    2014-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic Atlantic salmon display accelerated growth rates compared with non-transgenics. GH-transgenic fish also display cardiorespiratory and metabolic modifications that accompany the increased growth rate. An elevated routine metabolic rate has been described for pre- and post-smolt GH-transgenic salmon that also display improvements in oxygen delivery to support the increased aerobic demand. The early ontogenic effects of GH transgenesis on the respiratory and cellular physiology of fish, especially during adverse environmental conditions, and the effect of polyploidy are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of GH transgenesis and polyploidy on metabolic, heart and ventilation rates and heat shock protein (HSP) levels after exposure to acute hypoxia in post-hatch Atlantic salmon yolk-sac alevins. Metabolic rate decreased with decreasing partial pressures of oxygen in all genotypes. In normoxia, triploid transgenics displayed the highest mass-specific metabolic rates in comparison to diploid transgenics and non-transgenic triploids, which, in contrast, had higher rates than diploid non-transgenics. In hypoxia, we observed a lower mass-specific metabolic rate in diploid non-transgenics compared with all other genotypes. However, no evidence for improved O2 uptake through heart or ventilation rate was found. Heart rate decreased in diploid non-transgenics while ventilation rate decreased in both diploid non-transgenics and triploid transgenics in severe hypoxia. Regardless of genotype or treatment, inducible HSP70 was not expressed in alevins. Following hypoxia, the constitutive isoform of HSP70, HSC70, decreased in transgenics and HSP90 expression decreased in all genotypes. These data suggest that physiological changes through GH transgenesis and polyploidy are manifested during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon. PMID:24675560

  18. UBR box N-recognin-4 (UBR4), an N-recognin of the N-end rule pathway, and its role in yolk sac vascular development and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Tasaki, Takafumi; Kim, Sung Tae; Zakrzewska, Adriana; Lee, Bo Eun; Kang, Min Jueng; Yoo, Young Dong; Cha-Molstad, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Joonsung; Soung, Nak Kyun; Sung, Ki Sa; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Nguyen, Minh Dang; Sun, Ming; Yi, Eugene C.; Kim, Bo Yeon; Kwon, Yong Tae

    2013-01-01

    The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which destabilizing N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins act as degradation determinants (N-degrons). Substrates carrying N-degrons are recognized by N-recognins that mediate ubiquitylation-dependent selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our previous studies identified the mammalian N-recognin family consisting of UBR1/E3?, UBR2, UBR4/p600, and UBR5, which recognize destabilizing N-terminal residues through the UBR box. In the current study, we addressed the physiological function of a poorly characterized N-recognin, 570-kDa UBR4, in mammalian development. UBR4-deficient mice die during embryogenesis and exhibit pleiotropic abnormalities, including impaired vascular development in the yolk sac (YS). Vascular development in UBR4-deficient YS normally advances through vasculogenesis but is arrested during angiogenic remodeling of primary capillary plexus associated with accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. In the YS, UBR4 marks endoderm-derived, autophagy-enriched cells that coordinate differentiation of mesoderm-derived vascular cells and supply autophagy-generated amino acids during early embryogenesis. UBR4 of the YS endoderm is associated with a tissue-specific autophagic pathway that mediates bulk lysosomal proteolysis of endocytosed maternal proteins into amino acids. In cultured cells, UBR4 subpopulation is degraded by autophagy through its starvation-induced association with cellular cargoes destined to autophagic double membrane structures. UBR4 loss results in multiple misregulations in autophagic induction and flux, including synthesis and lipidation/activation of the ubiquitin-like protein LC3 and formation of autophagic double membrane structures. Our results suggest that UBR4 plays an important role in mammalian development, such as angiogenesis in the YS, in part through regulation of bulk degradation by lysosomal hydrolases. PMID:23431188

  19. UBR box N-recognin-4 (UBR4), an N-recognin of the N-end rule pathway, and its role in yolk sac vascular development and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, Takafumi; Kim, Sung Tae; Zakrzewska, Adriana; Lee, Bo Eun; Kang, Min Jueng; Yoo, Young Dong; Cha-Molstad, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Joonsung; Soung, Nak Kyun; Sung, Ki Sa; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Nguyen, Minh Dang; Sun, Ming; Yi, Eugene C; Kim, Bo Yeon; Kwon, Yong Tae

    2013-03-01

    The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which destabilizing N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins act as degradation determinants (N-degrons). Substrates carrying N-degrons are recognized by N-recognins that mediate ubiquitylation-dependent selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our previous studies identified the mammalian N-recognin family consisting of UBR1/E3?, UBR2, UBR4/p600, and UBR5, which recognize destabilizing N-terminal residues through the UBR box. In the current study, we addressed the physiological function of a poorly characterized N-recognin, 570-kDa UBR4, in mammalian development. UBR4-deficient mice die during embryogenesis and exhibit pleiotropic abnormalities, including impaired vascular development in the yolk sac (YS). Vascular development in UBR4-deficient YS normally advances through vasculogenesis but is arrested during angiogenic remodeling of primary capillary plexus associated with accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. In the YS, UBR4 marks endoderm-derived, autophagy-enriched cells that coordinate differentiation of mesoderm-derived vascular cells and supply autophagy-generated amino acids during early embryogenesis. UBR4 of the YS endoderm is associated with a tissue-specific autophagic pathway that mediates bulk lysosomal proteolysis of endocytosed maternal proteins into amino acids. In cultured cells, UBR4 subpopulation is degraded by autophagy through its starvation-induced association with cellular cargoes destined to autophagic double membrane structures. UBR4 loss results in multiple misregulations in autophagic induction and flux, including synthesis and lipidation/activation of the ubiquitin-like protein LC3 and formation of autophagic double membrane structures. Our results suggest that UBR4 plays an important role in mammalian development, such as angiogenesis in the YS, in part through regulation of bulk degradation by lysosomal hydrolases. PMID:23431188

  20. REVIEW ARTICLE Pakistan Vet. J., 24(1): 2004 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO YOLK RETENTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    stalk. Just before hatching, the yolk sac is pulled from the egg cavity to abdomen of chick infection by Sainsbury (1992) and Anjum (1997). Abdomen of chick felt soft and distended with thickened, inflamed and moist umbilicus. Unabsorbed yolk sac was present in the abdomen and therefore it was named

  1. Pakistan Vt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pakistan Vêt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS responsible for yolk rétention in broiler chicks. l: our dilieront expcrimonts were conducted to tlnd ont thé infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler

  2. NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP., SALMONELLA SEROVARS AND OTHER BACTERIA IN UNABSORBED YOLKS OF MARKET AGE COMMERCIAL BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the developing avian embryo, the main energy source is the yolk. Towards the end of the incubation period, the remaining yolk sac is internalized into the abdominal cavity. At hatch, the remaining yolk comprises 20% of the chick’s body weight and provides the nutrients needed for maintenance. ...

  3. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) as somatic-type malignancy arising from an extragonadal germ-cell tumor: clinical, pathological and molecular features of a case.

    PubMed

    Garg, Amit; Nahal, Ayoub; Turcotte, Robert; Tabah, Roger; Alcindor, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with a right axillary mass. Ten years previously, he had been diagnosed with a right scapular nonseminomatous germ-cell tumor consisting of teratoma, completely resected without any further treatment. Presently he was found to have a metastatic malignant small round cell tumor consistent with a secondary somatic malignancy arising in the background of nonseminomatous germ-cell tumor, teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor with distinct chromosome 22 translocation. Although the patient initially responded well to chemotherapy with etoposide, cisplatin, ifosfamide and mesna, he relapsed shortly after. PMID:23549017

  4. Histopathology of tumors of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Champier, Jacques; Jouvet, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Pineal region tumors are heterogeneous lesions and include mainly pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPRs) and germ cell tumors (GCTs). This article describes the cystic pineal gland compared with normal tissue and histopathological features of the most frequent pineal region tumors. PPTs are subdivided into pineocytoma (grade I), pineoblastoma (grade IV) and tumors with intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs; grades II-III). A grading system based on the number of mitoses and neurofilament protein expression distinguishes low- from high-grade PPTID. PTPR is a new tumoral entity thought to originate from the subcommissural organ. GCTs include germinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma and are often of mixed histologic composition. New histogenetic data for GCTs are presented. PMID:20465391

  5. Histopathology of pineal germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, A; Szathmari, A; Champier, J; Fèvre-Montange, M; Jouvet, A

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) classically occur in gonads. However, they are the most frequent neoplasms in the pineal region. The pineal location of GCTs may be caused by the neoplastic transformation of a primordial germ cell that has mismigrated. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes 5 histological types of intracranial GCTs: germinoma and non-germinomatous tumors including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma and mature or immature teratoma. Germinomas and teratomas are frequently encountered as pure tumors whereas the other types are mostly part of mixed GCTs. In this situation, the neuropathologist has to be able to identify each component of a GCT. When diagnosis is difficult, use of recent immunohistochemical markers such as OCT(octamer-binding transcription factor)3/4, Glypican 3, SALL(sal-like protein)4 may be required. OCT3/4 is helpful in the diagnosis of germinomas, Glypican 3 in the diagnosis of yolk sac tumors and SALL4 in the diagnosis of the germ cell nature of an intracranial tumor. When the germ cell nature of a pineal tumor is doubtful, the finding of an isochromosome 12p suggests the diagnosis of GCT. The final pathological report should always be confronted with the clinical data, especially the serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein. PMID:24726316

  6. [Treatment of primary mediastinal germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, T; Itoyama, S

    1989-02-01

    Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are clinically classified into mature (benign) teratomas and malignant germ cell tumors. Mature teratomas should be surgically excised after diagnosis, because unnecessary delay may result in the rupture of tumors or in malignant degeneration. The prognosis after surgical removal of tumor is good and there is no recurrence of tumor after complete excision. Malignant germ cell tumors are therapeutically classified into seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors comprise immature teratoma, teratocarcinoma (malignant teratoma), embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor and choriocarcinoma. Treatments for patients with them require an multidisciplinary therapeutic approach with radiotherapy or chemotherapy combined with surgical intervention. The prognosis of patients with these tumors are poor, however seminomatous germ cell tumors have a better prognosis than that of nonseminomatous tumors, because they are responsive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy and long survivals over five years after treatment are not rare among them. An aggressive cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy is performed for patients with nonseminomatous tumors who have mostly the elevated serum levels of AFP or beta-HCG as tumor marker. The serum levels of tumor markers reflect precisely the biological behavior of nonseminomatous tumors. Patients with the normalised serum levels of tumor markers after an medical intervention may have a good long prognosis following radical resection of tumors, although the sustained high serum levels of tumor markers after treatment indicate a poor prognosis. Long survivals over five years after therapy are extremely rare among them. PMID:9301895

  7. Quantitative data on blood flow during tumor PDT obtained by laser Doppler spectroscopy in the hen's egg test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoorts, Anja; Rood, H. A.; Klotz, Marcus; Moser, Joerg G.; Rosenbruch, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Oxygen supply is the most important requirement of type II photodynamic reactions. Prerequisite in photodynamic tumor therapy is an intact tumor blood flow during irradiation. Most photosensitizers destroy tumor vessels due to accumulation in endothelial cells. As a prerequisite to develop novel photosensitizing drugs an in-vivo test system is required to quantitatively assess for inertness of those sensitizers to the blood supply. We adapted and further developed a system capable of measuring the relative oxygen supply to heterotransplanted tumors on the yolk sac membrane (YSM) of fertilized chicken eggs.

  8. Effects of temperature on yolk utilization, initial growth, and behaviour of unfed marine fish-larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Fukuhara

    1990-01-01

    The effect of temperature on yolk utilization, initial growth and behaviour of larvae of four species of marine fishes, i.e.,Acanthopagrus schlegeli, Engraulis japonica, Pagrus major andParalichthys olivaceus, was investigated under laboratory conditions at Hiroshima in 1989. The yolk sac was absorbed earlier with increasing temperature for all species. Morphological characters such as pectoral fin appearance, mouth opening and eye pigmentation

  9. Laser Doppler flowmetry in photodynamic therapy on xenotransplanted tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoorts, Anja; Rood, H. A.; Moser, Joerg G.; Klotz, Marcus

    1996-05-01

    Perfusion of tumor tissue is a necessary prerequisite for radiotherapy and Photodynamic Tumor Therapy (PDT). For PDT perfusion means oxygen supply to a light activated photosensitizing drug inside tumor cells to destroy these cells specifically by light activated singlet oxygen. These experiments are normally done in rodents, but can be much more easily performed on tumors transplanted to the extraembryonal painfree vessels developed during chick embryogenesis. We chose the yolk sac membrane and the chorioallantoic membrane for quantitative blood flow measurements. Near infrared light (830 nm) was used for measurements in vascularized xenotransplanted tumors on the extraembryonal membranes because at this wavelength blood flow can be detected also in vessels covered by tumor cells. We measured the influences on blood flow of different photosensitizers with and without therapeutic irradiation and single components of a polyphasic PDT System.

  10. Alpha-fetoprotein, prealbumin, albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transferrin as diagnostic and therapeutic markers for endodermal sinus tumors.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Y; Kaneko, M; Yokomori, K; Saito, S; Urano, Y; Endo, Y; Asaka, T; Takeuchi, T

    1978-02-01

    According to Gitlin, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin, prealbumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transferrin are normal products of the human yolk sac. They are expected to reappear in human endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor). The synthesis of alpha-fetoprotein and other serum proteins by human endodermal sinus tumor was studied in the culture cells and in the tumor tissue transplanted into nude mice. The results gave evidences of synthesis of some of these proteins including alpha-fetoprotein and alpha-1-antitrypsin. Serum concentrations of these proteins were studied in eight children having endodermal sinus tumors. Serum AFP levels were abnormally high in all cases, whereas concentrations of other serum proteins were almost within normal ranges. This might be simply reflected by the fact that pre-albumin, albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and transferrin are already present in large quantities in sera of normal subjects while alpha-fetoprotein is present only in a negligible quantity. Alpha-fetoprotein, as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker of endodermal sinus tumor, showed good correlation to the tumor growth. Serum AFP concentrations declined almost to 0 ng/ml with a half-life of 4 days when surgical removal was complete, whereas serum AFP decreased only to 100-200 ng/ml with radiation and chemotherapy alone. PMID:75970

  11. [Mediastinal Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumor with Sarcoid-like Reaction in the Regional Lymph Nodes].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Akira; Kanauchi, Naoki; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Watanabe, Hikaru; Watanabe, Isamu

    2015-06-01

    A 26-year-old man was admitted because of an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram. Computed tomography(CT) revealed a very large tumor in the anterior mediastinum and bilateral mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Examination of a CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed a yolk-sac tumor. The patient received 4 courses of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, the tumor was markedly reduced in size, but the lymphadenopathy remained. The patient underwent thoracoscopic biopsy of the mediastinal lymph nodes. Sarcoid nodules were found in all the biopsied nodes, and the lymphadenopathy was thought to be a sarcoid-like reaction associated with the germ cell tumor. Resection of the residual tumor was performed according to the treatment algorithm of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group. There were no viable tumor cells in the resected tissue. The patient is free of recurrence and without any sign of generalized sarcoidosis 3 years after the surgery. PMID:26066869

  12. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  13. Recent developments in SAC2000

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M

    1997-07-01

    Before discussing recent developments in SAC2000, I will summarize what SAC2000 is/does. SAC2000 is the rebirth and evolution of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) developed during the 1980`s for a variety of geophysical applications. Primary funding for the development of SAC2000 has been through the LLNL as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) CTBT R&D program. The primary development goals for SAC2000 have been to meet the seismic signal processing and analysis needs of the DOE CTBT R&D teams and the rest of the CTBT R&D community. SAC2000`s strengths include its ability to process a diverse range of data types, its extensive, well documented signal processing capabilities (both on-line and on the web at http://www-ep.es.llnl.gov/tvp/sac.html), its macro language, and its ability to do both branch and interactive processing. Its extensive usage (over 200 institutions worldwide) had also made it much easier for researchers to develop collaborative research projects. SAC2000`s extensive signal processing capabilities include: data inspection, signal correction, and quality control, unary and binary data operations, travel-time analysis, spectral analysis including high-resolution spectral estimation, spectrograms and binary sonograms, and array and three-component analysis. Recent development in SAC2000 include: enhanced compatibility with the CSS3.0 database schema, complete compatibility with the widely used SEED data format instrument responses, map making capabilities via an interface to GMT, a new three component polarization and phase identification tool, an external interface that allows users to define their own commands, and an interface to MATLAB that allows the user to use MATLAB commands and scripts on SAC data from within SAC2000. We have also implemented a number of commands to enhance user efficiency and numerous improvements and enhancements to many individual SAC commands. Current development in SAC2000 are motivated by the need for easy and efficient access to, and processing and interpretation of large amounts of data. We are also driven by the need to communicate results from SAC2000 to our database and other programs. Based on these needs, we have begun developing a new data structure for SAC 2000. This new structure will completely compatible with the standard SAC format but will also allow us to access, modify, and output all the information in CSS3.0 based oracle databases or CSS3.0 flat files. Given the variety of data types that are currently possible in SAC2000 and other programs, and the likelihood that additional data types or parameters will be needed in the future, we designing SAC2000`s new format to be easily extendible and anticipate incorporation of significant extensions to the CSS3.0 schema.

  14. Pituitary carcinoma with endolymphatic sac metastasis.

    PubMed

    Balili, Irida; Sullivan, Steven; Mckeever, Paul; Barkan, Ariel

    2014-06-01

    Pituitary carcinoma is characterized by the presence of a metastatic lesion(s) in a location non-contiguous with the original pituitary tumor. The mechanism(s) of malignant transformation are not known. A 15 year-old male was diagnosed in 1982 with a pituitary macroadenoma and acromegaly (random GH 67 ng/ml and no suppression by oral glucose). His prolactin was normal between 18 and 23 ng/ml. Transcranial resection in July 1983 was followed by radiation therapy. The tumor was immunopositive for GH and prolactin. The proliferation MIB-1 index was 0-1%. With aqueous Octreotide 100 mcg 4× daily both GH and IGF-1 became normal. The patient was lost to follow-up and was treated by his local physician. In 2001, his IGF-1 level was 1271 ng/ml, and his random GH was 1.8-2.4 ng/ml by ILMA despite progressive increase in the dose of Sandostatin LAR to 140 mg/month in divided doses. Prolactin remained normal or minimally increased between 15 and 25 ng/ml. In 2009 he was diagnosed with the tumor in the location of left endolymphatic sac. Histological examination showed low grade pituitary carcinoma strongly immunopositive for prolactin but negative for GH. MIB-1 antibody labeled 0-5% cells. In 2012 endoscopic resection of the pituitary tumor remnant was attempted. Immunohistochemical stains were strongly immunopositive for both prolactin and GH, similar to his original pituitary tumor. The MIB-1 proliferation index was low from 0 to 1%. To our knowledge this is the first case of pituitary carcinoma in the endolymphatic sac region. The dichotomy between the cell population of the pituitary lesion (GH/prolactin producing) and the metastasis (purely prolactin-producing) may suggest that the metastatic pituitary lesion derived from a clone distinct from the original one. PMID:23645293

  15. [Germ cell and embryonal tumors].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Mühl-Benninghaus, R; Simgen, A; Yilmaz, U

    2014-08-01

    Germ cell tumors, which constitute approximately 3-5% of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), can be subdivided into germinomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors. The diagnosis of intracranial germ cell tumor is based on the clinical symptoms, detection of tumor markers, such as alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord, CSF cytology and histology. The diagnosis of a secreting germ cell tumor, i.e. a non-germinoma, can be made by the determination of AFP and hCG as tumor markers. Germinomas are radiosensitive but are equally as sensitive to chemotherapy. Teratomas of the CNS are mostly diagnosed in newborns and infants. The most decisive role in the treatment of teratomas is played by as complete a resection as possible. Chemotherapy and irradiation play a subordinate role.Embryonal tumors, which constitute approximately 15-20% of CNS tumors, include medulloblastomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the CNS and the atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the CNS. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and adolescence. The incidence peak is the fifth year of life with a male predisposition in a ratio of 1.5:1. Medulloblastomas constitute 12-25% of all pediatric CNS tumors and 30-40% of pediatric tumors of the posterior cranial fossa. At the time of diagnosis evidence of dissemination in the CSF cavity is found in approximately 40% of patients. The extreme cell density makes medulloblastomas hyperdense in computed tomography (CT) and can therefore be differentiated from hypodense astrocytomas. The PNETs are histologically related to medulloblastomas, pineoblastomas, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors and peripheral neuroblastomas. They are relatively rare in children constituting less than 5% of supratentorial neoplasms. Patients are mostly clinically conspicuous due to macrocephalus and signs of brain pressure and/or seizures. In native CT the solid components of PNETs show a hyperdensity compared to the surrounding brain parenchyma probably due to the high cell density. Cysts and calcification are often detectable. The survival rate of children with CNS tumors has continuously increased in recent years. When corresponding clinical symptoms appear, such as headache, nausea or vomiting when fasting, all of which are evidence of increased intracranial pressure, MRI should be carried out as quickly as possible. Children should be treated in centers with departments of pediatric oncology and hematology and within the framework of studies. PMID:25119569

  16. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  17. Yolk size and ovulation order determine fertility within double-yolked duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) eggs.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Attila; Kent, John P

    2014-08-11

    Herein we examined the effects of yolk size and ovulation order on the fertilisation of yolks within double-yolked (DY) duck eggs. Single-yolked (SY) duck eggs had high fertility (89.98%), whereas in DY duck eggs fertility was low (51.9% yolks). The yolks closer to the airspace (Yolk 1) in DY eggs had higher fertility (68.82% vs 34.98% for Yolk 2; Pn=550) compared with large (?105g) DY eggs (54.56%; n=768; PP=0.003). Although Yolk 2 fertility was low, it was not affected by egg size. DY eggs with zero fertilised yolks were significantly lighter than DY eggs with one (P=0.007) or two (P<0.001) fertilised yolks (i.e. larger DY eggs were more likely to have fertilised yolks). Larger eggs (?105g) have larger yolks and the evidence here shows that an optimal yolk size is a significant positive factor in achieving fertilization by dislodging spermatozoa, after ovulation, from their storage sites. PMID:25109712

  18. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma manifesting in a hernia sac.

    PubMed

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Val, Daniel; Garijo, María Francisca

    2014-09-01

    Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM) is a tumor of uncertain malignant potential that usually occurs as a multifocal lesion of the female peritoneum, and is incidentally found at the time of surgery. We present here a multifocal case that had arisen from the lining of a hernia sac. To our knowledge, only four cases of this event have been previously described. A review of the five cases reported, including our case, revealed that the mean age of the patients was 56.6±8.35 years. There was predominance in men (4:1). In four cases, the lesion was incidental. Most tumors were found in inguinal hernias. Four cases presented with gross abnormalities in the hernia sac. All the five patients were alive with no evidence of WDPM after a mean follow-up of 38.6 months. Extensive sampling of this rare lesion helps to rule out an epithelial malignant mesothelioma and prevents overtreatment. PMID:24860916

  20. Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Kitajima, Mitsuyasu; Hachisuga, Toru; Tanimoto, Akihide; Okura, Naohumi; Kihara, Ikuo

    2010-08-01

    Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) or carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract is a rare neoplasm. Malignant ovarian tumor composed of müllerian epithelial tumor and malignant germ cell tumor is also rare, with most cases composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor. Ovarian MMMT with malignant neuroectodermal components resembling immature teratoma is extremely rare. We report a case of teratoid carcinosarcoma of the ovary occurring in a 40-year-old female. The resected tumor measuring over 20 cm in diameter consisted of cystic and solid components and was very fragile. Microscopic examination showed a heterogenous mixed tumor composed of malignant epithelial, malignant mesodermal and malignant neuroectodermal components. The cells of ganglioneuroblastoma-like area were positive for neural markers (Synaptophysin, S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase). There was no tumor immunoreactivity to alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and inhibin. In spite of aggressive combination chemotherapy and three times of laparotomy, the patient died of disease 3 years 10 months after the initial treatment. This quite rare ovarian tumor closely resembled nasopharyngeal tumors described as 'teratoid carcinosarcoma' is biologically aggressive. We report the fourth case of ovarian teratoid carcinosarcoma. Further cases need to be accumulated to make diagnosis and to determine a successful treatment modality. PMID:20666968

  1. Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab!

    E-print Network

    Taber, Douglass

    Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab! Cholesterol (1) is a major component of cell membranes. An egg yolk contains about 200 milligrams of cholesterol, much of it bound as complex lipid. In this experiment, you will purify cholesterol from an egg

  2. The Human Embryo, but Not Its Yolk Sac, Generates Lympho-Myeloid Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Tavian; Catherine Robin; Laure Coulombel; Bruno Péault

    2001-01-01

    We have traced emerging hematopoietic cells along human early ontogeny by culturing embryonic tissue rudiments in the presence of stromal cells that promote myeloid and B cell differentiation, and by assaying T cell potential in the NOD-SCID mouse thymus. Hematogenous potential was present inside the embryo as early as day 19 of development in the absence of detectable CD34+ hematopoietic

  3. Rat visceral yolk sac (VYS) and placenta mitochondrial features during the placentation period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Alcolea; B. Colom; E. Amengual-Cladera; I. Lladó; M. Gianotti; F. J. García-Palmer

    2008-01-01

    The transference of the nutritional function from the VYS to the chorioallantoic placenta during middle pregnancy is a key event for the activation of embryo oxidative metabolism. However, the metabolic adaptations occurring in these tissues during this critical period have not been studied to date. Herein, we investigate the VYS and placenta mitochondrial adaptations throughout gestational days 11, 12 and

  4. Identification of mesenchymal stem cells in aorta-gonad-mesonephros and yolk sac of human embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yan Wang; Yu Lan; Wen-Yan He; Lei Zhang; Hui-Yu Yao; Chun-Mei Hou; Ying Tong; Yuan-Lin Liu; Guan Yang; Xiao-Dan Liu; Xiao Yang; Bing Liu; Ning Mao

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mul- tipotent stem cells that can generate vari- ous microenvironment components in bone marrow, ensuring a precise control over self-renewal and multilineage differ- entiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Nev- ertheless, their spatiotemporal correla- tion with embryonic hematopoiesis remains rudimentary, particularly in relation to the human being. Here, we reported that human aorta- gonad-mesonephros (AGM) resided

  5. Molecular characterization of oct4-expressing yolk sac endoderm stem cell lines.

    E-print Network

    Debeb, Bisrat Godefay

    2009-05-15

    al., 2007; Wernig et al., 2007). Role of Oct4 in transcription Oct4 activates and represses transcription of different target genes. The genes encoding fibroblast growth factor 4 (Fgf4), the Osteopontin adhesion molecule (OPN), and the acidic...

  6. Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL YOLK SAC INFECTION WITH ESCHERICHIA

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ON IMMUNE STATUS OF BROILER CHICKS M. S. D. Shah, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, M. Rabbani1 , K. A. Khan and M. F Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. ABSTRACT In this study, 100 day-old broiler chicks were divided into two groups infection, Escherichia coli, maternal immunity, broiler chicks. INTRODUCTION The first two weeks of age

  7. Molecular characterization of oct4-expressing yolk sac endoderm stem cell lines. 

    E-print Network

    Debeb, Bisrat Godefay

    2009-05-15

    . Reporter gene analyses using the 5’ regulatory region of the mouse Oct4 gene revealed that a DNA fragment containing the previously described distal enhancer drove reporter gene expression only in ES cells whereas inclusion of an upstream fragment led...

  8. [Two cases of testicular tumor with brain metastasis].

    PubMed

    Aizawa, T; Tochimoto, M; Ito, T; Shiozawa, H; Yamamoto, S; Ohno, Y; Miki, M; Tsujino, S; Matsumoto, T; Hukuda, C

    1994-11-01

    During the last 8 years, 70 cases of testicular tumor were treated in our department. Of them 2 cases had brain metastasis. Case 1; A 37-year-old male was admitted with the chief complaint of cough. Retroperitoneal lymph node and lung metastases were discovered (stage IIIB, pT4aN1M1). Resected right testis was diagnosed as embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and STGC histopathologically. After 3 courses of PVB (cisplatinum, vincristine, bleomycin) chemotherapy right hemiplegia occurred and computerized tomographic (CT) scan revealed brain metastasis. His general condition degraded rapidly and he died of brain herniation 3 months after orchiectomy. Case 2; A 32-year-old male was admitted because of right testicular swelling and lung metastases (stage IIIB, pTiN0M1). Pathological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and teratoma. After 4 courses of chemotherapy with cisplatinum (CDDP), vincristine, methotrexate, peplomycin, and etoposide all lung metastases were disappeared. A few months later left hemiplegia by brain metastasis appeared suddenly. Four additional courses of high dose chemotherapy and resection of brain metastasis was performed. Complete remission continued for 13 months. The prognosis of testicular tumor with brain metastasis was very poor. During the last 8 years, 21 cases of testicular tumor with brain metastasis were reported in the Japanese literature. A follow-up study of prognosis in the literature was performed and discussed. PMID:7832076

  9. The Hypoxia-Inducible Epigenetic Regulators Jmjd1a and G9a Provide a Mechanistic Link between Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jolene Caifeng; Lee, Kian Leong; Kitajima, Shojiro; Yang, Henry; Sun, Wendi; Fukuhara, Noriko; Zaiden, Norazean; Chan, Shing Leng; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes stem cell maintenance and tumor progression, but it remains unclear how it regulates long-term adaptation toward these processes. We reveal a striking downregulation of the hypoxia-inducible histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase JMJD1A as a hallmark of clinical human germ cell-derived tumors, such as seminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Jmjd1a was not essential for stem cell self-renewal but played a crucial role as a tumor suppressor in opposition to the hypoxia-regulated oncogenic H3K9 methyltransferase G9a. Importantly, loss of Jmjd1a resulted in increased tumor growth, whereas loss of G9a produced smaller tumors. Pharmacological inhibition of G9a also resulted in attenuation of tumor growth, offering a novel therapeutic strategy for germ cell-derived tumors. Finally, Jmjd1a and G9a drive mutually opposing expression of the antiangiogenic factor genes Robo4, Igfbp4, Notch4, and Tfpi accompanied by changes in H3K9 methylation status. Thus, we demonstrate a novel mechanistic link whereby hypoxia-regulated epigenetic changes are instrumental for the control of tumor growth through coordinated dysregulation of antiangiogenic gene expression. PMID:25071150

  10. Malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac.

    PubMed

    Levine, M R; Dinar, Y; Davies, R

    1996-04-01

    The case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with a 1-year history of a right medial canthal mass and bloody tears and who was found to have a lacrimal sac melanoma is reported. A literature search revealed that only 16 cases of primary lacrimal sac melanoma have been reported. Current therapeutic modalities are discussed. PMID:8705748

  11. Effect of cholesterol extraction from dried yolk with the aid of Polysorbate 80 on yolk's functional properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Paraskevopoulou; V. Kiosseoglou

    1995-01-01

    A yolk protein concentrate with a reduced total lipids and cholesterol content resulted when freeze-dried or spray-dried yolk was treated with an ethanollwater (20180) mixture containing 1.5% (wlv) polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80). Emulsions prepared with the yolk protein concentrate obtained from freeze-dried yolk were not as stable as those prepared with the freeze-dried yolk while in the case

  12. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...are pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment...or other treatment to render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...

  13. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...are pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment...or other treatment to render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...

  14. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...are pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment...or other treatment to render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...

  15. INTRAMITOCHONDRIAL YOLK-CRYSTALS OF FROG OOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Massover, William H.

    1971-01-01

    Electron microscope examination of thin sections of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) ovarian oocytes has shown the presence of mitochondria containing yolk-crystal inclusions in oocytes of all sizes, from 160 to 1500 µ mean diameter. The hexagonally shaped yolk-crystals have major periodicities of 73.8 ± 10.7 A (n = 100). Several forms of modified mitochondria, observed in the smaller oocytes, may be arranged into a series of structurally intermediate forms between standard oocyte mitochondria and the typical mitochondria with yolk-crystal inclusions. The observation of such intermediate forms is consistent with proposals that the yolk-crystal inclusions arise within a limited portion of the oocyte chondriome by a complex process of mitochondrial differentiation. PMID:5102556

  16. Novel smart yolk/shell polymer microspheres as a multiply responsive cargo delivery system.

    PubMed

    Du, Pengcheng; Liu, Peng

    2014-03-25

    An effective strategy was developed to fabricate the novel dually thermo- and pH-responsive yolk/shell polymer microspheres as a drug delivery system (DDS) for the controlled release of anticancer drugs via two-stage distillation precipitation polymerization and seed precipitation polymerization. Their pH-induced thermally responsive polymer shells act as a smart "valve" to adjust the diffusion of the loaded drugs in/out of the polymer containers according to the body environments, while the movable P(MAA-co-EGDMA) cores enhance the drug loading capacity for the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). The yolk/shell polymer microspheres show a low leakage at high pH values but significantly enhanced release at lower pH values equivalent to the tumor body fluid environments at human body temperature, exhibiting the apparent tumor-environment-responsive controlled "on-off" drug release characteristics. Meanwhile, the yolk/shell microspheres expressed very low in vitro cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells. Consequently, their precise tumor-environment-responsive drug delivery performance and high drug loading capacity offer promise for tumor therapy. PMID:24571375

  17. Egg yolk: structures, functionalities and processes.

    PubMed

    Anton, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Hen egg yolk is an ideal example of natural supramolecular assemblies of lipids and proteins with different organization levels. These assemblies are mainly due to interactions between proteins and phospholipids, and these interactions are essential in understanding and controlling the production of food made with yolk, and particularly emulsions. Furthermore, these assemblies can be modulated by external constraints among which thermo-mechanical and high-pressure treatments. This review focuses on multi-scale structures present in egg yolk, and their modulation by processes, in relation with their emulsifying properties. Egg yolk is mainly composed of two fractions-plasma and granules-which are natural nano- and micro-assemblies. These two fractions possess different composition, structures and functionalities and exhibit specific behaviour under treatments such as high pressure and temperature. Plasma contains a large quantity of lipids structured as lipoproteins (low-density lipoproteins), whereas granules are mainly composed of proteins aggregated in micrometric assemblies. If plasma is responsible for the important emulsifying properties of yolk, granules bring interesting emulsifying properties when assemblies are in the form of micelles in presence of salts. High-pressure or thermal treatments, applied before or after emulsion fabrication, alter their functionalities and could be used to commercially exploit these fractions. PMID:23716191

  18. Experimental hyperactivity of the endolymphatic sac.

    PubMed

    Friis, Morten; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the endolymphatic sac may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Ménière's disease, an inner ear disorder characterized by hearing loss, tinnitus and attacks of vertigo. Isoimmunization of 16 inbred Lewis rats with a crude endolymphatic sac extract and complete Freund's adjuvant induced hyperactivity of the endolymphatic sac. One group of rats was immunized by a single dose whereas a second group was immunized twice. Control animals were injected with Freund's adjuvant in saline only. Serum was collected from all rats by the end of the study and harvested autoantibodies were tested by immunohistochemistry. The endolymphatic sacs were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Endolymphatic sac stimulation was observed in all immunized rats. Based on detailed ultrastructural observations, the degree of reactivity seemed proportional to the number of injections and the extent of immunization. Moreover, the ribosome-rich cells seemed hyperactive with an extravagant content of intracellular components: numerous rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes, morphological signs of extensive endo- and exocytosis, vesicles of material with a density similar to the homogeneous substance of which many were observed to fuse with primary lysozymes. Basolateral foldings were numerous and in the subepithelial capillaries formation of multiple and apposing fenestrations were observed. No endolymphatic sac stimulation was observed in the control animals. Specific ribosome-rich cell alterations identical to those present in the endolymphatic sac of Ménière's disease were observed 21 days after the first immunization. The observations suggest that either an autoantigen or a trophic factor, capable of inducing a hyperactivity of the ribosome-rich cells and an imbalance of the homogeneous substance metabolism, exists in the endolymphatic sac of the rat. PMID:23296206

  19. Uptake and photodynamic activity of porphycenes in tumor cells implanted on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidi, Ronit; Gottfried, Varda; Kimel, Sol

    1996-01-01

    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a convenient model for the study of photodynamic therapy (PDT). This membrane has a rich vasculature, which mimics the tumor neovasculature, and can also serve as a host for implanted tumors. The transparency of the CAM enables in-vivo monitoring of vascular changes during and post PDT, without the need to sacrifice test animals at each time point. Video documentation and analysis of events occurring during and after irradiation permit the quantification of changes in vessel morphology, blood perfusion and tumor development. The compounds tested in this study belong to a family of potential sensitizers -- the porphycenes. These are phorphyrin isomers based on a 16-membered macrocycle, in which the four methine moieties linking the pyrrole rings have been replaced by two direct bonds and two ethine bridges. Experiments were performed on blood vessels of the intact CAM and on recurrent human melanoma cells implanted on the CAM. Tumor selectivity was demonstrated by measuring drug uptake using fluorescence methods. A sensitizer injected systemically into the embryo yolk sac could be detected in the blood vessels 30 min after injection; 1 h later the sensitizer had preferentially accumulated in the tumor. Tumors were irradiated at the optimal uptake time (after 1 h) for 16 min with a 20 mW HeNe laser. Video image analysis showed that 96 h after irradiation tumors had decreased to 5% of their original size. In contrast, non-irradiated control tumors on the same CAM, continued to proliferate and grew to more than twice their original size. In addition, we observed a difference in the damage mechanism after systemic compared to topical administration. Topical application followed by irradiation caused fast necrosis of tumors, which might suggest direct damage to tumor cells, whereas after systemic administration, PDT damage was manifested by slower necrosis, presumably caused by vascular destruction.

  20. The Almost Surely Shrinking Yolk Craig A. Tovey

    E-print Network

    Tovey, Craig A.

    The Almost Surely Shrinking Yolk Craig A. Tovey School of ISyE Georgia Institute of Technology to suggest that if voter ideal points are uniformly distributed in a square region of 2 , the yolk shrinks

  1. RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in Eggs of the Lizard, Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination, yolk testosterone (T) concentration is greater in male previous studies. If yolk T levels are also sex-specific before eggs are laid, a period during which

  2. Egg yolk protein gels and emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Kiosseoglou

    2003-01-01

    Egg yolk remains a key ingredient of a number of food products. Yet, its main functional properties, e.g. emulsifying ability and gel structure formation, upon heating, have not attracted the attention of too many researchers specializing in the area of food colloids. It is not surprising then that there have been only very few major advances in the field over

  3. Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... environmental substance. Other risk factors for cancer include: Benzene and other chemicals and toxins Drinking too much ... a tumor is found, a piece of the tissue is removed and examined under a microscope. This ...

  4. Histopathology after Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Meniere’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jong Woo; Fayad, Jose; Linthicum, Fred; Ishiyama, Akira; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The putative goal of sac surgery in Meniere’s syndrome is to promote the flow of endolymph from the labyrinth to the endolymphatic sac, and thereby relieving hydrops. There is scant published histopathological data whether sac surgery actually accomplishes this goal. Objective To determine if sac surgery relieves hydrops by examining the histopathologic changes in temporal bones obtained from individuals who had undergone sac surgery during life for Meniere’s syndrome. Methods Temporal bones were examined from 15 patients who had sac surgery. Data was collected on presence and severity of hydrops, histology of the sac, and whether the procedure relieved vertigo. Results The surgery failed to expose the sac in 5 cases; 4 of the 5 had relief from vertigo. The sac was exposed, but the shunt failed to reach the lumen of the sac in 8 cases; 4 of the 8 had relief from vertigo. The shunt was successfully placed within the lumen of the sac in two cases; both cases failed to experience relief from vertigo. Endolymphatic hydrops was present in all 15 cases. Conclusion Endolymphatic sac surgery does not relieve hydrops in patients with Meniere’s syndrome. Yet, sac surgery relieves vertigo in some patients, but the mechanism of such symptomatic relief remains unknown. PMID:21436748

  5. 69. Vice President Ford entering SAC command post, February, 1974 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Vice President Ford entering SAC command post, February, 1974 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 24, 2012

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 24, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adam, Caroline Wong, Elaine Kuo, Clarke Mccorkell, Kathleen Handfield, Barnabas Caro, Philip He, Jeffrey Smith with athletics Adam and Nicola to follow up with club regarding finances 3. MOVED ALISHIA ADAM, SECONDED PHILIP

  7. SAC Tax Help Prepared Feb. 2010

    E-print Network

    Doering, Tamara

    1 SAC Tax Help Prepared Feb. 2010 Disclaimer: We are not tax experts, and cannot be held responsible for your tax forms. (neither can DBBS, WashU, etc...) 1 Taxes for international students Go to http://oisshome.wustl.edu/taxes/FilingTaxes.html for tax information from the Office for International

  8. Surgical resection of residual tumor after chemotherapy in non-seminomatous testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Stahel, R A; Von Hochstetter, A R; Largiadér, F; Schmucki, O; Honegger, H P

    1982-12-01

    Fifteen patients with disseminated non-seminomatous testicular cancer, 13 of whom had advanced disease, underwent surgery for residual tumor after induction chemotherapy. Complete remissions were achieved in 7 of 9 patients with mediastinal or pulmonary metastases and in 2 of 6 patients with retroperitoneal metastases. Patients with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels over 10(4) ng/ml at diagnosis and/or a positive AFP preoperatively failed to achieve complete remission. Complete remissions were obtained in all 8 patients who had resection of necrosis, mature teratoma, immature teratoma or mature teratoma with malignant foci, but in only 1 of 7 patients who had resection of embryonal carcinoma or yolk sac tumor with other components. Of 9 patients with complete remission, 8 have remained free of disease after a median follow-up time of 29 months (range 6-66 months) and one had a contralateral non-seminomatous testicular cancer removed after 60 months. In addition to being therapeutically successful, the combined use of chemotherapy followed by surgery for residual tumor may lead to a better understanding of the influence of chemotherapy on the biology of testicular carcinoma. PMID:6187574

  9. Migratory constraints on yolk precursors limit yolk androgen deposition and underlie a brood reduction strategy in rockhopper penguins.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; Williams, Tony D; Eens, Marcel; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2012-12-23

    Hormonally mediated maternal effects link maternal phenotype and environmental conditions to offspring phenotype. The production of lipid-rich maternal yolk precursors may provide a mechanism by which lipophilic steroid hormones can be transported to developing yolks, thus predicting a positive correlation between yolk precursors in mothers and androgen levels in eggs. Using rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), which produce a two-egg clutch characterized by extreme egg-size dimorphism, reversed hatching asynchrony and brood-reduction, we examined correlations between circulating concentrations of the primary yolk-precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and levels of yolk androgens. Previous work in Eudyptes penguins has shown that egg-size dimorphism is the product of migratory constraints on yolk precursor production. We predicted that if yolk precursors are constrained, androgen transport to developing yolks would be similarly constrained. We reveal positive linear relationships between maternal VTG and androgens in small A-eggs but not larger B-eggs, which is consistent with a migratory constraint operating on the A-egg. Results suggest that intra-clutch variation in total yolk androgen levels depends on the production and uptake of yolk precursors. The brood reduction strategy common to Eudyptes might thus be best described as the result of a migratory constraint. PMID:22809718

  10. Quantitative assessment of gestational sac shape: the gestational sac shape score

    PubMed Central

    Deter, R.L.; Li, J.; Lee, W.; Liu, S.; Romero, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative method for characterizing gestational sac shape. Methods Twenty first-trimester gestational sacs in normal pregnancies were studied with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. The 3D coordinates of surface-point sets were obtained for each sac using 30-, 15- and six-slice sampling. Cubic spline interpolation was used with the 15- and six-slice surface-point samples to generate coordinates for those 30-slice surface points not measured. Interpolated and measured values, the latter from the 30-slice sample, were compared and the percent error calculated. Cubic spline interpolation was used to determine the coordinates of a standard surface-point sample (3660) for each sac in each slice sample. These coordinate data were used to give each sac a standard configuration by moving its center of gravity to the origin, aligning its inertial axes along the coordinate axes and converting its volume to 1.0 mL. In this form, a volume shape descriptor could be generated for each sac that was then transformed into a vector containing only shape information. The 20 shape vectors of each slice sample were subjected to principal components analysis, and principal component scores (PCSs) calculated. The first four PCSs were used to define a gestational sac shape score (GSSS-30, GSSS-15 or GSSS-6) for each sac in a given slice sample. The characteristics of each set of GSSSs were determined and those for the GSSS-15 and GSSS-6 were compared with the GSSS-30 characteristics. Results Cubic spline interpolations were very accurate in most cases, with means close to 0%, and approximately 95% of the errors being less than 10%. GSSS-30 accounted for 67.6% of the shape variance, had a mean of zero and an SD of 1.1, was normally distributed and was not related to menstrual age (R = ?0.16, P = 0.51). GSSS-15 and GSSS-6 had essentially the same characteristics. No significant differences between individual GSSS-30 values and those for GSSS-15 or GSSS-6 were found, indicating the absence of a slice sample effect. Conclusion Using sophisticated mathematical methods, the gestational sac shape, initially represented by the 3D coordinates of 3660 surface points, was converted to a single number, the GSSS. This score had the appropriate properties for quantitatively characterizing normal, first-trimester gestational sac shapes. As it can be obtained from as few as six slices, it should be useful in many clinical situations. This novel approach has the potential for providing quantitative shape information about a variety of biological shapes and how they change over time. PMID:17444551

  11. Aquarius/SAC-D Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Amit; Kim, Yunjin; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Colomb, Raul; Yueh, Simon; LeVine, David

    2006-01-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission developed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of United States of America (USA) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission objective is to contribute to the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Major themes are: ocean surface salinity, water cycle, climate, natural hazards and cryosphere.

  12. Aquarius/SAC-D Educational Wall Poster

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a poster about the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission, with an image depicting the satellite in orbit. The back of the poster describes the mission's scientific goals and benefits, including the scientific value of maps of sea surface salinity. The Hands On Activities & Online Data Tools panel gives an overview of the classroom lessons and tools that are available on the mission website.

  13. The SAC-D/Aquarius mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Lagerloef, G.

    The goal of the SAC-D/Aquarius Mission is to contribute to the understanding of the whole Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. The measurements performed by this observatory shall contribute to a better interpretation of oceanic circulation and the prediction of its changes, as well as its effects on the Earth climate and the water cycle. The SAC-D/Aquarius Mission comprises the SAC-D satellite provided by CONAE, NASA Aquarius instrument for measuring sea salinity, CONAE instruments, included the New InfraRed Scanner Technology (NIRST) camera, the K-band radiometers, which will provided complementary surface temperature measurements, surface winds, rainfall and characteristics of sea ice. A high sensitivity Optical Camera and the Data Collection Transceptor complete the set of Argentine instruments that shall be designed and built by CONAE with the participation of other scientific organizations in the country. Another possible contributions are: the LAGRANGE instrument of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), devoted to observations of GPS satellite occultations in order to supply information about the atmosphere temperature, pressure and water vapor pressure contents and the SODAD instrument of the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), for the measurement of the properties of micrometeorites and space debris. This set of instruments was defined taking into account the Cycles of Space Information II and III of the National Space Program, which refer to coastal and oceanic studies, sea-atmosphere-land interactions, global phenomena such as El Niño and emergency management This Mission will be positioned into orbit in September 2008, by a NASA provided Delta II spacecraft. The command, control, monitoring and data acquisition shall be in charge of CONAE's Córdoba Ground Station. The analysis and interpretation of data shall be performed by a considerable number of scientists, who have already held a first meeting with an attendance of over 70 professionals from our country and abroad, where subjects associated to dissemination and use of the SAC-D/Aquarius Mission results were discussed, in addition to the strictly scientific themes. In a second meeting, to be held next April, there will be also researchers from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and NASA's HYDROS satellite missions in order to coordinate international working groups on sea salinity and soil moisture. The main characteristics of the SAC-D/Aquarius Mission and its instruments are reported in this paper.

  14. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to § 160.180, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid egg yolks may be reduced by one of the...

  15. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to § 160.180, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid egg yolks may be reduced by one of the...

  16. Maternal Plasma and Egg Yolk Testosterone Concentrations during Embryonic Development

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    Maternal Plasma and Egg Yolk Testosterone Concentrations during Embryonic Development in Green, and chelonian egg yolks, and they can affect offspring morphology and behavior. The present study reports females, in their developing follicles and eggs, and in freshly oviposited and incubating eggs. Plasma

  17. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed. PMID:25419620

  18. Air sac adenocarcinoma of the sternum in a Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Micco, Teresa; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory neoplasia is rarely reported in avian species. A 17-yr-old Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus) was admitted with a 2-wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass in the left pectoral muscle. Radiology showed a mass silhouetting the heart and the liver. Supportive treatment was provided, but the bird died during the seventh weekly visit to drain thoracic cavity fluid. Necropsy showed a white, 3 x 3 x 2-cm, hard, gritty sternal mass. Histology showed a nonencapsulated, moderately differentiated air sac carcinoma of the sternum. Immunohistochemically the neoplasm was cytokeratin positive and vimentin and calretinin negative. This is the first report of an air sac neoplasia in a Quaker parrot and one of few respiratory tumors in psittacines. PMID:25632693

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

    2015-03-01

    Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass. PMID:25208811

  20. Detection of DNA damage in yolk-sac larvae of the Japanese Medaka, Oryzias latipes , by the comet assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bénédicte Morin; Julien Filatreau; Ludovic Vicquelin; Iris Barjhoux; Sylvain Guinel; Joelle Leray-Forget; Jérôme Cachot

    2011-01-01

    This study was set up to determine the suitability of the early life stage (ELS) alkaline comet assay for the detection of\\u000a DNA strand breaks induced by genotoxicants in whole organism. This assay was performed on cells of medaka 2 days posthatch\\u000a (dph). An efficient procedure for cell dissociation using enzymatic and mechanical digestion was developed. This protocol\\u000a ensures 80% viability

  1. Glipizide, an antidiabetic drug, suppresses tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liu; Ye, Yuxiang; Li, Jiangchao; Ding, Yi; Wang, Huiping; Wang, Jintao; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; Kenneth Ka Ho, Lee; Li, Weidong; Song, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Lijing

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in the development, progression and metastasis of various human cancers. Herein, we report the discovery of glipizide, a widely used drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, as a promising anticancer agent through the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. By high-throughput screening (HTS) of an FDA approved drug library utilizing our in vivo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and yolk sac membrane (YSM) models, glipizide has been identified to significantly inhibit blood vessel formation and development. Moreover, glipizide was found to suppress tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis using xenograft tumor and MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse models. We further revealed that the anticancer capability of glipizide is not attributed to its antiproliferative effects, which are not significant against various human cancer cell lines. To investigate whether its anticancer efficacy is associated with the glucose level alteration induced by glipizide application, glimepiride, another medium to long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug in the same class, was employed for the comparison studies in the same fashion. Interestingly, glimepiride has demonstrated no significant impact on the tumor growth and metastasis, indicating that the anticancer effects of glipizide is not ascribed to its antidiabetic properties. Furthermore, glipizide suppresses endothelial cell migration and the formation of tubular structures, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis by up-regulating the expression of natriuretic peptide receptor A. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of glipizide as a potential cancer therapy, and also for the first time, provide direct evidence to support that treatment with glipizide may reduce the cancer risk for diabetic patients. PMID:25294818

  2. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

  3. SAC Travel Reimbursement Application Please return the completed form to the SAC mailbox in the CEOAS Admin Building

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    (air travel, conference registration, meals, hotel, gas, shuttles, etc SAC Travel Reimbursement Application Please return the completed form ___________________ Accommodation ___________________ Travel ___________________ Meals

  4. Whisker Formation on SAC305 Soldered Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschter, S.; Snugovsky, P.; Bagheri, Z.; Kosiba, E.; Romansky, M.; Kennedy, J.; Snugovsky, L.; Perovic, D.

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the results of a whisker formation study on SAC305 assemblies, evaluating the effects of lead-frame materials and cleanliness in different environments: low-stress simulated power cycling (50-85°C thermal cycling), thermal shock (-55°C to 85°C), and high temperature/high humidity (85°C/85% RH). Cleaned and contaminated small outline transistors, large leaded quad flat packs (QFP), plastic leaded chip carrier packages, and solder balls with and without rare earth elements (REE) were soldered to custom designed test boards with Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. After assembly, all the boards were cleaned, and half of them were recontaminated (1.56 µg/cm2 Cl-). Whisker length, diameter, and density were measured. Detailed metallurgical analysis on components before assembly and on solder joints before and after testing was performed. It was found that whiskers grow from solder joint fillets, where the thickness is less than 25 µm, unless REE was present. The influence of lead-frame and solder ball material, microstructure, cleanliness, and environment on whisker characteristics is discussed. This article provides detailed metallurgical observations and select whisker length data obtained during this multiyear testing program.

  5. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  6. First Announcement 6th Aquarius/SAC-D Science Meeting

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Theme: Science Preparations for Launch The Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission will convene the 6th Science-term data analysis, as well as near-term science applications. The mission is a United States - ArgentinaFirst Announcement 6th Aquarius/SAC-D Science Meeting 19-21 July 2010 Seattle, Washington, USA

  7. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  8. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  9. Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai Shuai; Wang, Fang; Tan, Su Jian; Wang, Ming Xiu; Sui, Na; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14–16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction in maize. PMID:25566277

  10. Filler effects of oil droplets on the rheology of heat-set emulsion gels prepared with egg yolk and egg yolk fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Anton; M. Le Denmat; V. Beaumal; P. Pilet

    2001-01-01

    Hen egg yolk is a traditional ingredient used in a wide variety of food emulsions, especially fluid sauces. Industrial processing of these sauces generally involves heat treatments in order to pasteurise or sterilise them. These heat treatments may cause undesired gelation of the emulsion, because egg yolk proteins are particularly thermosensitive. Heat gelation of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with egg yolk

  11. Yolk carotenoids increase fledging success in great tit nestlings.

    PubMed

    Marri, Viviana; Richner, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Avian mothers can influence offspring phenotype through the deposition of different compounds into eggs, such as antibodies, hormones and antioxidants. The concentration of carotenoids in yolk is larger than in maternal plasma, suggesting an important role of these compounds for offspring development. Since carotenoids have to be acquired from the diet, they may be available in limiting amounts to the mothers. Here, we investigated the role of egg carotenoids for offspring growth by experimentally increasing the concentration of yolk lutein, the main carotenoid in great tit (Parus major) yolk. We subsequently measured body condition, oxidative stress, immune response, plumage colouration and fledging success. Lutein increased body mass soon after hatching and fledging success, but did not affect tarsus length, oxidative stress, immune response and plumage colouration. The higher content of yolk lutein could have increased body mass by reducing oxidative stress caused by high metabolic rates of rapidly growing embryos or by promoting cell differentiation and proliferation. The positive effect of lutein on fledging success seems to be mediated by its influence on body mass 3 days post-hatch, since these two traits were correlated. The finding that our treatment did not affect traits measured later in the nestling period, except for fledging success, suggests that yolk lutein has short-term effects that are essential to increase survival until fledging. Our study shows the positive effect of yolk lutein on offspring survival in the great tit, and therefore suggests an important role of carotenoid-mediated maternal effects. PMID:25142046

  12. Distribution of sulfamonomethoxine and trimethoprim in egg yolk and white.

    PubMed

    Bilandži?, Nina; Boži?, ?ur?ica; Kolanovi?, Božica Solomun; Varenina, Ivana; Cvetni?, Luka; Cvetni?, Željko

    2015-07-01

    The distribution of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) and trimethoprim (TMP) in egg yolk and white was measured during and after administration of a SMM/TMP combination in laying hens in doses of 8 g l(-)(1) and 12 g l(-)(1) in drinking water for 7 days. The SMM concentration reached maximal levels on day 2 of the post-treatment period for both doses (?g kg(-)(1)): 5920 and 9453 in yolk; 4831 and 6050 in white, in doses 1 and 2, respectively. Significant differences in the SMM and TMP concentrations between yolk and white in post treatment period were found. SMM dropped below the LOD (1.9 ?g kg(-1)) in yolk after day 16 and 19 for doses 1 and 2. TMP reached maximal levels on day 3 after drug administration for doses 1 and 2 (?g kg(-)(1)): 6521 and 7329 in yolk, 1370 and 1539 in white. TMP residues were measured above LOD (0.3 ?g kg(-)(1)) in yolk for both doses on day 37 post-treatment. PMID:25704680

  13. Cytochemical characterization of yolk granule acid phosphatase during early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Dongchun; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a cytochemical method and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine acid phosphatase activities of yolk granules throughout the early developmental stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic change of yolk granule acid phosphatase, and the mechanisms underlying its involvement in yolk degradation during the early developmental stages of molluscs. Three types of yolk granules (YGI, YGII, and YGIII) that differed in electron density and acid phosphatase reaction were identified in early cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, trochophore, and veliger stages. The morphological heterogeneities of the yolk granules were related to acid phosphatase activity and degrees of yolk degradation, indicating the association of acid phosphatase with yolk degradation in embryos and larvae of molluscs. Fusion of yolk granules was observed during embryogenesis and larval development of C. gigas. The fusion of YGI (free of acid phosphatase reaction) with YGII (rich in acid phosphatase reaction) could be the way by which yolk degradation is triggered.

  14. Characterization of Yolk DNA from Xenopus laevis Oocytes Ovulated In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hanocq, F.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Hanocq-Quertier, J.; Baltus, E.; Steinert, G.

    1972-01-01

    High molecular weight DNA was isolated from the yolk platelets of Xenopus laevis oocytes ovulated in vitro. Yolk DNA has the same buoyant density in CsCl gradients as mitochondrial and nuclear DNAs, and, like them, it is double-stranded. Yolk DNA behaves like nuclear DNA, and not like mitochondrial DNA, upon renaturation after denaturation. The molecules are always linear. Cytochemical and biochemical controls preclude the possibility that the yolk DNA might be contaminated by nuclear or mitochondrial DNA. We conclude that the yolk DNA is an endogenous component of the yolk platelets. Images PMID:4113867

  15. 79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. Effect of domestic cooking methods on egg yolk xanthophylls.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2012-12-26

    Xanthophylls are a class of bioactive compounds known to play an important role in preventing age-related macular degeneration. Egg yolk is a rich source of highly bioavailable xanthophylls including lutein and zeaxanthin. The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, frying, microwaving) on egg yolk xanthophyll content were investigated. A LC-(APCI)-MS/MS method was used to identify and quantify all-E- and Z-isomers of lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and ?-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester in fresh and cooked egg yolks. Both fresh and cooked yolks showed similar xanthophyll profiles but with higher contents of Z-isomers in cooked samples. All-E-lutein was the most affected, with 22.5%, 16.7%, and 19.3% reductions in boiled, microwaved, and fried yolk extracts, respectively. Total xanthophyll losses ranged from 6% to 18%. The results presented here could be useful in calculating the dietary intake of xanthophylls and also in assessing the xanthophyll profiles and contents of egg-containing products. PMID:23205520

  17. Generalization of Higher Order SAC to Vector Output Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaoru Kurosawa; Takashi Satoh

    1996-01-01

    . S-boxes (vector output Boolean functions) should satisfy cryptographiccriteria even if some input bits (say, k bits) are kept constant.However, this kind of security has been studied only for scalar outputBoolean functions. SAC(k) is a criterion for scalar output Boolean functionsof this type. This paper studies a generalization of SAC(k) to vectoroutput Boolean functions as the first step toward the

  18. Suppressor Analysis of Fimbrin (Sac6p) Overexpression in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya M. Sandrock; Sharon M. Brower; Kurt A. Toenjes; Alison E. M. Adams

    Yeast fimbrin (Sac6p) is an actin filament-bundling protein that is lethal when overexpressed. To identify the basis for this lethality, we sought mutations that can suppress it. A total of 1326 suppressor mutations were isolated and analyzed. As the vast majority of mutations were expected to simply decrease the expression of Sac6p to tolerable levels, a rapid screen was devised

  19. Suppressor analysis of fimbrin (Sac6p) overexpression in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sandrock, T M; Brower, S M; Toenjes, K A; Adams, A E

    1999-01-01

    Yeast fimbrin (Sac6p) is an actin filament-bundling protein that is lethal when overexpressed. To identify the basis for this lethality, we sought mutations that can suppress it. A total of 1326 suppressor mutations were isolated and analyzed. As the vast majority of mutations were expected to simply decrease the expression of Sac6p to tolerable levels, a rapid screen was devised to eliminate these mutations. A total of 1324 mutations were found to suppress by reducing levels of Sac6p in the cell. The remaining 2 mutations were both found to be in the actin gene and to make the novel changes G48V (act1-20) and K50E (act1-21). These mutations suppress the defect in cytoskeletal organization and cell morphology seen in ACT1 cells that overexpress SAC6. These findings indicate that the lethal phenotype caused by Sac6p overexpression is mediated through interaction with actin. Moreover, the altered residues lie in the region of actin previously implicated in the binding of Sac6p, and they result in a reduced affinity of actin for Sac6p. These results indicate that the two mutations most likely suppress by reducing the affinity of actin for Sac6p in vivo. This study suggests it should be possible to use this type of suppressor analysis to identify other pairs of physically interacting proteins and suggests that it may be possible to identify sites where such proteins interact with each other. PMID:10101157

  20. Suppressor analysis of fimbrin (Sac6p) overexpression in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sandrock, T M; Brower, S M; Toenjes, K A; Adams, A E

    1999-04-01

    Yeast fimbrin (Sac6p) is an actin filament-bundling protein that is lethal when overexpressed. To identify the basis for this lethality, we sought mutations that can suppress it. A total of 1326 suppressor mutations were isolated and analyzed. As the vast majority of mutations were expected to simply decrease the expression of Sac6p to tolerable levels, a rapid screen was devised to eliminate these mutations. A total of 1324 mutations were found to suppress by reducing levels of Sac6p in the cell. The remaining 2 mutations were both found to be in the actin gene and to make the novel changes G48V (act1-20) and K50E (act1-21). These mutations suppress the defect in cytoskeletal organization and cell morphology seen in ACT1 cells that overexpress SAC6. These findings indicate that the lethal phenotype caused by Sac6p overexpression is mediated through interaction with actin. Moreover, the altered residues lie in the region of actin previously implicated in the binding of Sac6p, and they result in a reduced affinity of actin for Sac6p. These results indicate that the two mutations most likely suppress by reducing the affinity of actin for Sac6p in vivo. This study suggests it should be possible to use this type of suppressor analysis to identify other pairs of physically interacting proteins and suggests that it may be possible to identify sites where such proteins interact with each other. PMID:10101157

  1. Yolk steroid hormones and sex determination in reptiles with TSD.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K

    2003-07-01

    In reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the temperature at which the eggs are incubated determines the sex of the offspring. The molecular switch responsible for determining sex in these species has not yet been elucidated. We have examined the dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during embryonic development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, and the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and have found that yolk estradiol (E(2)) responds differentially to incubation temperature in both of these reptiles. Based upon recently reported roles for E(2) in modulation of steroidogenic factor 1, a transcription factor known to be significant in the sex differentiation process, we hypothesize that yolk E(2) is a link between temperature and the gene expression pathway responsible for sex determination and differentiation in at least some of these species. Here we review the evidence that supports our hypothesis. PMID:12849957

  2. Selective transport and packaging of the major yolk protein in the sea urchin

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    Selective transport and packaging of the major yolk protein in the sea urchin Jacqueline M. Brooks Abstract The major yolk protein of sea urchins is an iron-binding, transferrin-like molecule that is made of yolk transport, endocytosis, and packaging during the vitellogenic phase of oogenesis in the sea urchin

  3. Egg yolk consumption and carotid plaque J. David Spence a,*, David J.A. Jenkins b

    E-print Network

    Kite, Edwin

    Egg yolk consumption and carotid plaque J. David Spence a,*, David J.A. Jenkins b , Jean Davignon c Dietary cholesterol Egg yolk a b s t r a c t Background: Increasingly the potential harm from high cholesterol intake, and specifically from egg yolks, is considered insignificant. We therefore assessed total

  4. AN EGG-YOLK PRINCIPLE AND EXPONENTIAL INTEGRABILITY FOR QUASIREGULAR MAPPINGS

    E-print Network

    Poggi-Corradini, Pietro

    AN EGG-YOLK PRINCIPLE AND EXPONENTIAL INTEGRABILITY FOR QUASIREGULAR MAPPINGS PIETRO POGGI establish an "egg-yolk" principle for such maps, which extends a recent result of the first author. Our work] to the quasiworld. But, to do this, we also need to extend an "egg-yolk principle for 2000 Mathematics Subject

  5. AN EGG-YOLK PRINCIPLE AND EXPONENTIAL INTEGRABILITY FOR QUASIREGULAR MAPPINGS

    E-print Network

    Jyväskylä, University of

    AN EGG-YOLK PRINCIPLE AND EXPONENTIAL INTEGRABILITY FOR QUASIREGULAR MAPPINGS PIETRO POGGI establish an "egg-yolk" principle for such maps, which extends a recent result of the first author. Our work] to the quasiworld. But, to do this, we also need to extend an "egg-yolk principle for the inverse map" conjectured

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Are yolk androgens and carotenoids in barn swallow eggs

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Are yolk androgens and carotenoids in barn swallow eggs related to parental quality the quality of their offspring via the deposition of yolk compounds, including carotenoids and androgens. In this study, we simultaneously consider how both carotenoids and androgens in egg yolk relate to parental

  7. Yolk androgens vary inversely to maternal androgens in Eastern Bluebirds: an experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. NAVARA; L. M. SIEFFERMAN; G. E. HILL; M. T. MENDONÇA

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1. Female birds deposit variable amounts of androgens in the yolks of their eggs, and it has been suggested that yolk androgen deposition is an adaptive mechanism preparing offspring for a competitive environment. Breeding pairs of Eastern Bluebirds ( Sialia sialis ) Linnaeus were stimulated with an intruder presentation while ovarian follicles were developing. Yolk steroid concentrations in eggs

  8. Applied Endoscopic Anatomical Evaluation of the Lacrimal Sac

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mostafa; Berjis, Nezamoddin; Eshaghian, Afrooz; Nejadnic, Maryam; Fereidani Samani, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), a popular surgical procedure, has been performed using an endoscopic approach over recent years. Excellent anatomical knowledge is required for this endoscopic surgical approach. This study was performed in order to better evaluate the anatomical features of the lacrimal apparatus from cadavers in the Isfahan forensic center as a sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: DCR was performed using a standard method on 26 cadaver eyes from the forensic center of Isfahan. The lacrimal sac was exposed completely, then the anatomical features of the lacrimal sac and canaliculus were measured using a specified ruler. Results: A total of 26 male cadaveric eyes were used, of which four (16.7%) were probably non-Caucasian. Two (8%) of the eyes needed septoplasty, one (4%) needed uncinectomy, and none needed turbinoplasty. Four (16%) lacrimal sacs were anterior to axilla, one (4%) was posterior and 20 (80%) were at the level of the axilla of the middle turbinate. The mean difference of distance from the nasal sill to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height) was 39.04 (±4.92) mm. The mean difference of distance from the nasal sill to the posterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height) was 45.50 (±4.47) mm. The mean of width and length of the lacrimal sac was 7.54 (±1.44) mm and 13.16 (±5.37) mm, respectively. The mean difference of distance from the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac to the posterior edge of the uncinate process was 14.06 (±3.00) mm, while the mean difference of distance from the anterior nasal spine to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height) was 37.20 (±5.37) mm.The mean height of the fundus was 3.26 (±1.09) mm. The mean difference of distance from the superior punctum to the fundus was 12.70 (±1.45) mm, and from the inferior punctum to the fundus was 11.10 (±2.02) mm. Conclusion: Given the differences between the various studies conducted in order to evaluate the position of the lacrimal sac, studies such as this can help to better identify the position of lacrimal sac during surgery based on ethnic differences. In addition, these studies can help novice surgeons to better navigate in a surgical scenario.

  9. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  10. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling.

    PubMed

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  11. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...food prepared by freezing egg yolks that conform to § 160.180, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the...

  12. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...food prepared by freezing egg yolks that conform to § 160.180, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the...

  13. Ontogeny of yolk-feeding fish: an ecological perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Kamler

    2002-01-01

    Ontogeny is a continuous process with temporaryaccelerations. The embryonic period from eggactivation to hatching, and the larval periodthereafter, are considered. Advances in studieson the ontogeny of yolk-feeding Europeanfreshwater and Antarctic marine fish arecompared. New techniques and approaches aresummarized. A method for exact quantificationof the time to any developmental event isrecommended. Four attempts to quantify anindividual's ontogenetic advancement arereviewed, of which

  14. Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

  15. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  16. In vitro multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis on the egg yolk membrane and penetration to the yolk contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to consumers of contaminated eggs. Although the nutrient-rich yolk interior is an uncommon location for S. Enteritidis contaminatio...

  17. Bull semen in vitro fertility after cryopreservation using egg yolk LDL: a comparison with Optidyl ®, a commercial egg yolk extender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamia Amirat; Daniel Tainturier; Laëtitia Jeanneau; Chantal Thorin; Olivier Gérard; Jean Luc Courtens; Marc Anton

    2004-01-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have been previously isolated and identified as the cryoprotective fraction of yolk. The effect of LDL on sperm motility after freezing–thawing has been reported, but no study has been made to assess the effect of LDL on bull semen fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility of bull semen cryopreserved in the presence

  18. Phase separation behavior of egg yolk suspensions after anionic polysaccharides addition.

    PubMed

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Temelli, Feral; Wu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the interactions between three anionic polysaccharides (gum arabic, xanthan gum and ?-carrageenan) and egg yolk at pH 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 and possible phase separation behavior. Zeta potential of egg yolk was not affected by gum arabic addition while it became more negative at pH 5 after xanthan gum and ?-carrageenan addition. The particle size of ?-carrageenan yolk suspension was considerably higher than the other polysaccharide yolk suspensions at pH below 6 but was dramatically decreased at alkaline pH. Most polysaccharide yolk suspensions formed either a biphasic or a monophasic system, whereas three distinct phases were observed for xanthan gum yolk suspension at pH 6. Protein profile analysis of the lipid-rich cream phase obtained from xanthan gum added yolk showed similarities to apoproteins from low density lipoproteins (LDL) of egg yolk. Microscopy analysis indicated the co-presence of xanthan gum and LDL in the creamy phase, within a network formed by xanthan gum. It was suggested that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the egg yolk and xanthan gum as well as xanthan gum's rheological properties could be responsible for the unique phase separation observed in the study. The findings of this study can form the basis for future studies to develop a new method to separate LDL from egg yolk. PMID:25498638

  19. An Analytic Evaluation of the SaCS Pattern Language Including Explanations of Major Design

    E-print Network

    Stølen, Ketil

    An Analytic Evaluation of the SaCS Pattern Language ­ Including Explanations of Major Design. The SaCS pattern language may express basic patterns on different aspects of relevance for conceptual considerations that were taken into account and shaped the SaCS language. Keywords­pattern language, analytic

  20. Estrogen Levels in House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) Egg Yolks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. BrookWaggoner

    1996-01-01

    Estrogen, when present in early embryonic development, regulates sexual differentiation in the avian nestling and adult. In this study, I developed a procedure to extract and quantify levels (by radioimmunoassay) of the estrogen, 17[beta]-estradiol, in house wren (Troglodytes aedon) egg yolk. Levels of 17[beta]-estradiol found in one clutch of eggs increased with the order of laying, indicating female house wrens

  1. Molecular species of phosphatidyl ethanolamine from egg yolk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Holub; A. Kuksis

    1969-01-01

    Phosphatidyl ethanolamine was isolated from total egg yolk lipids by preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC). The purified\\u000a phosphatide contained 3% of the alkoxy derivative. It was degraded to diglycerides in the presence of purified sphingomyelin\\u000a by phospholipase C fromClostridium welchii. The diglycerides were acetylated and resolved on the basis of unsaturation by argentation TLC. The fatty acid composition\\u000a of the

  2. Separation of Phosvitin from Egg Yolk without Using Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new method to separate phosvitin from egg yolk without using organic solvents. Phosvitin was extracted from yolk granules using 10% NaCl or 10% (NH4)2SO4 (final concentration) and then treated with heat to precipitate the lipoproteins from the extracted solution. The optimal pH for the phosvitin extraction from yolk granules was determined, and the iron-binding ability of the extracted phosvitin (final product) was tested. Adding 10% (NH4)2SO4 disrupted the granules, and the subsequent thermal treatment at 90°C for 1 h precipitated low density and high density lipoproteins, which enabled separation of phosvitin by centrifugation. The phosvitin concentration in the extract was significantly higher when the pH of the solution was adjusted to pH ?9. The purity and recovery rate of phosvitin at the end of the separation process were approximately 78% and 56%, respectively. The separated phosvitin was confirmed to have ferrous and ferric iron binding ability. The advantages of this new method compared with the traditional methods include no organic solvents and high-priced equipment are needed for the separation. Also, this method is more environment and consumer friendly than that of the traditional methods. PMID:25049750

  3. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    PubMed

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk. PMID:20308406

  4. Embryonic yolk removal affects a suite of larval salamander life history traits.

    PubMed

    Landberg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Egg size is a key life history trait affecting fitness, and it varies abundantly. The value of egg size to a mother and her offspring is often determined by a trade-off between investing more yolk in a few large eggs or less yolk into many more, smaller eggs. Smaller eggs are generally expected to be phenotypically inferior or females could increase their fitness by making more smaller eggs. However, many females produce a mix of egg sizes and natural yolk variation induces normal developmental responses which may persist into subsequent stages of a complex life history. Since sources of phenotypic variation are easily confounded, I surgically removed yolk from embryonic spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) using a sham surgery as a control and a split-clutch design to isolate the effects of yolk reserve variation from genetic sources of variation. Yolk removal induced early hatching, reduced developmental stage and hatchling body size. Small hatchlings stayed relatively small through the early larval period, but 17 weeks later the correlation with early larval body size was lost. When the experiment ended, larger individuals were further along in metamorphic development but mortality was independent of early larval body size. Variation in spotted salamander yolk reserves affects a suite of hatchling life history traits that persists into the larval period. Outside the laboratory, egg size effects may cascade throughout complex amphibian life histories. Applied experimentally and comparatively, this simple yolk removal technique may help identify how traits increase or decrease their response to maternal yolk investment. PMID:24323743

  5. Unusual microtubular cytoskeleton of apomictic embryo sac of Chondrilla juncea L.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ska-Pajak, M; Bednara, J

    2006-05-01

    The mature apomictic embryo sac of Chondrilla juncea is highly vacuolated and demonstrates a polarization similar to that of the amphimictic gametophyte. The microtubule cytoskeleton of this embryo sac is uncharacteristic and relatively weak. The microtubules are positioned along cell walls and resemble cortical microtubules of somatic cells. They do not form the parallel, brushlike structures observed around the filiform apparatus of synergids in the amphimictic embryo sac. In the apomictic embryo sac, the microtubules of both the egg cell and the central cell develop a cortical-like structure, which is entirely different from the radial arrangement observed around the nuclei in the amphimictic embryo sac. PMID:16736250

  6. Secretory expression of Par-4 SAC-HA2TAT following adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tian-Jie; Ma, Wei; Liu, Shan-Xi; Yang, Guang-Xiao; Wang, Quan-Ying; Zhao, Xin-Han

    2010-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor protein that induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. The cancer-specific pro-apoptotic action of Par-4 is encoded in its centrally located SAC domain. In this study, to further enhance the anti-cancer effect of Par-4 in order to overcome the limitations of peptide therapy, a recombinant adeno-associated virus was constructed using the following strategies: the secretory expression of therapeutic peptide, a HA2TAT-mediated cytosolic delivery technique, and an adeno-associated virus gene transfer system. To test the hypothesis that Par-4 has an additive bystander effect as an anti-cancer therapy, we designed a secretory protein by adding a secretory signal peptide NT4(Si) to the Par-4 SAC-HA2TAT peptide gene sequence [NT4(Si)-Par-4 SAC-HA2TAT]. The results indicated that, compared to the normal NIH3T3 cell line, AAV-NT4(Si)-Par-4 SAC-HA2TAT significantly suppressed cell growth and induced rapid cell death in HepG2 cells in a time-dependent manner through successful gene transfer and secretory expression of therapeutic peptide at 48 h post-transfection. In addition, the secretory properties of Par-4 may greatly increase its effectiveness in cancer therapy when delivered in vivo. PMID:21472309

  7. Massive lumbar disc herniation with complete dural sac stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Nam-Su; Son, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Background: Large lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has been reported to have a greater tendency to resolve in clinical and pathomorphological evolutions. However, various definitions of large LDH have been used without validation, and the clinical symptoms of large LDH have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a retrospective analysis to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of massive LDH with complete dural sac stenosis Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 33 cases of LDH with complete dural sac stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging. Complete dural sac stenosis was defined as no recognizable rootlet and cerebrospinal fluid signal on T2-weighed axial MR images. The clinical outcome parameters included back pain, leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), and neurological dysfunction. The paired t-test and Wilcoxon's signed rank test were used to compare serial changes in back pain, leg pain and neurological dysfunction. Results: Mean duration of followup was 66 months (range 24 - 108 months). There were 24 male and 9 female. The mean age was 37 years (range 20 - 53 years). At presentation, mean visual analogue scales for back pain and leg pain were 75.3 ± 19.1 (range 12 - 100) and 80.2 ± 14.6 (range 0 -100), respectively. Mean ODI was 67.1 ± 18.8 (range 26 - 88). Neurological dysfunction was found in 9 patients (27.3%), and the bowel/bladder dysfunction was found in 2 patients (3.1%). Conservative treatment was performed in 21 patients (63.6%) with satisfactory results. Seven patients underwent decompressive surgery, and 5 underwent posterolateral fusion. Conclusions: A massive LDH with complete dural sac stenosis was found to be associated with severe back and leg pain at presentation, however surgical treatment can be deferred unless significant neurological symptoms occur. PMID:23798754

  8. Substitution of silk stabilimenta for egg sacs by Allocyclosa bifurca (Araneae: Araneidae) suggests that silk stabilimenta function as camouflage devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Summary The matching form and orientation of egg sacs and spiders, the match between egg sac color and that of the spider, ontogenetic changes in spider coloration that occur when egg sacs begin to be produced, differences in the positions of the spiders' legs during the day and at night, and coordinated changes in spider and egg sac colors in

  9. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    PubMed

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  10. Program Options 12/11/13\\\\due.uci.edu\\due\\Files\\SAC\\CIE\\FACTSHTS\\GENINFO\\SAC Program Options with UCI Experiential Learning.pub

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Program Options 12/11/13\\\\due.uci.edu\\due\\Files\\SAC\\CIE\\FACTSHTS\\GENINFO\\SAC Program Options with UCI Experiential Learning.pub UCEAP Study UC Education Abroad Program UC Systemwide study abroad programs Fulfill UCI degree requirements UC credit Summer, quarter, semester, year Financial aid

  11. Voids and yolk-shells from crystals that coat particles.

    PubMed

    Sindoro, Melinda; Granick, Steve

    2014-10-01

    We investigate curvature-driven core-shell morphology that emerges when polycrystalline shells of ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate framework coordination polymer) grow on colloid-sized particles. In early growth stages, the shell is continuous, but it transforms to yolk-shell, with neither sacrificial template nor core etching, because of geometrical frustration. A design rule is developed regarding how local surface curvature matters. Comparing shells grown on cubic, rod-like, and peanut-shaped hematite core particles, we validate the argument. PMID:25243973

  12. Radioimmunoassay Analysis of Testosterone Levels in Clutches of House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) Egg Yolks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Fryzel

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that variation in intensity of aggressiveness and competitive ability among nestlings of a clutch may be attributed, at least partly, to differences in maternally deposited yolk testosterone that affects embryonic development (Schwabl 1993). We developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring yolk testosterone levels in house wren (Troglodytes aedon) eggs. This procedure was used in initial studies to

  13. Habituation to humans affects yolk steroid levels and offspring phenotype in quail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aline Bertin; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Cécilia Houdelier; Sophie Lumineau; Erich Möstl; Alexandra Kuchar; Katharina Hirschenhauser; Kurt Kotrschal

    2008-01-01

    In the field as well as in the laboratory, human-generated stress responses are reduced in adult animals previously habituated to humans in comparison to non-habituated individuals. In birds, yolk steroid levels vary with maternal environment and condition. We tested the hypothesis that the experience of female birds with humans could affect yolk steroids levels and offspring phenotype. Two groups of

  14. Sex steroids in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): uncoupled maternal plasma and yolking follicle concentrations, potential

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    Sex steroids in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): uncoupled maternal plasma and yolking follicle Accepted 4 June 2003 Abstract The sex steroids testosterone (T) and estradiol-17b (E2) play important roles steroid levels (which can influence reproductive function) and yolk steroid levels (which can influence

  15. Ipilimumab After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Persistent or Progressive Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Immature Teratoma; Ovarian Mature Teratoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma With Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor With Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma With Seminoma

  16. Individual quality and food availability determine yolk and egg mass and egg composition in tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Ardia; Matthew F. Wasson; David W. Winkler

    2006-01-01

    Variation in egg size and composition can have important consequences for the quality of offspring. We investigated the factors influencing the yolk mass and egg mass of tree swallows breeding in Ithaca, NY. Using a nondestructive technique to estimate yolk mass via standardized digital-candler photographs, we compared yolk size and egg size of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in response to

  17. In Vitro Penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through Yolk Membranes of Eggs from Six Genetically Distinct Commercial Lines of Laying Hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication...

  18. Conjugated linoleic acids alter the fatty acid composition and physical properties of egg yolk and albumen.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Bruce A; Feng, Shulin; Strom, Anna K; DeVitt, Amy A; Yu, Liangli; Li, Yong

    2003-11-01

    Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the fatty acid composition of different egg compartments after storage were studied. Four dietary treatments [supplemented with safflower oil (SAFF, control group), DHA, CLAs plus DHA (CAD), and CLAs alone] were administered to Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. Eggs from the different treatment groups were collected and stored for 10 weeks at 4 degrees C before analysis. Fatty acids from the yolk (yolk granules and plasma), egg albumen, and vitelline membrane were analyzed by gas chromatography. The yolk of eggs from hens given CLAs had significantly higher amounts of saturated fatty acids, typically 16:0 and 18:0, but lower amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared to eggs from the control group (SAFF). CLA content was highest in the yolk and present in both neutral and polar lipids, with the greatest concentrations in neutral lipids. DHA was incorporated mainly into yolk polar lipids. Lipids in yolk plasma and granules contained similar amounts of CLAs. The fatty acid compositions of vitelline membrane and egg albumen mirrored that of the egg yolk. CLA supplementation resulted in hard and rubbery yolks when compared to hard-cooked eggs from the control group. This study showed that feeding CLAs to hens led to accumulation of the isomers in polar and neutral lipids of the egg yolk and that these isomers migrated into egg albumen. Because the sensory properties of hard-cooked eggs were negatively affected by the enrichment of a mixture of CLA isomers in this study, further research should be conducted to evaluate how the different isomers alter the properties of egg yolk and albumen so that the quality of designed eggs containing CLAs and DHA can be improved. PMID:14582988

  19. Maternal corticosterone is transferred into the egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Bettina; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Müller, Claudia; Brill, Sandra; Wagner, Hermann; Jenni, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Hormones deposited in the avian egg are considered in many studies to influence or to adjust offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions in an adaptive way. Several studies demonstrated an effect of corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, injected into the egg on the developing chick, but the injection of steroids in the egg is far from mimicking the natural distribution of the hormone in the egg. Other studies applied a stressor or corticosterone to the mother. However it is still debated whether an increase of circulating corticosterone in the mother translates into higher concentrations of corticosterone in the egg. Therefore, we investigated in captive barn owls Tyto alba whether circulating corticosterone in egg-laying females elevated within a physiological range, resulted in the deposition of corticosterone in eggs. We found that an increase in circulating corticosterone in the mother within the naturally occurring range translated into elevated concentrations of corticosterone in the yolk of subsequently laid eggs, indicating a specific time frame and yolk layer of corticosterone deposition. We conclude that increasing maternal plasma corticosterone within a naturally occurring range is an efficient tool to increase corticosterone concentration in the egg and to manipulate conditions for the developing embryo. PMID:22580154

  20. Venous Sac Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation: Preliminary Experience Using Interlocking Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koji [Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa, 078-8510 (Japan); Tanimura, Keiichi; Honda, Masanori [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Utunomiya Hospital, 911-1 Takebayashi, Tochigi, 321 (Japan); Kikuno, Motoyuki [Department of Radiology, Takagi Hospital, 141-11 Sakami, Ohkawa, 831-0016 (Japan); Toei, Hisao; Hyodoh, Hideki; Furuse, Makoto [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Minamikawachi, Tochigi, 329-0498 (Japan); Yamada, Tomonori; Aburano, Tamio [Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa, 078-8510 (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the indication and advantages of venous sac embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using interlocking detachable coils (IDCs). Methods: We performed percutaneous embolization in 12 PAVMs in four patients using IDCs, initially placed in the venous sac or at the feeding artery to prevent systemic migration of additional coils. We placed the IDCs in the venous sac in PAVMs with the following vascular architecture: the draining vein was larger than the feeding arteries and both vessels were interposed with the venous sac or there were short feeding arteries. Results: Complete occlusion was achieved in all 12 PAVMs without significant complications. We deployed IDCs in the venous sac in eight PAVMs and in the feeding artery in four. Conclusion: Venous sac embolization may be beneficial in PAVMs with large out-flow vessels or short feeding arteries. IDCs are suitable for this procedure.

  1. Private SACS mutations in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) families from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andrea M; Ozgul, Riza Koksal; Poisson, Virginie C; Topaloglu, Haluk

    2004-09-01

    We studied five families with pediatric-onset recessive spastic ataxia from Turkey. The clinical characteristics and linkage studies are compatible with autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). SACS mutations are responsible for ARSACS in Québec families. In four of the five families tested we detected new disease-causing mutations using automated sequencing of SACS. Our study raises to 12 the number of SACS mutations detected in ARSACS patients with origins around the Mediterranean basin. PMID:15156359

  2. Unique cell wall abnormalities in the putative phosphoinositide phosphatase mutant AtSAC9

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almut H. VollmerNabil; Nabil N. Youssef; Daryll B. DeWald

    SAC9 is a putative phosphoinositide phosphatase in Arabidopsis thaliana involved in phosphoinositide signaling. sac9-1 plants have a constitutively stressed phenotype with shorter roots which notably accumulate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate\\u000a and its hydrolysis product inositol trisphosphate. We investigated the primary roots of sac9-1 seedlings at the cytological and ultrastructural level to determine the structural basis for this altered growth. Despite\\u000a the normal

  3. Using life-histories to predict and interpret variability in yolk hormones.

    PubMed

    Love, O P; Gilchrist, H G; Bêty, J; Wynne-Edwards, K E; Berzins, L; Williams, T D

    2009-09-01

    Variation in yolk hormones is assumed to provide the plasticity necessary for mothers to individually optimize reproductive decisions via changes in offspring phenotype, the benefit being to maximise fitness. However, rather than routinely expecting adaptive variation within all species, the pattern and magnitude of yolk hormone deposition should theoretically relate to variation in life-histories. Here we present data on intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone in three species along a developmental continuum (European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): fully altricial; black guillemot (Cepphus grylle): semi-precocial; common eider (Somateria mollissima): fully precocial) to examine how and why variation in life-histories might relate to the evolution of variation in yolk steroids. Starlings and guillemots showed a significant increase in yolk corticosterone across the laying sequence; however, we found no pattern within eider clutches. Moreover, starlings showed the largest difference (94.6%) in yolk corticosterone between first- and last-laid eggs, whereas guillemots showed a moderate difference (58.9%). Despite these general species-specific patterns, individuals showed marked variation in the intra-clutch patterns of yolk corticosterone within each species indicating potential differences in intra-clutch flexibility among females. It is well documented that exposure to elevated yolk glucocorticoids reduces offspring quality at birth/hatching in many taxa and it has therefore been proposed that elevated yolk levels may modulate offspring competition and/or facilitate brood reduction under harsh conditions in birds. Our data suggests that intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone has the potential to act as an adaptive maternal effect in species where modulation of competition between nest-bound offspring would benefit mothers (starlings and guillemots). However, in precocial species where mothers would not benefit from a modulation of offspring quality, intra-clutch variation in yolk hormones may play little or no adaptive role. While future phylogenetically-controlled studies will be helpful in examining questions of adaptive mechanisms once more data on yolk corticosterone becomes available, our results nonetheless suggest that research on the evolutionary role of yolk hormones can benefit by a priori incorporating species-specific life-history-driven hypotheses. PMID:18952089

  4. Bacterial and mycoplasmal flora of the healthy camelid conjunctival sac.

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, J R; Rosenbusch, R; Kinyon, J M; Betts, D M; Smith, T M

    1991-07-01

    Healthy conjunctival sacs of 88 animals of 3 species of captive camelids (Lama glama, Lama guanicoe, Lama pacos) and llama-guanaco hybrids were sampled for bacterial and mycoplasmal flora. Mycoplasmas were not isolated from any animal. Eleven genera of bacteria were isolated. The most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas spp. Nine varieties of Pseudomonas were found, which represented at least 3 Pseudomonas species. Many of the bacterial isolates (especially the pseudomonads) are potential pathogens in the eyes of these camelids. PMID:1892259

  5. Fungal flora of the healthy camelid conjunctival sac.

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, J R; Gabal, M A; Betts, D M

    1992-05-01

    Swab specimens for fungal isolation were collected from the healthy conjunctival sacs of 3 species of captive camelids (Lama glama, L guanicoe, L pacos) and llama-guanaco hybrids. Fungi were collected from over half the animals in winter (53%) and summer (56%). Fungal species of 10 genera were isolated. In both seasons, Aspergillus was the most commonly isolated genus; at least 9 species of Aspergillus were found. The fungal organisms isolated were similar to those found in healthy eyes of other domestic animals and may represent a random seeding from the environment where they are ubiquitous. PMID:1524286

  6. Endothelial cell migration during murine yolk sac vascular remodeling occurs by means of a Rac1 and FAK activation pathway in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanism(s) controlling cell migration during vascular morphogenesis in vivo remain largely undefined. To address this within a physiological context, we used retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (Raldh2) null mouse embryos and demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) deficiency results in abnorm...

  7. PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve-Sac3 core complex: contact sites and their consequence for Sac3 phosphatase activity and endocytic membrane homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Fenner, Homer; Shisheva, Assia

    2009-12-18

    The phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P(2)) metabolizing enzymes, the kinase PIKfyve and the phosphatase Sac3, constitute a single multiprotein complex organized by the PIKfyve regulator ArPIKfyve and its ability to homodimerize. We previously established that PIKfyve is activated within the triple PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve-Sac3 (PAS) core. These data assign an atypical function for the phosphatase in PtdIns(3,5)P(2) biosynthesis, thus raising the question of whether Sac3 retains its PtdIns(3,5)P(2) hydrolyzing activity within the PAS complex. Herein, we address the issue of Sac3 functionality by a combination of biochemical and morphological assays in triple-transfected COS cells using a battery of truncated or point mutants of the three proteins. We identified the Cpn60_TCP1 domain of PIKfyve as a major determinant for associating the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 subcomplex. Neither Sac3 nor PIKfyve enzymatic activities affected the PAS complex formation or stability. Using the well established formation of aberrant cell vacuoles as a sensitive functional measure of localized PtdIns(3,5)P(2) reduction, we observed a mitigated vacuolar phenotype by kinase-deficient PIKfyve(K1831E) if its ArPIKfyve-Sac3 binding region was deleted, suggesting reduced Sac3 access to, and turnover of PtdIns(3,5)P(2). In contrast, PIKfyve(K1831E), which displays intact ArPIKfyve-Sac3 binding, triggered a more severe vacuolar phenotype if coexpressed with ArPIKfyve(WT)-Sac3(WT) but minimal defects when coexpressed with ArPIKfyve(WT) and phosphatase-deficient Sac3(D488A). These data indicate that Sac3 assembled in the PAS regulatory core complex is an active PtdIns(3,5)P(2) phosphatase. Based on these and other data, presented herein, we propose a model of domain interactions within the PAS core and their role in regulating the enzymatic activities. PMID:19840946

  8. An electron microscope study of yolk formation during oogenesis in Lebistes reticulatus guppyi.

    PubMed

    Droller, M J; Roth, T F

    1966-02-01

    The present investigation describes the fine structural changes that occur during proteid yolk formation in the developing oocytes of the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus), an ovoviviparous teleost. These changes suggest the operation of a number of different intra- and extraoocyte processes that may account for the synthesis and deposition of the proteid yolk. Early in oogenesis, the egg's Golgi systems proliferate and begin to disclose an electron-opaque content. Numerous 70-mmicro diameter vesicles apparently pinch off from the Golgi systems, transport this material through the egg, and probably then fuse to form a crenate, membrane-limited yolk droplet. At the same time, the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum accumulates a flocculent substance that differs in appearance from the Golgi content. Smooth vesicles, presumably derived from the ER, then coalesce to form a second type of intraoocyte yolk droplet. These dissimilar, separately derived droplets subsequently fuse, thus combining the materials that constitute the intraoocyte contribution to the proteid yolk. Somewhat later in development, the egg appears to ingest extracellular material via 75-mmicro diameter bristle-coated micropinocytotic pits and vesicles. These structures apparently fuse to form tubules which then coalesce into large yolk droplets. At a later stage, bristle-coated micropinocytotic vesicles of 100 mmicro diameter presumably take up a material that is then probably immediately deposited into a second type of proteid yolk droplet. It is postulated that these two different micropinocytotic structures are specifically involved with the selective uptake of dissimilar extracellular proteid materials. PMID:5950271

  9. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio).

    PubMed

    Hahn, D Caldwell

    2011-07-01

    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone. PMID:21510950

  10. [Absorption of extractive Polygonum orientale in rat everted gut sacs].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Tang, Li; Cao, Xu; Zheng, Lin; Wang, Ai-Min; Huang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Using in vitro everted gut to investigate the intestinal absorption of the extracts from Polygonum orientale at different concentration. UPLC-MS/MS was used to detect the content of protocatechuic acid, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, cynaroside, quercitrin, kaempferol-rhamnoside in different intestinal segments, then compared the results with the absorption of chemical components of extractive P. orientale in each intestinal segments, and calculated the absorption parameter. We took the statistic analysis with SPSS statistic software. The influence significance of each factors were analyzed to describe the character of absorption. The absorption of each component is linearity in different intestinal segments and different dose, and the square of coeficient correlation exceed 0.95, which consistent with zero order rate process. The K(a) increase along with the raised dosage of the extractive P. orientale (R2 > 0.95), indicated it is the passive absorption; different intestinal segments have different absorption. And the absorption trend in intestinal is duodenum, jejunum, ileum are greater than the colon. As ingredients are selectively absorbed in intestinal sac, the everted intestinal sac method is selected to assess the intestinal absorption charcteristics of ingredients of extractive P. orientale. PMID:25272855

  11. Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen 

    E-print Network

    Husseini, Munther Dawod

    1975-01-01

    middlings, appear to be effective in lowering cholestet'ol in the egg yolk, but not in the blood serum of the laying hens. The cost of producing lower cholesterol eggs by feeding a high fiber diet is greater than producing normal eggs with a standard... serum cholesterol in laying hens during twelve 28-day periods 16 The influence of type of diet on mean egg yolk and blood serum cholesterol in laying hens (periods pooled) 17 The effect of the type of diet on changes in egg yolk cholesterol during...

  12. A modified yolk biopsy technique improves survivorship of turtle eggs.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Rachel M; Smithee, Lauren; Paitz, Ryan T

    2009-01-01

    Nongenetic maternal contributions, such as steroid hormones, have received much attention in recent years because they have the potential to influence offspring phenotype. Research in oviparous taxa has demonstrated that there is among-species variability in their response to these maternal contributions. However, studies in chelonians and crocodilians have been hampered by the fact that techniques involving egg manipulations that breach the eggshell routinely result in massive egg mortality. In this study, we present an improved yolk manipulation technique that resulted in increased egg survival (in excess of 70% survival) in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) and that may be broadly applicable to other species. By elevating survival to a level on par with other oviparous taxa, this method permits a more thorough exploration of reptilian egg physiology and allows for studies that examine traits in both the egg and the resulting hatchling. PMID:19193061

  13. Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) in Routine Diagnostic Work.

    PubMed

    Staak, Christian

    1996-01-01

    According to Linscott"s Directory of Immunological and Biological Reagents (1994/95) the commercial availability of egg-yolk antibodies (IgY) is extremely low. For preparation, cleaning and detection of IgY it would be of advantage to have a "Protein Y" available analogous to protein A and protein G for mammalian antibodies. Until now, the search for "Protein Y" was unsuccessful. IgY has been used for routine diagnostic work covering the following subjects: 1.Identification of the host species from abdominal blood of haematophageous insects; 2.IgY-anti-horse-Ig-PO conjugate for ELISA on dourine; 3.FITC-conjugated IgY-antirabies for diagnostic work on rabies; 4.FITC-conjugated IgY against avian virus diseases (Newcastle dis., Infectious bronchitis, Gumboro). In all cases satisfactory results have been achieved. PMID:11178478

  14. Small cell tumors of the thyroid gland: a review.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Catarina; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The small cell group of thyroid tumors that includes lymphoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, secondary neoplasms, as well as tumors with uncertain histogenesis, remains as a valid diagnostic cul-de-sac due to its heterogeneous constitution. The existence of small cell thyroid tumors with EWSR1-FLI1 rearrangement together with neuroendocrine and/or carcinomatous differentiation raises not only differential diagnostic problems but also a very interesting therapeutic dilemma. This review explores the classification of small cell tumors of the thyroid taking into account the immunophenotype and molecular profile of such tumors. PMID:24275884

  15. Sac3 is an insulin-regulated phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate phosphatase: gain in insulin responsiveness through Sac3 down-regulation in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Ijuin, Takeshi; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Shisheva, Assia

    2009-09-01

    Insulin-regulated stimulation of glucose entry and mobilization of fat/muscle-specific glucose transporter GLUT4 onto the cell surface require the phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P(2)) pathway for optimal performance. The reduced insulin responsiveness observed under ablation of the PtdIns(3,5)P(2)-synthesizing PIKfyve and its associated activator ArPIKfyve in 3T3L1 adipocytes suggests that dysfunction of the PtdIns(3,5)P(2)-specific phosphatase Sac3 may yield the opposite effect. Paradoxically, as uncovered recently, in addition to turnover Sac3 also supports PtdIns(3,5)P(2) biosynthesis by allowing optimal PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve association. These opposing inputs raise the key question as to whether reduced Sac3 protein levels and/or hydrolyzing activity will produce gain in insulin responsiveness. Here we report that small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Sac3 by approximately 60%, which resulted in a slight but significant elevation of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) in 3T3L1 adipocytes, increased GLUT4 translocation and glucose entry in response to insulin. In contrast, ectopic expression of Sac3(WT), but not phosphatase-deficient Sac3(D488A), reduced GLUT4 surface abundance in the presence of insulin. Endogenous Sac3 physically assembled with PIKfyve and ArPIKfyve in both membrane and soluble fractions of 3T3L1 adipocytes, but this remained insulin-insensitive. Importantly, acute insulin markedly reduced the in vitro C8-PtdIns(3,5)P(2) hydrolyzing activity of Sac3. The insulin-sensitive Sac3 pool likely controls a discrete PtdIns(3,5)P(2) subfraction as the high pressure liquid chromatography-measurable insulin-dependent elevation in total [(3)H]inositol-PtdIns(3,5)P(2) was minor. Together, our data identify Sac3 as an insulin-sensitive phosphatase whose down-regulation increases insulin responsiveness, thus implicating Sac3 as a novel drug target in insulin resistance. PMID:19578118

  16. Mammalian laryngseal air sacs add variability to the vocal tract impedance: physical and computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Tokuda, Isao T; Munger, Jacob B; Thomson, Scott L

    2008-07-01

    Cavities branching off the main vocal tract are ubiquitous in nonhumans. Mammalian air sacs exist in human relatives, including all four great apes, but only a substantially reduced version exists in humans. The present paper focuses on acoustical functions of the air sacs. The hypotheses are investigated on whether the air sacs affect amplitude of utterances and/or position of formants. A multilayer synthetic model of the vocal folds coupled with a vocal tract model was utilized. As an air sac model, four configurations were considered: open and closed uniform tube-like side branches, a rigid cavity, and an inflatable cavity. Results suggest that some air sac configurations can enhance the sound level. Furthermore, an air sac model introduces one or more additional resonance frequencies, shifting formants of the main vocal tract to some extent but not as strongly as previously suggested. In addition, dynamic range of vocalization can be extended by the air sacs. A new finding is also an increased variability of the vocal tract impedance, leading to strong nonlinear source-filter interaction effects. The experiments demonstrated that air-sac-like structures can destabilize the sound source. The results were validated by a transmission line computational model. PMID:18647005

  17. Endolymphatic mastoid shunt versus endolymphatic sac decompression for ménière’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Brinson; Douglas A. Chen; Moises A. Arriaga

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study compares the efficacy of endolymphatic mastoid shunt (EMS) versus endolymphatic sac decompression (ESD) without sac incision.Methods: The AAO-HNS Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Therapy in Ménière’s disease were used to identify suitable candidates for the study. All patients who failed medical management and underwent either EMS (n = 91) or ESD (n = 107) were

  18. Cursos i formaci complementria del SAC 2011-2012 | 1 Cursos i cicles de conferncies

    E-print Network

    Oro, Daniel

    #12;#12;Cursos i formació complementària del SAC 2011- 2012 | 1 Cursos i cicles de conferències (nivel II) Matrícula 2 8 13 14 16 Índex de continguts #12;2 | Cursos i formació complementària del SAC 2011- 2012 CURSOS I CICLES DE CONFERÈNCIES PRIMER QUADRIMESTRE 2011-2012 FM0210 EL PRINCIPI D

  19. Embryo sac development in Arabidopsis thaliana II. The cytoskeleton during megagametogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary C. Webb; Brian E. S. Gunning

    1994-01-01

    The microtubular and actin cytoskeletons have been investigated during megagametogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana using immunofluorescence labelling of isolated coenocytic and mature embryo sacs. We found both actin and microtubules (MTs) to occur in abundance throughout megagametogenesis and in all constituent cells of the mature embryo sac. During many stages, the patterns of distribution of these cytoskeletal elements are congruent and

  20. Predicting liquid-phase thermodynamic properties using COSMO-SAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Russell I.

    Predicting thermodynamic properties of liquids remains a significant challenge in both academia and industry. This is because molecules in the liquid phase are relatively close together but are not arranged in an ordered structure. The COSMO-SAC model uses quantum and statistical mechanics to predict the thermodynamic properties of liquids. In this thesis, a variety of efforts have been made to improve the accuracy of this model. The most successful of these involves the inclusion of dispersion interactions in mixture calculations, which reduces the average prediction error for activity coefficients by over 30%. It has also been demonstrated that the misfit energy—the traditional interaction energy used in all known COSMO-based models—is limited in its ability to model intermolecular interactions. A variety of attempts to improve the electrostatics of the model have been made, but these have had little effect on the overall accuracy. These include use of an expanded hydrogen bonding description, use of an alternate molecular surface construction method, and incorporation of three-dimensional considerations. These results, coupled with the observed improvement obtained from including dispersion interactions, suggest that the greatest weakness in the model is the handling of electrodynamics (how molecules polarize one another), and that future efforts to improve the model should target this area. In addition, the model has been parameterized for the ADF density functional software package, thus making it available to a wider audience. Results are approximately equivalent to those obtained with DMol3, the only package for which a published parameterization was previously available. Of significance, the ADF implementation allows one of the adjustable model parameters to be eliminated. Also, a correlation was found between experimental liquid volumes and the quantum-based molecular volumes employed in COSMO-SAC. This eliminates the need to provide experimental volumes to the model. Finally, a Windows-based graphical user interface for COSMO-SAC has been developed. This expands the availability of the model to anyone with only a general familiarity with thermodynamics. Without this, use is restricted to those with an in-depth knowledge of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and computer programming.

  1. Regulation of Yolk-Androgen Concentrations by Plasma Prolactin in the American Kestrel

    E-print Network

    Sockman, Keith W.

    from a diameter of 1 mm to a full-sized ovum at ovulation (Johnson, 1996), and the period of rapid yolk deposition, when the ovum is still contained in the follicle and surrounded by the steroidogenic theca

  2. Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lossky, M.; Wensink, P.C. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates the expression of the genes for yolk protein of Drosophila melanogaster and the tissue specific function of the regulatory element which activates transcription in vivo. 70 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Antimicrobial potential of egg yolk ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor of chicken egg.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Marie; Gautron, Joël; Berges, Magali; Attucci, Sylvie; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Labas, Valérie; Nys, Yves; Rehault-Godbert, Sophie

    2011-12-14

    Chicken egg ovoinhibitor is a multidomain Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with unknown function. Comparison of expression between different tissues indicated that ovoinhibitor is highly expressed in the magnum and liver followed by the uterus, which secrete egg white, egg yolk, and eggshell precursors, respectively. The results also revealed that ovoinhibitor expression is increased in the liver during sexual maturation followed by a subsequent decrease in mature hens. Ovoinhibitor was purified from the egg yolk plasma from nonfertilized eggs using two consecutive affinity chromatographies and gel filtration. Purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor was shown to inhibit trypsin and subtilisin. It was shown that purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus thuringiensis . The results suggest that this anti-protease plays a significant role in antibacterial egg defense against Bacillus spp., preventing contamination of table eggs (nonfertilized eggs) and protecting the chick embryo (fertilized eggs). PMID:22010862

  4. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  5. Elemental content in the nucleus and in yolk and yolk-free cytoplasm of developing Rana pipiens oocytes: an x-ray microanalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    LaBadie, D.R.L.; Pool, T.B.; Smith, N.K.R.; Cameron, I.L.

    1981-10-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis measured the Na, K, Cl, P, Mg, S, and Ca contents (mM/kg dry weight) in the nucleus, yolk-free cytoplasm, and yolk platelets of Rana pipiens oocytes quick frozen in the ovary. The data revealed that significant content changes occur in frog oocytes during intraovarian growth. All elements but Ca changed in content in the nucleus and cytoplasm, while in the yolk platelet only Na content did not change. A nucleus to cytoplasm K gradient develops and increases in magnitude during oocyte growth. The data from this and previous reports lead to the hypothesis that intra-oocytic water and elements undergo changes in state during oocyte growth and that three subcellular Na compartments exist.

  6. Human sperm chromosomes obtained from hamster eggs after sperm capacitation in TEST-yolk buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1985-01-01

    Human sperm chromosomes were obtained after capacitation with TES-Tris (TEST) yolk buffer and fusion with Syrian hamster eggs. Semen samples could be stored at 4/sup 0/C for 3 days and remain functional in the assay system. The efficiency of TEST yolk buffer for obtaining karyotypes was as good as, or greater than, the efficiency of standard BWW medium containing human serum albumin. 16 references, 3 tables.

  7. Human sperm chromosomes obtained from hamster eggs after sperm capacitation in TEST-yolk buffer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Brandriff; L. Gordon; G. Watchmaker

    1985-01-01

    Human sperm chromosomes were obtained after capacitation with TES-Tris (TEST) yolk buffer and fusion with Syrian hamster eggs. Semen samples could be stored at 4°C for 3 days and remain functional in the assay system. The efficiency of TEST yolk buffer for obtaining karyotypes was as good as, or greater than, the efficiency of standard BWW medium containing human serum

  8. The heritability of egg yolk cholesterol level and its relationship to reproductive performance 

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, Danis Lane

    1973-01-01

    THE HERITABILITY OF EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Danis L. Cunningham Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Poultry Science THE HERITABILITY OF EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Danie L. Cunningham Approved as to style and content by: hairman of C ittee...

  9. Molecular interactions in gels prepared with egg yolk and its fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassilis Kiosseoglou; Adamantini Paraskevopoulou

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of hen's egg yolk or its plasma and granules fractions, upon heating at 90°C for 30min in the presence of d,l-dithiothreitol (DTT), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) or Tween 40, was studied to establish the role of disulfide covalent bonds and hydrophobic interactions between yolk protein constituents in the formation of gel network structure. The application of uniaxial compression test to

  10. The sac-4 gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and co-existing chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, D; Patrizio, C; Moyes, A; Young, H

    2000-01-01

    Background/objectives: Recently, the sac-4 gene in Neisseria gonorrhoeae was postulated to increase the risk of developing mixed gonococcal and chlamydial infection. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of the sac-4 gene in a larger sample of isolates of different serovars and to assess the prevalence of sac-4 in gonococcal isolates from patients with and without coexisting chlamydial infection. Methods: Isolates from 259 episodes of gonorrhoea were tested by a PCR assay for the sac-4 gene. The presence of co-existing chlamydial infection was determined from both laboratory and GUM clinical records. Results: The overall prevalence of sac-4 was 57.5% (149/259). The prevalence was not the same in all serovars and ranged from 34.9% in serovar 1B2 to 100% in serovar 1B18. Exact logistic regression analysis indicated significant differences in sac-4 prevalence in isolates of different serovars. The prevalence of sac-4 was 69.5% (41/59) in gonococcal isolates from patients with co-existing chlamydial infection compared with 57.9% (62/107) for those without chlamydial infection. Exact logistic regression analysis showed that the slightly increased sac-4 prevalence among chlamydia positive patients (p=0.2) virtually disappeared when serovar status was taken into account (p>0.9). Conclusion: The sac-4 gene of the gonococcus does not increase the risk for mixed chlamydial infection. Key Words: dual infection; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Chlamydia trachomatis; sac-4 PMID:11141862

  11. Rapid decline in the concentrations of three yolk steroids during development: is it embryonic regulation?

    PubMed

    Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M

    2009-04-01

    Maternally derived yolk steroids have been found to elicit both short-term and long-term effects on offspring phenotype. Paradoxically, their effects can be strikingly specific given the often substantial concentrations present at oviposition, and they do not appear to uniformly affect all steroid-sensitive processes. To better understand the dynamics of yolk steroids across embryonic development, we quantified levels of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol at 5-day intervals throughout development in eggs of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) incubated at both male- and female-producing temperatures. We also assessed the effect of season on yolk steroid levels. For all steroids assayed, the concentrations in yolk declined significantly by day 15 of embryonic development despite large differences in initial concentrations among steroids. We found that estradiol was the only steroid whose initial concentration varied significantly with season, while only the decline in testosterone was affected by incubation temperature. These findings illustrate the complex nature of yolk steroid dynamics and suggest that maternal steroids may be rapidly degraded or subject to embryonic processing, emphasizing the need for studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms through which yolk steroids may elicit their effects. PMID:19523390

  12. Changes in yolk states of duck egg during long-term brining.

    PubMed

    Lai, K M; Chi, S P; Ko, W C

    1999-02-01

    To elucidate the relationship between shyandan yolk formation and NaCl penetration degree, fresh duck eggs were brined in 26% NaCl and a prolonged brining test was conducted for up to 24 weeks. Shyandan yolk was obtained from brine-cured duck shell eggs in 26% NaCl for 4-6 weeks and subsequently heated at 85 degrees C for 90 min. Though NaCl contents for albumen and yolk increased to 14.8 and 8.9%, respectively, during the prolonged test for up to 24 weeks, the R values (NaCl/water x 100) were similar (increased from 0.6 to 21) throughout the brining process. The oil-off ratio of the yolk increased rapidly from 14 to 50% (0-6 weeks) and gradually decreased during the extended brining. Granulation and gelation of yolk appeared in the different stages of the brining process. This study demonstrates that the formation of shyandan yolk was determined by the degree of NaCl penetration. PMID:10563961

  13. Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrén, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 2–3 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (3000–4000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as an additional acoustic filter. Individual acoustic recognition may have been the primary function in the evolution of a size-variable air sac, and this function is retained in mother–young communication. In males sexual selection seems to have favoured a considerable size increase of the air sac and a switch to call series instead of single calls. Vocalization became restricted to the rutting period serving the attraction of females. We propose two possibilities for the acoustic function of the air sac in vocalization that do not exclude each other. The first assumes a coupling between air sac and the environment, resulting in an acoustic output that is a combination of the vocal tract resonance frequencies emitted via mouth and nostrils and the resonance frequencies of the air sac transmitted via the neck skin. The second assumes a weak coupling so that resonance frequencies of the air sac are lost to surrounding tissues by dissipation. In this case the resonance frequencies of the air sac solely influence the signal that is further filtered by the remaining vocal tract. According to our results one acoustic effect of the air sac in adult reindeer might be to mask formants of the vocal tract proper. In other cervid species, however, formants of rutting calls convey essential information on the quality of the sender, related to its potential reproductive success, to conspecifics. Further studies are required to solve this inconsistency. PMID:17310544

  14. Risk factors associated with late aneurysmal sac expansion after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Motoki; Ikoma, Akira; Sato, Hirotatsu; Sato, Morio; Nishimura, Yoshiharu; Okamura, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to identify the risk factors associated with late aneurysmal sac expansion after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images of 143 patients who were followed for ?6 months after EVAR. Sac expansion was defined as an increase in sac diameter of 5 mm relative to the preoperative diameter. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associated risk factors for late sac expansion after EVAR from the following variables: age, gender, device, endoleak, antiplatelet therapy, internal iliac artery embolization, and preprocedural variables (aneurysm diameter, proximal neck diameter, proximal neck length, suprarenal neck angulation, and infrarenal neck angulation). RESULTS Univariate analysis revealed female gender, endoleak, aneurysm diameter ?60 mm, suprarenal neck angulation >45°, and infrarenal neck angulation >60° as factors associated with sac expansion. Multivariate analysis revealed endoleak, aneurysm diameter ?60 mm, and infrarenal neck angulation >60° as independent predictors of sac expansion (P < 0.05, for all). CONCLUSION Our results suggest that patients with small abdominal aortic aneurysms (<60 mm) and infrarenal neck angulation ?60° are more favorable candidates for EVAR. Intraprocedural treatments, such as prophylactic embolization of aortic branches or intrasac embolization, may reduce the risk of sac expansion in patients with larger abdominal aortic aneurysms or greater infrarenal neck angulation. PMID:25858524

  15. Guidance in vitro of the pollen tube to the naked embryo sac of torenia fournieri

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, T; Kuroiwa, H; Kawano, S; Kuroiwa, T

    1998-01-01

    The precise guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac is critical to the successful sexual reproduction of flowering plants. We demonstrate here the guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac in vitro by using the naked embryo sac of Torenia fournieri, which protrudes from the micropyle of the ovule. We developed a medium for culture of both the ovule and the pollen tube of T. fournieri and cocultivated them in a thin layer of solid medium. Although pollen tubes that had germinated in vitro passed naked embryo sacs, some pollen tubes that grew semi-in vitro through a cut style arrived precisely at the site of entry into the embryo sac, namely, the filiform apparatus of the synergids. When pollen tubes were unable to enter the embryo sac, they continuously grew toward the same filiform apparatus, forming narrow coils. Pollen tubes selectively arrived at complete, unfertilized embryo sacs but did not arrive at those of heat-treated ovules or those with disrupted synergids. These results convincingly demonstrate that pollen tubes are specifically attracted to the region of the filiform apparatus of living synergids in vitro. PMID:9836742

  16. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  17. SAC phosphoinositide phosphatases at the tonoplast mediate vacuolar function in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Nováková, Petra; Hirsch, Sibylle; Feraru, Elena; Tejos, Ricardo; van Wijk, Ringo; Viaene, Tom; Heilmann, Mareike; Lerche, Jennifer; De Rycke, Riet; Feraru, Mugurel I.; Grones, Peter; Van Montagu, Marc; Heilmann, Ingo; Munnik, Teun; Friml, Ji?í

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) is a structural phospholipid that can be phosphorylated into various lipid signaling molecules, designated polyphosphoinositides (PPIs). The reversible phosphorylation of PPIs on the 3, 4, or 5 position of inositol is performed by a set of organelle-specific kinases and phosphatases, and the characteristic head groups make these molecules ideal for regulating biological processes in time and space. In yeast and mammals, PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P2 play crucial roles in trafficking toward the lytic compartments, whereas the role in plants is not yet fully understood. Here we identified the role of a land plant-specific subgroup of PPI phosphatases, the suppressor of actin 2 (SAC2) to SAC5, during vacuolar trafficking and morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. SAC2–SAC5 localize to the tonoplast along with PtdIns3P, the presumable product of their activity. In SAC gain- and loss-of-function mutants, the levels of PtdIns monophosphates and bisphosphates were changed, with opposite effects on the morphology of storage and lytic vacuoles, and the trafficking toward the vacuoles was defective. Moreover, multiple sac knockout mutants had an increased number of smaller storage and lytic vacuoles, whereas extralarge vacuoles were observed in the overexpression lines, correlating with various growth and developmental defects. The fragmented vacuolar phenotype of sac mutants could be mimicked by treating wild-type seedlings with PtdIns(3,5)P2, corroborating that this PPI is important for vacuole morphology. Taken together, these results provide evidence that PPIs, together with their metabolic enzymes SAC2–SAC5, are crucial for vacuolar trafficking and for vacuolar morphology and function in plants. PMID:24550313

  18. The PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve-Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomov, Ognian C.; Filios, Catherine; Sbrissa, Diego; Chen, Xuequn; Shisheva, Assia

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve-Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P – PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P – PtdIns(3,5)P2 conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their role, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple-negative vs. hormone sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. Rather, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 cells vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24070605

  19. The PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve-Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Filios, Catherine; Sbrissa, Diego; Chen, Xuequn; Shisheva, Assia

    2013-10-18

    The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve-Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P-PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P-PtdIns(3,5)P2 conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24070605

  20. An irreducible left scrotal hernia containing a sigmoid colon tumor (adenocarcinoma) – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Gna?, Jaros?aw; Bulsa, Marek; Czaja-Bulsa, Gra?yna

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In relation to all inguinal hernias, large irreducible scrotal hernias are quite rare, while such hernias containing colon tumors in the sac have so far been described in fewer than 30 cases. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 61-year-old patient was admitted for a planned surgery because of a large irreducible left-sided scrotal hernia. Intraoperatively, a large tumor of the sigmoid colon was found in the hernial sac. In a histopathological examination it was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. A palliative operation was performed and he was referred to further systemic and palliative treatment (because of numerous coexisting liver metastases). DISCUSSION Until now, only about 30 cases of colon tumor in inguinal hernia sac have been reported. CONCLUSION It should be remembered that even the most obvious preoperative diagnosis may be verified intraoperatively. PMID:24988210

  1. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  2. Liposomes as an alternative to egg yolk in stallion freezing extender.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Elodie; Labbe, Catherine; Batellier, Florence; Duchamp, Guy; Beaumal, Valérie; Anton, Marc; Desherces, Serge; Schmitt, Eric; Magistrini, Michèle

    2012-01-15

    Egg yolk is normally used as a protective agent to freeze semen of equine and other species. However, addition of egg yolk in extenders is not without disadvantages and the demand to find cryoprotective alternatives is strong. The objective of this study was to test the cryoprotective capacities of liposomes composed of egg yolk phospholipids. Two experiments were conducted: 1) the first to determine the optimal composition and concentration of liposomes to preserve post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa; 2) the second to assess in vivo the cryoprotective capacities of these liposomes. In Experiment 2, post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analyzed. Experiment 1 demonstrated that liposomes composed of phospholipids E80 (commercial lecithins from egg yolk composed mainly of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) and of Hank's salts-glucose-lactose solution (E80-liposomes) were the most efficient in preserving post-thaw motility. The optimal concentration was 4 % (v/v). In Experiment 2, fertility rate after artificial insemination of semen frozen with E80-liposomes was 55 % (22/40) compared with 68 % (27/40) with the control extender containing egg yolk (EY) (p = 0.23). Post-thaw motility parameters were higher with EY than with E80-liposomes (p < 0.0001). For post-thaw membrane integrity no difference was observed between the two extenders (p = 0.08). Liposomes composed of egg yolk phospholipids appeared to be a promising alternative to replace egg yolk in semen freezing extenders in equine species. PMID:21924469

  3. SAC-B GaAs solar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, L.; Caon, A.; Contini, R.; D'Accolti, G.; Rossi, E.; Verzeni, G.; Flores, C.; Paletta, F.; Pedrazzoli, G.; Grattarola, M.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the electrical and mechanical design of the GaAs solar array of SAC-B, an Argentinian scientific satellite, planned for launch in 1995 into a 550-km circular orbit by Pegasus vehicle. The solar array is made up of four deployable wings, embodying approximately 1000 LPE GaAs solar cells, (30 x 41 sq mm), capable of providing about 215 W at 28 V at EOL. The mechanical structure of each panel comprises an aluminum honeycomb structure with carbon fiber skins; the active facesheet is covered with an insulating layer of kapton/fiberglass. Each panel is attached via a pair of hinges to the spacecraft body while a restraint/release mechanism holds the other panel edge to the spacecraft. Different considerations have been taken into account for the electrical and mechanical design of the solar array: geometrical constraints of the Pegasus static envelope and the satellite for the panel dimensioning, mission degradation factors, minimization of the magnetic moment, and realiability requirements. Several environmental tests (including thermal vacuum and vibration) are foreseen at panel and/or satellite level to verify performances during the mission.

  4. Tutorial: Evaluation of Recommender Systems ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2012)

    E-print Network

    Jannach, Dietmar

    - 1 - Tutorial: Evaluation of Recommender Systems ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2012 they work ? ­ Collaborative Filtering ­ Contentbased Filtering ­ KnowledgeBased Recommendations, Markus Zanker and Gerhard Friedrich Agenda What are recommender systems for? ­ Introduction How do

  5. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  6. Histological evaluation of pearl-sac development in the Concho Pearly Mussel (Cyrtonaias tampicoens) 

    E-print Network

    Tower, Stephan N.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the wound repair properties and epithelial cell proliferation in the processes necessary to develop a pearl-sac in the mantle of the Concho Pearly Mussel (Uniodidea: Cyrtonaias tampicoens). Samples...

  7. Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-09-01

    A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000(th) high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g(-1) at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g(-1) at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg(-1). The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles. PMID:23846530

  8. The maternal environment affects offspring viability via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Environmental conditions that reproductive females experience can influence patterns of offspring provisioning and fitness. In particular, prey availability can influence maternal reproduction and, in turn, affect the viability of their offspring. Although such maternal effects are widespread, the mechanisms by which these effects operate are poorly understood. We manipulated the amount of prey available to female brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to evaluate how this factor affects patterns of reproductive investment (total egg output, egg size, yolk steroids) and offspring viability (morphology, growth, survival). Experimental reduction of yolk in a subset of eggs enabled us to evaluate a potential causal mechanism (yolk investment) that mediates the effect of maternal prey availability on offspring viability. We show that limited prey availability significantly reduced egg size, which negatively influenced offspring size, growth, and survival. Experimental yolk removal from eggs directly reduced offspring size, which, in turn, negatively affected offspring growth and survival. These findings show that maternal environments (i.e., low prey) can affect offspring fitness via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size and highlight the complex set of indirect effects by which maternal effects can operate. PMID:24642545

  9. Phosphoregulatory protein 14-3-3 facilitates SAC1 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Bajaj Pahuja, Kanika; Wang, Jinzhi; Blagoveshchenskaya, Anastasia; Lim, Lillian; Madhusudhan, M S; Mayinger, Peter; Schekman, Randy

    2015-06-23

    Most secretory cargo proteins in eukaryotes are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and actively exported in membrane-bound vesicles that are formed by the cytosolic coat protein complex II (COPII). COPII proteins are assisted by a variety of cargo-specific adaptor proteins required for the concentration and export of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adaptor proteins are key regulators of cargo export, and defects in their function may result in disease phenotypes in mammals. Here we report the role of 14-3-3 proteins as a cytosolic adaptor in mediating SAC1 transport in COPII-coated vesicles. Sac1 is a phosphatidyl inositol-4 phosphate (PI4P) lipid phosphatase that undergoes serum dependent translocation between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex and controls cellular PI4P lipid levels. We developed a cell-free COPII vesicle budding reaction to examine SAC1 exit from the ER that requires COPII and at least one additional cytosolic factor, the 14-3-3 protein. Recombinant 14-3-3 protein stimulates the packaging of SAC1 into COPII vesicles and the sorting subunit of COPII, Sec24, interacts with 14-3-3. We identified a minimal sorting motif of SAC1 that is important for 14-3-3 binding and which controls SAC1 export from the ER. This LS motif is part of a 7-aa stretch, RLSNTSP, which is similar to the consensus 14-3-3 binding sequence. Homology models, based on the SAC1 structure from yeast, predict this region to be in the exposed exterior of the protein. Our data suggest a model in which the 14-3-3 protein mediates SAC1 traffic from the ER through direct interaction with a sorting signal and COPII. PMID:26056309

  10. Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1986-04-01

    Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

  11. Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul C. Sereno; Ricardo N. Martinez; Jeffrey A. Wilson; David J. Varricchio; Oscar A. Alcober; Hans C. E. Larsson; Tom Kemp

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundLiving birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only

  12. Transcriptome analysis of biomineralisation-related genes within the pearl sac: host and donor oyster contribution.

    PubMed

    McGinty, E L; Zenger, K R; Jones, D B; Jerry, D R

    2012-03-01

    Cultured pearl production is a complex biological process involving the implantation of a mantle graft from a donor pearl oyster along with a bead nucleus into the gonad of a second recipient host oyster. Therefore, pearl production potentially involves the genetic co-operation of two oyster genomes. Whilst many genes in the mantle tissue have been identified and linked to shell biomineralisation in pearl oysters, few studies have determined which of these biomineralisation genes are expressed in the pearl sac and potentially linked to pearl biomineralisation processes. It is also uncertain whether the host or donor oyster is primarily responsible for the expression of biomineralisation genes governing pearl formation, with only two shell matrix proteins previously identified as being expressed by the donor oyster in the pearl sac. To further our understanding of pearl formation, the pearl sac transcriptome of Pinctada maxima and Pinctada margaritifera was each sequenced to an equivalent 5× genome coverage with putative molluscan biomineralisation-related genes identified. Furthermore, the host and donor contribution of these expressed genes within the pearl sac were quantified using a novel approach whereby two pearl oyster species harbouring unique genomes, P. maxima or P. margaritifera, were used to produce xenografted pearl sacs. A total of 19 putative mollusc biomineralisation genes were identified and found to be expressed in the pearl sacs of P. maxima and P. margaritifera. From this list of expressed genes, species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified within seven of these genes; Linkine, N66, Perline, N44, MSI60, Calreticulin and PfCHS1. Based on the presence/absence of species diagnostic gene transcripts within xenografted pearl sacs, all seven genes were found to be expressed by the species used as the donor oyster. In one individual we also found that the host was expressing Linkine. These results convincingly show for the first time that the donor mantle tissue is primarily responsible for the expression of biomineralisation genes in the pearl sac. PMID:22325719

  13. Unusual microtubular cytoskeleton of apomictic embryo sac of Chondrilla juncea L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ko?ci?ska-Paj?k; J. Bednara

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  The mature apomictic embryo sac of Chondrilla juncea is highly vacuolated and demonstrates a polarization similar to that of the amphimictic gametophyte. The microtubule cytoskeleton\\u000a of this embryo sac is uncharacteristic and relatively weak. The microtubules are positioned along cell walls and resemble\\u000a cortical microtubules of somatic cells. They do not form the parallel, brushlike structures observed around the filiform

  14. Increasing the Capacity of SAC-OCDMA: Forward Error Correction or Coherent Sources?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Ayotte; Leslie A. Rusch

    2007-01-01

    We consider three different strategies for maximizing the capacity while minimizing the cost of spectral amplitude coding optical code-division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA): incoherent sources, multilaser sources and forward error correction (FEC). Due to their low cost and wide optical bandwidth, incoherent sources are often considered for SAC-OCDMA. Such sources exhibit reduced spectral efficiency due to their intensity-noise- limited performance. For

  15. Female Gametophyte Development in Maize: Microtubular Organization and Embryo Sac Polarity.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, B. Q.; Sheridan, W. F.

    1994-01-01

    The developmental stages of the maize embryo sac were correlated with the corresponding silk lengths of ear florets in the female inflorescence. The development of embryo sacs in the ovules of spikes occurs in a gradient pattern with the initiation of the embryo sac beginning at the base of the ear and progressing to the top. At the beginning of meiosis, the presence of conspicuous cortical microtubules coincides with the extensive elongation of the megasporocyte. The spindles at metaphase I and II align along the long axis of the megasporocyte leading to the linear alignment of the dyad and tetrad of megaspores. During megagametogenesis, micropylar and chalazal nuclei of the embryo sac undergo synchronized divisions and migration at the second and third mitosis. Radiate perinuclear microtubules are present during the interphase of the second and third mitosis, and inter-sister nuclear microtubules occur at the late four-nucleate embryo sac. The configuration and orientation of the spindles, phragmoplasts, and pairs of nuclei result in precise positioning of the nuclei. The fusion of the polar nuclei and the formation of a microtubule organizing center-like structure in the filiform apparatus occur right after the first division of the antipodal cells. The different patterns of organization of microtubules in the cells of the mature embryo sac reflect their structural adaptations for their future function. PMID:12244261

  16. Natural Resolution of Air Sac Lesions Caused by Mycoplasma meleagridis in Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bigland, C. H.

    1969-01-01

    Lesions caused by Mycoplasma meleagridis were followed in one hatch of turkeys from one day to 20½ weeks of age. Air sac lesion incidence increased from 20% at one day to 44% at six weeks of age with a slow decline to 10% at 10 weeks of age. Lesions were detectable on careful examination at 10-20% level to 20 weeks of age on laboratory examination, but at 20½ weeks only 0.07% lesions were found in 1000 turkeys from the same hatch. Air sac lesion severity, based on an arbitrary 0.5,1,2,3,+scale, increased in intensity and spread of air sac involvement from a mean of 1.5 at day old to 2.5 at five weeks of age. This declined to 1.0 at 10 weeks of age and lesions became progressively more faint until careful examination was necessary to detect them in birds 15 weeks and older. The latter would not be considered as a cause of total condemnation. The percentage of Mycoplasma isolations from the respiratory tissues were much higher in birds exhibiting air sac lesions than those in which no typical air sac lesions were visible, as follows. air sacs 51.6 vs. 2.9, lungs 43.3 vs. 4.0, trachea 47.2 vs. 4.6, sinus 38.5 vs. 19.0. PMID:4242766

  17. Penetration of Salmonella enteritidis through the yolk membrane in eggs from six genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infected laying hens can deposit Salmonella enteritidis inside developing eggs and thereby transmit disease to humans. Although deposition of S. enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in the albumen or on the yolk (vitelline) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs, migration across...

  18. Ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in CEP-2 extender with and without egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Ducha, Nur; Susilawati, T; Aulanni'am; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Pangestu, Mulyoto

    2012-10-15

    Sperm can change physiology and structure during storage in refrigerator temperature or frozen temperature that caused by cold shock or free radical. The aim of this study to evaluate ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in cauda epididymal plasma-based (CEP-2) extender with or without 20% egg yolk concentration at refrigerator temperature. Semen sample collected from three Limousin bull were diluted with CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk and CEP-2 without egg yolk, cooled and stored at 4-5 degrees C during eight days. Sperm ultrastructure were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were assessed on cleavage rate of embryo using in vitro fertilization method. The percentage data were transformed into arcsine before being analysis with ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison test. The result of study showed morphologically normal sperm after storage in CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk, whereas in CEP-2 without egg yolk morphologically abnormal sperm especially neck was fractured and head was destroyed. Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were significantly higher in CEP-2 extender with egg yolk 20% (74.29 +/- 4.95%; p < 0.05) than without egg yolk (30.00 +/- 12.02%; p < 0.05). Egg yolk 20% in CEP-2 extender protected ultrastructure and fertilizing ability after storage during eight days. PMID:24199476

  19. A comparison of the protective action of added egg yolks from five avian species to the cryopreservation of bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Su, Lei; Li, Xilong; Quan, Jiexia; Yang, Shihua; Li, Yahui; He, Xiechao; Tang, Xianghui

    2008-03-01

    Cryopreservation of domestic animal sperm has been widely used for artificial insemination (AI), and egg yolk is one of the most commonly used cryoprotectants during the freezing-thawing process. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of egg yolk from five avian species (domestic chicken, domestic duck, domestic goose, Japanese quail or domestic pigeon) and to optimize the concentration of egg yolk on the cryopreservation of bull sperm in terms of frozen-thawed sperm progressive motility and viability. The results were two-fold. First, they showed that pigeon egg yolk provided the best cryoprotective effects on the cryopreservation of bull sperm, compared with egg yolk of chicken, quail, goose or duck. Second, the best concentration of pigeon egg yolk in extender was 20% during cryopreservation among five concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 30 or 40%. The results suggest that pigeon egg yolk could be used as an alternative to chicken egg yolk in extender but requires further testing in fertility trials. PMID:17662543

  20. Inactivation kinetics of a four-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercial liquid egg yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to develop a general model of inactivation of salmonellae in commercial liquid egg yolk for temperatures ranging from 58 to 66 deg C by studying the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in liquid egg yolk. Heat-resistant salmonellae (three serovars of Enteritidis [two of p...

  1. Natural, but not lyophilized, low density lypoproteins were an acceptable alternative to egg yolk for cryopreservation of ram semen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Moustacas; F. G. Zaffalon; M. A. Lagares; A. M. Loaiza-Eccheverri; F. C. Varago; M. M. Neves; L. G. D. Heneine; R. P. Arruda; M. Henry

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the suitability of using natural or lyophilized low density lipoproteins (LDL), in lieu of whole egg yolk, in extenders for cryopreserving ram semen. Once extragonadal sperm reserves were depleted in 10 fertile Santa Inês cross rams, two ejaculates per ram were collected for cryopreservation. Nine extenders were used: Tris-16% egg yolk extender with 5% glycerol

  2. Laying-sequence-specific variation in yolk oestrogen levels, and relationship to plasma oestrogen in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tony D.; Ames, Caroline E.; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between plasma and yolk oestrogens in laying female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by manipulating plasma oestradiol (E2) levels, via injection of oestradiol-17?, in a sequence-specific manner to maintain chronically high plasma levels for later-developing eggs (contrasting with the endogenous pattern of decreasing plasma E2 concentrations during laying). We report systematic variation in yolk oestrogen concentrations, in relation to laying sequence, similar to that widely reported for androgenic steroids. In sham-manipulated females, yolk E2 concentrations decreased with laying sequence. However, in E2-treated females plasma E2 levels were higher during the period of rapid yolk development of later-laid eggs, compared with control females. As a consequence, we reversed the laying-sequence-specific pattern of yolk E2: in E2-treated females, yolk E2 concentrations increased with laying-sequence. In general therefore, yolk E2 levels were a direct reflection of plasma E2 levels. However, in control females there was some inter-individual variability in the endogenous pattern of plasma E2 levels through the laying cycle which could generate variation in sequence-specific patterns of yolk hormone levels even if these primarily reflect circulating steroid levels. PMID:15695208

  3. The protective effect of egg yolk from different avian species during the cryopreservation of Karayaka ram semen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recai Kulaks?z; Çi?dem Çebi; Ergun Akçay; Ali Da?k?n

    2010-01-01

    Egg yolk is one of the most widely used cryoprotective components for sperm preservation and a wide range of factors affect its action on sperm motility, viability and fertilizing ability. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of different species egg yolk, namely the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), the goose (Anatidae anser), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), duck

  4. ArPIKfyve regulates Sac3 protein abundance and turnover: disruption of the mechanism by Sac3I41T mutation causing Charcot-Marie-Tooth 4J disorder.

    PubMed

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Fligger, Jason; Delvecchio, Khortnal; Shisheva, Assia

    2010-08-27

    The mammalian phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P(2)) phosphatase Sac3 and ArPIKfyve, the associated regulator of the PtdIns3P-5 kinase PIKfyve, form a stable binary complex that associates with PIKfyve in a ternary complex to increase PtdIns(3,5)P(2) production. Whether the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 subcomplex functions outside the PIKfyve context is unknown. Here we show that stable or transient expression of ArPIKfyve(WT) in mammalian cells elevates steady-state protein levels and the PtdIns(3,5)P(2)-hydrolyzing activity of Sac3, whereas knockdown of ArPIKfyve has the opposite effect. These manipulations do not alter the Sac3 mRNA levels, suggesting that ArPIKfyve might control Sac3 protein degradation. Inhibition of protein synthesis in COS cells by cycloheximide reveals remarkably rapid turnover of expressed Sac3(WT) (t((1/2)) = 18.8 min), resulting from a proteasome-dependent clearance as evidenced by the extended Sac3(WT) half-life upon inhibiting proteasome activity. Coexpression of ArPIKfyve(WT), but not the N- or C-terminal halves, prolongs the Sac3(WT) half-life consistent with enhanced Sac3 protein stability through association with full-length ArPIKfyve. We further demonstrate that mutant Sac3, harboring the pathogenic Ile-to-Thr substitution at position 41 found in patients with CMT4J disorder, is similar to Sac3(WT) with regard to PtdIns(3,5)P(2)-hydrolyzing activity, association with ArPIKfyve, or rapid proteasome-dependent clearance. Remarkably, however, neither is the steady-state Sac3(I41T) elevated nor is the Sac3(I41T) half-life extended by coexpressed ArPIKfyve(WT), indicating that unlike with Sac3(WT), ArPIKfyve fails to prevent Sac3(I41T) rapid loss. Together, our data indentify a novel regulatory mechanism whereby ArPIKfyve enhances Sac3 abundance by attenuating Sac3 proteasome-dependent degradation and suggest that a failure of this mechanism could be the primary molecular defect in the pathogenesis of CMT4J. PMID:20630877

  5. Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption. PMID:22876878

  6. Formation of Yolk/SiO(2) shell structures using surfactant mixtures as template.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Xu, Dongsheng

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we develop a simple and general method for the fabrication of yolk/shell structures through a one-step encapsulation of particles by SiO(2) shells in aqueous mixtures of lauryl sulfonate betaine (LSB) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS). Various yolk/shell structures with different particle cores, such as SiO(2)@SiO(2), Au@SiO(2), and Fe(2)O(3)@SiO(2), have been successfully prepared. PMID:19199444

  7. Prox1 expression in the endolymphatic sac revealed by whole-mount fluorescent imaging of Prox1-GFP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2015-01-30

    This study describes a technical breakthrough in endolymphatic sac research, made possible by the use of the recently generated Prox1-GFP transgenic mouse model. Whole-mount imaging techniques through the decalcified temporal bone and three-dimensional observations of Prox1-GFP mouse tissue revealed the positive labeling of the endolymphatic sac in adult stage, and allowed, for the first time, the GFP-based identification of endolymphatic sac epithelial cells. Prox1 expression was observed in all parts of the endolymphatic sac epithelia. In intermediate portion of the endolymphatic sac, mitochondria-rich cells did not express Prox1, although ribosome-rich cells showed strong GFP labeling. The anatomical relationship between the endolymphatic sac and the surrounding vasculature was directly observed. In the endolymphatic sac, expression of Prox1 may suggest progenitor cell-like pluripotency or developmental similarity to systemic lymphatic vessels in other organs. This whole-mount imaging technique of the endolymphatic sac can be combined with other conventional histological, sectioning, and labeling techniques and will be very useful for future endolymphatic sac research. PMID:25529452

  8. Cell growth-promoting activity of fluid from eye sacs of the bubble-eye goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Sawatari, Etsuko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Matsumura, Takaharu; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2009-04-01

    The growth-promoting effects of fish body fluids, such as serum and embryonic extract, on fish cell cultures have been widely demonstrated. The bubble-eye variety of aquarium goldfish is characterized as having a large sac filled with fluid (sac fluid) under each eye. These sacs are believed to contain lymph, which is similar in composition to serum or blood plasma. In order to test whether the sac fluid can be used as an additive for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in growth factor supplements, we compared cell growth in media containing FBS together with different concentrations of sac fluid. A dose-dependent growth-promotion effect was observed in early passage caudal fin cells from both medaka and zebrafish. Cell-growth promotion was also confirmed in early passage medaka blastula cells and in a zebrafish embryonic cell line (ZF4). Replacement of the fluid in the eye sacs of bubble-eyes occurs within a couple of months after the sac fluid has been harvested, and the cell-growth promoting activity of the new fluid is similar to that of the fluid that was tapped initially. These findings suggest that sac fluid can be used as a growth-promoting supplement for fish cell culture. Importantly, the ability of the goldfish to replace the fluid combined with the fact that equipotent fluid can be repeatedly harvested from the eye sacs means that a sustainable source of the fluid can be obtained without needing to sacrifice the fish. PMID:19798918

  9. Case of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of lacrimal sac in a Japanese patient

    PubMed Central

    Kajita, Fusae; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Yotsukura, Jiro; Asanagi, Kaoru; Baba, Takayuki; Kishimoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the lacrimal sac. A 77-year-old man had epiphora of the right eye for three years. After visiting five clinics and hospitals, he was referred to our hospital, and the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a lacrimal sac mass. Dacryocysteography showed an obstruction of the right nasolacrimal duct, so we performed dacryocystectomy. After a histopathologic examination of the specimen, the patient was diagnosed with a DLBCL. Positron emission tomography scanning excluded metastases, and the final diagnosis was made of a primary DLBCL of the right lacrimal sac. He underwent radiotherapy with 30.6 Gray in total to the right lacrimal sac. After radiotherapy, no recurrence has been observed anywhere in his body for one year. Although a malignant lymphoma of the lacrimal sac is rare, clinicians should consider a primary malignant lymphoma in the differential diagnosis in patients with chronic dacryocystitis. PMID:21179217

  10. KNApSAcK-3D: a three-dimensional structure database of plant metabolites.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Shimura, Naoki; Otabe, Yuuki; Hirai-Morita, Aki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Ono, Naoaki; Ul-Amin, Md Altaf; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-02-01

    Studies on plant metabolites have attracted significant attention in recent years. Over the past 8 years, we have constructed a unique metabolite database, called KNApSAcK, that contains information on the relationships between metabolites and their expressing organism(s). In the present paper, we introduce KNApSAcK-3D, which contains the three-dimensional (3D) structures of all of the metabolic compounds included in the original KNApSAcK database. The 3D structure for each compound was optimized using the Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94), and a multiobjective genetic algorithm was used to search extensively for possible conformations and locate the global minimum. The resulting set of structures may be used for docking studies to identify new and potentially unexpected binding sites for target proteins. The 3D structures may also be utilized for more qualitative studies, such as the estimation of biological activities using 3D-QSAR. The database can be accessed via a link from the KNApSAcK Family website (http://kanaya.naist.jp/KNApSAcK_Family/) or directory at http://kanaya.naist.jp/knapsack3d/. PMID:23292603

  11. Multifunctional yolk-in-shell nanoparticles for pH-triggered drug release and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongyu; Qi, Bin; Moore, Thomas; Wang, Fenglin; Colvin, Daniel C.; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; Gore, John C.; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Mefford, O. Thompson; Alexis, Frank; Anker, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are synthesized for both pH-triggered drug release and imaging with radioluminescence, upconversion luminescent, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The particles have a yolk-in-shell morphology, with a radioluminescent core, an upconverting shell, and a hollow region between the core and shell for loading drugs. They are synthesized by controlled encapsulation of a radioluminescent nanophosphor yolk in a silica shell, partial etching of the yolk in acid, and encapsulation of the silica with an upconverting luminescent shell. Metroxantrone, a chemotherapy drug, was loaded into the hollow space between X-ray phosphor yolk and up-conversion phosphor shell through pores in the shell. To encapsulate the drug and control the release rate, the nanoparticles are coated with pH-responsive biocompatible polyelectrolyte layers of charged hyaluronic acid sodium salt and chitosan. The nanophosphors display bright luminescence under X-ray, blue light (480 nm), and infrared light (980 nm). They also served as T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with relaxivities of 3.5 mM?1 s?1 (r1) and 64 mM?1s?1 (r2). These multifunctional nanocapsules have applications in controlled drug delivery and multimodal imaging. PMID:24753264

  12. Increased yolk testosterone facilitates prenatal perceptual learning in Northern bobwhite quail ( Colinus virginianus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aline Bertin; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Erich Möstl; Robert Lickliter

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal learning plays an important role in the ontogeny of behavior and birds provide a useful model to explore whether and how prenatal exposure to hormones of maternal origin can influence prenatal learning and the development of behavior. In this study we assessed if prenatal exposure to yolk testosterone can influence auditory learning in embryos of Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus

  13. Manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod anodes for high capacity lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhengyang; Xu, Lin; Yan, Mengyu; Han, Chunhua; He, Liang; Hercule, Kalele Mulonda; Niu, Chaojiang; Yuan, Zefan; Xu, Wangwang; Qu, Longbing; Zhao, Kangning; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-01-14

    Transition metal oxides have attracted much interest for their high energy density in lithium batteries. However, the fast capacity fading and the low power density still limit their practical implementation. In order to overcome these challenges, one-dimensional yolk-shell nanorods have been successfully constructed using manganese oxide as an example through a facile two-step sol-gel coating method. Dopamine and tetraethoxysilane are used as precursors to obtain uniform polymer coating and silica layer followed by converting into carbon shell and hollow space, respectively. As anode material for lithium batteries, the manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod electrode has a reversible capacity of 660 mAh/g for initial cycle at 100 mA/g and exhibits excellent cyclability with a capacity of 634 mAh/g after 900 cycles at a current density of 500 mA/g. An enhanced capacity is observed during the long-term cycling process, which may be attributed to the structural integrity, the stability of solid electrolyte interphase layer, and the electrochemical actuation of the yolk-shell nanorod structure. The results demonstrate that the manganese oxide is well utilized with the one-dimensional yolk-shell structure, which represents an efficient way to realize excellent performance for practical applications. PMID:25490409

  14. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    PubMed

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G G; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  15. Vitellogenin, the extraovarian precursor of the protein yolk in Crustacea : A review

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Vitellogenin, the extraovarian precursor of the protein yolk in Crustacea : A review J. J. MEUSY Jussieu, 75230 Paris cedex 05, France Summary. This article reviews our knowledge of crustacean to a mechanism of endocytosis (micropinocytosis) (see review in Busson-Mabillot, 1969). Thus, arriving

  16. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  17. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs ( Megascops asio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Caldwell Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the

  18. Fertility results using bovine semen cryopreserved with extenders based on egg yolk and soy bean extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw; R. M. Haring; L. M. T. E. Kaal-Lansbergen; J. H. G. den Daas

    2000-01-01

    Semen extenders containing components such as egg yolk and skim milk are difficult to standardize and they introduce the risk of microbial contamination. A well-defined extender not originating from animal tissues would present a valuable contribution to the AI industry. We evaluated the fertility of bovine semen cryopreserved with 3 different extenders: 1) TRIS-Standard, prepared at 2 local AI laboratories,

  19. Effects of yolk contamination, shearing, and heating on foaming properties of fresh egg white.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Wang, T

    2009-03-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of yolk contamination, shearing, and thermal treatment on foaming properties of liquid egg white. Samples obtained from industrial processing were also evaluated. Whipping and purging methods were both used to assess their effectiveness and sensitivity in evaluating foaming. A concentration as low as 0.022% (as-is basis) of yolk contamination caused significant reductions in foaming capacity and foaming speed. The neutral lipid fraction of egg yolk caused the major detrimental effect on foaming, and phospholipids fraction did not give significant foaming reduction at a concentration as high as 0.1%. High-speed and short-time shearing caused no apparent damage but longer shearing time significantly impaired foaming. Heat-induced foaming change is a function of temperature and holding time. Foaming was significantly reduced at a temperature of 55 degrees C for 10 min, whereas it did not change up to 3 min at a heating temperature of 62 to 64 degrees C. Industrial processing steps (pumping, pipe transfer, and storage) did not produce negative effects on foaming of the final products and the controlled pasteurization was actually beneficial for good foaming performance. Therefore, yolk contamination of the egg white was the major factor in reducing foaming properties of the white protein. PMID:19323729

  20. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  1. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...place in a rack. (5) After all the eggs are sampled, place the rack of tubes on a vortex shaker for 30 seconds. (6) Centrifuge the samples at 2500 RPM (1000×g) for 30 minutes. (7)(i) For egg yolk samples being tested to retain the...

  2. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...place in a rack. (5) After all the eggs are sampled, place the rack of tubes on a vortex shaker for 30 seconds. (6) Centrifuge the samples at 2500 RPM (1000×g) for 30 minutes. (7)(i) For egg yolk samples being tested to retain the...

  3. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...place in a rack. (5) After all the eggs are sampled, place the rack of tubes on a vortex shaker for 30 seconds. (6) Centrifuge the samples at 2500 RPM (1000×g) for 30 minutes. (7)(i) For egg yolk samples being tested to retain the...

  4. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...place in a rack. (5) After all the eggs are sampled, place the rack of tubes on a vortex shaker for 30 seconds. (6) Centrifuge the samples at 2500 RPM (1000×g) for 30 minutes. (7)(i) For egg yolk samples being tested to retain the...

  5. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...place in a rack. (5) After all the eggs are sampled, place the rack of tubes on a vortex shaker for 30 seconds. (6) Centrifuge the samples at 2500 RPM (1000×g) for 30 minutes. (7)(i) For egg yolk samples being tested to retain the...

  6. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Yolk carotenoids and stable isotopes reveal links among

    E-print Network

    BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Yolk carotenoids and stable isotopes reveal links among in Rights of Canada 2010 Abstract Nutrients that are limited in availability, such as carotenoids that affect the capacity of female birds to meet their carotenoid requirements are poorly under- stood. We

  7. Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen

    E-print Network

    Husseini, Munther Dawod

    1975-01-01

    with 12 mls. of 0. 9N saline and stored at -20 C. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein. The serum was sepa- rated by centrifugation, and 0. 5 ml. aliquots stored in 25 ml. capped vials at -20 C. Blood serum and egg yolk samples were...

  8. Experimental Manipulation of Steroid Concentrations in Circulation and in Egg Yolks of Turtles

    E-print Network

    Janzen, Fredric

    Experimental Manipulation of Steroid Concentrations in Circulation and in Egg Yolks of Turtles Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie,Wyoming 82071 ABSTRACT Steroid hormones in egg.Turtles exhibited similar amounts (o1ng/ml) of circulat- ing steroids (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol-17b

  9. Endogenous yolk steroid hormones in turtles with different sex-determining mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Janzen, F J; Wilson, M E; Tucker, J K; Ford, S P

    1998-09-01

    Maternal transfer of nutrients, including steroid hormones, to embryos during gestation in viviparous amniotes is well known, but the concordant process in oviparous amniotes is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that steroid hormones are present in freshly laid eggs of archosaurs and that their concentrations may influence offspring phenotypes. This process might be especially important in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), because embryonic sex determination as well as other traits is thought to be influenced by temperature-dependent steroid metabolism. To evaluate the potential importance of endogenous steroid hormones to developing reptilian embryos, we (1) measured testosterone and estradiol-17beta levels in fresh eggs from natural populations of three species of turtles with TSD and two with genotypic sex determination (GSD), (2) evaluated testosterone concentrations within and among clutches of two turtle species with TSD, and (3) correlated clutch testosterone concentrations with incubation length, body mass, and sex ratio of offspring of two turtle species with TSD from eggs incubated at pivotal sex-determining temperatures. Turtles with TSD had higher levels of yolk testosterone (up to approximately 300 ng/g) than turtles with GSD (up to approximately 15 ng/g), suggesting a potential functional dichotomy between these two classes of sex-determining mechanisms; concentrations of yolk estradiol-17beta were low and fairly uniform among all five species (approximately 1 ng/g). Yolk testosterone varied substantially among, and relatively little within, clutches, indicating considerable potential as a mechanism behind clutch effects on offspring phenotypes. Steroid concentrations were unrelated to order of oviposition, unlike in birds, but yolk testosterone levels were correlated with incubation length and possibly with offspring sex ratio. Embryos of Chelydra serpentina serpentina from clutches with higher yolk testosterone hatched soonest at 21.8 degreesC; the opposite was true for Trachemys scripta elegans embryos incubated at 28.2 degreesC. At 27.6 degreesC, C. s. serpentina clutches with higher yolk testosterone produced more male-biased offspring sex ratios. Taken together, these results are strikingly consistent with published data on other oviparous amniotes and with the known physiology of follicular development and embryonic sexual differentiation in these disparate taxa. The findings of these experiments suggest that yolk testosterone in turtle eggs may be biologically significant. PMID:9707477

  10. Genome Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Provide Clues to the Origin and Pathogenesis of Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A.; Tax, David M. J.; Gillis, Ad J. M.; Dorssers, Lambert C. J.; Koestler, Devin C.; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina’s HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we identified specific and global methylation differences between GCT subtypes, providing insight into their developmental timing and underlying developmental biology. Data and extended annotation are deposited at GEO (GSE58538 and GPL18809). PMID:25859847

  11. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A; Tax, David M J; Gillis, Ad J M; Dorssers, Lambert C J; Koestler, Devin C; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina's HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we identified specific and global methylation differences between GCT subtypes, providing insight into their developmental timing and underlying developmental biology. Data and extended annotation are deposited at GEO (GSE58538 and GPL18809). PMID:25859847

  12. Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Federer, R.N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A.N.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  13. Lipophorin lipase from the yolk of Manduca sexta eggs: identification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Van Antwerpen, R; Law, J H

    1992-01-01

    In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta high density lipophorin from adult insects (HDLp-A) delivers lipids to developing oocytes. During this lipid delivery HDLp-A is taken up by the oocyte and converted to a very high density lipophorin (VHDLp), which is stored in protein storage granules (yolk bodies). A membrane-free lysate of isolated M. sexta yolk bodies was demonstrated to contain lipoprotein lipase activity that hydrolyses the diacylglycerol of HDLp-A. With HDLp-A as a substrate yolk body lipophorin lipase (YBLpL) activity was shown to be maximal between pH 9 and pH 9.5. NaCl concentration was optimal between 0.7 M and 1 M. YBLpL activity required neither bovine serum albumin nor calcium ions but appeared to be stimulated by 5 mM EDTA. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate effectively inhibited YBLpL activity, indicating the presence of a serine in the active site of the enzyme. The identified lipase activity co-eluted with lipophorins and vitellins from the yolk in the void volume of a Sephadex G-75 gel filtration column. This observation suggests that the lipase has a Mr of more than 80,000, or that the enzyme is associated with the lipoproteins. Incubation of HDLp-A with yolk body lysate converted HDLp-A to two classes of higher density lipophorins. The highest density lipophorins produced during this incubation approached the density of VHDLp as it is isolated from mature eggs. The possible role of YBLpL activity in the delivery of lipids to developing oocytes is discussed. PMID:1623220

  14. Effects of vitrification on ram spermatozoa using free-egg yolk extenders.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Olga; Vidal, Ana; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Iniesta-Cuerda, María; Ramón, Manuel; Del Olmo, Enrique; Fernández-Santos, Rocío; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana Josefa

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the behavior of ram spermatozoa subjected to a vitrification process in free-egg yolk diluents in relation with conventional diluents and cryopreservation protocol used in this species. Previously it was investigated the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sucrose and glycerol, based on different concentrations (sucrose at 0.03M, 0.05M, 0.15M and 0.25M; and glycerol at 3%, 7%, 14% and 18%) compared to a commercial extender (Biladyl® with 20% egg yolk and 7% glyerol). Cryoprotectants which reported less toxicity were chosen to perform the vitrification and results were compared with the conventional cryopreservation. Semen from three rams was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm evaluation was carried out at 0, 2 and 4h through the incubation time at 37°C for the experiment of toxicity and, at thawing when cryopreservation was performed. The sperm quality throughout the incubation time always resulted lower (P?0.05) for the free-egg yolk diluents in relation to Biladyl® (control), obtaining the lowest values of sperm quality with the highest concentrations of sucrose and glycerol. The vitrification was carried out with combinations of sucrose and glycerol (sucrose at 0.03 and 0.05M with 3% and 7% of glycerol, respectively) and with Biladyl® (at different sperm concentrations). The vitrification decreased drastically (P?0.05) the sperm quality when combinations of sucrose and glycerol were used. Nevertheless, the sperm samples vitrified with Biladyl® at the lowest sperm concentration showed acceptable values of viability, acrosome integrity and DFI, although the sperm motility was strongly decreased. In conclusion, the use of vitrification with diluents based on combinations of sucrose and glycerol did not work for semen cryopreservation of ram. Promising results were obtained when diluents with egg yolk were used in the vitrification procedure, although more studies are necessary to improve this technique and the use of diluents without egg yolk. PMID:26004240

  15. Deafness due to bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours in a case of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kempermann, G; Neumann, H P; Scheremet, R; Volk, B; Mann, W; Gilsbach, J; Laszig, R

    1996-01-01

    A case of bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours is reported. In a patient with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, tumour growth in the right cerebellopontine angle caused deafness. The tumour was removed and classified as a metastasis from a thyroid carcinoma. However, on thyroidectomy no primary neoplasm could be found. Eight years later a similar tumour was operated on in the left petrosal bone. Histological appearance, immunocytochemical findings, and the clinical context gave evidence that the tumours had to be reclassified as endolymphatic sac tumours--extremely rare entities. The report supports the hypothesis, suggested by the few earlier case reports, that endolymphatic sac tumours could be one of the inherent tumour manifestations in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Images PMID:8795608

  16. A complicated, metastatic, humeral air sac cystadenocarcinoma in a timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh).

    PubMed

    Azmanis, Panagiotis; Stenkat, Julia; Hübel, Jens; Böhme, Julia; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria Elisabeth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-03-01

    A 9-year-old male timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh) was presented because of inability to fly and suspected trauma. The owner also had observed dyspnea, with tail bobbing and open-beak breathing. On clinical examination, a hard, painful mass was palpable in the left proximal humerus and axillary area. Radiographs revealed a radiodense soft tissue mass of the left humerus with no bony involvement, multifocal opacities in lung and air sacs, and an enlarged spleen. An asymmetric, vascularized cyst was detected in the mass by ultrasound examination. Results of biopsy of the mass revealed multifocal cysts composed of unilayer isoprismatic cells laying in vascularized connective tissue. Because of the severity of clinical signs and the poor clinical condition, the bird was euthanatized. On postmortem examination, the findings were air sac cystadenocarcinoma involving the humeral air sac with metastases in the spleen and kidneys, atherosclerosis, pneumoconiosis, and mycotic granulomatous pneumonia and airsacculitis with isolation of Aspergillus niger. PMID:23772455

  17. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  18. Anthocyanin and colour changes during processing of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L., cv. Hicaznar) juice from sacs and whole fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özge Turfan; Meltem Türky?lmaz; Oktay Yemi?; Mehmet Özkan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of clarification and pasteurisation on anthocyanins (ACNs) and the colour of pomegranate juice (PJ) produced from sacs and whole fruits were investigated. Clarification caused a loss of 4% of ACNs in juice from sacs (JFS) and a loss of 19% in juice from whole fruit (JFWF). After pasteurisation, there was an 8–14% and 13–9% loss of ACNs from

  19. Automatic Segmentation of the Spinal Cord and the Dural Sac in Lumbar MR Images Using Gradient Vector Flow Field

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    Automatic Segmentation of the Spinal Cord and the Dural Sac in Lumbar MR Images Using Gradient that extracts the spinal cord and the dural sac from T2- weighted sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images Systems and be used daily for diagnostic examinations in many clinical settings [1]. The spinal cord

  20. Sac enlargement due to seroma after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with the Endologix PowerLink device.

    PubMed

    Nano, Giovanni; Dalainas, Ilias; Bianchi, Paolo G; Gotti, Riccardo; Casana, Renato; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G

    2006-01-01

    A patient who had undergone endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with the Endologix PowerLink bifurcated system presented with delayed aortic aneurysm enlargement due to assumed endotension. He was treated with aortic sac evacuation and wrapping of the endograft. This is the first report of endotension and aneurysm sac enlargement after implantation of the PowerLink endograft. PMID:16414406

  1. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  2. Wilms' Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilms' tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms' tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  3. Yolk hormone levels in the eggs of snapping turtles and painted turtles.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Although yolk steroids appear to play important roles in the development, growth, and behavior of some birds, their effects in oviparous reptiles are largely unknown. These investigations were initiated to determine initial levels of steroid hormones in the yolks of eggs from two turtle species. Clutches of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) eggs were collected and individual egg yolks were analyzed for estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and testosterone (T) using specific RIAs. E(2) and T levels differed significantly between species, the mean E(2) value in snapping turtles was 2.78+/-0.095 (ng/g) compared to 0.89+/-0.064 (ng/g) for painted turtles, and the mean value for T in snapping turtle yolks was 2.56+/-0.098 (ng/g) compared to 0.68+/-0.045 (ng/g) for painted turtles. In addition, E(2) levels were greater than T levels in both species. Within each species, there were significant differences among clutches from different females. E(2) levels in the snapping turtle yolks varied from a clutch mean of 1.38 to 4.55 ng/g and in painted turtles, the clutch means for E(2) varied from 0.34 to 1.34 ng/g. T levels demonstrated similar phenomena within species, with levels in snapping turtles varying from a clutch mean of 0.68 to 4.71 ng/g. Painted turtle levels of T varied from a clutch mean of 0.22 to 0.72 ng/g. There were also significant differences in the E(2)/T ratio, however, E(2)/T ratios did not differ between species. Painted turtle follicles of different sizes showed significant differences in levels of both E(2) and T, and these differences may reflect differing deposition patterns of these steroids in the egg yolk of this turtle during vitellogenesis. The differences in E(2) and T concentration reported here could have important implications for development, growth, and behavior in oviparous reptilian species. PMID:12161198

  4. Study of the aggregation behaviour of egg yolk lecithin/bile salt mixtures by increasing the ionic strength 

    E-print Network

    Madenci, Dilek

    2009-11-25

    This thesis describes a study of the aggregational behaviour of egg yolk lecithin (EYL), a natural lecithin, and bile salt mixtures especially with respect to an increase of the ionic strength of the solvent. Mixtures ...

  5. Plasma Yolk Precursor Dynamics during Egg Production by Female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila): Characterization and Indices of

    E-print Network

    372 Plasma Yolk Precursor Dynamics during Egg Production by Female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila: Anseriformes, Aythya marila). We also evaluated VTG and total VLDL-TG as physiological indices of reproductive

  6. Characterization of PHB1 and Its Role in Mitochondrial Maturation and Yolk Platelet Degradation during Development of Artemia Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiang; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Sun, Yu-Xia; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts) with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. Principal Finding Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. Conclusions/Significance PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development. PMID:25310573

  7. Influence of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition of egg yolks and reproductive performance in the turkey 

    E-print Network

    Cornett, Bonita Manis

    1966-01-01

    INPLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF EGG YOLKS AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE TURKEY A Thesis By BONITA MANIS CORNETT Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillpent... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Biochemistry and Nutrition INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF EGG YOLKS AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE TURKEY A Thesis By BONITA MANIS CORNETT Appr...

  8. DETERMINATION OF SULFAMETHAZINE AND ITS MAJOR METABOLITES IN EGG ALBUMIN AND EGG YOLK BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Badar Shaikh; Nathan Rummel; Dan Donoghue

    1999-01-01

    A quantitative liquid chromatographic method for the determination of sulfamethazine (SMZ), N4-acetyl sulfa-methazine (N4-acetyl-SMZ), and desamino sulfamethazine (desamino-SMZ) in egg albumin and egg yolk is described. Egg albumin or yolk was homogenized in acetonitrile and centrifuged. The supernatant was evaporated to dryness and residue reconstituted in the mobile phase. Albumin extract was directly analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  9. Changes in physicochemical properties of egg white and yolk proteins from duck shell eggs due to hydrostatic pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Lai, K M; Chuang, Y S; Chou, Y C; Hsu, Y C; Cheng, Y C; Shi, C Y; Chi, H Y; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    The shell of the duck egg did not crack after pressure treatments (300 to 500 MPa; 25 degrees C; 10 min) in this study; therefore, the changes of physicochemical properties of egg white and yolk proteins from the intact shell egg by pressure treatment were first investigated and compared with those of pressurized hen liquid eggs. Although the proximate compositions of duck eggs and hen eggs were similar, the moisture and protein contents of hen whole eggs were higher than those of duck whole eggs. The protein contents of duck egg white and yolk were slightly lower than those of hen eggs, and the moisture content of duck egg white was equal to that of hen egg white, whereas that of duck egg yolk was lower than that of hen egg yolk. After pressure treatment at 500 MPa, the results of solubility, sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobicity, and residual denaturation enthalpy showed that egg white proteins underwent slight but significant unfolding and aggregation, whereas pressure treatments below 500 MPa induced insignificant changes in the physicochemical properties. On the other hand, pressure treatments at 400 and 500 MPa significantly reduced the solubility and residual denaturation enthalpy of egg yolk proteins. However, the native PAGE result showed that pressure treatment up to 500 MPa did not affect the protein components of egg white and yolk. The results showed that the application of pressure treatment on duck shell egg may induce reversible denaturation of both egg white and yolk proteins. The egg white and yolk proteins may be prevented from denaturation after pressure treatment in the presence of the eggshell compared with the absence of the eggshell. As reported in the literature, pressure treatments at 300 to 500 MPa and 25 degrees C would be efficient for decontamination of duck shell eggs. Therefore, based on the consideration for food safety and functional properties, pressure processing can be a good preservation technique for duck shell eggs. PMID:20308405

  10. Yolk of a “scanty vitellin” mutant, vit, of Bombyx mori is lacking in vitellin and 30 kDa proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Fujikawa; Yutaka Kawaguchi; Yutaka Banno; Katsumi Koga; Hiroshi Doira

    1995-01-01

    A novel mutant named “scanty vitellin” (vit) of Bombyx mori, induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, was analyzed for yolk proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The ovary of vit\\/vit pupae was lacking in vitellin and the 30 kDa proteins that are yolk constituents synthesized outside the ovary. However, the vit\\/vit ovary had a normal amount of

  11. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  12. Successful sequential sac ligation for an unruptured giant omphalocele: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Tsuyoshi; Tsuda, Mineyuki

    2006-01-01

    A giant omphalocele is difficult to treat and various methods have been tried with varying results. We describe a technique of sequential sac ligation to achieve rapid and gentle reduction of the herniated abdominal contents, followed by delayed primary closure of the abdominal wall defect. PMID:16865514

  13. Defective histone supply causes condensin-dependent chromatin alterations, SAC activation and chromosome decatenation impairment.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Pineda, Marina; Cabello-Lobato, María J; Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando; Prado, Félix

    2014-11-10

    The structural organization of chromosomes is essential for their correct function and dynamics during the cell cycle. The assembly of DNA into chromatin provides the substrate for topoisomerases and condensins, which introduce the different levels of superhelical torsion required for DNA metabolism. In particular, Top2 and condensin are directly involved in both the resolution of precatenanes that form during replication and the formation of the intramolecular loop that detects tension at the centromeric chromatin during chromosome biorientation. Here we show that histone depletion activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and impairs sister chromatid decatenation, leading to chromosome mis-segregation and lethality in the absence of the SAC. We demonstrate that histone depletion impairs chromosome biorientation and activates the Aurora-dependent pathway, which detects tension problems at the kinetochore. Interestingly, SAC activation is suppressed by the absence of Top2 and Smc2, an essential component of condensin. Indeed, smc2-8 suppresses catenanes accumulation, mitotic arrest and growth defects induced by histone depletion at semi-permissive temperature. Remarkably, SAC activation by histone depletion is associated with condensin-mediated alterations of the centromeric chromatin. Therefore, our results reveal the importance of a precise interplay between histone supply and condensin/Top2 for pericentric chromatin structure, precatenanes resolution and centromere biorientation. PMID:25300489

  14. An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) for the aquarius/SAC-D soil moisture product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Aquarius/SAC-D mission has been developed for assessing the accuracy of soil moisture retrievals from passive L-band remote sensing. The implementation of the OSSE is based on: a 1-km land surface model over the Red-Arkansas River Basin, a forward mi...

  15. Vol. 3, No. 11 Special issue: OOPS track at SAC 2004, Nicosia/Cyprus

    E-print Network

    Cazzola, Walter

    for example [15,3]) stressed the relevance of reflection, reflective behavior and meta-level architectures- tures, ­ that is, two of the most used programming architectures ­ are intrinsically reflective [12Vol. 3, No. 11 Special issue: OOPS track at SAC 2004, Nicosia/Cyprus SmartReflection: Efficient

  16. The South China Sea, a cul-de-sac of North Pacific Intermediate Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzhu You; Ching-Sheng Chern; Yih Yang; Cho-Teng Liu; Kon-Kee Liu; Su-Cheng Pai

    2005-01-01

    This study discusses branching of the Kuroshio Current including North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) into the South China Sea (SCS). The spreading path of the subtropical salinity minimum of NPIW is southwestward pointing to the Luzon Strait between Taiwan and Luzon islands. Using a large collection of updated hydrography, results show that the SCS is a cul-de-sac for the subtropical

  17. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties. PMID:25711821

  18. First Description of Egg Sacs and Early Larval Development in Hynobiid Salamanders (Urodela, Hynobiidae, Batrachuperus)

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    First Description of Egg Sacs and Early Larval Development in Hynobiid Salamanders (Urodela embryonic development of an Iranian hynobiid salamander (the Eastern nominal taxon, Batrachuperus gor salamander, Batrachuperus persicus Eiselt and Steiner, 1970, was based on larvae collected from the western

  19. Deafness due to bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours in a case of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Kempermann; H P Neumann; R Scheremet; B Volk; W Mann; J Gilsbach; R Laszig

    1996-01-01

    A case of bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours is reported. In a patient with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, tumour growth in the right cerebellopontine angle caused deafness. The tumour was removed and classified as a metastasis from a thyroid carcinoma. However, on thyroidectomy no primary neoplasm could be found. Eight years later a similar tumour was operated on in the left petrosal

  20. Laparoscopic Treatment of Acute Ovarian Incarceration into the Pelvic Peritoneal Sac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kataoka; Rika Egami; Yuki Izumi; Yoko Yamada; Katsuko Egashira; Akiko Miyahara; Masao Fukuhara; Yoshitsugu Watanabe; Gen-ishi Nakamura

    2009-01-01

    Pelvic pain is a common symptom in women of reproductive age. Acute pelvic pain with rapid onset demands prompt diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a patient with ovarian incarceration of acute onset. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ovarian incarceration into the pelvic peritoneal sac in a woman of reproductive age. In the present

  1. 2 CFR Appendix X to Part 200 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) X Appendix X to Part 200 Grants and Agreements Office of Management...AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. X Appendix X to Part 200—Data Collection Form (Form...

  2. 13th ISTC SAC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics"

    E-print Network

    for ATLAS construction approved 1998: ISTC project #441 2000: Assembly of Barrel modules and end-cap wheels.Smirnov/NRNU "MEPhI" 13th ISTC SAC Seminar 4 TRT Barrel: · 3 module types in R * 32 modules · 1.44 m long straws-1998: Major Technical Design Reports for ATLAS construction approved 1998: ISTC project #441 2000: Assembly

  3. Differential Effects of Maternal Yolk Androgens on Male and Female Offspring: A Role for Sex-Specific Selection?

    PubMed Central

    Tschirren, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major) with a literature review to test the hypothesis that sex-specific selection on traits affected by yolk androgens determines which sex is more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure. An experimental increase of the testosterone content in the egg boosted the post-hatching growth of male, but not female great tit nestlings. However, I found no evidence that survival selection on body mass or size is acting differently in the two sexes. A literature review revealed that yolk androgen manipulations affect the growth of males and females differently across species. Interestingly, in studies performed in the wild a significant association between the strength and direction of sexual size dimorphism and sex-specific sensitivities to yolk androgens was observed. In studies performed in captivity, no such relationship was found. Thus, across species there is some evidence that sex-specific selection on body size influences how strongly growth trajectories of males and females are affected by maternally-derived yolk androgens. PMID:26192990

  4. For uptake of yolk precursors, epithelial cell-oocyte gap junctional communication is required by insects representing six different orders.

    PubMed

    Waksmonski, Stacy L.; Woodruff, Richard I.

    2002-06-01

    For uptake of vitellogenin protein into nascent yolk spheres, communication through open gap junction channels between the follicle epithelium and oocyte is required by six different insects representing six different orders. It was recently shown in the hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus, that endocytic uptake of yolk protein resulting in the formation of nascent yolk spheres depended upon an intact epithelium communicating with the oocyte through patent gap junctions. Following treatment with octanol, which down-regulated gap junctions below the level of dye coupling, vitellogenin uptake was terminated. Yet, for another hemipteran, Dysdercus intermedius, it has been shown that yolk spheres can form even when all epithelial cells have been stripped from the oocyte. To determine if the mechanism seen in Oncopeltus is present in other insects, we utilized the same techniques to study nascent yolk sphere production in a dipteran, Drosophila melanogaster, a lepidopteran, Actias luna, a hymenopteran, Xylocopa virginica, a coleopteran, Tenebrio molitor and an orthopteran, Acheta domesticus. In each of these, when gap junctions were down-regulated yolk uptake quickly stopped. That six different insects from six different orders all required a gap junctionally transmitted chemical signal of epithelial cell origin suggests that this mechanism is widespread throughout the insects. PMID:12770077

  5. Stable isotopes link diet to avian yolk carotenoid allocation: a comparative study of five auk species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    PubMed

    Hipfner, J Mark; Hobson, Keith A; Dale, James; McGraw, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of important but environmentally limited nutrients, such as carotenoids, often represents a trade-off between homeostasis and reproduction. However, key questions remain about how diet and species traits influence carotenoid allocation. We studied yolk carotenoid profiles and yolk color in relation to trophic level (based on delta(15)N values) in five species of seabirds belonging to the family Alcidae: common murre (Uria aalge), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata). In three species, which ranged from low (tufted puffin) to high (pigeon guillemot) trophic level, yolks had pink to red hues and contained exclusively astaxanthin, while yolks of species from a high trophic level (common murre) and from a generalist forager (rhinoceros auklet) had yellow to orange hues and contained astaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The absence of a systematic relationship between trophic level and carotenoid types suggests that these species possess adaptations for the uptake and use of specific carotenoids. In contrast, total yolk carotenoid concentrations were best explained by the combination of species and trophic level: lower-trophic-level feeding was linked to production of carotenoid-rich yolks, both across species and within the one generalist species. We conclude that both behavioral and physiological traits can play strong roles in the acquisition and allocation of critical nutrients from mothers to their offspring. PMID:20210648

  6. Correlation analysis of the total IgY level in hen serum, egg yolk and offspring serum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between IgY levels of the serum and the yolk has been well documented in wild and domestic birds. The levels of total yolk IgY can be an index of the general health status of birds and may contribute to breeding programs when fitness of the offspring is a concern. We measured the levels of total serum IgY and yolk IgY in three different breeds (White Leghorn, Silkie and Dongxiang blue-shell) using indirect ELISA, and found that there was a significantly positive correlation between the levels of total serum IgY and total yolk IgY in all three breeds (White Leghorn: r?=?0.404, P?yolk IgY levels (r?=?0.481, P?yolk and offspring serum. Our results suggest that total IgY level could be used as an index for chicken fitness. PMID:23497583

  7. Histological structures of native and cooked yolks from duck egg observed by SEM and cryo-SEM.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuo-Chiang; Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming

    2009-05-27

    A method was used to fix duck egg yolk while retaining its original sol structure to elucidate the fine structure of native yolk by using fixation with liquid nitrogen and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Native yolk spheres showed a polyhedron shape with a diameter at approximately 50 to 100 ?m and packed closely together. Furthermore, the interior microstructure of the native yolk spheres showed that a great amount of round globules ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 ?m were embedded in a continuous phase with a lot of voids. After cooking, the sizes of the spheres were almost unchanged, and the continuous phase became a fibrous network structure observed by SEM with chemical fixation probably constituted of low density lipoprotein (LDL). The fine structure of the native yolk can be observed by cryo-SEM; however, the microstructure of yolk granules and plasma from cooked shell eggs can be observed by SEM with chemical fixation. PMID:19358603

  8. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30?cm H2O (2.94?kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are smaller in these deeper-diving species than in the spheniscid penguin of the morphometry study. If penguins do inhale to this maximum air sac volume prior to their deepest dives, the magnitude and distribution of the body O2 store would change considerably. In emperor penguins, total body O2 would increase by 75%, and the respiratory fraction would increase from 33% to 61%. We emphasize that the maximum pre-dive respiratory air volume is still unknown in penguins. However, even lesser increases in air sac volume prior to a dive would still significantly increase the O2 store. More refined evaluations of the respiratory O2 store and baroprotective mechanisms in penguins await further investigation of species-specific lung morphometry, start-of-dive air volumes and body buoyancy, and the possibility of air exhalation during dives. PMID:25740902

  9. Chitosan gel formulations containing egg yolk oil and epidermal growth factor for dermal burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Yenilmez, E; Ba?aran, E; Arslan, R; Berkman, M S; Güven, U M; Bayçu, C; Yazan, Y

    2015-02-01

    In the present study chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (EYO) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) were formulated successfully aiming at enhanced topical treatment of dermal burns the combination of traditional approaches with modern drug delivery systems. Physicochemical properties of the formulations were analyzed and efficacy of the formulations prepared were evaluated versus a commercial product; Silverdin (1% silver sulfadiazine) in vivo on Wistar rats. Burns were generated on the back of the rats and at predetermined time intervals tissue samples were collected and evaluated histologically. The analyses showed that chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (E1) and chitosan based gel formulations containing EYO and EGF (M1) formulations seem to be better alternatives for Silverdin with a significant difference (p < 0.05) considering healing ranks of tissue samples. PMID:25997244

  10. Crystal plasticity finite element analysis of deformation behaviour in SAC305 solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, Payam

    Due to the awareness of the potential health hazards associated with the toxicity of lead (Pb), actions have been taken to eliminate or reduce the use of Pb in consumer products. Among those, tin (Sn) solders have been used for the assembly of electronic systems. Anisotropy is of significant importance in all structural metals, but this characteristic is unusually strong in Sn, making Sn based solder joints one of the best examples of the influence of anisotropy. The effect of anisotropy arising from the crystal structure of tin and large grain microstructure on the microstructure and the evolution of constitutive responses of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. Insights into the effects of key microstructural features and dominant plastic deformation mechanisms influencing the measured relative activity of slip systems in SAC305 are obtained from a combination of optical microscopy, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), slip plane trace analysis and crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling. Package level SAC305 specimens were subjected to shear deformation in sequential steps and characterized using optical microscopy and OIM to identify the activity of slip systems. X-ray micro Laue diffraction and high energy monochromatic X-ray beam were employed to characterize the joint scale tensile samples to provide necessary information to be able to compare and validate the CPFE model. A CPFE model was developed that can account for relative ease of activating slip systems in SAC305 solder based upon the statistical estimation based on correlation between the critical resolved shear stress and the probability of activating various slip systems. The results from simulations show that the CPFE model developed using the statistical analysis of activity of slip system not only can satisfy the requirements associated with kinematic of plastic deformation in crystal coordinate systems (activity of slip systems) and global coordinate system (shape changes) but also this model is able to predict the evolution of stress in joint level SAC305 sample.

  11. Giant ovarian tumor presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Zülfikar; Aydin, Ozgür; Onur, Erdal; Celik, Nilufer Yi?it; Moray, Gökhan

    2009-06-01

    We report a rare case of a giant ovarian tumor presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia. A 61-yr-old woman was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain, an umbilical mass, nausea and vomiting. On examination, a large, irreducible umbilical hernia was found. The woman underwent an urgent operation for a possible strangulated hernia. A large, multilocular tumor was found. The tumor was excised, and a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy were performed. The woman was discharged 6 days after her admission. This is the first report of incarcerated umbilical hernia containing a giant ovarian tumor within the sac. PMID:19543424

  12. Kinetics of solubilization with Triton X-100 of egg-yolk lecithin bilayers containing cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Hobai

    2001-01-01

    The titration solubilization of multilamellar egg-yolk lecithin liposomes (MLV-EYL) with Triton X-100 was studied by rectangular optical diffusimetric measurements as a function of cholesterol (Chol) concentration. It was determinated the variation of optic percentage diffu-sion (per mmol surfactant), DDif%\\/mmol TX-100, in the course of solubilization of MLV-EYL-Chol system with TX-100 10mM. The statistical analysis of the titration curves can reveal

  13. Kinetics of solubilization with Triton X-100 of egg-yolk lecithin bilayers containing cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZITA FAZAKAS

    The titration solubilization of multilamellar egg-yolk lecithin liposomes (MLV-EYL) with Triton X-100 was studied by rectangular optical diffusimetric measurements as a function of cholesterol (Chol) concentration. It was determinated the variation of optic percentage diffu- sion (per µmol surfactant), ? Dif%\\/µmol TX-100, in the course of solubilization of MLV-EYL- Chol system with TX-100 10mM. The statistical analysis of the titration

  14. Relationship between vitellogenin and its related egg yolk proteins in Sakhalin taimen ( Hucho perryi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoshi Hiramatsu; Akihiko Hara

    1996-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and its three egg yolk protein products, lipovitellin (Lv), phosvitin (Pv) and ??-component, were isolated from mature female Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi). Vg had an apparent molecular weight of 540 kDa and appeared as a major 240 kDa band in SDS-PAGE, which resolved into two major bands (165 and 125 kDa) after reduction. The estimated molecular weights of

  15. Preparation and lithium storage performance of yolk-shell Si@void@C nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Su, Liwei; Xie, Jian; Xu, Yawei; Wang, Lianbang; Wang, Yuanhao; Ren, Manman

    2015-07-01

    Yolk-shell Si@void@C nanocomposites are prepared via a facile method of resorcinol-formaldehyde coating and LiOH etching, without SiO2 pre-modification on Si particles, expensive carbon sources, or environmentally-unfriendly HF solutions. Profiting from these favorable features, Si@void@C nanocomposites exhibit considerable reversible capacities (628 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles) and good rate performances. PMID:26082288

  16. Effect of dietary saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, N A; Florou-Paneri, P; Nikolakakis, I; Giannenas, I; Dotas, V; Botsoglou, E N; Aggelopoulos, S

    2005-12-01

    1. The effects of dietary inclusion of red stigmas of Greek saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of shell eggs and liquid yolks were investigated and compared with those of dietary a-tocopherol. 2. Ninety-six Lohmann laying hens, 38 weeks old, distributed into 4 groups with 4 replicates each, were given either a control diet, diets enriched with 10 (SAF10) or 20 (SAF20) mg/kg saffron, or a diet enriched with 200 mg/kg a-tocopheryl acetate (VE200). 3. Following 6 weeks of feeding, eggs were collected and the rate of lipid oxidation was determined in refrigerated stored shell eggs, as well as in yolks adjusted to a pH of 6.2 or 4.2 and stored in the presence of light. 4. The results showed that the extent of lipid oxidation in shell eggs, as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, differed between dietary treatments, but did not change with storage time. In stored shell eggs, MDA levels differed between dietary treatments at all time points. 5. Yolks from the control group adjusted to pH 6.2 gave MDA values higher than those of the SAF10 group, which in turn were higher than those of the SAF20 group, a finding suggesting that saffron exerted a dose-dependent antioxidative activity. The VE200 group gave lower MDA values than the other groups at all time points. The oxidation profile of yolks at pH 4.2 showed a similar pattern but the rate of oxidation was greater. PMID:16428113

  17. Immobilization of ?-cyclodextrin in chitosan beads for separation of cholesterol from egg yolk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Hua Chiu; Tze-Wen Chung; R. Giridhar; Wen-Teng Wu

    2004-01-01

    Immobilization of ?-cyclodextrin to chitosan beads (Ch-BCD) by cross-linking with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) reagent has been successfully developed and demonstrated that it possessed excellent capacity for cholesterol adsorption from egg yolk. Under optimum conditions, a maximum ?-cyclodextrin (BCD) loading of 0.43 g\\/g-chitosan was obtained. The experimental data on cholesterol adsorption fitted well in the Langmuir isotherm equation with a maximum

  18. The origin of yolk in the oocytes of Nereis virens (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albrecht Fischer; André Dhainaut

    1985-01-01

    Three different types of evidence are reported concerning the origin of yolk protein in the oocyte of the annelid Nereis virens. The fine structure of the oocyte and its different types of storage organelles are described; only few pinocytotic vesicles are found. Electron-microscopic autoradiography of oocytes incubated with 3H-leucine showed that the oocytes synthesize protein which, in part, becomes localized

  19. Metal@Silica yolk-shell nanostructures as versatile bifunctional nanocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Chan Park; Hyunjoon Song

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in nanochemistry offer precise morphology control of nanomaterials, which has significant impacts in the\\u000a field of heterogeneous catalysis. Rational design of bifunctional catalysts can influence various aspects of catalytic properties.\\u000a In this review, a new class of bifunctional catalysts with a metal@silica yolk-shell nanostructure is introduced. This structure\\u000a has many advantages as a heterogeneous catalyst since it ensures

  20. Sequential separation of immunoglobulin Y and phosvitin from chicken egg yolk without using organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Yong; Abeyrathne, E D N S; Choi, Inwook; Suh, Joo Won; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2014-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a simple sequential separation protocol to separate phosvitin and IgY from egg yolk without using organic solvents. Egg yolk was diluted with 2 volumes of distilled water (DW), homogenized, and centrifuged. The precipitant was collected and homogenized with 4 volumes of 10% NaCl (wt/vol) in 0.05 N NaOH solution to extract phosvitin. The pH of the homogenate was adjusted to 4.0 and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The supernatant was collected and then heat-treated at 70°C for 30 min and centrifuged to remove impurities. The supernatant containing phosvitin was collected, had salts removed, and was concentrated and then freeze-dried. The supernatant from the centrifugation of diluted egg yolk was diluted again with 3 volumes of DW, and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The resulting supernatant was concentrated using ultrafiltration and then IgY was precipitated using 20% saturated (NH?)?SO?+ 15% NaCl (wt/vol). The precipitant was collected after centrifugation at 3,400 × g for 30 min at 4°C and dissolved with DW, had salts removed, and then was freeze-dried. The purity of separated phosvitin and IgY was checked using SDS-PAGE and the proteins were verified using Western blotting. The purity of phosvitin and IgY was 97.2 and 98.7%, and the yield was 98.7 and 80.9%, respectively. The ELISA results indicated that the activities of separated IgY and phosvitin were 96.3 and 98.3%, respectively. This study proved that both phosvitin and IgY can be separated in sequence from egg yolk without using an organic solvent. Also, the method is very simple and has a high potential for scale-up processing. PMID:25085938

  1. Purification and characterization of antioxidative peptides from protein hydrolysate of lecithin-free egg yolk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pyo-Jam Park; Won-Kyo Jung; Kyung-Soo Nam; F. Shahidi; Se-Kwon Kim

    2001-01-01

    The protein extracted from lecithin-free egg yolk, normally discarded by lecithin processing plants, was hydrolyzed with the\\u000a aid of Alcalase, a commercial enzyme. The hydrolysate was separated through a series of ultrafiltration membranes with molecular\\u000a weight cutoffs of 10, 5, and 1 kDa; and three types of permeates including 10 K (permeate from 10 kDa), 5 K (permeate from\\u000a 5

  2. Design of Au@ZnO yolk-shell nanospheres with enhanced gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhou, Xin; Guo, Hang; Wang, Chen; Liu, Jiangyang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Fengmin; Lu, Geyu

    2014-11-12

    The Au@ZnO yolk-shell nanospheres with a distinctive core@void@shell configuration have been successfully synthesized by deposition of ZnO on Au@carbon nanospheres. Various techniques were employed for the characterization of the structure and morphology of as-obtained hybrid nanostructures. The results indicated that the Au@ZnO yolk-shell nanospheres have an average diameter of about 280 nm and the average thickness of the ZnO shell is ca. 40 nm. To demonstrate how such a unique structure might bring about more excellent gas sensing property, we carried out a comparison of the sensing performances of ZnO nanospheres with different inner structures. It was found that Au@ZnO yolk-shell nanospheres exhibited an obvious improvement in response to acetone compared with the pure ZnO nanospheres with hollow and solid inner structures. For instance, the response of the Au@ZnO nanospheres to 100 ppm acetone was about 37, which was about 2 (3) times higher than that of ZnO hollow (solid) nanostructures. The enhanced sensing properties were attributed to their unique microstructures (porous shell and internal voids) and the catalytic effect of the encapsulated Au nanoparticles. PMID:25290085

  3. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-01-01

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17?-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds. PMID:17148167

  4. A simple fractionation of chicken egg yolk yields a protein component that stimulates cell proliferation and differentiation in primary avian tendon cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Missie Joe Martis; Richard I. Schwarz

    1986-01-01

    Summary  An easily prepared and stable protein fraction from chick egg yolk promotes cell division (40 h generation time) and expression\\u000a of procollagen (60% of total protein synthesis) in primary avian tendon cells in a serum-free medium. The activity of this\\u000a yolk fraction (YF) is proteinaceous as reflected by its sensitivity to protease treatment. Yolk fraction is resolved into\\u000a four major

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of murine stage-specific embryonic antigens in human testicular germ cell tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Damjanov; N Fox; B B Knowles; D Solter; P H Lange; E E Fraley

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against and\\/or recognizing stage-specific antigens on preimplantation mouse embryos and stem cells of murine teratocarcinoma were used to localize these antigens immunohistochemically on human testicular germ cell tumors. SSEA-1, the antigen found on mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells and embryonic cells from the 8-cell stage embryo onward, including the fetal primordial germ cells, was detected on yolk

  6. Carcinoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Russell G; Geiger, William J; Davis, Nancy B

    2006-08-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine neoplasms that often are indolent and may not become clinically apparent until there has been metastatic spread or evidence of carcinoid syndrome. Recent evidence has revealed that the overall incidence of carcinoid tumors has been steadily increasing, and although the disease was thought to be relatively benign, it is now considered one of increasing malignancy. Carcinoid tumors derive from different embryonic divisions of the gut: foregut carcinoid tumors commonly originate in the lungs, bronchi, or stomach; midgut carcinoid tumors in the small intestine, appendix, or proximal large bowel; and hindgut carcinoid tumors in the distal colon or rectum. Carcinoid syndrome, although rare, is most associated with midgut carcinoid tumors. The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor often is coincidental with surgery performed for another reason. Treatment and prognosis are dependent on the location of the primary tumor and the degree and extent of metastasis at the time of diagnosis. PMID:16913162

  7. Papillary neoplasm of the endolymphatic sac in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, M B; Uro, E; Rouquette, I; Yardeni, E; Rumeau, J L

    1994-01-01

    Glandular tumours involving the middle ear and the mastoid are rare, and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma is difficult. Two distinct histopathological patterns are accepted. While their clinical presentation differs, both require primary surgical treatment and both have a high rate of local recurrence. The papillary form takes a more aggressive course and wider regional spread. This pattern occurs predominantly in women. Its microscopic appearance and clinical course have been extensively described by Heffner who considered it as "low-grade adenocarcinoma of probable endolymphatic sac origin". A few cases have been associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. The case of a 32 year old black woman is described. It is suggested that papillary adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac should be considered in the spectrum of neoplasms seen in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Images PMID:7962613

  8. Multi-level security for computer networking: SAC digital network approach

    SciTech Connect

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    For telecommunications systems simultaneously handling data of different security levels, multilevel secure (MLS) operation permits maximum use of resources by automatically providing protection to users with various clearances and needs-to-know. The strategic air command (SAC) is upgrading the primary record data system used to command and control its strategic forces. The upgrade, called the SAC Digital Network (SACDIN), is designed to provide multilevel security to support users and external interfaces, with allowed accesses ranging from unclassified to top secret. SACDIN implements a security kernel based upon the Bell and Lapadula security model. This study presents an overview of the SACDIN security architecture and describes the basic message flow across the MLS network. 7 references.

  9. Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers. They usually start in the lining of the digestive tract or ... trouble breathing. Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors. If they haven't spread to other parts ...

  10. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical institutions across the country. Much of this research focuses on finding better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure pituitary tumors. NIH Patient Recruitment for Pituitary Tumors Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  11. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  12. Solutes in Maternal Circulation and Gestational Sac Compartments during Early Human Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joaquin Santolaya-Forgas; Juan De Leon-Luis; Jimmy Espinoza; Luis F. Gonçalves; Roberto Romero

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review previous work reporting the concentration of solutes measured in maternal circulation, extra-embryonic celomic fluid, and amniotic fluid, to gain insights into the mechanism that could lead to compartmentalization of fluid and solutes within the gestational sac prior to the 12th week of pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a Medline and PubMed literature

  13. The internal vertebral venous plexus prevents compression of the dural sac during atlanto-axial rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Reesink; J. T. Wilmink; H. Kingma; L. M. A. Lataster; H. van Mameren

    2001-01-01

    Deformation of the extradural space and the possibility of impression upon the dural sac during atlanto-axial rotation are\\u000a investigated. Atlanto-axial rotation leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the bony spinal canal of approximately\\u000a 40 %. Atlanto-axial rotation was recorded by endocanalar views from a video camera fixed inside the skull of six unembalmed\\u000a cadavers. Axial thin-section T1-weighted

  14. Comparative study on stress–strain hysteresis response of SAC solder joints under thermal cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Shirazi; Ahmad Varvani-Farahani; Hua Lu

    2008-01-01

    The present study attempts to evaluate the stress-strain hysteresis responses of SAC solder joints in Resistor and FleXBGA144\\u000a packages subjected to thermal cyclic loading using several constitutive models. The total deformation of the solder material\\u000a consists of elastic, rate-independent plastic and rate-dependent creep components. The constitutive models discussed in this\\u000a study each weighted elastic, plastic and creep deformations differently. At

  15. The effects of SAC alloy composition on aging resistance and reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifei Zhang; Zijie Cai; Jeffrey C. Suhling; Pradeep Lall; Michael J. Bozack

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical response, and failure behavior of lead free solder joints in electronic assemblies are constantly evolving when exposed to isothermal aging and\\/or thermal cycling environments. In our prior work on aging effects, we have demonstrated that the observed material behavior variations of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) lead free solders during room temperature aging (25degC) and elevated temperature aging (125degC) were

  16. The influence of aging on the stress-strain and creep behavior of SAC solder alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifei Zhang; Zijie Cai; Muhannad Mustafa; Jeffrey C. Suhling; Pradeep Lall; Michael J. Bozack

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical response, and failure behavior of lead free solder joints in electronic assemblies are constantly evolving when exposed to isothermal aging and\\/or thermal cycling environments. In our prior work on aging effects, we have demonstrated that the observed material behavior variations of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) lead free solders during room temperature aging (25°C) and elevated temperature aging (125°C) were

  17. Harmonic and Random Vibration Durability of SAC305 and Sn37Pb Solder Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhou; M. Al-Bassyiouni; A. Dasgupta

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, durability tests were conducted on both SAC305 and Sn37Pb solder interconnects using both harmonic and random vibration. The test specimens consist of daisy-chained printed wiring boards (PWBs) with several different surface-mount component styles. Modal testing was first conducted on a test PWB to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The PWB was then subjected to narrow-band

  18. Macrofauna community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds SAC, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past two decades, growing concerns have been raised regarding the effects of towed fishing gears, such as trawls and dredges, on deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Trawling disturbs the benthic communities both physically and biologically, and can eliminate the most vulnerable organisms and modify habitat structure; chronically disturbed communities are often dominated by opportunistic species. The European Union is under obligation to designate a network of offshore Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by the end of 2012 based on the perceived expectation that these networks will help protect marine biodiversity and that within these areas, faunal abundance and diversity will be higher than the surrounding fished areas. The Darwin Mounds, only discovered in 1998, are located in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1000 m. Deep-water trawling regularly took place in the region of the Darwin Mounds; however in 2004 the mounds were designated as the first offshore SAC in UK and the area is now closed to bottom trawling. As part of the HERMIONE programme the influence of human impact on the Oceans was one of the key themes and in June 2011, an investigation of the macrofaunal community structure at comparable sites both inside and outside of the Darwin Mound SAC was undertaken. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. This could indicate that a few years of preservation are not enough time to determine a recovery by the macrofaunal community of cold-water ecosystems and that a continued monitoring over a longer term is necessary to fully understand the impact of fishery closures.

  19. Altered fructan accumulation in transgenic Lolium multiflorum plants expressing a Bacillus subtilis sacB gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Ye; X. Wu; H. Zhao; M. Frehner; J. Nösberger; I. Potrykus; G. Spangenberg

    2001-01-01

    Ryegrasses, like many C3 plants, accumulate fructan, which plays an important role in assimilate partitioning, as the major non-structural storage carbohydrate. The present study describes the transformation of a Bacillus subtilis sacB gene, with vacuolar targeting signal sequences and driven by constitutive promoters, into Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) by microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic suspension cells. The expression of the

  20. KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity Database for retrieving the relationships between metabolites and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Parvin, Aziza Kawsar; Ono, Naoaki; Tanaka, Ken; Hirai Morita, Aki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    Databases (DBs) are required by various omics fields because the volume of molecular biology data is increasing rapidly. In this study, we provide instructions for users and describe the current status of our metabolite activity DB. To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between the metabolites of organisms and the chemical-level contribution of metabolites to human health, we constructed a metabolite activity DB known as the KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB. It comprises 9,584 triplet relationships (metabolite-biological activity-target species), including 2,356 metabolites, 140 activity categories, 2,963 specific descriptions of biological activities and 778 target species. Approximately 46% of the activities described in the DB are related to chemical ecology, most of which are attributed to antimicrobial agents and plant growth regulators. The majority of the metabolites with antimicrobial activities are flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. The metabolites with plant growth regulatory effects include plant hormones. Over half of the DB contents are related to human health care and medicine. The five largest groups are toxins, anticancer agents, nervous system agents, cardiovascular agents and non-therapeutic agents, such as flavors and fragrances. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB is integrated within the KNApSAcK Family DBs to facilitate further systematized research in various omics fields, especially metabolomics, nutrigenomics and foodomics. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB could also be utilized for developing novel drugs and materials, as well as for identifying viable drug resources and other useful compounds. PMID:24285751

  1. AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SUGAR AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION BY EVERTED SACS OF HAMSTER INTESTINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM B. KINTER; T. HASTINGS WILSON

    1965-01-01

    Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of evcrted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C 14- or H~-labcled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorp- tivc cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to conccntrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles

  2. Reduction of lead free solder aging effects using doped SAC alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zijie Cai; Yifei Zhang; Jeffrey C. Suhling; Pradeep Lall; R. Wayne Johnson; Michael J. Bozack

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical response, and failure behavior of lead free solder joints in electronic assemblies are constantly evolving when exposed to isothermal aging and\\/or thermal cycling environments. In our prior work on aging effects, we have demonstrated that large degradations occur in the material properties (stiffness and strength) and creep behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) lead free solders during aging. These

  3. New insights into the functional roles of reactive oxygen species during embryo sac development and fertilization in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Martin, María Victoria; Distéfano, Ayelén Mariana; Zabaleta, Eduardo Julián; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina

    2013-10-01

    Previously considered as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as essential signaling molecules in eukaryotes. Recent evidence showed that maintenance of ROS homeostasis during female gametophyte development is crucial for embryo sac patterning and fertilization. Although ROS are exclusively detected in the central cell of mature embryo sacs, the study of mutants deficient in ROS homeostasis suggests that controlled oxidative bursts might take place earlier during gametophyte development. Also, a ROS burst that depends on pollination takes place inside the embryo sac. This oxidative response might be required for pollen tube growth arrest and for sperm cell release. In this mini-review, we will focus on new insights into the role of ROS during female gametophyte development and fertilization. Special focus will be made on the mitochondrial Mn-Superoxide dismutase (MSD1), which has been recently reported to be essential for maintaining ROS homeostasis during embryo sac formation. PMID:23887494

  4. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  5. Intercalibration of the magnetometers on SAC-C with those on CHAMP and Oersted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purucker, M.

    2003-04-01

    The scalar (SHM) and vector (CSC) magnetometers on SAC-C are undergoing calibration. As part of this process, the SAC-C magnetometer outputs were compared to their counterparts on CHAMP and Oersted during close encounters of the satellites. The premise is that during close encounters, the ionospheric and magnetospheric fields seen by the spacecraft will be similar. Four close encounters were selected: 21 May 2001, 29 December 2001, 15 June 2002, and 21 October 2002. The December and June encounters were co-rotating encounters; during May and October the encounters were counter-rotating. The May and June close encounters occurred on magnetically quiet days, the October encounter on a relatively quiet day, and the December encounter occured in the midst of an active geomagnetic period, with a sudden storm commencement occuring in the middle of the encounter. The analysis was preceded by the removal of a main field model consisting of internal components only. The difference between the field measured by the SHM magnetometer on SAC-C, and the Overhauser magnetometers on CHAMP and Oersted is, on average, 1-2 nT, and probably reflects spacecraft fields. Larger differences are seen closer to the spacecraft, at the location of the CSC magnetometer.

  6. Pathological, immunohistochemical and microbiologicalal analysis of lacrimal sac biopsies in patients with chronic dacrocystitis

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Rowayda Mahmoud; Hussein, Faten Aly; Idriss, Hisham Farouk; Hanafy, Nesrine Fathy; Abdallah, Dina Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    AIM To analyze cases of obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct which creates a fertile environment for secondary bacterial infection and can result in dacryocystitis, which is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue and a potential source of endophthalmitis following intraocular surgery. The majority of obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system are acquired ones occurring in adulthood and involving the distal parts of the system. Acquired obstruction may be primary/idiopathic or secondary to a wide variety of infectious, inflammatory, traumatic, mechanical, toxic or neoplastic causes mimicking idiopathic inflammation. These cases are treated by dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS The present study was conducted to determine the histopathologic, immunohistochemical and current microbiologic characteristics of lacrimal sac specimens in patients undergoing external dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS Non-specific lacrimal sac pathology was present in all 33 cases and 81.8% of the cases showed moderate chronic inflammation with a chronic inflammatory score (CIS) ranging between 4 and 6, whereas 12.12% showed severe inflammatory changes with a CIS of 7. Mild degree of inflammation was seen in 6.06% with a CIS of 3. The total prevalence of gram-positive, gram-negative, and culture-negative samples were 59.4%, 37.5%, and 3% respectively. CONCLUSION Non-specific chronic inflammation with fibrosis is indeed the most commonly reported histopathological finding in lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens. PMID:24392331

  7. The role of quail bronchitis virus as a possible precipitating factor in "air sac syndrome" of chickens 

    E-print Network

    Payne, Jerry Bob

    1965-01-01

    THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partfal fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1965 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Approved as to style and dontent...

  8. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is composed of a layer of cubical epithelial cells with loose, interposed intercellular spaces. The sac contains a large luminal cavity, in which endolymph and numerous otoconia are present. The epithelial cells of different portions of the sac have a similar structure. These cells contain an abundance of cytoplasmic organelles, including ribosomes, Golgi complexes, and numerous vesicles. Two types of vesicles are found in the epithelial cells: the "floccular" vesicle and the "granular" vesicle. The floccular vesicles are located in the supra- and lateral-nuclear cytoplasm and contain floccular material. The granular vesicles have a fine granular substance and are usually situated apposed to the apical cell membrane. The granular vesicles are suggested to be secreted into the lumen, while the floccular vesicles are thought to be absorbed from the lumen and conveyed to the intercellular spaces by the epithelial cells. The apical surfaces of the epithelial cells bear numerous microvilli. Apparently floating cells, which bear long microvilli on the free surfaces, are observed in the lumen of the ES. Based on the fine structure, the function of the endolymphatic sac of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster is discussed.

  9. Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver (Castor canadensis): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication.

    PubMed

    Walro, J M; Svendsen, G E

    1982-05-01

    Both sexes of beavers possess a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands located in paired subcutaneous cavities between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The castor sacs are not glandular in the histological sense, hence references to these structures as preputial glands or castor glands are misnomers. The wall of the castor sacs is plicate and comprised of three distinct zones: an outer layer of vascular connective tissue, a two-to five-cell-thick layer of mitotic epithelial cells, and several densely packed layers of cornified epithelium which grade into more widely separated sheets toward the lumen. Monocultures of a gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium were present in the lumen of all castor sac preparations. Differences in the frequency of castoreum deposition were not attributable to differences in the structure of the castor sacs. The anal glands of beavers are holocrine sebaceous glands. These glands develop more rapidly than the castor sacs. Anal gland tissue from embryos exhibited cellular characteristics associated with the production of sebum. Secretory activity was evident in all preparations. The relationship of castoreum and anal gland secretion to scent communication among beavers is discussed. PMID:24415179

  10. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria tenella Infection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, JJ; Ren, CZ; Wang, SS; Liu, DD; Cao, LQ; Tao, JP

    2013-01-01

    Background To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effectively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated. Methods Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophilized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed. Results The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG), reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ? 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed at dosage ? 0.5% and 1.0% when BWG and caecal lesion were compared with the sodium salinomycin control group, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis. PMID:24454440

  11. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the egg yolk of birds from Lake Shihwa, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hoon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Kyu Tae; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) were measured in egg yolks of three species of birds, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius), and parrot bill (Paradoxornis webbiana), collected in and around Lake Shihwa, Korea, which receives wastewaters from an adjacent industrial complex. Mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) ranged from 185 to 314 ng/g ww and were similar to those reported for bird eggs from other urban areas. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were also found in egg yolks often at great concentrations. Mean concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) ranged from 95 to 201 ng/g ww. Perfluorooctanoic acid was detected in 32 of 44 egg samples, but concentrations were 100-fold less than those of PFOS. Relative concentrations of PFAs in all three species were similar with the predominance of PFOS (45-50%). There was a statistically significant correlation between PFUnA and perfluorodecanoic acid in egg yolks (p < 0.05), suggesting a common source of PFCAs. Using measured egg concentrations and diet concentrations, the ecological risk of the PFOS and PFA mixture to birds in Lake Shihwa was evaluated using two different approaches. Estimated hazard quotients were similar between the two approaches. The concentration of PFOS associated with 90th centile in bird eggs was 100-fold less than the lowest observable adverse effect level determined for birds, and those concentrations were 4-fold less than the suggested toxicity reference values. On the basis of limited toxicological data, current concentrations of PFOS are less than what would be expected to have an adverse effect on birds in the Lake Shihwa region. PMID:18754515

  12. Testosterone influences song behaviour and social dominance - but independent of prenatal yolk testosterone exposure.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, maternally derived yolk androgens have been shown to significantly alter offspring development, and a number of these effects persist into adulthood. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Mechanisms that have been suggested are changes in the endogenous androgen production post-hatching or changes in the sensitivity towards circulating androgens. We tested the effects of yolk testosterone on the plasma testosterone levels and the sensitivity to testosterone in 5months old male canaries that hatched from eggs that were either injected with testosterone (yT-males) or with a control solution (yC-males). Changes in sensitivity were investigated via the behavioural response to an experimental elevation of the plasma testosterone levels. We performed the experiment in fall (low endogenous testosterone production), focusing on testosterone dependent response traits (aggression and song). Before implantation, there was a non-significant trend that the plasma testosterone levels were lower in yT-males than in yC-males. Elevating the plasma testosterone concentrations increased aggressiveness, song bout length and similarity of repeated song elements (=consistency), with the latter likely being a consequence of testosterone-driven song crystallization. However, these effects were not different among yT- or yC-males in any of the parameters. Thus, our findings render it unlikely that changes in the sensitivity to testosterone post-hatching would form the main underlying mechanism of hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds. Further experiments are urgently needed in order to understand the nature of the phenotypic effects resulting from embryonic exposure to maternal yolk testosterone. PMID:24211320

  13. Determination of egg yolk xanthophylls by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brulc, Lu?ka; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Glavnik, Vesna

    2013-11-29

    An isocratic HPLC method was developed for the determination of eight xanthophylls (lutein, capsanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, ?-apo-8'-carotenal, ethyl-8'-apo-?-carotene-8'-oate, citranaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin; registered as additives in poultry feeding) in egg yolks. Optimum separation of all-E-isomers of these xanthophylls was achieved in less than 18min on a ProntoSIL C30 column at 27°C using acetone-methanol-0.5M triethylammonium acetate buffer pH 7 14:5:1 (v/v) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1mL/min using spectrophotometric detection at 450nm. Other mobile phases were also found suitable, including acetone-water 93:7 (v/v) and acetone-methanol 1:4 (v/v) and the influences of column temperature on the separation and addition of triethylammonium acetate buffer pH 7 to the mobile phase on enhancement of the peak areas were evaluated. Preparation of test solution from yolks included a short vortexing of 0.5g of yolk in 10mL of acetone, followed by 15min magnetic stirring under nitrogen and centrifugation. The method was validated for 5 analytes. The calibration range was between 0.04 and 2?g/mL and the mean recovery of the analytes (95%) and the intra-day precision of the method (RSD less than 5%) on three levels in triplicates were obtained. Analyses of eggs from four husbandry classes showed the presence of up to four xanthophylls (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and ethyl-8'-apo-?-carotene-8'-oate) and traces of ?-cryptoxanthin. PMID:24139505

  14. Egg yolk fatty acid profile of avian species--influence on human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Golzar Adabi, S H; Ahbab, M; Fani, A R; Hajbabaei, A; Ceylan, N; Cooper, R G

    2013-02-01

    Lipids are an important nutritional component of the avian egg. A review of the literature was completed to determine the fatty acid compositions in egg yolk from some avian species. Additionally, the nutritional influence of lipid and lipoprotein content on the plasma of male participants during 30-day feeding was discussed. The ostrich eggs had the highest unsaturated fatty acid and the lowest cholesterol content in relation to other avian species. Ostrich had a higher proportion of 18:3n-3 (p?yolk numerically contained much higher levels of 22:6n-3 than those found in turkeys, quails and geese, but the amount of 22:6n-3 in ostrich egg was lower by comparison with other species (p?yolks of all species and this decrease was marginal (p?

  15. KNApSAcK family databases: integrated metabolite-plant species databases for multifaceted plant research.

    PubMed

    Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Okada, Taketo; Yamazaki, Mami; Hirai-Morita, Aki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Darusman, Latifah K; Saito, Kazuki; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2012-02-01

    A database (DB) describing the relationships between species and their metabolites would be useful for metabolomics research, because it targets systematic analysis of enormous numbers of organic compounds with known or unknown structures in metabolomics. We constructed an extensive species-metabolite DB for plants, the KNApSAcK Core DB, which contains 101,500 species-metabolite relationships encompassing 20,741 species and 50,048 metabolites. We also developed a search engine within the KNApSAcK Core DB for use in metabolomics research, making it possible to search for metabolites based on an accurate mass, molecular formula, metabolite name or mass spectra in several ionization modes. We also have developed databases for retrieving metabolites related to plants used for a range of purposes. In our multifaceted plant usage DB, medicinal/edible plants are related to the geographic zones (GZs) where the plants are used, their biological activities, and formulae of Japanese and Indonesian traditional medicines (Kampo and Jamu, respectively). These data are connected to the species-metabolites relationship DB within the KNApSAcK Core DB, keyed via the species names. All databases can be accessed via the website http://kanaya.naist.jp/KNApSAcK_Family/. KNApSAcK WorldMap DB comprises 41,548 GZ-plant pair entries, including 222 GZs and 15,240 medicinal/edible plants. The KAMPO DB consists of 336 formulae encompassing 278 medicinal plants; the JAMU DB consists of 5,310 formulae encompassing 550 medicinal plants. The Biological Activity DB consists of 2,418 biological activities and 33,706 pairwise relationships between medicinal plants and their biological activities. Current statistics of the binary relationships between individual databases were characterized by the degree distribution analysis, leading to a prediction of at least 1,060,000 metabolites within all plants. In the future, the study of metabolomics will need to take this huge number of metabolites into consideration. PMID:22123792

  16. Modifying yolk fatty acid composition to improve the health quality of shell eggs 

    E-print Network

    Van Elswyk, Mary Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    is the seed oil of plants such as corn and safflower. In both animals and humans, linoleic acid, through a process of elongation and desaturation, yields arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Arachidonic acid serves as a precursor for the synthesis of eicosanoids... to improving the health quality of shell eggs. In this study, effects of a laying hen diet enriched with 3% menhaden oil (test diet) versus a control diet (no added fat) on egg yolk composition, egg production parameters, and egg sensory characteristics...

  17. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    PubMed Central

    Bebas, Piotr; Kotwica, Joanna; Joachimiak, Ewa; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2008-01-01

    Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm maturation in insects; however, their characterization at the molecular level is lacking. We reported previously that the circadian clock controls sperm release and maturation in several insect species. In the moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the secretion of glycoproteins into the seminal fluid occurs in a daily rhythmic pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize seminal fluid glycoproteins in this species and elucidate their role in the process of sperm maturation. Results We collected seminal fluid proteins from males before and after daily sperm release. These samples were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and gels were treated with a glycoprotein-detecting probe. We observed a group of abundant glycoproteins in the sample collected after sperm release, which was absent in the sample collected before sperm release. Sequencing of these glycoproteins by mass spectroscopy revealed peptides bearing homology with components of yolk, which is known to accumulate in developing oocytes. This unexpected result was confirmed by Western blotting demonstrating that seminal fluid contains protein immunoreactive to antibody against yolk protein YP2 produced in the follicle cells surrounding developing oocytes. We cloned the fragment of yp2 cDNA from S. littoralis and determined that it is expressed in both ovaries and testes. yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein were detected in the somatic cyst cells enveloping sperm inside the testis. During the period of sperm release, YP2 protein appears in the seminal fluid and forms an external coat on spermatozoa. Conclusion One of the yolk protein precursors YP2, which in females accumulate in the oocytes to provision developing embryos, appears to have a second male-specific role. It is produced in the testes and released into the seminal fluid where it interacts with sperm. These data reveal unexpected common factor in the maturation of insect eggs and sperm. PMID:18549506

  18. Artificial reproduction in a hymenopteran insect, Athalia rosae, using eggs matured with heterospecific yolk proteins and fertilized with cryopreserved sperm.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, M; Lee, J M; Sawa, M; Oishi, K

    2000-03-01

    Previtellogenic ovaries of Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera, Symphyta, Tenthredinidae) were transplanted into the adult female abdominal hemocoel of Athalia infumata (Symphyta, Tenthredinidae), Arge nigrinodosa (Symphyta, Argidae), and Pimpla nipponica (Apocrita, Ichneumonidae). The donor oocytes accumulated heterospecific yolk proteins and matured in the A. infumata host. On average, six mature oocytes were obtained per transplanted ovary. In contrast, the donor oocytes accumulated a limited amount of yolk but did not mature in the Ar. nigrinodosa host and did not even accumulate yolk in the P. nipponica host. The eggs that matured in the A. infumata host were injected with cryopreserved A. rosae sperm that had been taken from adult male seminal vesicles and stored at -80 degrees C. Fertilization, as confirmed by the use of visible marker mutations, was achieved and a fraction of the injected eggs developed into fertile female adults. PMID:10685101

  19. Placental buffering of maternal steroid hormone effects on fetal and yolk hormone levels: a comparative study of a viviparous lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi, and an oviparous lizard, Sceloporus graciosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danika Painter; David H Jennings; Michael C Moore

    2002-01-01

    We investigated maternal-fetal hormone transfer in the mountain spiny lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi, a viviparous species with a simple chorioallantoic placenta. In one experiment, we examined the effect of elevated maternal progesterone on fetal and yolk hormone levels. Progesterone implants increased maternal progesterone nearly 100-fold; however, the resulting increase in fetal and yolk progesterone was only about 2% of that seen

  20. Controllable synthesis of yolk-shell-structured metal oxides with seven to ten components for finding materials with superior lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-11-01

    A new concept for discovering multicomponent nanostructured materials with good electrochemical properties is proposed. Yolk-shell-structured transition metal oxide powders with seven to ten components and simple crystal structures are prepared by continuous spray pyrolysis. The multicomponent yolk-shell powders with complex compositions show excellent Li(+) storage properties for lithium ion batteries. PMID:25238055

  1. Excellent electrochemical properties of yolk-shell MoO? microspheres formed by combustion of molybdenum oxide-carbon composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ko, You Na; Park, Seung Bin; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-04-01

    Yolk-shell MoO3 microspheres are prepared by a two-step process in which molybdenum oxide-carbon (MoO(x)-C) composite microspheres are first obtained by spray pyrolysis, followed by combustion at 400?°C in air. The yolk-shell microspheres exhibit excellent electrochemical properties and structural stability. PMID:24519906

  2. Captivity Diets Alter Egg Yolk Lipids of a Bird of Prey (the American Kestrel) and of a Galliforme (the Red-Legged Partridge)

    E-print Network

    Bortolotti, Gary R.

    -15.2% 0.7% n p 5 pholipid fraction of the yolk. Kestrels in captivity fed on day- old chickens's brain and retina become highly enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), whereas those of the heart for the demands of the embryonic tissues. The composition of yolk lipids and their utilization by the avian embryo

  3. Distribution of lipids from the yolk to the tissues during development of the water python (Liasis fuscus).

    PubMed

    Speake, B K; Thompson, M B; Thacker, F E; Bedford, G S

    2003-09-01

    Energy metabolism during embryonic development of snakes differs in several respects from the patterns displayed by other reptiles. There are, however, no previous reports describing the main energy source for development, the yolk lipids, in snake eggs. There is also no information on the distribution of yolk fatty acids to the tissues during snake development. In eggs of the water python ( Liasis fuscus), we report that triacylglycerol, phospholipid, cholesteryl ester and free cholesterol, respectively, form 70.3%, 14.1%, 5.7% and 2.1% of the total lipid. The main polyunsaturate of the yolk lipid classes is 18:2n-6. The yolk phospholipid contains 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 at 13.0% and 3.6% (w/w), respectively. Approximately 10% and 30% of the initial egg lipids are respectively recovered in the residual yolk and the fat body of the hatchling. A major function of yolk lipid is, therefore, to provision the neonate with large energy reserves. The proportion of 22:6n-3 in brain phospholipid of the hatchling is 11.1% (w/w): this represents only 0.24% of the amount of 22:6n-3 originally present in the egg. This also contrasts with values for free-living avian species where the proportion of DHA in neonatal brain phospholipid is 16-19%. In the liver of the newly hatched python, triacylglycerol, phospholipid and cholesteryl ester, respectively, form 68.2%, 7.7% and 14.3% of total lipid. This contrasts with embryos of birds where cholesteryl ester forms up to 80% of total liver lipid and suggests that the mechanism of lipid transfer in the water python embryo differs in some respects from the avian situation. PMID:12827419

  4. Hen egg yolk as a source of antiviral antibodies in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): a comparison of two plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Bar-Joseph, M; Malkinson, M

    1980-01-01

    A method of raising antibodies against plant viruses in hen egg yolk is described. Laying hens were immunized with citrus tristeza virus (CTV) or tobacco mosaic virus-avocado isolate (TMV-A). Anti-viral antibodies in the yolks of sequentially laid eggs as well as in the serum were titrated by the (heterologous) antiglobulin double antibody sandwich form of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HADAS-ELISA). Antibodies first appeared in yolk 7 days after injection and peak levels were attained on day 9-11; these levels persisted for about 6-12 days. Non-specific yolk antibodies were removed by absorption with an extract of uninfected plant tissue. Using the HADAS-ELISA technique we found that yolk titres were equal to, or higher than those in serum. The benefits of using laying hens over conventional laboratory animals as a source of antiviral antibody are discussed. PMID:7024292

  5. Effect of egg yolk, cryoprotectant, and various sugars on semen cryopreservation in endangered Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri).

    PubMed

    Garde, J J; del Olmo, A; Soler, A J; Espeso, G; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S

    2008-11-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from endangered species is a valuable tool for genetic management. Previous studies showed the feasibility of cryopreservation of spermatozoa from various endangered gazelles but have also revealed difficulties with available protocols for semen freezing in Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri). Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of (a) 5% or 20% egg yolk or 4% or 6% glycerol, and (b) addition of sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose and raffinose) on cryopreservation using a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST). A diluent containing 13.5% raffinose, 5% or 20% egg yolk, and 6% glycerol (REYG) was also evaluated. Semen was obtained by electroejaculation from 22 G. cuvieri males. Diluted samples were loaded into 0.25 ml straws, cooled to 5 degrees C over 1.5h (-0.16 degrees C/min), equilibrated at that temperature for 2h, frozen in nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Subsamples were assessed for motility and acrosome integrity upon collection, after refrigeration-equilibration, after freezing and thawing, and 2h after thawing. Use of TEST with 20% egg yolk or with 4% glycerol led to worse motility preservation, whereas TEST with 5% egg yolk and 6% glycerol led to better results. Addition of fructose, lactose or raffinose to TEST resulted in similar or worse preservation of motility than inclusion of glucose. On the other hand, use of a raffinose-based medium with 20% egg yolk and 6% glycerol (REYG) afforded better preservation of motility than use of TEST. With REYG, 20% egg yolk was better than 5% egg yolk for motility preservation. Differences were noted between males in their responses to cryopreservation when using different egg yolk or glycerol concentrations. Moreover, spermatozoa from most males exhibited better cryopreservation with REYG although some were better cryopreserved in TEST. The raffinose-based diluent thus represents an improvement over previous results but more work is needed to better characterize cryopreservation conditions for future routine banking of Cuvier's gazelle spermatozoa. PMID:18024015

  6. Increased yolk testosterone facilitates prenatal perceptual learning in Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Möstl, Erich; Lickliter, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Prenatal learning plays an important role in the ontogeny of behavior and birds provide a useful model to explore whether and how prenatal exposure to hormones of maternal origin can influence prenatal learning and the development of behavior. In this study we assessed if prenatal exposure to yolk testosterone can influence auditory learning in embryos of Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). We experimentally enhanced testosterone concentrations in bobwhite quail eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these T-treated eggs as well as control embryos that had received the vehicle-only or were non-treated were exposed to an individual bobwhite hen's maternal call for 120 min over the course of the day prior to hatching. All chicks were tested at 24 h following hatching for their auditory preference between the familiar bobwhite maternal call versus an unfamiliar bobwhite maternal call. T-treated chicks spent significantly more time in proximity to the familiar call compared to the unfamiliar call and also showed shorter latencies to approach the familiar call than control birds. Increased emotional reactivity, i.e. propensity to express fear responses, was also found in T-treated chicks. Baseline heart rates recorded in a second group of T-treated embryos and control embryos did not differ, which suggests no effect of yolk testosterone on baseline arousal level. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the influence of prenatal exposure to testosterone on auditory learning. PMID:19646986

  7. Social Instability in Laying Quail: Consequences on Yolk Steroids and Offspring's Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Floriane; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie; Kotrschal, Kurt; Guémené, Daniel; Bertin, Aline; Möstl, Erich; Houdelier, Cécilia

    2010-01-01

    Individual phenotypic characteristics of many species are influenced by non-genetic maternal effects. Female birds can influence the development of their offspring before birth via the yolk steroid content of their eggs. We investigated this prenatal maternal effect by analysing the influence of laying females' social environment on their eggs' hormonal content and on their offspring's development. Social instability was applied to groups of laying Japanese quail females. We evaluated the impact of this procedure on laying females, on yolk steroid levels and on the general development of chicks. Agonistic interactions were more frequent between females kept in an unstable social environment (unstable females) than between females kept in a stable social environment (stable females). Testosterone concentrations were higher in unstable females' eggs than in those of stable females. Unstable females' chicks hatched later and developed more slowly during their first weeks of life than those of stable females. The emotional reactivity of unstable females' chicks was higher than that of stable females' chicks. In conclusion, our study showed that social instability applied to laying females affected, in a non-genetic way, their offspring's development, thus stressing the fact that females' living conditions during laying can have transgenerational effects. PMID:21124926

  8. Effects of divergent selection for yolk testosterone content on growth characteristics of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Okuliarova, Monika; Kostal, Lubor; Zeman, Michal

    2011-09-01

    Effects of yolk androgens on postnatal growth of offspring have been widely studied but their physiological role in the growth control is not fully understood due to an inconsistency in obtained results. We investigated androgen-mediated maternal effects on postnatal growth in relation to endocrine control mechanisms using two lines of Japanese quail divergently selected for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone (T) content. Embryonic growth did not differ between the lines. During the growth period HET quail were heavier and displayed longer tarsi as compared with LET quail, with more pronounced line differences in males than females. HET males were heavier than LET males from the age of 2 weeks, reached the age of maximum growth rate earlier, and displayed higher asymptotic body weight than LET males. Accelerated growth in HET males was not accompanied by increased postembryonic plasma T concentrations. Plasma triiodothyronine levels did not differ between lines while plasma thyroxine levels were decreased in HET as compared with LET female chicks. Line differences in body weight disappeared in adult quail suggesting that yolk androgens, increased in a physiological way, resulted in stimulation of juvenile growth rate in precocial Japanese quail under stable social and environmental conditions. PMID:21627997

  9. Characterization of specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against mastitis-causing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yu-Hong; Jin, Li-Ji; Guo, Jie; Li, Xiao-Yu; Lu, Ya-Nan; Chen, Jie; Xu, Yong-Ping

    2008-07-27

    The objective of this study was to estimate the in vitro activity of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against mastitis-causing Escherichia coli. Specific IgY was produced by hens immunized with formaldehyde killed E. coli O111 in long-standing immunization response (titer > or =6400 for 100 days) and was isolated from yolks with a purity of 86% by water dilution, salt precipitations and ultrafiltration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated the produced IgY specifically targeted E. coli O111 and five other E. coli strains which were isolated from mastitic cows. The growth inhibition activity of the specific IgY to bacteria was dose-dependent with an effective concentration of 20mg purified IgY per milliliter. The phagocytic activity of E. coli either by milk macrophages (MPhi) or by polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) in the presence of specific IgY was significantly higher than that with nonspecific IgY or without IgY (p<0.05), suggesting that it enhanced phagocytic activity. The current work suggests that this specific IgY has potential as a therapeutic treatment for mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:18255238

  10. Quantitative ¹H NMR analysis of egg yolk, alcohol, and total sugar content in egg liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Monika; Koospal, Verena; Bauer-Christoph, Claudia; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Diehl, Bernd; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-04-29

    Analyzing egg liqueurs for compliance with legal requirements means several different time-consuming preparations and analytical processes. In this paper, we describe the approach to use quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy as an accurate alternative technique. (1)H NMR analysis comprised two different rapid sample preparations for water-soluble or nonpolar ingredients. Fifteen egg liqueurs were analyzed for alcoholic strength and content of total sugar and egg yolk (estimated by cholesterol as a marker substance) with both classical methods and quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results of both methods showed excellent correlations for alcoholic strength (R = 0.996, p < 0.001) and content of total sugar (R = 0.989, p < 0.001) and cholesterol (R = 0.995, p < 0.001). Besides, NMR spectra revealed further information: a signal of phosphatidylcholine at about ? = 3.20 ppm served as a second marker for the egg yolk content, and characteristic signals of lactose at ? = 4.46 ppm and butyric acid at ? = 0.97 ppm indicated the use of milk products, which has to be declared for lactose-intolerant consumers. PMID:25860435

  11. Antiosteoporotic effect of orally administered yolk-derived peptides on bone mass in women

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Adham M; Watabe, Kazuya; Yamane, Tetsuro; Isono, Tadayuki; Okamura, Yoshitaka; Kawahito, Seiji; Takeshima, Kazuhito; Masuda, Kazuyuki; Kim, Mujo

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to verify the effect of oral intake of a yolk-derived peptide preparation (HYP) obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of yolk water-soluble protein on bone markers and bone density in 65 perimenopausal women with an average age of 47.6 ± 5.2 years. Subjects were divided into three groups, and then enrolled in a 6-month, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Bone formation and resorption markers were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months, while bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spines was measured at 0 and 6 months. Although the bone formation marker levels showed the similarity changes among the groups, bone resorption markers in the test HYP group were significantly decreased after 3 and 6 months in comparison to other groups (P < 0.05). After 6 months, BMD in the test HYP group maintained at healthy numerical values whereas BMD values were decreased in other groups. Hence HYP would be an antiosteoporotic agent originated from natural food to maintain bone health, especially for women. PMID:24936288

  12. Response surface optimization of pH and ionic strength for emulsion characteristics of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Kurt, S; Zorba, O

    2009-11-01

    Effects of pH (3.5, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 8.5) and ionic strength (0.05, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.55 M NaCl) on emulsion capacity, emulsion stability (ES), apparent yield stress of emulsion (AYS), and emulsion density (ED) of egg yolk were studied by using a model system. Ionic strength and pH had significant (P < 0.01) effects on the emulsion characteristics of egg yolk. Their interaction effects also have been found significant on ES, AYS, and ED. Predicted solutions of ES, emulsion capacity, and ED were minimum. The critical point of ES was determined to be at pH 6.08 and an ionic strength of 0.49 (M NaCl). Predicted solution for AYS was a maximum, which was determined to be at pH 6.04 and an ionic strength of 0.29 (M NaCl). Optimum values of pH and ionic strenght were 4.61 to 7.43 and 0.10 to 0.47, respectively. PMID:19834095

  13. Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Hwa; Kim, Jimin; Yoon, Hyung-Sook; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone on egg quality. For 2 weeks hens received either control or experimental diet containing corticosterone at 30 mg/kg diet. Feed intake and egg production were monitored daily, and body weight measured weekly. Egg weights and egg quality were measured daily. Corticosterone treatment resulted in a remarkable increase in feed intake and sharp decrease in egg production compared with control (p<0.05) whereas body weight remained unchanged. Decreased albumen height, but no changes in egg weight, led to decreased Haugh unit (p<0.05). Corticosterone caused elevated eggshell thickness (p<0.05) without altering weight and strength, suggesting possible changes in shell structure. Yolk color and redness were increased by corticosterone (p<0.05) but lightness and yellowness were either not changed or inconsistent over the time period of measurements. Increased concentrations in plasma were also found for corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and amylase (p<0.05), suggesting that corticosterone increased protein breakdown, renal dysfunctions and pancreatitis. Together, the current results imply that dietary corticosterone affects egg quality such as yolk colors and shell thickness, in addition to its effects on feed intake and egg production. PMID:25925061

  14. Accumulation of the major yolk protein and zinc in the agametogenic sea urchin gonad.

    PubMed

    Unuma, Tatsuya; Sawaguchi, Sayumi; Yamano, Keisuke; Ohta, Hiromi

    2011-10-01

    Sea urchins of both sexes store the nutrients necessary for gametogenesis in nutritive phagocytes of the agametogenic gonad. A zinc-binding protein termed the major yolk protein (MYP) is stored here as two isoforms: the egg-type (predominant in egg yolk granules) and the coelomic fluid-type (a precursor with greater zinc-binding capacity). MYP is used during gametogenesis as material for synthesizing gametic proteins and other components. We investigated its accumulation and relationship to zinc contents in gonads during the non-reproductive season in Pseudocentrotus depressus. MYP constituted most of the protein in coelomic fluid and gonads. Both ovaries and testes grew gradually, accumulating MYP and zinc during the year. Total zinc contents and the ratio of coelomic fluid-type to egg-type protein were higher in ovaries than in testes as gametogenesis approached. Most of the zinc in the coelomic fluid was bound to MYP, and the concentrations of MYP and zinc were elevated toward the onset of oogenesis in the female coelomic fluid. Thus, MYP accumulates in the agametogenic ovaries and testes during the non-reproductive season, playing a role as a carrier to transport zinc to the gonad. Transportation of zinc by MYP is more active in females than in males. PMID:22042441

  15. Role of Actin-Bundling Protein Sac6 in Growth of Cryptococcus neoformans at Low Oxygen Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Ami Khanal; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiologic agent of cryptococcosis, is an obligately aerobic yeast that inhabits an environmental niche exposed to ambient air. The cell doubling time was significantly prolonged under 1% O2 relative to that under normoxic conditions. No apparent cell cycle arrest occurred following a shift from ambient air to 1% O2. However, yeast cells became hypersensitive to the actin monomer-sequestering agent latrunculin A at 1% O2, indicating that proper actin function is critical for growth at low oxygen concentrations. We showed that Sac6, an actin-binding protein, played an important role in cell growth under low oxygen conditions. Sac6 colocalized with cortical actin patches and with the ring structures between mother cells and buds. Under low oxygen conditions, the sac6 deletion mutant grew poorly, and accumulation of the actin capping protein Cap1 was observed in the vacuole of the sac6? strain. Furthermore, endocytic processes were hampered in the sac6? mutant, but cell polarity and cytokinesis were not visibly disturbed. The deficiency of endocytosis in the sac6? strain could be rescued by 1 M sorbitol under 1% O2, but growth remained retarded. These results suggest an absence of a direct link in C. neoformans between endocytosis and coping with the stress of low oxygen conditions. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that deletion of three conserved genes, ABP1, CRN1, and SLA2, which play important roles in endocytosis, had no effect on growth under 1% O2. Interestingly, deletion of SAC6 in C. neoformans had no effect on virulence in mice. PMID:22562467

  16. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrow, Lyle W., E-mail: lostrow1@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  17. [Pituitary tumors].

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Takakazu; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2004-05-01

    Pituitary adenomas have been reported to be the most common benign intracranial neoplasms. Recent radiological advancement has resulted in incidental diagnosis of pituitary tumors such as pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts. The most common location of pituitary adenomas is intrasellar region with or without suprasellar extension. Pituitary tumors in unusual site, however, have been reported previously, including the sphenoid sinus, suprasellar region, clivus, nasal cavity, or something like that. The sources of ectopic pituitary tumors have been thought to be migration of pituitary cells in pituitary adenomas and of squamous epithelial cell remnants of the obliterated craniopharyngeal canal in craniopharyngiomas. We describe ectopic pituitary tumors and recent knowledge of etiology and pathology of pituitary tumors. Furthermore, we mention recent advancement of endonasal transsphenoidal surgery to treat pituitary tumors. PMID:15148826

  18. Kidney Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney tumors are rare and generally curable in children. However, there are subsets of patients afflicted with these diseases that do not respond to treatment or eventually relapse. These patients usually have poor clinical outcomes as compared with the majority of children diagnosed with kidney tumors. All patients undergo therapy regimens that can be detrimental later in life. Through genome-wide characterization, TARGET investigators are identifying critical molecular alterations in these tumors, mostly from relapsed patients.

  19. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include papilloma (including inverted and squamous), fibro-osseous (meaning from bone structure) lesions (including osteoma, fibrous dysplasia), vascular (meaning from a blood vessel) tumors (including juvenile nasopharyngeal ...

  20. The acid-induced folded state of Sac7d is the native state.

    PubMed Central

    Bedell, J. L.; McCrary, B. S.; Edmondson, S. P.; Shriver, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Sac7d unfolds at low pH in the absence of salt, with the greatest extent of unfolding obtained at pH 2. We have previously shown that the acid unfolded protein is induced to refold by decreasing the pH to 0 or by addition of salt (McCrary BS, Bedell J. Edmondson SP, Shriver JW, 1998, J Mol Biol 276:203-224). Both near-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra and ANS fluorescence enhancements indicate that the acid- and salt-induced folded states have a native fold and are not molten globular. 1H,15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR spectra confirm that the native, acid-, and salt-induced folded states are essentially identical. The most significant differences in amide 1H and 15N chemical shifts are attributed to hydrogen bonding to titrating carboxyl side chains and through-bond inductive effects. The 1H NMR chemical shifts of protons affected by ring currents in the hydrophobic core of the acid- and salt-induced folded states are identical to those observed in the native. The radius of gyration of the acid-induced folded state at pH 0 is shown to be identical to that of the native state at pH 7 by small angle X-ray scattering. We conclude that acid-induced collapse of Sac7d does not lead to a molten globule but proceeds directly to the native state. The folding of Sac7d as a function of pH and anion concentration is summarized with a phase diagram that is similar to those observed for other proteins that undergo acid-induced folding except that the A-state is encompassed by the native state. These results demonstrate that formation of a molten globule is not a general property of proteins that are refolded by acid. PMID:11106160

  1. A case report on a nasolabial cyst presenting with a nasolacrimal sac cyst.

    PubMed

    Zengin, A Z; Unal-Erzurumlu, Z; Karl?, R

    2015-01-01

    Nasolabial cysts are rare, nonodontogenic soft tissue developmental cysts that occur in the maxillary lip and nasal alar regions. Patients with this type of cyst generally presents with an asymptomatic soft swelling that may obliterate the nasolabial fold, elevate the nasal ala or the floor of the nose and fill the labial vestibule intraorally. The exact origin of nasolabial cysts is uncertain. The seed theory suggests that these cysts develop from a misplaced epithelium of the nasolacrimal duct because of their similar location and histologic appearance. This report aimed to present a case of nasolabial cyst presenting with a nasolacrimal sac cyst. PMID:26096251

  2. Graft Distortion After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Association with Sac Morphology and Mid-Term Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Derek Alan [Department of Interventional Radiology, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); Edwards, Richard David [Radiology Department, Gartnavel Hospital, Glasgow G12 OYG (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard Gregory; Rowlands, Peter Christopher [Department of Interventional Radiology, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); Martin, Janis [Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); White, Donagh [Department of Interventional Radiology, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); Fear, Simon [Statistician, Roy Castle ICLCR, London Road, Liverpool L3 9TA (United Kingdom); Bakran, Ali; Brennan, John; Gilling-Smith, Geoffrey; Harris, Peter Lyon [Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, significance, and mechanism of stent-graft distortion after endovascular repair (EVR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm.Methods: EVR of abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in 51 cases (49 modular, bifurcated; 2 tube). Thirty-two patients were followed for 6 or more months and had equivalent baseline and follow-up images which could be used to determine changes in graft configuration. Sac dimensions were measured using computed tomographic (CT) images and graft-related complications were recorded.Results: Amongst 32 patients evaluated on follow-up, there was graft distortion in 24. Distorted grafts were significantly (p= 0.002) associated with sac diameter reduction (mean 5 mm) and sac length reduction (mean 8.1 mm). All graft-related complications occurred in the limbs of eight distorted grafts, with a mean reduction of sac length in this group of 7.8 mm on reformatted CT images.Conclusion: There was a highly significant association between graft distortion and limb complications, and reduced sac dimensions.

  3. Enhancement of Processability and Electrical Resistance by Use of Ag-Based Composite Inks Containing Ultrafine SAC305 Alloy Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Moo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Seok Pil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    We propose use of Ag/Sn-3.0 (wt.%) Ag-0.5 Cu (SAC305) composite ink to reduce sintering temperature, sintering time, and material costs. The SAC305 nanoparticle (NP) surfaces were not capped by any stabilizers, which are detrimental to the resistivity of the sintered tracks. Compared with commercial pure Ag ink, use of Ag/3.2 (vol.%) SAC305 composite ink containing ultrafine SAC305 NPs resulted in outstandingly enhanced processability, enabling faster sintering at low temperatures. The average sheet resistance of composite ink samples sintered for 25 min at 170°C was as low as 0.011 ?/?, comparable with that of a pure Ag sample sintered for over 30 min at 220°C. The morphology and the differential scanning calorimetry curves enabled explanation of the changes in the sintering behavior and sheet resistance. The Ag/SAC305 clusters in the composite ink sintered at 170°C grew, on average, to ~201.1-226.1 nm as a result of faster local liquid-phase sintering, and most of the Ag particles were mutually linked, dramatically changing the microstructure.

  4. Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in 10% salted liquid egg yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is presently not sufficient data nor is there a suitable model for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp for many types of liquid egg products, including salted liquid egg yolk, for use in updating pasteurization guidelines, in part because of the different Salmonella stra...

  5. Dopamine as a Carbon Source: The Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Carbon Spheres and Yolk-Structured Carbon Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Liu, Rui [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Li, Chen [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Gao, Hongjun [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A facile and versatile synthesis using dopamine as a carbon source gives hollow carbon spheres and yolk-shell Au{at}Carbon nanocomposites. The uniform nature of dopamine coatings and their high carbon yield endow the products with high structural integrity. The Au{at}C nanocomposites are catalytically active.

  6. Facile one-pot synthesis of multi-yolk-shell Bi@C nanostructures by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect.

    PubMed

    Cui, C M; Guo, X H; Geng, Y M; Dang, T T; Xie, G; Chen, S P; Zhao, F Q

    2015-05-21

    Multi-yolk-shell Bi@C nanostructures were prepared via a facile one-pot template-free hydrothermal approach. The prepared Bi@C nanostructures can act as a solid catalyst in the thermal decomposition of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and display excellent catalytic activity, which highlights their application in the field of energetic materials. PMID:25872458

  7. Egg and yolk production traits in relation to ovum development, liver and liver moisture weight in dwarf and normal

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Egg and yolk production traits in relation to ovum development, liver and liver moisture weight and on ovum development were obtained from White Leghorn Dw and dw hens belonging to 4 sire families between 52 and 56 weeks of age. Ovum development was followed by the fat-soluble dye incorporation technique

  8. Fatty acid proles of yolk lipids of ve species of wild ducks (Anatidae) differing in dietary preference

    E-print Network

    Bortolotti, Gary R.

    Fatty acid pro®les of yolk lipids of ®ve species of wild ducks (Anatidae) differing in dietary of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK, Canada S7N 5E2 (Accepted 6 September 2001) Abstract The fatty acid compositions. For all ®ve species, the fatty acid pro®les conformed to a similar pattern, characterized by relatively

  9. VALIDATION OF EGG YOLK ANTIBODY TESTING AS A METHOD TO DETERMINE INFLUENZA STATUS IN WHITE LEGHORN HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two groups of mature specific-pathogen-free white leghorn hens were inoculated topically with a recent H7N2 avian influenza (AI) virus or subcutaneously with an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine produced from the same AI virus. Antibody levels detected in serum and egg yolk on days 0, 7, 14, 18 and ...

  10. In vitro comparison of egg yolk–based and soybean lecithin–based extenders for cryopreservation of ram semen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Forouzanfar; M. Sharafi; S. M. Hosseini; S. Ostadhosseini; M. Hajian; L. Hosseini; P. Abedi; N. Nili; H. R. Rahmani; M. H. Nasr-Esfahani

    2010-01-01

    Substitution of egg yolk with soybean lecithin may reduce hygienic risks in extenders. Though a few studies have been performed on the effect of soybean lecithin in bull, to date evaluation of ram semen in vitro fertility after cryopreservation with use of soybean lecithin has not been studied. This study assessed the effect of 1% or 2% (wt\\/vol) soybean lecithin

  11. Skim milk-egg yolk based semen extender compensates for non-enzymatic antioxidant activity loss during equine semen cryopreservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. C. Bustamante Filho; C. D. Pederzolli; A. M. Sgaravatti; R. M. Gregory; C. S. Dutra Filho; M. I. M. Jobim; R. C. Mattos

    2009-01-01

    Cryopreservation exposes spermatozoa to stressful conditions, leading to reduced cell viability. Several studies propose that overproduction of reactive oxygen species and decreased antioxidant capacity of semen may increase the damaging effects of the technique. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of a skim milk-egg yolk based semen extender on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity in equine

  12. Dietary Levels of Chia: Influence on Yolk Cholesterol, Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition for Two Strains of Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ayerza; W. Coates

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the

  13. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

  14. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  15. Yolk-shell structured Gd2O3:Eu(3+) phosphor prepared by spray pyrolysis: the effect of preparation conditions on microstructure and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-01-14

    Gd2O3:Eu(3+) yolk-shell phosphor powders with high photoluminescence intensity were prepared by spray pyrolysis. Preparation temperature and spray solution concentration were varied to find the optimum process conditions for preparation of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) with yolk-shell structure. The formation mechanism of yolk-shell Gd2O3:Eu(3+) was systematically investigated by observing the microstructures of particles produced under various preparation conditions. The morphological structure of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) powders was clearly dependent on reactor temperature and on the precursor solution concentration. Eventually, pure yolk-shell structured Gd2O3:Eu(3+) powders were obtained for a reaction temperature of 1000 °C and concentration of the spray solution below 0.2 M. Also, the yolk-shell structure formed showed high thermal stability, making it possible to maintain the original spherical yolk-shell structure through calcination at high temperatures. As a result, highly crystalline Gd2O3:Eu(3+) phosphor powders having yolk-shell structure and an agglomeration-free spherical shape were successfully synthesized by spray pyrolysis. These phosphor powders were shown to have good photoluminescence characteristics. PMID:25424414

  16. Replacing egg yolk with soybean lecithin in the cryopreservation of stallion semen.

    PubMed

    Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Felício, Gabriel Barcelos; Melo-Oña, Cely Marini; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio; De Vita, Bruna; Trinque, Cássio; Puoli-Filho, José Nicolau P; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether replacing the egg yolk with soybean lecithin in the Botu-Crio® cryodiluent would maintain the fertility of cryopreserved stallion sperm. Two experiments were performed to evaluate cell freezability. In experiment 1, sperm from 15 stallions were frozen in Botu-Crio® (BC) or Botu-Crio® which contained 45g/L soybean lecithin (BCLS45) in place of the egg yolk. In experiment 2, we compared different concentrations of soybean lecithin: 0, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 and 20.0g/L (BC, BCLS10, BCLS12.5, BCLS17.5 and BCLS20, respectively). In experiment 1, sperm frozen in BC and BCLS45 exhibited similar (P>0.05) percentages of total motile sperm (61% and 61%, respectively); progressively motile sperm (27% and 27%, respectively) and sperm with intact plasma membranes (IMP; 53% and 57%, respectively). Similarly, sperm frozen in BC or BC containing any concentration of soybean lecithin maintained similar (P>0.05) percentages of total motile sperm (61-68%) and progressively motile sperm (27-31%). In the first fertility trial, we used cryopreserved semen from a single stallion was inseminated into mares. The semen from the sperm that were frozen in BC diluent resulted in a higher fertility rate (66%, 16/24) compared to the sperm that were frozen in BCLS45 diluent (17%, 5/29; P<0.01). Similarly, in a second fertility trial, the mares that were inseminated with the sperm that were frozen in BC diluent exhibited a higher fertility rate (66%, 16/24) compared to the mares that were inseminated with the sperm that were frozen in BCLS20 (40%, 10/25; P<0.05). Finally, in a third trial, the sperm that were frozen in BC resulted in a higher fertility rate in mares (75%, 18/24) compared to the sperm that were frozen in BCLS10 (41%, 10/24; P<0.05). Although replacing the egg yolk in the BC cryodiluent with soybean lecithin provided similar laboratory results for stallion sperm, after cryopreservation, the sperm that was frozen with soybean lecithin in the diluent correlated with lower fertility rates. Based on these results, we concluded that the use of BCLS can be used as an alternative diluent for cryopreserving stallion sperm. However, the resulting reduced fertility rate is a matter of concern. Further studies are necessary to clarify the reasons for this decrease in fertility and to determine the optimal lecithin concentration for diluents to freeze stallion sperm. PMID:22112939

  17. Evaluation of yolk protein levels as estrogenic biomarker in bivalves; comparison of the alkali-labile phosphate method (ALP) and a species-specific immunoassay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Morthorst, Jane E; Holbech, Henrik; Jeppesen, Morten; Kinnberg, Karin L; Pedersen, Knud L; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2014-11-01

    Altered concentration of the vertebrate yolk protein precursor vitellogenin is a recognized biomarker for endocrine disruption in fish, and within recent years yolk protein alteration has also been associated with endocrine disruption in bivalves. Species-specific, direct and sensitive methods for quantification of vitellogenin in fish have been available for years whereas bivalve yolk protein levels have been estimated indirectly by alkali-labile phosphate (ALP) liberated from high molecular weight proteins because the sequence and biochemical structure of most bivalve yolk proteins are unknown. By applying a species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for accurate determination of yolk protein level the impact of 17?-estradiol (57, 164 and 512 ng/L) on the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus was investigated and compared with ALP estimations. Seven weeks of exposure during the pre-spawning and spawning period had no consistent effect on yolk protein concentration in hemolymph, and ALP levels in hemolymph also remained unchanged in both males and females. Further, basal male and female ALP levels were indistinguishable whereas the ELISA demonstrated that yolk protein levels of females exceeded male levels at the time of sampling, although male basal levels were high compared to fish. Altogether it is shown that individual ALP levels do not reflect yolk protein levels and hence hemolymph ALP levels cannot serve as biomarker for estrogenic exposure during the pre-spawning and spawning period in U. tumidus. The necessity of sensitive and validated biomarkers for reliable interpretation of data and the utility of ALP and yolk protein levels as biomarkers in bivalves are discussed. PMID:25066673

  18. Proportional accumulation of yolk proteins derived from multiple vitellogenins is precisely regulated during vitellogenesis in striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Williams, Valerie N; Reading, Benjamin J; Amano, Haruna; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Schilling, Justin; Salger, Scott A; Islam Williams, Taufika; Gross, Kevin; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-07-01

    We quantified three vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) or their derived yolk proteins (YPs) in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-vitellogenic (PreVG), mid-vitellogenic (MVG), and late-vitellogenic (LVG) oocyte growth and during post-vitellogenesis (PostVG) in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (MS). Western blotting of the samples using antisera raised against gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) lipovitellins derived from VtgAa, VtgAb, and VtgC confirmed the MS results. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed liver as the primary site of expression for all three Vtgs, with extra-hepatic transcription weakly detected in ovary, foregut, adipose tissue, and brain. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed vtgAb to be primarily expressed in liver and VtgAb proteins were predominant in liver and plasma from MVG to PostVG. However, the primary period of deposition into oocytes of VtgAb occurred up until MVG, whereas VtgAa was primarily deposited from MVG to LVG. The VtgC was gradually taken up by oocytes throughout vitellogenesis and was detected at trace levels in plasma. The ratio of yolk proteins derived from VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC (YPAa/YPAb/YPC) in PostVG ovary is 1.4:1.4:1, which differs from ratios previously reported for other fish species in that YPC comprises a greater proportion of the egg yolk. Our results indicate that proportional accumulation of multiple Vtgs in the yolk may depend both on the precise rates of their hepatic secretion and specific uptake by oocytes. Furthermore, composition of the Vtg-derived yolk may vary among Acanthomorph fishes, perhaps reflecting their different early life histories and reproductive strategies. PMID:24648375

  19. Characteristics of indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystals prepared by an anti-solvent crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Wang, In-Chun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Jung, Yun-Taek; Lee, Sangkil; Kim, Woo-Sik; Choi, Guang J

    2013-11-01

    The creation of co-crystals of various insoluble drug substances has been extensively investigated as a promising approach to improve their pharmaceutical performance. In this study, co-crystal powders of indomethacin and saccharin (IMC-SAC) were prepared by an anti-solvent (water) addition and compared with co-crystals by evaporation method. No successful synthesis of a pharmaceutical co-crystal powder via an anti-solvent approach has been reported. Among solvents examined, methanol was practically the only one that resulted in the formation of highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders by anti-solvent approach. The mechanism of a preferential formation of IMC-SAC co-crystal to IMC was explained with two aspects: phase solubility diagram and solution complexation concept. Accordingly, the anti-solvent approach can be considered as a competitive route for producing pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with acceptable properties. PMID:23454054

  20. An unusual case of a spasticity-lacking phenotype with a novel SACS mutation.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Haruo; Sakoe, Kumi; Niijima, Kenji; Nakano, Imaharu; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2007-04-15

    The authors describe an unusual case of autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) without leg spasticity, which is a core clinical feature of ARSACS. This is the second family with a spasticity-lacking phenotype in ARSACS. A peripheral nerve conduction study disclosed decreases in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities with the disease progression. Although the leg spasticity is reported to become progressively worse during the disease and is prevalent in older patients, we first observed that the symptom had disappeared, probably due to the progressive peripheral nerve degeneration in the disease course. Thus, we should analyze the SACS gene even in cases of early-onset cerebellar ataxia without spasticity. The patient had a novel homozygous 2-base pair deletion mutation (c.5988-9 del CT) of the SACS gene, but the genotype was different from that in our first family of this phenotype. A further genotype-phenotype correlation study is required to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying 'sacsinopathies'. PMID:17349660

  1. Laparoscopic treatment of acute ovarian incarceration into the pelvic peritoneal sac.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, K; Egami, Rika; Izumi, Yuki; Yamada, Yoko; Egashira, Katsuko; Miyahara, Akiko; Fukuhara, Masao; Watanabe, Yoshitsugu; Nakamura, Gen-ishi

    2009-01-01

    Pelvic pain is a common symptom in women of reproductive age. Acute pelvic pain with rapid onset demands prompt diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a patient with ovarian incarceration of acute onset. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ovarian incarceration into the pelvic peritoneal sac in a woman of reproductive age. In the present case, laparoscopy was useful in establishing the cause of pelvic pain. The patient reported severe lower right quadrant abdominal pain of sudden onset. At laparoscopic examination, the right fallopian tube was normal; however, the right ovary was not initially visible at the normal site. After the swollen right ovarian ligament was pulled aside using nontraumatic laparoscopic forceps, we were able to detect incarceration of the right ovary into the peritoneal sac in the medial to right uterosacral ligament. This case is unique because of ovarian incarceration into the peritoneal fenestration. We believe this condition was congenital because there was no other cause such as previous surgery, severe endometriosis, or pelvic inflammatory diseases. PMID:19835814

  2. Embryo sac formation and early embryo development in Agave tequilana (Asparagaceae).

    PubMed

    González-Gutiérrez, Alejandra G; Gutiérrez-Mora, Antonia; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana is an angiosperm species that belongs to the family Asparagaceae (formerly Agavaceae). Even though there is information regarding to some aspects related to the megagametogenesis of A. tequilana, this is the first report describing the complete process of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, the early embryo and endosperm development process in detail. The objective of this work was to study and characterize all the above processes and the distinctive morphological changes of the micropylar and chalazal extremes after fertilization in this species. The agave plant material for the present study was collected from commercial plantations in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Ovules and immature seeds, previously fixed in FAA and kept in ethanol 70%, were stained based on a tissue clarification technique by using a Mayer's-Hematoxylin solution. The tissue clarification technique was successfully used for the characterization of the megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, mature embryo sac formation, the early embryo and endosperm development processes by studying intact cells. The embryo sac of A. tequilana was confirmed to be of the monosporic Polygonum-type and an helobial endosperm formation. Also, the time-lapse of the developmental processes studied was recorded. PMID:25332875

  3. A novel approach for noninvasive drug delivery and sensing through the amniotic sac.

    PubMed

    Azagury, Aharon; Amar-Lewis, Eliz; Mann, Ella; Goldbart, Riki; Traitel, Tamar; Jelinek, Raz; Hallak, Mordechai; Kost, Joseph

    2014-06-10

    Current invasive prenatal tests (amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling) are known for their risk to the fetus. In the last decade, the use and awareness of these prenatal tests have increased, resulting in growing demand for a safe, non-invasive, and accurate prenatal test. Chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) have long been used to increase transport phenomena across skin and other membranes (e.g., tympanic membrane). The amniotic sac membrane is called the chorioamnion (CA) membrane and serves as the physical barrier between the fetus and the mother. In this research, the effect of CPEs on human CA mass transport was evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo. The results show that the tested CPEs exhibit an enhancing effect on CA mass transport. Based on the permeability results, two mechanisms of action were suggested: "extractors" and "fluidizers". Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and rapid colorimetric screening measurements supported the mechanisms, based on which, more potent compounds were designed and tested for their enhancing effect. The enhancing mass transport effect of CPEs on CA membrane may be used both for sampling of cell-free DNA and for noninvasively administering drugs and other biological agents to the amniotic sac. PMID:24685707

  4. Using simple spray pyrolysis to prepare yolk-shell-structured ZnO-Mn3O4 systems with the optimum composition for superior electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-03-10

    A spray-pyrolysis process is introduced as an effective tool for the preparation of yolk-shell-structured materials with electrochemical properties suitable for anode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Yolk-shell-structured ZnO-Mn3O4 systems with various molar ratios of the Zn and Mn components are prepared. The yolk-shell-structured ZnO-Mn3O4 powders with a molar ratio of 1:1 of the Zn and Mn components are shown to have high capacities and good cycling performances. PMID:24532417

  5. Endocytotic activity of the free floating cells and epithelial cells in the endolymphatic sac: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, K; Sakagami, M; Matsunaga, T; Fujita, H

    1991-07-01

    The fine structure and its functional properties of both free floating cells and epithelial cells in the endolymphatic sac after injections of India ink particles or polystyrene latex beads, 0.24 micron in diameter, into the endolymphatic space, were studied using light and electron microscopy. Twenty-four to 48 hours after injections, these foreign materials had accumulated in the lumen of the endolymphatic sac and a large number of them were ingested into free floating cells, most of which appear to be macrophages. Granular leucocytes taking up the foreign materials into the cytoplasm were also recognized in the sac lumen. A few of these leucocytes passed through the epithelium and migrated to the subepithelial connective tissue, while the others were degenerated and phagocytosed by the free floating cells in the lumen of the sac. In addition to the free floating cells, ink particles, latex beads, and degenerated leucocytes were endocytosed into some of the epithelial cells. As we reported previously, the epithelial cells were clearly classified into two types; type-1 epithelial cells (cytoorganelle-rich cells) and type-2 epithelial cells (filament-rich cells). The foreign materials and degenerated cells were taken up mainly into the type-1 epithelial cells, while the type-2 epithelial cells did not show so marked endocytotic activity in comparison with the type-1 epithelial cells. Thus, it becomes clear that the endolymphatic sac plays an important role in the endocytotic activity for foreign materials and waste products, and both the free floating cells and the type-1 epithelial cells of the sac have strong endocytotic activity. PMID:1867416

  6. Preparation of asparagine-linked monoglucosylated high-mannose-type oligosaccharide from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Seko, Akira; Takeda, Yoichi; Ito, Yukishige

    2015-06-26

    Monoglucosylated high-mannose-type glycan (Glc1Man9GlcNAc2: G1M9) is well-known as a key glycoform in the glycoprotein folding process, which is specifically recognized by lectin chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this work, we developed an efficient method for the preparation of G1M9-Asn. The G1M9-Asn was obtained from the IgY-rich fraction derived from hen egg yolk by the digestion with pronase. The ?-amino group of asparagine in G1M9-Asn was protected with the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group and the labeled glycans were subsequently purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This method will provide useful substrates for analysis of the glycoprotein folding cycle in the ER. PMID:25970848

  7. Purification and characterization of the common yolk protein, vitellin, from the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Volz, David C; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Chandler, G Thomas

    2002-05-01

    Vitellin is a major yolk protein that plays a significant role in the embryonic development of crustacean embryos. This protein was rapidly purified from embryos of the estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, by subjecting the crude protein homogenate to high affinity column chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed a single band with an approximate molecular weight of 200,000 daltons. Vitellin was characterized by SDS-PAGE techniques and amino acid composition analysis. L. plumulosus vitellin is a lipoglycophosphoprotein with serine, glutamic acid/glutamine, alanine, and aspartic acid/asparagine accounting for almost 66% of all amino acid residues. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against L. plumulosus vitellin and antibody reactivity was verified by dot-blotting and immuno-fluorescence confocal microscopy. These antibodies are specific for purified vitellin and show little cross-reactivity with other embryonic proteins. PMID:12071641

  8. Study on a novel process for the separation of phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Su, Yujie; Tian, Ying; Yan, Ruhui; Wang, Chenying; Niu, Fuge; Yang, Yanjun

    2015-07-01

    A novel process for effective separation of phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol from fresh egg yolk has been developed and validated in this study. Ethanol was the only organic solvent used in the whole procedure. Following initial separation of protein and total lipids by ethanol, most of solidified triacylglycerol was removed from total lipids by low temperature treatment of ethanol extracts within 10 h. Then, ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was used to remove cholesterol from the remaining ethanol extracts and recycling of ?-CD was also studied to obtain cholesterol and reusable ?-CD powder. The highest cholesterol removal rate of nearly 99 % was obtained at ?-CD: cholesterol molar ratio of 5:1, water addition of 15 g/g ?-CD and reacting temperature of 50 °C. Ethanol in residual ethanol extracts was removed for obtaining phospholipids by rotary evaporation. The phospholipids produced in this procedure without cholesterol could be safety used as emulsifiers in food or cosmetic industry. PMID:26139929

  9. Sequence homologies among the three yolk polypeptide (Yp) genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Y L; Kunert, C J; Postlethwait, J H

    1987-01-01

    To identify candidates for cis-acting sequences that regulate the sex-, stage-, and cell-specific expression of three coordinately regulated yolk polypeptide genes (Yp) in Drosophila melanogaster, we have mapped the Yp3 transcript, sequenced a 4278 bp DNA fragment containing the Yp3 gene, compared Yp3 region sequences to corresponding parts of Yp1 and Yp2, and compared the predicted amino acid sequence of YP3 to YP1 and YP2. The results showed that the Yps are largely homologous in translated regions, especially in the 3' half of the genes. Untranscribed flanking regions had little homology. A conserved inverted repeat (the H-box) has homology both to vertebrate steroid hormone receptor binding sites and to the ecdysone control region of Drosophila's hsp23. These results identify sequences to mutate in order to define elements that regulate Yp gene expression and govern YP polypeptide function. Images PMID:3029679

  10. Egg colour reflects the amount of yolk maternal antibodies and fledging success in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Judith; Sanz, Juan J; Moreno, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Blue–green colours in avian eggs have been proposed as post-mating signals of female phenotypic quality to their mates. Egg colour may not only indicate female value, but also the quality of the eggs themselves and of resulting offspring. To date, there has been no demonstration of an association between egg colour and egg or offspring immune quality. We here show that the intensity of blue–green colour of pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca eggs reflects the amount of maternal antibodies in the yolk, a form of passive immunity crucial for offspring performance. Moreover, egg colour predicts fledging success. Also, incubating females in better condition lay more colourful eggs. The immunoglobulin level in incubating females is positively associated with that in the eggs. These results support the signalling hypothesis of eggshell coloration, underlining its role as an indicator of trans-generational transmission of immune defences in birds. PMID:17148396

  11. The oxidation of cholesterol in the yolk of selective traditional Chinese egg products.

    PubMed

    Yang, S C; Chen, K H

    2001-03-01

    The yolks of traditional chicken egg products (Tiedan, Ludan, and Chayedan) and duck egg products (raw and cooked Xiandan, immersed and coated Pidan) were subjected to moisture, lipid, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) determinations as well as cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products (COP) analysis. The main COP detected for these egg products included 20-hydroxycholesterol and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, other types of COP were not detected. The contents of COP formed in traditional egg products varied, depending upon the types of egg products. The cholesterol oxidation ratio for traditional Chinese chicken egg products ranged from 1.14 to 1.75%, whereas that for traditional Chinese duck egg products ranged from 1.18 to 1.90%. Those traditional egg products that required pickling in salt or alkaline, cooking, hot air drying, and exposure to oxygen and heat all produced COP. PMID:11261569

  12. Experimental and theoretical NMR studies of interaction between phenylalanine derivative and egg yolk lecithin.

    PubMed

    Wa??sa, Roksana; Ptak, Tomasz; Siod?ak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Broda, Ma?gorzata A

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of phenylalanine diamide (Ac-Phe-NHMe) with egg yolk lecithin (EYL) in chloroform was studied by (1)H and (13)C NMR. Six complexes EYL-Ac-Phe-NHMe, stabilized by N-H···O or/and C-H···O hydrogen bonds, were optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level. The assignment of EYL and Ac-Phe-NHMe NMR signals was supported using GIAO (gauge including atomic orbital) NMR calculations at VSXC and B3LYP level of theory combined with STO-3Gmag basis set. Results of our study indicate that the interaction of peptides with lecithin occurs mainly in the polar 'head' of the lecithin. Additionally, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with Ac-Phe-NHMe is the negatively charged oxygen in phosphate group that acts as proton acceptor. PMID:24639342

  13. Moderate Heat Challenge Increased Yolk Steroid Hormones and Shaped Offspring Growth and Behavior in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Chanson, Marine; Delaveau, Joël; Mercerand, Frédéric; Möstl, Erich; Calandreau, Ludovic; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Collin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature–within the thermotolerance range- would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in turn, affect the morphology and behavioral phenotype of offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Laying hens were raised under a standard thermal condition at 21°C (controls) or 30°C (experimental) for 5 consecutive weeks. A significant increase was observed in the internal temperature of hens exposed to the warm treatment; however plasma corticosterone levels remained unaffected. The laying rate was not affected, but experimental hens laid lighter eggs than the controls during the treatment. As expected, the maternal thermal environment affected yolk hormone contents. Eggs laid by the experimental hens showed significantly higher concentrations of yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol. All chicks were raised under standard thermal conditions. The quality of hatchlings, growth, feeding behavior and emotional reactivity of chicks were analyzed. Offspring of experimental hens (C30 chicks) were lighter but obtained better morphological quality scores at hatching than the controls (C21 chicks). C30 chicks expressed lesser distress calls when exposed to a novel food. Unlike C21 chicks, C30 chicks expressed no preference for energetic food. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that moderate heat challenge triggers maternal effects and modulate the developmental trajectory of offspring in a way that may be adaptive. This suggests that the impact of heat challenges on captive or wild populations might have a cross-generation effect. PMID:23451257

  14. Glioneuronal Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Simon; Rudolf A. Kristof; Johannes Schramm

    \\u000a Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors are thought to arise from neuroepithelial cells. According to the 2007 WHO classification,\\u000a this group of tumors comprises ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma, desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and ganglioglioma,\\u000a dys-plastic cerebellar gangliocytoma (Lhermitte–Duclos disease), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), central neurocytoma,\\u000a cerebellar liponeurocytoma (CLN), paraganglioma of the cauda equina (PCE), and the more recently recognized subtypes papillary\\u000a glion-euronal

  15. Loss of BubR1 acetylation causes defects in spindle assembly checkpoint signaling and promotes tumor formation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Inai; Lee, Hae-ock; Choi, Eunhee; Lee, Yoo-Kyung; Kwon, Mi-Sun; Min, Jaewon; Park, Pil-Gu; Lee, Seonju; Kong, Young-Yun; Gong, Gyungyub

    2013-01-01

    BubR1 acetylation is essential in mitosis. Mice heterozygous for the acetylation-deficient BubR1 allele (K243R/+) spontaneously developed tumors with massive chromosome missegregations. K243R/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibited a weakened spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) with shortened mitotic timing. The generation of the SAC signal was intact, as Mad2 localization to the unattached kinetochore (KT) was unaltered; however, because of the premature degradation of K243R-BubR1, the mitotic checkpoint complex disassociated prematurely in the nocodazole-treated condition, suggesting that maintenance of the SAC is compromised. BubR1 acetylation was also required to counteract excessive Aurora B activity at the KT for stable chromosome–spindle attachments. The association of acetylation-deficient BubR1 with PP2A-B56? phosphatase was reduced, and the phosphorylated Ndc80 at the KT was elevated in K243R/+ MEFs. In relation, there was a marked increase of micronuclei and p53 mutation was frequently detected in primary tumors of K243R/+ mice. Collectively, the combined effects of failure in chromosome–spindle attachment and weakened SAC cause genetic instability and cancer in K243R/+ mice. PMID:23878276

  16. Liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Stringer, M D

    2000-11-01

    Liver tumors in children are rare, potentially complex, and encompass a broad spectrum of disease processes. Any age group may be affected, including the fetus. Most present with abdominal distension and/or a mass. Accurate preoperative diagnosis is usually possible using a combination of ultrasound scanning and cross-sectional imaging techniques (CT and/or MR), supplemented by liver biopsy and measurement of tumor markers. The most common benign tumors are hemangiomas, but mesenchymal hamartoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and adenoma also are found. In Western countries, hepatoblastoma is the most common primary malignant liver tumor; disease-free survival is now possible in more than 80% of affected patients because of advances in combination chemotherapy, improved techniques of surgical resection, and the selective use of liver transplantation. In contrast, there has been less progress in the management of hepatocellular cancer, which still poses many therapeutic challenges. PMID:11112837

  17. Tumores cerebrales

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  18. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a pathologist’s report about the visual and microscopic examination of tissue removed during a biopsy or other surgery. How are tumor grades classified? Grading systems differ depending on the type of cancer. In ...

  19. Pregnancy Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Poor oral hygiene (not enough brushing, flossing or cleanings to remove food or plaque) Irritation of the ... of getting a pregnancy tumor. Have regular dental cleanings before you become pregnant. Visit the dentist very ...

  20. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a cure; tumors with "unfavorable" histology are more aggressive and difficult to cure. About 95% of Wilms ... of treatment. For example, a child with very aggressive disease should be given an intensive regimen of ...

  1. Liver tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Stringer

    2000-01-01

    Liver tumors in children are rare, potentially complex, and encompass a broad spectrum of disease processes. Any age group may be affected, including the fetus. Most present with abdominal distension and\\/or a mass. Accurate preoperative diagnosis is usually possible using a combination of ultrasound scanning and cross-sectional imaging techniques (CT and\\/or MR), supplemented by liver biopsy and measurement of tumor

  2. Rare Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunanda Pejavar; Daphne Haas-Kogan

    \\u000a Meningiomas are mostly benign tumors that arise from arachnoid cap cells of the meninges. They occur most frequently during\\u000a the fifth or sixth decades of life and account for 15–25% of all primary intracranial neoplasms (Germano et al. 1994). These\\u000a tumors are rare in children and adolescents, comprising only 1–3% of all meningiomas (Tufan et al. 2005) and less than

  3. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  4. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  5. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  6. Brain Tumor Dictionary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  7. Brain Tumor Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  8. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  9. Superior electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4 yolk-shell powders prepared by a simple spray pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Sim, Chul Min; Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-07-01

    LiMn2O4 yolk-shell powders with a distinctive filled-core@void@shell configuration are prepared by a spray pyrolysis process. The yolk-shell powders have discharge capacities of 127, 120, and 115 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles, even at high current densities of 3 C (360 mA g(-1)), 5 C, and 10 C, respectively. PMID:23714849

  10. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Cook; R. Renema; C. Wilkinson; A. L. Schaefer

    2009-01-01

    1.?Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone.2.?Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation.3.?Several

  11. Efficient production, purification, and application of egg yolk antibodies against human HLA-A*0201 heavy chain and light chain (?2m)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Ping Ruan; Li Ma; Xiao-Wei He; Min-Jie Meng; Yong Zhu; Ming-Qian Zhou; Zhi-Ming Hu; Xiao-Ning Wang

    2005-01-01

    The importance of eggs as a source of specific antibodies is well recognized. Egg yolk contains 8–20mg immunoglobulins (IgY) per milliliter. However, the major problem in separating IgY is to remove the high concentrations of lipids in egg yolk. We first used water dilution method to get the supernatant containing IgY, then purified the antibody by caprylic acid–ammonium sulfate method,

  12. Supplementation of laying hen feed with tocopherols and algal (Haematococcus pluvialis) astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enhancement and a novel use of egg yolk protein and lecithin in the formation of artificial oil bodies for stabilizing omega-3 oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie Ann Walker

    2011-01-01

    Feeding Study\\u000aAdding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Research on astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols indicates this compound is a potent antioxidants and provides health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed will result in egg yolks with increased nutrient content with minimum change in functional properties. Laying hens (W-36

  13. Apomictic embryo sac development in a diploid sorghum line and its derived polyploids 

    E-print Network

    Stover, Eddie Wayne

    1980-01-01

    . 8 64. 5 56. 5 83. 5 53. 2 66. 0 51. 6 60. 4 60. 9 61. 1 61. 4 63. 4 65. 7 67. 2 65. 2 56. 0 74. 7 13. 6 79. 0 22. 8 33. 6 25. 0 31. 3 15. 3 45. 8 33. 3 18. 5 80. 5 22. 5 2xWS 54. 0 s=8. 16 47. 5 s=2. 59 93. 6 R473A R...). Several other sorghum genotypes have been reported to display low levels of apomixis. One of these, a white seed mutant, was found to have 8 to 9% multiple embryo sacs at anthesis and produced 0. 3 to 14. 6X maternal-type plants from test crosses...

  14. \\\\due.uci.edu\\due\\Files\\SAC\\EAP\\FACULTY\\LangEvaluators.doc 9/18/13 EAP LANGUAGE EVALUATORS

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    \\\\due.uci.edu\\due\\Files\\SAC\\EAP\\FACULTY\\LangEvaluators.doc 9/18/13 EAP LANGUAGE EVALUATORS The following faculty members have agreed to serve as EAP Language Evaluators. Before contacting a Language Evaluator, refer to the Language Evaluation instructions in your EAP application. LANGUAGE NAME NUMBER

  15. Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta menardi

    E-print Network

    Buehler, Markus J.

    Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical

  16. Identification of genes potentially related to biomineralization and immunity by transcriptome analysis of pearl sac in pearl oyster Pinctada martensii.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoxia; Wang, Qingheng; Jiao, Yu; Huang, Ronglian; Deng, Yuewen; Wang, Huan; Du, Xiaodong

    2012-12-01

    Pearl oyster Pinctada martensii is cultured for production of pearl in China. It needs to implant a mantle graft cut from a donor oyster and a seed nucleus into the gonad of the host oyster to produce a pearl. Pearl sac surrounding the nucleus is formed by the proliferation of the implanted mantle graft from the outer mantle epithelial cells in the host oyster. The pearl sac is responsible for production of a cultured pearl. A comprehensive transcriptome analysis on pearl sac will help to understand the mechanism on pearl formation and immune response of host oyster after nucleus implantation. In the present study, 39,400,004 reads were produced from the pearl sac using RNA-sequence technology and then assembled into 102,762 unigenes. More than 22.4% of these unigenes were possibly involved in approximately 219 known signaling pathways. A total of 37,188 unigenes were annotated based on sequences similarities with known proteins. Fifty-one biomineralization-related unigenes and 268 immune-related unigenes were not previously detected in P. martensii. The un-annotated unigenes may be some genes specifically existed in P. martensii. These annotated or un-annotated unigenes in the present studies were valuable for the future investigation on molecular mechanism of pearl formation and immune response of the species. PMID:22351046

  17. Combined anti-solvent and cooling method of manufacturing indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystal powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Lee, Min-Jeong; Song, Geon-Hyung; Chang, Kwan-Young; Kim, Chang-Sam; Choi, Guang J.

    2014-12-01

    The anti-solvent approach has been demonstrated as one potential industrial method to produce pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with high purity. In this study, we combined the anti-solvent method with cooling to maximize the yield of the solution-based co-crystallization between indomethacin (IMC) and saccharin (SAC). The cooling start time was the key process parameter; other parameters were fixed based on results of preliminary work. Highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders were produced via the combined method, regardless of the cooling start time, and the yield was substantially enhanced. However, some material properties, such as crystallinity and particle size, were affected by the cooling start time; i.e., whether cooling was started before nucleation (pre-nucleation cooling) or after nucleation (post-nucleation cooling). When pre-nucleation cooling was applied, a greater degree of supersaturation led to nucleation of ?-IMC and IMC-SAC together. The metastable ?-IMC eventually transitioned to stable IMC-SAC co-crystal particles, followed by crystal growth. When post-nucleation cooling was applied, the transient ?-IMC was not detected during the entire process.

  18. The Human First Trimester Gestational Sac Limits Rather than Facilitates Oxygen Transfer to the Foetus—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Jauniaux; B. Gulbis; G. J. Burton

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) free radicals are a potential teratologic threat to the foetal tissues and are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of common human pregnancy disorders such as miscarriage and pre-eclampsia. During the first two months of human gestation, the placenta surrounds the whole gestational sac, the villi contain only a few capillaries located mainly within the centre of

  19. sAC from aquatic organisms as a model to study the evolution of acid/base sensing.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is poised to play multiple physiological roles as an acid/base (A/B) sensor in aquatic organisms. Many of these roles are probably similar to those in mammals; a striking example is the evolutionary conservation of a mechanism involving sAC, carbonic anhydrase and vacuolar H?-ATPase that acts as a sensor system and regulator of extracellular A/B in shark gills and mammalian epididymis and kidney. Additionally, the aquatic environment presents unique A/B and physiological challenges; therefore, sACs from aquatic organisms have likely evolved distinct kinetic properties as well as distinct physiological roles. sACs from aquatic organisms offer an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution of A/B sensing at both the molecular and whole organism levels. Moreover, this information could help understand and predict organismal responses to environmental stress based on mechanistic models.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Role of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease," guest edited by J. Buck and L. R. Levin. PMID:24971688

  20. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide with superior photocatalytic activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shixiong [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China); Yang, Xiangjun, E-mail: 573134536@qq.com [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China); Wang, Yapeng; Liu, Lixiang; Guo, Yuanyuan [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China); Guo, Hong, E-mail: guohongcom@126.com [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655000, Yunnan (China)

    2014-05-01

    Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates are fabricated through an environmental template-free route and the reduction reaction at low temperature subsequently. After the Ti{sup 3+} doping, the reduced TiO{sub 2} sample exhibits a wide visible-light absorption ranged from 400 nm to 800 nm. The intrinsic hollow core–shell microstructure can make multiple reflections of light within the chamber, and thus results in more efficient use of the light source compared with solid structure. Besides, the large surface area can render the sample with a high activity. Therefore, Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. This strategy is simple, cheap and mass-productive, which may shed light on a new avenue for large scale production of self-doped yolk–shell structural nano functional materials for catalyst, sensors, energy storage and other new applications. - Graphical abstract: A facile generic strategy is employed to prepare Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. - Highlights: • Yolk–shell TiO{sub 2} mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. • Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide is obtained at low temperature. • It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity.

  1. Yolk-shell Fe2O3 solar C composites anchored on MWNTs with enhanced lithium and sodium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi; Feng, Zhenxing; Xu, Zhichuan J.

    2015-05-01

    A unique architecture with yolk-shell Fe2O3 solar C composites attached to the surface of MWNTs is designed. Benefiting from the good electrical conductivity of MWNTs and carbon layers, as well as the large void space to accommodate the volume expansion/extraction of Fe2O3 during battery cycling, the obtained MWNT@Fe2O3 solar C exhibited outstanding lithium and sodium storage performance.A unique architecture with yolk-shell Fe2O3 solar C composites attached to the surface of MWNTs is designed. Benefiting from the good electrical conductivity of MWNTs and carbon layers, as well as the large void space to accommodate the volume expansion/extraction of Fe2O3 during battery cycling, the obtained MWNT@Fe2O3 solar C exhibited outstanding lithium and sodium storage performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01281c

  2. The Plant Cell, Vol. 11, 11791190, June 1999, www.plantcell.org 1999 American Society of Plant Physiologists Sac3, an Snf1-like Serine/Threonine Kinase That Positively and

    E-print Network

    Physiologists Sac3, an Snf1-like Serine/Threonine Kinase That Positively and Negatively Regulates the Responses acid sequence of the Sac3 gene product is similar to the catalytic domain of the yeast Snf1 family of serine/threonine kinases and is therefore classified as a Snf1-related kinase (SnRK). Specifically, Sac3

  3. Super-hydrophobic yolk-shell nanostructure with enhanced catalytic performance in the reduction of hydrophobic nitroaromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Shi, Song; Wang, Min; Chen, Chen; Gao, Jin; Ma, Hong; Ma, Jiping; Xu, Jie

    2013-10-25

    A self-templating method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic yolk-shell nano-reactor was reported. Metal nanoparticles were encapsulated in the porous super-hydrophobic shell. This super-hydrophobic catalyst showed excellent performance in the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds in aqueous phase and a positive correlation was found between the reaction rate and the hydrophobicity of the substrate. PMID:24018894

  4. Hormone levels in yolk decline throughout development in the red-eared slider turtle ( Trachemys scripta elegans)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel M. Bowden; Michael A. Ewert; Craig E. Nelsona

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the potential effects of maternally derived hormones present in the yolk of reptile eggs. Specifically, we ask when are these hormones utilized by developing red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Eggs were incubated at 27°C, a male-producing temperature, and at 31°C, a female-producing temperature. Concentrations of progesterone, testosterone, and 17?-estradiol

  5. Application of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins in the control of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongping Xu; Xiaoyu Li; Liji Jin; Yuhong Zhen; Yanan Lu; Shuying Li; Jiansong You; Linhui Wang

    2011-01-01

    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) has attracted considerable attention as a means of controlling infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages compared with mammalian IgG including cost-effectiveness, convenience and high yield. This review presents an overview of the potential to use IgY immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of terrestrial

  6. Freezability of Bovine Spermatozoa in Tris-Buffered Yolk Extenders Containing Different Levels of Tris, Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Yassen; R. H. Foote

    1967-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of different species of ions and osmotic pressure on survival of bull sper- matozoa during freezing to --196 C. Re- placing 20 to 80% of the Tris-buffered 20% yolk extender with isosmotic NaC1, KC1, or CaCI~ solutions was found to be harmful. Potassium was more harmful than Na or Ca at the

  7. Optimization of the enzymatic modification of egg yolk by phospholipase A 2 to improve its functionality for mayonnaise production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Ra Kim; Jae-Yong Shim; Ki-Hwan Park; Bue-Young Imm; Sejong Oh; Jee-Young Imm

    2009-01-01

    Egg yolk (EY) was enzymatically modified by phospholipase A2 to improve its functional properties for mayonnaise production. The optimum reaction conditions predicted by response surface methodology were enzyme concentration of 7432LEU for 74min in the presence of 11.5% (w\\/w) salt. The predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental values. The mayonnaise prepared with 6% (w\\/w) of the enzymatically

  8. Fabrication of Efficient Hydrogenation Nanoreactors by Modifying the Freedom of Ultrasmall Platinum Nanoparticles within Yolk-Shell Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Lan, Guojun; Guo, Miao; Wei, Xuming; Li, Can; Yang, Qihua

    2015-07-13

    The synthesis of silica-based yolk-shell nanospheres confined with ultrasmall platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) stabilized with poly(amidoamine), in which the interaction strength between Pt NPs and the support could be facilely tuned, is reported. By ingenious utilization of silica cores with different surface wettability (hydrophilic vs. -phobic) as the adsorbent, Pt NPs could be confined in different locations of the yolk-shell nanoreactor (core vs. hollow shell), and thus, exhibit different interaction strengths with the nanoreactor (strong vs. weak). It is interesting to find that the adsorbed Pt NPs are released from the core to the hollow interiors of the yolk-shell nanospheres when a superhydrophobic inner core material (SiO2 ?Ph) is employed, which results in the preparation of an immobilized catalyst (Pt@SiO2 ?Ph); this possesses the weakest interaction strength with the support and shows the highest catalytic activity (88?500 and 7080?h(-1) for the hydrogenation of cyclohexene and nitrobenzene, respectively), due to its unaffected freedom of Pt NPs for retention of the intrinsic properties. PMID:26094810

  9. Passive protection of dogs against clinical disease due to Canine parvovirus-2 by specific antibody from chicken egg yolk

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The protective effect of immunoglobulins derived from chicken egg yolk (IgY) against infection by Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) was evaluated in 10 beagle dogs orally challenged with a strain of the virus. The 2-mo-old dogs were divided into 3 groups and treated with powders containing CPV-2 IgY or normal egg yolk for 7 d after the challenge. The 4 dogs receiving normal egg yolk (control group) demonstrated mild symptoms typical of CPV-2 infection, such as vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. No symptoms were observed by 16 d after challenge in the 3 dogs receiving 2 g of IgY powder. Of the 3 dogs receiving 0.5 g of IgY powder, 2 had clinical CPV-2 disease; however, the manifestations were less severe than in the control group. Furthermore, the IgY-treated groups had significantly greater weight gain and shorter duration of virus shedding than the control group. These results indicate that IgY is useful in protecting dogs from CPV-2-induced clinical disease. PMID:16548334

  10. Passive protection of dogs against clinical disease due to Canine parvovirus-2 by specific antibody from chicken egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Van Nguyen, Sa; Umeda, Kouji; Yokoyama, Hideaki; Tohya, Yukinobu; Kodama, Yoshikatsu

    2006-01-01

    The protective effect of immunoglobulins derived from chicken egg yolk (IgY) against infection by Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) was evaluated in 10 beagle dogs orally challenged with a strain of the virus. The 2-mo-old dogs were divided into 3 groups and treated with powders containing CPV-2 IgY or normal egg yolk for 7 d after the challenge. The 4 dogs receiving normal egg yolk (control group) demonstrated mild symptoms typical of CPV-2 infection, such as vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. No symptoms were observed by 16 d after challenge in the 3 dogs receiving 2 g of IgY powder. Of the 3 dogs receiving 0.5 g of IgY powder, 2 had clinical CPV-2 disease; however, the manifestations were less severe than in the control group. Furthermore, the IgY-treated groups had significantly greater weight gain and shorter duration of virus shedding than the control group. These results indicate that IgY is useful in protecting dogs from CPV-2-induced clinical disease. PMID:16548334

  11. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wakasugi, Etsuko; Yasui, Risa; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6) fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g) for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25) created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g) for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7), those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6). In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively), resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05). We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein. PMID:26083113

  12. Detection, accumulation and distribution of nitrofuran residues in egg yolk, albumen and shell.

    PubMed

    McCracken, R J; Kennedy, D G

    2007-01-01

    Nitrofuran antibiotics have been banned for use in food-producing animals in many countries, including the European Union, owing to the threat they pose to human health. Research continues into the accumulation of these drugs in animal tissues and into the appropriate methods for their detection. In this study, an LC-MS/MS method is presented for the detection of the parent compounds, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, furaltadone and nitrofurazone, in eggs. The parent compounds are first extracted into ethyl acetate, fats are removed by partition between acetonitrile and hexane, and the concentrated sample is analysed by LC-MS/MS. Decision limits (CCalpha) for the parents were < or =1 microg kg-1 for all four compounds. Within-day and between-day CVs are well within the limits stated in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method provides an alternative to the testing of side-chain metabolites in eggs, which is particularly important in the case of nitrofurazone, where semicarbazide contamination of food has been attributed to sources other than nitrofurazone use. This method was used together with a method for the detection of the side-chain metabolite compounds, 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one (AMOZ), 1-amino-hydantoin (AHD) and semicarbazide (SEM), to study the accumulation and distribution of nitrofurans in eggs. Eggs were collected from four groups of hens that had been treated with one of the nitrofurans at a feed concentration of 300 mg kg-1 for 1 week. Parent compounds and metabolites were found in the yolk, albumen and shell. Albumen/yolk ratios for the parent compounds were 0.7, 0.82, 0.83 and 0.31 for furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazone, respectively. Ratios for the side-chain metabolites were 1.02, 1.06, 0.83 and 0.55 for AOZ, AMOZ, AHD and SEM, respectively. However, 50% of the total SEM residues were found in eggshell. This may be significant if eggshell products reach the consumer. PMID:17164214

  13. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wakasugi, Etsuko; Yasui, Risa; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6) fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g) for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25) created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g) for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7), those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6). In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively), resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05). We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein. PMID:26083113

  14. A comparison of the relative merits of extenders containing yolk from hen, turkey or duck eggs, or fresh or reconstituted skimmilk for maintaining bovine sperm motility during storage at 5 ?and -196C? 

    E-print Network

    Hasnath, Mohammed Abul

    1962-01-01

    A CGMFARXSOE OF THE KELATXVE MERITS OF EXTEHDERS COHTAIHIHG YOLK FROM HEH, TURKEY OR DUCK EGGS, QR FRESH QR EECGHSTXTUTED SKIMHXLK FOR NAXHTAXHIHG BOVXHE SPERM MOTILITY DURIHG STORAGE AT 5 and -196 C, A Thesis Mohammed A. Hasnath Submitted... observed that sperm could be preserved equall, y well in turkey egg yolk-citrate. Hiwa et al. (53) remarked that duck egg yolk alone could be satisfactorily used in a medium for the preservation of boar semen. Herrick (27) reported that motility...

  15. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  16. ANNULATE LAMELLAE AND "YOLK NUCLEI" IN OOCYTES OF THE DRAGONFLY, LIBELLULA PULCHELLA

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, R. G.; Beams, H. W.

    1969-01-01

    Annulated membranes in the form of single and short lamellae are present adjacent to and parallel to the nuclear envelope in oogonia and early oocyte (synaptene) stages of the dragonfly, Libellula pulchella. These solitary and short annulate lamellae are usually continuous with long, part rough- and part smooth-surfaced cisternae which extend into more distal areas of the oogonial ooplasm. These particular annulate lamellae then either disappear or decrease in number to be replaced by a much more extensive system of annulate lamellae in the cortical ooplasm of previtellogenic oocytes. The differentiation of extensive stacks of annulate lamellae is consistently observed to be restricted to large cytoplasmic areas of considerable electron density. These cytoplasmic regions consist of material which stains basophilic and contains RNA but differs structurally from the large number of ribosomes which surround the dense masses. The cytoplasmic dense masses, in terms of their formation and staining reactions, are comparable to the "yolk nuclei" or "Balbiani bodies" described in insect oocytes in earlier studies. The results of the present study thus provide evidence that the appearance of cortical ooplasmic stacks of annulate lamellae in the dragonfly oocyte is specifically limited to cytoplasmic areas of high electron density which contain RNA but which do not have a ribosomal morphology. PMID:5786982

  17. Annulate lamellae and "yolk nuclei" in oocytes of the dragonfly, Libellula pulchella.

    PubMed

    Kessel, R G; Beams, H W

    1969-07-01

    Annulated membranes in the form of single and short lamellae are present adjacent to and parallel to the nuclear envelope in oogonia and early oocyte (synaptene) stages of the dragonfly, Libellula pulchella. These solitary and short annulate lamellae are usually continuous with long, part rough- and part smooth-surfaced cisternae which extend into more distal areas of the oogonial ooplasm. These particular annulate lamellae then either disappear or decrease in number to be replaced by a much more extensive system of annulate lamellae in the cortical ooplasm of previtellogenic oocytes. The differentiation of extensive stacks of annulate lamellae is consistently observed to be restricted to large cytoplasmic areas of considerable electron density. These cytoplasmic regions consist of material which stains basophilic and contains RNA but differs structurally from the large number of ribosomes which surround the dense masses. The cytoplasmic dense masses, in terms of their formation and staining reactions, are comparable to the "yolk nuclei" or "Balbiani bodies" described in insect oocytes in earlier studies. The results of the present study thus provide evidence that the appearance of cortical ooplasmic stacks of annulate lamellae in the dragonfly oocyte is specifically limited to cytoplasmic areas of high electron density which contain RNA but which do not have a ribosomal morphology. PMID:5786982

  18. Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL?1 concentration range with (3.2 ± 0.3) mV/µg.mL?1 of sensitivity and 0.09?µg.mL?1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue. PMID:25597820

  19. Stereospecific analysis of glycerolipids of egg yolk of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Suyama, K; Adachi, S; Sugawara, H; Honjoh, H

    1979-08-01

    Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were isolated from egg yolk of the Japanese quail. Fatty acid compositions at the two and three positions of glycerol in the glycerolipids were determined by stereospecific analysis employing phospholipase A2. The distribution of the total number of carbon atoms in the fatty acid moieties of triacylglycerol was also quantitated by high temperature gas liquid chromatography. The distribution of acyl groups in each of the positions of the phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol was not random, and each position has a characteristic composition. The phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine had distinctive fatty acid distributions for position sn-2 of the triacylglycerol had a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids of which 18:1 (69.9%) was the major component. Position sn-3 contained 49.3% saturated fatty acids and was more saturated than position sn-1 by 8.1%. The experimentally determined distribution of the carbon numbers in triacyl glycerol deviated significantly from the distribution predicted by 1-random-2-random-3-random association of the fatty acids. The data suggest that in Japanese quail there is marked preferencial synthesis of some triacylglycerols. PMID:575185

  20. Vitellogenin in Drosophila melanogaster: sequence of the yolk protein I gene and its flanking regions.

    PubMed Central

    Hovemann, B; Galler, R; Walldorf, U; Küpper, H; Bautz, E K

    1981-01-01

    We have isolated recombinant DNA clones coding for female specific proteins from Drosophila melanogaster. By screening with 32P-(A)+RNA from male and female flies, respectively, we were able to isolate a set of 100 cDNA clones which showed a positive hybridization signal for RNA from female flies. These clones have been rescreened with RNA isolated from fat body of two day old male and female flies. We obtained four positive cDNA clones. Isolation of the corresponding genomic sequences, construction of the physical map and comparing it with the restriction maps published by Barnett et al. (1) led us to conclude that we had isolated the genes coding for two of the three known yolk protein precursors (vitellogenins), YP I and YP II. The sequence of the YP I gene was determined. It gives rise to a protein of 48 700 dalton MW which might be cleaved to a MW of 46 700 during transport. The coding sequence is interrupted by a single intron of 75 bases in length. The proposed leader sequence starts at a region homologous to six heat shock gene sequences at the site of initiation of transcription, suggesting the existence of an 11 bp cap specific consensus sequence for Drosophila melanogaster. Images PMID:6272212

  1. The functional property of egg yolk phosvitin as a melanogenesis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Dong Hee; Son, Jun Ho; Nam, Kichang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-12-01

    Phosvitin is a phosphoglycoprotein present in egg yolk. More than half of the amino acids in phosvitin molecule are serine, of which >90% are phosphorylated. Therefore, phosvitin has a strong metal binding capability. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phosvitin on the inhibition of melanogenesis in melanoma cells. The results showed that phosvitin inhibited the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Addition of phosvitin at a concentration of 50?g/ml, to B16F10 melanoma cells inhibited tyrosinase activity by approximately 42% and melanin synthesis by 17% compared to those in a control without phosvitin. Phosvitin inhibited the expression of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16F10 melanoma cells. In addition, phosvitin reduced the cellular cAMP concentration in B16F10 melanoma cells. These results indicate that phosvitin has the potential to be used as a melanogenesis inhibitor in the food and cosmetics industry. PMID:22953815

  2. Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; Dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL-1 concentration range with (3.2 +/- 0.3) mV/µg.mL-1 of sensitivity and 0.09 µg.mL-1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue.

  3. Interactions of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine with cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing N-acetyl- D-glucosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemoun, Rachida; Gelhausen, Micaèle; Besson, Françoise; Lafont, Dominique; Buchet, René; Boullanger, Paul; Roux, Bernard

    1999-03-01

    Series of neoglycolipids containing cholesteryl and N-acetyl- D-glucosaminyl groups were synthesized with various ethoxy linkers. Their self aggregations and intermolecular interactions, without and with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), were characterized in dry and hydrated states, by using infrared spectroscopy. The neoglycolipids in the dry state formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the C?O and N-H or O-H groups of N-acetyl- D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). In the presence of EYPC, these intermolecular interactions were broken and new hydrogen bonds, involving the phosphate group of EYPC and N-H or O-H groups of GlcNAc of neoglycolipid, were formed. The presence of water molecules altered these intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The C?O groups of EYPC were not affected by the presence of neoglycolipids, either in hydrated or in dry states, indicating that the GlcNAc polar groups interacted mostly with EYPC phosphate residues. The phase transition-temperature of mixtures of EYPC containing either cholesterol or neoglycolipid were similar, indicating that the cholesteryl group of the neoglycolipid interacted in the same manner as cholesterol with hydrocarbon chains of EYPC. Some structural models of molecular interactions of neoglycolipids were discussed in relation with the molecular recognition of wheat germ agglutinin.

  4. Exogastrulation and interference with the expression of major yolk protein by estrogens administered to sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Kiyomoto, Masato; Kikuchi, Ayumi; Morinaga, Seiko; Unuma, Tatuya; Yokota, Yukio

    2008-12-01

    Although estrogens have been detected in some echinoderm species, their role is not clearly understood; so we examined the effects of estrogens administered to sea urchin embryos and larvae. A typical malformation was exogastrulation, induced by the exposure to ethynylestradiol (EER) in a defined period of 12 h from 12 h after fertilization (HAF). Morphogenesis for gastrulation was delayed in the treated embryos: protrusion of the archenteron started at 30 HAF when gastrulation had already finished in normal embryos. Exogastrulation induced by EER was cancelled by the antiestrogen chemical, ICI182,780. Feeding larvae were less sensitive to estrogens than those in early embryogenesis and, at certain concentrations, developed without abnormal morphology. The effect of estrogens was examined at the level of gene expression of the major yolk protein (MYP). MYP expression started during the larval stage and was suppressed by estrone at the six-armed stage, but not by beta-estradiol, and in later stage larvae, the expression was not affected by treatment with either estrogen. Estrogens affect sea urchins in the early stage of embryogenesis, leading to abnormal morphogenesis and interference with gene expression. PMID:18459060

  5. Results and validation of marine surface wind speed obtained from SAC-D/Aquarius MWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, C. B.; Etala, P.; Echevarría, P.; Hejazin, Y.; Jacob, M. M.; Jones, L.

    2012-12-01

    MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) is a radiometer on board SAC-D/Aquarius satellite, launched in June 2011. The SAC-D/Aquarius science mission was developed jointly by the Nacional Space Agency of Argentina (CONAE, Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of USA (NASA), that focuses on understanding the interaction between the global water cycle, ocean circulation and climate by measuring sea surface salinity. MWR is a three channel push broom, Dicke radiometer, that has 16 beams, 8 forward-looking at 36.5 GHz (in vertical and horizontal polarization) and 8 aft-looking at 23.8 GHz (in horizontal polarization), with a swath of approximately 380 Km. The beams are arranged to have two incidence angles, one of 52° (odd beams) and one of 58° (even beams) for both forward and aft-looks. Since recently, CONAE with collaboration of CFRSL (Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory), are generating geophysical parameters, all over the sea surface, using brightness temperature measurements from MWR. These parameters include columnar water vapor, wind speed, sea ice concentration and rain rate, which are ancillary data for the Aquarius salinity measurements. We present in this paper the first results of wind speed over the sea, obtained using the MWR data. The wind speed retrieval algorithm is based on the microwave radiative transfer theory by Wentz [1]. The algorithm developed uses MWR brigthness temperature at 36.5 GHz in both polarizations and sea surface temperature obtained from GDAS. As a result, the neutral stability ocean surface wind speed at 10 m height and the atmospheric trasnmissivity at 36.5 GHz are retrieved. In addition, a validation process in collaboration with the Naval Hydrographic Service of Argentina (SHN) has started. The final goal of this on-going work is to assess the quality of MWR wind data in conjunction with surface wind observations from other sources in a data assimilation system. At this first stage, MWR and WindSat collocated wind speed observations are analyzed. Here we show the preliminary validation statistics and considerations on possible sources of discrepancies and the room for improvements. [1] F.J.Wentz, "Measurements of oceanic wind speed vector using satellite microwave radiometer", IEEE Transaction on Geoscience Remote Sensing, vol. 30, pp.960-972, Sep. 1992.

  6. tumor therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuhiro Joki; Marcelle Machluf; Anthony Atala; Jianhong Zhu; Nicholas T. Seyfried; Ian F. Dunn; Toshiaki Abe; Rona S. Carroll

    Research studies suggest that tumor-related angiogenesis contributes to the phenotype of malignant gliomas. We assessed the effect of local delivery of the angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin on human glioma cell line (U-87MG) xenografts. Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were stably transfected with a human endostatin (hES) expression vector and were encapsulated in alginate-poly L-lysine (PLL) micro- capsules for long-term delivery of

  7. Motor control of sound frequency in birdsong involves the interaction between air sac pressure and labial tension

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-01-01

    Frequency modulation is a salient acoustic feature of birdsong. Its control is usually attributed to the activity of syringeal muscles, which affect the tension of the labia responsible for sound production. We use experimental and theoretical tools to test the hypothesis that for birds producing tonal sounds such as domestic canaries (Serinus canaria), frequency modulation is determined by both the syringeal tension and the air sac pressure. For different models, we describe the structure of the isofrequency curves, which are sets of parameters leading to sounds presenting the same fundamental frequencies. We show how their shapes determine the relative roles of syringeal tension and air sac pressure in frequency modulation. Finally, we report experiments that allow us to unveil the features of the isofrequency curves. PMID:24730873

  8. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst. PMID:25541445

  9. Implantation of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in the hernial sac: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Men, Siye; Xue, Wusong; Yu, Wen; Liu, Yuyue; Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Shaohui; Liu, Baoqing; Wu, Wei; Yang, Chengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors may appear in inguinal hernias. We report a rare case of a metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in the inguinal canal in a patient presenting clinically with an inguinal hernia. The clinical details, histological findings and surgical management were described.

  10. Yolk-Shell Porous Microspheres of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Using Calcium L-Lactate and Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Disodium Salt: Application in Protein/Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-06-26

    A facile and environmentally friendly approach has been developed to prepare yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate by using calcium L-lactate pentahydrate (CL) as the calcium source and adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) as the phosphate source through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the concentration of CL, the microwave hydrothermal temperature, and the time on the morphology and crystal phase of the product are investigated. The possible formation mechanism of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate is proposed. Hemoglobin from bovine red cells (Hb) and ibuprofen (IBU) are used to explore the application potential of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate in protein/drug loading and delivery. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have relatively high protein/drug loading capacity, sustained protein/drug release, favorable pH-responsive release behavior, and a high biocompatibility in the cytotoxicity test. Therefore, the yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have promising applications in various biomedical fields such as protein/drug delivery. PMID:25982303

  11. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, R.A.; Eshenroder, R.L.; Bowen, C. II; Seelye, J.G.; Locke, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about IOA?C (from a base of 1-4A?C) over 14h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin-sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98,and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of three rings.

  12. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bowen, Charles; Seelye, James G.; Locke, Jeffrey C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about 10 degrees C (from a base of 1-4 degrees C) over 14 h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98, and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of rings.

  13. Investigating the Physical Basis of Aquarius/SAC-D Salinity Retrievals' Regional SST Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) plays an important, and yet to be fully understood, role in sea-surface sailinty (SSS) retrievals. The Version-3 release of Aquarius/SAC-D salinity retrievals applied an empirically derived adjustment to SSS that is a function of SST. This adjustment was derived after noticing regional salinity biases relative to modeled and in situ salinity observations. These SSS biases correlate well with climatological SST maps. While the ?SSS(SST) adjustment has already been implemented in the ADPS standard processing, there is great value in determining the physical basis of this bias adjustment. Understanding the root causes of this adjustment will enable improved Aquarius's salinity retrievals, as well as ensure that no true SSS-SST correlations or variability are being removed by the adjustment. There are several factors contributing to the ?SSS(SST) adjustment, which may be classified into direct, correlated, and indirect effects. Direct effects include the dependence of the sea-water dielectric constant on SST and the dependence of the roughness model on SST. Correlated effects include a small mis-modeling of the atmospheric oxygen absorption, which correlates with SST. Indirect effects include other errors sources such as reflected galactic radiation and RFI that produce ocean-basin-wide anomalies that are being misinterpreted as an SST effect. This presentation will demonstrate how the ?SSS(SST) adjustment was derived, as well as present our findings regarding the physical basis of this adjustment.

  14. Glucose transport into everted sacs of the small intestine of mice.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kirk L; Butt, A Grant

    2013-12-01

    The Na(+)-glucose cotransporter is a key transport protein that is responsible for absorbing Na(+) and glucose from the luminal contents of the small intestine and reabsorption by the proximal straight tubule of the nephron. Robert K. Crane originally described the cellular model of absorption of Na(+) and glucose by a "cotransport process" in 1960. Over the past 50+ yr, numerous groups have tested and verified Crane's hypothesis. Eventually, Wright and colleagues cloned the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1; the product of the SLC5A1 gene) in 1987. This article provides a "hands-on" laboratory exercise using the everted mouse jejunal preparation (everted sac) that allows students to investigate various components of the Na(+)-glucose cotransport absorptive cell model (e.g., Na(+) dependence of SGLT1, inhibition of SGLT1, and inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase). Additionally, the laboratory exercise includes a case-based study of glucose-galactose malabsorption in which the students conduct an internet search and participate in a small-group discussion during the laboratory period to better understand the basic principles and functions of the Na(+)-glucose absorptive process of the small intestine. This laboratory exercise was introduced into the second-year undergraduate physiology curriculum in 2008, and >850 physiology students have participated in this laboratory exercise. The students have produced very robust and reproducible data that clearly illustrate the theory of the cellular model for Na(+)-glucose absorption by the jejunum. PMID:24292921

  15. [An implantable micro-device using wireless power transmission for measuring aortic aneurysm sac pressure].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xudong; Ge, Bin; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-08-01

    In order to detect endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), we developed an implantable micro-device based on wireless power transmission to measure aortic aneurysm sac pressure. The implantable micro-device is composed of a miniature wireless pressure sensor, an energy transmitting coil, a data recorder and a data processing platform. Power transmission without interconnecting wires is performed by a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. The coupling efficiency of wireless power transmission depends on the coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil. With theoretical analysis and experimental study, we optimized the geometry of the receiving coil to increase the coupling coefficient. In order to keep efficiency balance and satisfy the maximizing conditions, we designed a closed loop power transmission circuit, including a receiving voltage feedback module based on wireless communication. The closed loop improved the stability and reliability of transmission energy. The prototype of the micro-device has been developed and the experiment has been performed. The experiments showed that the micro-device was feasible and valid. For normal operation, the distance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is smaller than 8cm. Besides, the distance between the micro-device and the data recorder is within 50cm. PMID:24059044

  16. Effect of Gold Content on the Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints Under Isothermal Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Mike; Pan, Jianbiao; Silk, Julie; Hyland, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Au over Ni on Cu is a widely used printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish, under bump metallization (UBM), and component lead metallization. It is generally accepted that less than 3 wt.% Au in Sn-Pb solder joints inhibits formation of detrimental intermetallic compounds (IMC). However, the critical limit for Au content in Pb-free solder joints is not well established. Three surface-mount package platforms, one with a matte Sn surface finish and the others with Ni/Au finish, were soldered to Ni/Au-finished PCB using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder, in a realistic manufacturing setting. The assembled boards were divided into three groups: one without any thermal treatment, one subjected to isothermal aging at 125°C for 30 days, and the third group aged at 125°C for 56 days. Representative solder joints were cross-sectioned and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to investigate the evolution of the solder joint morphology as a function of Au content and isothermal aging. It was found that, if Cu is available to dissolve in the solder joint, the migration of AuSn4 from the bulk to the interface as a result of thermal aging is mitigated.

  17. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS): an online service for near-real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenot, H.; Theys, N.; Clarisse, L.; van Geffen, J.; van Gent, J.; Van Roozendael, M.; van der A, R.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Valks, P.; Hedelt, P.; Prata, F.; Rasson, O.; Sievers, K.; Zehner, C.

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases into the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash-rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever-increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem"_target="blank">http://sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem), which is a free online service initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the near-real-time (NRT) satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from three ultraviolet (UV)-visible and three infrared (IR) spectrometers. The UV-vis sensors are the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on-board the two polar orbiting meteorological satellites (MetOp-A & MetOp-B) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The IR sensors are the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on-board MetOp-A & MetOp-B. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic emissions is based on the selective detection of SO2 and ash. This system is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. A successful rate with more than 95% of notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity is obtained by the SACS system.

  18. Does Additional Discectomy and the Degree of Dural Sac Compression Influence the Outcome of Decompressive Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Aliashkevich; R. A. Kristof; J. Schramm; D. Brechtelsbauer

    1999-01-01

    Summary  ¶?The discussion regarding factors that reliably predict the long-term surgical results in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis\\u000a is still going on. This retrospective study analyses the relation between the dimensions of the dural sac and patients' clinical\\u000a status before and after decompressive operations performed with or without additional discectomy.\\u000a \\u000a ?The type of surgery performed in 134 patients and the dural

  19. A Semi-Distributed Hydrologic Model for Stream Flow Simulation Using the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakbaz, B.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

    2007-12-01

    Distributed hydrologic modeling is currently viewed as a potential pathway to improve streamflow simulations regarding the sensitivity of runoff predictions to spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, land use, and soil properties. The US National Weather Service (NWS) started Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP) to guide NWS's distributed modeling research. In our participation of DMIP-2 activity, a semi-distributed version of the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA) was used to conduct hourly streamflow simulations. This model uses sub-basins as the computational elements of rainfall-runoff modeling. Each sub-basin consists of a lumped SAC-SMA to generate the response components of the runoff. Fast response components are routed over the hillslopes using the unit hydrograph of the sub-basin outlet. Slow response components bypass the hillslopes and are added directly to the sub-basin outlet. Then, a sub-basin-to-sub-basin channel routing is done using kinematic wave routing method. The Illinois River basin at South of Siloam Spring, AR is chosen as the study test basin. Eleven years of grid-based multi-sensor (NEXRAD+gauge) precipitation dataset are used for the calibration and verification periods. Weekly adjustment factors to account for vegetation type and cover are estimated using Global Vegetation Fraction (GVF) product from NOAA/NESDIS/STAR to produce PET demand for the watershed modeling. Several calibration scenarios are tested using the Shuffled Complex Evolution Method (Duan et al, 1992) and Multi Step Automatic Calibration Scheme (Hogue et al, 2000). Results of different calibration scenarios, besides simulations of a priori parameters of the SAC-SMA model (Koren et al, 2000) are shown. The results show that the semi-distributed version of the SAC-SMA has the potential to improve the streamflow simulations.

  20. Percutaneous treatment of an infected aneurysmal sac secondary to aortoesophageal fistula with a history of stent-graft treatment for thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Numan, Furuzan; Gulsen, Fatih; Cantasdemir, Murat; Solak, Serdar; Arbatli, Harun

    2012-06-01

    A 68-year-old man who was subjected to stent-grafting of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) 4 months previously was admitted to our hospital with constitutional symptoms, including high fever, sweating, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and backache. An infected aneurysmal sac was suspected based on computed tomography (CT) findings, and an aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) was identified during esophagoscopy. CT-guided aspiration was performed using a 20-G Chiba needle, confirming the presence of infection. For treatment of the infected aneurysmal sac, CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in a prone position was performed under general anesthesia with left endobronchial intubation. Drainage catheter insertion was successfully performed using the Seldinger technique, which is not a standard treatment of an infected aneurysmal sac. Improvement in the patient's clinical condition was observed at follow-ups, and CT showed total regression of the collection in the aneurysmal sac. PMID:21853382

  1. Percutaneous Treatment of an Infected Aneurysmal Sac Secondary to Aortoesophageal Fistula with a History of Stent-Graft Treatment for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Numan, Furuzan, E-mail: drfgulsen@yahoo.com; Gulsen, Fatih; Cantasdemir, Murat; Solak, Serdar [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Arbatli, Harun [Maltepe University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    A 68-year-old man who was subjected to stent-grafting of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) 4 months previously was admitted to our hospital with constitutional symptoms, including high fever, sweating, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and backache. An infected aneurysmal sac was suspected based on computed tomography (CT) findings, and an aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) was identified during esophagoscopy. CT-guided aspiration was performed using a 20-G Chiba needle, confirming the presence of infection. For treatment of the infected aneurysmal sac, CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in a prone position was performed under general anesthesia with left endobronchial intubation. Drainage catheter insertion was successfully performed using the Seldinger technique, which is not a standard treatment of an infected aneurysmal sac. Improvement in the patient's clinical condition was observed at follow-ups, and CT showed total regression of the collection in the aneurysmal sac.

  2. Laparoscopic treatment of complete obliteration of the cul-de-sac associated with endometriosis: long-term follow-up of en bloc resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Redwine; Jeremy T. Wright

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate symptom relief following a laparoscopic technique designed for treatment of complete obliteration of the cul-de-sac associated with endometriosis, with fertility preserved.Design: Preoperative and postoperative questionnaire study of a cohort of patients with complete obliteration of the cul-de-sac undergoing a standardized laparoscopic surgical treatment.Setting: American tertiary referral center for the surgical treatment of endometriosis.Patients: Eighty-four consecutive patients undergoing

  3. Maternal condition, yolk androgens and offspring performance: a supplemental feeding experiment in the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus).

    PubMed Central

    Verboven, Nanette; Monaghan, Pat; Evans, Darren M; Schwabl, Hubert; Evans, Neil; Whitelaw, Christine; Nager, Ruedi G

    2003-01-01

    It has been proposed that the maternal androgens in avian egg yolk enhance offspring fitness by accelerating growth and improving competitive ability. Because egg quality is strongly influenced by maternal condition, we predicted that females in good condition would produce high-quality eggs with relatively high androgen content. We experimentally enhanced maternal condition by supplementary feeding lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) during egg formation and compared the concentrations of androstenedione (A4), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T) in their eggs with those in eggs laid by control females. We also measured circulating levels of T in females immediately after laying. Egg androgens could affect offspring performance directly through chick development and/or indirectly through changes in the competitive ability of a chick relative to its siblings. To avoid confounding these two routes, and to separate effects operating through the egg itself with those operating through experimental changes in parental chick rearing capacity, we fostered eggs from both maternal treatment groups singly into the nests of unmanipulated parents. Contrary to expectation, mothers with experimentally enhanced body condition laid eggs with lower levels of androgens, while exhibiting higher circulating T concentrations post-laying. Despite these lower levels of egg androgen, offspring hatched from eggs laid by mothers in good condition did not show reduced growth or survival when reared in the absence of sibling competition. Our results demonstrate that yolk androgen concentrations vary with the body condition of the female at the time of egg formation and that females in good condition reduced the yolk androgen content of their eggs without altering offspring performance. PMID:14613608

  4. Plasma yolk precursor dynamics during egg production by female greater scaup (Aythya marila): Characterization and indices of reproductive state.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kristen B; Esler, Daniel; Walzem, Rosemary L; Williams, Tony D

    2009-01-01

    We characterized dynamics of the plasma yolk precursors vitellogenin (VTG), very-low-density lipoprotein (total VLDL-TG), and VLDL particle size distribution during egg production by female greater scaup (order: Anseriformes, Aythya marila). We also evaluated VTG and total VLDL-TG as physiological indices of reproductive state. Mean (+/-1 SE) plasma concentrations of VTG and total VLDL-TG for females with nondeveloped ovaries were 0.58 +/- 0.05 microg Zn mL(-1) and 3.75 +/- 0.29 mmol TG L(-1), respectively. Yolk precursor concentrations increased rapidly to maximum levels in association with small increases in ovary mass during rapid follicle growth. Mean concentrations of VTG and total VLDL-TG for females with a full ovarian follicle hierarchy were 3.38 +/- 0.40 microg Zn mL(-1) and 7.31 +/- 2.56 mmol TG L(-1), respectively. Concentrations of VTG and total VLDL remained elevated throughout the laying cycle and decreased markedly by 3 d into incubation. Individual reproductive state (non-egg producing vs. egg producing) was more accurately identified by plasma profiles of VTG (90%) than by those of total VLDL-TG (74%). Greater scaup VLDL particle sizes during egg production were within the range for predicted yolk-targeted VLDL size (25-44 nm). We conclude that plasma profiles of VTG and total VLDL-TG can be used as nonlethal, physiological indices of reproductive state in greater scaup and should be of great utility to a variety of evolutionary, ecological, and applied conservation studies of reproduction in waterfowl. PMID:19117471

  5. Antibody survey on avian influenza viruses using egg yolks of ducks in Hanoi between 2010 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kozue; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Yabuta, Toshiyo; Ung, Trang T H; Usui, Tatsufumi; Nguyen, Hang L K; Le, Thanh T; Le, Mai Q; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro; Murase, Toshiyuki; Yamashiro, Tetsu

    2013-09-27

    In Vietnam, numerous surveillance programs are conducted to monitor the prevalence of avian influenza (AI) viruses. Three serological methods-the agar-gel immunodiffusion test, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-are well established for detection of AI virus antibodies in poultry sera. Several recent reports have validated egg yolk as an alternative source for detection of AI virus antibodies. In this study, we investigated AI virus antibodies in ducks by HI testing using egg yolk. Ten duck eggs were collected every month from 10 randomly selected markets in Hanoi from April 2010 to March 2012. The HI test was performed using low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses (H3, H4, H6, H7, H9, and H11 subtypes) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (H5N1 clade 2.3.4 and 2.3.2.1) as antigens. HI testing for H3, H6, and H9 was 29% positive in November 2010, 50% positive in October and November 2010, and 12% positive in June 2011. These results indicated that several epidemics of LPAI viruses had occurred during the study period. In addition, antibodies against H7 were negative. The results of HI testing for H5N1 showed that the reactivity of the dominant HI antibody shifted from H5N1 clade 2.3.4 to clade 2.3.2.1. In conclusion, egg yolk is useful for long term monitoring of AI virus antibodies and the use of egg-based antibody detection may contribute to improvements in animal welfare. PMID:23849095

  6. The effect of supplementing layer diets with shark cartilage or chitosan on egg components and yolk lipids.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C M; Zapata, J F F; Fuentes, M F F; Freitas, E R; Craveiro, A A; Aguiar, C M

    2003-05-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the addition of shark cartilage (SC) or chitosan (CH) to layer diets on egg component weights, yolk lipids and hen plasma lipids. 2. Hy-Line laying hens (80) were used during a 56 d feeding trial. Treatments were: basal diet (BD), BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC, BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH. Eggs were analysed on d 14, 28, 42 and 56. 3. Egg weight and egg component weights were not affected by these treatments throughout the experimental period. 4. After 14d of experimental feeding, cholesterol levels were higher in eggs from birds given BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH than in those from birds given BD. 5. Furthermore, eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC or BD + 20 g/kg CH were higher in palmitic and stearic acids and lower in oleic acid than those from birds fed on BD. After 56 d feeding, however, palmitic and stearic acid contents in eggs from hens given any of the supplemented diets were lower than in those from hens given BD, and oleic acid in eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC and BD + 30 g/kg CH was higher than in those from birds fed on BD. 6. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. 7. Shark cartilage or chitosan at up to 30 g/kg in layer diets did not affect egg component weights (yolk, white and shell) and total lipid contents. During the period from 42 to 56d of experimental feeding, diets containing up to 30 g/kg chitosan reduced egg yolk contents of cholesterol, palmitic and stearic acids and increased the content of oleic acid. PMID:12828207

  7. ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, E. Kost

    1950-01-01

    Hormonally active tumors of the adrenal cortex are either benign adenomas or adenocarcinomas. They may be located within the adrenal gland or as adrenal rests along the Wolffian tract. Hyperplastic cortical tissue without actual neoplastic formation is also capable of elaborating excessive cortical secretions. At the present state of knowledge, any one or a combination of the following compounds may be elaborated in a given case: the electrolytic, glucogenic, androgenic, or estrogenic corticosteroids. Whether or not Cushing's syndrome is primarily pituitary or adrenal in origin is still a matter of conjecture. PMID:15426994

  8. Effects of acid and aluminum on swim bladder development and yolk absorption in the fathead minnow, pimephales promelas, (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Leino, R.L.; McCormick, J.H.; Jensen, K.M.

    1988-05-01

    Thirty-day old fathead minnows were raised to maturity and spawning in a laboratory flow-through system using softened water at various pH and Al levels. Successful spawnings were reduced by more than 85% at pH 6.0, 5.5-25 microg/L Al+3, and 5.5, and absent in all pH 5.2 treatments. Hatching success, larval survival, swim bladder development and yolk absorption were reduced or abnormal when spawning did occur at lower pHs.

  9. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

    2013-09-01

    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white highlights. The results are in agreement with prior site-specific amino acid analysis, underscoring the synergy of both methods. The work here demonstrates that NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy is a useful technique that can identify and map paint binding media based on differences in chemical composition. PMID:23799233

  10. Yolk@Shell Nanoarchitecture of Au@r-GO/TiO2 Hybrids as Powerful Visible Light Photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggui; Han, Jie; Xiong, Huixin; Guo, Rong

    2015-06-01

    Yolk@shell nanostructures of Au@r-GO/TiO2 with mesoporous shells were prepared by a sol-gel coating process sequentially with GO and TiO2 on Au/SiO2 core/shell spheres, followed by calcination and template removal, where the silica interlayer acts as a template not only to produce the void space but also to promote the coating of the r-GO and TiO2 layer. The evaluation of visible light photocatalytic activities in dye decomposition and water-splitting H2 production demonstrated their superior photocatalytic performance, which indicates their potential as powerful photocatalysts. PMID:25996904

  11. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped yolk-shell structure titanium oxide with superior photocatalytic activity under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shixiong; Yang, Xiangjun; Wang, Yapeng; Liu, Lixiang; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Hong

    2014-05-01

    Ti3+ self-doped yolk-shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates are fabricated through an environmental template-free route and the reduction reaction at low temperature subsequently. After the Ti3+ doping, the reduced TiO2 sample exhibits a wide visible-light absorption ranged from 400 nm to 800 nm. The intrinsic hollow core-shell microstructure can make multiple reflections of light within the chamber, and thus results in more efficient use of the light source compared with solid structure. Besides, the large surface area can render the sample with a high activity. Therefore, Ti3+ self-doped yolk-shell structure titanium oxide exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. This strategy is simple, cheap and mass-productive, which may shed light on a new avenue for large scale production of self-doped yolk-shell structural nano functional materials for catalyst, sensors, energy storage and other new applications.

  12. Enhanced Permeability of Etoposide across Everted Sacs of Rat Small Intestine by Vitamin E-TPGS

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Abdolhamid; Saadati, Roonak; Abbasian, Zahra; Azad Aramaki, Saeed; Dadashzadeh, Simin

    2013-01-01

    Etoposide, a widely used anticancer drug, exhibits low and variable oral bioavailability mainly because of being substrate for the efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of D-?-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and PEG 400 as P-gp inhibitors on the intestinal absorption of etoposide. Everted sacs of rat small intestine were incubated in Krebs buffer solution which contained etoposide in the absence or presence of various concentrations of TPGS or PEG 400. The effect of verapamil as a known P-gp inhibitor on the absorption of drug was also studied. The absorptive transport of etoposide was significantly enhanced (p < 0.001) in the presence of verapamil (100 ?g/mL) and TPGS (over the concentration range of 0.002- 0.1 mg/mL), suggesting that the inhibition of P-gp located in the intestine may be involved in the enhancement of etoposide absorption. However, the addition of PEG 400 at various concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.5% w/v) had no effect on the etoposide transport. No significant difference was found between the permeability values in the absence and presence of the maximum concentration of TPGS for two transport markers, lucifer yellow and imipramine, indicating that the enhancement in etoposide permeability in the presence of TPGS was not due to the compromise in tight junctions or membrane integrity of epithelial cells. The results of the study suggest that the use of TPGS as a safe excipient in etoposide formulations may enhance the oral bioavailability of etoposide and result in a predictable oral absorption. PMID:24250670

  13. Characterizing the metabolism and movement of yolk estradiol during embryonic development in the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta).

    PubMed

    Paitz, Ryan T; Sawa, Ashley R; Bowden, Rachel M

    2012-05-01

    Eggs of oviparous amniotes can contain substantial quantities of several steroids at the time of oviposition. These maternally derived steroids appear to affect the phenotype of developing offspring, but not all steroid sensitive traits are affected by maternal steroids, and little is known about how these effects may arise. In this study, we applied tritiated estradiol to the eggs of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta) at the time of oviposition and characterized the subsequent metabolism and movement throughout embryonic development. Results indicate that very early in development, estradiol is converted to a variety of water-soluble estrogen sulfates that reside in the yolk and extraembryonic fluids until late in development. Within the final stages of development, we observe a significant decline in the total amount of metabolites present in the yolk and extraembryonic fluids and a significant increase in the amount of metabolites present in the embryo. While estradiol metabolism occurs during the early stages of development, the later stages appear to be the most dynamic with regards to the movement of estradiol metabolites. Our findings have important implications for studies investigating the effect of maternally derived steroids on offspring development. PMID:22033221

  14. Dual yolk-shell structure of carbon and silica-coated silicon for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, L Y; Li, H Z; Liu, J; Sun, Z Q; Tang, S S; Lei, M

    2015-01-01

    Silicon batteries have attracted much attention in recent years due to their high theoretical capacity, although a rapid capacity fade is normally observed, attributed mainly to volume expansion during lithiation. Here, we report for the first time successful synthesis of Si/void/SiO2/void/C nanostructures. The synthesis strategy only involves selective etching of SiO2 in Si/SiO2/C structures with hydrofluoric acid solution. Compared with reported results, such novel structures include a hard SiO2-coated layer, a conductive carbon-coated layer, and two internal void spaces. In the structures, the carbon can enhance conductivity, the SiO2 layer has mechanically strong qualities, and the two internal void spaces can confine and accommodate volume expansion of silicon during lithiation. Therefore, these specially designed dual yolk-shell structures exhibit a stable and high capacity of 956?mA h g(-1) after 430 cycles with capacity retention of 83%, while the capacity of Si/C core-shell structures rapidly decreases in the first ten cycles under the same experimental conditions. The novel dual yolk-shell structures developed for Si can also be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes. PMID:26039972

  15. Effects of Paecilomyces tenuipes cultivated in egg yolk on lipid metabolism in rats on a high fat-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Mong; Park, Nam Sook; Jin, Byung Rae; Kang, Han-Seok; Jung, Jee Hyung; Park, Eunju

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the fruiting bodies of cultivated Paecilomyces tenuipes grown on egg yolk (PTE) on lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Forty 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet (control) or a high fat/high cholesterol diet with 1%, 3%, or 5% PTE for 5 weeks. PTE was found to significantly lower plasma total lipid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index, compared with the control. Hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol were also significantly lower than in the control group. The hypolipidemic activity of PTE was increased with increasing concentrations, and plasma lipid peroxidation was significantly lower in the 3% and 5% PTE groups than in the control or 1% PTE group. Plasma total radical trapping antioxidant potential, erythrocytic antioxidant enzyme, and leukocytic DNA damage were not significantly different among the groups. Our results indicate that P. tenuipes cultivated on egg yolk can improve lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in rats fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet. PMID:16822207

  16. Quantitative changes in yolk protein and other components in the ovary and testis of the sea urchin Pseudocentrotus depressus.

    PubMed

    Unuma, T; Yamamoto, T; Akiyama, T; Shiraishi, M; Ohta, H

    2003-01-01

    Both male and female sea urchins accumulate the major yolk protein (MYP; the most abundant yolk granule protein in sea urchin eggs) in the nutritive phagocytes of immature gonads before gametogenesis. In this study, quantitative changes in MYP as well as in other biochemical components in the ovary and testis were examined in the course of gametogenesis in Pseudocentrotus depressus. Before gametogenesis, both the ovary and testis contained large quantities of proteins, lipids and polysaccharides. MYP reached about 80% of total protein in both sexes. In the testis, MYP decreased rapidly as spermatogenesis proceeded, and the fully mature testis contained little MYP; the levels of lipids and polysaccharides also decreased. In contrast, the levels of nucleic acids and proteins other than MYP increased markedly. In the ovary, MYP decreased gradually as oogenesis proceeded, and the fully mature ovary contained less than half of the initial amount of MYP. Polysaccharides also decreased, whereas proteins other than MYP increased. These results, taken together with those from other studies, suggest that MYP serves as a protein reserve that accumulates before gametogenesis and is used as material for synthesizing new substances constituting gametes in both male and female sea urchins. PMID:12477906

  17. Purification of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) by ultrafiltration: effect of pH, ionic strength, and membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Campos, F Javier; Brito-De la Fuente, E; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B

    2010-01-13

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) was purified from hen egg yolk water-soluble protein fraction by ultrafiltration-diafiltration with different membranes. The effect of changing solution properties (pH and ionic strength) on purification factor (P), process selectivity (Psi), and IgY recovery (RIgY) was studied. Salt presence (150 and 1500 mM) decreased the selectivity and purity factor. This effect was more evident at pH values closer to or higher than the IgY's isoelectric point. The best results were obtained in the absence of salt at pH values of 5.7 and 6.7 using poliethersulfone (PES) and modified PES (MPES), respectively. Process selectivity was doubled, and IgY's purification factors were increased in more than 1 order of magnitude when diafiltration was used. Results from this work show the potential of membrane technology for the purification of IgY from hen's egg yolk. PMID:19994898

  18. Dual yolk-shell structure of carbon and silica-coated silicon for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, L. Y.; Li, H. Z.; Liu, J.; Sun, Z. Q.; Tang, S. S.; Lei, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon batteries have attracted much attention in recent years due to their high theoretical capacity, although a rapid capacity fade is normally observed, attributed mainly to volume expansion during lithiation. Here, we report for the first time successful synthesis of Si/void/SiO2/void/C nanostructures. The synthesis strategy only involves selective etching of SiO2 in Si/SiO2/C structures with hydrofluoric acid solution. Compared with reported results, such novel structures include a hard SiO2-coated layer, a conductive carbon-coated layer, and two internal void spaces. In the structures, the carbon can enhance conductivity, the SiO2 layer has mechanically strong qualities, and the two internal void spaces can confine and accommodate volume expansion of silicon during lithiation. Therefore, these specially designed dual yolk-shell structures exhibit a stable and high capacity of 956?mA h g?1 after 430 cycles with capacity retention of 83%, while the capacity of Si/C core-shell structures rapidly decreases in the first ten cycles under the same experimental conditions. The novel dual yolk-shell structures developed for Si can also be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes. PMID:26039972

  19. Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors More than 95% of pancreatic cancers are classified as exocrine tumors. These tumors start in the exocrine cells of the pancreas. The following table describes the most common pancreatic ...

  20. Tumor Formation in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Matveeva; L. A. Lutova; Yu. Nester

    2001-01-01

    The data on genetic tumors in plant species and interspecific hybrids, as well as the problems of Agrobacterium-induced tumors are reviewed. The role of the horizontal gene transfer in the induction of genetic tumors is discussed.