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1

Gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor differentiation and liver metastasis of yolk sac tumor component.  

PubMed

Gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation has rarely been reported. We report a case of primary gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor differentiation and liver metastases of the YST component in a 50-years-old patient. This was suspected due to high serum level of alpha fetoprotein in the presence of a gastric fundal tumor. Gastric carcinoma with yolk sac tumor component is a rare entity with a poor prognostic outcome. PMID:24294529

Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Chandan, K N; Yadav, Vikas; Panda, Dipanjan

2013-01-01

2

Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Yolk Sac Tumor Differentiation and Liver Metastasis of Yolk Sac Tumor Component  

PubMed Central

Gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation has rarely been reported. We report a case of primary gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor differentiation and liver metastases of the YST component in a 50-years-old patient. This was suspected due to high serum level of alpha fetoprotein in the presence of a gastric fundal tumor. Gastric carcinoma with yolk sac tumor component is a rare entity with a poor prognostic outcome. PMID:24294529

Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Chandan, K. N.; Yadav, Vikas; Panda, Dipanjan

2013-01-01

3

Sacrococcygeal Yolk Sac Tumor: An Uncommon Site  

PubMed Central

A 30-month-old male infant presented with sacrococcygeal and pre-sacral mass. Ultrasound (US) abdomen revealed a huge pre-sacral mass with irregular margins extending into the pelvis, pushing the rectum antero-laterally. CT scan and MRI confirmed the US findings. Serum alpha fetoprotein level was abnormally elevated. Histopathological examination of surgical-specimen suggested sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor (YST). PMID:23061033

Koubaa-Mahjoub, Wafa; Jouini, Raja; Bel Haj Salah, Meriem; Kaabar, Nejib; Chadli-Debbiche, Achraf

2012-01-01

4

Parapharyngeal and skull base yolk sac tumor: A case report with lessons in diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumors are rare in the head and neck. A previously healthy 2-year-old female presented with a large parapharyngeal mass. Pathology was pathognomonic for yolk sac tumor, with glandular differentiation and focal mucin production, which has not been reported in a yolk sac tumor. She was treated aggressively with chemotherapy followed by endoscopic exploration with planned resection, but no viable tumor was encountered. Yolk sac tumors can be difficult to diagnose in the head and neck, but complete clinical response can be achieved. New endoscopic approaches to skull base tumors are applicable to the pediatric population with some technical modifications. PMID:25200853

Hauser, Leah J; Chiang, Tendy; Ramakrishnan, Vijay R; Lovell, Mark A; Kelley, Peggy E

2014-11-01

5

Cardiac metastasis from yolk sac tumor: case report and review  

PubMed Central

Cardiac metastasis of germ cell tumors is extremely rare, particularly in females. We report a case of a 26-year-old previously healthy woman who presented with a 5-month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, generalized lymphadenopathy, and acanthosis nigricans. Biopsy of cervical lymph nodes revealed a poorly differentiated neoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for alpha-fetoprotein suggesting the diagnosis of a germ cell tumor. During the investigation, the patient developed heart failure and a mass attached to the right ventricle was detected by the echocardiogram. In a few days, she developed multiple organ failure and died. Post-mortem examination revealed a malignant mixed germ cell tumor of the right ovary with extensive hematogenic and lymphatic dissemination, a polypoid mass attached to the right ventricle, emboli in the endocardial and epicardial vessels, and infiltration surrounding the coronary arteries. To the best of our knowledge this is the third report of grossly visible heart metastases from a yolk sac tumor in a female patient. A summary of all published cases of germ cell tumors with cardiac metastasis over the last 20 years is also presented. PMID:23631464

2013-01-01

6

Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis. PMID:22978485

2012-01-01

7

Extragonadal yolk sac tumor in pelvic localization. A case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare neoplasm that usually arises in the testis or ovary. We report a case of extragonadal yolk sac tumor located in the pelvic area.Case. A 33-year-old woman was admitted with a history of abdominal pain and distension. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed a 63 × 63-mm hyperechoic mass and pelvic computerized scanning reported a pelvic

Murat Dede; Recai Pabuccu; Gokhan Yagci; Mufit Cemal Yenen; Umit Goktolga; Omer Gunhan

2004-01-01

8

Primary yolk sac tumor of the cerebellar vermis: a case report.  

PubMed

Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare and comprise 2-5% of all germ cell tumors. Seminoma/dysgerminoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor (YST) and mixed germ cell tumors are few of the extragonadal germ cell tumors arising within the brain. Of these, primary pure YSTs arising in the brain are extremely rare and arise in the pineal (62%) and suprasellar (31%) regions. Primary YST occurring in the cerebellum is exceedingly rare, associated with a very poor prognosis and has been reported in less than 10 cases in literature. We herein report a case of primary pure yolk sac tumor in the cerebellar vermis in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24943765

Shenoy, Asha S; Desai, Heena M; Tyagi, Devendra K; Savant, Hemant V; Kavishwar, Vikas S; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshi

2014-01-01

9

Intracranial pure yolk sac tumor in the anterior third ventricle of an adult: A case report  

PubMed Central

A 45-year-old female patient presented with symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria, menopause, headache, gait disturbance and deteriorated mental state. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an irregular mass in the anterior third ventricle. The tumor was excised using a transfrontal approach from the anterior section of the third ventricle. The histological diagnosis was of an intracranial pure yolk sac tumor. The patient underwent radiotherapy and suffered no tumor recurrence one year after the surgery. Overall, when heterogeneous enhancement and an irregular mass with surrounding invasion and ventricular dilation are observed in the anterior third ventricle of an adult, a yolk sac tumor should be considered, and MRI may aid the differential diagnosis. A combination of surgical resection and radiotherapy is recommended for the yolk sac tumor. PMID:25289043

ZHAO, SUHONG; SHAO, GUANGRUI; GUO, WEIHUA; CHEN, XIUBIN; LIU, QINGWEI

2014-01-01

10

A Primary Pure Yolk Sac Tumor of the Lung Exhibiting CDX-2 Immunoreactivity and Increased Serum Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase Intestinal Isoenzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors primary to the lung are quite uncommon lesions, but pure yolk sac tumor is even more exceptional. This is believed to be the first reported case of yolk sac tumor of the lung in which an intense and diffuse immunoreactivity for CDX2, a marker of intestinal differentiation reportedly expressed also in gonadal yolk sac tumor,

Giuseppe Pelosi; Francesco Petrella; Maria Teresa Sandri; Lorenzo Spaggiari; Domenico Galetta; Giuseppe Viale

2006-01-01

11

Gonadoblastoma and hepatoid and endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: an update.  

PubMed

Dr Robert E. Scully greatly advanced our understanding of germ cell neoplasia to the extent that it is difficult to narrow the discussion of his contributions to this topic so that it can be covered in a brief article. This article accordingly focuses on some of the recent developments concerning 2 of his major contributions in this area-the gonadoblastoma (GB) and variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor. GB was defined by Dr Scully in 1953 and its features elaborated in detail by him in 1970. This neoplasm occurred in young patients who often displayed phenotypic sex ambiguities and frequently presented with primary amenorrhea. It was bilateral in 40%, and consisted of circumscribed nests of small sex cord cells and germinoma-like cells admixed with round deposits of eosinophilic, hyaline, often calcified material. These nests were set in a spindle cell gonadal stroma with Leydig-like or lutein-like cells. Because of his work we now understand that this precursor to invasive germ cell tumors occurs in patients with a specific form of disorder of sex development, namely gonadal dysgenesis, and only in those who have a particular portion of the Y chromosome, the GB locus/TSPY gene, within the gonadal tissue. An essential element to the development of GB appears to be a defect in the genetic pathway that leads to the development of Sertoli cells. Improperly formed Sertoli cells predispose to "delayed maturation" of the gonocytes of the gonad and predispose them to undergo malignant transformation. "Undifferentiated gonadal tissue" has been proposed as the precursor to the development of GB and consists of an unorganized mixture of apparently non-neoplastic germ cells, germ cells with delayed maturation, and neoplastic germ cells with sex cord cells and gonadal stroma. Two variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor were also recognized by Dr Scully. In the hepatoid variant features similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occurred, although primitive glandular foci and lack of liver involvement permitted its distinction in most cases. More recently this variant has been found to occasionally produce bile in canalicular-like structures and to stain strongly for both SALL4 and glypican 3, 2 recently described markers of yolk sac tumor. Recognition of hepatoid yolk sac tumor was followed by the description of a potential mimic, primary ovarian hepatoid carcinoma, which, however, occurred in a significantly older patient population and was occasionally associated with surface epithelial neoplasia. The endometrioid-like variant of yolk sac tumor simulated primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma. It can be suspected on routine stains because of primitive appearing nuclei, frequent subnuclear vacuoles, and in some cases association with more usual yolk sac tumor. Its recognition is now facilitated by a panel of immunohistochemical stains that are often expressed differentially in these 2 neoplasms--endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: positive for SALL4, glypican 3, and ?-fetoprotein; endometrioid adenocarcinoma: positive for cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen. Finally, Dr Scully contributed one of the first cases in the literature of yet another nuance in the complicated world of yolk sac neoplasia, namely the development of some tumors on the background of a surface epithelial neoplasm. This is analogous to the more common development of choriocarcinoma from carcinoma and, in the case of yolk sac tumor, diagnosis is aided clinically by the usual older age of the patient and nature of the associated neoplasia. PMID:24901396

Ulbright, Thomas M

2014-07-01

12

Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor  

PubMed Central

The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST) is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST. PMID:22410253

2012-01-01

13

Yolk sac tumor in postmenopausal patients: pure or associated with adenocarcinoma, a rare phenomenon.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) of the ovary usually present in young women and have been rarely reported in postmenopausal patients. Most of the cases in young patients are pure or associated with other germ cell components; however, in older patients there is an unusual association with Müllerian epithelial elements, for the most part malignant. We report two cases, both in older patients. One of the YSTs was associated with high-grade serous and endometrioid carcinoma, while the other case showed pure YST. The YST component showed positivity for SALL4, AFP and Glypican-3 and negative staining for PAX8 supporting a germ cell tumor differentiation; SALL4 and PAX8 markers have not been previously analyzed in this setting. Both tumors recurred within 7 months despite systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25083963

Roma, Andres A; Przybycin, Christopher G

2014-09-01

14

Occurrence of metachronous pure germinomas long after treatment of a mixed germ cell tumor containing yolk sac tumor and germinoma.  

PubMed

The authors report a rare case involving the occurrence of metachronous pure germinomas long after treatment of a mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) categorized as having a poor prognosis. A neurohypophysial germinoma occurred 4 years and 6 months after the initial treatment of a mixed pineal GCT containing a yolk sac tumor and a germinoma. Furthermore, intramedullary germinomas occurred 21 years after the initial treatment of the mixed GCT and 15 years after the second treatment of the neurohypophysial germinoma. The neurohypophysial germinoma was not confirmed histopathologically, but the intramedullary germinoma was histopathologically diagnosed as a pure germinoma. Serum ?-fetoprotein levels at the second neurohypophysial and third intramedullary occurrences of the germinomas were less than 10 ng/ml. Therefore, no yolk sac components seemed to be contained in the tumors. The second neurohypophysial and third intramedullary germinomas might be recurrences of the germinoma component of the pineal mixed GCT, which consisted of a yolk sac tumor and a germinoma. However, it seems very unlikely that only the germinoma, categorized in the good prognosis group, would be the only one to recur. Hence, it seems plausible that both the second and the third occurrences of pure germinoma were de novo metachronous GCTs arising after the pineal mixed GCT was cured. The authors' case indicates the possibility of multicentric GCTs in the CNS. PMID:23082803

Jinguji, Shinya; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Yoshimura, Junichi; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Ogura, Ryousuke; Saito, Akihiko; Fujii, Yukihiko

2013-01-01

15

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of unusual germ cell tumors of the mediastinum: atypical seminoma and parietal yolk sac tumor.  

PubMed

A 30-yr-old man presented with a mediastinal germ cell tumor that combined the histologic pattern of seminoma with the immunohistochemical profile of embryonal carcinoma (beta-HCG+/PLAP-). In FNA smears, this atypical seminoma presented as fragile large cells with scanty cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, irregular and indistinct nucleoli, scattered singly and in loosely cohesive fragments without the characteristic lymphocytic or tigroid background. The cytologic features were more suggestive of a poorly differentiated carcinoma than seminoma, potentially leading to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. The second case was a 51-yr-old female smoker who presented with mediastinal parietal yolk sac tumor with extension to the lung, a rare occurrence, and contrary to the clinical impression of lung cancer with hilar lymph node metastasis. This case illustrates the value of using the unique cytologic features of parietal yolk sac tumor, i.e., the abundant, viscous, stringy metachromatic extracellular hyaline material associated with the tumor cells in reaching the accurate diagnosis. PMID:12203871

Yang, Grace C H; Hwang, Sonya J; Yee, Herman T

2002-08-01

16

"Somatic-type" Malignancies Arising From Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: A Clinicopathologic Study of 124 Cases With Emphasis on Glandular Tumors Supporting Frequent Yolk Sac Tumor Origin.  

PubMed

Somatic-type malignancies (SMs) in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare and mostly attributed to "transformation" of teratoma, although yolk sac tumor (YST) origin has also been proposed. We studied 124 cases of "SM" of testicular GCT origin from 106 patients to evaluate their morphology, immunohistochemical features (especially the utility of SALL4), and relationship to YST. Primitive neuroectodermal and nephroblastomatous tumors were excluded because of prior studies. Patients ranged in age from 15 to 68 years (mean, 33 y). The tumors ranged from 0.7 to 30 cm (mean, 7.6 cm) and involved the retroperitoneum (64%), abdomen/pelvis (10%), lung (10%), mediastinum (6%), supraclavicular region/neck (4%), testis (4%), and thigh (1%). Most initial diagnoses were sarcomas (n=68) or carcinomas (n=51). On review and immunohistochemical analysis, 7 of 45 adenocarcinomas were reclassified as glandular YSTs (GYST) on the basis of glypican-3 (GPC3) and/or ?-fetoprotein positivity and scant/absent reactivity for EMA and CK7. These occasionally (29%) had subnuclear and sometimes supranuclear vacuoles (endometrioid-like), whereas adenocarcinomas were more frequently mucinous (17%) or enteric-type (11%) than endometrioid-like (9%). Both expressed CDX2 frequently (83% and 63%, respectively). MUC protein 2, 4, 5, and 6 expression was more common in adenocarcinomas (7% to 36%) than in GYSTs (0% to 20%) but was infrequent. Both were often positive for SALL4, BerEP4, and MOC31; all were negative for TTF-1. On follow-up (GYST: range, 23 to 169 mo; mean, 81mo; adenocarcinoma: range, 1 to 170 mo; mean, 55 mo), 50% and 33% of patients with GYST and adenocarcinoma, respectively, died of disease. We reclassified 26 of 76 sarcomatoid tumors as sarcomatoid YSTs (SYST) on the basis of positive reactivity for both AE1/3 and GPC3. These tumors often had spindled and epithelioid cells in a fibromyxoid stroma. SYSTs were often (60%) SALL4 positive, whereas sarcomas were all negative. On follow-up (SYST: range, 1 to 259 mo; mean, 62 mo; sarcoma: range, 1 to 327 mo; mean, 70 mo), 50% and 29% of patients with SYST and sarcoma, respectively, died of disease, with most mortality occurring in those with high-grade tumors. We conclude that, on the basis of a panel of immunoreactivities, a significant number of "SMs" in testicular GCT patients are more accurately classified as either GYSTs or SYSTs. Ambiguous glandular tumors should be evaluated for GPC3, ?-fetoprotein, CK7, and EMA reactivity and sarcomatoid ones for GPC3, AE1/3, and SALL4 reactivity. PMID:24921638

Magers, Martin J; Kao, Chia-Sui; Cole, Cristina D; Rice, Kevin R; Foster, Richard S; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Ulbright, Thomas M

2014-10-01

17

Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis after tumor lysis syndrome in a case of advanced yolk sac tumor treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a highly aggressive malignancy arising in young women. Chemotherapy has dramatically improved the prognosis, and bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) combination chemotherapy appears to be the most effective combination regimen. A 23-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with worsening abdominal distention and a lower abdominal mass. She was diagnosed with a stage IIIc pure YST of the right ovary, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed; there were numerous disseminated peritoneal tumors within the abdominal cavity. A few days postoperatively, massive ascites developed, and right hydronephrosis occurred. Chemotherapy with BEP was started, and after 24 h of administration, oliguria and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) developed. Continuous hemodiafiltration was started, and hemodialysis was initiated following full-dose standard cisplatin and etoposide on days 2-5 of the 1st cycle. After the electrolyte abnormalities and the elevation of creatinine became normal, the patient received an additional three cycles of BEP and achieved complete remission. However, she also suffered from severe non-hematological toxicities, including grade 3 left ventricular dysfunction and grade 4 pulmonary fibrosis. In the case of rapidly progressing and high-volume YST treated with BEP chemotherapy, special attention should be paid to bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity following TLS. Further study is required to optimize drug exposure to ensure efficacy and reduce the risk of side effects in this population. PMID:22127348

Doi, Mihoko; Okamoto, Yohei; Yamauchi, Masami; Naitou, Hiroyuki; Shinozaki, Katsunori

2012-10-01

18

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND YOLK UTILIZATION IN YELLOWTAIL FLOUNDER, LlMANDA FERRUGINEA, YOLK-SAC LARVAE  

E-print Network

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND YOLK UTILIZATION IN YELLOWTAIL FLOUNDER, LlMANDA FERRUGINEA, YOLK-SAC LARVAE W. HUNTTING HOWELL' ABSTRACT Embryos and yolk-sac larvae ofyellowtail flounder, Limanda ferruginea largeryolk-sac larvae at hatching tlIan those incubated at 4° and 12° C. Yolk utilization rate was positively

19

Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular remodeling of the mouse embryonic yolk sac is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple genetic signaling pathways as well as biomechanical factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. During this early developmental window, the initial primitive vascular network of the yolk sac undergoes a dynamic remodeling process concurrent with the onset of blood flow, in which endothelial cells establish a branched, hierarchical structure of large vessels and smaller capillary beds. In this review, we will describe the molecular and biomechanical regulators which guide vascular remodeling in the mouse embryonic yolk sac, as well as live imaging methods for characterizing endothelial cell and hemodynamic function in cultured embryos.

Garcia, Monica; Larina, Irina

2014-08-01

20

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL YOLK SAC INFECTION WITH ESCHERICHIA  

E-print Network

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 125 EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL YOLK SAC INFECTION WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI sac, yolk sac:body weight ratio, antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and analysis:body weight ratio was increased and geometric mean titer against NDV was decreased in serum and yolk

Boyer, Edmond

21

The annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.  

PubMed

The annular hematoma of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. In this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. Small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial trophoblast surrounded the capillaries. Cellular trophoblast covered part of the luminal surface of the curtain region, whereas masses of apparently degenerating syncytium were present on other areas of the surface. Maternal erythrocytes, released into the uterine lumen from the curtain region, were phagocytized and degraded by the columnar cells of the trophoblastic annulus. No evidence of iron or pigment accumulation was evident in the parietal endodermal cells underlying the annular trophoblast. Parietal endodermal cells were characterized by cuboidal shape, widely dilated intercellular spaces, and cytoplasm containing granular endoplasmic reticulum. Endodermal cells of the visceral yolk-sac accumulated large numbers of electron-dense granules as well as glycogen in their cytoplasm. Hemopoietic areas and vitelline capillaries were found subjacent to the visceral endoderm. The various portions of the yolk-sac wall of Blarina appear to perform complementary functions which are probably important in maternal-fetal iron transfer. PMID:677046

King, B F; Enders, A C; Wimsatt, W A

1978-05-01

22

Identification and Characterization of Hematopoietic Stem Cells from the Yolk Sac of the Early Mouse Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yolk sac is the first site of hematopoiesis in the mammalian embryo. However, little is known about the initial stem cells in the yolk sac. We have isolated hematopoietic stem cells from early mouse embryonic yolk sac by using a sequential protocol of nonadherence to plastic, density gradient centrifugation, immunocytoadherence, and cell sorting. Isolated, nonadherent, density <1.077-g\\/cm^3, surface antigen

Hua Huang; Robert Auerbach

1993-01-01

23

The esterification of cholesterol in the yolk sac membrane of the chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of lipid from the yolk by the yolk sac membrane of the chick embryo is accompanied by the rapid esterification\\u000a of a large proportion of the yolk cholesterol. This could arise from enhanced acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)\\u000a activity and\\/or inhibition of cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) activity. The activity of ACAT was therefore measured in microsomes\\u000a obtained from yolk sac

J. H. Shand; D. W. West; R. J. McCartney; R. C. Noble; B. K. Speake

1993-01-01

24

Intraembryonic, but Not Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Precursors, Isolated before Circulation, Provide Long-Term Multilineage Reconstitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative contribution of yolk sac and intraembryonic precursors to hematopoiesis has been a matter of long-standing controversy. As reconstitution activity has so far only been found in embryonic tissues after the onset of circulation, the origin of reconstituting cells could not be formally established. Here, we separated yolk sac and intraembryonic splanchnopleura prior to circulation and maintained the explants

Ana Cumano; José Candido Ferraz; Michèle Klaine; James P Di Santo; Isabelle Godin

2001-01-01

25

IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

26

Parallel Doppler assessment of yolk sac and intervillous circulation in normal pregnancy and missed abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed yolk sac morphology and vascularity and intervillous blood flow in normal early pregnancy and missed abortion. Transvaginal colour and pulsed Doppler were used in a prospective analysis of 87 normal pregnancies and 48 missed abortions between 6 and 12 weeks gestation. The Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used to calculate the difference in yolk sac diameter and vascularity

A. Kurjak; S. Kupesic

1998-01-01

27

Molecular characterization of oct4-expressing yolk sac endoderm stem cell lines.  

E-print Network

The extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) defines the yolk sac, a set of membranes that provide essential support for mammalian embryos. Recently, the committed XENprecursor was identified in the embryonic Inner Cell Mass (ICM) as a group of cells...

Debeb, Bisrat Godefay

2009-05-15

28

Yolk sac-derived primitive erythroblasts enucleate during mammalian embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The enucleated definitive erythrocytes of mammals are unique in the animal kingdom. The observation that yolk sac-derived primitive erythroid cells in mammals circulate as nucleated cells has led to the conjecture that they are related to the red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds that remain nucleated throughout their life span. In mice, primitive red cells express both embryonic and adult hemoglobins, whereas definitive erythroblasts accumulate only adult hemoglobins. We investigated the terminal differentiation of murine primitive red cells with use of antibodies raised to embryonic beta H1-globin. Primitive erythroblasts progressively enucleate between embryonic days 12.5 and 16.5, generating mature primitive erythrocytes that are similar in size to their nucleated counterparts. These enucleated primitive erythrocytes circulate as late as 5 days after birth. The enucleation of primitive red cells in the mouse embryo has not previously been well recognized because it coincides with the emergence of exponentially expanding numbers of definitive erythrocytes from the fetal liver. Our studies establish a new paradigm in the understanding of primitive erythropoiesis and support the concept that primitive erythropoiesis in mice shares many similarities with definitive erythropoiesis of mammals. PMID:15031208

Kingsley, Paul D; Malik, Jeffrey; Fantauzzo, Katherine A; Palis, James

2004-07-01

29

Characterization of Definitive Lymphohematopoietic Stem Cells in the Day 9 Murine Yolk Sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The site of origin of lymphohematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that initiate definitive blood cell production in the murine fetal liver is controversial. Contrary to reports that the preliver yolk sac does not contain definitive HSC, we observed that CD34+ day 9 yolk sac cells repopulated multiple blood cell lineages in newborn hosts for at least 1 year. Furthermore, 100 CD34+c-Kit+

Mervin C Yoder; Kelly Hiatt; Parmesh Dutt; Pinku Mukherjee; David M Bodine; Donald Orlic

1997-01-01

30

Targeting of both mouse neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 genes severely impairs developmental yolk sac and embryonic angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropilins (NP1 and NP2) are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors that mediate developmental and tumor angiogenesis. Transgenic mice, in which both NP1 and NP2 were targeted (NP1\\/NP2\\/) died in utero at E8.5. Their yolk sacs were totally avascular. Mice deficient for NP2 but heterozygous for NP1 (NP1+\\/NP2\\/) or deficient for NP1 but heterozygous for NP2 (NP1-\\/-NP2+\\/-) were also embryonic

Seiji Takashima; Masafumi Kitakaze; Masanori Asakura; Hiroshi Asanuma; Shoji Sanada; Fumi Tashiro; Hitoshi Niwa; Jun-Ichi Miyazaki; Seiichi Hirota; Yukihiko Kitamura; Takashi Kitsukawa; Hajime Fujisawa; Michael Klagsbrun; Masatsugu Hori

2002-01-01

31

Failure of zinc to prevent dysmorphogenesis of cultured rat conceptuses by anti-yolk sac antiserum  

SciTech Connect

Day 10 rat conceptuses were cultured for 48h in the presence of either cadmium or anti-vesceral yolk sac antiserum (AVYS). Cadmium was embryotoxic at concentrations exceeding 0.25 ug/ml while AVYS caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis, particularly affecting the optic vesicles, at concentrations of 2 ul/ml and above. The effect of pretreatment with zinc on embryotoxicity caused by cadmium or AVYS was studied. Zinc ameliorated the effects of cadmium but had no effect on AVYS-induced embryonic abnormalities. In a second set of experiments inhibition of /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake by the yolk sac of cultured whole conceptuses was studied. Cadmium and AVYS both inhibited uptake compared to control cultures. Zinc again ameliorated the effect of cadmium but had no action against AVYS-induced inhibition. These results are in contrast to their previous findings using isolated cultured yolk sacs in which zinc ameliorated the inhibitory effects on /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake of both cadmium and AVYS. These data show that in experiments using the isolated cultured yolk sac and the intact cultured conceptus, a qualitatively different response in yolk sac behavior is observed under similar experimental conditions.

Marlow, R.; Freeman, S.J.

1989-01-01

32

Primary yolk sac tumour of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We present a case of rare primary yolk sac tumour of the urinary bladder in adulthood. A 31-year-old female patient presented with a history of chronic ketamine abuse, which has not previously been shown to be associated with malignancy development. The final diagnosis was established only after radical cystectomy. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed paraaortic lymph node metastasis. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy. A review of the literature revealed that surgical excision and cisplatin-based chemotherapy remain to be the standard of care for extragonadal yolk sac tumours. PMID:24348848

MUI, WING HO; LEE, KA CHAI; CHIU, SIN CHUEN; PANG, CHUN YIN; CHU, SAU KWAN; MAN, CHI WAI; WONG, CHI SING; SZE, WING KIN; TUNG, YUK

2014-01-01

33

Hemopoietic stem cells in murine embryonic yolk sac and peripheral blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaggregated embryonic yolk sac cells and circulating peripheral blood cells were obtained from normal murine day 9 embryos, prior to the formation of the fetal liver. These cells were microinjected transplacentally into days 11-15 W mutant anemic fetuses, when the fetal liver was the major hemopoietic organ. In a small proportion of the recipient animals examined after birth, long-term repopulation

J. F. Toles; D H Chui; L W Belbeck; E Starr; J E Barker

1989-01-01

34

Isolation and characterization of the Fc receptor from the fetal yolk sac of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yolk sac of the fetal rat and the prox- imal small intestine of the neonatal rat selectively trans- port maternal IgG. IgG-Fc receptors are thought to mediate transport across the epithelium of both tis- sues. We used a mouse mAb (MC-39) against the 45-54-kD component of the Fc receptor of the neona- tal intestine to find an antigenically related

Denise M. Roberts; Maja Guenthert; Richard Rodewald

1990-01-01

35

Molecular markers of yolk sac fry development in nine families of lake trout.  

PubMed

Salmonids in certain areas of North America and northern Europe suffer from reproductive disturbances manifested through the death of yolk sac fry. These disturbances are referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the Great Lakes region and M74 in the Baltic Sea. Both of these syndromes have been associated with reduced concentrations of thiamine in affected females and their eggs. However, large variations in signs and mortality, both within and between the individual syndromes, have been reported. Yolk sac fry mortality (M74) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar has been shown to be associated with reduced DNA binding of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), reduced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein, decreased capillary density, and down-regulation of adult-type globin gene transcription (which is responsible for the protein part of adult hemoglobin). One of the main effects of all of these changes is reduced oxygen transport to the tissues of affected fry. In this study, the developmental patterns of HIF-1 DNA binding, VEGF protein expression, and adult-type globin gene transcription were analyzed in nine family groups of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. The results indicate that HIF-1 DNA binding and globin gene transcription increase from hatch to the end of yolk sac stage. Interindividual and between-family biological variations were detected, especially in VEGF protein expression and globin gene transcription. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using these molecular markers in investigating the etiology of EMS and making comparisons between the mechanisms of different salmonid yolk sac fry mortalities. PMID:20218502

Vuori, Kristiina A; Paavilainen, Tiia; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Czesny, Sergiusz; Rinchard, Jacques

2009-12-01

36

Light Intensity and Salinity Effects on Eggs and Yolk Sac Larvae of the Summer Flounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of light intensity and salinity on eggs and yolk sac larvae of summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were examined under controlled laboratory conditions. Fertilized eggs (early gastrula stage), obtained by induced spawning of captive broodstock, were stocked (53 eggs\\/L) into forty-eight 5-L translucent containers under light intensities of 0 (constant dark), 500, 1,000, and 2,000 lx and at salinities

Wade O. Watanabe; Michael W. Feeley; Simon C. Ellis; Eileen P. Ellis

1998-01-01

37

Temperature Effects on Eggs and Yolk Sac Larvae of the Summer Flounder at Different Salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of temperature and salinity on eggs and yolk sac larvae of summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were examined under controlled laboratory conditions. Fertilized eggs (early gastrula stage), obtained by induced spawning of captive broodstock at 17°C and 36 g\\/L salinity, were stocked (60 eggs\\/L) into forty-five 5-L translucent containers at temperatures of 16, 20, and 24°C and at

Wade O. Watanabe; Simon C. Ellis; Eileen P. Ellis; Michael W. Feeley

1999-01-01

38

Utilization of the sex-linked gene for imperfect albinism (S*ALS). 2. Yolk sac lipid utilization.  

PubMed

The gene for sex-linked imperfect albinism (S*ALS) has been associated with reduced early growth and slow utilization of the yolk sac contents. Neonatal growth was studied using albino and nonalbino full siblings that were dissected at 2-d intervals from Day 16 of incubation to 7 d after hatch. Fatty acid composition of the yolk, yolk sac membrane, and liver was determined to study neonatal lipid metabolism. At hatch, albinos had similar BW and lower (P < 0.01) liver weights, suggesting reduced lipid transfer from the yolk sac during late incubation. Nonalbinos started gaining weight at 3 d after hatch, 1 d earlier than albino chicks. Albinos had reduced growth (P < 0.01), larger yolk sacs (P < 0.05), and similar (P > 0.05) yolk uptake from hatch to 7 d after hatch. Albino chicks also had lower body temperatures (P < 0.05) at 2, 4, and 6 d after hatch. Albinos had a slower rate of transfer of yolk lipids to the developing embryo in the last 2 d of incubation. The fatty acid composition of the yolk and yolk sac membrane was similar for both genotypes during the last 3 d of incubation, except for the level of stearic acid, which was higher (P < 0.05) for nonalbinos on Day 18 of incubation for both tissues and at 1 d after hatch for the yolk. The fatty acid composition of the livers of albinos and nonalbinos were similar (P > 0.05) during the neonatal period. For both genotypes, the hepatic level of oleic acid increased to Day 20 of incubation, remained constant to 1 d after hatch, and decreased sharply thereafter. The major difference between the genotypes was a slower rate of transfer of yolk lipids to the developing albino embryo in the last 2 d of incubation. PMID:9000266

Santos, G A; Silversides, F G

1996-12-01

39

Respiration, nitrogen and energy metabolism of developing yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation quantifies the partitioning of yolk enthalpy (C) into production of biomass (P), dissipation due to metabolism (R) and losses associated with excretion of nitrogenous end products (E) during the endogenous nutrition of developing yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Further, the sequence of catabolic substrate oxidation and the mass-specific metabolic rate in relation to development

R. N. Finn; I. Rønnestad; H. J. Fyhn

1995-01-01

40

Effects of breeder age on mineral contents and weight of yolk sac, embryo development, and hatchability in Pekin ducks.  

PubMed

The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of breeder age on egg composition, changes of embryo, yolk sac, and yolk minerals during incubation and hatchability in Pekin ducks. A total of 495 freshly laid eggs were obtained from the same flock of Pekin ducks, aged 28, 34, and 40 wk, and were reared in accordance with the management guide of the duck breeders (Star 53-Grimaud Freres). At each breeder age, egg measurements were made on a random subsample of unincubated eggs. Embryo and yolk sac measurements were made on embryonic day (E) 12, E16, E20, and E25. On d 28 of incubation, the healthy ducklings were removed and sex of chicks was determined. All chicks were weighed and hatching results were determined. Egg weight and yolk percentages increased; however, albumen percentages, shell thickness, and yolk index decreased as the flock aged. Shell percentages, shell breaking strength, albumen index, and haugh units were not affected by breeder age. Also, breeder age affected the Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, and Zn levels in the yolk, except for Na level on day of setting, and breeder age affected the mineral consumed by embryo during incubation. However, on E25, the levels of examined minerals, except for P level in the yolk sac, were not statistically different in duck breeder age groups. Relative yolk sac and embryo weights of eggs obtained from different breeder ages varied from E16 to E25; however, embryo length was different in breeder age groups from E12 to E20. Hatching weight was affected by breeder age and sex. Hatching results were not different among breeder age groups. This study indicates that breeder age is important for some egg characteristics, relative yolk sac weight, some contents of minerals in the yolk, embryonic growth during incubation, and duckling weight. PMID:24570471

Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Hacan, O; Yalçin, S

2014-02-01

41

Maternal-fetal immunoglobulin transport: Studies on the binding, internalization, and release of IgG by chick yolk sac tissue and cultured cells  

SciTech Connect

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transported from the yolk across the endodermal cells of the yolk sac and into the fetal circulation during chick embryonic development, thus providing the chick with passive immunity until it becomes immunocompetent. Saturable, Fc-specific receptors are present on the endodermal cells and are believed to mediate this transfer. In this study, IgG receptors were shown to be present on the yolk sac endodermal cells throughout the 21 days of development, although most of the transport occurs during the last 3 days prior to hatching. Fluorescently conjugated IgG was internalized by a receptor mechanism into small apical vesicles in yolk sac endoderm throughout, but cells from 19 day yolk sacs internalized more conjugate than those from 14 day yolk sacs. This was confirmed and quantitated by assaying the internalization of {sup 125}I-IgG into yolk sac tissue. IgG was internalized by a receptor mediated mechanism, reaching a steady state level after 1 to 2 hours. Although both ages of yolk sac tissue possessed the same number of surface IgG receptors, as measured by equilibrium binding assays at 4{degree}C, 19 day yolk sac had the capacity to internalize six times as much IgG by a receptor mechanism as 14 day yolk sac.

Donaldson, J.G.

1988-01-01

42

Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

2014-03-18

43

Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.  

PubMed

PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22?Cre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE. PMID:25138534

Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

2014-08-01

44

Yolk sac endoderm: exclusive site of serum protein synthesis in the early chick embryo  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine which cell type or types synthesized serum proteins, yolk sacs from 4-day chick embryos were manually separated into ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm and incubated in the presence of radioactive valine. Analysis of the incubation media by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as by immunoprecipitation showed that all serum proteins were synthesized exclusively by the cells of the endoderm. These included transferrin and three embryo-specific serum proteins: ..cap alpha..reverse arrowglobulin ..cap alpha..-globulin b, and prealbumin.

Young, M.F.; Minghetti, P.P.; Klein, N.W.

1980-01-01

45

Expression and immunolocalisation of the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin in the human yolk sac and placenta across gestation?  

PubMed Central

Megalin and cubilin are multifunctional endocytic receptors associated with many transporting epithelia. They play an essential role in transport of nutrients through the visceral yolk sac of rodents during embryogenesis. Here, we immunolocalise them to the endodermal layer of the human yolk sac, and to the syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells of placental villi. In villi, the protein level of both receptors increased with gestation. The mRNA for megalin remained constant, while that encoding cubilin increased with gestation. These results suggest megalin and cubilin may be important in human maternal–fetal transfer, and that they increase across gestation to facilitate this function. PMID:23978537

Burke, K.A.; Jauniaux, E.; Burton, G.J.; Cindrova-Davies, T.

2013-01-01

46

Effects of simulated cold fronts on the survival and behaviour of yellow perch Perca flavescens yolk-sac fry  

E-print Network

Effects of simulated cold fronts on the survival and behaviour of yellow perch Perca flavescens was to quantify survivorship of yellow perch yolk-sac fry exposed to two different temperature declines (4 and 8°C (ts = �1.33; df = 7; P = 0.22). Observations of yellow perch eggs and fry behaviour following

47

Human embryonic hemopoiesis. Kinetics of progenitors and precursors underlying the yolk sac----liver transition.  

PubMed

Human embryonic development involves transition from yolk sac (YS) to liver (L) hemopoiesis. We report the identification of pluripotent, erythroid, and granulo-macrophage progenitors in YS, L, and blood from human embryos. Furthermore, comprehensive studies are presented on the number of hemopoietic progenitors and precursors, as well as of other cell types, in YS, L, and blood at precisely sequential stages in embryos and early fetuses (i.e., at 4.5-8 wk and 9-10 wk postconception, respectively). Our results provide circumstantial support to a monoclonal hypothesis for human embryonic hemopoiesis, based on migration of stem and early progenitor cells from a generation site (YS) to a colonization site (L) via circulating blood. The YS----L transition is associated with development of the differentiation program in proliferating stem cells: their erythroid progeny shows, therefore, parallel switches of multiple parameters, e.g., morphology (megaloblasts----macrocytes) and globin expression (zeta----alpha, epsilon----gamma). PMID:3722384

Migliaccio, G; Migliaccio, A R; Petti, S; Mavilio, F; Russo, G; Lazzaro, D; Testa, U; Marinucci, M; Peschle, C

1986-07-01

48

Acclimation to heat during incubation. 2. Embryo composition and residual egg yolk sac fatty acid profiles in chicks.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to evaluate embryo composition and changes in egg yolk fatty acid composition during embryonic development as a function of incubation temperature and age of breeders. Eggs obtained from a common breeder stock at 3 ages: 32 (younger), 42 (mid age), and 65 (older) wk were divided into 2 groups and placed into 2 incubators: the control and the second where eggs were heat-acclimated (HA) at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h daily from d 10 to 18 of incubation. Body composition of embryos and chicks were measured on d 14, 18, and at hatch, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of yolk and residual egg yolk sac of chicks were analyzed before incubation and at hatch, respectively. Moisture content of embryos was highest on d 14 and then decreased regardless of parental age and incubation temperature. Moisture content of chicks at hatch from 42- and 65-wk parents were lower than those of chicks from 32-wk parents, whereas the trend in chick fat content was opposite. Incubation temperature had no effect on composition of chicks. Consistently lower cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-eicosapentaenoic (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; 22:6n-3) and cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic (20:3n-3) fatty acids in the residual yolk sac of chicks than in egg yolks before incubation may have resulted from preferential uptake from the yolk. The DHA content in the residual yolk sac was considerably higher in chicks from older parents incubated at HA, whereas, in contrast, levels of 18:3n-3 were lower. Also, chicks from younger parents in the HA treatment had lower transported 18:3n-3 and higher levels of transported DHA. It may be concluded that this process observed during the high incubation temperature may be related to a protective strategy and thus contributes to postnatal heat adaptation. PMID:18493015

Yalçin, S; Bagdatlioglu, N; Bruggeman, V; Babacanoglu, E; Uysal, I; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Siegel, P B

2008-06-01

49

The effect of temperature on embryonic and yolk-sac larval development in the burbot Lota lota.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of various temperature regimes on embryonic and yolk-sac larval development of the burbot Lota lota. At constant temperature regimes a high percentage of ready-to-hatch embryos, hatched larvae and normally shaped larvae was observed at the lowest temperature (2° C), which significantly decreased with increasing temperatures (4 and 6° C). No larvae hatched at 9° C. The stream temperature regime had no effect on the percentage of ready-to-hatch embryos, but significantly decreased the percentage of hatched larvae and of normally shaped larvae. The lake temperature regime did not affect the viability variables. Also an abrupt temperature increase from 2 to 4° C after 8 days and from 2 to 9° C after 48 days had no effect on the evaluated viability variables. For yolk-sac larvae no temperature related mortalities or abnormalities were observed between 2 and 9° C. PMID:22880731

Lahnsteiner, F; Kletzl, M; Weismann, T

2012-08-01

50

A STUDY OF DIFFUSIONAL PERMEABILITY OF WATER, SODIUM AND CHLORIDE IN YOLK-SAC LARVAE OF COD (GADUS MORHUA L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The fluxes of 3 H 2O, ^Na and ^Cl were simultaneously measured in yolk-sac larvae of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in 34 %o sea water at 4-5 °C. 2. The rates of turnover of all three isotopes were higher than in adult fish. Diffusional permeability coefficients, which relate ion fluxes to surface area, were however lower, indicating that

PETER TYTLER; MICHAEL V. BELL

51

HoxB4 Confers Definitive Lymphoid-Myeloid Engraftment Potential on Embryonic Stem Cell and Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which primitive embryonic blood progenitors contribute to definitive lymphoid-myeloid hematopoiesis in the adult remains uncertain. In an effort to characterize factors that distinguish the definitive adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and primitive progenitors derived from yolk sac or embryonic stem (ES) cells, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of HoxB4, a homeotic selector gene implicated in

Michael Kyba; Rita C. R. Perlingeiro; George Q. Daley

2002-01-01

52

Effect of temperature on survival of northern pike embryos and yolk-sac larvae  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of water temperature and handling procedure on the percentage hatch of known-age northern pike (Esox lucius) embryos and on survival of the yolk-sac larvae. Embryos and larvae were incubated at constant temperatures from 3 to 24/sup 0/C. Optimum hatching range was 6.2 to 20.9/sup 0/C and maximum hatch occurred at 9 to 15/sup 0/C. The age of the embryo before temperature change and the test temperatures both had a significant effect on percentage hatch. Temperature had the greatest adverse effect on percentage hatch during the first 5 h of development. There was no significant difference in the number of embryos hatching when comparing those that developed for 5 h before temperature change with those that developed 12, 24, and 48 h before change. There was a significant increase in hatch for embryos that had developed 120 h before change. The type of temperature change (shock or tempered) did not significantly influence the percentage hatch or hatching temperature range of embryos 5 h old or older. Management implications are also discussed.

Hassler, T.J.

1982-10-01

53

Yolk-sac-derived macrophages regulate fetal testis vascularization and morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Organogenesis of the testis is initiated when expression of Sry in pre-Sertoli cells directs the gonad toward a male-specific fate. The cells in the early bipotential gonad undergo de novo organization to form testis cords that enclose germ cells inside tubules lined by epithelial Sertoli cells. Although Sertoli cells are a driving force in the de novo formation of testis cords, recent studies in mouse showed that reorganization of the vasculature and of interstitial cells also play critical roles in testis cord morphogenesis. However, the mechanism driving reorganization of the vasculature during fetal organogenesis remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that fetal macrophages are associated with nascent gonadal and mesonephric vasculature during the initial phases of testis morphogenesis. Macrophages mediate vascular reorganization and prune errant germ cells and somatic cells after testis architecture is established. We show that gonadal macrophages are derived from primitive yolk-sac hematopoietic progenitors and exhibit hallmarks of M2 activation status, suggestive of angiogenic and tissue remodeling functions. Depletion of macrophages resulted in impaired vascular reorganization and abnormal cord formation. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for macrophages in testis morphogenesis and suggest that macrophages are an intermediary between neovascularization and organ architecture during fetal organogenesis. PMID:24912173

DeFalco, Tony; Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Williams, Alyna V; Sams, Dustin M; Capel, Blanche

2014-06-10

54

The Developing Chicken Yolk Sac Acquires Nutrient Transport Competence by an Orchestrated Differentiation Process of Its Endodermal Epithelial Cells*  

PubMed Central

During chicken yolk sac (YS) growth, mesodermal cells in the area vasculosa follow the migrating endodermal epithelial cell (EEC) layer in the area vitellina. Ultimately, these cells form the vascularized YS that functions in nutrient transfer to the embryo. How and when EECs, with their apical aspect directly contacting the oocytic yolk, acquire the ability to take up yolk macromolecules during the vitellina-to-vasculosa transition has not been investigated. In addressing these questions, we found that with progressive vascularization, the expression level in EECs of the nutrient receptor triad, LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, changes significantly. The receptor complex, competent for uptake of yolk proteins, is produced by EECs in the area vasculosa but not in the area vitellina. Yolk components endocytosed by LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, preformed and newly formed lipid droplets, and yolk-derived very low density lipoprotein, shown to be efficiently endocytosed and lysosomally processed by EECs, probably provide substrates for resynthesis and secretion of nutrients, such as lipoproteins. In fact, as directly demonstrated by pulse-chase experiments, EECs in the vascularized, but not in the avascular, region efficiently produce and secrete lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, and/or apoA-V. In contrast, perilipin 2, a lipid droplet-stabilizing protein, is produced exclusively by the EECs of the area vitellina. These data suggest a differentiation process that orchestrates the vascularization of the developing YS with the induction of yolk uptake and lipoprotein secretion by EECs to ensure embryo nutrition. PMID:23209291

Bauer, Raimund; Plieschnig, Julia A.; Finkes, Thomas; Riegler, Barbara; Hermann, Marcela; Schneider, Wolfgang J.

2013-01-01

55

YOLK UTILIZATION AND GROWTH TO YOLK-SAC ABSORPTION IN SUMMER FLOUNDER ('PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS') LARVAE AT CONSTANT AND CYCLIC TEMPERATURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Rates of development, growth and yolk conversion efficiency were determined in larvae of the summer flounder Paralichtys dentatus at constant temperatures of 21 degrees, 16 degrees, 12 degrees and 5 degrees C and in temperature cycles of 21 degrees-16 degrees, 16 degrees-11 degre...

56

Assay and properties of rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1. cap alpha. -hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

An in vitro assay has been developed for the rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase). The subcellular location and some properties of the enzyme are described. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ produced from incubations of yolk sac homogenates was extracted, purified by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and straight- and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and measured by a competitive binding assay using chick intestinal receptor. The reaction is linear with time for up to 45 min at a substrate concentration of 80 ..mu..M and 4-6 mg/mL microsomal protein. The enzyme, located in the microsomes, requires molecular oxygen and NADPH. Metyrapone (1 x 10/sup -3/ M) was found to inhibit 1-hydroxylation, but a 90% carbon monoxide-10% oxygen atmosphere did not, leaving open the question of involvement of cytochrome P-450. Diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, a lipid peroxidase inhibitor, inhibited 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

Paulson, S.K.; Phelps, M.; DeLuca, H.F.

1986-11-04

57

New advances in human embryology: morphofunctional relationship between the embryo and the yolk sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organogenesis occurs during the first 8 weeks of human embryonic development; in consequence, early human growth and development take place before and in the absence of fully developed internal organs. During this period, normal development depends on several factors, but two are imperative: nutrition and a functional transport system for the distribution of nutrients and for waste disposal. The yolk

Pietro M. Motta

1999-01-01

58

At Day 8-8.5 of Mouse Development the Yolk Sac, not the Embryo Proper, has Lymphoid Precursor Potential in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied both in vitro and in vivo the formation of lymphocyte progenitors before blood circulation (day 9 of gestation) has started in the mouse embryo, and we have determined the tissue where this occurs. The results demonstrate that the yolk sac of embryos at day 8 and day 8.5 of gestation contains precursor cells that can give rise,

Ronald Palacios; Beat A. Imhof

1993-01-01

59

Differentiation and Characterization of B-Cell Precursors Detected in the Yolk Sac and Embryo Body of Embryos Beginning at the 10- to 12Somite Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embryonic sites in which progenitors of the hematopoietic lineages first emerge are ideal regions to characterize both the cells and environment needed to initiate blood cell development. For a number of years both the murine yolk sac and embryo have been recognized to contain progenitors of B lymphocytes. However, clonal, quantitative in vitro assays, which allow precise observation of

Ana Cumano; Caren Furlonger; Christopher J. Paige

1993-01-01

60

Physiological energetics of developing embryos and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ). II. Lipid metabolism and enthalpy balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents quantitative data for the changes in the contents of total lipids, lipid classes and their associated fatty acids, together with the changes in caloric contents of developing eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). During development between Day 0 to 28 post fertilisation, 32% of catabolic metabolism was fuelled by lipids. On a mass-specific

R. N. Finn; J. R. Henderson; H. J. Fyhn

1995-01-01

61

Structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) to inhibit chicken yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase related to OPI teratogenesis.  

PubMed

This paper provides new information related to the mechanism of OPI (organophosphorus insecticides) teratogenesis. The COMFA (comparative molecular field analysis) and COMSIA (comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) suggest that the electrostatic and steric fields are the best predictors of OPI structural requirements to inhibit in ovo chicken embryo yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase, the proposed target for OPI teratogens. The dominant electrostatic interactions are localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-2 and carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents and carbon-3 substituents of crotonamides are the steric structural components that contribute to superiority of those OPI as in ovo inhibitors of kynurenine formamidase. PMID:23328119

Seifert, Josef

2013-03-01

62

The effect of acute changes in temperature and light on the aerobic metabolism of embryos and yolk-sac larvae of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acute changes of temperature and light on the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of developing embryos and yolk-sac larvae of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) reared at 15 °C were studied. Short-term temperature adjustments of ±2 °C gave a mean Q10 of 2.6 for the rate of oxygen consumption. Neither the presence nor the absence of light

Roderick Nigel Finn; Ivar Rønnestad

2003-01-01

63

Ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery of the siRNAs targeting MDR1 reduces drug resistance of yolk sac carcinoma L2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background MDR1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein is an ATP-dependent drug efflux transporter and related to drug resistance of yolk sac carcinoma. Ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery has been used as a novel and effective gene delivery method. We hypothesize that small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting MDR1 gene (siMDR1) delivery with microbubble and ultrasound can down-regulate MDR1 expression and improve responsiveness to chemotherapeutic drugs for yolk sac carcinoma in vitro. Methods Retroviral knockdown vector pSEB-siMDR1s containing specific siRNA sites targeting rat MDR1 coding region were constructed and sequence verified. The resultant pSEB-siMDR1 plasmids DNA were encapsulated with lipid microbubble and the DNA release were triggered by ultrasound when added to culture cells. GFP positive cells were counted by flow cytometry to determine transfection efficiency. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression of MDR1. P-glycoprotein function and drug sensitivity were analyzed by Daunorubicin accumulation and MTT assays. Results Transfection efficiency of pSEB-siMDR1 DNA was significantly increased by ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery in rat yolk sac carcinoma L2 (L2-RYC) cells. Ultrasound microbubble-mediated siMDR1s delivery effectively inhibited MDR1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels and decreased P-glycoprotein function. Silencing MDR1 led to decreased cell viability and IC50 of Vincristine and Dactinomycin. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery of MDR1 siRNA was safe and effective in L2-RYC cells. MDR1 silencing led to decreased P-glycoprotein activity and drug resistance of L2-RYC cells, which may be explored as a novel approach of combined gene and chemotherapy for yolk sac carcinoma. PMID:22035293

2011-01-01

64

Sources of amino acids for protein synthesis during early organogenesis in the rat. 4. Mechanisms before envelopment of the embryo by the yolk sac.  

PubMed

It was previously shown that uptake and digestion of protein by the visceral yolk sac supplies almost all of the amino acid needed by the 9.5-11.5-day rat conceptus cultured in vitro. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that protein uptake and digestion may not be as important as an amino acid source in the 8.5-9.5-day period, a stage of development before the yolk sac placenta envelops the embryo and before the vitelline circulation is established. Eight and a half-day rat conceptuses were cultured in serum supplemented with trace amounts of free [3H]leucine, [3H]leucine-containing serum proteins, free [3H]methionine or [3H]methionine-containing serum proteins. The incorporation of radiolabelled amino acid into acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions of the conceptus was determined. Leucine from either source was incorporated principally into proteins of the conceptus, but a greater proportion of the methionine incorporated was found in the low molecular weight fraction. It is estimated that 88 per cent of the leucine and 96 per cent of the methionine used by the conceptus was derived from protein in the culture serum; free amino acid comprised a minor supply source. We conclude that, despite the different anatomic relationships, the majority of amino acid incorporated into newly synthesized proteins of the conceptus very early in organogenesis is supplied by the digestion of protein in extraembryonic tissue, most likely the visceral yolk sac. PMID:8916213

Beckman, D A; Brent, R L; Lloyd, J B

1996-11-01

65

DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

2014-02-17

66

Mortality of walleye eggs and rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae in low-pH waters in the LaCloche Mountain area, Ontario  

SciTech Connect

Freshly fertilized eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum were incubated in the outlet waters of George Lake (pH 5.4) and sections of a nearby stream (pH 6.0, 6.6). Ten-day bioassays with yolk-sac larvae of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri were run concurrently at the walleye sites and at additional sites with low pH (4.6) and with humic water (pH 5.5). Walleye egg mortality was low (25.5 - 33.5%) at pH 6.0. High mortality (90.5%) occurred between fertilization and the eyed-egg stage at the pH 5.4 site. Mortality of rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae approached 100% within 5 days at both pH 4.6 and 5.4. In contrast, total mortality was less than 3% at pH 6.0 and also in low-pH humic water (pH 5.5). The high mortality of walleye eggs in the acidic outlet waters of George Lake suggests that the acidification of this lake was responsible for the extinction of its walleye stock. The striking differences in mortality of rainbow trout yolk-sac larvae between sites of similar pH (5.4-5.5) indicated that H/sup +/-toxicity was not solely responsible for fish mortality in acid water. Results draw attention to the effects that biologically available forms of toxic metals, particularly of aluminum, have on fish survival. 26 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Hulsman, P.F.; Powles, P.M.; Gunn, J.M.

1983-01-01

67

A unique case of a sarcoma arising in a testicular non-seminomatous mixed germ cell tumour with a predominant yolk sac component  

PubMed Central

We present a unique case of a sarcoma arising in a testicular non-seminomatous mixed germ cell tumour with a predominant yolk sac tumour (YST) component. This is the first case reported in which a sarcoma is linked to YST of the testis in a patient not having undergone prior chemotherapy. This finding confirms the ability of YST to contain sarcoma; it underlies its importance for urologists, oncologists and pathologists to be aware of this phenomenon and to modify treatment strategies appropriately. PMID:21989175

Lavallee, Luke T.; Roustan Delatour, Nicolas LD; Cagiannos, Ilias; Belanger, Eric C; Mai, Kien T.

2011-01-01

68

Globin switches in yolk sac-like primitive and fetal-like definitive red blood cells produced from human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that coculture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for 14 days with immortalized fetal hepatocytes yields CD34(+) cells that can be expanded in serum-free liquid culture into large numbers of megaloblastic nucleated erythroblasts resembling yolk sac-derived cells. We show here that these primitive erythroblasts undergo a switch in hemoglobin (Hb) composition during late terminal erythroid maturation with the basophilic erythroblasts expressing predominantly Hb Gower I (zeta(2)epsilon(2)) and the orthochromatic erythroblasts hemoglobin Gower II (alpha(2)epsilon(2)). This suggests that the switch from Hb Gower I to Hb Gower II, the first hemoglobin switch in humans is a maturation switch not a lineage switch. We also show that extending the coculture of the hESCs with immortalized fetal hepatocytes to 35 days yields CD34(+) cells that differentiate into more developmentally mature, fetal liver-like erythroblasts, that are smaller, express mostly fetal hemoglobin, and can enucleate. We conclude that hESC-derived erythropoiesis closely mimics early human development because the first 2 human hemoglobin switches are recapitulated, and because yolk sac-like and fetal liver-like cells are sequentially produced. Development of a method that yields erythroid cells with an adult phenotype remains necessary, because the most mature cells that can be produced with current systems express less than 2% adult beta-globin mRNA. PMID:18024790

Qiu, Caihong; Olivier, Emmanuel N; Velho, Michelle; Bouhassira, Eric E

2008-02-15

69

The chicken yolk sac IgY receptor, a mammalian mannose receptor family member, transcytoses IgY across polarized epithelial cells.  

PubMed

In mammals the transfer of passive immunity from mother to young is mediated by the MHC-related receptor FcRn, which transports maternal IgG across epithelial cell barriers. In birds, maternal IgY in egg yolk is transferred across the yolk sac to passively immunize chicks during gestation and early independent life. The chicken yolk sac IgY receptor (FcRY) is the ortholog of the mammalian phospholipase A2 receptor, a mannose receptor family member, rather than an FcRn or MHC homolog. FcRn and FcRY both exhibit ligand binding at the acidic pH of endosomes and ligand release at the slightly basic pH of blood. Here we show that FcRY expressed in polarized mammalian epithelial cells functioned in endocytosis, bidirectional transcytosis, and recycling of chicken FcY/IgY. Confocal immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that IgY binding and endocytosis occurred at acidic but not basic pH, mimicking pH-dependent uptake of IgG by FcRn. Colocalization studies showed FcRY-mediated internalization via clathrin-coated pits and transport involving early and recycling endosomes. Disruption of microtubules partially inhibited apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transcytosis, but not recycling, suggesting the use of different trafficking machinery. Our results represent the first cell biological evidence of functional equivalence between FcRY and FcRn and provide an intriguing example of how evolution can give rise to systems in which similar biological requirements in different species are satisfied utilizing distinct protein folds. PMID:18256279

Tesar, Devin B; Cheung, Evelyn J; Bjorkman, Pamela J

2008-04-01

70

Combined effect of vascular-leakage-blocker Sac-1004 and antiangiogenic drug sunitinib on tumor angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Tumor blood vessels are often leaky because of poor covering by mural cells and loose cell-to-cell contacts. Leaky vessels result in hemorrhage and limited vascular perfusion, which lead to hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Antiangiogenic agents have been shown to normalize the tumor blood vessels, albeit temporarily. Continued administration has been found to be associated with increased tumor hypoxia, a major driving force behind chemoresistance and metastasis. Sac-1004 was recently demonstrated to prevent vascular leakage, normalize tumor vessels and prevent metastasis in sustained manner. Here, we sought that combining antiangiogenic agent, sunitinib with Sac-1004 could have better inhibitory effect upon tumor growth. We found that B16F10 tumor growth was significantly reduced and tumor-bearing mice survival was increased upon combining sunitinib therapy with Sac-1004. In concordance with this observation, tumor vascular perfusion was substantially improved in tumors receiving combination therapy. In addition, tumor vascular leakage was reduced to higher extent in combination treatment group as compared to either therapy alone, an effect attributed to improved vascular junction. Interestingly, hypoxia in tumor environment was significantly reduced, when sunitinib was combined with Sac-1004. Taken together, our data demonstrates that combining antiangiogenic therapy with vascular-leakage inhibiting agent might be a beneficial strategy to combat cancer. PMID:25003323

Lee, Keunho; Agrawal, Vijayendra; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Jihye; Park, Hyojin; Lee, Sungwoon; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

2014-08-01

71

Synthesis of aFetoprotein by Liver, Yolk Sac, and Gastrointestinal Tract of the Human Conceptus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The synthesis of serum a-fetoprotein was studied in 16 human embryos and fetuses between 4.2 and 18 weeks of gestation by incubation of selected tissues in l4C-labeled amino acids followed by immunoelectrophoresis of the culture fluids and radioautography. Relatively large amounts of radioactive a-fetoprotein were found in each of the liver cultures and in cultures of the developing yolk

David Gitlin; Anita Perricelli; M. Gitlin

72

Changes in the whole body mineral concentration of the Rainbow trout (Oncorchynchus mykiss Walbaum) yolk-sac fry exposed to various combina- tions of aluminium and calcium concentrations in two different acidic water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 12 combinations of pH (4.5 and 7.0), aluminium (4 and 8 ?mol\\/L) and calcium (10 and 100 ?mol\\/L) on survival and body mineral (Ca, Mg, K and Na) concentrations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) at the yolk-sac stage were investigated. Mortality was low (< 17%) in most combinations and increased (> 27%) in the presence of

Metin ÇALTA

73

Aggressive papillary tumor of the middle ear: a true entity or an endolymphatic sac neoplasm?  

PubMed

Aggressive papillary tumors of the middle ear are rare, and their true origin is not clear. We describe the clinical, radiologic, genetic, and histopathologic features of a papillary epithelial tumor filling the middle ear of a 68-year-old woman. Imaging revealed no evidence of petrous temporal bone apex involvement, nor did genetic studies demonstrate the von Hippel-Lindau mutation. A literature search revealed 24 previously reported cases of such a papillary epithelial tumor of the middle ear. All except 2 cases demonstrated apical petrous temporal bone invasion on imaging, and it has been suggested that they arose from a primary endolymphatic sac tumor, which has a similar papillary epithelial histology. Substantial numbers of cases of papillary epithelial tumors involving the middle ear are reported to be associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease, as are known cases of endolymphatic sac tumor. This is the third reported case of papillary epithelial tumor of the middle ear that does not show apical petrous temporal bone invasion on imaging, suggesting that such neoplasms do not always arise from a primary in the endolymphatic sac. PMID:18633929

Tysome, James R; Harcourt, Jonny; Patel, Manish C; Sandison, Ann; Michaels, Leslie

2008-07-01

74

Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

2014-02-28

75

Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-05-01

76

REVIEW ARTICLE Pakistan Vet. J., 24(1): 2004 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO YOLK RETENTION  

E-print Network

REVIEW ARTICLE Pakistan Vet. J., 24(1): 2004 46 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO YOLK RETENTION IN POULTRY retention and yolk sac infection is considered as an important cause of death in chicken as well and may in turn, lead to yolk retention are discussed. Yolk sac infection of bacterial origin is most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Endolymphatic sac tumor: a report of 3 cases and discussion of management.  

PubMed

Patients with an endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) typically present with palsy of cranial nerves VII and/or VIII; other presenting symptoms include hearing loss, otalgia, occipital headaches, cranial nerve palsies, vertigo, gait ataxia, tinnitus, and otorrhea. ELSTs are extremely vascular, and they can invade and destroy temporal bone. Because of these characteristics, they are often mistaken for glomus tumors of the skull base. We describe the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of ELSTs based on our review of the limited literature and our experience with 3 adults who presented to our tertiary care referral center with large ELSTs. Although these patients presented late in the course of their disease, their symptoms were relatively minor. Preoperative tumor embolization was performed, anda near-complete resection was achieved via an extended transotic approach in all 3 patients. The facial nerve was preserved without transposition in the first patient, the second patient underwent a primary nerve anastomosis, and the third required a cable graft of the facial nerve. Postoperative radiation therapy was administered to 2 of these patients. Follow-up by MRI detected no evidence of recurrence in any of the 3 patients. PMID:17315832

Doherty, Joni K; Yong, Mona; Maceri, Dennis

2007-01-01

78

In vitro effects of environmental salinity and cortisol on chloride cell differentiation in embryos of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, measured using a newly developed ‘yolk-ball’ incubation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the functional differentiation of chloride cells in the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, we developed a 'yolk-ball' incubation system in which the yolk sac was separated from the embryonic body and subjected to incubation in vitro. The yolk-ball preparation consists of the yolk and the covering yolk-sac membrane, which contains a rich population of chloride

KIYONO SHIRAISHI; TOYOJI KANEKO; MANABU MATSUDA; TETSUYA HIRANO; TAKAO MORI

2001-01-01

79

Growth hormone transgenesis and polyploidy increase metabolic rate, alter the cardiorespiratory response and influence HSP expression in response to acute hypoxia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) yolk-sac alevins.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic Atlantic salmon display accelerated growth rates compared with non-transgenics. GH-transgenic fish also display cardiorespiratory and metabolic modifications that accompany the increased growth rate. An elevated routine metabolic rate has been described for pre- and post-smolt GH-transgenic salmon that also display improvements in oxygen delivery to support the increased aerobic demand. The early ontogenic effects of GH transgenesis on the respiratory and cellular physiology of fish, especially during adverse environmental conditions, and the effect of polyploidy are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of GH transgenesis and polyploidy on metabolic, heart and ventilation rates and heat shock protein (HSP) levels after exposure to acute hypoxia in post-hatch Atlantic salmon yolk-sac alevins. Metabolic rate decreased with decreasing partial pressures of oxygen in all genotypes. In normoxia, triploid transgenics displayed the highest mass-specific metabolic rates in comparison to diploid transgenics and non-transgenic triploids, which, in contrast, had higher rates than diploid non-transgenics. In hypoxia, we observed a lower mass-specific metabolic rate in diploid non-transgenics compared with all other genotypes. However, no evidence for improved O2 uptake through heart or ventilation rate was found. Heart rate decreased in diploid non-transgenics while ventilation rate decreased in both diploid non-transgenics and triploid transgenics in severe hypoxia. Regardless of genotype or treatment, inducible HSP70 was not expressed in alevins. Following hypoxia, the constitutive isoform of HSP70, HSC70, decreased in transgenics and HSP90 expression decreased in all genotypes. These data suggest that physiological changes through GH transgenesis and polyploidy are manifested during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon. PMID:24675560

Polymeropoulos, Elias T; Plouffe, Debbie; LeBlanc, Sacha; Elliott, Nick G; Currie, Suzie; Frappell, Peter B

2014-07-01

80

Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Young Patients With Solid Tumors That Have Relapsed or Not Responded to Treatment  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-09-27

81

A case of endolymphatic sac tumor with long-term survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 72-year-old man developed left facial palsy at age 14 and left-sided hearing loss at age 20. At the age of 59, he presented\\u000a with gait disturbance, and a large left cerebellopontine angle tumor was detected, which had markedly destroyed the pyramidal\\u000a bone. The tumor was subtotally resected, but he required two more operations at the ages of 64 and

Kenichiroh Asano; Tetsuji Sekiya; Toru Hatayama; Masahiko Tanaka; Atsuhito Takemura; Shigeharu Suzuki; Osami Kubo; Yoshihiro Ishihara

1999-01-01

82

[Mediastinal germ cell tumors: anatomopathology, classification, teratomas and malignant tumors].  

PubMed

Mediastinal germ cell tumors are rare tumors. It is classic to divide those tumors into two categories, seminomas and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: teratomas (mature or immature), embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, and choriocarcinomas. Each histological sub-type can be associated to another sub-type that realise a so-called mixed germ cell tumor. Diagnosis strategy is currently well codified for malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors. It greatly benefits from tumoral markers (alpha-fetoprotein and beta human chorionic gonadotrophin). For instance, the treatment strategy still raises some specific problems to each histological type. The treatment of seminomatous tumors is standardised--chemotherapy/surgery on residual tumor greater than 3 cm/radiotherapy on viable persistent residual tumors--and provides very satisfying results. As for the nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, the situation is dramatically different. The treatment strategy is less standardised--association of chemotherapy and surgery--and the prognosis is very severe. PMID:20207298

Chetaille, B; Massard, G; Falcoz, P-E

2010-02-01

83

Pakistan Vt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS  

E-print Network

Pakistan Vêt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS responsible for yolk rétention in broiler chicks. l: our dilieront expcrimonts were conducted to tlnd ont thé infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

The pathology of late recurrence of testicular germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

A total of 91 men had histologically documented late recurrences of testicular germ cell tumors characterized by a complete response to treatment with a subsequent disease-free interval of at least 2 years and no evidence of a second primary lesion. Ninety percent of the patients for whom information was available received chemotherapy shortly after their initial diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors; most of the other patients were known to have stage I disease initially. Overall, 60% of patients had teratoma in their late recurrences, including 20 patients (22%) in whom teratoma was the only element. Thus, teratoma was the most common type of neoplasm in late recurrences. Excluding teratoma coexisting with other types of neoplasms, yolk sac tumor was the most frequent type of tumor in patients with late recurrence. It occurred in 47% of patients, either alone or with teratoma, another nonteratomatous germ cell tumor type, or a "nongerm cell malignant tumor." Unusual types of yolk sac tumor, including glandular, parietal, clear cell, and pleomorphic patterns, were seen frequently in late recurrences and often raised differential diagnostic problems with "nongerm cell" carcinomas. A smaller number of late recurrences consisted of other types of neoplasms. Twenty percent of patients with late recurrence had a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor other than yolk sac tumor, either alone, with yolk sac tumor, or with a "nongerm cell malignant tumor." Most of these nonteratomatous germ cell tumors other than yolk sac tumor were embryonal carcinoma, although rarely seminoma and choriocarcinoma were encountered. "Nongerm cell malignant tumors," including both sarcomas and carcinomas of various types, occurred in 23% of late-recurrence patients, either alone or with a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor. Late recurrences were seen in many different sites in these patients, including the retroperitoneum, abdomen, pelvis, liver, mediastinum, lung, bone (femur, vertebra, and rib), lymph nodes outside the retroperitoneum and mediastinum (supraclavicular, neck, and axillary regions), scrotum and inguinal regions, adrenal gland, chest wall, and buttocks. Follow-up data were available for 79 of the 91 patients studied. Duration of follow-up ranged from 2 months to 13 years after the patient's first late recurrences; the mean length of follow-up was 4.8 years. Patients whose late recurrences consisted of teratoma only had the most favorable outcomes, with 79% having no evidence of disease at last follow-up. Patients whose late recurrences consisted of pure "nongerm cell malignant tumor" or pure germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor or other types) had a much worse prognosis: Only 36% to 37% were alive with no evidence of disease. Patients with two different types of nonteratomatous malignancies in their late recurrences had a dismal clinical course: Only 17% with both yolk sac tumor and other nonteratomatous germ cell tumor had no evidence of disease, whereas no patient with both nonteratomatous germ cell tumor and "nongerm cell malignant tumor" was disease free. Late recurrences consisting of teratoma alone often have a favorable outcome, but the prognosis in all other patients is poor. Furthermore, late recurrence is not likely to respond to chemotherapy and is best treated by surgical excision when possible. PMID:10680894

Michael, H; Lucia, J; Foster, R S; Ulbright, T M

2000-02-01

85

Expression of OCT4 in the primary germ cell tumors and thymoma in the mediastinum.  

PubMed

Primary germ cell tumors (GCTs) and thymoma are both located in the anterior mediastinum. A previous study has postulated that octamer binding transcription factor (OCT4) is a nuclear transcription factor that is expressed in pluripotent embryonic germ cells. This study examined OCT4 expression in GCTs and thymoma originating from the mediastinum. A retrospective study included 46 consecutive patients with GCTs conducted between 1983 and 2005, and 22 consecutive thymoma in the mediastinum whose tumors had been surgically excised. The 46 primary GCTs in mediastinum included teratoma (n=27; 58.7%), seminoma (n=10; 21.7%), yolk sac tumor (n=6; 13%), embryonal carcinoma (n=1; 2.1%), and mixed GCTs (n=2; 4%; one consisted of teratoma and yolk sac tumor, and the other teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and seminoma); and 22 thymoma including World Health Organization type A (n=3, 13.6%), type AB (n=4, 18.2%), type B1 (n=6, 27.3%), type B2 (n=4, 13.6%), and type B3 (n=5, 22.7%). Each tumor was examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining, and with antibodies to OCT4. All 10 seminoma cases, 1 embryonal carcinoma case, and 1 mixed GCT case containing seminoma were immunopositive for OCT4. On the other hand, the 22 thymoma, 6 yolk sac tumor, 27 teratomas, and 1 case with mixed GCT without component of seminoma were immunonegative for OCT4. We conclude that immunostaining with antibodies to OCT4 is a useful diagnostic tool in the identification of seminomas and primary embryonal carcinomas in GCTs originating from the mediastinum. PMID:16932017

Jung, Shih-Ming; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Shiu, Tzu-Fang; Wu, Hsueh-Hua; Kuo, Tseng-Tong; Chu, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Pyng-Jing

2006-09-01

86

Evidence That Insulin is Imprinted in the Human Yolk Sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelic variation in the size of the insulin (INS) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) correlates with the expression of both INS in the pancreas and thymus and IGF2 (the gene downstream of INS) in the placenta. In addition, the shorter, class I alleles are associated with type 1 diabetes, whereas the longer, class III alleles are associated with type 2

Gudrun E. Moore; Sayeda N. Abu-Amero; Gill Bell; Emma L. Wakeling; Amanda Kingsnorth; Philip Stanier; Eric Jauniaux; Simon T. Bennett

2001-01-01

87

Primary germ cell tumors of the mediastinum: 10 years of experience in a tertiary teaching hospital.  

PubMed

Germ cell tumors occur mostly in the gonad. Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare, and most occur in the retroperitoneum and mediastinum. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are often found in the anterior portion of the mediastinum and include teratomas and non-teratomatous tumors. Non-teratomatous tumors include seminomas and malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (MNSGCTs). MNSGCTs include yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas, and mixed type germ cell tumors. Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors of the mediastinum, and seminomas are the most common non-teratomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum. Cases of primary mediastinal MNSGCT reported in the literature are rare. In this report, we review all primary mediastinal germ cell tumors from a 10-year period at the Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital of Kaohsiung Medical University. A total of 14 cases were reviewed, including 11 patients with mature teratomas, two with yolk sac tumors, and one with seminoma. We discuss the differences in clinical presentation, histopathologic characteristics, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:16248122

Yang, Chih-Jen; Cheng, Meng-Shuan; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Huang, Ming-Shyan

2005-09-01

88

Germ-cell tumors of the mediastinum.  

PubMed

Mediastinal germ-cell tumors (GCTs) usually occur within the anterior mediastinum, accounting for about 15% of all mediastinal cysts and tumors. They are associated with the thymus, presumably arising from extragonadal germ cells or thymic cells with germ-cell potential. Mediastinal seminoma develops primarily in young males with rare cases reported in females; likewise, embryonal carcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor or yolk-sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, and malignant mixed or combined GCTs also overwhelmingly affect males. Mature cystic teratoma affects males and females equally. The prognosis for mediastinal mature cystic teratoma and seminoma is very good. Nonseminomatous malignant GCTs of the mediastinum often present with advanced disease and do not respond as well to chemotherapy as their gonadal counterparts. Nonetheless, it is important to separate mediastinal GCTs from other undifferentiated malignant tumors, especially thymic carcinoma, which has a poor prognosis. Clearly, some patients with mediastinal GCTs respond very well to modern therapies. PMID:10355653

Weidner, N

1999-02-01

89

SAC Minutes May 28, 2014 SAC Members & Alternate Members present  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes � May 28, 2014 1 SAC Members & Alternate Members present: Delegated Office Director Mary Smith NIDCD Zelia Pulliam ASRB Nic D'Ascoli NIDCR Jimmy Sanders BPA Zedekiah Worsham #12;SAC; and NBS Systems Holds Job Aid. 4. The next Simplified Acquisition Committee (SAC) Meeting will be held

Rau, Don C.

90

Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.  

PubMed

Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

2000-07-22

91

Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.  

PubMed Central

Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

2000-01-01

92

Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum and testis: a comparative immunohistochemical study of 120 cases.  

PubMed

An immunohistochemical study was performed in 120 cases of mediastinal and testicular germ cell tumors from archival, paraffin-embedded material to compare the patterns of expression between the two groups with a panel of markers, including broad-spectrum keratin, CAM 5.2 low-molecular-weight cytokeratin, placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human beta-chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), vimentin, and CD30 (Ki-1 antigen). Significant differences were observed between mediastinal and testicular seminomas: mediastinal seminomas showed strong dot-like paranuclear positivity of the tumor cells with antibodies to CAM 5.2 low-molecular-weight keratin in 80% of cases (32 of 40), as compared with only 20% positivity (5 of 24) in testicular seminomas; placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) was also found to be less commonly expressed in testicular seminomas (12 of 24) than in mediastinal seminomas (37 of 40); a similar pattern of expression was also observed for vimentin, which was present in scattered tumor cells in a higher proportion of mediastinal seminomas (28 of 40) than in testicular seminomas (11 of 24). The staining pattern and distribution of these markers did not show significant differences between the two groups for the various other tumor categories studied, including yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, and choriocarcinoma. The tumor cells in both testicular and mediastinal embryonal carcinoma showed strong positivity for the CD30 antigen; however, strong positivity for this marker was also observed in 6 of 25 yolk sac tumors and in scattered individual tumor cells in 4 of 63 seminomas. The results of this study show that significant differences exist between the immunostaining patterns of mediastinal and testicular seminomas, suggesting that the former may be characterized by a more mature phenotype than their testicular counterparts. Also, CD30 expression may not be necessarily restricted to embryonal carcinomas and occasionally may be observed in yolk sac tumors and seminoma cells, supporting the close histogenetic relationship that exists among these tumor types. PMID:9670832

Suster, S; Moran, C A; Dominguez-Malagon, H; Quevedo-Blanco, P

1998-07-01

93

Colloidal liquids of yolk-shell particles  

E-print Network

In this paper we develop statistical mechanical tools to describe the intermediate- and long-time collective- and self-diffusion properties of a liquid of strongly-interacting hollow spherical particles (shells), each bearing a smaller solid sphere (yolk) in its interior. To decouple two complex effects we assume that the hydrodynamic interactions can be accounted for through the effective short-time self-diffusion coefficients $D^0_s$ and $D^0_y$ that describe the short-time Brownian motion of the yolk and the shell particles, and develop a self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory to describe the intermediate- and long-time effects of the direct shell-shell, yolk-shell and yolk-yolk interactions. In a concrete application, we consider the simplest yolk-shell model system involving purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement of both types of particles, as well as the intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. We compare the theoretical and simulation results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We find that the yolks, which have no effect on the shell-shell static structure, influences the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

L. E. Sanchez Diaz; E. C. Cortes-Morales; X. Li; Wei-Ren Chen; M. Medina-Noyola

2014-07-23

94

[Diagnosis and treatment of primary germ cell tumors of the mediastinum. Report of six cases].  

PubMed

Primary germ cell tumours of the mediastinum are rare. We report a retrospective study of six cases. Sex ratio was 2/1. The tumor site was the posterior mediastinum in two patients and anterior in the remaining cases. High level serum markers was noted in two patients. At histologic exam we found two cases of seminoma, one embryonal carcinoma, one case of yolk sac tumor and two cases of composite tumor. All patients had non metastatic but locally advanced disease at diagnosis. Three patients were treated with cisplatin based chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or surgical resection of residual masses. Only one patient is still alive. As it is often reported in the literature, the prognosis of this disease is poor especially for non seminomatous tumours. PMID:14534949

Landolsi, Amel; Tarmiz, Hasna; Ben Fatma, Leila; Kallel, Lamia; Gharbi, Olfa; Kraïem, Chakib; Korbi, Sadok; Ben Ahmed, Slim

2003-06-01

95

4 Yolk Proteins JOSEPH G. KUNKEL and JOHN H. NORDIN  

E-print Network

83 4 Yolk Proteins JOSEPH G. KUNKEL and JOHN H. NORDIN University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA 1 The study of yolk proteins 84 1.1 Central issues 84 1.2 Constitution of yolk 85 1.3 Location in the egg and embryo 85 1.4 Function of the yolk 85 1.5 Evolutionary homology of yolk proteins 87

Kunkel, Joseph G.

96

Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab!  

E-print Network

Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab! Cholesterol (1) is a major component of cell membranes. An egg yolk contains about 200 milligrams of cholesterol, much of it bound as complex lipid. In this experiment, you will purify cholesterol from an egg

Taber, Douglass

97

21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND...egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that conform to § 160...such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella...

2014-04-01

98

21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND...egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that conform to § 160...such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella...

2011-04-01

99

21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND...egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that conform to § 160...such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella...

2013-04-01

100

21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND...egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that conform to § 160...such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella...

2012-04-01

101

21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND...egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that conform to § 160...such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella...

2010-04-01

102

Extragonadal germ cell tumors: a review with emphasis on pathologic features, clinical prognostic variables, and differential diagnostic considerations.  

PubMed

Extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are relatively uncommon, but represent 1% to 5% of all GCTs. Their morphology varies widely and includes mature teratoma, immature teratoma, seminoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and mixed GCTs. Noncentral nervous system extragonadal GCTs are found in a variety of anatomic locations, but most commonly affect the mediastinum and sacrococcygeal region. Predicting behavior in these tumors can be confusing because it is based on a combination of varying factors including patient age, histologic subtype, anatomic site, and clinical stage. This review attempts to dissect these issues by separating the discussion into 3 age groups: neonatal (congenital), children (prepubertal), and adult (postpubertal). Within each individual age group, we cover the significance of anatomic site, morphology, and staging parameters. In addition, we discuss the spectrum of associated secondary malignancies and their impact on patient outcome. Finally, we provide a detailed survey of differential diagnostic considerations grouped by anatomic site. PMID:17471115

McKenney, Jesse K; Heerema-McKenney, Amy; Rouse, Robert V

2007-03-01

103

SAC Minutes Friday, April 27, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Friday, April 27, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3pm Attendance: Alannah Johnston, Audrey Gardiner. PRESENTATIONS 3. CONSTITUTIONS MOVED ELAINE KUO, SECONDED MO SALEMY: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC constitute the U IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes of their meeting held April 16, 2012." ...Carried 5. BOOKINGS MOVED

Pulfrey, David L.

104

SAC Minutes Tuesday, March 13, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Tuesday, March 13, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 12:30 pm Attendance: Alannah Johnston, Audrey MOVED ELAINE KUO, SECONDED STEWART MCGILLIVRAY: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC constitute Sustainability Club. ...Carried MOVED ELAINE KUO, SECONDED ALANNAH JOHNSTON: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC reconstitute Indigenous

Pulfrey, David L.

105

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Nov 14, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Nov 14, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Caroline Wong-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution of Sales Club as an AMS club." ...Carried 2. MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED PHILIP HE: (SACD 73-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution

Pulfrey, David L.

106

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Sept 12, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Sept 12, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams HANDFIELD: (SACD 44) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution of Free the Children Club as an AMS IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes of their meeting held on Aug 30, 2012." ...Carried 5. BOOKINGS MOVED

Pulfrey, David L.

107

SAC Minutes Thursday, May 24, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Thursday, May 24, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 4pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams, SECONDED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC constitute International Sustainable Economics IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes of their meeting held May 17, 2012." ...Carried 5. BOOKINGS 6. OTHER

Pulfrey, David L.

108

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Jan16, 2013  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Jan16, 2013 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve Adam Melhem as chair." ...Carried PRESENTATIONS CONSTITUTIONS MINUTES 2. MOVED BARNABAS , SECONDED KATHLEEN: (SACD 81-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes

Pulfrey, David L.

109

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Sept 19, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Sept 19, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams SAC member at large � Philip He 2. PRESENTATIONS � Guitar Club 3. CONSTITUTIONS 4. MINUTES MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD: (SACD 043-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes

Pulfrey, David L.

110

SAC Minutes Thursday, May 31, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Thursday, May 31, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 4pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC constitute International Sustainable Economics Initiative as an AMS club." ...Defeated MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED ELAINE KUO: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC constitute Undergraduate Network

Pulfrey, David L.

111

SAC Minutes Monday, April 16, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Monday, April 16, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 1pm Attendance: Alannah Johnston, Elaine Kuo Enterprise club 3. CONSTITUTIONS MOVED ELAINE KUO, SECONDED STEWART MCGILLIVRAY: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC STEWART MCGILLIVRAY: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes of their meeting held March 27, 2012

Pulfrey, David L.

112

SAC Minutes Thursday, Aug 9, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Thursday, Aug 9, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 4:00pm Attendance: Alishia Adams, Elaine Kuo. 1. INTRODUCTIONS MOVED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD, SECONDED ELAINE KUO: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve. CONSTITUTIONS MOVED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD, SECONDED ELAINE KUO: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution

Pulfrey, David L.

113

SAC Minutes Thursday, July 12, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Thursday, July 12, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 4pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams. CONSTITUTIONS MOVED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD, SECONDED NICOLA SIMPSON: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution of Thaqalayn Muslim Association as an AMS club." ...Tabled *SAC Vice Chair, Adam, will contact

Pulfrey, David L.

114

SAC Minutes Tuesday, January 31, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Tuesday, January 31, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 12:30 pm Attendance: Alannah Johnston WARWICK: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC constitute Cooking Club as an AMS club." ...Carried MOVED ALANNAH JOHNSTON, SECONDED ELAINE KUO: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC re-constitute Go Club as an AMS club." ...Carried

Pulfrey, David L.

115

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 3, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 3, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adam-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution of The Moustache Society as an AMS Club." ...Carried MINUTES 2. MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD: (SACD 50-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve

Pulfrey, David L.

116

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 10, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 10, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adam PRESENTATIONS CONSTITUTIONS 1. MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED PHILIP HE: (SACD 53-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC, SECONDED CLARKE MCCORKELL: (SACD 54-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution of The Spark Club

Pulfrey, David L.

117

How to Improve the SAC Jennifer Seberry  

E-print Network

How to Improve the SAC Jennifer Seberry Xian-Mo Zhang Yuliang Zheng The Centre for Computer effective method for transforming Boolean functions that do not satisfy the strict avalanche criterion (SAC algorithms. Key Words cryptography, security in digital systems, strict avalanche criterion (SAC), substitu

Seberry, Jennifer

118

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Jan 23, 2013  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Jan 23, 2013 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve Adam Melhem as chair." ...Carried PRESENTATIONS Presentation PHILIP HE: (SACD 82-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes of their meeting held on Jan 16

Pulfrey, David L.

119

SAC Minutes Thursday, May 4, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Thursday, May 4, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 4pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams, Elaine. CONSTITUTIONS 4. MINUTES MOVED CLARKE, SECONDED ELAINE: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve of Alumni members to be honorary members." ...Carried VOC · wants alumni members

Pulfrey, David L.

120

SAC Minutes Tuesday, February 28, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Tuesday, February 28, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 12:30 pm Attendance: Alannah Johnston University Bangla Club 3. CONSTITUTIONS MOVED AUDREY GARDINER, SECONDED ELAINE KUO: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC constitute The Combined Major in Sciences Students Association as an AMS club

Pulfrey, David L.

121

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 24, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 24, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adam. MOVED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD, SECONDED NICOLA SIMPSON: (SACD 57-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve KATHLEEN HANDFIELD, SECONDED PHILIP HE: (SACD 58-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution

Pulfrey, David L.

122

Pembrokeshire marine SAC grey seal monitoring 2005.  

E-print Network

Pembrokeshire marine SAC grey seal monitoring 2005. Strong P.G., Lerwill, J., Morris, S Nominated officer(s): T. Stringell, B. Bullimore Title: Pembrokeshire marine SAC grey seal monitoring 2005.R. & Stringell, T.B. (2006). Pembrokeshire marine SAC grey seal monitoring 2005. CCW Marine Monitoring Report No

Bearhop, Stuart

123

SAC Minutes Thursday, January 12, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Thursday, January 12, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 5:00 pm Attendance: Elaine Kuo, Audrey THAT SAC constitute The Armenian Students Association as an AMS club." ...Carried 4. MINUTES: MOVED KYLE WARWICK, SECONDED ELAINE KUO: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes of their meeting held Dec 1

Pulfrey, David L.

124

SAC Minutes Tuesday, February 14, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Tuesday, February 14, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 12:30 pm Attendance: Alannah Johnston, Elaine THAT SAC constitute The UBC AISES as an AMS club." ...Carried MOVED NONE, SECONDED NONE: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC constitute Association of Canada-China Academic Exchange (ACCAE) as an AMS club." ...Defeated

Pulfrey, David L.

125

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Jan 9, 2013  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Jan 9, 2013 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams. MOVED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD, SECONDED ELAINE KUO: (SACD 79-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve. 2. MOVED ELAINE KUO, SECONDED CLARKE MCCORKELL: (SACD 80-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve

Pulfrey, David L.

126

SCIENCE WRITERS' GUIDE Aquarius/SAC-D  

E-print Network

SCIENCE WRITERS' GUIDE Aquarius/SAC-D June 2011 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Studying Earth's Salty Seas from Space #12;Aquarius/SAC-D SCIENCE WRITERS' GUIDE CONTACT INFORMATION Rosemary Sullivant Kevin Miller WRITERS DESIGN #12;Aquarius/SAC-D SCIENCE WRITERS' GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS

Waliser, Duane E.

127

SAC Minutes Thursday, June 7, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Thursday, June 7, 2012 SUB ROOM 224, 4pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adams, Elaine MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes. DISCUSSION: Commercial Booking Issue MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED ELAINE KUO: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC

Pulfrey, David L.

128

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Nov 7, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Nov 7, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adam CONSTITUTIONS 1. MOVED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD, SECONDED ELAINE KUO: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve HE: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes of their meeting held on Oct 31, 2012." ...Carried

Pulfrey, David L.

129

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Sept 26, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Sept 26, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Alishia Adam, Caroline Wong-13) "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the minutes of their meeting held on Sept 19, 2012." ...Carried BOOKINGS 2. MOVED KATHLEEN HANDFILED, SECONDED BARNABAS CARO: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the booking

Pulfrey, David L.

130

SAC Minutes Tuesday, March 27, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Tuesday, March 27, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 12:30 pm Attendance: Alannah Johnston, Audrey THAT SAC approve the minutes of their meeting held March 20, 2012." ...Carried 5. BOOKINGS The chair THAT SAC approve the booking of Council Chamber on Friday, March 30, 2012 from 11:30am-5pm. The Ubyssey

Pulfrey, David L.

131

[A case of malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor benefited by multidisciplinary therapy].  

PubMed

A 24-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of hemoptysis and left precordial pain. Chest X-ray and chest CT scan showed a mass in the left anterosuperior mediastinum. Laboratory examination revealed elevated levels of AFP (550 ng/ml), which were highly indicative of malignant germ cell tumor. Imaging examination indicated that the mass was resectable, so surgery was performed prior to chemotherapy. Histological examination revealed an admixture of seminoma, immature teratoma, embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor. Because the resection performed was incomplete, the patient received three courses of combination chemotherapy consisting of CDDP, VP-16 and BLM and 40 Gy irradiation. The serum level of AFP was normal after one course of combination chemotherapy. The patient has shown no sign of recurrence for 3 years since surgery. PMID:8741563

Kamiya, I

1996-07-01

132

TGF-? Receptor Type II Deficiency Results in Defects of Yolk Sac Hematopoiesis and Vasculogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

TGF-? signaling is mediated through two types of serine\\/threonin kinase-containing receptors, type I (TGF-?RI) and type II (TGF-?RII), which form a heteromeric complex. In this signaling complex, ligand binding TGF-?RII phosphorylates and thereby activates the TGF-?RI to signal downstream pathways. To determine the role of TGF-?RII in embryogenesis, we have generated a TGF-?RII gene (Tgfbr2) knockout mouse line. The heterozygousTgfbr2knockout

Masanobu Oshima; Hiroko Oshima; Makoto M. Taketo

1996-01-01

133

Absence of Yolk sac Hematopoiesis from Mice with a Targeted Disruption of the scl Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scl gene encodes a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor which was identified through its involvement in chromosomal translocations in T-cell leukemia. To elucidate its physiological role, scl was targeted in embryonic stem cells. Mice heterozygous for the scl null mutation were intercrossed and their offspring were genotyped. Homozygous mutant (scl-\\/-) pups were not detected in newborn litters, and analysis at earlier

Lorraine Robb; Ian Lyons; Ruili Li; Lynne Hartley; Frank Kontgen; Richard P. Harvey; Donald Metcalf; C. Glenn Begley

1995-01-01

134

[Two cases of relapse or refractory germ cell tumor who had been treated with combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and carboplatin].  

PubMed

We tried a combination chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) and carboplatin (CBDCA) (CDDP/CBDCA regimen) as salvage therapy for 2 cases with recurrent or refractory Germ Cell Tumor (GCT). Case 1 was a 29-year-old man with 2nd relapsed embryonal carcinoma and seminoma originating from testis. Case 2 was a 23-year-old man with primary refractory embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor originating from mediastinum. CDDP and CBDCA were administered at the dose of 120 mg/m2 and 350 mg/m2 on day 1, and vinblastin was administered at the dose of 10 mg/body on day 2. In one of two cases, a complete response was obtained. Non-hematologic toxicity of CDDP/CBDCA regimen was tolerable. It is suggested that this combination chemotherapy is useful for GCT recurrence. PMID:8978809

Kiyama, Y; Suzuki, G; Masauzi, N; Ohizumi, H; Kobayashi, N; Ogasawara, M; Naohara, T; Saito, M; Higa, T; Kasai, M

1996-12-01

135

Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

2013-07-01

136

From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Testicular carcinoma represents only 1% of all neoplasms in men, but it is the most common malignancy in the 15-34-year-old age group. Germ cell tumors constitute 95% of all testicular tumors. Germ cell tumors are a varied group of neoplasms whose imaging features reflect their underlying histologic characteristics. Seminomas are generally well-defined homogeneous lesions, whereas the nonseminomatous tumors (embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, teratoma, and mixed germ cell tumor) have a much more varied appearance. Germ cell tumors follow a predictable pattern of spread via the lymphatic drainage to the retroperitoneal nodes. Choriocarcinoma, which has a proclivity for early hematogenous spread, is a notable exception. Testicular tumors may also arise from the sex cords (Sertoli cells) and stroma (Leydig cells). Although 90% of these tumors are benign, there are no reliable imaging criteria to differentiate them from malignant masses. Some benign testicular masses can be recognized, obviating an unwarranted orchiectomy. A dilated rete testis is a normal variant and appears as a series of small tubules near the mediastinum testis. Other benign lesions that can be suspected on the basis of imaging findings and history include intratesticular cysts, epidermoid cysts, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and sarcoidosis. PMID:11796908

Woodward, Paula J; Sohaey, Roya; O'Donoghue, Michael J; Green, Douglas E

2002-01-01

137

UNIVERSITY SECRETARIAT How to Appeal to SAC  

E-print Network

1 UNIVERSITY SECRETARIAT STUDENT APPEALS How to Appeal to SAC #12;2 ACADEMIC APPEALS INFORMATION Committee; · what information you need to provide in your appeal; · how the appeal process works; and · how their decision for the faculties if there are no grounds to do so. SAC will review Faculty decisions in only two

138

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 17, 2012  

E-print Network

IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the booking of the Norm Theatre on Nov 27 from 6pm to midnight by Knitting and Sewing Club. This is for a movie screening." ...Carried 7. MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED NICOLA SIMPSON: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the booking of the Norm Theatre on Nov 20 from 5-11pm by the Art

Pulfrey, David L.

139

Scattering Functions of Yolk-Shell Particles  

SciTech Connect

The single-particle small-angle scattering properties of the yolk-shell particle, a new type of core-shell particle with a mobile core within the hosting shell, are systematically investigated. The Debye spatial autocorrelation function, pair distance distribution function and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) are calculated and compared to the corresponding scattering functions of reference systems of hard sphere and concentric core-shell particles with identical sizes. Based on our theoretical calculations, we find that the broken centrosymmetry, originating from the mobility of the trapped yolk, results in an imaginary scattering amplitude. As a result, it contributes an additional destructive interference term which smears certain features present in the scattering functions of the reference systems. Based on our theoretical models, we present the prospect of jointly using small angle neutron and x-ray scattering techniques to quantitatively determine the structural characteristics of yolk-shell particles.

Li, Xin [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Kao-Hsiang [National Taiwan University] [National Taiwan University; Wu, Bin [ORNL] [ORNL; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

140

SAC Headquarters Underground Command Center Cutaway Axonometric Offutt ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SAC Headquarters Underground Command Center - Cutaway Axonometric - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

141

70. SAC command post construction, building 500, undated Offutt ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. SAC command post construction, building 500, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

142

59. SAC Plaque, front lawn, building 500, looking east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. SAC Plaque, front lawn, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

143

RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in  

E-print Network

RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in Eggs of the Lizard, Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination, yolk testosterone (T) concentration is greater in male previous studies. If yolk T levels are also sex-specific before eggs are laid, a period during which

Wade, Juli

144

Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

2011-01-01

145

Sisters of the sinuses: cetacean air sacs.  

PubMed

This overview assesses some distinguishing features of the cetacean (whale, dolphin, porpoise) air sac system that may relate to the anatomy and function of the paranasal sinuses in terrestrial mammals. The cetacean respiratory tract has been modified through evolution to accommodate living in water. Lack of paranasal sinuses in modern cetaceans may be a diving adaptation. Bone-enclosed air chambers are detrimental, as their rigid walls may fracture during descent/ascent due to contracting/re-expanding air volumes. Flexible-walled "sinuses" (extracranial diverticula) are a logical adaptation to diving. Odontocetes (toothed whales) exhibit several pairs of paranasal air sacs. Although fossil evidence indicates that paranasal sinuses occur in archaeocetes (ancestors/relatives of living cetaceans), it is not known whether the paranasal sacs derive from these sinuses. Sac pigmentation indicates that they derived from invaginations of the integument. Unlike sinuses, paranasal sacs are not circumferentially enclosed in bone, and therefore can accommodate air volume changes that accompany diving pressure changes. Paired pterygoid sacs, located ventrally along the cetacean skull, connect the pharynx and middle ear cavities. Mysticetes (baleen whales) have a large midline laryngeal sac. Although cetacean air sacs do not appear to be homologous to paranasal sinuses, they may serve some analogous respiratory, vocal, or structural functions. For example, these sacs may participate in gas exchange, thermoregulation, resonance, and skeletal pneumatization. In addition, they may subserve unique aquatic functions, such as increasing inspiratory volume, mitigating pressure-induced volume change, air shunting to reduce respiratory dead space, and facilitating underwater sound production and transmission. PMID:18951477

Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

2008-11-01

146

Glycosaminoglycan-sac formation in vitro. Interactions between normal and malignant cells.  

PubMed

The interaction of monolayer normal human or normal rat cells with suspension Walker rat tumor cells was demonstrated cytologically, during a cocultivation period of thirty days. At ten days, Walker rat tumor cells were interiorized in the cytoplasm of the normal monolayer host cells. At twenty days, degeneration of the interiorized tumor cells followed by mucification led to glycosaminoglycan-sac formation. At thirty days, tumor nodules and protease (alpha 1-chymotrypsin)- bound glycosaminoglycan(s) extracellular matrix, transversing the culture in membranous rivulets, were formed. The overall interaction resulted in the death of the interiorized tumour cell and survival of the normal host cells containing a glycosaminoglycan-sac. The use of bladder tumor cell imprints showed that cell interiorization, degeneration and extracellular matrix formation identical to that of the co-cultures, also occur in vivo. Cell interiorization within malignant cell cultures led to syncytia formation and survival of both host and interiorized cells. Identical glycosaminoglycan extracellular matrix to that of the co-cultures and syncytia was also observed in smears of EBV-producing (P3HR-1) cell cultures. The observations are discussed in terms of invasion, emperipolesis, cannibalism, phagocytosis and extracellular matrix. It is concluded that a glycosaminoglycan-sac is produced by the interiorization of a tumor cell into a normal cell while interiorization of a tumor cell into another tumor cell resulted in syncytia formation. PMID:8075481

Logothetou-Rella, H

1994-04-01

147

Two Case Reports of a Malignant Germ Cell Tumor of Ovary and a Granulosa Cell Tumor: Interest of Tumoral Immunochemistry in the Identification and Management  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this article, we present two case reports. The first case was a malignant germ cell tumor of the right ovary in a 23-year old woman and the second case was a bilateral undifferentiated granulosa cell tumor in a 71-year old woman. The aim of these reports is to illustrate the interest of the immunohistochemical analysis to define the correct diagnosis, to better classify these ovarian tumors and improve their management. Methods: In this study, we report two cases. The first case concerns a 23-year old woman (A) with a mixed germ cell tumor of the right ovary [dysgerminoma (75%), yolk sac tumor (20%), and a mature teratoma (5%)], and the second case concerns a 71-year old woman (B) with a bilateral non-differentiated and necrotic granulosa cell tumor of both ovaries. The staging system was used according to both the classifications: International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1987 for ovarian cancer and TNM code 2009. Results: The immunostaining establishes the malignancy and the immunochemistry contributes to confirm effectively the right diagnosis (Tables 2 and 3). Conclusion: An immunohistochemical analysis is mandatory for the choice of chemotherapy to obtain a better response of the disease and improve the survival prognosis. The efficiency of the chemotherapy authorizes a conservative surgery including a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy preserving fertility (A). Concerning the non-dysgerminoma tumor (B), and after a surgical staging and debulking, chemotherapy was recommended. The type of tumor and its histological feature conditioned the choice of treatment. The benefit of the immunohistological analysis in this case allowed the right adjuvant treatment. PMID:24982844

Bouquet de Joliniere, J.; Ben Ali, N.; Fadhlaoui, A.; Dubuisson, J. B.; Guillou, L.; Sutter, A.; Betticher, D.; Hoogewoud, H. M.; Feki, A.

2014-01-01

148

Characterization of the divergent sacBK and sacAR operons, involved in sucrose utilization by Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed

The divergently transcribed sacBK and sacAR operons, which are involved in the utilization of sucrose by Lactococcus lactis NZ9800, were examined by transcriptional and gene inactivation studies. Northern analyses of RNA isolated from cells grown at the expense of different carbon sources revealed three sucrose-inducible transcripts: one of 3.2 kb containing sacB and sacK, a second of 3.4 kb containing sacA and sacR, and a third of 1.8 kb containing only sacR. The inactivation of the sacR gene by replacement recombination resulted in the constitutive transcription of the sacBK and sacAR operons in the presence of different carbon sources, indicating that SacR acts as a repressor of transcription. PMID:10074089

Luesink, E J; Marugg, J D; Kuipers, O P; de Vos, W M

1999-03-01

149

Final Report to: -English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project)  

E-print Network

Final Report to: - English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project) An evaluation of approaches Sites in the UK. English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project). ISBN 1 85716 584 5 1 #12;UK Marine SACs of a project, commissioned as part of the UK Marine SACs Project, to evaluate different approaches employed

Jones, Peter JS

150

Agrgation de sac-de-sacs-de-mots pour la recherche d'information par modles vectoriels  

E-print Network

Agr�gation de sac-de-sacs-de-mots pour la recherche d'information par mod�les vectoriels Vincent �tudie l'int�r�t de repr�senter les documents textuels non plus comme des sacs-de-mots, mais comme des sacs-de-sacs-de-mots. Au coeur de l'utilisation de cette repr�sentation, le calcul de similarit� entre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Characterization of multiple promoters and transcript stability in the sacB-sacC gene cluster in Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

In Zymomonas mobilis, the extracellular levansucrase (SacB) and extracellular sucrase (SacC) are involved in sucrose hydrolysis. Genes coding for these two enzymes (sacB and sacC) are arranged in a cluster in the genome and separated by a short intervening sequence. The level of sacC transcript was 12-fold higher than that of sacB transcript. On the other hand, transcript stability analysis in sucrose grown cultures revealed that the half-life of the sacB transcripts (153 s) was more than twofold higher than that of sacC transcript (66 s). The decay curves of sacB and sacC transcripts analyzed by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR correlated well with the decay curves of the respective enzyme activities. In the sacB promoter disruption mutant, Z. moblis BT2, the extracellular sucrase activity decreased from 2.6 to 2.0 U mg(-1) in sucrose medium due to the loss of SacB expression. The expression of sacC in the absence of the sacB promoter suggested that these two genes could be transcribed as different mRNAs. The promoter-lacZ fusion studies in Escherichia coli proved that the short intervening region acts as a strong promoter for the sacC gene. PMID:19415238

Senthilkumar, V; Rajendhran, J; Busby, S J W; Gunasekaran, P

2009-06-01

152

Uptake and photodynamic activity of porphycenes in tumor cells implanted on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a convenient model for the study of photodynamic therapy (PDT). This membrane has a rich vasculature, which mimics the tumor neovasculature, and can also serve as a host for implanted tumors. The transparency of the CAM enables in-vivo monitoring of vascular changes during and post PDT, without the need to sacrifice test animals at each time point. Video documentation and analysis of events occurring during and after irradiation permit the quantification of changes in vessel morphology, blood perfusion and tumor development. The compounds tested in this study belong to a family of potential sensitizers -- the porphycenes. These are phorphyrin isomers based on a 16-membered macrocycle, in which the four methine moieties linking the pyrrole rings have been replaced by two direct bonds and two ethine bridges. Experiments were performed on blood vessels of the intact CAM and on recurrent human melanoma cells implanted on the CAM. Tumor selectivity was demonstrated by measuring drug uptake using fluorescence methods. A sensitizer injected systemically into the embryo yolk sac could be detected in the blood vessels 30 min after injection; 1 h later the sensitizer had preferentially accumulated in the tumor. Tumors were irradiated at the optimal uptake time (after 1 h) for 16 min with a 20 mW HeNe laser. Video image analysis showed that 96 h after irradiation tumors had decreased to 5% of their original size. In contrast, non-irradiated control tumors on the same CAM, continued to proliferate and grew to more than twice their original size. In addition, we observed a difference in the damage mechanism after systemic compared to topical administration. Topical application followed by irradiation caused fast necrosis of tumors, which might suggest direct damage to tumor cells, whereas after systemic administration, PDT damage was manifested by slower necrosis, presumably caused by vascular destruction.

Davidi, Ronit; Gottfried, Varda; Kimel, Sol

1996-01-01

153

SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

Gulich, J. M.; White, C.

1994-01-01

154

Lacrimal sac plugging caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a rare cause of canalicular obstruction. We present a case where an aspergillosis plug caused extreme tenderness, epiphoria and discharge from the lacrimal puntum. CT scan showed dilation of the lacrimal sac. Medical treatment did not relieve the symptoms. During a planned DCR the sac was opened before the osteotomy, and found to contain a plug which caused the obstruction. Aspergillus fumigatus was grown from culture. The DCR was abandoned and the patient is symptom free one year after the procedure. PMID:9591962

Kristinsson, J K; Sigurdsson, H

1998-04-01

155

Trials of new germ cell immunohistochemical stains in 93 extragonadal and metastatic germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

Organic cation transporter 3/4 (OCT3/4) is a transcription factor of embryonic stem cells; c-kit (CD117) is a tyrosine kinase receptor implicated in seminoma carcinogenesis. Their reactivity is well characterized in testicular, but not extragonadal and metastatic, germ cell tumors. A total of 93 germ cell tumors (41 seminoma, 22 embryonal carcinoma, 18 teratoma, and 12 yolk sac tumor) were obtained from the central nervous system (30), mediastinum (23), retroperitoneum/abdomen (31), and other locations (9). Immunohistochemical staining for c-kit, placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), OCT3/4, and new markers D2-40 and AP-2gamma was performed on seminomas; CD30 and epithelial membrane antigen were added for nonseminomas. In embryonal carcinoma, c-kit reacted in 17 of 22 cases, OCT3/4 in 18 of 22, and PLAP in 13 of 22. OCT3/4 was superior to PLAP in intensity and percent cells staining. In seminoma, OCT3/4 and D2-40 were superior to PLAP in intensity and percent cells; c-kit and AP-2gamma were superior in percent cells. D2-40 stained 23 of 24 seminomas strongly but had only weak focal reactivity in 6 of 17 embryonal carcinomas. Sensitivity and specificity were high for OCT3/4 discriminating seminoma and embryonal carcinoma, and c-kit discriminating seminoma, from other germ cell tumors. For embryonal carcinoma, OCT3/4 had higher specificity (0.94) than CD30 (0.786) owing to CD30 reactivity in 3 of 10 teratomas. Epithelial membrane antigen discriminated teratoma from other nonseminomas with a sensitivity of 1 but reacted occasionally in embryonal carcinoma (3/15) and yolk sac tumor (2/7). In conclusion, for extragonadal seminoma, OCT3/4, AP-2gamma, D2-40, and c-kit were equivalently superior to PLAP. For embryonal carcinoma, OCT3/4 was superior to PLAP and more specific than CD30. D2-40 is recommended to discriminate between seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. PMID:18045648

Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Butler, Samantha L; Shanks, Jonathan H; Hossain, Deloar; Schall, Albrecht; Meiers, Isabelle; Zhou, Ming; Torkko, Kathleen C; Kim, Stacy J; MacLennan, Gregory T

2008-02-01

156

Yolk androgens as pleiotropic mediators of physiological processes: A mechanistic review Kristen J. Navara a,  

E-print Network

Development Growth Birds Avian egg yolks are made up of complex mixtures of physiologically relevant a discussion of how yolk androgens can simultaneously affect multiple body systems within developing birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 3. Yolk androgens and immune function

Navara, Kristen

157

Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors with an Angiosarcomatous Component: A Report of 12 Cases  

PubMed Central

The development of an angiosarcomatous component in germ cell tumors (GCTs) is rare. Here we studied 12 cases of mediastinal GCTs with an angiosarcomatous component. All patients were men with a mean age of 34 years (range, 24 to 49 years). No patient had a documented testicular GCT. The mean size of mediastinal tumors was 12.9 cm (range, 5.5 to 16.0 cm). Grossly, the tumors were cystic with variegated hemorrhagic, mucinous and fleshy solid areas. Microscopically, all tumors were composed of GCT. The most common GCT component was teratoma (n=10), and other GCT components included seminoma (n=3), yolk sac tumor (n=3), embryonal carcinoma (n=2) and choriocarcinoma (n=1). The angiosarcomatous component was present in primary mediastinal tumors (n=6), metastasis (n=3), or both primary mediastinal tumor and metastasis (n=3). The angiosarcomatous component accounted for an average of 30% (range, 5% to 95%) of the primary mediastinal tumor. In addition, other non–germ cell components, including rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 3), leiomyosarcoma (n = 1), and poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 1), were also present in the tumors. Of the 10 patients with follow-up available, all patients developed metastasis (n=8) or local recurrence (n=2); seven died of disease at a mean of 33 months (range, 21 to 75 months), and three patients were alive at a mean of 75 months (range, 5 to 120 months). Our findings suggest that the presence of an angiosarcomatous component in mediastinal GCT, even in a small amount, is associated with a poor clinical outcome. PMID:20153508

Contreras, Alejandro Luina; Punar, Metin; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tu, Shi-Ming; Pisters, Louis; Moran, Cesar; Czerniak, Bogdan A.; Guo, Charles C.

2014-01-01

158

Adult alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the lacrimal sac.  

PubMed

Abstract Lacrimal sac tumours are rare, but must be considered in the diagnosis of patients presenting with masses in the medial canthal region. We report a single case of lacrimal sac rhabdomyosarcoma in a 31-year-old man. The patient self-presented to the eye department with a 4-week history of discomfort, epiphora and a medial canthal mass. After no response to 1 week of oral antibiotics for a presumed diagnosis of dacryocystitis and the presence of firm mass extending above the medial canthal tendon, surgical exploration was carried out which revealed a lacrimal sac mass. Histologically this showed an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, which was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. After 4 rounds of chemotherapy and 50.4Gy of radical radiotherapy, the patient is well with no signs of further local or distant disease at 11-months follow-up and 20 months following initial diagnosis. To our knowledge, there are no previously reported adult cases of lacrimal sac alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the peer-reviewed literature. We want to highlight the unique diagnosis in this case as well as drawing attention to the possibility of malignancy in patients responding poorly to management when an initial diagnosis of dacryocystitis is made in the presence of a medial canthal mass. PMID:25207922

Neffendorf, James E; Bagdonaite, Laura; Mudhar, Hardeep S; Pearson, Andrew R

2014-12-01

159

Comparing and Contrasting NAEYC and SACS Accreditation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe, compare, and contrast an early childhood departmental accreditation process from the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and a college/university-wide accreditation process from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). The history of higher education…

Isaacs, Mary Ruth

2010-01-01

160

SAC Minutes Thursday, Aug 2, 2012  

E-print Network

healthcare system and provide lectures, discussions, projects, and case studies for students to improve the system. MOVED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD, SECONDED JENNY CHEN: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution of Fashion Club as an AMS Club." ...Carried Host fashion shows and private shopping events Connect students

Pulfrey, David L.

161

SAC Minutes Tuesday, January 24, 2012  

E-print Network

Club Yoga Club 3. CONSTITUTIONS MOVED MARIA CIRSTEA, SECONDED TRISTAN MILLER: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC constitute Curling Club as an AMS club." ...Carried 4. MINUTES: MOVED MARIA CIRSTEA, SECONDED KYLE WARWICK 17- 20, 2012 by the Law Revue". The UBC Law Revue wants to host their annual skits night in the NORM

Pulfrey, David L.

162

SAC Minutes Thursday, July 26, 2012  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTIONS The chair was passed to Adam Melhem at 4:31pm. 2. PRESENTATIONS The Knitting and Sewing Club CLARKE MCCORKELL: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution of Knitting and Sewing Club as an AMS club." *started as social knitting group in Totem last year. ...Carried MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED

Pulfrey, David L.

163

SAC Tax Help Prepared Feb. 2010  

E-print Network

1 SAC Tax Help Prepared Feb. 2010 Disclaimer: We are not tax experts, and cannot be held responsible for your tax forms. (neither can DBBS, WashU, etc...) 1 Taxes for international students Go to http://oisshome.wustl.edu/taxes/FilingTaxes.html for tax information from the Office for International

Doering, Tamara

164

SAC Minutes Thursday, Aug 23, 2012  

E-print Network

IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the booking by Sororities of UBC on Monday, Nov 26, 2012 from 5pm-10pm. Sororities of UBC wants to book the Norm to host a student film festival. All proceeds will go to charity

Pulfrey, David L.

165

46. SAC Commander in Chief entry, second floor, Awing, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. SAC Commander in Chief entry, second floor, A-wing, building 500, looking north - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

166

77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing number not listed, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

167

43. Main entry to SAC Control offices, second floor, Awing, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Main entry to SAC Control offices, second floor, A-wing, building 500, looking southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

168

65. SAC Minuteman Missile "shell", mounted for permanent display in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. SAC Minuteman Missile "shell", mounted for permanent display in front lawn, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

169

71. SAC command post construction, building 500, January 20, 1987 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. SAC command post construction, building 500, January 20, 1987 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

170

49. SAC Chief of Staff office, second floor, Awing, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. SAC Chief of Staff office, second floor, A-wing, building 500, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

171

3. Threequarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Three-quarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

172

61. SAC control center command post construction, March 2, 1956, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. SAC control center command post construction, March 2, 1956, looking northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

173

8. SAC command center underground structure, building 501, basement entry, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SAC command center underground structure, building 501, basement entry, machine room, April 11, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

174

10. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building 501, circa 1980 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

175

80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

176

Servei d'Activitats Culturals Normativa interna del SAC  

E-print Network

Servei d'Activitats Culturals Normativa interna del SAC Formaci� 1. Lloc, dates i horaris Els� altres criteris, si ho considera oport�. 5. Anul�laci� d'un curs El SAC es reserva la possibilitat de

Oro, Daniel

177

64. SAC command post lobby, building 500, November 8, 1956, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. SAC command post lobby, building 500, November 8, 1956, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

178

78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, drawing number AW30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

179

47. SAC Commander in Chief office, second floor, Awing, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. SAC Commander in Chief office, second floor, A-wing, building 500, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

180

48. SAC Deputy Commander in Chief office, second floor, Awing, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. SAC Deputy Commander in Chief office, second floor, A-wing, building 500, looking southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

181

67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

182

62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

183

12. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building 501, circa 1960 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

184

63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

185

69. Vice President Ford entering SAC command post, February, 1974 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

69. Vice President Ford entering SAC command post, February, 1974 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

186

66. SAC command post lobby, building 500, undated, looking southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. SAC command post lobby, building 500, undated, looking southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

187

68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

188

11. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

189

4. Sac shield at entry of command center, building 501, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Sac shield at entry of command center, building 501, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

190

9. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SAC command center, main operations area, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

191

60. SAC emblem on side of missile, front lawn, building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. SAC emblem on side of missile, front lawn, building 500, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

192

79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

193

72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

194

75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

195

76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

196

13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

197

21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution...liquid egg yolks. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is generally...preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is...

2013-04-01

198

21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution...liquid egg yolks. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is generally...preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is...

2012-04-01

199

21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.  

...Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution...liquid egg yolks. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is generally...preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is...

2014-04-01

200

21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution...liquid egg yolks. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is generally...preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is...

2011-04-01

201

21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution...liquid egg yolks. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is generally...preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is...

2010-04-01

202

LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) 2013 Term until year end  

E-print Network

LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) 2013 Term until year end: 2013 Rafael Abela PSI rafael.bressler@xfel.eu Thomas Russell (PRP Chair) University of Massachussetts russell@mail.pse.umass.edu Linda Young (ex-SAC Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) is to advise the LCLS Director on issues relating to the management

Wechsler, Risa H.

203

SAC Minutes April 23, 2014 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes � April 23, 2014 1 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee FROM: Director, Division of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services Office of Acquisition and Logistics Management SUBJECT: SAC Meeting Minutes � April 23, 2014 SAC Members & Alternate Members present: Delegated Office of Acquisition

Rau, Don C.

204

13th ISTC SAC Seminar Global Design Effort 1  

E-print Network

2-Sept-10 13th ISTC SAC Seminar Global Design Effort 1 Barry Barish Novosibirsk 2-Sept-10 ILC R&D & Global Design Effort #12;2-Sept-10 13th ISTC SAC Seminar Global Design Effort 22 Why a Linear Collider Reference Design and Cost? · Present program and plans #12;2-Sept-10 13th ISTC SAC Seminar Global Design

205

SAC Minutes March 26, 2014 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes � March 26, 2014 1 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee FROM: Director, Division of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services Office of Acquisition and Logistics Management SUBJECT: SAC Meeting Minutes � March 26, 2014 SAC Members & Alternate Members present: Delegated Office of Acquisition

Rau, Don C.

206

SAC Minutes January 30, 2014 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes � January 30, 2014 1 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee FROM: Director, Division of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services Office of Acquisition and Logistics Management SUBJECT: SAC Meeting Minutes � January 30, 2014 SAC Members & Alternate Members present: Delegated Office

Rau, Don C.

207

First Announcement 6th Aquarius/SAC-D Science Meeting  

E-print Network

First Announcement 6th Aquarius/SAC-D Science Meeting 19-21 July 2010 Seattle, Washington, USA Theme: Science Preparations for Launch The Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission will convene the 6th Science Meeting in Seattle, WA, USA, 19-21 July 2010. Aquarius/SAC-D science objectives address ocean circulation

Waliser, Duane E.

208

Yolk sac angiogenic defect and intra-embryonic apoptosis in mice lacking the Ets-related factor TEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TEL gene, which is frequently rearranged in human leukemias of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, encodes a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. The TEL gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development and in the adult. To determine the requirement for the TEL gene product in development we generated TEL knockout mice (TEL?\\/?) by gene targeting in

Li Chun Wang; Frank Kuo; Yuko Fujiwara; D. Gary Gilliland; Todd R. Golub; Stuart H. Orkin

1997-01-01

209

HISTOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSING THE STARVING CONDITION IN EARLY POST YOLK SAC LARVAE OF THE NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULZS MORDAX Girard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of fish larvae that are in starving condition in plankton samples would be a valuable aid in estimating early mortality rates of populations in the sea. Histological criteria are given for determining the degree of starvation-induced emaciation, with an indication of its relevance to mortality, for larvae of the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax Girard. Larvae were reared with

CHARLES P. O'CONNELL

210

Dynamic responses of endothelial cells to changes in blood flow during vascular remodeling of the mouse yolk sac  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive work showing the importance of blood flow in angiogenesis and vessel remodeling, very little is known about how changes in vessel diameter are orchestrated at the cellular level in response to mechanical forces. To define the cellular changes necessary for remodeling, we performed live confocal imaging of cultured mouse embryos during vessel remodeling. Our data revealed that vessel diameter increase occurs via two distinct processes that are dependent on normal blood flow: vessel fusions and directed endothelial cell migrations. Vessel fusions resulted in a rapid change in vessel diameter and were restricted to regions that experience the highest flow near the vitelline artery and vein. Directed cell migrations induced by blood flow resulted in the recruitment of endothelial cells to larger vessels from smaller capillaries and were observed in larger artery segments as they expanded. The dynamic and specific endothelial cell behaviors captured in this study reveal how sensitive endothelial cells are to changes in blood flow and how such responses drive vascular remodeling. PMID:24004946

Udan, Ryan S.; Vadakkan, Tegy J.; Dickinson, Mary E.

2013-01-01

211

Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles  

E-print Network

In this work we study the self-diffusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells)bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions,characterized by short-time self-diffusion coefficients D0s for the shells and D0y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of effective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diffusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We find that the yolks, which have no effect on the shell-shell static structure, influence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

L. E. Sánchez Díaz; E. C. Cortes-Morales; X. Li; Wei-Ren Chen; M. Medina-Noyola

2014-06-23

212

Aquarius/SAC-D Educational Wall Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a poster about the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission, with an image depicting the satellite in orbit. The back of the poster describes the mission's scientific goals and benefits, including the scientific value of maps of sea surface salinity. The Hands On Activities & Online Data Tools panel gives an overview of the classroom lessons and tools that are available on the mission website.

213

Aquarius/SAC-D Mission Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission developed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of United States of America (USA) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission objective is to contribute to the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Major themes are: ocean surface salinity, water cycle, climate, natural hazards and cryosphere.

Sen, Amit; Kim, Yunjin; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Colomb, Raul; Yueh, Simon; LeVine, David

2006-01-01

214

Recent advances in understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of pediatric germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare neoplasms arising predominantly in the gonads and sacrococcygeal, mediastinal, and intracranial localizations. In this article, we review current knowledge of pathogenesis of pediatric GCTs, which differs from adult/adolescent GCTs. One distinctive feature is the absence of a progenitor stage, such as carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, which are seen in adult/adolescent GCTs, except spermatocytic seminoma. The primordial germ cell (PGC) is the suggested origin of all GCTs, with variations in histology reflecting differentiation stage. Expression of pluripotency transcription factors OCT-3/4, NANOG, and AP-2? in germinomas/seminomas/dysgerminomas is consistent with retaining a germ cell phenotype. Teratomas, in contrast, develop through a pathway of aberrant somatic differentiation of immature germ cells, and the yolk sac tumors and choriocarcinomas result from abnormal extraembryonic differentiation. In pediatric GCTs, origin is suggested at an earlier developmental stage because of predisposing genetic factors, although responsible genes remain largely unknown. Some extragonadal GCTs have been linked to overexpression of the KIT/KITLG system, allowing for survival of aberrantly migrated ectopic PGCs. Infant gonadal/sacrococcygeal GCTs may be caused by apoptosis-related pathways, consistent with an association with polymorphisms in BAK1. Although recent advances have identified candidate pathways, further effort is needed to answer central questions of pathogenesis of these fascinating tumors. PMID:24577549

Mosbech, Christiane H; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Brok, Jesper S; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

2014-05-01

215

Apoptosis and Tumor Resistance Conferred by Par-4  

PubMed Central

Par-4 is a tumor suppressor protein with a pro-apoptotic function. Epigenetic silencing of Par-4 is seen in diverse tumors, and Par-4 knockout mice develop spontaneous tumors in various tissues. Endogenous Par-4 is essential for sensitization of cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli, whereas ectopic expression of Par-4 can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The cancer-specific pro-apoptotic action of Par-4 resides in its centrally located SAC domain. This chapter reviews a novel mouse model with ubiquitous expression of the SAC domain. These SAC transgenic mice display normal development and life span, and, most importantly, are resistant to spontaneous, as well as oncogene-induced, autochthonous tumors. The tumor resistant phenotype and undetectable toxicity of SAC in vivo suggests the SAC domain possesses tremendous therapeutic potential. PMID:18836307

Zhao, Yanming; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

2009-01-01

216

A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

2009-01-01

217

Egg Yolk-Coagulating Enzyme in the Semen and Cowper's Gland of the Goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

GLYCINE egg yolk and egg yolk citrate, prepared by mixing equal volumes of 4 per cent glycine and egg yolk and 3.6 per cent sodium citrate and egg yolk, were used in an attempt to extend the volume of ejaculated goat semen and to preserve the motility and fertility of the spermatozoa. With semen diluted twenty times it was found

A. Roy

1957-01-01

218

Maternal yolk testosterone does not modulate parasite susceptibility or immune function in great tit nestlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Maternal yolk hormones can enhance the development and phenotypic quality of nestling birds. Nevertheless, within species large differences in yolk androgen con- centrations among clutches are observed. This differential allocation of maternal yolk hormones might be explained by a trade-off between beneficial effects of yolk androgens and their associated costs. 2. Potential costs include an increased susceptibility to

BARBARA TSCHIRREN; VERENA SALADIN; PATRICK S. FITZE; HUBERT SCHWABL; HEINZ RICHNER

2005-01-01

219

Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT) in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%), 8 (50%), and 6 (37%) had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10) of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ?S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this. PMID:24669118

Al Othman, Khalid; Al Hathal, Naif; Mokhtar, Alaa

2014-01-01

220

Gonadal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare tumors: 80% are benign, 20% malignant (2-3% of all malignant pediatric tumors). The gonadal sites (ovary and testis) account for 40% of cases. Ovarian GCTs: Represent 30% of GCTs and 70% of neoplastic ovarian masses, being the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and teenagers. Benign and immature forms (teratomas) constitute about 80% of all ovarian GCTs, malignant forms represent 20% increasing during adolescence. The most common malignant entity in children is the yolk sac tumors (YST); dysgerminoma is frequent during adolescence and being bilateral in 10% of cases. Presentation is similar in malignant and benign lesions; abdominal pain (70-80%) and lower abdominal mass are common symptoms. Evaluation of alpha-fetoprotein (?FP) or beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (?HCG) is essential to address the nature of the tumors: Their elevation means presence of malignancy. Surgery includes intraoperative staging procedures and requires ovariectomy or ovarosalpingectomy for malignant lesions, but may be conservative in selected benign tumors. Since malignant GCTs are very chemosensitive, primary chemotherapy is recommended in metastatic or locally advanced tumors. Testicular GCT: Represent 10% of pediatric GCT, and about 30% of malignant GCT with two age peaks: Children <3 years may experience mature teratoma and malignant GCTs, represented almost exclusively by YST, while adolescents may also show seminomas or other mixed tumors. The main clinical feature is a painless scrotal mass. Surgery represents the cornerstone of the management of testicular GCTs, with an inguinal approach and a primary high orchidectomy for malignant tumors, while a testis-sparing surgery can be considered for benign lesions. A retroperitoneal lymph node (LN) biopsy may be necessary to define the staging when the involvement of retroperitoneal LN is uncertain at imaging investigations. Conclusion: Patients with gonadal malignant GCTs fare better than those with extragonadal mediastinal germ cell tumors (MGCTs) and survival rate exceeds 90% in localized forms. Chemotherapy has significantly improved the outcome of malignant forms since the introduction of platinum based regimens. The surgical procedure has to be performed in agreement with the ongoing protocols. PMID:25336799

Cecchetto, Giovanni

2014-01-01

221

Yolk carotenoids increase fledging success in great tit nestlings.  

PubMed

Avian mothers can influence offspring phenotype through the deposition of different compounds into eggs, such as antibodies, hormones and antioxidants. The concentration of carotenoids in yolk is larger than in maternal plasma, suggesting an important role of these compounds for offspring development. Since carotenoids have to be acquired from the diet, they may be available in limiting amounts to the mothers. Here, we investigated the role of egg carotenoids for offspring growth by experimentally increasing the concentration of yolk lutein, the main carotenoid in great tit (Parus major) yolk. We subsequently measured body condition, oxidative stress, immune response, plumage colouration and fledging success. Lutein increased body mass soon after hatching and fledging success, but did not affect tarsus length, oxidative stress, immune response and plumage colouration. The higher content of yolk lutein could have increased body mass by reducing oxidative stress caused by high metabolic rates of rapidly growing embryos or by promoting cell differentiation and proliferation. The positive effect of lutein on fledging success seems to be mediated by its influence on body mass 3 days post-hatch, since these two traits were correlated. The finding that our treatment did not affect traits measured later in the nestling period, except for fledging success, suggests that yolk lutein has short-term effects that are essential to increase survival until fledging. Our study shows the positive effect of yolk lutein on offspring survival in the great tit, and therefore suggests an important role of carotenoid-mediated maternal effects. PMID:25142046

Marri, Viviana; Richner, Heinz

2014-10-01

222

Open Reintervention for Aneurysmal Sac Enlargement after EVAR  

PubMed Central

We performed a late open reintervention for aneurysmal sac enlargement due to persistent type 2 endoleak (PT2EL) after EVAR for 8 of 286 patients. Surgical techniques are as follows: (1) The entire aneurysmal body was exposed. (2) All the aortic branched vessels were ligated. (3) The aneurysmal sac was opened followed by the performance of complete hemostasis. (4) An equine pericardium was wrapped and sutured to the aneurysmal sac to for reinforcement. This method is considered to be one of the feasible options for the treatment of aneurysmal sac re-enlargement after EVAR. PMID:25298845

Hiraoka, Arudo; Hirai, Yuuki; Tamura, Kentaro; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Ishida, Atsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

2014-01-01

223

Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases.  

PubMed

The clinicopathologic features of 46 patients with germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components (GCTSC) involving either the primary site or their metastases were studied. There were 43 men and 3 women aged 17 to 74 years. Twenty-three tumors arose in the mediastinum, 2 in the retroperitoneum, and 21 in the gonads. The germ cell component consisted of pure mature or immature teratoma (23 cases), teratoma mixed with other seminomatous or nonseminomatous components (17), pure seminoma (2), intratubular germ cell neoplasia (1), and yolk sac tumor (1). The SC included embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (29), angiosarcoma (6), leiomyosarcoma (4), undifferentiated sarcoma (3), myxoid liposarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1), malignant "triton" tumor (1), and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (1). Immunohistochemical studies were carried out in 34 cases with appropriate results supporting the diagnoses. Metastases containing both GCT and SC were observed in 6 cases, metastases of SC alone in 4, and metastases containing only GCT elements in 3. All patients were treated by cisplatinum-based chemotherapy plus other agents followed by surgery. Clinical follow-up was available in 40 patients (1 to 96 mo; mean=24 mo). Thirty-two of 40 patients either died of tumor (25/40; 62.5%) or were alive with advanced, progressive disease (7/40; 17.5%), and only 8/40 (20%) were alive and free of disease between 5 to 40 months (mean=18 mo). Comparison of these patients with an age-matched and stage-matched control group of patients with GCT without SC showed statistically significant differences in survival between the 2 cohorts (P

Malagón, Hugo Domínguez; Valdez, Ana María Cano; Moran, Cesar A; Suster, Saul

2007-09-01

224

Whisker Formation on SAC305 Soldered Assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the results of a whisker formation study on SAC305 assemblies, evaluating the effects of lead-frame materials and cleanliness in different environments: low-stress simulated power cycling (50-85°C thermal cycling), thermal shock (-55°C to 85°C), and high temperature/high humidity (85°C/85% RH). Cleaned and contaminated small outline transistors, large leaded quad flat packs (QFP), plastic leaded chip carrier packages, and solder balls with and without rare earth elements (REE) were soldered to custom designed test boards with Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. After assembly, all the boards were cleaned, and half of them were recontaminated (1.56 µg/cm2 Cl-). Whisker length, diameter, and density were measured. Detailed metallurgical analysis on components before assembly and on solder joints before and after testing was performed. It was found that whiskers grow from solder joint fillets, where the thickness is less than 25 µm, unless REE was present. The influence of lead-frame and solder ball material, microstructure, cleanliness, and environment on whisker characteristics is discussed. This article provides detailed metallurgical observations and select whisker length data obtained during this multiyear testing program.

Meschter, S.; Snugovsky, P.; Bagheri, Z.; Kosiba, E.; Romansky, M.; Kennedy, J.; Snugovsky, L.; Perovic, D.

2014-11-01

225

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonteratomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum.  

PubMed

We assessed the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnosis of mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs). In the archives of 3 pathology departments, we found records of 7 patients with mediastinal GCTs who underwent mediastinal FNAB as part of the diagnostic workup. The FNAB smears, results of the immunocytochemical analysis, the corresponding histologic findings, and the clinical charts were reviewed. All patients were men (age range, 24-44 years; mean, 32 years). One patient had a history of testicular mixed GCT 10 years earlier. The 6 primary mediastinal GCTs consisted of 3 seminomas and 3 yolk sac tumors. Based on the cytologic features and immunocytochemicalfindings, a cytologic diagnosis of GCT was made in 5 cases, including the case of metastatic GCT In 2 cases, the differential diagnosis was between poorly differentiated carcinoma and GCT Results of ancillary studies were noncontributory in 1 case, and the aspirate of the second case demonstrated extensive necrosis. Our findings demonstrate that a diagnosis of mediastinal GCT, primary or secondary, can be established with a high degree of accuracy on the basis of FNAB. Immunocytochemical analysis helps confirm the diagnosis. PMID:12219784

Chhieng, David C; Lin, Oscar; Moran, Cesar A; Eltoum, Isam A; Jhala, Nirag C; Jhala, Darshana N; Simsir, Aylin

2002-09-01

226

Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks  

PubMed Central

Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g?1 lipid (median = 3.03 ng g?1 lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ?PBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ?PBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g?1 lipid (median = 0.053 ng g?1 lipid). The ?-isomer was the dominant contributor to ?HBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ?PBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ?HBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study. PMID:21623506

Rawn, D.F.K.; Sadler, A.; Quade, S.C.; Sun, W.-F.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Kosarac, I.; Hayward, S.; Ryan, J.J.

2011-01-01

227

Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles  

E-print Network

In this work we study the self-diffusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells)bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions,characterized by short-time self-diffusion coefficients D0s for the shells and D0y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of effective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diffusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and sim...

Díaz, L E Sánchez; Li, X; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M

2014-01-01

228

Courrier interne Livraison Cueillette Dlai de livraison Sac de courrier  

E-print Network

Courrier interne Livraison Cueillette D�lai de livraison Sac de courrier Entre 6h30-9h00 Entre 16h ouvrable) Bleu Courrier externe Postes Canada Livraison Cueillette D�lai de livraison Sac de courrier Entre le jour m�me. Rouge Courrier h�pitaux et centres de recherche Livraison Cueillette D�lai de livraison

Charette, André

229

82. SAC control center underground structure sections and unit substation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. SAC control center underground structure sections and unit sub-station details, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

230

83. SAC control center administration section and underground structure elevations ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

83. SAC control center administration section and underground structure elevations and sections, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

231

85. Command HQ. SAC control center (MOD) new work cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

85. Command HQ. SAC control center (MOD) new work cross section, drawing number AW-30-02-07, dated 7 February, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

232

86. SAC control center administration section underground structure and theater ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

86. SAC control center administration section underground structure and theater sections and elevations, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

233

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aquarius/SAC-D  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aquarius/SAC-D Sea Surface Salinity from Space #12 Salinity and the Water Cycle ............................................................ 6 Salinity;AQUARIUS I Sea Surface Salinity from Space4 Aquarius/SAC-D: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Aquarius

Waliser, Duane E.

234

Differential air sac pressures in diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula.  

PubMed

The air in the respiratory system of diving birds contains a large proportion of the body oxygen stores, but it must be in the lungs for gas exchange with blood to occur. To test the hypothesis that locomotion induces mixing of air sac air with lung air during dives, we measured differential pressures between the interclavicular and posterior thoracic air sacs in five diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula. The peak differential pressure between posterior thoracic and interclavicular air sacs, 0.49+/-0.13 kPa (mean +/- s.d.), varied substantially during underwater paddling as indicated by gastrocnemius muscle activity. These data support the hypothesis that locomotion, perhaps through associated abdominal muscle activity, intermittently compresses the posterior air sacs more than the anterior ones. The result is differential pressure fluctuations that might induce the movement of air between air sacs and through the lungs during dives. PMID:9716518

Boggs, D F; Butler, P J; Wallace, S E

1998-09-01

235

Multilobular Lacrimal Sac Diverticulum Presenting as a Lower Eyelid Mass  

PubMed Central

Lacrimal sac diverticulum is a rare condition, and its various symptoms complicate differential diagnosis. We present cases of a peculiar type of lacrimal diverticulum. A 5-year-old girl and a 50-year-old woman presented with a protruding mass inferior to the medial canthus. Each lacrimal system was patent to irrigation. The masses compressed and distorted the lacrimal passage and had no apparent connection with the lacrimal sac in dacryocystography or computed tomography. Surgical exploration and complete excision of the masses were completed. Each patient had an inverted Y- and an inverted V-shaped multilobular cystic mass that was pathologically confirmed as a lacrimal sac diverticulum. Lacrimal sac diverticula may rarely take the form of a multilobular cyst and can present as a lower lid mass. We speculate that an abnormality in lacrimal embryogenesis resulted in multiple blind pouches, a peculiar type of lacrimal sac diverticulum. PMID:22870030

Kim, Jung Hoon; Chang, Hae Ran

2012-01-01

236

DNA methylation analysis reveals distinct methylation signatures in pediatric germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Aberrant DNA methylation is a prominent feature of many cancers, and may be especially relevant in germ cell tumors (GCTs) due to the extensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs in the germ line during normal development. Methods We used the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer Methylation Panel to compare DNA methylation in the three main histologic subtypes of pediatric GCTs (germinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST); N?=?51) and used recursively partitioned mixture models (RPMM) to test associations between methylation pattern and tumor and demographic characteristics. We identified genes and pathways that were differentially methylated using generalized linear models and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We also measured global DNA methylation at LINE1 elements and evaluated methylation at selected imprinted loci using pyrosequencing. Results Methylation patterns differed by tumor histology, with 18/19 YSTs forming a distinct methylation class. Four pathways showed significant enrichment for YSTs, including a human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway. We identified 190 CpG loci with significant methylation differences in mature and immature teratomas (q?tumor histology and location. Conclusion Understanding methylation patterns may identify the developmental stage at which the GCT arose and the at-risk period when environmental exposures could be most harmful. Further, identification of relevant genetic pathways could lead to the development of new targets for therapy. PMID:23806198

2013-01-01

237

THE ORIGIN OF PROTEIN AND FATTY YOLK IN RANA PIPIENS  

PubMed Central

Study of living frog oocytes with the phase microscope has shown that the early yolk appears in two forms. One of these, the protein yolk, consists of thin, dense, plate-like bodies which in face view are almost always regular hexagons. The other form, the fatty yolk, occurs as clusters of globules of varying sizes. The plate-like bodies occur both singly and in clusters. As the oocytes mature these plate-like bodies grow in size while retaining their hexagonal outline. Mitochondria have been observed to increase in length and numbers as the oocytes mature; they are rods or filaments at all stages of growth up to an oocyte diameter of 300 microns. The oocyte cytoplasm gradually becomes packed with long mitochondria, plate-like bodies, and clusters of globules. PMID:14004943

Ward, Robert T.

1962-01-01

238

Courses and Instructors to be Included in the SACS Faculty Roster The SACS Faculty Roster will include instructors for all courses taught for NC State credit in fall 2012 and  

E-print Network

Courses and Instructors to be Included in the SACS Faculty Roster The SACS Faculty Roster. This is the reporting requirement established by SACS. Which Instructors will be included in the SACS Faculty Roster

Liu, Paul

239

Mechanical Engineering Department SACS Accreditation Review Form Spring 2008 1 MMMeeeccchhhaaannniiicccaaalll EEEnnngggiiinnneeeeeerrriiinnnggg DDDeeepppaaarrrtttmmmeeennnttt  

E-print Network

Mechanical Engineering Department SACS Accreditation Review Form ­ Spring 2008 1 AAAccccccrrreeedddiiitttaaatttiiiooonnn RRReeevvviiieeewww FFFooorrrmmm University information web site (http://www.sacs.vt.edu/) Student

Virginia Tech

240

Negative effects of early developmental stress on yolk testosterone levels in a passerine bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female birds incorporate in the yolks of their eggs significant concentrations of a number of different androgens. Yolk androgen has been shown to positively affect several fitness components at the embryo, nestling and juvenile stages. Previous experiments have shown that females lay eggs with higher androgen concentrations when they are paired with highly ornamented males. This pattern suggests that yolk

Diego Gil; Claudia Heim; Elena Bulmer; Milagros Rocha; Marisa Puerta; Marc Naguib

2004-01-01

241

Influence of Florida 301 wheat in a laying hen diet on egg yolk rupture strength.  

PubMed

A study was designed to determine whether wheat could be substituted for corn without reducing yolk quality and yolk membrane strength. Diets with either corn or Florida 301 wheat as the grain source were fed to 50-wk-old hens (140 per diet). Eggs were collected and stored at 10 C for up to 4 wk or at 23 C for 1 wk. At weekly intervals Haugh units, yolk index, yolk rupture strength, and yolk deformation distance at rupture were measured and compression percentages were calculated. Haugh units and yolk index were not affected by diet. Yolk rupture strength and deformation were 12.3% and 4.7% greater, respectively, for eggs from hens on the wheat diet than for those from hens on the corn diet. Both rupture strength and deformation declined significantly with storage. Eggs stored at 23 C were lower in yolk rupture strength and deformation than those held at 10 C. Percentage of compression at rupture also declined with storage, but the decline was initially more rapid for egg yolks from birds fed the corn diet than for egg yolks from birds fed the wheat diet. It was concluded that Florida 301 wheat may be substituted for corn without incurring any problems in the quality of the yolk and that yolk breaking strength would be enhanced. PMID:3684864

Woodward, S A; Fluck, R C; Ouart, M D; Janky, D M

1987-08-01

242

Arf tumor suppressor and miR-205 regulate cell adhesion and formation of extraembryonic endoderm from pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

Induction of the Arf tumor suppressor (encoded by the alternate reading frame of the Cdkn2a locus) following oncogene activation engages a p53-dependent transcriptional program that limits the expansion of incipient cancer cells. Although the p19Arf protein is not detected in most tissues of fetal or young adult mice, it is physiologically expressed in the fetal yolk sac, a tissue derived from the extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn). Expression of the mouse p19Arf protein marks late stages of ExEn differentiation in cultured embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from either embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. Arf inactivation delays differentiation of the ExEn lineage within EBs, but not the formation of other germ cell lineages from pluripotent progenitors. Arf is required for the timely induction of ExEn cells in response to Ras/Erk signaling and, in turn, acts through p53 to ensure the development, but not maintenance, of the ExEn lineage. Remarkably, a significant temporal delay in ExEn differentiation detected during the maturation of Arf-null EBs is rescued by enforced expression of mouse microRNA-205 (miR-205), a microRNA up-regulated by p19Arf and p53 that controls ExEn cell migration and adhesion. The noncanonical and canonical roles of Arf in ExEn development and tumor suppression, respectively, may be conceptually linked through mechanisms that govern cell attachment and migration. PMID:23487795

Li, Chunliang; Finkelstein, David; Sherr, Charles J.

2013-01-01

243

Marigold and Orange Skin as Egg Yolk Color Promoting Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research was conducted with natural ingredients and orange skin in the diet of laying pullets to determine the suitability as pigmenting agents of egg yolk for laying chicken The influence of tes t ingredients on production characteristics of laying pullets, internal and external quality characteristics of eggs were investigated simultaneously. The experiment covered the proximate analysis of marigold, orange

2006-01-01

244

The Almost Surely Shrinking Yolk Craig A. Tovey  

E-print Network

The Almost Surely Shrinking Yolk Craig A. Tovey School of ISyE Georgia Institute of Technology and even population sizes. 1 Introduction In the Euclidean spatial model of voting [9, 28, e.g.], voter], epsilon cores [32], and the finagle point [35]. Several researchers [12] have investigated the size

Tovey, Craig A.

245

79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

246

Development of the Laryngeal Air Sac in Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though many nonhuman primates possess a laryngeal sac, the great apes are unique in their great size. Though an enlarged sac\\u000a probably arose in their common ancestor, its functional adaptations remain a matter of debate. Its development in extant great\\u000a apes is likely to provide valuable information to clarify the issue. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine the development

Takeshi Nishimura; Akichika Mikami; Juri Suzuki; Tetsuro Matsuzawa

2007-01-01

247

SACS Accreditation Form, Modified 11/15/2012 School of ECE Ph.D. Final Defense  

E-print Network

SACS Accreditation Form, Modified 11/15/2012 School of ECE Ph.D. Final Defense SACS Accreditation Evaluation Form The PhD Objectives for the SACS Accreditation are 1. Students will perform original research risks and payoffs. #12;SACS Accreditation Form, Modified 11/15/2012 Grammar, Mechanics, Organization

Bennett, Gisele

248

Application of SAC88 to Estimating Hydrologic Effects of Fire on a  

E-print Network

Application of SAC88 to Estimating Hydrologic Effects of Fire on a Watersheds1 R. Larry Ferral2 Abstract: SAC88 is a major revision of the Sacramento Model, which was developed in 1969 with minor exceeds the rate at which water can enter the upper level storages. SAC88 REVISIONS SAC88, a major

Standiford, Richard B.

249

SACS Accreditation Form, Modified 11/15/2012 School of ECE Ph.D. Proposal Exam  

E-print Network

SACS Accreditation Form, Modified 11/15/2012 School of ECE Ph.D. Proposal Exam SACS Accreditation Evaluation Form The PhD Objectives for the SACS Accreditation are 1. Students will perform original research and citation format used throughout document. Graphs and charts used appropriately to present data. #12;SACS

Bennett, Gisele

250

Automatic segmentation and classification of gestational sac based on mean sac diameter using medical ultrasound image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound is an effective multipurpose imaging modality that has been widely used for monitoring and diagnosing early pregnancy events. Technology developments coupled with wide public acceptance has made ultrasound an ideal tool for better understanding and diagnosing of early pregnancy. The first measurable signs of an early pregnancy are the geometric characteristics of the Gestational Sac (GS). Currently, the size of the GS is manually estimated from ultrasound images. The manual measurement involves multiple subjective decisions, in which dimensions are taken in three planes to establish what is known as Mean Sac Diameter (MSD). The manual measurement results in inter- and intra-observer variations, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully automated diagnosis solution to accurately identify miscarriage cases in the first trimester of pregnancy based on automatic quantification of the MSD. Our study shows a strong positive correlation between the manual and the automatic MSD estimations. Our experimental results based on a dataset of 68 ultrasound images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in identifying early miscarriage cases with classification accuracies comparable with those of domain experts using K nearest neighbor classifier on automatically estimated MSDs.

Khazendar, Shan; Farren, Jessica; Al-Assam, Hisham; Sayasneh, Ahmed; Du, Hongbo; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah A.

2014-05-01

251

Direct endothelial junction restoration results in significant tumor vascular normalization and metastasis inhibition in mice  

PubMed Central

Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells with considerable diminution in expression of related transcription factors. Moreover, cancer stem cell population dropped substantially in Sac-1004 treated tumor tissues. Taken together, our results showed that direct restoration of vascular junction could be a significant strategy to induce normalization of tumor blood vessels and reduce metastasis. PMID:24811731

Agrawal, Vijayendra; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Son, Jimin; Lee, Keunho; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Rho, Seung-Sik; Ahn, Sunjoo; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

2014-01-01

252

The relationships between egg weight and yolk weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Figures on egg weight and yolk weight from a commercial strain of White Leghorn pullets obtained during the early part of their laying year have been analysed to obtain estimates of heritability and phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations.The heritability figure of 0.50 for egg weight agrees with the majority of those in the literature. The larger value of 0.71 derived

W. P. Jaffé

1964-01-01

253

Production of egg yolk lysolecithin with immobilized phospholipase A 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of egg yolk lysolecithin was compared using free phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and immobilized PLA2 in alginate-silicate sol-gel matrix. Choice of solvent, water content, calcium, and temperatures changed the activity of the free and immobilized PLA2 a lot, owing to their effects on the catalytic properties of the enzyme as well as the conformational change of lecithin in ethanol-buffer mixture.

Juhan Kim; Chang-Soo Lee; Jongmin Oh; Byung-Gee Kim

2001-01-01

254

Yolk is a Source of Maternal Testosterone for Developing Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex steroid hormones that affect development in birds have been thought to be produced exclusively by the embryo or neonate. I used radioimmunoassay to measure the amounts of androstenedione, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, 17beta-estradiol, and corticosterone in the yolk of freshly laid canary (Serinus canaria) and zebra finch (Poephila guttata) eggs. Testosterone was found in both canary and zebra finch eggs,

Hubert Schwabl

1993-01-01

255

No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.  

PubMed

Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

2005-09-22

256

Separation of Phosvitin from Egg Yolk without Using Organic Solvents  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a new method to separate phosvitin from egg yolk without using organic solvents. Phosvitin was extracted from yolk granules using 10% NaCl or 10% (NH4)2SO4 (final concentration) and then treated with heat to precipitate the lipoproteins from the extracted solution. The optimal pH for the phosvitin extraction from yolk granules was determined, and the iron-binding ability of the extracted phosvitin (final product) was tested. Adding 10% (NH4)2SO4 disrupted the granules, and the subsequent thermal treatment at 90°C for 1 h precipitated low density and high density lipoproteins, which enabled separation of phosvitin by centrifugation. The phosvitin concentration in the extract was significantly higher when the pH of the solution was adjusted to pH ?9. The purity and recovery rate of phosvitin at the end of the separation process were approximately 78% and 56%, respectively. The separated phosvitin was confirmed to have ferrous and ferric iron binding ability. The advantages of this new method compared with the traditional methods include no organic solvents and high-priced equipment are needed for the separation. Also, this method is more environment and consumer friendly than that of the traditional methods. PMID:25049750

Jung, Samooel; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

2013-01-01

257

The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling  

PubMed Central

Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

2014-01-01

258

Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a 24-years experience  

PubMed Central

Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all primary CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. ?-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of primary CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs. PMID:25400782

Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang

2014-01-01

259

Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a 24-years experience.  

PubMed

Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all primary CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. ?-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of primary CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs. PMID:25400782

Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang

2014-01-01

260

Molecular Characteristics of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors and Comparison With Testicular Counterparts: Implications for Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/?-catenin and TGF-?/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E.; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Abeler, Vera M.

2013-01-01

261

Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

2010-01-01

262

Sex-specific effects of yolk-androgens on growth of nestling American kestrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternally derived androgen hormones concentrate in avian egg yolks as the yolks grow on the female’s ovary, possibly forming\\u000a a basis for important maternal effects in birds. In the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), experimental elevation of yolk androgens in the first-laid egg of a clutch (a-egg) to the concentrations found naturally\\u000a in a clutch’s later-laid eggs reduces the growth rate

Keith W. Sockman; Jack Weiss; Michael S. Webster; Vanessa Talbott; Hubert Schwabl

2008-01-01

263

Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.  

PubMed

Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk. PMID:20308406

Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

2010-04-01

264

Egg yolk layers vary in the concentration of steroid hormones in two avian species.  

PubMed

Maternally derived steroid hormones are known to be present in the yolks of avian eggs; however, the physiological mechanisms involved in their deposition remain largely unexplored. Investigations of steroid production by avian follicles have demonstrated temporal differences in the concentrations of progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone during yolk formation. Because yolk is deposited peripherally in concentric spheres as the oocyte develops, differences in the production of follicular hormones during yolk formation should be manifested in differences in the localization of steroids within layers of the yolk. To investigate this hypothesis we analyzed steroid hormone concentrations in layers of individual eggs of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). We found that in the dark-eyed junco the concentration of progesterone is significantly greater at the periphery of the yolk, while the concentration of 17beta-estradiol is significantly greater near the center of the yolk. We also found in both the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird that the concentration of testosterone remains constant from the interior to the intermediate layers of the yolk and then drops sharply between the intermediate and exterior layers. The patterns of hormone localization that we found agree with those predicted by studies of temporal changes in steroidogenesis in the maturing follicle of the chicken, thus suggesting that within-yolk variation in yolk steroid concentrations in the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird reflects temporal differences in the pattern of follicular steroidogenesis. Variation in the concentration of hormones among yolk layers presents a methodological concern for studies that involve the removal of yolk samples from viable eggs for subsequent hormonal analysis. This variation also has implications for the timing of embryonic exposure to steroid hormones. PMID:10417235

Lipar, J L; Ketterson, E D; Nolan, V; Casto, J M

1999-08-01

265

Production of Opacity in Egg-Yolk Medium by Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEVERAL micro-organisms are known to cause opacity when growing in fluid or on solid culture media containing native, non-heated egg-yolk1-13. This egg-yolk reaction can help in the classification of the bacteria and in some species it is associated with the virulence (especially toxicity) of the organisms. We have observed that Listeria monocytogenes strains regularly produced opacity in egg-yolk agar medium

M. Füzi; I. Pillis

1962-01-01

266

Embryonic yolk removal affects a suite of larval salamander life history traits.  

PubMed

Egg size is a key life history trait affecting fitness, and it varies abundantly. The value of egg size to a mother and her offspring is often determined by a trade-off between investing more yolk in a few large eggs or less yolk into many more, smaller eggs. Smaller eggs are generally expected to be phenotypically inferior or females could increase their fitness by making more smaller eggs. However, many females produce a mix of egg sizes and natural yolk variation induces normal developmental responses which may persist into subsequent stages of a complex life history. Since sources of phenotypic variation are easily confounded, I surgically removed yolk from embryonic spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) using a sham surgery as a control and a split-clutch design to isolate the effects of yolk reserve variation from genetic sources of variation. Yolk removal induced early hatching, reduced developmental stage and hatchling body size. Small hatchlings stayed relatively small through the early larval period, but 17 weeks later the correlation with early larval body size was lost. When the experiment ended, larger individuals were further along in metamorphic development but mortality was independent of early larval body size. Variation in spotted salamander yolk reserves affects a suite of hatchling life history traits that persists into the larval period. Outside the laboratory, egg size effects may cascade throughout complex amphibian life histories. Applied experimentally and comparatively, this simple yolk removal technique may help identify how traits increase or decrease their response to maternal yolk investment. PMID:24323743

Landberg, Tobias

2014-01-01

267

The influence of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition of the egg yolk  

E-print Network

in the egg yolk. In contrast to these findings, Chen et al. (1965) have observed a small increase in the total amount of yolk lipid in eggs from hens fed a diet supplemented with 10'/ coconut oil. However, they were unable to prove similarly when hens... in the egg yolk. In contrast to these findings, Chen et al. (1965) have observed a small increase in the total amount of yolk lipid in eggs from hens fed a diet supplemented with 10'/ coconut oil. However, they were unable to prove similarly when hens...

Saloma Orozco, Abraham Eduardo

2012-06-07

268

ISTC SAC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics"  

E-print Network

Medical spinoffs of High Energy Physics Knowledge and technology transfer from High Energy Physics (vi 13th ISTC SAC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics" 15 September, 2010, Budker of Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (BINP SB RAS

269

Embryology of the Human Endolymphatic Duct and Sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endolymphatic sac specimens from human embryos, ranging in age from 8 to 20 weeks, were examined in order to get a good understanding of the embryological development. The gross development can be separated into three phases, with the first phase terminating around week 10, the second phase between weeks 11 and 15–16 and the third phase lasting to week 20.

Dan Bagger-Sjöbäck

1991-01-01

270

Aquarius\\/SAC-D Ocean Salinity Mission Science Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduled for launch in 2009, the international Aquarius\\/SAC-D satellite will begin a mission to map the global sea surface salinity (SSS) field and its variability from space. The overarching scientific goal is to provide the essential data to study the interactions between the ocean circulation, global water cycle and climate. Key scientific issues to address are (1) mapping large expanses

G. S. E. Lagerloef; Y. Chao; F. Raul Colomb

2006-01-01

271

TMACS Test Procedure TP008: SACS Interface. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect

The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS SACS Interface functions.

Washburn, S.J.

1994-05-31

272

Is routine histological evaluation of pediatric hernial sac necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advocates of routine histological examination of hernial sac recommend it for surgical quality assurance, to report injuries to the vas deferens, and to detect occult malignant and benign diseases such as tuberculosis. However, the value of this routine examination is debated in this era of cost containment in health care. We conducted a retrospective study of our practice and reviewed

Khurram Siddiqui; Zafar Nazir; SyedSohail Ali; Shahid Pervaiz

2004-01-01

273

SAC 2006 REGISTRATION FORM August 17-18, 2006 Montreal, Quebec, Canada  

E-print Network

SAC 2006 REGISTRATION FORM August 17-18, 2006 Montreal, Quebec, Canada Surname: ________________________________ ************************************************************************* Mail or FAX this form to: (514) 848-3171 Attn: Ms. Sheryl TABLAN SAC 2006 Concordia Institute

Youssef, Amr M.

274

45. SAC conference room 2A8, second floor, Dwing, building 500, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. SAC conference room 2A8, second floor, D-wing, building 500, looking southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

275

81. SAC control center aboveground addition elevations, drawing number AW300209, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. SAC control center aboveground addition elevations, drawing number AW-30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

276

Apomictic embryo sac development in a diploid sorghum line and its derived polyploids  

E-print Network

was studied in diploids and induced polyploids of the WS line. Almost all of the ovules examined contained fully-differentiated embryo sacs of the Polygonum type (Fig. 3) normal for sexual embryo sacs in sorghum (Tang, 1977). Enlarged cells, resembling... was studied in diploids and induced polyploids of the WS line. Almost all of the ovules examined contained fully-differentiated embryo sacs of the Polygonum type (Fig. 3) normal for sexual embryo sacs in sorghum (Tang, 1977). Enlarged cells, resembling...

Stover, Eddie Wayne

2012-06-07

277

Principles of Good Practice Certification Louisiana Tech University, the Louisiana Board of Regents, and SACS require that credit  

E-print Network

, and SACS require that credit courses, academic degrees, and certificate programs in which the majority." SACS includes courses/programs delivered by correspondence, audio, video, or computer technologies

Selmic, Sandra

278

28/04/2009 SAC meeting IRAM Grenoble 1 Bolometers at the 30m  

E-print Network

28/04/2009 SAC meeting IRAM Grenoble 1 Bolometers at the 30m telescope: future instruments, GISMO & other prototypes S.Leclercq 28/04/2009 #12;28/04/2009 SAC meeting IRAM Grenoble 2 Content 1. Conclusion & next steps #12;28/04/2009 SAC meeting IRAM Grenoble 3 Bands available at the 30m 24 90 40 36

Leclercq, Samuel

279

38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses...to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and instructions for its completion may be...

2012-07-01

280

Department of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Barbara SAC 2003, March 9-12, 2003  

E-print Network

Department of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Barbara SAC 2003, March 9-12, 2003 #12;2SAC 2003, March 9-12, 2003 Introduction Visualization of proteins is crucial in understandingGL/Direct3D We tackle some problems related to visualizing complex molecular scenes using Java 3D #12;3SAC

Can, Tolga

281

Want to be part of the UITE Student Advisory Committee (SAC)?  

E-print Network

Want to be part of the UITE Student Advisory Committee (SAC)? Being part of the UITE Student Advisory Committee (SAC) is a great way to get involved in the College of Education, make new friends, meet faculty & staff, learn leadership skills, and have fun! The UITE Student Advisory Committee (SAC) is only

Simons, Jack

282

The vocal sac as a visual cue in anuran communication: an experimental analysis using video playback  

E-print Network

The vocal sac as a visual cue in anuran communication: an experimental analysis using video by inflation of a conspicuous vocal sac. We presented female tu´ngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, with acoustic playback of the male advertisement call, synchronized with a video playback of vocal sac inflation

Ryan, Michael J.

283

First Description of Egg Sacs and Early Larval Development in Hynobiid Salamanders (Urodela, Hynobiidae, Batrachuperus)  

E-print Network

First Description of Egg Sacs and Early Larval Development in Hynobiid Salamanders (Urodela- ganensis). We compare these observations with those of other hynobiid species. The egg sac of B. gorganensis var- ied from 80 to 182 mm (mean 132.5), and in width from 16 to 22.5 mm (mean 18.9). Single sacs

Alvarez, Nadir

284

Draft Submitted to J-SAC Circuit Modeling Methodology for UWB Omnidirectional Small  

E-print Network

Draft Submitted to J-SAC - 1 - Circuit Modeling Methodology for UWB Omnidirectional Small Antennas Submitted to J-SAC - 2 - Circuit Modeling Methodology for UWB Omnidirectional Small Antennas Stanley B. T to J-SAC - 3 - I. INTRODUCTION In 2002, the FCC released the use of Ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission

Southern California, University of

285

38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses...to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and instructions for its completion may be...

2013-07-01

286

Ionic and potential changes of the endolymphatic sac induced by endolymph volume changes  

E-print Network

Ionic and potential changes of the endolymphatic sac induced by endolymph volume changes Alec N The endolymphatic sac (ES) is believed to be the locus for endolymph volume regulation in the inner ear. It has in the ES, suggesting that function of the sac varies according to endolymph volume status. In the present

Salt, Alec N.

287

United Campus Ministry Student Advisory Council: UCM-SAC Constitution and Bylaws  

E-print Network

United Campus Ministry Student Advisory Council: UCM-SAC Constitution and Bylaws Florida Atlantic Council (UCM-SAC). Article 2. Purpose United Campus Ministry(UCM) exists at Florida Atlantic University Advisory Council (UCM-SAC) will assist UCM by providing formal input from FAU students on the spiritual

Fernandez, Eduardo

288

Harnessing the Power of GPUs without Losing Abstractions in SAC and ARRAYOL: A Comparative Study  

E-print Network

Harnessing the Power of GPUs without Losing Abstractions in SAC and ARRAYOL: A Comparative Study a high-level general purpose array processing lan- guage, Single Assignment C (SAC) to CUDA. Using a real-specific language. Keywords-ARRAYOL, SAC, GPGPU, CUDA, OPENCL I. INTRODUCTION Over recent years, using Graphics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Mammalian laryngseal air sacs add variability to the vocal tract impedance: Physical and computational modeling  

E-print Network

Mammalian laryngseal air sacs add variability to the vocal tract impedance: Physical Cavities branching off the main vocal tract are ubiquitous in nonhumans. Mammalian air sacs exist in human. The present paper focuses on acoustical functions of the air sacs. The hypotheses are investigated on whether

Tokuda, Isao

290

38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)  

...2014-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses...to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and instructions for its completion may be...

2014-07-01

291

Reply to "Comments on `Refinement of COSMO-SAC and the Applications'" S. I. Sandler*  

E-print Network

Reply to "Comments on `Refinement of COSMO-SAC and the Applications'" S. I. Sandler* Department, Pasadena, California 91125 Sir: We agree that the mathematical formula for G*res in COSMO-SAC is equivalent of these equations. There are also important differences in implementation between COSMO-RS and COSMO-SAC (for

Goddard III, William A.

292

Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac induced by microinjection of articial endolymph into the cochlea  

E-print Network

Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac induced by microinjection of arti¢cial endolymph; accepted 14 August 1999 Abstract Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac were analyzed in guinea the epithelium of the sac, remain to be elucidated. � 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Key words

Salt, Alec N.

293

The Probabilistic Basis for the 2000 SAC/FEMA Steel Moment Frame C. Allin Cornell1  

E-print Network

The Probabilistic Basis for the 2000 SAC/FEMA Steel Moment Frame Guidelines C. Allin Cornell1 for the 2000 SAC/FEMA steel moment frame guidelines. The framework is based on realizing a performance being met. This format has been adopted in the SAC/FEMA guidelines. Keywords Probabilistic performance

Sweetman, Bert

294

Optimisation par colonies de fourmis pour le problme du sac dos multidimensionnel  

E-print Network

Optimisation par colonies de fourmis pour le problème du sac à dos multidimensionnel Inès Alaya (Ant Colony Optimization / ACO) pour résoudre le problème du sac à dos multidimensionnel. L competitive results. MOTS-CL�S : Optimisation par colonies de fourmis, Problème du sac à dos multidimensionnel

Solnon, Christine

295

Preparing the SACS Compliance Report on Faculty Credentials Comprehensive Standard 3.7.1  

E-print Network

Preparing the SACS Compliance Report on Faculty Credentials Comprehensive Standard 3 the qualifications of its faculty. SACS Guidelines When an institution defines faculty qualifications using faculty match both level and the content of each course taught. Required Documentation (SACS Resource Manual

Liu, Paul

296

Culture of Unfertilized Embryo Sacs of Pearl Millet - Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and structure of isolated unfertilized embryo sacs of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. is similar to those in situ. In all cultivars a minimum of five intact embryo sacs could be isolated from 30 ovaries per hr. Isolated embryo sacs (30-50%) were viable for four days on MS medium. An increase in the number of polar nuclei

T. V. R. Lakshmi; K. Aruna Lakshmi; Narayana R. Isola

297

A TEST OF WHETHER ECONOMY OR NUTRITION DETERMINES FECAL SAC INGESTION IN NESTING CORVIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent birds of many species eat the fecal sacs produced by their nestlings. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain why the parents ingest, rather than simply remove the sacs. (1) The parental nutrition hypothesis proposes that the parent benefits energetically or nutritionally from ingesting the sacs (Morton 1979, Gliick 1988); and (2) the economic disposal hypothesis postulates that parents

KEVIN J. MCGOWAN

298

Response of amphibian egg non-yolk cytoplasm to gravity orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to study amphibian egg cytoplasmic organization and egg symmetrization at the molecular level, a library of seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Xenopus laevis non-yolk egg proteins was produced. Several of these MoAbs react with non-yolk cytoplasmic antigens which are unevenly distributed in the fertile Xenopus egg.

Smith, R. C.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.

1985-01-01

299

Maternally derived yolk testosterone enhances the development of the hatching muscle in the  

E-print Network

-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus Joseph L. Lipar* and Ellen D. Ketterson Department of Biology and Center that yolk testosterone concentration increases with laying order in the red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that yolk testos- terone has anabolic e

300

Sex steroids in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): uncoupled maternal plasma and yolking follicle concentrations, potential  

E-print Network

Sex steroids in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): uncoupled maternal plasma and yolking follicle Accepted 4 June 2003 Abstract The sex steroids testosterone (T) and estradiol-17b (E2) play important roles steroid levels (which can influence reproductive function) and yolk steroid levels (which can influence

Wade, Juli

301

Yolk testosterone organizes behavior and male plumage coloration in house sparrows ( Passer domesticus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate eggs contain maternal steroid hormones in their yolks; and in avian species the concentration of these steroids vary within and among clutches. The organizational actions of these variable doses of maternal steroids in the avian egg, analogous to those regulating the development of sexually dimorphic traits, are little explored. In this study, we examined the organizational effects of yolk

Rosemary Strasser; Hubert Schwabl

2004-01-01

302

Utilization of the yolk in rainbow trout alevins (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) : effect of egg size  

E-print Network

Utilization of the yolk in rainbow trout alevins (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) : effect of egg size alevins fasted at 7 °C and originating from either big eggs or small eggs of the same female. A model has and the end of yolk resorption. Maximal body weight was reached later and was higher in alevins from big eggs

Boyer, Edmond

303

Concentrations of steroid hormones in layers and biopsies of chelonian egg yolks.  

PubMed

The actions of circulating hormones, although relatively well understood for adults, are largely unknown for their developing embryos. Transfer of maternal hormones to the egg is known to occur in oviparous species, and recently the presence of hormonally heterogeneous yolk layers has been described in two avian species. To investigate the possibility of a similar phenomenon occurring in chelonian species, egg yolk layers were analyzed in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) and the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), two species that exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination. There was a similar pattern of hormonally heterogeneous yolk layers in both species: concentrations of progesterone and testosterone were significantly higher in the external yolk layer while concentrations of 17beta-estradiol were significantly higher in the intermediate and internal layers. This pattern of hormone deposition concurs with previously published studies of plasma hormone profiles from females of temperate-zone turtle species. Yolks of freshly laid eggs were also sampled using a biopsy technique to examine the concordance of early yolk hormone concentrations and offspring sex. No relationship was found between yolk hormone concentrations and individual offspring sex. Previous work showing that maternally derived yolk estradiol concentrations are correlated with female-biased sex ratios was, however, replicated. These findings suggest that offspring sex is influenced, in part, by the maternal hormone environment. PMID:11161774

Bowden, R M; Ewert, M A; Lipar, J L; Nelson, C E

2001-01-01

304

Maternal corticosterone is transferred into the egg yolk.  

PubMed

Hormones deposited in the avian egg are considered in many studies to influence or to adjust offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions in an adaptive way. Several studies demonstrated an effect of corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, injected into the egg on the developing chick, but the injection of steroids in the egg is far from mimicking the natural distribution of the hormone in the egg. Other studies applied a stressor or corticosterone to the mother. However it is still debated whether an increase of circulating corticosterone in the mother translates into higher concentrations of corticosterone in the egg. Therefore, we investigated in captive barn owls Tyto alba whether circulating corticosterone in egg-laying females elevated within a physiological range, resulted in the deposition of corticosterone in eggs. We found that an increase in circulating corticosterone in the mother within the naturally occurring range translated into elevated concentrations of corticosterone in the yolk of subsequently laid eggs, indicating a specific time frame and yolk layer of corticosterone deposition. We conclude that increasing maternal plasma corticosterone within a naturally occurring range is an efficient tool to increase corticosterone concentration in the egg and to manipulate conditions for the developing embryo. PMID:22580154

Almasi, Bettina; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Müller, Claudia; Brill, Sandra; Wagner, Hermann; Jenni, Lukas

2012-08-01

305

Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

Hodges, Linda C.

1995-12-01

306

THE DEPENDENCE OF CECROPIA YOLK FORMATION IN VITRO ON SPECIFIC BLOOD PROTEINS  

PubMed Central

The capacity of cecropia vitellogenic follicles to form yolk during short-term in vitro incubation in female blood was analyzed by labeling with fluorescein-conjugated serum globulin, tritiated cecropia blood proteins, or tritiated amino acid. As judged by fluorescence microscopy or autoradiography, yolk formation during 3–8 hr in vitro was similar in rate and in protein uptake specificity to that observed in vivo. When follicles were incubated in cecropia male blood, 6% gamma globulin, or cecropia saline, the yolk produced was markedly inferior in quality and quantity to that generated in female blood. Purified preparations of vitellogenin, the primary female blood protein deposited in the yolk, were equivalent to whole female blood in supporting yolk formation; this protein seems, therefore, to have a specific stimulatory role. An enhancement of the rate of pinocytosis at the oocyte surface by vitellogenin is postulated. PMID:4101520

Hausman, Steven J.; Anderson, Lucy M.; Telfer, William H.

1971-01-01

307

Unusual microtubular cytoskeleton of apomictic embryo sac of Chondrilla juncea L.  

PubMed

The mature apomictic embryo sac of Chondrilla juncea is highly vacuolated and demonstrates a polarization similar to that of the amphimictic gametophyte. The microtubule cytoskeleton of this embryo sac is uncharacteristic and relatively weak. The microtubules are positioned along cell walls and resemble cortical microtubules of somatic cells. They do not form the parallel, brushlike structures observed around the filiform apparatus of synergids in the amphimictic embryo sac. In the apomictic embryo sac, the microtubules of both the egg cell and the central cell develop a cortical-like structure, which is entirely different from the radial arrangement observed around the nuclei in the amphimictic embryo sac. PMID:16736250

Ko?ci?ska-Pajak, M; Bednara, J

2006-05-01

308

Ultrastructure and cytochemistry study of the yolk syncytial layer in the alevin of trout (Salmo fario trutta L.) after hatching. I. The vitellolysis zone.  

PubMed

After hatching, the yolk syncytial layer of Salmo fario trutta may be subdivided into two zones, namely, the vitellolysis zone (containing numerous yolk platelets), and the cytoplasmic zone (where yolk platelets are rare). In the vitellolysis zone, two stages in the utilization of the yolk are observed: 1) The first stage, comprises the formation of yolk platelets from coalescent yolk by spherical cutting out and basal scission. This process seems to be achieved by the invagination of fibrillar elements into the coalescent yolk to form individual yolk platelets surrounded by a limiting membrane. 2) The second stage essentially consists of the extrusion or budding of yolk matter from a yolk platelet. Again, where the yolk matter leaves a platelet, fibrillar elements are evident and show an alkaline phosphatase activity. The platelets of the vitellolysis zone have a homogeneous content and variable diameter; they never acquire a heterogeneous and polymorphic aspect which could be interpreted as an intermediate stage in their degradation. PMID:570459

Walzer, C; Schönenberger, N

1979-01-30

309

SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced components (ICARE), provided by CNES will permit improvement of risk estimation models for radiation effect on last generation integrated circuit technology. . On June 14th, 2000 CONAE and NASA signed an amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding for the SAC-C mission in order that the SAC-C satellite, were included in a constellation - named "Morning Constellation". It is integrated by USA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1, Terra, and Argentine SAC-C that feature on-board instruments from the United States, Argentina, Denmark, Italy, France, and Japan. The four satellite tracks on the Earth's surface are the same, their orbital height being 705 km and their inclination, 98.21 degrees. They cross the Equator at 10:00, 10:01, 10:15, and 10:30 hours, respectively (local time). Satellites comply with the World Wide Reference System. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken and will be presented in this paper. Several jointly sponsored technical workshops have been held, and also collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments have been made. One of the objectives of the AM Constellation is the collaboration in the case of emergencies, NASA and CONAE agreed to give preference in those situation in the planification of their satellite acquisitions. From all the possible hazardous events, the most important for the country are fire and floods. In relation to fires, CONAE is presently adapting and developing the algorithms for using MODIS data to generate a fire map product. Additionally research on fire detection is carried out using the data from the HSTC camera. In relation to flooding, CONAE works in cooperation to national institutions providing the data and, in some cases, producing flood extent maps. In particular MMRS data is demonstrating to be very effective due to its spectral and radiometric resolutions, and its large swath which is well suited for extended countries like Argentina.

Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

2002-01-01

310

Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA Network with 8DPSK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique is required to meet the increased demand for high speed, large capacity communications in optical networks. In this paper, the transmission performance of a spectral amplitude coding (SAC)-OCDMA network is investigated when a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) is used as the transmission link using 8DPSK modulation. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Simulation results reveal that the transmission distance is limited mainly by the fiber dispersion when high coding chip rate is used. For a two-user SAC-OCDMA network operating with 2 Gbit/s data rate and two wavelengths for each user, the maximum allowable transmission distance is about 15 km.

Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Anuar, M. S.

2013-09-01

311

Chronic, recurrent dacryocystitis from a BB in the lacrimal sac.  

PubMed

Metallic foreign bodies in the lacrimal outflow tract are a rarely reported cause of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Among the few cases in the literature, 1 consisted of a BB in the nasolacrimal duct. This case report presents a second case of chronic, recurrent dacryocystitis in a child, which occurred secondary to a BB that had become lodged in the lacrimal sac. The metallic foreign body was identified on CT and successfully removed surgically. Exogenous sources of lacrimal sac foreign bodies should be considered in patients with a history of periorbital trauma and signs of chronic nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Evaluation with CT is recommended. Removal of the foreign body, with dacryocystorhinstomy as needed, is curative. PMID:23719199

Lee, Lyndon B; Dutton, Jonathan J

2014-01-01

312

Sliding lipoma: an indirect inguinal hernia without a peritoneal sac.  

PubMed

With the increasing application of endoscopic hernioplasty, surgeons have now recognized that the peritoneal sac is sometimes absent in patients who present with a reducible inguinal hernia. Sliding lipoma refers to a sliding herniation of preperitoneal fat into the inguinal canal forming a reducible indirect inguinal hernia in the absence of a peritoneal sac. In this report, we describe a patient who underwent bilateral endoscopic totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty (TEP), followed by an early recurrence of left inguinal hernia, secondary to a sliding lipoma. Sliding lipoma is a challenging condition specific to endoscopic repair of inguinal hernia. All lipomas should be reduced and excised whenever feasible. Awareness and appropriate management of the sliding lipoma will help to reduce the risk of recurrence after endoscopic hernioplasty. PMID:15035847

Lau, Hung

2004-02-01

313

Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.  

PubMed

To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

2012-07-01

314

A modified yolk biopsy technique improves survivorship of turtle eggs.  

PubMed

Nongenetic maternal contributions, such as steroid hormones, have received much attention in recent years because they have the potential to influence offspring phenotype. Research in oviparous taxa has demonstrated that there is among-species variability in their response to these maternal contributions. However, studies in chelonians and crocodilians have been hampered by the fact that techniques involving egg manipulations that breach the eggshell routinely result in massive egg mortality. In this study, we present an improved yolk manipulation technique that resulted in increased egg survival (in excess of 70% survival) in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) and that may be broadly applicable to other species. By elevating survival to a level on par with other oviparous taxa, this method permits a more thorough exploration of reptilian egg physiology and allows for studies that examine traits in both the egg and the resulting hatchling. PMID:19193061

Bowden, Rachel M; Smithee, Lauren; Paitz, Ryan T

2009-01-01

315

Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

Hahn, D. Caldwell

2011-01-01

316

Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio).  

PubMed

Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone. PMID:21510950

Hahn, D Caldwell

2011-07-01

317

5'-noncoding region sacR is the target of all identified regulation affecting the levansucrase gene in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed Central

The regulation of the levansucrase gene sacB was studied in Bacillus subtilis strains. Fusions were constructed in which genes of cytoplasmic proteins such as lacZ were placed immediately downstream from sacR, the regulatory region located upstream from sacB. These fusions were introduced in mutants affected in sacB regulation. In all cases the marker gene was affected in the same way as sacB by the genetic context. This result is of particular interest for the sacU pleiotropic mutations, which affect sacB expression and other cellular functions such as the synthesis of several exocellular enzymes. We also showed that strains harboring sacU+ or sacU-hyperproducing alleles contained different amounts of sacB mRNA, which was proportional to their levansucrase secretion. We concluded that the sacU gene does not affect sacB expression at the level of secretion but acts on a target within sacR. We discuss the possibility that sacU acts on a part of sacR, a homologous copy of which was found upstream from the gene of another sacU-dependent secreted enzyme of B. subtilis, beta-glucanase. Images PMID:3086292

Aymerich, S; Gonzy-Treboul, G; Steinmetz, M

1986-01-01

318

Program Options 12/11/13\\\\due.uci.edu\\due\\Files\\SAC\\CIE\\FACTSHTS\\GENINFO\\SAC Program Options with UCI Experiential Learning.pub  

E-print Network

Program Options 12/11/13\\\\due.uci.edu\\due\\Files\\SAC\\CIE\\FACTSHTS\\GENINFO\\SAC Program Options with UCI Experiential Learning.pub UCEAP Study UC Education Abroad Program UC Systemwide study abroad programs Fulfill UCI degree requirements UC credit Summer, quarter, semester, year Financial aid

Loudon, Catherine

319

Eliciting antigen-specific egg-yolk IgY with naked DNA.  

PubMed

Immunization with naked DNA was used to elicit chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY). Layer hens were inoculated with plasmid DNA encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein, the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus, and VP2 of African horse sickness virus. IgY was extracted from egg yolks by polyethylene glycol precipitation. Specific antibodies were present in the yolks of eggs from hens immunized with each of the three different plasmids. This approach to raising polyclonal antibodies obviates the need to produce and purify large quantities of proteins for immunization and can potentially yield large amounts of diagnostically or therapeutically useful reagents. PMID:11570510

Romito, M; Viljoen, G J; Du Plessis, D H

2001-09-01

320

Regulation of Yolk-Androgen Concentrations by Plasma Prolactin in the American Kestrel  

E-print Network

. We investigated in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, whether changes in plasma Words: egg laying; Falco sparverius; maternal ef- fects; optimal reproductive tactic; seasonal breeding, Serinus canaria, and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, yolk androgens influence nestling growth rates

Sockman, Keith W.

321

ORIGINAL PAPER Are yolk androgens and carotenoids in barn swallow eggs  

E-print Network

carotenoids and androgens in egg yolk relate to parental quality in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica and therefore may be regulated by different mechanisms. Keywords Barn swallow. Hirundo rustica . Investment

Safran, Rebecca

322

Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the expression of the genes for yolk protein of Drosophila melanogaster and the tissue specific function of the regulatory element which activates transcription in vivo. 70 refs., 8 figs.

Lossky, M.; Wensink, P.C. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

1995-12-01

323

AN EGG-YOLK PRINCIPLE AND EXPONENTIAL INTEGRABILITY FOR QUASIREGULAR MAPPINGS  

E-print Network

AN EGG-YOLK PRINCIPLE AND EXPONENTIAL INTEGRABILITY FOR QUASIREGULAR MAPPINGS PIETRO POGGI-CORRADINI wish to thank both departments for their hospitality. 1 #12;2 PIETRO POGGI-CORRADINI AND KAI RAJALA

Jyväskylä, University of

324

AN EGG-YOLK PRINCIPLE AND EXPONENTIAL INTEGRABILITY FOR QUASIREGULAR MAPPINGS  

E-print Network

AN EGG-YOLK PRINCIPLE AND EXPONENTIAL INTEGRABILITY FOR QUASIREGULAR MAPPINGS PIETRO POGGI-CORRADINI for their hospitality. 1 #12;2 PIETRO POGGI-CORRADINI AND KAI RAJALA the inverse map" conjectured by D. Marshall in [Mar

Poggi-Corradini, Pietro

325

SacPox from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a proficient lactonase  

PubMed Central

Background SacPox, an enzyme from the extremophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sac), was isolated by virtue of its phosphotriesterase (or paraoxonase; Pox) activity, i.e. its ability to hydrolyze the neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides. Later on, SacPox was shown to belong to the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase family that comprises natural lactonases, possibly involved in quorum sensing, and endowed with promiscuous, phosphotriesterase activity. Results Here, we present a comprehensive and broad enzymatic characterization of the natural lactonase and promiscuous organophosphorus hydrolase activities of SacPox, as well as a structural analysis using a model. Conclusion Kinetic experiments show that SacPox is a proficient lactonase, including at room temperature. Moreover, we discuss the observed differences in substrate specificity between SacPox and its closest homologues SsoPox and SisLac together with the possible structural causes for these observations. PMID:24894602

2014-01-01

326

Regulation of yolk-androgen concentrations by plasma prolactin in the American kestrel.  

PubMed

The concentrations of maternally derived androgens in the yolks of avian eggs vary within and among clutches, but a mechanistic basis for this variation has not been elucidated. We investigated in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, whether changes in plasma-prolactin concentrations induced by changes in photoperiod and food supply affect yolk-androgen concentrations. Over the course of a photoinduced breeding period in the laboratory, we measured concentrations of plasma immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in female kestrels with ad libitum food availability (control) or food availability that was reduced during the early breeding period. In a second laboratory study, we administered via osmotic mini-pumps ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) to females beginning on the day they laid their first egg of a clutch (egg-day 1) to determine the effects of high prolactin concentrations on yolk-androgen concentrations. In both this study and one on free-living kestrels, we quantified changes in yolk-androgen concentrations with date of clutch initiation. Concentrations of ir-prolactin in nonlaying females rose with date, irrespective of food treatment. Egg-day 1 ir-prolactin concentrations were higher in control females laying late during the breeding phase than in those laying early. This increase was absent in food-reduced females. Yolk-androgen concentrations in eggs 3 and 4 but not eggs 1 and 2 of the clutch were higher in clutches initiated late than in clutches initiated early in the breeding phase in both the field and laboratory. o-prolactin treatment elevated yolk-testosterone but not androstenedione concentrations. These findings suggest that, in American kestrels, seasonal and laying-associated increases in plasma-prolactin concentrations elevate yolk-testosterone concentrations. Food availability and other factors may interact with date to regulate the effects of prolactin on yolk-testosterone deposition. PMID:11716575

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H; Sharp, P J

2001-12-01

327

The heritability of egg yolk cholesterol level and its relationship to reproductive performance  

E-print Network

THE HERITABILITY OF EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Danis L. Cunningham Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Poultry Science THE HERITABILITY OF EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Danie L. Cunningham Approved as to style and content by: hairman of C ittee...

Cunningham, Danis Lane

2012-06-07

328

Modifying yolk fatty acid composition to improve the health quality of shell eggs  

E-print Network

MODIFYING YOLK FATTY ACID COMPOSITION TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH QUALITY OF SHELL EGGS A Thesis by MARY ELIZABETH VAN ELSWYK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Nutrition MODIFYING YOLK FATTY ACID COMPOSITION TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH QUALITY OF SHELL EGGS A Thesis by MARY ELIZABETH VAN ELSWYK Approved as to style and content by: Pamela S. Har s (Chair...

Van Elswyk, Mary Elizabeth

2012-06-07

329

Neutralization of the pharmacological effects of Cobra and Krait venoms by chicken egg yolk antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-month-old white leghorn chickens were immunized with 50?g of Common Cobra (Naja naja) and 30?g of Krait venoms (Bungarus caeruleus) to generate antivenom antibodies against the venom antigen. Chickens received booster doses of increasing concentrations of venom at 14 days time intervals to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. The antivenom from immunized chicken egg yolk was extracted by

S. Meenatchisundaram; G. Parameswari; A. Michael; S. Ramalingam

2008-01-01

330

Effects of Breed and Storage Duration on the Beta-Carotene Content of Egg Yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of breed (Harco, White Leghorn and Local breeds) and storage durations (point of lay, 1- week, 2-week and 3-week) on the beta (ß)-carotene contents of egg yolk were studied using one hundred and twenty eggs for each breed. The ß-carotene contents of the egg yolks were determined using spectrophotometer and data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA and differences between

J. C. Okonkwo

2009-01-01

331

Pterin-based ornamental coloration predicts yolk antioxidant levels in female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).  

PubMed

1. Maternal investment in egg quality can have important consequences for offspring fitness. For example, yolk antioxidants can affect embryonic development as well as juvenile and adult phenotype. Thus, females may be selected to advertise their yolk antioxidant deposition to discriminatory males via ornamental signals, perhaps depending on the reproductive costs associated with signal production. 2. Female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) develop pterin-based orange colour patches during the reproductive season that influence male behaviour and that are positively associated with the phenotypic quality of the female and her offspring. Here, we assessed one potential developmental mechanism underlying the relationship between offspring quality and female ornamentation in S. virgatus, by examining the relationship between ornament expression and yolk antioxidant levels. 3. As expected, concentrations of the yolk antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) were strongly positively intercorrelated. Eggs from larger clutches had fewer antioxidants than eggs from smaller clutches, suggesting that females may be limited in antioxidant availability or use. Fertilized and unfertilized eggs did not differ in yolk antioxidant levels. 4. The size of a female's ornament was positively related to both the concentration and total amount of yolk antioxidants, and ornament colour was positively related to yolk antioxidant concentration. Thus, in S. virgatus, female ornaments may advertise egg quality. In addition, these data suggest that more ornamented females may produce higher-quality offspring, in part because their eggs contain more antioxidants. As the colour ornament of interest is derived from pterins, not carotenoids, direct resource trade-offs between ornaments and eggs may be eliminated, reducing reproductive costs associated with signalling. 5. This is the first example of a positive relationship between female ornamentation and yolk antioxidants in reptiles and may indicate the general importance of these patterns in oviparous vertebrates. PMID:21269301

Weiss, Stacey L; Kennedy, Eileen A; Safran, Rebecca J; McGraw, Kevin J

2011-05-01

332

Rheological characterisation of salad-dressing-type emulsions stabilised by egg yolk\\/sucrose distearate blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this work was to fully characterise the rheological behaviour of oil\\/water emulsions stabilised by egg yolk and a sucrose ester of intermediate hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. The influence of the egg yolk\\/sucrose ester weight ratio in the emulsifier blend was studied by keeping the total amount of emulsifier constant. With this aim, steady state and transient flow tests,

Maria Angustias Riscardo; José E. Moros; José M. Franco; Críspulo Gallegos

2005-01-01

333

PREPARATION OF COLLODION SACS FOR USE IN BACTERIOLOGY  

PubMed Central

A standardized method is described in detail by which collodion sacs suitable for intraperitoneal incubation and for other bacteriological experiments may be produced in large numbers, sterilized, and handled with convenience and the minimum danger of contamination. Various factors influencing permeability have been subjected to experiment. Like Brown, we found that immersion in alcohol is the most important factor, but the high permeability conferred by alcohol treatment is lost during heat sterilization if the membrane was previously allowed to dry. Quantitative experiments on the dialysis of sodium chloride, and simple tests with other substances indicate the general character of the membranes and their probable field of usefulness in bacteriology. PMID:19868478

Gates, Frederick L.

1921-01-01

334

Nouvelles propositions pour la resolution exacte du sac `a dos multi-objectif unidimensionnel en  

E-print Network

Nouvelles propositions pour la r´esolution exacte du sac `a dos multi-objectif unidimensionnel en th`ese 11 mai 2010 1 / 50 #12;Le probl`eme multi-objectif de sac `a dos 1 Le probl`eme multi-objectif de sac `a dos 2 Proc´edures en deux phases 3 Proc´edures de s´eparation et d'´evaluation 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

Mesure de la digestibilit des fourrages destins aux chevaux par la technique des sacs de nylon  

E-print Network

Mesure de la digestibilité des fourrages destinés aux chevaux par la technique des sacs de nylon selle adultes et par la technique des sacs de nylon sur 2 poneys mâles, adultes, munis d'une canule heures selon la méthode de TILLEY et TERRY (1963), puis le sac est introduit dans le caecum pour une

Boyer, Edmond

336

Indirect inguinal hernia sac containing testis and spermatic cord in an adult patient with cryptorchidism  

PubMed Central

Sliding hernias are those in which part of the sac wall is formed by a retroperitoneal organ and/or its mesentery protruding outside the abdominal wall cavity. The hernia sac may contain jejunum, ileum, vermiform appendix, Meckel's diverticulum, stomach, ovary, fallopian tube or urinary bladder. Our report features an adult case with cryptorchidism in which testis and spermatic cord constitute a component of the indirect inguinal hernia sac. PMID:24876399

Arslan, Yusuf; Karaman, Kerem; Altintoprak, Fatih; Kahyaoglu, Zeynep; Zengin, Ismail; Uzunoglu, Mustafa Yener; Demir, Hakan

2014-01-01

337

Reliability of lead (Pb) free SAC solder interconnects with different PWB surface finishes under mechanical loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tin\\/silver\\/copper (SAC) solder alloys have been introduced as primary alternatives to the eutectic tin-lead solder. SAC alloys are relatively new alloy systems in packaging applications and existing studies are limited and confined mainly to the materials, assembly process, and finite element modeling. It is essential to conduct research focusing on the material aspects of the SAC alloy coupled with its

Mohammad M Hossain; Fahad Zahedi; Dereje Agonafer; S. O. Dunford; Puligandla Viswanadham

2006-01-01

338

Physiological constraints and the influence of diet on fatty acids in the yolk of gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua.  

PubMed

Avian yolk fatty acids (FA) composition is influenced by two main factors: maternal diet and genetic factors that regulate FA metabolism. However, due to embryonic developmental requirements, yolk FA are thought to be physiologically constrained and less useful for dietary and trophic studies. We assessed the relative contributions of diet and physiological constraints in determining the yolk FA composition of a marine bird, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) by comparing FA signatures of yolks and prey between a captive, controlled- feeding experiment and a wild population. Captive and wild yolk FA signatures differed even though both groups' yolk lipids were composed primarily of three FA (16:0, 18:0 and 18:1n-9). Differences were due to FA occurring in relatively low abundance, but which mirrored differences in the FA composition of diets. However, yolk FA signatures were correlated across three penguin species suggesting that common developmental constraints can be relatively more important than species-specific differences in diet or egg-laying physiology. While yolk FA are constrained, several minor components of yolk FA are reflective of diets and the calibration coefficients resulting from this study have the potential to be incorporated into predictive models and allow for quantitative dietary and trophic studies using FA analysis of penguin egg yolks. PMID:22327194

Polito, Michael J; Koopman, Heather N; Able, Stephanie; Walsh, Jennifer; Goebel, Michael E

2012-07-01

339

GnRH - a Missing Link between Testosterone Concentrations in Yolk and Plasma and Its Intergenerational Effects  

PubMed Central

Despite the strong interest in hormone-mediated maternal effects two key questions concerning their mechanisms are as yet unanswered: First, whether the deposition of hormones in the egg yolk is coupled with the levels of these hormones in the maternal circulation, and second, whether epigenetic changes as induced by embryonic exposure to maternal yolk hormones impinge on yolk hormone deposition at adulthood. We investigated the responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in female canaries whose embryonic exposure to yolk testosterone had been manipulated. This enabled us to study to what extent GnRH interlinks testosterone concentrations in female circulation and egg yolk as well as the intergenerational potential of hormone-mediated maternal effects. As expected, canary females responded to GnRH with a rise in plasma testosterone. The GnRH-responsiveness was positively correlated with the yolk testosterone content. Factors stimulating the release of GnRH will, therefore, lead to an increase of testosterone in both plasma and egg, posing a potential constraint on the yolk hormone deposition due to testosterone related trade-offs within the laying female. Exposure to elevated yolk testosterone levels as embryo reduced the GnRH-responsiveness in adulthood, potentially limiting environmental influences on yolk testosterone deposition, but the concentrations of yolk testosterone itself were not affected. PMID:21829476

Muller, Wendt; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Eens, Marcel

2011-01-01

340

Changes in yolk states of duck egg during long-term brining.  

PubMed

To elucidate the relationship between shyandan yolk formation and NaCl penetration degree, fresh duck eggs were brined in 26% NaCl and a prolonged brining test was conducted for up to 24 weeks. Shyandan yolk was obtained from brine-cured duck shell eggs in 26% NaCl for 4-6 weeks and subsequently heated at 85 degrees C for 90 min. Though NaCl contents for albumen and yolk increased to 14.8 and 8.9%, respectively, during the prolonged test for up to 24 weeks, the R values (NaCl/water x 100) were similar (increased from 0.6 to 21) throughout the brining process. The oil-off ratio of the yolk increased rapidly from 14 to 50% (0-6 weeks) and gradually decreased during the extended brining. Granulation and gelation of yolk appeared in the different stages of the brining process. This study demonstrates that the formation of shyandan yolk was determined by the degree of NaCl penetration. PMID:10563961

Lai, K M; Chi, S P; Ko, W C

1999-02-01

341

Antiangiogenic photodynamic therapy (PDT) using Visudyne causes effective suppression of tumor growth.  

PubMed

We previously observed that antiangiogenic photodynamic therapy (PDT), namely, laser irradiation at 15 min after administration of photosensitizer, by using stable liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), in which the liposomes were composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (10:10:10:2.5 as a molar ratio), was quite effective for cancer treatment. On the other hand, Visudyne, a commercialized liposomal formulation of BPD-MA, is based on more fluid lipids, namely, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and egg yolk phosphatidylglycerol, and is thought to be less stable in the presence of serum. The data of spin column chromatography indicated a little faster transfer of BPD-MA from Visudyne to lipoprotein fraction when Visudyne was incubated with serum than when the stable liposomal BPD-MA was used. The phototoxicity of Visudyne against a human endothelial cell line, ECV304, was almost the same as that of stable liposomal BPD-MA after PDT treatment. Therefore, we examined the antiangiogenic scheduling of PDT with Visudyne. Tumor growth of Meth-A sarcoma-bearing mice was strongly suppressed when the antiangiogenic scheduling was performed with Visudyne, namely, irradiation at 15 min after injection of the drug, in comparison with the conventional scheduling in which laser irradiation is done at 3 h post-injection. This greater effectiveness of PDT at 15 min was suggested to be caused by hemostasis, based on observations made in a dorsal air sac angiogenesis model. Visudyne-mediated antiangiogenic PDT cured 40 or 60% of Meth-A-bearing mice completely when 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg BPD-MA, respectively, was used. These data suggest that the antiangiogenic scheduling is effective in Visudyne-mediated cancer PDT despite the transferring of BPD-MA from the liposomal fraction to lipoproteins in the bloodstream. PMID:15036659

Ichikawa, Kanae; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Yonezawa, Sei; Hikita, Tomoya; Kurohane, Kohta; Namba, Yukihiro; Oku, Naoto

2004-03-01

342

Cytotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of phosvitin from egg yolk.  

PubMed

Egg yolk phosvitin is one of the most phosphorylated proteins in nature, and thus has a strong metal-binding ability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of phosvitin in vitro. Using the 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, the cytotoxicity of phosvitin was evaluated in human cancer cell lines of various tissue origins, including the cervix (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), stomach (AGS), lung (A549 and SK-MES-1), liver (HepG2), and larynx (Hep-2). The growth of all cancer cell lines was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by phosvitin. Among the cancer cell lines tested, MCF-7 and SK-MES-1 were the least sensitive and HeLa, AGS, and HepG2 were the most sensitive to phosvitin. The 50% inhibition of cell viability values of phosvitin were 5.38, 11.57, 4.78, 6.98, 11.82, 3.93, and 9.97 mg/mL for HeLa, MCF-7, AGS, A549, SK-MES-1, HepG2, and Hep-2, respectively. The protective effects of phosvitin against DNA damage in human leukocytes indicated that phosvitin showed protective effects against the oxidative stress-induced DNA damages in human leukocytes. These results suggested that phosvitin has a high potential to be used as an anticancer agent for humans. PMID:24902700

Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Minhee; Park, Eunju; Ahn, Dong Uk; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-08-01

343

The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis.

Ikonomov, Ognian C., E-mail: oikonomo@med.wayne.edu; Filios, Catherine, E-mail: cfilios@med.wayne.edu; Sbrissa, Diego, E-mail: dsbrissa@med.wayne.edu; Chen, Xuequn, E-mail: xchen@med.wayne.edu; Shisheva, Assia, E-mail: ashishev@med.wayne.edu

2013-10-18

344

Ipilimumab After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Persistent or Progressive Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Immature Teratoma; Ovarian Mature Teratoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma With Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor With Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma With Seminoma

2013-03-26

345

Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

2012-12-01

346

Inter-species variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large range of differences in yolk testosterone among the seven passerine species examined, with significant differences between those at the high end (Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia , Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, and House Sparrow, Passer domesticus ) and those at the low end (Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe, and House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus ). We also found that the testosterone level in cowbird eggs was intermediate in relation to host species levels and was significantly lower than that in three common cowbird hosts (Song Sparrow, Red-winged Blackbird, and House Sparrow), but not significantly different from three others. Geographical comparisons of yolk testosterone levels in all cowbird subspecies and populations from several regions showed no significant differences, though a trend that deserves further exploration was the pattern of lowest level in the ancestral population of cowbirds in the central prairies and of highest level in the northwestern population where range invasion occurred approximately 40 years ago. The levels of 17 betaestradiol were similar in the seven songbird species examined, which is consistent with current hypotheses that this hormone plays a role in embryonic sexual differentiation. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the large differences observed among species in absolute level of yolk testosterone are the relevant focal point or whether target tissue sensitivity differences mediate the effects of this yolk steroid, particularly between parasitic and non-parasitic species.

Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.; Abdelnabi, M.; Wu, J.; Igl, L.D.; Ottinger, M.A.

2005-01-01

347

Inter-species variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large range of differences in yolk testosterone among the seven passerine species examined, with significant differences between those at the high end (song sparrow Melospiza melodia, red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, and house sparrow, Passer domesticus) and those at the low end (eastern phoebe Sayornis phoebe, and house finch Carpodacus mexicanus). We also found that the testosterone level in cowbird eggs was intermediate in relation to host species levels and was significantly lower than that in three common cowbird hosts (song sparrow, red-winged blackbird, and house sparrow), but not significantly different from three others. Geographical comparisons of yolk testosterone levels in all cowbird subspecies and populations from several regions showed no significant differences, though a trend that deserves further exploration was the pattern of lowest level in the ancestral population of cowbirds in the central prairies and of highest level in the northwestern population where range invasion occurred approximately 40 years ago. The levels of 17 beta-estradiol were similar in the seven songbird species examined, which is consistent with current hypotheses that this hormone plays a role in embryonic sexual differentiation. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the large differences observed among species in absolute level of yolk testosterone are the relevant focal point or whether target tissue sensitivity differences mediate the effects of this yolk steroid, particularly between parasitic and non-parasitic species.

Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Wu, J.M.; Igl, L.D.; Ottinger, M.A.

2005-01-01

348

Finite Element Analysis of Stresses Developed in the Blood Sac of a Left Ventricular Assist Device  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research is to develop a 3D finite element (FE) model of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to predict stresses in the blood sac. The hyperelastic stress-strain curves for the segmented poly(ether polyurethane urea) blood sac were determined in both tension and compression using a servo-hydraulic testing system at various strain rates. Over the range of strain rates studied, the sac was not strain rate sensitive, however the material response was different for tension versus compression. The experimental tension and compression properties were used in a FE model that consisted of the pusher plate, blood sac and pump case. A quasi-static analysis was used to allow for nonlinearities due to contact and material deformation. The 3D FE model showed that blood sac stresses are not adversely affected by the location of the inlet and outlet ports of the device and that over the systolic ejection phase of the simulation the prediction of blood sac stresses from the full 3D model and an axisymmetric model are the same. Minimizing stresses in the blood sac will increase the longevity of the blood sac in vivo. PMID:19131267

Haut Donahue, T. L.; Dehlin, W.; Gillespie, J.; Weiss, W.J.; Rosenberg, G.

2009-01-01

349

Aneurysm sac pressure measurements after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The goal of endovascular grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is to exclude the aneurysm sac from systemic pressure and thereby decrease the risk of rupture. Unlike conventional open surgery, branch vessels in the sac (eg, lumbar artery and inferior mesenteric artery [IMA]) are not ligated and can potentially transmit pressure. The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate

Richard A. Baum; Jeffrey P. Carpenter; Constantin Cope; Michael A. Golden; Omaida C. Velazquez; David G. Neschis; Marc E. Mitchell; Clyde F. Barker; Ronald M. Fairman

2001-01-01

350

74. SAC control center addition sect 9top three floors, first ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

74. SAC control center addition sect 9-top three floors, first floor plan, drawing number AS-BLT.AW30-02-03, dated May, 1958 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

351

84. SAC control center addition sect. 9top three floors elevations, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

84. SAC control center addition sect. 9-top three floors elevations, drawing number AS-BLT.AW30-02-03, dated 10 May, 1958 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

352

Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds

Paul C. Sereno; Ricardo N. Martinez; Jeffrey A. Wilson; David J. Varricchio; Oscar A. Alcober; Hans C. E. Larsson

2008-01-01

353

Infestation of the lacrimal sac by Rhinosporidium seeberi: A clinicopathological case report  

PubMed Central

Rhinosporidium seeberi, till recently known as a fungus, has been reclassified as a protistan parasite. It infects humans and many animal species. The authors describe a rare case of oculosporidiosis with involvement of the lacrimal sac exhibiting features of idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease in a young male patient. Clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis have been discussed. PMID:24212311

Mukherjee, Bipasha; Mohan, Ashwin; Sumathi, V; Biswas, Jyotirmay

2013-01-01

354

Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

1992-01-01

355

Ground water in the Cul-de-Sac Plain, Haiti  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cul-de-Sac Plain is perhaps the most important agricultural area in Haiti because of its nearness and accessibility to Port-au-Prince, the nation's capital, metropolis, and principal seaport. Most of the agricultural produce consumed in Port-au-Prince as well as a considerable part of that exported from Haiti is grown in the plain. Because of variable and poorly distributed rainfall, high temperature, and high evaporation, semiarid climatic conditions prevail in the plain. Irrigation is, therefore, necessary for successful farming. There are no regulatory or storage facilities on the streams that enter the plain, but the mean and low-water stream flow and the discharge of springs are almost entirely appropriated for irrigation. Ground water has been utilized for irrigation to an increasing extent by the Haitian American Sugar Company, which has put down about 100 wells in the plain since 1919. Outside the existing irrigated areas of the plain are large tracts of potentially irrigable land that are uncultivated and agriculturally unproductive for lack of water. The object of the present study was to determine the possibilities of bringing these lands into cultivation by irrigation from wells. This study was part of a larger program of the Food Supply Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, to increase the production of food in Haiti. From September through November 1948 the senior author, a member of the U. S. Geological Survey, spent three months in the field in an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. He was ably assisted by Mr. Rémy C. Lemoine, Haitian engineer-geologist, employed by the Food Supply Division. The field work included principally the geologic mapping of' the plain and the adjacent mountain borders, a ground-water inventory of existing wells and springs, and a general evaluation of significant geologic and hydrologic features.

Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

1949-01-01

356

Plasma corticosterone in nestling american kestrels: effects of age, handling stress, yolk androgens, and body condition.  

PubMed

The effects of age, handling-induced stress, yolk androgens, and body condition on plasma corticosterone levels were investigated in free-living nestling American kestrels, Falco sparverius, a semialtricial falcon species. In an observational study, corticosterone levels varied with age and handling time. Specifically, corticosterone was low until age 15 days and then rose from age 20 through 25 days. Nestlings as young as age 10 days showed a handling-induced rise in corticosterone. Neither sex nor hatching order of the nestling affected corticosterone levels. Concentrations of maternally derived yolk androgens have previously been shown to be lower in first-laid than in later-laid eggs in the clutch. In an experimental study, androgens were injected into the yolk of the first-laid egg to elevate its levels to those of later-laid eggs, a treatment that substantially reduces nestling body condition compared with that of controls. Yolk androgen treatment elevated posthatching corticosterone levels compared with those of controls, and corticosterone levels were negatively correlated with body condition. These findings indicate that even very young, developing birds can show stress-induced increases in corticosterone and that age-related changes in corticosterone secretion may be modified by body condition and maternal effects such as yolk androgen deposition. The short- and long-term consequences of high glucocorticosteroid levels in young, developing vertebrates are largely unknown. PMID:11316426

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

2001-05-01

357

The maternal environment affects offspring viability via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions that reproductive females experience can influence patterns of offspring provisioning and fitness. In particular, prey availability can influence maternal reproduction and, in turn, affect the viability of their offspring. Although such maternal effects are widespread, the mechanisms by which these effects operate are poorly understood. We manipulated the amount of prey available to female brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to evaluate how this factor affects patterns of reproductive investment (total egg output, egg size, yolk steroids) and offspring viability (morphology, growth, survival). Experimental reduction of yolk in a subset of eggs enabled us to evaluate a potential causal mechanism (yolk investment) that mediates the effect of maternal prey availability on offspring viability. We show that limited prey availability significantly reduced egg size, which negatively influenced offspring size, growth, and survival. Experimental yolk removal from eggs directly reduced offspring size, which, in turn, negatively affected offspring growth and survival. These findings show that maternal environments (i.e., low prey) can affect offspring fitness via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size and highlight the complex set of indirect effects by which maternal effects can operate. PMID:24642545

Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B

2014-01-01

358

48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C...earn 80 CLPs every 2 years. To maintain HHS SAC certification, all individuals...

2011-10-01

359

Sac-1004, a novel vascular leakage blocker, enhances endothelial barrier through the cAMP/Rac/cortactin pathway  

E-print Network

Sac-1004, a novel vascular leakage blocker, enhances endothelial barrier through the c history: Received 27 April 2013 Available online 9 May 2013 Keywords: Sac-1004 Vascular permeability VEGF actin ring. Here, we developed a novel vascular leakage blocker, Sac-1004 and investigated its mechanism

Suh, Young-Ger

360

Quantification of Cardiac Sac Network Effects on a Movement-Related Parameter of Pyloric Network Output in the Lobster  

E-print Network

Quantification of Cardiac Sac Network Effects on a Movement- Related Parameter of Pyloric Network 29 September 2002 Thuma, Jeff B. and Scott L. Hooper. Quantification of cardiac sac network effects.1152/jn.00631.2002. Cardiac sac network activity (cycle period tens of seconds to minutes) has long been

Hooper, Scott

361

Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology Sac-0601 prevents retinal vascular leakage in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy  

E-print Network

Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology Sac-0601 prevents retinal vascular leakage in a mouse model VEGF Sac-0601 Endothelium integrity is important for the normal functioning of vessels, the disruption in diabetic retinopathy, causing retinal vascular leakage. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of Sac-0601

Suh, Young-Ger

362

SIMPLIFED ACQUISITION COMMITTEE (SAC) MEETING Wednesday, April 23, 2014 -9:30 am 11:30 am  

E-print Network

SIMPLIFED ACQUISITION COMMITTEE (SAC) MEETING AGENDA Wednesday, April 23, 2014 - 9:30 am � 11:30 am to view the demonstration. Event: SAC Meeting eGOS Demonstration Event url Password: 042314 2. Closing FY as a Word file for each part. If SAC members have any comments on the HHSAR Rewrite, provide your comments

Rau, Don C.

363

YOIK SAC STi.GgEI.MRGETICS LABVA! 0.r' TtLR.EtiiAilAIIAIi !'ISHES  

E-print Network

YOIK SAC STi.GgEI.MRGETICS o} .IiiE LABVA! 0.r' TtLR.EtiiAilAIIAIi !'ISHES A THBSIS SITBI'energeties of yoll{ sac stage larvae of c. raate, g. nicropus, and A. abclominalis were investigated und.er lab catabolic requirenents exceeded, yol}i sac caloric reserves. Each species was capable of surviving

Luther, Douglas S.

364

48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C...earn 80 CLPs every 2 years. To maintain HHS SAC certification, all individuals...

2010-10-01

365

Responses of the endolymphatic sac to perilymphatic injections and withdrawals: evidence for the presence of a one-way valve  

E-print Network

Responses of the endolymphatic sac to perilymphatic injections and withdrawals: evidence Received 16 October 2003; accepted 30 December 2003 Abstract Although the endolymphatic sac (ES) is thought and pressure changes. In a prior publication, we demonstrated changes of Kþ , Naþ and endolymphatic sac

Salt, Alec N.

366

Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta menardi  

E-print Network

Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic

Buehler, Markus J.

367

48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C...earn 80 CLPs every 2 years. To maintain HHS SAC certification, all individuals...

2012-10-01

368

Application of the COSMO-SAC-BP Solvation Model to Predictions of Normal Boiling Temperatures for Environmentally Significant Substances  

E-print Network

Application of the COSMO-SAC-BP Solvation Model to Predictions of Normal Boiling Temperatures reported the COSMO-SAC-BP model for predicting vapor pressure and its temperature derivative, the enthalpy of vaporization. This COSMO-SAC-BP model, which contains no compound specific parameters, is based on determining

Goddard III, William A.

369

48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C...earn 80 CLPs every 2 years. To maintain HHS SAC certification, all individuals...

2013-10-01

370

Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver ( Castor canadensis ): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both sexes of beavers possess a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands located in paired subcutaneous cavities between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The castor sacs are not glandular in the histological sense, hence references to these structures as preputial glands or castor glands are misnomers. The wall of the castor sacs is

Jon M. Walro; Gerald E. Svendsen

1982-01-01

371

?-Cryptoxanthin biofortified maize (Zea mays) increases ?-cryptoxanthin concentration and enhances the color of chicken egg yolk.  

PubMed

The laying hen has a natural ability to deposit carotenoids into its egg yolks, especially the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein that is used commercially as an egg colorant. Can this ability to deposit carotenoids be used to enrich egg yolk provitamin A value? After a 10-d carotenoid depletion period in hens (n = 24), the effects of a 20-d intervention with high-?-cryptoxanthin, high-?-carotene, or typical yellow maize on color and carotenoid profile were compared with the effects of a white maize diet (n = 6/treatment). Eggs were collected every other day and yolks were analyzed by using a portable colorimeter to define the color space and by using an HPLC to determine the carotenoid profile. The high-?-cryptoxanthin and yellow maize increased ?-cryptoxanthin in the yolk (0.55 ± 0.08 to 4.20 ± 0.56 nmol/g and 0.55 ± 0.08 to 1.06 ± 0.12 nmol/g, respectively; P < 0.001). Provitamin A equivalents increased in eggs from hens fed high-?-cryptoxanthin maize (P < 0.001) but not the high-?-carotene maize. The color (L*, a*, and b*) assessment of the yolks showed an increase in the high-?-cryptoxanthin treatment for the red-green a* scale (P < 0.001) and a decrease for the light-dark L* scale (P < 0.001). No appreciable change was noted in the yellow-blue b* scale for the high-?-cryptoxanthin treatment; but significant changes were noted for the yellow (P = 0.002) and high-?-carotene maize (P = 0.005) treatments, which were most evident at the end of the washout period with white maize. ?-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified maize is a potential vehicle to elevate provitamin A equivalents and to enhance the color of yolks. This could lead to a human health benefit if widely adopted. PMID:22252357

Liu, Y-Q; Davis, C R; Schmaelzle, S T; Rocheford, T; Cook, M E; Tanumihardjo, S A

2012-02-01

372

Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk  

PubMed Central

Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption. PMID:22876878

2012-01-01

373

Cu2O template synthesis of high-performance PtCu alloy yolk-shell cube catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.  

PubMed

Novel PtCu alloy yolk-shell cubes were fabricated via the disproportionation and displacement reactions in Cu2O yolk-shell cubes, and they exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation. PMID:25182273

Ye, Sheng-Hua; He, Xu-Jun; Ding, Liang-Xin; Pan, Zheng-Wei; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Wu, Mingmei; Li, Gao-Ren

2014-09-18

374

The protective effect of egg yolk from different avian species during the cryopreservation of Karayaka ram semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg yolk is one of the most widely used cryoprotective components for sperm preservation and a wide range of factors affect its action on sperm motility, viability and fertilizing ability. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of different species egg yolk, namely the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), the goose (Anatidae anser), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), duck

Recai Kulaks?z; Çi?dem Çebi; Ergun Akçay; Ali Da?k?n

2010-01-01

375

Plasma Yolk Precursor Dynamics during Egg Production by Female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila): Characterization and Indices of  

E-print Network

372 Plasma Yolk Precursor Dynamics during Egg Production by Female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila characterized dynamics of the plasma yolk precursors vi- tellogenin (VTG), very-low-density lipoprotein (total state. Mean ( 1 SE) plasma concen- trations of VTG and total VLDL-TG for females with nonde- veloped

376

The effects of biopolymer encapsulation on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk during in vitro human digestion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

2013-01-01

377

Laying-sequence-specific variation in yolk oestrogen levels, and relationship to plasma oestrogen in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between plasma and yolk oestrogens in laying female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by manipulating plasma oestradiol (E2) levels, via injection of oestradiol-17?, in a sequence-specific manner to maintain chronically high plasma levels for later-developing eggs (contrasting with the endogenous pattern of decreasing plasma E2 concentrations during laying). We report systematic variation in yolk oestrogen concentrations, in relation to laying sequence, similar to that widely reported for androgenic steroids. In sham-manipulated females, yolk E2 concentrations decreased with laying sequence. However, in E2-treated females plasma E2 levels were higher during the period of rapid yolk development of later-laid eggs, compared with control females. As a consequence, we reversed the laying-sequence-specific pattern of yolk E2: in E2-treated females, yolk E2 concentrations increased with laying-sequence. In general therefore, yolk E2 levels were a direct reflection of plasma E2 levels. However, in control females there was some inter-individual variability in the endogenous pattern of plasma E2 levels through the laying cycle which could generate variation in sequence-specific patterns of yolk hormone levels even if these primarily reflect circulating steroid levels. PMID:15695208

Williams, Tony D.; Ames, Caroline E.; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.

2005-01-01

378

The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

2013-01-01

379

Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen  

E-print Network

EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL AS INFLUENCED BY CEREAL GRAIN AND AGE OF THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by MUNTHER DAWOD HUSSEINI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1975 Major Subject: Poultry Science EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL AS INFLUENCED BY CEREAL GRAIN AND AGE OF THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by MUNTHER DAWOD HUSSEINI Approved as to style and content by: (C airm n of Comm tee) ead f Departm t) (Memb...

Husseini, Munther Dawod

2012-06-07

380

The First Transmembrane Domain of Lipid Phosphatase SAC1 Promotes Golgi Localization  

PubMed Central

The lipid phosphatase Sac1 cycles between endoplasmic reticulum and cisternal Golgi compartments. In proliferating mammalian cells, a canonical dilysine motif at the C-terminus of Sac1 is required for coatomer complex-I (COP-I)-binding and continuous retrieval to the ER. Starvation triggers accumulation of Sac1 at the Golgi. The mechanism responsible for Golgi retention of Sac1 is unknown. Here we show that the first of the two transmembrane regions in human SAC1 (TM1) functions in Golgi localization. A minimal construct containing only TM1 and the adjacent flanking sequences is concentrated at the Golgi. Transplanting TM1 into transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) induces Golgi accumulation of this normally plasma membrane and endosomal protein, indicating that TM1 is sufficient for Golgi localization. In addition, we determined that the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of SAC1 also promotes Golgi localization, even when TM1 is mutated or absent. We conclude that the distribution of SAC1 within the Golgi is controlled via both passive membrane thickness-dependent partitioning of TM1 and a retention mechanism that requires the N-terminal cytoplasmic region. PMID:23936490

Wang, Jinzhi; Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A.; Mayinger, Peter

2013-01-01

381

Crystal structure of the yeast Sac1: implications for its phosphoinositide phosphatase function  

PubMed Central

Sac family phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatases are an essential family of CX5R(T/S)-based enzymes, involved in numerous aspects of cellular function such as PI homeostasis, cellular signalling, and membrane trafficking. Genetic deletions of several Sac family members result in lethality in animal models and mutations of the Sac3 gene have been found in human hereditary diseases. In this study, we report the crystal structure of a founding member of this family, the Sac phosphatase domain of yeast Sac1. The 2.0 Å resolution structure shows that the Sac domain comprises of two closely packed sub-domains, a novel N-terminal sub-domain and the PI phosphatase catalytic sub-domain. The structure further shows a striking conformation of the catalytic P-loop and a large positively charged groove at the catalytic site. These findings suggest an unusual mechanism for its dephosphorylation function. Homology structural modeling of human Fig4/Sac3 allows the mapping of several disease-related mutations and provides a framework for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of human diseases. PMID:20389282

Manford, Andrew; Xia, Tian; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Stefan, Christopher; Hu, Fenghua; Emr, Scott D; Mao, Yuxin

2010-01-01

382

Guidance in vitro of the pollen tube to the naked embryo sac of torenia fournieri  

PubMed Central

The precise guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac is critical to the successful sexual reproduction of flowering plants. We demonstrate here the guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac in vitro by using the naked embryo sac of Torenia fournieri, which protrudes from the micropyle of the ovule. We developed a medium for culture of both the ovule and the pollen tube of T. fournieri and cocultivated them in a thin layer of solid medium. Although pollen tubes that had germinated in vitro passed naked embryo sacs, some pollen tubes that grew semi-in vitro through a cut style arrived precisely at the site of entry into the embryo sac, namely, the filiform apparatus of the synergids. When pollen tubes were unable to enter the embryo sac, they continuously grew toward the same filiform apparatus, forming narrow coils. Pollen tubes selectively arrived at complete, unfertilized embryo sacs but did not arrive at those of heat-treated ovules or those with disrupted synergids. These results convincingly demonstrate that pollen tubes are specifically attracted to the region of the filiform apparatus of living synergids in vitro. PMID:9836742

Higashiyama, T; Kuroiwa, H; Kawano, S; Kuroiwa, T

1998-01-01

383

Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

Glasscock, J.A.

1995-03-08

384

Using life-histories to predict and interpret variability in yolk hormones O.P. Love a,b,*, H.G. Gilchrist c  

E-print Network

Keywords: Corticosterone Yolk hormones Maternal effects Laying order European starling (Sturnus vulgaris that exposure to elevated yolk glucocorticoids reduces offspring quality at birth/hatching in many taxa in yolk cor- ticosterone has the potential to act as an adaptive maternal effect in species where

385

SAC-B GaAs solar array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the electrical and mechanical design of the GaAs solar array of SAC-B, an Argentinian scientific satellite, planned for launch in 1995 into a 550-km circular orbit by Pegasus vehicle. The solar array is made up of four deployable wings, embodying approximately 1000 LPE GaAs solar cells, (30 x 41 sq mm), capable of providing about 215 W at 28 V at EOL. The mechanical structure of each panel comprises an aluminum honeycomb structure with carbon fiber skins; the active facesheet is covered with an insulating layer of kapton/fiberglass. Each panel is attached via a pair of hinges to the spacecraft body while a restraint/release mechanism holds the other panel edge to the spacecraft. Different considerations have been taken into account for the electrical and mechanical design of the solar array: geometrical constraints of the Pegasus static envelope and the satellite for the panel dimensioning, mission degradation factors, minimization of the magnetic moment, and realiability requirements. Several environmental tests (including thermal vacuum and vibration) are foreseen at panel and/or satellite level to verify performances during the mission.

Brambilla, L.; Caon, A.; Contini, R.; D'Accolti, G.; Rossi, E.; Verzeni, G.; Flores, C.; Paletta, F.; Pedrazzoli, G.; Grattarola, M.

1993-10-01

386

ORIGINAL PAPER Sex-specific effects of yolk-androgens on growth  

E-print Network

kestrel (Falco sparverius), experimental elevation of yolk androgens in the first-laid egg of a clutch (a kestrels (Falco sparverius; Sockman Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2008) 62:617­625 DOI 10.1007/s00265-007-0486-z

Sockman, Keith W.

387

Yolk Antioxidants Vary with Male Attractiveness and Female Condition in the House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)  

E-print Network

1098 Yolk Antioxidants Vary with Male Attractiveness and Female Condition in the House Finch alter offspring quality before hatch. Lipid-soluble vitamins and carotenoids are potent antioxidants. Female birds deposit these antioxidants into eggs in variable amounts according to environmental

Badyaev, Alex

388

Yolk androgens in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica): a test of some adaptive hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal effects such as androgen in avian eggs can mediate evolutionary responses to selection, allowing manipulation of offspring phenotype and promoting trans-generational adaptive effects. We tested the predictions of two adaptive hypotheses that have been proposed to explain female variation in yolk androgen allocation in birds, using the barn swallow Hirundo rustica as a model. We found no support for

D. Gil; P. Ninni; A. Lacroix; F. De Lope; C. Tirard; A. Marzal; A. Pape

2005-01-01

389

Effect of dietary saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of egg yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of dietary inclusion of red stigmas of Greek saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of shell eggs and liquid yolks were investigated and compared with those of dietary ?-tocopherol.2. Ninety-six Lohmann laying hens, 38 weeks old, distributed into 4 groups with 4 replicates each, were given either a control diet, diets enriched with 10 (SAF10)

N. A. Botsoglou; P. Florou-Paneri; I. Nikolakakis; I. Giannenas; V. Dotas; E. N. Botsoglou; S. Aggelopoulos

2005-01-01

390

BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Yolk carotenoids and stable isotopes reveal links among  

E-print Network

roles as antioxidants and in immune system function, vision, and coloration (Blount et al. 2000). Female their developing immune systems (Blount et al. 2002a; Saino et al. 2003). However, this maternal investment response to stronger marine primary production. Our results are novel because they link avian yolk

391

Designing a yolk-shell type porous organic network using a phenyl modified template.  

PubMed

A new strategy was developed to introduce gold nanoparticles into the yolk-shell type porous organic networks under the assistance of a phenyl modified SiO2-based template. The obtained material showed good properties such as thermal-stability and anti-aggregation, and can be used as an efficient nanoreactor for the catalytic decomposition of cyclohexyl hydroperoxide. PMID:24983778

Shi, Song; Chen, Chen; Wang, Min; Ma, Jiping; Ma, Hong; Xu, Jie

2014-08-21

392

Increased yolk testosterone facilitates prenatal perceptual learning in Northern bobwhite quail ( Colinus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal learning plays an important role in the ontogeny of behavior and birds provide a useful model to explore whether and how prenatal exposure to hormones of maternal origin can influence prenatal learning and the development of behavior. In this study we assessed if prenatal exposure to yolk testosterone can influence auditory learning in embryos of Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus

Aline Bertin; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Erich Möstl; Robert Lickliter

2009-01-01

393

Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary drugs and feed additives (especially some coccidiostats) can be absorbed by the digestive tract of laying hens and transferred to the egg. Physicochemical characteristics of these compounds determine their pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution to and within the egg. Traditionally the quite lipid soluble drugs and additives are expected to yield residues only in the fat-rich yolk. However, the quite

Cornelis A. Kan; Michael Petz

2000-01-01

394

Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs ( Megascops asio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the

D. Caldwell Hahn

2011-01-01

395

Determinants of within- and among-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone in the European starling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal glucocorticoids are known to affect offspring phenotype in numerous vertebrate taxa. In birds, the maternal transfer of corticosterone to eggs was recently proposed as a hormonal mechanism by which offspring phenotype is matched to the relative quality of the maternal environment. However, current hypotheses lack supporting information on both intra- and inter-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone for wild birds.

O. P. Love; K. E. Wynne-Edwards; L. Bond; T. D. Williams

2008-01-01

396

Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on cryopreservation of Boer goat semen in Tris egg yolk extender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant added in different concentrations to the Tris egg yolk extenders on semen cytological parameters pre freezing and post thawing (motility, morphology, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity) of Boer goat spermatozoa. A total of 40 ejaculates from four Boer goat bucks were collected

Akeel Ahmed Memon; H. Wahid; Y. Rosnina; Y. M. Goh; M. Ebrahimi; F. M. Nadia; G. Audrey

397

Plasma Corticosterone in Nestling American Kestrels: Effects of Age, Handling Stress, Yolk Androgens, and Body Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of age, handling-induced stress, yolk androgens, and body condition on plasma corticosterone levels were investigated in free-living nestling American kestrels, Falco sparverius, a semialtricial falcon species. In an observational study, corticosterone levels varied with age and handling time. Specifically, corticosterone was low until age 15 days and then rose from age 20 through 25 days. Nestlings as young

Keith W. Sockman; Hubert Schwabl

2001-01-01

398

Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

2012-01-01

399

Acoustic properties of egg yolk and albumen in the frequency range 20400 MHz  

E-print Network

ZnO piezoelectric film transducers on their outer ends. A rf burst signal is supplied, velocity, impedance, and density among yolk and thick and outer thin albumen are observed. The acoustic between thick and outer thin albumen may be mainly due to their macromolecular level structural

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

400

Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

2008-01-01

401

Multifunctional yolk-in-shell nanoparticles for pH-triggered drug release and imaging.  

PubMed

Multifunctional nanoparticles are synthesized for both pH-triggered drug release and imaging with radioluminescence, upconversion luminescent, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The particles have a yolk-in-shell morphology, with a radioluminescent core, an upconverting shell, and a hollow region between the core and shell for loading drugs. They are synthesized by controlled encapsulation of a radioluminescent nanophosphor yolk in a silica shell, partial etching of the yolk in acid, and encapsulation of the silica with an upconverting luminescent shell. Metroxantrone, a chemotherapy drug, was loaded into the hollow space between X-ray phosphor yolk and up-conversion phosphor shell through pores in the shell. To encapsulate the drug and control the release rate, the nanoparticles are coated with pH-responsive biocompatible polyelectrolyte layers of charged hyaluronic acid sodium salt and chitosan. The nanophosphors display bright luminescence under X-ray, blue light (480 nm), and near infrared light (980 nm). They also served as T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with relaxivities of 3.5 mM(-1) s(-1) (r1 ) and 64 mM(-1) s(-1) (r2 ). These multifunctional nanocapsules have applications in controlled drug delivery and multimodal imaging. PMID:24753264

Chen, Hongyu; Qi, Bin; Moore, Thomas; Wang, Fenglin; Colvin, Daniel C; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; Gore, John C; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Mefford, O Thompson; Alexis, Frank; Anker, Jeffrey N

2014-08-27

402

Sex-specific patterns of yolk androgen allocation depend on maternal diet in the zebra finch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females are predicted to adjust their reproductive investment in relation to resource quality. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), diet quality has been found to influence egg mass both between and within clutches. We tested the prediction that diet quality also affects the quantity of maternally allocated yolk testosterone and 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) between and within clutches. We also investigated whether this

Alison N. Rutstein; Lucy Gilbert; Peter J. B. Slater; Jeff A. Graves

2005-01-01

403

Sexually attractive phrases increase yolk androgens deposition in Canaries ( Serinus canaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The androgen concentration in birds’ eggs varies with laying order, breeding conditions, and mate attractiveness. In passerine birds, mate attractiveness depends upon song quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of one criterion used by females to assess male song quality that is to say the presence of sexually attractive phrases on yolk androgen deposition. Twenty-five

Aurélie Tanvez; Nathalie Béguin; Olivier Chastel; André Lacroix; Gérard Lebouchera

2004-01-01

404

Yolk utilization by Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) alevins in response to temperature and substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic salmon alevins were reared from hatching with and without rugose substrate (gravel) at each of five ambient temperatures (4, 6, 8, 10, 12°C). Gross yolk utilization efficiency was higher for alevins reared on substrate at all test temperatures. Alevins reared on substrate showed the greatest gains at the highest temperatures, whereas alevins without substrate showed the opposite trend. The

R. H. Peterson; D. J. Martin-Robichaud

1995-01-01

405

Egg Yolk Layers Vary in the Concentration of Steroid Hormones in Two Avian Species  

E-print Network

of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). We found that in the dark-eyed junco the concentration of progesterone is significantly greater at the periphery of the yolk found in both the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird that the concentration of testosterone

Casto, Joseph M.

406

Environmental sex determination in a reptile varies seasonally and with yolk hormones.  

PubMed Central

Most hypotheses that have been put forward in order to explain the persistence of environmental sex determination (ESD) in reptiles assume a relatively fixed association of sex with temperature-induced phenotype and no maternal influence on offspring sex. Here we demonstrate the association of maternally derived yolk hormone levels with the offspring sex ratio and describe two new aspects of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), i.e. seasonal variation in both thermal response and yolk steroid levels. Eggs from painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) were incubated at 28 degrees C. The hatchling sex ratio at 28 degrees C (i.e. the phenotypic reaction norm for sex at 28 degrees C) shifted seasonally from ca. 72% male to ca. 76% female. Yolk oestradiol (E2) increased seasonally while testosterone (T) decreased. The proportion of males in a clutch decreased as E2 levels increased and the E2:T ratio increased. These new findings are discussed in relation to heritability and adaptive explanations for the persistence of ESD in reptiles. Maternally derived yolk hormones may provide a mechanism for the seasonal shift in the sex ratio which in turn may help explain the persistence of ESD in reptiles. They may also explain those clutches of other reptiles with TSD that fail to yield only males at maximally masculinizing conditions. PMID:12233772

Bowden, R M; Ewert, M A; Nelson, C E

2000-01-01

407

Histological evaluation of pearl-sac development in the Concho Pearly Mussel (Cyrtonaias tampicoens)  

E-print Network

The purpose of this project was to assess the wound repair properties and epithelial cell proliferation in the processes necessary to develop a pearl-sac in the mantle of the Concho Pearly Mussel (Uniodidea: Cyrtonaias tampicoens). Samples...

Tower, Stephan N.

2012-06-07

408

38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SF-SAC and instructions for its completion may be obtained from the following Web page: http://harvester.census.gov/fac/collect/sfsac_01.pdf . It is also available from the address provided in §...

2010-07-01

409

Cotton embryogenesis: The entrance and discharge of the pollen tube in the embryo sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the entrance and discharge of the pollen tube into the embryo sac of Gossypium hirsutum was made with the light and electron microscopes. The following sequence of events is seen in cotton:

William A. Jensen; Donald B. Fisher

1967-01-01

410

Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (?C ? 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.

2012-12-01

411

Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1)?Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2)?Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3)?Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4)?Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic. In addition, we conclude: (5)?The advent of avian unidirectional lung ventilation is not possible to pinpoint, as osteological correlates have yet to be identified for uni- or bidirectional lung ventilation. (6)?The origin and evolution of avian air sacs may have been driven by one or more of the following three factors: flow-through lung ventilation, locomotory balance, and/or thermal regulation. PMID:18825273

Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

2008-01-01

412

Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.  

PubMed

Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

Wilson, F E

1986-04-01

413

Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

1985-01-01

414

Social Cohesiveness, Territoriality, and Holiday DecorationsThe Influence of Cul-de-Sacs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altman's territoriality theory was used as a framework for examining neighborhood attachment. We hypothesized that attachment would be manifested in interrelated patterns of neighboring behaviors, attitudes indicating that the block was a secondary territory, and individual and communal displays of holiday decorations. Design features of cul-de-sacs were hypothesized to contribute to greater degrees of block attachment on cul-de-sacs than on

Barbara B. Brown; Carol M. Werner

1985-01-01

415

Unusual microtubular cytoskeleton of apomictic embryo sac of Chondrilla juncea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The mature apomictic embryo sac of Chondrilla juncea is highly vacuolated and demonstrates a polarization similar to that of the amphimictic gametophyte. The microtubule cytoskeleton\\u000a of this embryo sac is uncharacteristic and relatively weak. The microtubules are positioned along cell walls and resemble\\u000a cortical microtubules of somatic cells. They do not form the parallel, brushlike structures observed around the filiform

M. Ko?ci?ska-Paj?k; J. Bednara

2006-01-01

416

Duck egg yolk in extender improves the freezability of buffalo bull spermatozoa.  

PubMed

We investigated the use of duck egg yolk (DEY), Guinea fowl egg yolk (GFEY) and Indian indigenous hen (Desi) egg yolk (IDEY) in extender for improving the post-thaw quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa, and compared it with commercial hen egg yolk (CHEY; control). For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates of semen from each of two Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls were collected on 1 day each week for 5 weeks (replicates; n=5) with artificial vagina (42 degrees C). Split pooled ejaculates, were diluted in tris-citric acid glycerol extender containing either DEY or GFEY or IDEY or CHEY at 37 degrees C. Extended semen was cooled to 4 degrees C in 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4 degrees C. Cooled semen was then filled in 0.5 ml straws at 4 degrees C and frozen in programmable cell freezer. Thawing of semen was performed at 37 degrees C for 30 s. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and sperm morphology (acrosome integrity, head, mid-piece and tail abnormalities) of each semen sample were assessed at 0, 3 and 6 h after thawing and incubation at 37 degrees C. Visual motility (%) and percentage of intact plasma membranes assessed at 6h post-thaw of buffalo bull spermatozoa were highest (P<0.05) due to DEY as compared to GFEY, IDEY and control. The percentage of spermatozoa with normal acrosomes at 0, 3 and 6 h post-thaw was highest (P<0.05) in DEY extender than GFEY, IDEY and CHEY. Sperm tail abnormalities (%) observed at 0, 3 and 6 h post-thaw in samples cryopreserved with freezing extender having DEY were lower (P<0.05) as compared to extender containing GFEY, IDEY and CHEY. In conclusion, DEY compared to other avian yolks in extender improves the frozen-thawed quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:17709214

Andrabi, S M H; Ansari, M S; Ullah, N; Anwar, M; Mehmood, A; Akhter, S

2008-03-01

417

Acoustic analysis of primate air sacs and their effect on vocalization.  

PubMed

This paper presents an analysis of the acoustic impedance of primate air sacs and their interaction with the vocal tract. A lumped element model is derived and it is found that the inertance of the neck and the volume of the air sac are relevant, as well as the mass and stiffness of the walls (depending on the tissue). It is also shown that at low frequencies, radiation from the air sac can be non-negligible, even if the mouth is open. It is furthermore shown that an air sac can add one or two low resonances to the resonances of the oral tract, and that it shifts up the oral tract's resonances below approximately 2000 Hz, and shifts them closer together. The theory was verified by acoustic measurements and applied to the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). The theory describes the physical models and the siamang calls correctly, but appears incomplete for the howler monkey vocalizations. The relation between air sacs and the evolution of speech is discussed briefly, and it is proposed that an air sac would reduce the ability to produce distinctive speech, but would enhance the impression of size of the vocalizer. PMID:20000947

de Boer, Bart

2009-12-01

418

Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens: Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn) were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo. PMID:21886826

Henriksen, Rie

2011-01-01

419

Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

Oppel, S.; Federer, R. N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A. N.; Hollmen, T. E.

2010-01-01

420

Saccharinato complexes of Ce(V) with 2-hydroxypyridine: synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal characteristics of [Ce(sac)2(SO4)(H2O)4] and [Ce(sac)2(SO4)(PyOH)2].  

PubMed

The synthesis of Ce(IV) complexes [Ce(sac)2(SO4)(H2O)4] (1) and [Ce(sac)2 (SO4)(PyOH)2] (2) (sac=saccharinate, PyOH=2-hydroxypyridine) starting with sodium saccharinate is described. Their vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C) spectra as well as their thermal mode of degradation were investigated. The data indicate that sac in complex 1 behaves as a monodentate ligand through the nitrogen atoms. Saccharinato ligand in complex 2 shows different mode of coordination, where it behaves as tridentate and binds Ce(IV) through its carbonylic oxygen, nitrogen and sulphonylic oxygen atoms. The most probable structure in complex 2 is that, units of [Ce(sac)2(SO4)(PyOH)2] are linked by bridges of the O- of sac sulphonyl leading to polymeric chains. PMID:18077205

Gaballa, Akmal S; Teleb, Said M; Müller, Thomas

2008-10-01

421

Alveolar sacs and the expirograms of He and SF6: a model study.  

PubMed

In 1975, Hansen and Ampaya described alveolated outpouchings in the walls of the acinar ducts, which were observed in all airway generations within the acini. These structures were called alveolar sacs, and they appear to contain the larger fraction (56%) of the acinar volume. The total depth of an alveolar sac including its alveoli (approximately 0.32 mm) is comparable to the mean length of an acinar duct (0.18 to 0.97 mm). Therefore, the alveolar sacs contribute to the asymmetric morphology of the acini. In this paper we investigate the impact of this aspect of the alveolar sacs on the shape of the expirograms of He and SF6. To that end, single-breath washout experiments were simulated with two different mathematical lung models. The one model is an airway model in which the alveolar sacs are modelled explicitly by separate compartments. The expirograms obtained with this model are compared to those obtained with a conventional axisymmetric airway model which is used as a reference model. In this model the volumes of the alveolar sacs are added to those of the acinar ducts; i.e., both air spaces are represented by the same compartments. The washout of He and SF6 was simulated for three different breathing maneuvers corresponding to ventilatory conditions at rest and at exercise. Comparison of the expirograms obtained with the two models showed no differences between their shapes when identical dimensions are used for the lengths and cross sections of the alveolar ducts in the two models. We conclude that the contribution of the alveolar sacs to the asymmetric morphologic structure of the acini has no consequences for the shape of the expirograms of He and SF6. PMID:1889200

Six, D P; de Vries, W R; Luijendijk, S C

1991-08-01

422

Large scale production of yolk-shell ?-tricalcium phosphate powders, and their bioactivities as novel bone substitutes.  

PubMed

This paper proposes the production of yolk-shell structured ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) powders using a spray-drying method, suitable for commercial scale production. Spray-dried precursor powders, consisting of calcium-phosphate salts and each of the various carbon source materials, are combusted in an oxygen atmosphere to obtain a yolk-shell structure. Only dextrin among the carbon source materials investigated shows promise in the production of ?-TCP yolk-shell powders. By evaluating their apatite-forming capacity in simulated body fluid, the outstanding bioactivity of ?-TCP yolk-shell powders is confirmed: numerous acicular and newly formed hydroxyl carbonate apatite crystals cover the entire ?-TCP surface after a single day of soaking. These crystals are observed on both the outer and inner surfaces of the shells, and on the outer surface of the core, which is encouraging for its potential use as a bone grafting material. PMID:25005151

Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

2014-08-28

423

Characterization of PHB1 and Its Role in Mitochondrial Maturation and Yolk Platelet Degradation during Development of Artemia Embryos  

PubMed Central

Background To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts) with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. Principal Finding Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. Conclusions/Significance PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development. PMID:25310573

Ye, Xiang; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Sun, Yu-Xia; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

2014-01-01

424

Figure 3: Stress vs. Strain curve for Bulk SAC305 0 0.2 0.4 0.6  

E-print Network

Figure 3: Stress vs. Strain curve for Bulk SAC305 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Stress(MPa) Strain (mm/mm) Effect of Various Operating Conditions on the Low Cycle Fatigue of Bulk SAC 305 Solder Eric important to integrate lead-free solder, such as SAC 305 (96.5 % Sn by weight, 3.0% Cu, 0.5% Ag) · Bulk

Bernstein, Joseph B.

425

Reprsentation compacte des sacs de mots pour l'indexation d'images Herv Jgou Matthijs Douze Cordelia Schmid  

E-print Network

Représentation compacte des sacs de mots pour l'indexation d'images Hervé Jégou Matthijs Douze limitations est la quantité de mémoire requise pour décrire chaque image. Une représentation de type sac de article, nous étudions la possibilité de compres- ser et indexer conjointement les représentations sacs de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

Yolk testosterone and estradiol variation relative to clutch size, laying order and hatching asynchrony in Common Grackles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal effects are typically thought to enhance rather than reduce offspring performance, but asynchronous hatching (ASH)\\u000a in birds typically produces a size hierarchy within a clutch that frequently reduces the growth and survival of nestlings\\u000a from eggs that hatch later. Given that yolk steroids can significantly affect offspring phenotype and that in many species\\u000a the levels of yolk steroids have

J. Dylan Maddox; Rachel M. Bowden; Patrick J. Weatherhead

2008-01-01

427

Effects of the supplementation of trehalose extender containing egg yolk with sodium dodecyl sulfate on the freezability of goat spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) added to a trehalose-egg yolk extender on the cryopreservation of goat spermatozoa. In Experiment 1, semen from four goats was frozen in trehalose extender (osmolality=370, pH=7) containing 4 and 20% (v\\/v) glycerol and egg yolk, respectively, and 0.035–0.2% SDS. After thawing, sperm motility and acrosome integrity were

Eiman Mohamed-Elkheir Aboagla; Takato Terada

2004-01-01

428

Newly Deposited Maternal Hormones can be Detected in the Yolks of Oviductal Eggs in the Green Anole Lizard  

PubMed Central

Studies often examine egg yolks after oviposition with the goal of drawing conclusions about maternal allocation of gonadal steroid hormones and how it may affect offspring development. However, these hormones might originate from a few sources, including the ovary, blood plasma, or the embryo itself. The goal of this study was to investigate whether maternal steroids can enter oviductal eggs. In Experiment 1, gravid female green anole lizards were injected with 1 ?Ci 3H-T. Plasma, ovarian follicles (separated into yolking and non-yolking samples), and shelled oviductal eggs were collected at times ranging from 15 min to 24 hr after treatment. Main effects of tissue, time, and an interaction between them all existed on recovered 3H-hormone corrected for tissue mass. Of particular interest, there was a decrease in plasma with coincident increase in eggs. In Experiment 2, females were injected with doses ranging from 0.01 to 0.45 ?Ci of 3H-T per gram body weight. Across tissues, 3H-hormone levels corrected for mass were greater with increasing doses. Values also differed among tissues and an interaction was detected. Within each dose, plasma and non-yolking follicles generally had higher concentrations of 3H-hormone than did yolking follicles and oviductal eggs. However, at and after 6 hr, eggs had higher total radioactivity levels than both yolking and non-yolking follicles had (not corrected for mass). The results indicate that steroids can cross through relatively well-formed shells before oviposition, suggesting a way in which maternal hormones might influence developmental factors after yolk deposition. PMID:20336789

COHEN, RACHEL E.; WADE, JULI

2011-01-01

429

Changes in physicochemical properties of egg white and yolk proteins from duck shell eggs due to hydrostatic pressure treatment.  

PubMed

The shell of the duck egg did not crack after pressure treatments (300 to 500 MPa; 25 degrees C; 10 min) in this study; therefore, the changes of physicochemical properties of egg white and yolk proteins from the intact shell egg by pressure treatment were first investigated and compared with those of pressurized hen liquid eggs. Although the proximate compositions of duck eggs and hen eggs were similar, the moisture and protein contents of hen whole eggs were higher than those of duck whole eggs. The protein contents of duck egg white and yolk were slightly lower than those of hen eggs, and the moisture content of duck egg white was equal to that of hen egg white, whereas that of duck egg yolk was lower than that of hen egg yolk. After pressure treatment at 500 MPa, the results of solubility, sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobicity, and residual denaturation enthalpy showed that egg white proteins underwent slight but significant unfolding and aggregation, whereas pressure treatments below 500 MPa induced insignificant changes in the physicochemical properties. On the other hand, pressure treatments at 400 and 500 MPa significantly reduced the solubility and residual denaturation enthalpy of egg yolk proteins. However, the native PAGE result showed that pressure treatment up to 500 MPa did not affect the protein components of egg white and yolk. The results showed that the application of pressure treatment on duck shell egg may induce reversible denaturation of both egg white and yolk proteins. The egg white and yolk proteins may be prevented from denaturation after pressure treatment in the presence of the eggshell compared with the absence of the eggshell. As reported in the literature, pressure treatments at 300 to 500 MPa and 25 degrees C would be efficient for decontamination of duck shell eggs. Therefore, based on the consideration for food safety and functional properties, pressure processing can be a good preservation technique for duck shell eggs. PMID:20308405

Lai, K M; Chuang, Y S; Chou, Y C; Hsu, Y C; Cheng, Y C; Shi, C Y; Chi, H Y; Hsu, K C

2010-04-01

430

Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

2012-01-01

431

Effects of cadmium on yolk utilization, growth, and survival of Atlantic salmon alevins and newly feeding fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and the yolk-to-embryo gross conversion efficiencies were determined for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) alevins and fry reared under control conditions and at 0.2 and 2.0 ppb cadmium (Cd). Alevins reared at 2.0 ppb Cd grew more slowly than controls and alevins reared at 0.2 ppb. The size reduction was due primarily to reduction in yolk-conversion efficiency during the

R. H. Peterson; J. L. Metcalfe; S. Ray

1983-01-01

432

The Sac domain-containing phosphoinositide phosphatases: structure, function, and disease  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositides (PIs) have long been known to have an essential role in cell physiology. Their intracellular localization and concentration must be tightly regulated for their proper function. This spatial and temporal regulation is achieved by a large number of PI kinases and phosphatases that are present throughout eukaryotic species. One family of these enzymes contains a conserved PI phosphatase domain termed Sac. Although the Sac domain is homologous among different Sac domain-containing proteins, all appear to exhibit varied substrate specificity and subcellular localization. Dysfunctions in several members of this family are implicated in a range of human diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy, bipolar disorder, Down’s syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In plant, several Sac domain-containing proteins have been implicated in the stress response, chloroplast function and polarized secretion. In this review, we focus on recent findings in the family of Sac domain-containing PI phosphatases in yeast, mammal and plant, including the structural analysis into the mechanism of enzymatic activity, cellular functions, and their roles in disease pathophysiology. PMID:24860601

HSU, FoSheng; MAO, Yuxin

2014-01-01

433

Respiratory responses of domestic fowl to hyperthermia following selective air sac occlusions.  

PubMed

Ventilation together with blood and respiratory gas tensions were measured in adult domestic fowl under normothermic and hyperthermic conditions, following bilateral occlusion of the cranial and caudal thoracic air sacs (series I) or the cranial and caudal thoracic plus the abdominal air sacs (series II). Series I birds showed no significant differences from controls. Both control and experimental animals displayed a typical thermal polypnoea combined with mild hypocapnaemia. A larger drop in PCO2 was demonstrated in the clavicular sac than in the blood, possibly indicating partial failure of inspiratory valving at the ventrobronchi. However, there was no evidence of any effect of thoracic air sac occlusion on inspiratory airflow valving in the palaeopulmo. Series II birds were strongly hypercapnaemic/hypoxaemic in normothermic conditions, with a normal minute volume, but a faster, shallower breathing pattern. During hyperthermia they increased minute ventilation 3-fold, as in control animals, and blood gas tensions were almost restored to normal. Again, there was no evidence that experimental reduction in air sac capacity, in this case up to 70% of the total, had any effect on inspiratory airflow valving in the palaeopulmo, although inevitably in this case airflow in the neopulmo was abolished. PMID:2112403

Brackenbury, J H; Amaku, J A

1990-05-01

434

A status report on the development of SAC2000: A new seismic analysis code  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a new Seismic Analysis Code (SAC2000) that will meet the research needs of the seismic research and treaty monitoring communities. Our first step in this development was to rewrite the original Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) -- a Fortran code that was approximately 140,000 lines long -- in the C programming language. This rewrite has resulted in a much more robust code that is faster, more efficient, and more portable than the original. We have implemented important processing capabilities such as convolution and binary monograms, and we have significantly enhanced several previously existing capabilities. For example, the spectrogram command now produces a correctly registered plot of the input time series and a color image of the output spectrogram. We have also added an image plotting capability with access to 17 predefined color tables or custom color tables. A rewritten version of the readcss command can now be used to access any of the documented css.3.0 database data formats, a capability that is particularly important to the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) and the monitoring community. A much less visible, but extremely important contribution is the correction of numerous inconsistencies and errors that have evolved because of piecemeal development and limited maintenance since SAC was first written. We have also incorporated on-line documentation and have made SAC documentation available on the Internet via the world-wide-web at http://www-ep/tvp/sac.html.

Goldstein, P.; Minner, L.

1995-08-01

435

Yolk carotenoids and stable isotopes reveal links among environment, foraging behavior and seabird breeding success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients that are limited in availability, such as carotenoids, are potentially involved in trade-offs between homeostasis\\u000a and reproduction. Despite their importance, factors that affect the capacity of female birds to meet their carotenoid requirements\\u000a are poorly understood. We used ?15N stable isotope analysis to relate foraging behavior to yolk carotenoid deposition in two seabirds, Cassin’s auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and rhinoceros

J. Mark Hipfner; James Dale; Kevin J. McGraw

2010-01-01

436

A comparison of reconstituted buttermilk versus egg yolk-citrate as a diluent for bovine semen  

E-print Network

. Prank Malik, for their patienoe and helpfulness throughout the laboratory phase of this pro]ect. TABLE OP CO%TESTS Page Introdnotion I. Beriew of Literature II. Xrperbaental Prooedure III. Besults and Discussion IV. Conclusions V. Bibliography... cows, 'but no significant differonoos were obtained by ths addition of catalase 4o the egg yolk- citrato diluent. Smi4h, Mayer and Herman (114) have reported the results from an investigation of tho changes in osmotic pressure of extended semen...

Coppock, Carl E

2012-06-07

437

Effect of low and high egg yolk concentrations in the semen extender for goat semen cryopreservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to evaluate two concentrations of egg yolk inclusion rates (20 and 2.5%) in the semen extender of goat semen cryopreserved during two seasons of the year. The study was conducted during a light-induced breeding season (Experiment 1), and during the natural breeding season (Experiment 2), in the southern hemisphere. Four ejaculates from each buck (n=2) were collected

C. A. S. Bispo; G. Pugliesi; P. Galvão; M. T. Rodrigues; P. G. Ker; B. Filgueiras; G. R. Carvalho

2011-01-01

438

Environmental sex determination in a reptile varies seasonally and with yolk hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hypotheses that have been put forward in order to explain the persistence of environmental sex determination (ESD) in reptiles assume a relatively ¢xed association of sex with temperature-induced phenotype and no maternal in£uence on o¡spring sex. Here we demonstrate the association of maternally derived yolk hormone levels with the o¡spring sex ratio and describe two new aspects of temperature-

R. M. Bowden; M. A. Ewert; C. E. Nelson

2000-01-01

439

Relationship between vitellogenin and its related egg yolk proteins in Sakhalin taimen ( Hucho perryi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellogenin (Vg) and its three egg yolk protein products, lipovitellin (Lv), phosvitin (Pv) and ??-component, were isolated from mature female Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi). Vg had an apparent molecular weight of 540 kDa and appeared as a major 240 kDa band in SDS-PAGE, which resolved into two major bands (165 and 125 kDa) after reduction. The estimated molecular weights of

Naoshi Hiramatsu; Akihiko Hara

1996-01-01

440

Sequential separation of immunoglobulin Y and phosvitin from chicken egg yolk without using organic solvents.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to develop a simple sequential separation protocol to separate phosvitin and IgY from egg yolk without using organic solvents. Egg yolk was diluted with 2 volumes of distilled water (DW), homogenized, and centrifuged. The precipitant was collected and homogenized with 4 volumes of 10% NaCl (wt/vol) in 0.05 N NaOH solution to extract phosvitin. The pH of the homogenate was adjusted to 4.0 and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The supernatant was collected and then heat-treated at 70°C for 30 min and centrifuged to remove impurities. The supernatant containing phosvitin was collected, had salts removed, and was concentrated and then freeze-dried. The supernatant from the centrifugation of diluted egg yolk was diluted again with 3 volumes of DW, and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The resulting supernatant was concentrated using ultrafiltration and then IgY was precipitated using 20% saturated (NH4)2SO4 + 15% NaCl (wt/vol). The precipitant was collected after centrifugation at 3,400 × g for 30 min at 4°C and dissolved with DW, had salts removed, and then was freeze-dried. The purity of separated phosvitin and IgY was checked using SDS-PAGE and the proteins were verified using Western blotting. The purity of phosvitin and IgY was 97.2 and 98.7%, and the yield was 98.7 and 80.9%, respectively. The ELISA results indicated that the activities of separated IgY and phosvitin were 96.3 and 98.3%, respectively. This study proved that both phosvitin and IgY can be separated in sequence from egg yolk without using an organic solvent. Also, the method is very simple and has a high potential for scale-up processing. PMID:25085938

Lee, Hyun Yong; Abeyrathne, E D N S; Choi, Inwook; Suh, Joo Won; Ahn, Dong Uk

2014-10-01

441

Comparing ethylene glycol with glycerol for cryopreservation of buffalo bull semen in egg-yolk containing extenders.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol for ethylene glycol when cryopreserving buffalo semen. Semen of eight buffalo bulls was mixed, pooled, and frozen in one of these four diluents: centrifuged Tris egg yolk glycerol; centrifuged Tris egg yolk ethylene glycol; centrifuged Milk egg yolk glycerol; or centrifuged Milk egg yolk ethylene glycol. Semen quality parameters assessed after thawing were motility, survivability, livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Conception rate and pregnancy rate were calculated after insemination of 104 buffaloes by straws of different groups (26 female/extender). Improvement in livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity, conception rate, and pregnancy rate were seen when using ethylene glycol to replace glycerol when freezing buffalo bull semen in centrifuged TRIS egg yolk 61.15 ± 0.73, 24.85 ± 0.41, 69.10 ± 0.81, 71.75 ± 0.72, 46.2%, and 46.2%, respectively, followed by centrifuged milk egg yolk extenders. PMID:21664674

Swelum, A A; Mansour, H A; Elsayed, A A; Amer, H A

2011-09-15

442

Histological structures of native and cooked yolks from duck egg observed by SEM and cryo-SEM.  

PubMed

A method was used to fix duck egg yolk while retaining its original sol structure to elucidate the fine structure of native yolk by using fixation with liquid nitrogen and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Native yolk spheres showed a polyhedron shape with a diameter at approximately 50 to 100 ?m and packed closely together. Furthermore, the interior microstructure of the native yolk spheres showed that a great amount of round globules ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 ?m were embedded in a continuous phase with a lot of voids. After cooking, the sizes of the spheres were almost unchanged, and the continuous phase became a fibrous network structure observed by SEM with chemical fixation probably constituted of low density lipoprotein (LDL). The fine structure of the native yolk can be observed by cryo-SEM; however, the microstructure of yolk granules and plasma from cooked shell eggs can be observed by SEM with chemical fixation. PMID:19358603

Hsu, Kuo-Chiang; Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming

2009-05-27

443

Correlation analysis of the total IgY level in hen serum, egg yolk and offspring serum  

PubMed Central

The correlation between IgY levels of the serum and the yolk has been well documented in wild and domestic birds. The levels of total yolk IgY can be an index of the general health status of birds and may contribute to breeding programs when fitness of the offspring is a concern. We measured the levels of total serum IgY and yolk IgY in three different breeds (White Leghorn, Silkie and Dongxiang blue-shell) using indirect ELISA, and found that there was a significantly positive correlation between the levels of total serum IgY and total yolk IgY in all three breeds (White Leghorn: r?=?0.404, P?yolk IgY levels (r?=?0.481, P?yolk and offspring serum. Our results suggest that total IgY level could be used as an index for chicken fitness. PMID:23497583

2013-01-01

444

Yolk androgens in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica): a test of some adaptive hypotheses.  

PubMed

Maternal effects such as androgen in avian eggs can mediate evolutionary responses to selection, allowing manipulation of offspring phenotype and promoting trans-generational adaptive effects. We tested the predictions of two adaptive hypotheses that have been proposed to explain female variation in yolk androgen allocation in birds, using the barn swallow Hirundo rustica as a model. We found no support for the first hypothesis proposing that yolk androgen varies as a function of breeding density in order to prepare offspring for different breeding densities. However, we found experimental support for the hypothesis that female yolk androgen allocation depends on mate attractiveness and that it constitutes an example of differential allocation. Females increased the concentration of androgens in their eggs when mated to males with experimentally elongated tails. Female phenotypic quality as measured by arrival date and clutch size was positively related to egg androgen concentration, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a costly investment, constrained by female condition. We found correlative evidence of a direct relationship between egg androgen concentration and performance of offspring as measured by mass increase. PMID:16405584

Gil, D; Ninni, P; Lacroix, A; De Lope, F; Tirard, C; Marzal, A; Pape Møller, A

2006-01-01

445

In vitro assessment of soybean lecithin and egg yolk based diluents for cryopreservation of goat semen.  

PubMed

Soybean lecithin is a suitable plant-based cryoprotectant for freezing ruminant sperm. Optimum level of lecithin was not clear for goat semen cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soybean lecithin in semen extender on post-thaw sperm quality including CASA-motion parameters, viability, plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation. Semen samples were collected from 4 Mahabadi bucks using an artificial vagina. Different concentrations of soy lecithin (SL, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% w/v) were compared to 15% (v/v) egg yolk-based extender (TR-EY). No significant difference was observed for sperm progressive motility, viability or plasma membrane integrity in 1.5% SL media (33.8%, 66%, and 62.7%, respectively) and TR-EY medium (35.4%, 67.2%, and 64.9%, respectively). Sperm motion characteristics (VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH and LIN) and rapid spermatozoa were improved with extender containing 1% and 1.5% SL, compared to TR-EY extender. Furthermore, egg yolk produced significantly higher malondialdehyde (4.02±0.21) than other groups. Results suggest that the optimal lecithin concentration in the semen extender was 1.5% and also soy lecithin can substitute for egg yolk during cryopreservation for caprine sperm. PMID:24548541

Salmani, Hossein; Towhidi, Armin; Zhandi, Mahdi; Bahreini, Majid; Sharafi, Mohsen

2014-04-01

446

Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies. PMID:24812437

Miyares, Rosa L; de Rezende, Vitor B; Farber, Steven A

2014-07-01

447

Sex differences in yolk hormones depend on maternal social status in Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).  

PubMed Central

Maternal hormones are known to be present in avian eggs and can have beneficial effects on chick development. Recently, differences in avian yolk steroid concentrations between the sexes have been demonstrated, and in this context steroids have been proposed to be part of the avian sex-determining mechanism. In our study, we show that it is very unlikely that androgen concentrations alone are the decisive part of the sex-determining mechanism. We found that sex-specific differences in the yolk hormones strongly depend on the social rank of the mother. First, dominant females, but not subdominant females, allocated significantly more testosterone to male eggs than to female eggs. Second, subordinate females increased the testosterone concentrations of female eggs. This pattern of yolk hormone deposition can be functionally explained. In polygynous species such as the chicken, reproductive success is more variable in males than in females. Parental investment in sons or daughters is therefore expected to occur in direct relation to parental rearing capacities. We found that the social status of a hen was indeed negatively correlated with her maternal capacities (for example, body mass, egg mass). Differential androgen deposition might thus provide a mechanism for adaptive maternal investment depending on both the sex of the egg and the social status of the mother. PMID:12427318

Müller, Wendt; Eising, Corine M; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G G

2002-01-01

448

Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl  

PubMed Central

Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17?-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds. PMID:17148167

Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

2005-01-01

449

User's guide to SAC, a computer program for computing discharge by slope-area method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This user's guide contains information on using the slope-area program, SAC. SAC can be used to compute peak flood discharges from measurements of high-water marks along a stream reach. The Slope-area method used by the program is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) procedure presented in Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, beok 3, chapter A2, "Measurement of Peak Discharge by the Slope-Area Method." The program uses input files that have formats compatible with those used by the water-surface profile program (WSPRO) described in the Federal Highways Administration publication FHWA-IP-89-027. The guide briefly describes the slope-area method documents the input requirements and the output produced, and demonstrates use of SAC.

Fulford, Janice M.

1994-01-01

450

A New Technique for Reduction the Phase Induced Intensity Noise in SAC-OCDMA Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new code for reduction the phase induced intensity noise has been presented. The new code is proposed for Spectral Amplitude-Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Accesses (SAC-OCDMA). This new code family we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code reduced the effect of Multi Access Interference (MAI) due to it is the property of variable cross correlation. We find that the performance of the DCS code is a batter than other SAC-OCDMA codes such as; Random Diagonal (RD) code, Modified Quadratic Congruence (MQC) code and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) code. Through the mathematical calculation and simulation analysis, for the bit-error rate of DCS code is significantly better than other SAC-OCDMA codes, the effect of Phase Induced Intensity Noise is reduced. In addition, proofof-principle simulations of 10 Gb/s for 20 km have been successfully demonstrated and achieved low BER compared to the other codes.

Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan

2011-12-01

451

Deafness due to bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours in a case of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.  

PubMed Central

A case of bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours is reported. In a patient with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, tumour growth in the right cerebellopontine angle caused deafness. The tumour was removed and classified as a metastasis from a thyroid carcinoma. However, on thyroidectomy no primary neoplasm could be found. Eight years later a similar tumour was operated on in the left petrosal bone. Histological appearance, immunocytochemical findings, and the clinical context gave evidence that the tumours had to be reclassified as endolymphatic sac tumours--extremely rare entities. The report supports the hypothesis, suggested by the few earlier case reports, that endolymphatic sac tumours could be one of the inherent tumour manifestations in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Images PMID:8795608

Kempermann, G; Neumann, H P; Scheremet, R; Volk, B; Mann, W; Gilsbach, J; Laszig, R

1996-01-01

452

Response of air sac mesothelium to expansion of extracellular fluid volume in Gallus domesticus.  

PubMed

In this study, scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the effects of hydrothorax on the morphology of the air sac visceral mesothelium of Gallus domesticus. Anaesthetized chickens were subjected to acute hydrodynamic pulmonary oedema induced by expansion of the extracellular fluid volume with an infusion of Ringer's solution equal to 6.5% of body weight. Tissue samples from the visceral surface of the abdominal air sacs near their ostia were obtained and fixed after death induced by anaesthetic overdose. These were compared with similar samples from control "non-volume-loaded" birds. The air sac visceral mesothelium of the volume-loaded animals presented an increased density of bulbous or swollen microvilli. These deformations were similar to changes reported in the visceral pleura of mammals subjected to hydrothorax, suggesting a commonality with regard to the role of these mesothelia in liquid clearance during pulmonary oedema. PMID:11032672

Weidner, W J

2000-01-01

453

Experimental demonstration of variable weight SAC-OCDMA system for QoS differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the experimental and simulation results of variable-weight spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (VW-SAC-OCDMA) system is demonstrated. In the proposed system, three users with weights of 6, 4 and 2 each operating at data rate of 1.25 Gb/s represent video, data and voice services, respectively. Results show that for back-to-back system minimum average power of -20 dBm per chip is required to maintain the acceptable performance. Transmission up to 60 km of fiber is demonstrated. Using mathematical approximation the capacity of VW-SAC-OCDMA system is demonstrated.

Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad

2014-10-01

454

CAP/SAC-CI method for calculating resonance states of metastable anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex absorbing potential (CAP)/symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method has been developed to investigate resonance states of metastable anions. The method has been implemented in the projected scheme and applied to the ?? resonance state of formaldehyde. The dependence on both valence and diffuse basis sets up to g-function, the number of SAC-CI states in the projection, and the effect of perturbation selection are examined. The potential energy curve and decay width are calculated in the C-O stretching coordinate, and the Franck-Condon factors for transitions from neutral to resonance state are evaluated to interpret the electron transmission (ET) spectrum.

Ehara, Masahiro; Sommerfeld, Thomas

2012-06-01

455

Chromosomes and expression in human testicular germ-cell tumors: insight into their cell of origin and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Human germ-cell tumors (GCTs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Based on epidemiology, anatomical site of presentation, histology, chromosomal constitution, and pattern of genomic imprinting, GCTs are classified into five entities. Within the testis, three types of GCTs can be diagnosed: type I (teratomas and yolk-sac tumors of neonates and infants); type II (seminomas and nonseminomas); type III (spermatocytic seminomas). Here the focus is on the type II GCTs, the most frequent type in the adult testis (so-called TGCTs). They can also be diagnosed in dysgenetic gonads (an incomplete or defective formation of the gonad, caused by a disturbed process of migration of the germ cells and/or their correct organization in their fetal gonadal ridge), the anterior mediastinum, and pineal/suprasellar region. In the testis, they originate from the malignant counterpart of primordial germ cells/gonocytes, referred to as carcinoma in situ (CIS)/intratubular germ-cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGCNU). CIS/ITGCNU and seminomatous cells are characterized by expression of OCT3/4 and NANOG, while in addition embryonal carcinoma expresses SOX2, all identified as transcription factors related to pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells. With the exception of teratomas, most histological elements of TGCTs are sensitive for (cisplatin-based) chemotherapy; CIS/ITGCNU and seminoma cells are also sensitive to DNA damage induced by irradiation. Similar observations have been made for ES cells and their derivates. Moreover, the genetic constitution of TGCTs (low incidence of mutations and frequent uniparental disomies) can also be linked to characteristics of ES cells, likely related to their specific inability to repair DNA damage and their high sensitivity to apoptotic cell death. The unusual presence of wild-type P53 in TGCTs is explained by specific expression of a cluster of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), that is, hsa-miR 371-373, also expressed in ES cells, which prevents P53-driven cellular senescence upon oncogenic stress. Many characteristics of human TGCTs reflect the nonmalignant counterparts from which they originate. Demonstration of these characteristics, in combination with the knowledge of the abnormal niche of these cells, normally occupied by spermatogonia, allows an informative method for (early) diagnosis. The conclusion is that TGCTs are embryonic cancers found in adults. PMID:17911410

Looijenga, Leendert H J; Gillis, Ad J M; Stoop, Hans J; Hersmus, Remko; Oosterhuis, J Wolter

2007-12-01

456

Neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumors comprise a broad family of tumors, the most common of which are carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The NCCN Neuroendocrine Tumors Guidelines discuss the diagnosis and management of both sporadic and hereditary neuroendocrine tumors. Most of the recommendations pertain to well-differentiated, low- to intermediate-grade tumors. This updated version of the NCCN Guidelines includes a new section on pathology for diagnosis and reporting and revised recommendations for the surgical management of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. PMID:22679117

Kulke, Matthew H; Benson, Al B; Bergsland, Emily; Berlin, Jordan D; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Choti, Michael A; Clark, Orlo H; Doherty, Gerard M; Eason, James; Emerson, Lyska; Engstrom, Paul F; Goldner, Whitney S; Heslin, Martin J; Kandeel, Fouad; Kunz, Pamela L; Kuvshinoff, Boris W; Moley, Jeffrey F; Pillarisetty, Venu G; Saltz, Leonard; Schteingart, David E; Shah, Manisha H; Shibata, Stephen; Strosberg, Jonathan R; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; White, Rebekah; Yao, James C; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A; Dwyer, Mary A

2012-06-01

457

Distribution of Kroeyerina elongata (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda) in the olfactory sacs of the blue shark, Prionace glauca.  

PubMed

The infection pattern of Kroeyerina elongata (Kroyeriidae, Copepoda) in the olfactory sacs of the blue shark, Prionace glauca, was investigated using 4,722 copepods from 54 olfactory sacs. Copepod prevalence and mean intensity of infection per olfactory sac were 94.0 and 91.1%, respectively, and the most intensely infected olfactory sac and shark hosted 218 and 409 copepods, respectively. There were significant linear relationships between the number of female and total copepods per left olfactory sac and shark fork length as well as between the numbers of female, male, and total copepods per shark and mean olfactory sac width and cumulative olfactory sac width. Female copepods typically outnumbered males within olfactory sacs (mean intensity ?=? 65.7 and 26.3, respectively), and no statistical differences were detected between the numbers of copepods inhabiting the left and right olfactory sacs. Copepods were not evenly distributed within olfactory sacs. Typically, female copepods occupied olfactory chambers located centrally along the length of the olfactory sac, while males infected lateral olfactory chambers nearest the naris. The orientation of most copepods (84.6%) suggested positive rheotaxis relative to the path of water through the olfactory sac. Within olfactory chambers, most mature females (68.2%) infected the first third of the peripheral excurrent channel and the adjacent fringe of olfactory lamellae, while most males (91.7%) infected the olfactory lamellae, and the 4 larval females collected were attached within the lamellar field and grasped by males. Based on the observed infection patterns and the pattern of water flow throughout the olfactory sac, a hypothesis regarding the life cycle of K. elongata is advanced wherein infective copepodids are swept into the olfactory sac from the surrounding sea and initially colonize the olfactory lamellae. Copepodids feed and mature among the olfactory lamellae, and adult males search for mates and copulate with young females among the olfactory lamellae. Inseminated females move to the peripheral excurrent channels to mature and produce ovisacs. Hatching ovisacs release free-swimming nauplii into the excurrent water flow to be swept into the milieu, where they can molt into infective copepodids that may infect new hosts. PMID:20950094

McElwain, Andrew; Kohl, Joshua W; Bojkovic, Jade; Benz, George W

2010-10-01

458

13th ISTC SAC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics"  

E-print Network

Collaboration Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Cosmic Rays and First High Energy Radiation Tracker · TRT design requirements · Timeline · Principles of Operation · TRT Electronics · Fast-OR Cosmics trigger · TRT Performance · Summary Outline #12;S.Smirnov/NRNU "MEPhI" 13th ISTC SAC Seminar 3

459

An Analytic Evaluation of the SaCS Pattern Language Including Explanations of Major Design  

E-print Network

stage specification of system requirements, system design, and safety case for a safety critical system of existing patterns and defined rules for combining these [2]. A safety critical system [3] is a system, and safety case for a safety critical system. The Safe Control Systems (SaCS) pattern language has been

Stølen, Ketil

460

Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system. PMID:23788706

Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

2013-01-01

461

12/05/2010 SAC meeting IRAM Grenoble 1 Testing of current  

E-print Network

availableAtmosphere opacity model for Pico Veleta (275 K at telescope site, 1 & 7 mm of precipitable water MUX (25% pixels lost) · Excess noise (in maps, some pixels not used) · Anti-vibration table mismatch cryogen fridge (He bottles) · Detector noise > photon noise #12;12/05/2010 SAC meeting IRAM G

Leclercq, Samuel

462

Cul-de-sacs, Superblocks and Environmental Areas as Supports of Residential Territorialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the suburbs, residential territorialization is most often associated with common interest developments, homeowners' associations, gated communities and sociospatial segregation. These forms of territorialization have been the subject of many critical analyses by the academic community. These criticisms, however, frequently discount the significance of the road network layout. This paper shows that cul-de-sacs, superblocks and 'environmental areas' are key factors.

Eric Charmes

2010-01-01

463

Announcement The Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Science & Technology Center (ISTC SAC)  

E-print Network

Institute of Nuclear Physics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (BINP SB RAS2nd Announcement The Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Science & Technology Center (ISTC SAC) in cooperation with The Secretariat of the International Science & Technology Center (ISTC

464

Laparoscopy through the open ipsilateral sac to evaluate presence of contralateral hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Laparoscopic evaluation of the contralateral side (LECS) in children with unilateral inguinal hernia (UIH) has been criticized because of the abdominal trocar risk and costs. LECS was modified to avoid abdominal trocar insertion by using the open hernia sac for instrumentation (OHLECS). This study was performed to determine the utility, safety, and effectiveness of this technique. Methods: During a

Mark L. Wulkan; Eugene S. Wiener; Nancy VanBalen; Peter Vescio

1996-01-01

465

The Design of a University's SACS Accreditation World Wide Web Site.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the design of a Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) World Wide Web site to act as a living documents repository for university accreditation. Topics addressed include: instructional design and development of a functional flowchart; interface design; and interactive elements, including bulletin boards and…

Crawford, Caroline M.

466

From Performance Management to Capacity-Building: An Escape from the "Cul De Sac"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the many critiques of educational policies concerning the National Curriculum and the standards and testing regimes for pupils and teachers associated with it. It goes on to suggest that there is a danger of educational researchers and policy-makers arguing themselves into a "cul de sac" where an unproductive stand-off may…

Storey, Anne

2004-01-01

467

A Cross-Ethnic Validity Study of the Shortform Assessment for Children (SAC)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the cross-ethnic measurement equivalence of the Shortform Assessment for Children (SAC) using a sample of 562 African American and 692 White children. Method: A prospective, two-panel survey design was used in this study. Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were used to conduct analyses of the reliability and…

Tyson, Edgar H.; Glisson, Charles

2005-01-01

468

Long-term fate of the aneurysmal sac after endoluminal exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Shrinkage of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the hallmark of successful endoluminal treatment. Our goal was to prospectively assess the midterm to long-term shrinkage of the AAA sac after endovascular repair. Methods: A total of 123 patients with AAA underwent endoluminal treatment with the Ancure device at our institution between February 1996 and February 2000. At least a

Robert Y. Rhee; Mark K. Eskandari; Albert B. Zajko; Michel S. Makaroun

2000-01-01

469

Pathogenesis of developmental defects induced in the rat by amniotic sac puncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphogenesis of developmental defects induced by amniotic sac puncture was studied at the gross and microscopic levels. In fetuses recovered from 15 min to 48 h after amniocentesis, a pattern of hemorrhagic lesions, excessive accumulation of interstitial fluid, followed by tissue necrosis and leading ultimately to the reduction or amputation of distal limb segments and morphological changes in the

L. A. Kennedy; T. V. N. Persaud

1977-01-01

470

Follow-Up Survey of Former SAC Students Who Transferred to a Four Year College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1982, a follow-up study was conducted of Santa Ana College (SAC) graduates who had transferred to and were currently attending four neighboring four-year colleges: California State University, Fullerton; California State University, Long Beach; California Polytechnic University; and the University of California, Irvine. Surveys were mailed to…

Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold

471

SAC 2005 -Santa Fe Sanitizing using Metadata in MetaXQuery  

E-print Network

SAC 2005 - Santa Fe Sanitizing using Metadata in MetaXQuery Hao Jin and Curtis Dyreson School of E.E. and Computer Science Washington State University USA Sanitizing using Metadata in MetaXQuery - Jin and Dyreson Outline · XQuery · Metadata · Sanitize · Experiments · Summary Sanitizing using Metadata in Meta

Dyreson, Curtis

472

Faraday Discuss. Chem. Sac., 1983, 76,65-75 Electrical Double-layer Interactions in  

E-print Network

Faraday Discuss. Chem. Sac., 1983, 76,65-75 Electrical Double-layer Interactions in Concentrated In this paper we compare three methods for deducing the effective pair potential that describes the double-layer that the electrostatic or electrical double-layer interactions between colloidal particles are responsible for giving

Chan, Derek Y C

473

2 CFR Appendix X to Part 200 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)  

...2014-01-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) X Appendix X to Part 200 Grants and Agreements Office of Management...AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. X Appendix X to Part 200—Data Collection Form (Form...

2014-01-01

474

Probabilistic Basis for 2000 SAC Federal Emergency Management Agency Steel Moment Frame Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a formal probabilistic framework for seismic design and assessment of structures and its application to steel moment-resisting frame buildings. This is the probabilistic basis for the 2000 SAC Federal Emergency Management Agency ~FEMA! steel moment frame guidelines. The framework is based on realizing a performance objective expressed as the probability of exceeding a specified performance level. Performance

C. Allin Cornell; Fatemeh Jalayer; Ronald O. Hamburger; Douglas A. Foutch

2002-01-01

475

Laparoscopic repair of hernia in children: Comparison between ligation and nonligation of sac  

PubMed Central

Aim: The essence of the current techniques of laparoscopic hernia repair in children is suture ligation of the neck of the hernia sac at the deep ring with or without its transection. Some studies show that during open hernia repair, after transection at the neck it can be left unsutured without any consequence. This study was aimed to see if the same holds true for laparoscopic hernia repair. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (52 boys and eight girls, 12-144 months) with indirect inguinal hernia were randomized for laparoscopic repair either by transection of the sac alone (Group I) or transection plus suture ligation of sac at the neck (Group II). Outcome was assessed in terms of time taken for surgery, recurrence, and other complications. Result: Thirty-eight hernia units in 28 patients were repaired by transection alone (Group I) and 34 hernia units in 29 patients were repaired by transection and suture ligation (Group II). Three patients were found to have no hernia on laparoscopy. Recurrence rate and other complications were not significantly different in the two groups. All recurrences occurred in hernias with ring size more than 10 mm. Conclusion: Laparoscopic repair of hernia by circumferential incision of the peritoneum at the deep ring is as effective as incision plus ligation of the sac. PMID:24741209

Pant, Nitin; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar; Ratan, Simmi K.

2014-01-01

476

13th SAC ISTC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics"  

E-print Network

13th SAC ISTC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics" Novosibirsk 1-5 September 2010 V TRANSITION RADIATION TRACKER #12;V.Myalkovskiy 13th momentum measurements (with Si-tracker and pixels) Stand-alone electron identification TRANSITION RADIATION

477

Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions.  

PubMed

Abstract Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young subjects participated in this 6-weeks randomized controlled study. Subjects consumed either a "plain" control beverage (n?=?26), a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage (n?=?25), a dried version of this beverage (n?=?25), or a beverage composed of the dried individual components of the drink (n?=?24). The fresh and both dried versions of the lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage were able to increase serum lutein levels after 6 weeks of consumption (lutein change: -38?±?47?nmol/L, +304?±?113?nmol/L, +148?±?79?nmol/L and +178?±?83?nmol/L for control, fresh, dried and combined dried group respectively; p?yolk compared to the control drink. PMID:25017577

Bunger, Meike; Quataert, Miriam; Kamps, Lisette; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M; Togtema, Arnoud; van Amerongen, Aart; Mensink, Marco

2014-11-01

478