Sample records for yolk sac tumor

  1. Sustained Complete Remission in a Patient with Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alwin Jeyakumar; Eva Chalas; Alexander Hindenburg

    2001-01-01

    Background. Yolk sac tumors of the ovary are generally very responsive to chemotherapy; however, they are difficult to manage in the setting of platinum resistance where treatment options are limited and outcomes are poorer.Case. We present a 39-year-old woman who had a platinum-resistant yolk sac ovarian tumor. She achieved complete remission on an innovative regimen of docetaxel, gemcitabine, and thalidomide.Conclusion.

  2. Primary yolk sac tumor of the cerebellar vermis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Asha S; Desai, Heena M; Tyagi, Devendra K; Savant, Hemant V; Kavishwar, Vikas S; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare and comprise 2-5% of all germ cell tumors. Seminoma/dysgerminoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor (YST) and mixed germ cell tumors are few of the extragonadal germ cell tumors arising within the brain. Of these, primary pure YSTs arising in the brain are extremely rare and arise in the pineal (62%) and suprasellar (31%) regions. Primary YST occurring in the cerebellum is exceedingly rare, associated with a very poor prognosis and has been reported in less than 10 cases in literature. We herein report a case of primary pure yolk sac tumor in the cerebellar vermis in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24943765

  3. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jonathan D; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N; Paul, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy. PMID:25657559

  4. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jonathan D.; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N.; Paul, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy. PMID:25657559

  5. Retroperitoneal embryonal carcinoma/yolk sac tumor. A case report and a review of the histogenesis.

    PubMed

    Janda, J; Pecha, V; Petrík, F; Cízek, F; Berková, M; St?rba, J; Gottschalk, J

    1988-01-01

    A case of 26-year old man, with a large primary retroperitoneal tumor which showed the pattern of embryonal carcinoma as well as yolk sac tumor, is reported. The disease ran an aggressive course and led to death within 8 months from the onset of clinical symptoms. Characteristic histological and ultrastructural patterns with Schiller-Duval bodies and adenocarcinomatous differentiation were accompanied by diffuse expression of alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin expression in isolated cells, as well. The histogenesis of the tumor may be interpreted in terms of the reflection of the very early stages of the embryonal development rather than by the totipotent-neoplastic-germ-cell approach. PMID:3060042

  6. Identification and characterization of cancer stem cells in ovarian yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiro; Terauchi, Mikio; Umezu, Tomokazu; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Nawa, Akihiro; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2010-10-01

    Recent evidence supports the cancer stem cell theory, that is, that malignant tumors arise from cells termed cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells that have the ability to self-renew and are responsible for maintaining the tumor. Cells with marked tumor-initiating capacity have recently been identified in a number of solid tumors. CD133 (PROM1, human prominin-1) has been used as a marker to detect stem cells (progenitor cells) and cancer stem cells (tumor-initiating cells) in various tissues. Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and highly malignant. The present study was designed to evaluate the tumor-forming ability of CD133(+) cells in ovarian YST cell lines and to examine the characteristics of CD133(+) cells, such as cell growth and invasiveness. Our data suggest ovarian YST to be maintained by a rare fraction of cancer stem-like cells that express the cell surface marker CD133. PMID:20804503

  7. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST) is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST. PMID:22410253

  8. A case report: primary extragonadal yolk sac tumor of penile shaft in a 2-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Ryuto; Soneda, Shun; Kinoshita, Akitoshi; Kitagawa, Hiroaki; Koike, Junki; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2009-04-01

    A 2-year-old boy, who had the chief complaints of penile swelling and pain, was brought to the hospital by his mother. Penile contusion/trauma was suspected and he was admitted the same day to undergo emergency surgery to eliminate hematoma. The surgery revealed that the origin of the bleeding was not trauma but a tumor lesion of the penile shaft. It was histopathologically identified as a yolk sac tumor and no tumorous lesions were found except that in the penis. Therefore the patient was diagnosed as definitely having a yolk sac tumor originating in the penis. The patient received four cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin treatment as adjuvant chemotherapy. Although it was impossible to completely resect the tumor, cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin chemotherapy was effective and a complete response was achieved. We plan to carefully monitor the patient in the future. PMID:19416404

  9. Primary yolk sac tumor of the endometrium: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Spatz, A; Bouron, D; Pautier, P; Castaigne, D; Duvillard, P

    1998-08-01

    A 49-year-old woman was admitted with abnormal vaginal bleeding of 5 months duration. Hysteroscopy showed polypoid formations in the uterine cavity. Biopsy of a polyp revealed an anaplastic malignant tumor. A total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and iliac lymphadenectomy were performed. A polypoid soft white-yellowish tumor originated from the endometrium. The biopsies plus sections of the operative specimen were histologically similar and displayed typical features of yolk sac tumor (YST) with tubulo-papillary pattern. Schiller-Duval bodies and PAS-positive, diastase-resistant, hyaline droplets were present. There was no neoplastic involvement of the cervix, ovaries, and iliac lymph nodes. Tumor cells and hyaline globules were strongly immunoreactive with alpha-fetoprotein antibody. The patient refused chemotherapy and was subsequently treated by external radiotherapy. The patient remained free of disease 28 months after surgery. There are only four additional cases of primary YST of the endometrium reported in literature. On the basis of the small number of cases reported, such tumors appear to have clinical and pathological features similar to their ovarian counterparts. PMID:9740707

  10. Primary juxtaovarian yolk sac tumor concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma in an adult woman: a rare association

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haifen; Yu, Jihong; Tang, Jingjing; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare neoplasm that primarily occurs in the ovary in children and young women. Previously, it has been reported that the teratomatous components can be recognized in part of YSTs or appear in the contralateral ovary. Here, we report a rare case of an adult woman with a juxtaovarian YST concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma. Methods: A 47-year-old woman found a pelvic mass for nine days and subsequently underwent debulking operation. The specimens were evaluated for detailed characterizations through gross examination, microscopy and immunohistochemistry. A literature review was performed and the pathogenesis was briefly discussed about the generation of an extraovarian YST concurrent with a teratoma. Results: The right juxtaovarian tumor showed typical histological patterns of YST. Immunostaining demonstrated the YST nature of Gly-3 and AFP positive tumor cells. The ipsilateral ovarian tumor was a common mature cystic teratoma with chronic fibrotic changes. According to the differences of the origin and the differentiation of the two germ cell tumors, we suspect that the occurrence of the teratoma is earlier than the YST. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of an adult woman with a juxtaovarian YST concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma. PMID:25755817

  11. Is radiosensitive cell line cross-sensitive to heat?: Effect of heat on two rat yolk sac tumor cell lines with different radiosensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Mitsuhashi; Mohammad Shahidul Islam; Hideyuki Sakurai; Takeo Takahashi; Osamu Murata; Katsuya Maebayashi; Miwako Nozaki; Tetsuo Akimoto; Hiroyuki Muramatsu; Hideo Niibe

    1999-01-01

    The differences between two rat yolk sac tumor cell lines, which are of the same origin but differ in their response to irradiation, in thermal sensitivity and development of thermotolerance were investigated. A radiosensitive cell line NMT-1 is consistently less heat sensitive than the radioresistant cell line NMT-1R. The thermotolerances in NMT-1 and in NMT-1R preheated at 43°C for 30

  12. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Endometrium: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Spatz; Dorothée Bouron; Patricia Pautier; Damienne Castaigne; Pierre Duvillard

    1998-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman was admitted with abnormal vaginal bleeding of 5 months duration. Hysteroscopy showed polypoid formations in the uterine cavity. Biopsy of a polyp revealed an anaplastic malignant tumor. A total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and iliac lymphadenectomy were performed. A polypoid soft white-yellowish tumor originated from the endometrium. The biopsies plus sections of the operative specimen were histologically

  13. Management of a Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction to IV Etoposide in a Woman with a Yolk Sac Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Starks, David; Prinz, Deborah; Armstrong, Amy; Means, Lindsay; Waggoner, Steven; DeBernardo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Type I hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous administration of etoposide are extremely rare. Etoposide is an essential component of several chemotherapy regimens used in gynecologic oncology, and discontinuation of this drug during a course of treatment should only be due to severe patient intolerance. We report the successful use of intravenous etoposide phosphate as a substitute drug in a patient with a yolk sac tumor who manifested a Type I hypersensitivity to intravenous etoposide. The patient ultimately completed all 4 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) using etoposide phosphate as a substitute drug. PMID:22567517

  14. Many postchemotherapy sarcomatous tumors in patients with testicular germ cell tumors are sarcomatoid yolk sac tumors: a study of 33 cases.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Magers, Martin J; Rice, Kevin R; Cole, Cristina D; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2015-02-01

    Sarcomatoid neoplasms in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) may show diverse lineages and are usually attributed to "transformation" of teratoma, although origin from yolk sac tumor (YST) has also been suggested. We evaluated 33 sarcomatoid tumors from 23 TGCT patients that lacked specific features of a defined sarcoma subtype for a number of features, including: atypia (mild, moderate, severe), cellularity, tumor necrosis, mitotic index, stromal vascularity, cell profile (spindle or epithelioid), and stromal quality (myxoid and/or fibrous). Immunohistochemical staining analyses directed against cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), SALL4, glypican-3 (GPC3), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), p63, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD34, MUC4, smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, caldesmon, and myogenin were performed. Staining intensity (0=negative, 1=weak, 2=moderate, 3=strong) and extent (0=<1%, 1=1% to 10%, 2=10% to 50%, 3=>50%) were scored. Tumor grade based on the French sarcoma grading system was assessed, with grades 2-3 considered high grade. Tumors with at least moderate intensity and >10% (+) cells for both AE1/AE3 and GPC3 were considered to be sarcomatoid YST (SYST); 22 tumors from 14 patients (ages 18 to 38 y, mean 27 y) met these criteria and were the focus of this study. All SYSTs occurred after chemotherapy (3 to 132 mo after TGCT diagnosis; mean 42.5 mo, median 30.5 mo). They had spindled (100%; 19 predominant) and epithelioid cells (77%; 3 predominant) in myxoid to fibrous stroma. Thirteen exhibited at least focally severe nuclear atypia. Distinctive tumor "ringlets" and intercellular basement membrane deposits (parietal YST differentiation) were common. In addition to positivity for AE1/AE3 and GPC3, 15/22 were SALL4 (+), 10/22 were at least focally CD34 (+), and 2/22 were focally p63 (+). Fifty percent exhibited smooth muscle differentiation as evidenced by desmin (8/19), caldesmon (2/4), and/or SMA (4/6) reactivity. AFP, MUC4, GFAP, and myogenin were negative in all cases. On follow-up, 8/14 patients died of disease at 7 to 217 months (mean 58 mo) after the initial SYST diagnosis, whereas 5/14 were alive and had no evidence of disease (ANED) at 1 to 259 months (mean 83 mo). One patient died of unrelated causes at 39 months. Of the 11 patients with high-grade tumors, 8 were dead of disease, 1 died of an unrelated cause, and 2 were ANED; all 3 patients with low-grade tumors were ANED at 41 to 262 months (mean 128 mo). We conclude that a high proportion of sarcomatoid tumors in postchemotherapy resections of TGCT patients are SYSTs. These typically occur several years after diagnosis and behave aggressively when high grade. PMID:25229769

  15. Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL YOLK SAC INFECTION WITH ESCHERICHIA

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , A and B containing 50 birds each. Experimental infection with E. coli was given intra yolk to group of fractional serum proteins. Results showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to gross pathological that intra yolk infection with E. coli resulted in pathological changes of yolk sac, increased yolk sac

  16. The annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.

    PubMed

    King, B F; Enders, A C; Wimsatt, W A

    1978-05-01

    The annular hematoma of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. In this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. Small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial trophoblast surrounded the capillaries. Cellular trophoblast covered part of the luminal surface of the curtain region, whereas masses of apparently degenerating syncytium were present on other areas of the surface. Maternal erythrocytes, released into the uterine lumen from the curtain region, were phagocytized and degraded by the columnar cells of the trophoblastic annulus. No evidence of iron or pigment accumulation was evident in the parietal endodermal cells underlying the annular trophoblast. Parietal endodermal cells were characterized by cuboidal shape, widely dilated intercellular spaces, and cytoplasm containing granular endoplasmic reticulum. Endodermal cells of the visceral yolk-sac accumulated large numbers of electron-dense granules as well as glycogen in their cytoplasm. Hemopoietic areas and vitelline capillaries were found subjacent to the visceral endoderm. The various portions of the yolk-sac wall of Blarina appear to perform complementary functions which are probably important in maternal-fetal iron transfer. PMID:677046

  17. Subcellular organization of the yolk syncytial-endoderm complex in the preimplantation yolk sac of the shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Hamlett; Frank J. Schwartz; Liberato J. A. DiDio

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the yolk syncytial-endoderm complex of the preimplantation yolk sac of the shark is examined by light- and transmission electron microscopy. The yolk syncytium is bounded by a membrane that is anchored to the plasmalemma of adjacent endoderm cells by desmosomes. Enlarged nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, mitochondria, and other cellular organelles populate the syncytium. Microtubules and

  18. INCIDENCE AND MICROBIOLOGY OF UNABSORBED YOLK SACS (ATTACHED OR FREE FLOATING) IN COMMERICAL BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the developing avian embryo, the main energy source is yolk. Towards the end of the incubation period, the remaining yolk sac is internalized into the abdominal cavity. At hatch, yolk comprises 20% of the chick’s body weight and provides the nutrients for growth. The yolk should be depleted an...

  19. Alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and transferrin in gonadal yolk-sac tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J O Beilby; C H Horne; G D Milne; C Parkinson

    1979-01-01

    Since gonadal yolk-sac tumour in pure form or as a component of mixed germ cell tumour is in the majority of patients highly malignant, its histological recognition is of great prognostic importance. Yolk-sac tumour may assume various different histological guises, which have hitherto caused considerable terminological confusion; the present paper is aimed at correlating these morphological diversities with biochemical features

  20. IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

  1. The effect of pigeon yolk sac fluid on the growth behavior of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Previous experiments have proved that thermodynamically unstable calcium carbonate vaterite can exist for long periods in the yolk sac of a pigeon embryo. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effect of in vitro mineralization of yolk sac fluid on calcium carbonate by direct precipitation. Experiments were conducted using pigeon yolk sac fluid and using lecithin extracted from pigeon yolk sac fluid as a control to investigate the regulating effects of the organic components in the embryo on the formation of the calcium carbonate precipitate. Multiple characterization methods were employed to study the various morphological patterns, sizes, crystal growth, and crystal phase transformations of the calcium carbonate precipitates as regulated by the yolk sac fluid extracted at different stages of incubation. The experimental results demonstrate that as the incubation proceeds towards the later stages, the composition and environmental features of the yolk sac fluid become more favorable for the formation of relatively unstable calcium carbonate phases with high energies of the vaterite state. The experiments conducted with extracted lecithin as the template for crystal growth yielded similar results. A large amount of organic molecules with polar functional groups carried by the yolk sac fluid have strong effects and can both initially induce the crystallization and regulate the aggregation of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, this regulation process is found to be closely related to the lecithin contained in yolk sac fluid. These observations confirm the changes in yolk sac fluid composition during incubation have significant effects on the production of vaterite, which implicates the calcium transport during embryo growth. PMID:25681477

  2. Yolk Sac Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells from New World Mice (Necromys lasiurus) with Multipotent Differential Potential

    PubMed Central

    Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Mess, Andrea; Will, Sônia Elisabete; Maiorka, Paulo César; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13%) and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%). Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73) and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog) as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117). In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:24918429

  3. Yolk sac mesenchymal progenitor cells from New World mice (Necromys lasiurus) with multipotent differential potential.

    PubMed

    Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Mess, Andrea; Will, Sônia Elisabete; Maiorka, Paulo César; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13%) and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%). Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73) and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog) as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117). In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:24918429

  4. Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David

    2013-01-01

    In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP+ blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP+ fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

  5. Coexistence of Glomangioma and Yolk Sac Tumour in a Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Hatice; Gunel, Engin; Caliskan, Umran; Koksal, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Glomus tumours (GTs) primarily arise from glomus bodies that are located in the dermis layer of skin. However, they can be encountered ectopically in most parts of the body. As a result of researches done in a 17-month-old male patient who prssented to us with complaint of an increasingly growing swelling, he was diagnosed with a yolk sac tumour. Chemotherapy was started and then, he was operated. GT was found inside the tumoural mass. Our patient, who is the first case according to our knowledge, where the concurrence of yolk sac and glomus tumours was reported, has been discussed in the light of literature. PMID:24995227

  6. Copper sulfate toxicity to channel catfish fry: Yolk sac versus swim-up fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry from 5 separate spawns were exposed to dissolved copper sulfate (CuSO4) in a series of static toxicity experiments to observe age sensitivity in high and moderate alkalinity waters at 24 and 48 hrs at 23.1°C. The waters had total alkalinity and total har...

  7. Role of yolk sac endodermal cells with special reference to the fetal macrophage differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Yamashita

    The morphological and functional char- acteristics of rat yolk sac endodermal cells, with particular reference to fetal macrophage (M4) dif- ferentiation, were studied in vivo and in vitro using DA rat embryos from 8 to 1 6 days of gestation. At a very early stage (day 5-6) of gestation, endodermal cells are derived from proximal endoderm as an essential and

  8. Tissue-resident macrophages originate from yolk-sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Gomez Perdiguero, Elisa; Klapproth, Kay; Schulz, Christian; Busch, Katrin; Azzoni, Emanuele; Crozet, Lucile; Garner, Hannah; Trouillet, Celine; de Bruijn, Marella F; Geissmann, Frederic; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2015-02-26

    Most haematopoietic cells renew from adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), however, macrophages in adult tissues can self-maintain independently of HSCs. Progenitors with macrophage potential in vitro have been described in the yolk sac before emergence of HSCs, and fetal macrophages can develop independently of Myb, a transcription factor required for HSC, and can persist in adult tissues. Nevertheless, the origin of adult macrophages and the qualitative and quantitative contributions of HSC and putative non-HSC-derived progenitors are still unclear. Here we show in mice that the vast majority of adult tissue-resident macrophages in liver (Kupffer cells), brain (microglia), epidermis (Langerhans cells) and lung (alveolar macrophages) originate from a Tie2(+) (also known as Tek) cellular pathway generating Csf1r(+) erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) distinct from HSCs. EMPs develop in the yolk sac at embryonic day (E) 8.5, migrate and colonize the nascent fetal liver before E10.5, and give rise to fetal erythrocytes, macrophages, granulocytes and monocytes until at least E16.5. Subsequently, HSC-derived cells replace erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes. Kupffer cells, microglia and Langerhans cells are only marginally replaced in one-year-old mice, whereas alveolar macrophages may be progressively replaced in ageing mice. Our fate-mapping experiments identify, in the fetal liver, a sequence of yolk sac EMP-derived and HSC-derived haematopoiesis, and identify yolk sac EMPs as a common origin for tissue macrophages. PMID:25470051

  9. Yolk sac fatty acid composition, yolk absorption, embryo development, and chick quality during incubation in eggs from young and old broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Sahan, U; Ipek, A; Sozcu, A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the changes in yolk and yolk sac fatty acid composition and also to investigate egg content, yolk absorption, embryo development during incubation, and chick quality at hatch in eggs from 36- and 52-wk-old broiler breeders. The fatty acid profiles of the yolk, the yolk sac of embryos, and the residual yolk sac of chicks were analyzed before incubation, on d 18, and at hatch, respectively. Yolk sac weight, and embryo weight and length were measured on d 18, and chick weight and length were measured at hatch. Egg weight, yolk and albumen weight, yolk percentage, and yolk:albumen ratio increased as breeder age increased, but the albumen percentage decreased. Yolk absorption in absolute value (g) was higher in embryos from the old flock on d 18 and at hatch. Relative yolk absorption was similar between age groups on d 18, whereas it was higher in the young flock at hatch. Breeder age affected the yolk sac weight and was higher in the old flock during incubation. Embryo or chick weight and length, and yolk-free BW were affected by breeder age during incubation. These parameters were higher in the old flock with a difference of 3.7 g, 0.8 cm, and 2.6 g, respectively, on d 18 and 7.4 g, 1.4 cm, and 6.3 g, respectively, at hatch compared with the young flock. The effect of breeder age on fatty acid composition differed significantly by sampling day. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids were major fatty acids in the fresh yolk, ranging from 13.02 to 29.24%. These were followed by palmitoleic and arachidonic acids ranging from 1.24 to 7.04%, with the remaining fatty acids below 1%. Higher concentrations of myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids and lower concentrations of heptadeconoic, stearic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids were found in the residual yolk sac of the young flock than the old flock. The results showed preferentially selective absorption of some fatty acids by the embryo during incubation. PMID:24931969

  10. Activity of digestive enzymes in yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus): indication of readiness for first feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Gawlicka; Brigitte Parent; Michael H Horn; Neil Ross; Ingegjerd Opstad; Ole J Torrissen

    2000-01-01

    The problem of determining when larvae should be offered food is particularly difficult in a species such as Atlantic halibut that has a long yolk-sac period (280–320 degree days, dd). In order to help determine at what age Atlantic halibut larvae are able to digest food, we compared the activities of key digestive enzymes in four yolk-sac stages at an

  11. Molecular markers of yolk sac fry development in nine families of lake trout.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Kristiina A; Paavilainen, Tiia; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Czesny, Sergiusz; Rinchard, Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Salmonids in certain areas of North America and northern Europe suffer from reproductive disturbances manifested through the death of yolk sac fry. These disturbances are referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the Great Lakes region and M74 in the Baltic Sea. Both of these syndromes have been associated with reduced concentrations of thiamine in affected females and their eggs. However, large variations in signs and mortality, both within and between the individual syndromes, have been reported. Yolk sac fry mortality (M74) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar has been shown to be associated with reduced DNA binding of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), reduced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein, decreased capillary density, and down-regulation of adult-type globin gene transcription (which is responsible for the protein part of adult hemoglobin). One of the main effects of all of these changes is reduced oxygen transport to the tissues of affected fry. In this study, the developmental patterns of HIF-1 DNA binding, VEGF protein expression, and adult-type globin gene transcription were analyzed in nine family groups of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. The results indicate that HIF-1 DNA binding and globin gene transcription increase from hatch to the end of yolk sac stage. Interindividual and between-family biological variations were detected, especially in VEGF protein expression and globin gene transcription. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using these molecular markers in investigating the etiology of EMS and making comparisons between the mechanisms of different salmonid yolk sac fry mortalities. PMID:20218502

  12. Maternal-fetal immunoglobulin transport: Studies on the binding, internalization, and release of IgG by chick yolk sac tissue and cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transported from the yolk across the endodermal cells of the yolk sac and into the fetal circulation during chick embryonic development, thus providing the chick with passive immunity until it becomes immunocompetent. Saturable, Fc-specific receptors are present on the endodermal cells and are believed to mediate this transfer. In this study, IgG receptors were shown to be present on the yolk sac endodermal cells throughout the 21 days of development, although most of the transport occurs during the last 3 days prior to hatching. Fluorescently conjugated IgG was internalized by a receptor mechanism into small apical vesicles in yolk sac endoderm throughout, but cells from 19 day yolk sacs internalized more conjugate than those from 14 day yolk sacs. This was confirmed and quantitated by assaying the internalization of {sup 125}I-IgG into yolk sac tissue. IgG was internalized by a receptor mediated mechanism, reaching a steady state level after 1 to 2 hours. Although both ages of yolk sac tissue possessed the same number of surface IgG receptors, as measured by equilibrium binding assays at 4{degree}C, 19 day yolk sac had the capacity to internalize six times as much IgG by a receptor mechanism as 14 day yolk sac.

  13. Etv2 is expressed in the yolk sac hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors and regulates Lmo2 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Kweon, Junghun; Iacovino, Michelina; Shi, Xiaozhong; Rasmussen, Tara L.; Borges, Luciene; Zirbes, Katie M.; Li, Tongbin; Perlingeiro, Rita C.R.; Kyba, Michael; Garry, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    During embryogenesis, the endothelial and the hematopoietic lineages first appear during gastrulation in the blood island of the yolk sac. We have previously reported that an Ets variant gene 2 (Etv2/ER71) mutant embryo lacks hematopoietic and endothelial lineages, however, the precise roles of Etv2 in yolk sac development remains unclear. In the present study, we define the role of Etv2 in yolk sac blood island development using the Etv2 mutant and a novel Etv2-EYFP reporter transgenic line. Both the hematopoietic and the endothelial lineages are absent in the Etv2 mutant yolk sac. In the Etv2-EYFP transgenic mouse, the EYFP reporter is activated in the nascent mesoderm, expressed in the endothelial and blood progenitors, and in the Tie2+, c-kit+, CD41+ hematopoietic population. The hematopoietic activity in the E7.75 yolk sac was exclusively localized to the Etv2-EYFP+ population. In the Etv2 mutant yolk sac, Tie2+ cells are present but do not express hematopoietic or endothelial markers. In addition, these cells do not form hematopoietic colonies, indicating an essential role of Etv2 in the specification of the hematopoietic lineage. Forced overexpression of Etv2 during EB differentiation induces the hematopoietic and the endothelial lineages, and transcriptional profiling in this context identifies Lmo2 as a downstream target. Using EMSA, ChIP, transcriptional assays and mutagenesis, we demonstrate that Etv2 binds to the Lmo2 enhancer and transactivates its expression. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that Etv2 is expressed during and required for yolk sac hemato-endothelial development, and that Lmo2 is one of the downstream targets of Etv2. PMID:22628281

  14. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    PubMed

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2014-09-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization. PMID:25199884

  15. Improvement of Water Chemistry with Bacillus Probiotics Inclusion during Simulated Transport of Yellowfin Tuna Yolk Sac Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian C. Zink; Daniel D. Benetti; Philippe A. Douillet; Daniel Margulies; Vernon P. Scholey

    2011-01-01

    The effects of adding a probiotic Bacillus spp. blend on shipping bag water quality and survival of yolk sac larvae of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares during a 24-h mock shipment were investigated. To better detect effects on water quality, the trial was designed without the utilization of available chemical water quality or temperature modulators. Shipping water salinity (30.7–31.0‰) and temperature

  16. HoxB4 Confers Definitive Lymphoid-Myeloid Engraftment Potential on Embryonic Stem Cell and Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Progenitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kyba; Rita C. R. Perlingeiro; George Q. Daley

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which primitive embryonic blood progenitors contribute to definitive lymphoid-myeloid hematopoiesis in the adult remains uncertain. In an effort to characterize factors that distinguish the definitive adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and primitive progenitors derived from yolk sac or embryonic stem (ES) cells, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of HoxB4, a homeotic selector gene implicated in

  17. Abrasive effects of Mount Saint Helens ash upon epidermis of yolk sac larvae of Pacific herring Clupea harengus pallasi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W. Boehlert

    1984-01-01

    Larval PaciJc herring Clupea harengus pallasi were exposed for 24 h to suspensions of estuarine sediment and volcanic ash from 0 to 8000mg\\/litre. The effects of these suspensions on the epidermis of the yolk sac larvae were determined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Examination of the epidermis at speciJc locations on dorsal and ventral body surfaces showed that the

  18. Effect of temperature on survival of northern pike embryos and yolk-sac larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, T.J.

    1982-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of water temperature and handling procedure on the percentage hatch of known-age northern pike (Esox lucius) embryos and on survival of the yolk-sac larvae. Embryos and larvae were incubated at constant temperatures from 3 to 24/sup 0/C. Optimum hatching range was 6.2 to 20.9/sup 0/C and maximum hatch occurred at 9 to 15/sup 0/C. The age of the embryo before temperature change and the test temperatures both had a significant effect on percentage hatch. Temperature had the greatest adverse effect on percentage hatch during the first 5 h of development. There was no significant difference in the number of embryos hatching when comparing those that developed for 5 h before temperature change with those that developed 12, 24, and 48 h before change. There was a significant increase in hatch for embryos that had developed 120 h before change. The type of temperature change (shock or tempered) did not significantly influence the percentage hatch or hatching temperature range of embryos 5 h old or older. Management implications are also discussed.

  19. Oxidative stress during Baltic salmon feeding migration may be associated with yolk-sac fry mortality.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Kristiina A; Kanerva, Mirella; Ikonen, Erkki; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2008-04-01

    The wild populations of salmon in the Baltic Sea suffer from yolk-sac fry mortality (M74). M74 mainly occurs in populations spawning in rivers flowing to the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. On the basis of studies with fry, M74 may be caused by oxidative stresses. Because the eggs of M74-offspring-producing females have lower thiamine and astaxanthin levels and more oxidized fatty acids than eggs of females producing healthy offspring, oxidative stresses that adult salmon experience during their feeding migration may be decisive for the development of M74. In this study we have measured several oxidative stress parameters and have evaluated bothtemporal and regional differences in these parameters in salmon individuals during their feeding migration. At present, salmon feeding in the Gulf of Finland and in the Bothnian Sea are affected by oxidative stress as compared to populations feeding in the Baltic Proper. Moreover, the feeding population of salmon in the central Baltic Proper suffered much more from oxidative stress in 1999 than in 2006-2007. In 1999 the incidence of M74 was higher than that expected in 2007/2008. Oxidative stresses experienced by feeding salmon may thus be behind the development of M74. PMID:18505014

  20. Yolk-sac–derived macrophages regulate fetal testis vascularization and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    DeFalco, Tony; Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Williams, Alyna V.; Sams, Dustin M.; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Organogenesis of the testis is initiated when expression of Sry in pre-Sertoli cells directs the gonad toward a male-specific fate. The cells in the early bipotential gonad undergo de novo organization to form testis cords that enclose germ cells inside tubules lined by epithelial Sertoli cells. Although Sertoli cells are a driving force in the de novo formation of testis cords, recent studies in mouse showed that reorganization of the vasculature and of interstitial cells also play critical roles in testis cord morphogenesis. However, the mechanism driving reorganization of the vasculature during fetal organogenesis remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that fetal macrophages are associated with nascent gonadal and mesonephric vasculature during the initial phases of testis morphogenesis. Macrophages mediate vascular reorganization and prune errant germ cells and somatic cells after testis architecture is established. We show that gonadal macrophages are derived from primitive yolk-sac hematopoietic progenitors and exhibit hallmarks of M2 activation status, suggestive of angiogenic and tissue remodeling functions. Depletion of macrophages resulted in impaired vascular reorganization and abnormal cord formation. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for macrophages in testis morphogenesis and suggest that macrophages are an intermediary between neovascularization and organ architecture during fetal organogenesis. PMID:24912173

  1. The Developing Chicken Yolk Sac Acquires Nutrient Transport Competence by an Orchestrated Differentiation Process of Its Endodermal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Raimund; Plieschnig, Julia A.; Finkes, Thomas; Riegler, Barbara; Hermann, Marcela; Schneider, Wolfgang J.

    2013-01-01

    During chicken yolk sac (YS) growth, mesodermal cells in the area vasculosa follow the migrating endodermal epithelial cell (EEC) layer in the area vitellina. Ultimately, these cells form the vascularized YS that functions in nutrient transfer to the embryo. How and when EECs, with their apical aspect directly contacting the oocytic yolk, acquire the ability to take up yolk macromolecules during the vitellina-to-vasculosa transition has not been investigated. In addressing these questions, we found that with progressive vascularization, the expression level in EECs of the nutrient receptor triad, LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, changes significantly. The receptor complex, competent for uptake of yolk proteins, is produced by EECs in the area vasculosa but not in the area vitellina. Yolk components endocytosed by LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, preformed and newly formed lipid droplets, and yolk-derived very low density lipoprotein, shown to be efficiently endocytosed and lysosomally processed by EECs, probably provide substrates for resynthesis and secretion of nutrients, such as lipoproteins. In fact, as directly demonstrated by pulse-chase experiments, EECs in the vascularized, but not in the avascular, region efficiently produce and secrete lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, and/or apoA-V. In contrast, perilipin 2, a lipid droplet-stabilizing protein, is produced exclusively by the EECs of the area vitellina. These data suggest a differentiation process that orchestrates the vascularization of the developing YS with the induction of yolk uptake and lipoprotein secretion by EECs to ensure embryo nutrition. PMID:23209291

  2. THE PATHOLOGIC CHANGES PRODUCED IN CHICK EMBRYOS BY YOLK SAC INOCULATION OF GROUP A COXSACKIE VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Peers, James H.; Ransom, Sara E.; Huebner, Robert J.

    1952-01-01

    A series of embryonated eggs incubated from 6 to 18 days have been successfully infected by yolk sac inoculation with a strain of group A Coxsackie virus. The resulting pathologic changes are here described. The principal lesion consisted of widespread acute necrosis of striated muscle, apparently essentially identical in type and development with that characteristically produced by the virus in suckling mice. The infection was not itself lethal; some embryos with virtually complete destruction of skeletal muscle were found alive. The older the embryo at the time of inoculation, the less the severity and extent of the lesions; but susceptibility was sometimes not entirely lost in embryos 18 days old. Two embryos inoculated at this time hatched and lived for 4 and 11 days respectively. One showed minimal specific muscle lesions, and the other only some irregularity in muscle fiber size. The lessening of severity of the lesions was especially marked and abrupt in embryos inoculated on the 10th and the 12th day of incubation. In addition to the muscle lesions characteristic of infection with group A Coxsackie virus, there were regularly present in the more immature embryos extensive necrosis of epidermis and feathers and degeneration of feather follicles, believed to be probably a direct dermotropic effect of the virus infection. Other visceral lesions, chiefly liver necrosis, were occasionally observed but seemed not to have been due to direct virus action. As in suckling mice infected with group A Coxsackie virus, no lesions were observed in the central or peripheral nervous system nor in the heart muscle. No lesions deemed specific were seen in the few specimens of chorioallantoic membranes examined. PMID:14946325

  3. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 ?g g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 ?g g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 ?g g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3 % of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology. PMID:25527298

  4. Notch1 regulates progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation during mouse yolk sac hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Cortegano, I; Melgar-Rojas, P; Luna-Zurita, L; Siguero-Álvarez, M; Marcos, M A R; Gaspar, M L; de la Pompa, J L

    2014-07-01

    Loss-of-function studies have demonstrated the essential role of Notch in definitive embryonic mouse hematopoiesis. We report here the consequences of Notch gain-of-function in mouse embryo hematopoiesis, achieved by constitutive expression of Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) in angiopoietin receptor tyrosine kinase receptor-2 (Tie2)-derived enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP(+)) hematovascular progenitors. At E9.5, N1ICD expression led to the absence of the dorsal aorta hematopoietic clusters and of definitive hematopoiesis. The EGFP(+) transient multipotent progenitors, purified from E9.5 to 10.5 Tie2-Cre;N1ICD yolk sac (YS) cells, had strongly reduced hematopoietic potential, whereas they had increased numbers of hemogenic endothelial cells. Late erythroid cell differentiation stages and mature myeloid cells (Gr1(+), MPO(+)) were also strongly decreased. In contrast, EGFP(+) erythro-myeloid progenitors, immature and intermediate differentiation stages of YS erythroid and myeloid cell lineages, were expanded. Tie2-Cre;N1ICD YS had reduced numbers of CD41(++) megakaryocytes, and these produced reduced below-normal numbers of immature colonies in vitro and their terminal differentiation was blocked. Cells from Tie2-Cre;N1ICD YS had a higher proliferation rate and lower apoptosis than wild-type (WT) YS cells. Quantitative gene expression analysis of FACS-purified EGFP(+) YS progenitors revealed upregulation of Notch1-related genes and alterations in genes involved in hematopoietic differentiation. These results represent the first in vivo evidence of a role for Notch signaling in YS transient definitive hematopoiesis. Our results show that constitutive Notch1 activation in Tie2(+) cells hampers YS hematopoiesis of E9.5 embryos and demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates this process by balancing the proliferation and differentiation dynamics of lineage-restricted intermediate progenitors. PMID:24583642

  5. Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-24

    Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; Choriocarcinoma; Germinoma; Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Malignant Germ Cell Neoplasm; Extragonadal Seminoma; Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Seminoma

  6. Quantitative studies of pinocytosis. I. Kinetics of uptake of (125I)polyvinylpyrrolidone by rat yolk sac cultured in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the in vitro culture of 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac. Tissue survival was good as judged by light and electron microscopy. The rate of pinocytic uptake of 125I-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone by the tissue was constant both within and between experiments. Within the concentration range 0.15-24 mug/ml, the 125I- labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone neither stimulated nor inhibited pinocytosis. The system offers many advantages in the quantitative study of the physical basis of pinocytosis. PMID:1109230

  7. GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) ACTIVITY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT VISCERAL YOLK-SAC DURING GESTATION WITH OR WITHOUT TRYPAN BLUE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk-sacs from untreated Sprague Dawley rat conceptuses were removed on days 9-18 of gestation and examined for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activities. All enzyme activities w...

  8. Physiological energetics of developing embryos and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ). II. Lipid metabolism and enthalpy balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Finn; J. R. Henderson; H. J. Fyhn

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative data for the changes in the contents of total lipids, lipid classes and their associated fatty acids, together with the changes in caloric contents of developing eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). During development between Day 0 to 28 post fertilisation, 32% of catabolic metabolism was fuelled by lipids. On a mass-specific

  9. The mouse KRAB zinc-finger protein CHATO is required in embryonic-derived tissues to control yolk sac and placenta morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Maho; García-García, María J.

    2010-01-01

    Yolk sac and placenta are required to sustain embryonic development in mammals, yet our understanding of the genes and processes that control morphogenesis of these extraembryonic tissues is still limited. The chato mutation disrupts ZFP568, a Krüppel-Associated-Box (KRAB) domain Zinc finger protein, and causes a unique set of extraembryonic malformations, including ruffling of the yolk sac membrane, defective extraembryonic mesoderm morphogenesis and vasculogenesis, failure to close the ectoplacental cavity and incomplete placental development. Phenotypic analysis of chato embryos indicated that ZFP568 does not control proliferation or differentiation of extraembryonic lineages, but rather regulates the morphogenetic events that shape extraembryonic tissues. Analysis of chimeric embryos showed that Zfp568 function is required in embryonic-derived lineages, including the extraembryonic mesoderm. Depleting Zfp568 affects the ability of extraembryonic mesoderm cells to migrate. However, explanted Zfp568 mutant cells could migrate properly when plated on appropriate extracellular matrix conditions. We show that expression of Fibronectin and Indian Hedgehog are reduced in chato mutant yolk sacs. This data suggests that ZFP568 controls the production of secreted factors required to promote morphogenesis of extraembryonic tissues. Our results support previously undescribed roles of the extraembryonic mesoderm in yolk sac morphogenesis and in the closure of the ectoplacental cavity and identify a novel role of ZFP568 in the development of extraembryonic tissues. PMID:21094155

  10. Regulation of PKM2 and Nrf2-ARE Pathway during Benzoquinone Induced Oxidative Stress in Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tan; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhen; Huang, Wenting; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Shaozun; Zhou, Yanfeng; Fan, Ningna; Bai, YuE; Song, Wentao; Wang, Chunhong; Wang, Hong; Bi, Yongyi

    2014-01-01

    Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that is able to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing oxidative stress and damages of the macromolecules in target cells, such as the hematopoietic stem cells. We had previously found that embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells (YS-HSCs) are more sensitive to benzene toxicity than the adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, and that nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the major regulator of cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress. In the present report, we investigated the effect of PKM2 and Nrf2-ARE pathway on the cellular antioxidant response to oxidative stress induced by benzene metabolite benzoquinone (BQ) in YS-HSC isolated from embryonic yolk sac and enriched by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Treatment of the YS-HSC with various concentrations of BQ for 6 hours induces ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner. Additional tests showed that BQ is also capable of inducing expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1), and several other antioxidant enzymes or drug-metabolizing enzymes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1). Concomitantly, only the expression of PKM2 protein was decreased by the treatment of BQ but not the PKM2 mRNA, which suggested that BQ may induce PKM2 degradation. Pretreatment of the cells with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) decreased ROS generation and prevented BQ-induced PKM2 degradation, suggesting involvement of ROS in the PKM2 protein degradation in cellular response to BQ. These findings suggest that BQ is a potent inducer of ROS generation and the subsequent antioxidant responses of the YS-HSC. The accumulated ROS may attenuate the expression of PKM2, a key regulator of the pyruvate metabolism and glycolysis. PMID:25437431

  11. Hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells progresses through sequential hematoendothelial, primitive, and definitive stages resembling human yolk sac development

    PubMed Central

    Zambidis, Elias T.; Peault, Bruno; Park, Tea Soon; Bunz, Fred; Civin, Curt I.

    2005-01-01

    We elucidate the cellular and molecular kinetics of the stepwise differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to primitive and definitive erythromyelopoiesis from human embryoid bodies (hEBs) in serum-free clonogenic assays. Hematopoiesis initiates from CD45 hEB cells with emergence of semiadherent mesodermal-hematoendothelial (MHE) colonies that can generate endothelium and form organized, yolk sac–like structures that secondarily generate multipotent primitive hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs), erythroblasts, and CD13+CD45+ macrophages. A first wave of hematopoiesis follows MHE colony emergence and is predominated by primitive erythropoiesis characterized by a brilliant red hemoglobinization, CD71/CD325a (glycophorin A) expression, and exclusively embryonic/fetal hemoglobin expression. A second wave of definitive-type erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-e's), erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-e's), granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (GM-CFCs), and multilineage CFCs follows next from hEB progenitors. These stages of hematopoiesis proceed spontaneously from hEB-derived cells without requirement for supplemental growth factors during hEB differentiation. Gene expression analysis of differentiating hEBs revealed that initiation of hematopoiesis correlated with increased levels of SCL/TAL1, GATA1, GATA2, CD34, CD31, and the homeobox gene-regulating factor CDX4 These data indicate that hematopoietic differentiation of hESCs models the earliest events of embryonic and definitive hematopoiesis in a manner resembling human yolk sac development, thus providing a valuable tool for dissecting the earliest events in human HSPC genesis. PMID:15831705

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology of an endolymphatic sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Bynum, Jennifer P; Bishop, Justin; Ali, Syed Z

    2015-04-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm which is seldom evaluated by cytopathology. We report the clinicopathologic course and cytologic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in a 58-year-old patient with brainstem lesions who originally presented with vertigo but progressed to having left 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerve palsies, right-sided weakness, and occipital headaches. Cytospin of the CSF revealed large epithelioid cells similar to cells seen in a surgical resection of a brain mass three months previously. Review of the surgical specimen revealed a well-differentiated glandular and papillary neoplasm, most consistent with an endolymphatic sac tumor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:339-342. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25354959

  13. DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-17

    Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  14. The effect of acute changes in temperature and light on the aerobic metabolism of embryos and yolk-sac larvae of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderick Nigel Finn; Ivar Rønnestad

    2003-01-01

    The effect of acute changes of temperature and light on the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of developing embryos and yolk-sac larvae of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) reared at 15 °C were studied. Short-term temperature adjustments of ±2 °C gave a mean Q10 of 2.6 for the rate of oxygen consumption. Neither the presence nor the absence of light

  15. A morphological analysis of the transition between the embryonic primitive intestine and yolk sac in bovine embryos and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Mançanares, Celina A F; Leiser, Rudolf; Favaron, Phelipe O; Carvalho, Ana F; Oliveira, Vanessa C De; Santos, José M Dos; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Miglino, Maria A

    2013-07-01

    The yolk sac (YS) is the main source of embryonic nutrition during the period when the placenta has not yet formed. It is also responsible for hematopoiesis because the blood cells develop from it as part of the primitive embryonic circulation. The objective of this study was to characterize the transitional area between the YS and primitive gut using the techniques of light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry to detect populations of pluripotent cells by labeling with Oct4 antibody. In all investigated embryos, serial sections were made to permit the identification of this small, restricted area. We identified the YS connection with the primitive intestine and found that it is composed of many blood islands, which correspond to the vessels covered by vitelline and mesenchymal cells. We identified large numbers of hemangioblasts inside the vessels. The mesenchymal layer was thin and composed of elongated cells, and the vitelline endodermal membrane was composed of large, mono- or binucleated cells. The epithelium of the primitive intestine comprised stratified columnar cells and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. The transitional area between the YS and the primitive intestine was very thin and composed of cells with irregular shapes, which formed a delicate lumen containing hemangioblasts. In the mesenchyme of the transitional area, there were a considerable number of small vessels containing hemangioblasts. Using Oct4 as a primary antibody, we identified positive cells in the metanephros, primordial gonad, and hepatic parenchyma as well as in YS cells, suggesting that these regions contain populations of pluripotent cells. PMID:23650099

  16. Adult Langerhans cells derive predominantly from embryonic fetal liver monocytes with a minor contribution of yolk sac–derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hoeffel, Guillaume; Wang, Yilin; Greter, Melanie; See, Peter; Teo, Pearline; Malleret, Benoit; Leboeuf, Marylène; Low, Donovan; Oller, Guillaume; Almeida, Francisca; Choy, Sharon H.Y.; Grisotto, Marcos; Renia, Laurent; Conway, Simon J.; Stanley, E. Richard; Chan, Jerry K.Y.; Ng, Lai Guan; Samokhvalov, Igor M.

    2012-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens. In contrast to other DCs, LCs arise from hematopoietic precursors that seed the skin before birth. However, the origin of these embryonic precursors remains unclear. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify a first wave of yolk sac (YS)–derived primitive myeloid progenitors that seed the skin before the onset of fetal liver hematopoiesis. YS progenitors migrate to the embryo proper, including the prospective skin, where they give rise to LC precursors, and the brain rudiment, where they give rise to microglial cells. However, in contrast to microglia, which remain of YS origin throughout life, YS-derived LC precursors are largely replaced by fetal liver monocytes during late embryogenesis. Consequently, adult LCs derive predominantly from fetal liver monocyte-derived cells with a minor contribution of YS-derived cells. Altogether, we establish that adult LCs have a dual origin, bridging early embryonic and late fetal myeloid development. PMID:22565823

  17. Endolymphatic sac tumor with von Hippel-Lindau disease: report of a case with atypical pathology of endolymphatic sac tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiang; Liu, Xue-Song; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Yue-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The authors described a case of a patient with co-existing endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and hemangioblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa, which belonged to a subtype of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease confirmed by the test of VHL-gene. The signs in this 42-year-old female included intermittent headache and dizziness. Imaging revealed a giant mass in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) region and another lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The results of biopsy after two operations confirmed the diagnosis respectively. Both of the tumors were resected totally. Nevertheless, we had to confess the misdiagnosis as vascular tumor instead of ELST at the initial diagnosis because of the rarity of ELST associated with atypical histological characteristics. The purposes we reported this case were to describe the atypical pathological feature of ELST and the mutation of germline VHL not mentioned in previously literature, furthermore, to foster understanding of ELSTs with the avoidance of the similar misdiagnosis as far as possible in future. PMID:24966975

  18. Spatial activities and induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) in the postimplantation rat embryo and visceral yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jason M; Lee, Eunyong; Harris, Craig

    2004-10-01

    Glutathione (GSH) synthesis is differentially regulated in the embryo and visceral yolk sac (VYS) of the developing rat conceptus. The innate capacity to respond to environmental insult and chemical exposure by inducing de novo GSH synthesis may help to determine overall cell sensitivity and/or resistance to chemically induced malformation. Specific activities of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, were determined by measuring the formation of gamma-glutamylcysteine (GC) in homogenates prepared from rat embryos and VYSs. GC formation increased linearly with time and with relative protein concentration. Specific activities were found to be 60.5 +/- 3.2 and 118.9 +/- 4.2 pmol GC/mg protein/min in the gestational day (GD) 10 embryo and VYS, respectively, and 22.7 +/- 0.4 and 71.3 +/- 0.6 pmoles GC/mg protein/min in the respective GD 11 embryo and VYS. Apparent kinetic constants determined from embryo and VYS homogenates gave respective apparent K(m) values for glutamate of 0.75 and 1.38 mM and for cysteine 0.03 mM in both tissues. Apparent V(max) values were higher in the VYS in each case, corresponding with a lower apparent K(m) and higher GCL activity. GCL specific activities increased significantly following a 24 h in vitro exposure to diethyl maleate (DEM) and diamide, but remained unchanged following exposure to prostaglandin A(2) (PGA(2)) and t-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Basal expression of GCL catalytic subunit (GCL(C)) and regulatory subunit (GCL(R)) was 59- and 25-fold higher in VYS, respectively, compared to the embryo. Quantitative real-time fluorescence reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that following DEM and diamide treatment, GCL(C) expression increased up to 19-fold in embryonic tissues but was not induced in the VYS. Only DEM increased the expression of the light/regulatory subunit GCL(R) in the embryo (8-fold). Densitometry of immunoblots revealed approximately 75% more GCL(C) in the VYS than in the embryo. Following treatments, a marked increase was induced in embryonic GCL(C) content with both DEM (85%) and diamide (19%), but in the VYS, only DEM caused an increase in GCL(C) protein (38%). PMID:15115889

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of polyamine-related genes and polyamine levels in placenta, yolk sac and fetus during the second half of mouse pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Garcia, C; Lopez-Contreras, A J; Cremades, A; Castells, M T; Peñafiel, R

    2009-03-01

    In mammals, polyamines are essential for the maintenance of cell growth. Although early studies reported the highest values of mammalian ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, in rodent placenta, the role of this enzyme in the second half of rodent pregnancy is still controversial. In order to get new insights on polyamine metabolism during this period of pregnancy, we studied polyamine levels, ODC expression and activity and transcript profile of different polyamine-related genes in mouse placenta, fetus and yolk sac. Results indicated that ODC activity and protein levels were higher in placenta than in fetus and yolk sac, especially in the labyrinth, although no correlation between ODC activity and polyamine levels were observed. The half-life of placental ODC ( approximately 190 min) was also higher than the fetal one ( approximately 24 min). Messenger RNAs of all biosynthetic and retroconversion enzymes of polyamine metabolism were present in the three gestational compartments analyzed, as well as those of antizymes 1 and 2 and antizyme inhibitor 1. However, no expression of antizyme 3 and antizyme inhibitor 2 was detected. The catabolic enzyme diamine oxidase was expressed only in the maternal part of placenta but not in the fetal part or in the fetus. The expansion of polyamine pools in the fetus was markedly higher than in placenta, in spite of its lower biosynthetic activity. Our results suggest that the elevated polyamine biosynthetic activity of mouse placenta is required to satisfy the high demand of polyamines required by the growing fetus, during the later period of pregnancy. PMID:19131104

  20. Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-04

    Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

  1. Changes in the whole body mineral concentration of the Rainbow trout (Oncorchynchus mykiss Walbaum) yolk-sac fry exposed to various combina- tions of aluminium and calcium concentrations in two different acidic water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Metin ÇALTA

    The effects of 12 combinations of pH (4.5 and 7.0), aluminium (4 and 8 ?mol\\/L) and calcium (10 and 100 ?mol\\/L) on survival and body mineral (Ca, Mg, K and Na) concentrations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) at the yolk-sac stage were investigated. Mortality was low (< 17%) in most combinations and increased (> 27%) in the presence of

  2. Development of cystic embryoid bodies with visceral yolk-sac-like structures from mouse embryonic stem cells using low-adherence 96-well plate.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Emiko; Seki, Yuji; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nakashima, Fumio; Noda, Tomozumi; Kurosawa, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Cystic embryoid bodies with visceral yolk-sac-like structure (cystic EB-Vs) are used as a model for the study of early extraembryonic tissue formation containing visceral endoderm-like derivatives. In this study, we optimized the cell density of embryonic stem (ES) cells for developing cystic EB-Vs in a low-adherence 96-well plate. When ES cells were seeded at a density of 4000 cells/well, the cystic EB-Vs were most efficiently developed from ES cells via forming multicellular spherical aggregates called embryoid bodies (EBs). The suspension culture in the low-adherence plate was preferable for developing EBs into cystic EB-Vs rather than the attachment culture in the plate coated with 0.1% gelatin. The seeding cell density of 4000 cells/well was always superior to 1000 cells/well in the efficiency of cystic EB-V development. Because the high-cell density culture generally raises the limitation of oxygen and nutrient supplies, we investigated the effects of low-oxygen and low-nutrient conditions on the development of cystic EB-Vs. It was found that low oxygen tension was not a factor for promoting the development of cystic EB-Vs. It was suggested that a low-nutrient medium is preferred for developing cystic EB-Vs rather than a sufficient-nutrient medium. In conclusion, the suspension culture in the low-adherence 96-well plate seeded with 4000 ES cells/well was optimum for developing cystic EB-Vs. The low-nutrient condition may be one of the factors for promoting the development of cystic EB-Vs. PMID:19332306

  3. Comparison of Toxicity of Benzene Metabolite Hydroquinone in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Derived from Murine Embryonic Yolk Sac and Adult Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Liqiao; Li, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suhan; Huang, Wenting; Wang, Liping; Yang, Tan; Ma, Qiang; Bi, Yongyi

    2013-01-01

    Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. However, experimental evidence supporting the association is lacking at the present time. It is believed that benzene and its metabolites target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cause toxicity and cancer in the hematopoietic system. In the current study, we compared the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major metabolite of benzene in humans and animals, on mouse embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells (YS-HSCs) and adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs were isolated and enriched, and were exposed to HQ at increasing concentrations. HQ reduced the proliferation and the differentiation and colony formation, but increased the apoptosis of both YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. However, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HQ were more apparent and reduction of colony formation by HQ was more severe in YS-HSCs than in BM-HSCs. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed in HQ-treated YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. Cyp4f18 was induced by HQ both in YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs, whereas DNA-PKcs was induced in BM-HSCs only. The results revealed differential effects of benzene metabolites on embryonic and adult HSCs. The study established an experimental system for comparison of the hematopoietic toxicity and leukemogenicity of benzene and metabolites during mouse embryonic development and adulthood. PMID:23940708

  4. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-27

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  6. Effects of temperature on oxygen consumption, growth, and development of embryos and yolk-sac larvae of Siganus randalli (Pisces: Siganidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Collins; S. G. Nelson

    1993-01-01

    Eggs from laboratory spawnings of the coralreef fish Siganus randalli Woodland were incubated at two temperatures (27 and 30 °C). Eggs and larvae were sampled until larval starvation, while changes in oxygen consumption, growth, yolk utilization, and development were monitored. Oxygen consumption, which peaked at hatching, was higher for embryos incubated at 30 °C than at 27 °C. Rates of

  7. UBR box N-recognin-4 (UBR4), an N-recognin of the N-end rule pathway, and its role in yolk sac vascular development and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Tasaki, Takafumi; Kim, Sung Tae; Zakrzewska, Adriana; Lee, Bo Eun; Kang, Min Jueng; Yoo, Young Dong; Cha-Molstad, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Joonsung; Soung, Nak Kyun; Sung, Ki Sa; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Nguyen, Minh Dang; Sun, Ming; Yi, Eugene C.; Kim, Bo Yeon; Kwon, Yong Tae

    2013-01-01

    The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which destabilizing N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins act as degradation determinants (N-degrons). Substrates carrying N-degrons are recognized by N-recognins that mediate ubiquitylation-dependent selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our previous studies identified the mammalian N-recognin family consisting of UBR1/E3?, UBR2, UBR4/p600, and UBR5, which recognize destabilizing N-terminal residues through the UBR box. In the current study, we addressed the physiological function of a poorly characterized N-recognin, 570-kDa UBR4, in mammalian development. UBR4-deficient mice die during embryogenesis and exhibit pleiotropic abnormalities, including impaired vascular development in the yolk sac (YS). Vascular development in UBR4-deficient YS normally advances through vasculogenesis but is arrested during angiogenic remodeling of primary capillary plexus associated with accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. In the YS, UBR4 marks endoderm-derived, autophagy-enriched cells that coordinate differentiation of mesoderm-derived vascular cells and supply autophagy-generated amino acids during early embryogenesis. UBR4 of the YS endoderm is associated with a tissue-specific autophagic pathway that mediates bulk lysosomal proteolysis of endocytosed maternal proteins into amino acids. In cultured cells, UBR4 subpopulation is degraded by autophagy through its starvation-induced association with cellular cargoes destined to autophagic double membrane structures. UBR4 loss results in multiple misregulations in autophagic induction and flux, including synthesis and lipidation/activation of the ubiquitin-like protein LC3 and formation of autophagic double membrane structures. Our results suggest that UBR4 plays an important role in mammalian development, such as angiogenesis in the YS, in part through regulation of bulk degradation by lysosomal hydrolases. PMID:23431188

  8. [Cytomorphological diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary].

    PubMed

    Kovrigina, A M; Anurova, O A; Shabanov, M A; Bogatyrev, V N

    1998-01-01

    The cytology of granulosa cell tumor in children and adults is studied. Cytological smears of ascitic fluid and fresh tissue smears were examined. The tumor was diagnosed in 9 patients aged 11 to 73 years. All patients had symptoms of hyperestrogenia. Adequate treatment of the condition requires the tumor to be differentiated from other tumors (thecoma, low-grade and small-cell carcinomas, carcinoid, yolk-sac tumor, and lymphoma) before or during surgery. PMID:9532899

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE Pakistan Vet. J., 24(1): 2004 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO YOLK RETENTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    stalk. Just before hatching, the yolk sac is pulled from the egg cavity to abdomen of chick infection by Sainsbury (1992) and Anjum (1997). Abdomen of chick felt soft and distended with thickened, inflamed and moist umbilicus. Unabsorbed yolk sac was present in the abdomen and therefore it was named

  10. [Papilloma of the lacrimal sac].

    PubMed

    Burduk, Pawe? K; Seredyka-Burduk, Ma?gorzata; Ka?mierczak, Wojciech; Dalke, Krzysztof; Marsza?ek, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The benign lesions of the lacrimal sac are very rare. The most typical epithelial tumor is squamous papilloma. This tumors often present with symptoms of dacryostenosis and dacriocystitis. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to be causative agent in the development of epithelial tumor. Lacrimal sac tumors could transform to malignant neoplasms, especially if they are developed of coexisting HPV infection. We present a patient with a squamous papilloma of the lacrimal sac and discussed the method of treatment. The patient was suffered from epiphora and recurrent dacriocystitis. An endoscopic surgery with dacriocystorhinostomy and local resection of the tumor could be an effective method of choice. The usage of a shaver for wide removal of the lacrimal sac wall is recommended to prevent local recurrence. The histopathology examination showed squamous papilloma. The patient is free of the disease over 8 months of follow up. Primary lacrimal sac papilloma require long term follow up for recurrence or malignant transformation. HPV infection could be associated with the development of lacrimal sac papillomas. PMID:23374665

  11. Primary mixed germ cell tumor of the liver with sarcomatous components

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ai-Min; Gong, Shao-Juan; Song, Wei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Wei; Pan, Chun-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Jun; Wu, Meng-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Germ cell tumor (GCT) of the liver is extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of hepatic mixed GCT with significant sarcomatous components and elevated serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) in a 34-year-old man. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of two GCTs components: yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma. The predominant components of immature teratoma consisted of several types of tissue that represented different germinal layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm) and showed varying degrees of differentiation with significant sarcomatous components. The yolk sac component showed positivity for AFP and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). The immature teratoma components showed positivity for varying differentiation markers. Interphase cytogenetic analysis revealed that the yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma were positive for i(12p) and 12p over-representation. In particular, the rhabdomyoblastic components also showed typical i(12p) and 12p overrepresentation. This suggested that sarcomatous components may be associated with dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of certain mesenchymal components within teratoma. PMID:20128038

  12. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  13. Information Cul de Sac

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-01-10

    Korea has a "comprehensive official fantasy worldview" which even the smallest of outside information leaks could easily destroy. And so, instead of the information superhighway, North Korea has the information cul de sac. #ceas #hacker #North...

  14. Ovarian malignant mixed germ cell tumor with clear cell carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Zai-Ping; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumors of germ origin. Most patients are adolescent and young women, approximately two-thirds of them are under 20 years of age, occasionally in postmenopausal women. But clear cell carcinoma usually occurs in older patients (median age: 57-year old), and closely related with endometriosis. Here we report a case of a 55-year old woman with right ovarian mass that discovered by B ultrasonic. Her serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and ?-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Pathological examination revealed the tumor to be a mixed germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma and mature teratoma) with clear cell carcinoma in a background of endometriosis. Immunohistochemical staining showed SALL4 and PLAP were positive in germ cell tumor area, hCG, CD30 and OCT4 were positive in epithelial-like cells and giant synctiotrophoblastic cells, AFP, AAT, CD117 and Glyp3 were positive in yolk sac component, EMA and CK7 were positive in clear cell carcinoma, CD10 was positive in endometrial cells of endometriotic area. She was treated with surgery followed by seven courses of chemotherapy. She is well and serum levels of hCG and AFP have been decreased to normal levels. PMID:25674278

  15. Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors; A 10-year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Leily; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Nasibeh; Hasas-Yeganeh, Shaghayegh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of germ cell tumors in patients admitted to our center during a ten year period. Methods: In a retrospective descriptive study, patients with the pathological diagnosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) were included. All records were evaluated and patients followed by personal visit in clinic or phone call. Data regarding age, sex, tumor site, bio-chemical assay, pathology, treatment and outcomes were gathered. For qualitative variables we computed frequency and percentage and for quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version16.0. Findings : Forty four patients consisted of 32 girls (72.7%) and 12 boys (27.3%). Their median age was 23 months. The most common pathological tumor types were 18 (40.9%) mature teratomas and 14 (31.8%) yolk sac tumors. Extra gonadal tumors were more prevalent (32 cases) and consisted of 21 (47.7%) sacrcoccygeal, 7 (15.9%) retroperitoneal, 2 (4.4%) mediastinal and 2 (4.4%) cervical tumors. In gonadal tumors 9 patients had ovarian and 3 patients testicular involvement. Staging at the time of diagnosis revealed stage one in 23 (52.3%) cases. All patients were treated surgically and the most common procedure was total resection in 41 (93.2%) patients. Fifteen (34.1%) patients received chemotherapy. In follow-up 31 (77.5%) patients were in complete remission, 9 (22.5%) had died, and 4 cases did not appear to follow-up visits. The median survival was 16 months (IQR 4-49 months). The highest mortality rate was found in patients with yolk sac tumors (8 of 13 cases). Conclusion: The patients with extra-gonadal GCT and a high AFP level have the worst prognosis and lower survival rate. Combination of surgery and chemotherapy can lead to a better prognosis. PMID:25755868

  16. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    PubMed Central

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-01-01

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  17. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-07-22

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  18. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  19. Effects of the in ovo injection of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the yolk and serum characteristics of male and female broiler embryos.

    PubMed

    Bello, A; Nascimento, M; Pelici, N; Womack, S K; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D; Peebles, E D

    2015-04-01

    Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] in broiler embryos at 19 d of incubation : doi : have been shown to increase 3 times by the in ovo injection of 0.60??g 25(OH)D3 on 18 doi. In this trial, effects of the injection of 25(OH)D3 at 18 doi on the yolks and sera of male and female Ross × Ross 708 broiler embryos were assessed. On 18 doi, embryonated eggs that were set in a single stage incubator were assigned to 6 replicate trays within each of 2 injection treatment groups. Treatments included those injected with 100??L commercial diluent (control) and those injected with 0.60??g 25(OH)D3 in 100??L commercial diluent. On 19 doi, embryos and their yolk sacs were extracted for determination of sex, yolk weight, BW, serum CA and phosphorous concentrations, and yolk CA, phosphorous, moisture, dry matter, and lipid concentrations. The weight of female embryos with their attached yolk sacs as a percentage of set egg weight was greater than that of males (P = 0.03). There were treatment × sex interactions for the weight of embryos with their attached yolk sacs relative to 19 doi egg weight (P = 0.05) and for yolk CA concentration (P = 0.004). In eggs that received 25(OH)D3, the weight of female embryos with their attached yolk sacs relative to 19 doi egg weight was higher than that of males (P = 0.005), and percentage yolk CA was higher in control eggs containing female embryos in comparison to those containing males (P = 0.007). An injection of 0.60??g 25(OH)D3 at 18 doi eliminated yolk CA differences associated with embryo sex, suggesting that 25(OH)D3 may influence sex-related differences in the rate of yolk CA absorption by broiler embryos and may be related to subsequent sex-related differences in posthatch bone strength. PMID:25691758

  20. [Germ cell and embryonal tumors].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Mühl-Benninghaus, R; Simgen, A; Yilmaz, U

    2014-08-01

    Germ cell tumors, which constitute approximately 3-5% of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), can be subdivided into germinomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors. The diagnosis of intracranial germ cell tumor is based on the clinical symptoms, detection of tumor markers, such as alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord, CSF cytology and histology. The diagnosis of a secreting germ cell tumor, i.e. a non-germinoma, can be made by the determination of AFP and hCG as tumor markers. Germinomas are radiosensitive but are equally as sensitive to chemotherapy. Teratomas of the CNS are mostly diagnosed in newborns and infants. The most decisive role in the treatment of teratomas is played by as complete a resection as possible. Chemotherapy and irradiation play a subordinate role.Embryonal tumors, which constitute approximately 15-20% of CNS tumors, include medulloblastomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the CNS and the atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the CNS. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and adolescence. The incidence peak is the fifth year of life with a male predisposition in a ratio of 1.5:1. Medulloblastomas constitute 12-25% of all pediatric CNS tumors and 30-40% of pediatric tumors of the posterior cranial fossa. At the time of diagnosis evidence of dissemination in the CSF cavity is found in approximately 40% of patients. The extreme cell density makes medulloblastomas hyperdense in computed tomography (CT) and can therefore be differentiated from hypodense astrocytomas. The PNETs are histologically related to medulloblastomas, pineoblastomas, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors and peripheral neuroblastomas. They are relatively rare in children constituting less than 5% of supratentorial neoplasms. Patients are mostly clinically conspicuous due to macrocephalus and signs of brain pressure and/or seizures. In native CT the solid components of PNETs show a hyperdensity compared to the surrounding brain parenchyma probably due to the high cell density. Cysts and calcification are often detectable. The survival rate of children with CNS tumors has continuously increased in recent years. When corresponding clinical symptoms appear, such as headache, nausea or vomiting when fasting, all of which are evidence of increased intracranial pressure, MRI should be carried out as quickly as possible. Children should be treated in centers with departments of pediatric oncology and hematology and within the framework of studies. PMID:25119569

  1. Yolk size and ovulation order determine fertility within double-yolked duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) eggs.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Attila; Kent, John P

    2014-08-11

    Herein we examined the effects of yolk size and ovulation order on the fertilisation of yolks within double-yolked (DY) duck eggs. Single-yolked (SY) duck eggs had high fertility (89.98%), whereas in DY duck eggs fertility was low (51.9% yolks). The yolks closer to the airspace (Yolk 1) in DY eggs had higher fertility (68.82% vs 34.98% for Yolk 2; Pn=550) compared with large (?105g) DY eggs (54.56%; n=768; PP=0.003). Although Yolk 2 fertility was low, it was not affected by egg size. DY eggs with zero fertilised yolks were significantly lighter than DY eggs with one (P=0.007) or two (P<0.001) fertilised yolks (i.e. larger DY eggs were more likely to have fertilised yolks). Larger eggs (?105g) have larger yolks and the evidence here shows that an optimal yolk size is a significant positive factor in achieving fertilization by dislodging spermatozoa, after ovulation, from their storage sites. PMID:25109712

  2. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  3. Metabolic fate of yolk fatty acids in the developing king penguin embryo.

    PubMed

    Groscolas, René; Fréchard, Françoise; Decrock, Frédéric; Speake, Brian K

    2003-10-01

    This study examines the metabolic fate of total and individual yolk fatty acids (FA) during the embryonic development of the king penguin, a seabird characterized by prolonged incubation (53 days) and hatching (3 days) periods, and a high n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA ratio in the egg. Of the approximately 15 g of total FA initially present in the egg lipid, 87% was transferred to the embryo by the time of hatching, the remaining 13% being present in the internalized yolk sac of the chick. During the whole incubation, 83% of the transferred FA was oxidized for energy, with only 17% incorporated into embryo lipids. Prehatching (days 0-49), the fat stores (triacylglycerol) accounted for 58% of the total FA incorporated into embryo lipid. During hatching (days 49-53), 40% of the FA of the fat stores was mobilized, the mobilization of individual FA being nonselective. At hatch, 53% of the arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) of the initial yolk had been incorporated into embryo lipid compared with only 15% of the total FA and 17-24% of the various n-3 polyunsaturated FA. Similarly, only 32% of the yolk's initial content of 20:4n-6 was oxidized for energy during development compared with 72% of the total FA and 58-66% of the n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The high partitioning of yolk FA toward oxidization and the intense mobilization of fat store FA during hatching most likely reflect the high energy cost of the long incubation and hatching periods of the king penguin. The preferential partitioning of 20:4n-6 into the structural lipid of the embryo in the face of its low content in the yolk may reflect the important roles of this FA in tissue function. PMID:12791584

  4. Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab!

    E-print Network

    Taber, Douglass

    Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab! Cholesterol (1) is a major component of cell membranes. An egg yolk contains about 200 milligrams of cholesterol, much of it bound as complex lipid. In this experiment, you will purify cholesterol from an egg

  5. Pediatric germ cell tumors presenting beyond childhood?

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, J W; Stoop, J A; Rijlaarsdam, M A; Biermann, K; Smit, V T H B M; Hersmus, R; Looijenga, L H J

    2015-01-01

    Four cases are reported meeting the criteria of a pediatric (i.e., Type I) testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT), apart from the age of presentation, which is beyond childhood. The tumors encompass the full spectrum of histologies of pediatric TGCT: teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and various combinations of the two, and lack intratubular germ cell neoplasia/carcinoma in situ in the adjacent parenchyma. The neoplasms are (near)diploid, and lack gain of 12p, typical for seminomas and non-seminomas of the testis of adolescents and adults (i.e., Type II). It is proposed that these neoplasms are therefore late appearing pediatric (Type I) TGCT. The present report broadens the concept of earlier reported benign teratomas of the post-pubertal testis to the full spectrum of pediatric TGCT. The possible wide age range of pediatric TGCT, demonstrated in this study, lends credence to the concept that TGCT should according to their pathogenesis be classified into the previously proposed types. This classification is clinically relevant, because Type I mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are candidates for testis conserving surgery, as opposed to Type II mature teratomas, which have to be treated as Type II (malignant) non-seminomas. PMID:25427839

  6. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  7. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham-inoculated. The rats were killed when reaching terminal illness or on day 7, followed by light microscopy preparation and PAS-Alcian blue staining. The endolymphatic sac was examined for bacterial invasion and leukocyte infiltration. Neither bacteria nor leukocytes infiltrated the endolymphatic sac during the first days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges was found. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurred prior to bacterial invasion. During meningitis, bacteria do not invade the endolymphatic sac through the dura, but solely through the endolymphatic duct, following the invasion of the vestibular system. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurs prior to, as well as concurrent with bacterial invasion. The findings support the endolymphatic sac as part of an innate immune defense system protecting the inner ear from infection. PMID:24452771

  8. Effectivity of pazopanib treatment in orthotopic models of human testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cisplatin (CDDP) resistance in testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is still a clinical challenge, and one associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this work was to test pazopanib, an anti-tumoral and anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitor, and its combination with lapatinib (an anti-ErbB inhibitor) in mouse orthotopic models of human testicular GCTs. Methods We used two different models of human testicular GCTs orthotopically grown in nude mice; a CDDP-sensitive choriocarcinoma (TGT38) and a new orthotopic model generated from a metastatic GCT refractory to first-line CDDP chemotherapy (TGT44). Nude mice implanted with these orthotopic tumors were treated with the inhibitors and the effect on tumoral growth and angiogenesis was evaluated. Results TGT44 refractory tumor had an immunohistochemical profile similar to the original metastasis, with characteristics of yolk sac tumor. TGT44 did not respond when treated with cisplatin. In contrast, pazopanib had an anti-angiogenic effect and anti-tumor efficacy in this model. Pazopanib in combination with lapatinib in TGT38, an orthotopic model of choriocarcinoma had an additive effect blocking tumor growth. Conclusions We present pazopanib as a possible agent for the alternative treatment of CDDP-sensitive and CDDP-refractory GCT patients, alone or in combination with anti-ErbB therapies. PMID:23937707

  9. Molecular characterization of oct4-expressing yolk sac endoderm stem cell lines.

    E-print Network

    Debeb, Bisrat Godefay

    2009-05-15

    that intermingles with the closely related, anatomically indistinguishable epiblast (EPI)- precursor that gives rise to the fetus. In vitro, the EPI-precursor is represented by the well-known embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, but cell lines representing...

  10. From the yolk sac to the spleen: New roles for Notch in regulating hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Ivan; He, Yiping; Pear, Warren S

    2003-05-01

    Although Notch receptors are widely expressed during hematopoiesis, their roles outside of the T cell lineage are not well characterized. Two reports in this issue of Immunity show that Notch1 and Notch2, respectively, are required to generate the earliest embryonic hematopoietic stem cells and splenic marginal zone B cells. Thus, different Notch receptors have specific and nonoverlapping functions that influence multiple hematopoietic lineages at various stages of development. PMID:12753735

  11. SAC Minutes Wednesday, Jan 9, 2013

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    THAT SAC approve the booking of Ballroom on Jan 18 from 6pm ­ 1am, by Arts Undergraduate Society. They hope Undergraduate Society. This is Kines Week Mingler." ...Carried 8. MOVED KATHLEEN HANDFIELD, SECONDED PHILIP HE THAT SAC approve the booking of Norm on Sat, Feb 16 from 7am- 5pm by Kababayan Club. This is for a film

  12. Measuring corticosterone in seabird egg yolk and the presence of high yolk gestagen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud; Parenteau, Charline; Trouvé, Colette; Demongin, Laurent; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J; Möstl, Erich

    2011-08-01

    Large inter-species differences have been found in yolk corticosterone amounts in avian eggs. While some studies have failed to detect significant amounts of corticosterone, in other species high amounts have been recorded, such as in a recent study of southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome. However, attention has been drawn recently to the fact that many antibodies for corticosterone measurement cross-react with other steroids present in the yolk. In particular, progesterone and related substances can occur in yolk in high concentrations, such that also low cross-reactions of corticosterone assays may lead to measurement errors. We thus performed high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses of yolk extracts and determined the concentration of immunoreactive corticosterone, as well as cross-reacting progesterone and cortisol in egg yolks of southern rockhopper penguins and imperial shags Phalacrocorax atriceps albiventer. We found that high gestagen concentrations in the yolk result in large measurement errors for yolk corticosterone, even when the cross-reactivity seems small. This was observed for both species. We further found species-specific differences in the actual corticosterone amounts present in the egg yolks. PMID:21640119

  13. The Hypoxia-Inducible Epigenetic Regulators Jmjd1a and G9a Provide a Mechanistic Link between Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jolene Caifeng; Lee, Kian Leong; Kitajima, Shojiro; Yang, Henry; Sun, Wendi; Fukuhara, Noriko; Zaiden, Norazean; Chan, Shing Leng; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes stem cell maintenance and tumor progression, but it remains unclear how it regulates long-term adaptation toward these processes. We reveal a striking downregulation of the hypoxia-inducible histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase JMJD1A as a hallmark of clinical human germ cell-derived tumors, such as seminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Jmjd1a was not essential for stem cell self-renewal but played a crucial role as a tumor suppressor in opposition to the hypoxia-regulated oncogenic H3K9 methyltransferase G9a. Importantly, loss of Jmjd1a resulted in increased tumor growth, whereas loss of G9a produced smaller tumors. Pharmacological inhibition of G9a also resulted in attenuation of tumor growth, offering a novel therapeutic strategy for germ cell-derived tumors. Finally, Jmjd1a and G9a drive mutually opposing expression of the antiangiogenic factor genes Robo4, Igfbp4, Notch4, and Tfpi accompanied by changes in H3K9 methylation status. Thus, we demonstrate a novel mechanistic link whereby hypoxia-regulated epigenetic changes are instrumental for the control of tumor growth through coordinated dysregulation of antiangiogenic gene expression. PMID:25071150

  14. Novel smart yolk/shell polymer microspheres as a multiply responsive cargo delivery system.

    PubMed

    Du, Pengcheng; Liu, Peng

    2014-03-25

    An effective strategy was developed to fabricate the novel dually thermo- and pH-responsive yolk/shell polymer microspheres as a drug delivery system (DDS) for the controlled release of anticancer drugs via two-stage distillation precipitation polymerization and seed precipitation polymerization. Their pH-induced thermally responsive polymer shells act as a smart "valve" to adjust the diffusion of the loaded drugs in/out of the polymer containers according to the body environments, while the movable P(MAA-co-EGDMA) cores enhance the drug loading capacity for the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). The yolk/shell polymer microspheres show a low leakage at high pH values but significantly enhanced release at lower pH values equivalent to the tumor body fluid environments at human body temperature, exhibiting the apparent tumor-environment-responsive controlled "on-off" drug release characteristics. Meanwhile, the yolk/shell microspheres expressed very low in vitro cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells. Consequently, their precise tumor-environment-responsive drug delivery performance and high drug loading capacity offer promise for tumor therapy. PMID:24571375

  15. RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in Eggs of the Lizard, Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination, yolk testosterone (T) concentration is greater in male previous studies. If yolk T levels are also sex-specific before eggs are laid, a period during which

  16. Ki-A10, a Germ Cell Nuclear Antigen Retained in a Subset of Germ Cell-Derived Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Pierre; Kellner, Udo; Schmidt, Dietmar; Kirchner, Vera; Talerman, Aleksander; Harms, Dieter; Parwaresch, Reza

    1999-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody Ki-A10 recognizes a nuclear antigen of 25 and 22 kd apparent molecular mass, which is abundantly expressed by immature gonocytes, spermatogonia, and spermatocytes, whereas it is absent in spermatids, spermatozoa, oocytes, and normal somatic tissues. In a broad spectrum of human cancers the antibody showed no reactivity except for a small subset of malignant lymphomas. Because of this restricted expression pattern, we examined 173 germ cell tumors and 18 sex cord stromal tumors immunohistochemically to assess the distribution of the Ki-A10 antigen. A strongly positive reaction was found in classic seminomas, dysgerminomas, spermatocytic seminomas, and the germ cell component of gonadoblastomas. Yolk sac tumors presented a heterogeneous reactivity pattern ranging from overall positivity to complete lack of antigen expression, and in three of eight choriocarcinomas, a few clusters of cytotrophoblast cells were strongly labeled. All other tumors, including Leydig and Sertoli cell tumors as well as placental tissue, were negative. Our findings suggest that specific germ cell antigens can be retained in germ cell tumors along particular differentiation pathways. Ki-A10 is the first marker that consistently labels spermatocytic seminoma, further confirming its germ cell origin and suggesting a close relationship to classic seminoma. The antibody may serve for diagnostic purposes and promises new insights into the process of germ cell differentiation and the development of germ cell-derived neoplasia. PMID:10079257

  17. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  18. Yolk Pigments of the Mexican Leaf Frog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido V. Marinetti; Joseph T. Bagnara

    1983-01-01

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha . The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These

  19. Exome sequencing of bilateral testicular germ cell tumors suggests independent development lineages.

    PubMed

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M; Berg, Kaja G; Bakken, Anne C; Bruun, Jarle; Fosså, Sophie D; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2015-02-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  20. Exome Sequencing of Bilateral Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Suggests Independent Development Lineages12

    PubMed Central

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M.; Berg, Kaja G.; Bakken, Anne C.; Bruun, Jarle; Fosså, Sophie D.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I.

    2015-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  1. tumors

    E-print Network

    Background: To investigate the role of maspin expression in the progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and its value as a prognostic indicator. Methods: In the study 54 patients with GIST diagnosis were included in Uludag University of Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology between 1997-2007. The expression of maspin in 54 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was detected by immunohistochemistry and compared with the clinicopathologic tumor parameters. Results: The positive expression rates for maspin in the GISTs were 66,6 % (36 of 54 cases). Maspin overexpression was detected in 9 of 29 high risk tumors (31%) and was significantly higher in very low/low (78.6%) and intermediate-risk tumors (63.6%) than high-risk tumors. Conclusions: Maspin expression might be an important factor in tumor progression and patient prognosis in GIST. In the future, larger series may be studied to examine the prognostic significance of maspin in GISTs and, of course, maspin expression may be studied in different mesenchymal tumors. Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal

  2. tumors

    E-print Network

    Background: According to the scientific literature, less than 30 borderline ovarian tumors have been karyotyped and less than 100 analyzed for genomic imbalances by CGH. Methods: We report a series of borderline ovarian tumors (n = 23) analyzed by G-banding and karyotyping as well as high resolution CGH; in addition, the tumors were analyzed for microsatellite stability status and by FISH for possible 6q deletion. Results: All informative tumors were microsatellite stable and none had a deletion in 6q27. All cases with an abnormal karyotype had simple chromosomal aberrations with +7 and +12 as the most common. In three tumors with single structural rearrangements, a common breakpoint in 3q13 was detected. The major copy number changes detected in the borderline tumors were gains from chromosome arms 2q, 6q, 8q, 9p, and 13q and losses from 1p, 12q, 14q, 15q, 16p, 17p, 17q, 19p, 19q, and 22q. The series included five pairs of bilateral tumors and, in two of these pairs, informative data were obtained as to their clonal relationship. In both pairs, similarities were found between the tumors from the right and left side, strongly indicating that bilaterality had occurred via a metastatic process. The bilateral tumors as a group showed more aberrations than did the unilateral ones, consistent with the view that bilaterality is a sign of more advanced disease. Conclusion: Because some of the imbalances found in borderline ovarian tumors seem to be similar to imbalances already known from the more extensively studied overt ovarian carcinomas, we speculate that the subset of borderline tumors with detectable imbalances or karyotypic aberrations may contain a smaller subset of tumors with a tendency to develop a more malignant phenotype. The group of borderline tumors with no imbalances would, in this line of thinking, have less or no propensity for clonal evolution and development to full-blown carcinomas.

  3. [Analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and nucleolar organizer region in testicular tumors].

    PubMed

    Kurisu, H; Shimabukuro, T; Wada, T; Yamamoto, M; Shameem, I A; Otsuka, T; Sakano, S; Matsuyama, H; Naito, K; Yamamoto, N

    1993-08-01

    Immunohistochemical staining using the monoclonal antibody of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region associated protein (AgNOR) staining were performed on 28 paraffin-embedded testicular tumors, and their correlation was assessed according to histological type, clinical staging and tumor markers. PCNA positive rates and AgNOR numbers in nuclei were 57.9%, 4.38 in seminomas, 63.4%, 5.79 in embryonal carcinomas, 37.7%, 2.63 in teratomas, 61.3%, 4.43 in yolk sac tumors, 79.5%, 7.12 in choriocarcinomas, and 20.9%, 3.03 in cells of the normal seminiferous tubule, respectively. In pure seminomas, the PCNA positive rates and AgNOR numbers of the stage II to III group (72.6%, 4.75) were higher than those of the stage I group (47.8%, 3.67), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was a significant correlation between PCNA positive rate and AgNOR number in all specimens (r = 0.76, p < 0.002). These findings indicate that PCNA and AgNOR are suitable indicators for proliferative activity of testicular tumors. PMID:8104387

  4. Androgen-Receptor Positive Lacrimal Sac Adenocarcinoma Demonstrating Long-Lasting Response to LHRH Analog Plus Abiraterone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vagia, Elena; Economopoulou, Panagiota; Oikonomopoulos, Nikolaos; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, George; Psyrri, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Tumors arising at the lacrimal sac are extremely rare, as a limited number of cases have been reported worldwide. They are commonly primary and the majority of them are malignant and epithelial in origin. Adenocarcinomas account for a small percentage of these tumors. Treatment of local disease mainly includes complete surgical resection. However, metastatic disease has a poor prognosis and the development of new treatment strategies is highly important. Research efforts mainly focus on the identification of molecular targets for therapy. Herein, we describe for the first time a case of a patient with an androgen receptor expressing adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac that had an impressive response to abiraterone. PMID:25699235

  5. Analysis of glycerophosphonolipids in egg yolk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waldemar Ternes; Thomas Jaekel

    2010-01-01

    Glycerophosphonolipids are a relatively unknown class of polar lipids. Little information is available on any special biological\\u000a function of these substances or specific technological use for them. Since glycerophosphonolipids have been reported to occur\\u000a in egg yolk, further studies are needed in order to determine their relevancy. However, analysis of these lipids is rather\\u000a difficult, due both to their chemical

  6. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs. PMID:6681678

  7. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing number not listed, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 24, 2012

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 24, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adam, Caroline Wong, Elaine Kuo, Clarke Mccorkell, Kathleen Handfield, Barnabas Caro, Philip He, Jeffrey Smith with athletics Adam and Nicola to follow up with club regarding finances 3. MOVED ALISHIA ADAM, SECONDED PHILIP

  10. SAC Minutes Thursday, July 26, 2012

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    . INTRODUCTIONS The chair was passed to Adam Melhem at 4:31pm. 2. PRESENTATIONS The Knitting and Sewing Club CLARKE MCCORKELL: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution of Knitting and Sewing Club as an AMS club." *started as social knitting group in Totem last year. ...Carried MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED

  11. SAC Tax Help Prepared Feb. 2010

    E-print Network

    Doering, Tamara

    1 SAC Tax Help Prepared Feb. 2010 Disclaimer: We are not tax experts, and cannot be held responsible for your tax forms. (neither can DBBS, WashU, etc...) 1 Taxes for international students Go to http://oisshome.wustl.edu/taxes/FilingTaxes.html for tax information from the Office for International

  12. SAC Minutes Thursday, July 12, 2012

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    . INTRODUCTIONS 2. PRESENTATIONS Thaqalayn Muslim Association World Cinema Club UBC Strategic Asia 3 the constitution of Thaqalayn Muslim Association as an AMS club." ...Tabled *SAC Vice Chair, Adam, will contact the Thaqalayn Muslim Association to facilitate their talking with Muslim Student Association about collaborating

  13. Hernia sacs: is histological examination necessary?

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar

    2013-12-01

    The hernia sac is a common surgical pathology specimen which can occasionally yield unexpected diagnoses. The College of American Pathologists recommends microscopic examination of abdominal hernias, but leaves submission of inguinal hernias for histology to the discretion of the pathologist. To validate this approach at a tertiary care centre, we retrospectively reviewed 1426 hernia sacs derived from inguinal, femoral and abdominal wall hernias. The majority of pathologies noted were known to the clinician, including herniated bowel, lipomas and omentum. A malignancy was noted in three of 800 inguinal hernias and seven of 576 abdominal wall hernias; five of these lesions were not seen on gross examination. Other interesting findings in hernia sacs included appendices, endometriosis, a perivascular epithelioid cell tumour, and pseudomyxoma peritoneii. All hernia sacs should be examined grossly as most pathologies are grossly visible. The decision to submit inguinal hernias for histology may be left to the discretion of the pathologist, but abdominal and femoral hernias should be submitted for histology. PMID:23794497

  14. How to Improve the SAC Jennifer Seberry

    E-print Network

    Seberry, Jennifer

    How to Improve the SAC Jennifer Seberry Xian-Mo Zhang Yuliang Zheng The Centre for Computer cryptographically strong functions, including substitution boxes (S-boxes) employed by common key block encryption and one an equal number of times, or simply, f(x)f(x) is balanced, for every Vn with W() = 1, where x

  15. Comparing and Contrasting NAEYC and SACS Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Mary Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe, compare, and contrast an early childhood departmental accreditation process from the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and a college/university-wide accreditation process from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). The history of higher education…

  16. Testicular and paratesticular tumors and tumor-like lesions in the first 2 decades.

    PubMed

    Ulbright, Thomas M; Young, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    The spectrum of testicular tumors and tumor-like lesions that affect young patients (defined for purposes of this article as less than 20 years old) differs significantly from that in an older age group. Although germ cell tumors remain the single largest category, they are a smaller proportion than in adults. Furthermore the pathogenesis and behavior of comparably named germ cell tumors differ depending on whether or not they have developed in prepubertal or postpubertal patients. This is most apparent for the teratomas, which are almost uniformly benign in children but, with some notable exceptions, malignant in the older patients. But even the most common malignant tumor of the testis in children, the yolk sac tumor, despite its identical morphology, lacks the association with other germ cell tumor types, including intratubular germ cell neoplasia, and more aggressive behavior that typify the adult tumors. Among the sex cord-stromal tumors, the juvenile granulosa cell tumor predominates in children, mostly occurs in those under 1-year old, and, for all intents and purposes, is not seen in the postpubertal period. It has a distinctive morphology and, to date, a uniformly benign outcome. There are additional tumors in the sex cord-stromal group that are mostly seen in young patients, including the large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor and intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia. The former is sometimes associated with the Carney syndrome and, to date, all of the latter with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subtypes of lymphomas and leukemias that involve the testis in children are rare in older patients, and similar remarks pertain to the metastatic tumors, where neuroblastoma (especially) and Wilms? tumor are most common but may be mimicked by primary tumors originating in the paratestis. The pseudoneoplastic lesion, the testicular "tumor" of the adrenogenital syndrome, is usually found in young patients and bears a strong resemblance to the Leydig cell tumor, although there are features that allow its distinction, which is important given its frequently bilateral nature and amenability to medical management through glucocorticoid administration. One of the preferential sites for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the paratestis of young patients, where the spindle cell variant predominates. The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor (retinal anlage tumor) usually occurs in the first year of life, typically involves the epididymis, and uncommonly metastasizes. Occasional cases of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor present in the paratestis of teenagers, and some distinctive tumor-like lesions of the paratestis may also be seen, including meconium periorchitis and splenic-gonadal fusion (occupying both testis and paratestis). These tumors and tumor-like lesions and many others are discussed in this review with the hope it will provide the diagnostic pathologist aid in recognizing the lesions and providing some insight into their clinical significance. PMID:25440720

  17. Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... excessively in the body. Normally, the body controls cell growth and division. New cells are created to replace ... room for healthy replacements. If the balance of cell growth and death is disturbed, a tumor may form. ...

  18. On modeling surge avoidance controllers (SAC) in compressors: design procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Murphy; Paul Kalata; Robert Fischl; D. Marchio

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a surge avoidance controller (SAC) for compressor systems operating near maximum pressure. The main result is a SAC structure characterized as an affine state-feedback control law in terms of the surge line and a directional parameter. This paper shows that with this new SAC characterization combined with existing compressor models, the existence of performance limiting j?-axis zeros.

  19. A Rare Case of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour: Clinicopathologic Study and Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Emanuele; Amadori, Maurizio; Armato, Enrico; Pavon, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising from the intrapetrous portion of the endolymphatic sac, either isolated or in association with the von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a sporadic case of ELST with an overview of the literature and a discussion of clinic-radiological, histopathologic, and surgical findings. Case Report. A young woman presented with a progressive hearing loss in the left ear. Otoscopy showed a reddish, bleeding hypotympanic mass. CT demonstrated an expansile lytic mastoid lesion extending to the middle ear, with bone erosion. MRI confirmed a lesion of increased signal on T1-weighted sequences. The patient underwent a canal wall-down tympanoplasty with complete removal of the tumor. Histopathology was consistent with a papillary ELST. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and chromogranin A. Conclusion. This paper highlights the rarity of ELST, the need for an accurate neuroradiological and immunohistochemical study at the early stages, and the timeliness of surgical treatment. PMID:24991442

  20. Measuring corticosterone in seabird egg yolk and the presence of high yolk gestagen concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Quillfeldt; Maud Poisbleau; Charline Parenteau; Colette Trouvé; Laurent Demongin; Hendrika J. van Noordwijk; Erich Möstl

    2011-01-01

    Large inter-species differences have been found in yolk corticosterone amounts in avian eggs. While some studies have failed to detect significant amounts of corticosterone, in other species high amounts have been recorded, such as in a recent study of southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome. However, attention has been drawn recently to the fact that many antibodies for corticosterone measurement

  1. Aquarius/SAC-D Educational Wall Poster

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a poster about the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission, with an image depicting the satellite in orbit. The back of the poster describes the mission's scientific goals and benefits, including the scientific value of maps of sea surface salinity. The Hands On Activities & Online Data Tools panel gives an overview of the classroom lessons and tools that are available on the mission website.

  2. Cecal bascule herniation into the lesser sac.

    PubMed

    Makarawo, Tafadzwa; Macedo, Francisco Igor; Jacobs, Michael J

    2014-12-16

    Cecal bascule is a rare cause of bowel obstruction in which a mobile cecum folds anteriorly and superiorly over the ascending colon. Herein, we present the first case of internal herniation of a cecal bascule into the lesser sac through the foramen of winslow, aiming at discussing radiological findings, differential diagnosis, and surgical management of this uncommon condition. A 75-year-old female presented to the emergency room with an 18-h history of sudden onset sharp, progressively worsening abdominal pain associated with vomiting. Physical exam revealed abdominal distention and epigastric tenderness while initial laboratory tests were unremarkable. Computed tomography of her abdomen and pelvis showed a loop of distended colon within lesser sac without signs of bowel ischemia or perforation. On exploratory laparotomy, a cecal bascule was found herniating into lesser sac via foramen of winslow. Upon reduction, the cecum appeared viable therefore a cecopexy was performed without bowel resection. Unlike cecal volvulus, cecal bascule consists of no axial rotation of the bowel with no mesenteric vascular compromise and therefore ischemia would only occur from intraluminal tension or extraluminal compression from the borders of foramen of winslow. The management of internal herniation of a cecal bascule is always surgical including anatomic resection or cecopexy. PMID:25516868

  3. Cecal bascule herniation into the lesser sac

    PubMed Central

    Makarawo, Tafadzwa; Macedo, Francisco Igor; Jacobs, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Cecal bascule is a rare cause of bowel obstruction in which a mobile cecum folds anteriorly and superiorly over the ascending colon. Herein, we present the first case of internal herniation of a cecal bascule into the lesser sac through the foramen of winslow, aiming at discussing radiological findings, differential diagnosis, and surgical management of this uncommon condition. A 75-year-old female presented to the emergency room with an 18-h history of sudden onset sharp, progressively worsening abdominal pain associated with vomiting. Physical exam revealed abdominal distention and epigastric tenderness while initial laboratory tests were unremarkable. Computed tomography of her abdomen and pelvis showed a loop of distended colon within lesser sac without signs of bowel ischemia or perforation. On exploratory laparotomy, a cecal bascule was found herniating into lesser sac via foramen of winslow. Upon reduction, the cecum appeared viable therefore a cecopexy was performed without bowel resection. Unlike cecal volvulus, cecal bascule consists of no axial rotation of the bowel with no mesenteric vascular compromise and therefore ischemia would only occur from intraluminal tension or extraluminal compression from the borders of foramen of winslow. The management of internal herniation of a cecal bascule is always surgical including anatomic resection or cecopexy. PMID:25516868

  4. Yolk Testosterone Stimulates Growth and Immunity in House Finch Chicks

    E-print Network

    Navara, Kristen

    regarded as anabolic and immunosuppressive, studies of the behavioral and physiological effects of yolk androgens on offspring of several avian species have been conflicting, leaving the adaptive significance associated with deposition patterns of yolk andro- gens unclear. We injected either a physiological dose

  5. Proteolysis of the major yolk glycoproteins is regulated by acidification of the yolk platelets in sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The precise function of the yolk platelets of sea urchin embryos during early development is unknown. We have shown previously that the chemical composition of the yolk platelets remains unchanged in terms of phospholipid, triglyceride, hexose, sialic acid, RNA, and total protein content after fertilization and early development. However, the platelet is not entirely static because the major 160-kD yolk glycoprotein YP-160 undergoes limited, step-wise proteolytic cleavage during early development. Based on previous studies by us and others, it has been postulated that yolk platelets become acidified during development, leading to the activation of a cathepsin B-like yolk proteinase that is believed to be responsible for the degradation of the major yolk glycoprotein. To investigate this possibility, we studied the effect of addition of chloroquine, which prevents acidification of lysosomes. Consistent with the postulated requirement for acidification, it was found that chloroquine blocked YP-160 breakdown but had no effect on embryonic development. To directly test the possibility that acidification of the yolk platelets over the course of development temporally correlated with YP-160 proteolysis, we added 3-(2,4-dinitroanilo)-3-amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP) to eggs or embryos. This compound localizes to acidic organelles and can be detected in these organelles by EM. The results of these studies revealed that yolk platelets did, in fact, become transiently acidified during development. This acidification occurred at the same time as yolk protein proteolysis, i.e., at 6 h after fertilization (64-cell stage) in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and at 48 h after fertilization (late gastrula) in L. pictus. Furthermore, the pH value at the point of maximal acidification of the yolk platelets in vivo was equal to the pH optimum of the enzyme measured in vitro, indicating that this acidification is sufficient to activate the enzyme. For both S. purpuratus and Lytechinus pictus, the observed decrease in the pH was approximately 0.8 U, from 7.0 to 6.2. The trypsin inhibitor benzamidine was found to inhibit the yolk proteinase in vivo. By virtue of the fact that this inhibitor was reversible we established that the activity of the yolk proteinase is developmentally regulated even though the enzyme is present throughout the course of development. These findings indicate that acidification of yolk platelets is a developmentally regulated process that is a prerequisite to initiation of the catabolism of the major yolk glycoprotein. PMID:1607383

  6. Mouse ovarian tumors--a review including classification and induction of neoplastic lesions and description of several previously unreported types.

    PubMed

    Liebelt, A G; Sass, B; Lombard, L S

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the pertinent literature on the incidence, methods of induction and pathogenesis of ovarian tumors of mice. Strains of mice with a high incidence of spontaneously occurring granulosa cell tumors (gct) and tubular adenomas (ta) are the C3HeB/Fe and C3HeB/De; strain HAN:NMRI developed Sertoli cell tumors and (DBA x Ce)F1 hybrids had a high incidence gct. Ninety-five percent of hybrid (C57BL/6J x C3H/HeJ)F1 WxWv mice which lack germ cells develop complex tubular adenomas. Strain LT, in which a high percentage of ovarian ova develop parthenogenetically, develops has a high incidence of teratomas. The use of hormones, castration and transplantation of the ovaries in a number of inbred strains results in a high incidence of ovarian tumors; in strain Maf/Sp gct and luteomas were induced in 82%. Irradiation with gamma rays produced a similar incidence of ovarian tumors in (C57L x A)F1 hybrids. The chemical inducing the highest incidence (92%) of ovarian tumors of mice is 9,10 Dimethyl 1,2 benzanthracene (DMBA). Recently, 4-Vinylcyclohexene was shown to induce a high incidence of ovarian tumors. A number of rare ovarian tumors were reported. Described are five androblastomas composed of either Leydig or Sertoli cells or a combination of the two cell types and a single undifferentiated androblastoma. Seven teratomas were described, three of which contained large amounts of neural tissue; another was classified as a teratoma with a parieto-visceral yolk-sac carcinoma component. PMID:2826730

  7. Improved avian influenza virus isolation rates from wild waterfowl cloacal swabs using yolk sac inoculation of embryonating chicken egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) remains of interest to researchers as a pathogen that infects many economically important bird species. Asymptomatic wild birds, such as waterfowl species, can shed virus and spread it to domestic poultry, where it can cause severe damage. Effective laboratory methods t...

  8. INFLUENCE OF WATER PROVISION TO CHICKS PRIOR TO PLACEMENT ON PERFORMANCE ON INCIDENCE OF UNABSORBED YOLK SACS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, the levels of bacteria recovered from broiler carcass halves after immersion chilling in a low volume of water (2.1 L/kg) were greater than the levels of bacteria recovered from halves after immersion chilling in a high volume of water (16.8 L/kg). A second study was conducted ...

  9. Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ziaja, Damian; Bolkowski, Tomasz; Januszewski, Krzysztof; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Wioletta; Chudek, Jerzy; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4?cm in diameter) tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand's hernia). Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women. PMID:25802791

  10. Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ziaja, Damian; Bolkowski, Tomasz; Januszewski, Krzysztof; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Wioletta; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4?cm in diameter) tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand's hernia). Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women.

  11. A Compliant and Creep Resistant SAC-Al(Ni) Alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benlih Huang; Hong-Sik Hwang; Ning-Cheng Lee

    2007-01-01

    Addition of Al into SAC alloys reduces the number of hard Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 IMC particles, and forms larger, softer non-stoichiometric AlAg and AlCu particles. This results in a significant reduction in yield strength, and also causes some moderate increase in creep rate. For high Ag SAC alloys, adding Al 0.1-0.6% to SAC alloys is most effective in softening, and

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

    2014-09-11

    Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass. PMID:25208811

  13. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    E-print Network

    L. E. Sánchez Díaz; E. C. Cortes-Morales; X. Li; Wei-Ren Chen; M. Medina-Noyola

    2014-06-23

    In this work we study the self-diffusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells)bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions,characterized by short-time self-diffusion coefficients D0s for the shells and D0y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of effective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diffusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We find that the yolks, which have no effect on the shell-shell static structure, influence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

  14. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diffusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diffusion coefficients D^0s for the shells and D^0y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of effective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diffusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We find that the yolks, which have no effect on the shell-shell static structure, influence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

  15. Air sac adenocarcinoma of the sternum in a Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Micco, Teresa; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory neoplasia is rarely reported in avian species. A 17-yr-old Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus) was admitted with a 2-wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass in the left pectoral muscle. Radiology showed a mass silhouetting the heart and the liver. Supportive treatment was provided, but the bird died during the seventh weekly visit to drain thoracic cavity fluid. Necropsy showed a white, 3 x 3 x 2-cm, hard, gritty sternal mass. Histology showed a nonencapsulated, moderately differentiated air sac carcinoma of the sternum. Immunohistochemically the neoplasm was cytokeratin positive and vimentin and calretinin negative. This is the first report of an air sac neoplasia in a Quaker parrot and one of few respiratory tumors in psittacines. PMID:25632693

  16. SAC Minutes April 23, 2014 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services Office of Acquisition and Logistics Management SUBJECT: SAC, enterprise data management, systems engineering, identity and access management, ERP IT infrastructure

  17. Nasolacrimal sac hematoma masquerading as an orbital mass.

    PubMed

    Yen, Michael T; Hipps, W Michael

    2004-03-01

    A distended or infiltrated nasolacrimal sac can present as a mass in the medial orbit. We present a case of aspergillus sinusitis complicated by intractable epistaxis after debridement of the nasal septum, which caused pain and rapid distension of the nasolacrimal sac. The clinical and radiographic appearance of the distended nasolacrimal sac mimicked the appearance of an orbital mass and orbital extension of aspergillosis. After embolization of the maxillary artery to control the epistaxis, the nasolacrimal sac hematoma spontaneously resolved, and the patient proceeded with his medical treatment without the need for orbital surgery. PMID:15083090

  18. Cloning and expression of the yolk protein of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Korneel Hens; Nathalie Macours; Ilse Claeys; Carmen Francis; Roger Huybrechts

    2004-01-01

    Two major families of nutritional proteins exist in insects, namely the vitellogenins and the yolk proteins. While in other insects only vitellogenins are found, cyclorraphan flies only contain yolk proteins. Possible sites of yolk protein synthesis are the fat body and the follicle cells surrounding the oocyte. We report the cloning of the yolk protein of the tsetse fly Glossina

  19. Egg Yolk-Coagulating Enzyme in the Semen and Cowper's Gland of the Goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Roy

    1957-01-01

    GLYCINE egg yolk and egg yolk citrate, prepared by mixing equal volumes of 4 per cent glycine and egg yolk and 3.6 per cent sodium citrate and egg yolk, were used in an attempt to extend the volume of ejaculated goat semen and to preserve the motility and fertility of the spermatozoa. With semen diluted twenty times it was found

  20. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  1. Soft template synthesis of yolk/silica shell particles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Xu, Dongsheng

    2010-04-01

    Yolk/shell particles possess a unique structure that is composed of hollow shells that encapsulate other particles but with an interstitial space between them. These structures are different from core/shell particles in that the core particles are freely movable in the shell. Yolk/shell particles combine the properties of each component, and can find potential applications in catalysis, lithium ion batteries, and biosensors. In this Research News article, a soft-template-assisted method for the preparation of yolk/silica shell particles is presented. The demonstrated method is simple and general, and can produce hollow silica spheres incorporated with different particles independent of their diameters, geometry, and composition. Furthermore, yolk/mesoporous silica shell particles and multishelled particles are also prepared through optimization of the experimental conditions. Finally, potential applications of these particles are discussed. PMID:20437501

  2. Dielectric properties of albumin and yolk of avian egg.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, M P; Arbad, B R; Landge, M G; Mehrotra, S C

    1996-04-01

    The dielectric properties of albumin and yolk of eggs of hen and duck have been investigated using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique in the frequency range 10 MHz to 10 GHz at room temperature. The conductivity and pH values were also measured. It has been found that the values of dielectric constant (epsilon s) is lower, while the values of relaxation time tau(ps) are higher than that of pure water possibly due to the bound water present in the yolk and albumin of the avian egg. The dielectric constant for albumin is more than that for yolk of eggs, while reverse is found with the values of relaxation time. Also albumin shows approximately three times higher conductivity than that of yolk. In the case of relatively older (by 2 days) eggs, the dielectric parameters tend to be slightly increased. PMID:8754629

  3. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or absence of air sacs is correlated with the anatomy of the hyoid bone, a probable minimum and maximum date of the loss of air sacs can be estimated from fossil hyoid bones. Australopithecus afarensis still had air sacs about 3.3 Ma, while Homo heidelbergensis, some 600 000 years ago and Homo neandethalensis some 60 000 years ago, did no longer. The reduced distinctiveness of articulations produced with an air sac is in line with the hypothesis that air sacs were selected against because of the evolution of complex vocal communication. This relation between complex vocal communication and fossil evidence may help to get a firmer estimate of when speech first evolved. PMID:22078314

  4. The pathological evaluation of the pediatric inguinal hernia sac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J Wenner; Marta Gutenberg; Timothy Crombleholme; Cory Flickinger; Scott P Bartlett

    1998-01-01

    Background: The College of American Pathologists has suggested that institutions should establish guidelines for the evaluation of the hernia sac. In addition, some states require the submission of this tissue for pathological evaluation. Yet, neither evidence-based guidelines nor published reviews for the evaluation of the pediatric hernia sac are available. Therefore, this retrospective study was conducted to document experience with

  5. Composition, accumulation and utilization of yolk lipids in teleost fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray D. Wiegand

    1996-01-01

    Lipid reserves in teleost eggs are stored in lipoprotein yolk and, in some species, a discrete oil globule. Lipoprotein yolk lipids are primarily polar lipids, especially phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and are rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Oil consists of neutral lipids and is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Egg lipids are derived

  6. DNA methylation analysis reveals distinct methylation signatures in pediatric germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aberrant DNA methylation is a prominent feature of many cancers, and may be especially relevant in germ cell tumors (GCTs) due to the extensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs in the germ line during normal development. Methods We used the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer Methylation Panel to compare DNA methylation in the three main histologic subtypes of pediatric GCTs (germinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST); N?=?51) and used recursively partitioned mixture models (RPMM) to test associations between methylation pattern and tumor and demographic characteristics. We identified genes and pathways that were differentially methylated using generalized linear models and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We also measured global DNA methylation at LINE1 elements and evaluated methylation at selected imprinted loci using pyrosequencing. Results Methylation patterns differed by tumor histology, with 18/19 YSTs forming a distinct methylation class. Four pathways showed significant enrichment for YSTs, including a human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway. We identified 190 CpG loci with significant methylation differences in mature and immature teratomas (q?tumor histology and location. Conclusion Understanding methylation patterns may identify the developmental stage at which the GCT arose and the at-risk period when environmental exposures could be most harmful. Further, identification of relevant genetic pathways could lead to the development of new targets for therapy. PMID:23806198

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Sn-Zn and SAC + Bi Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstru?, Janusz; G?sior, W?adys?aw; Henein, Hani

    2013-02-01

    Applying the discharge crucible (DC) method, the viscosity, density, and surface tension were determined for Sn-9Zn and Sn-2.92Ag-0.4Cu-3.07Bi (SAC + Bi) alloys. For comparison, the dilatometric, maximum bubble pressure, and capillary flow methods were used for measurements of these same physicochemical properties for the Sn-2.92Ag-0.4Cu-3.07Bi (SAC + Bi) alloy. The measurements were performed for Sn-9Zn and SAC + Bi alloys in the temperature range from 513 K to 723 K and 530 K to 1180 K, respectively. The experimental data obtained show that addition of Bi to SAC increases the density and decreases the surface tension and viscosity in comparison with SAC solder. Additionally it was found that the properties studied by different methods (maximum bubble pressure, dilatometric, capillary flow, and discharge crucible) were almost identical.

  8. Differential air sac pressures in diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Butler, P J; Wallace, S E

    1998-09-01

    The air in the respiratory system of diving birds contains a large proportion of the body oxygen stores, but it must be in the lungs for gas exchange with blood to occur. To test the hypothesis that locomotion induces mixing of air sac air with lung air during dives, we measured differential pressures between the interclavicular and posterior thoracic air sacs in five diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula. The peak differential pressure between posterior thoracic and interclavicular air sacs, 0.49+/-0.13 kPa (mean +/- s.d.), varied substantially during underwater paddling as indicated by gastrocnemius muscle activity. These data support the hypothesis that locomotion, perhaps through associated abdominal muscle activity, intermittently compresses the posterior air sacs more than the anterior ones. The result is differential pressure fluctuations that might induce the movement of air between air sacs and through the lungs during dives. PMID:9716518

  9. Survival analysis of children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors treated with surgery or surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Su-Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhen, Zi-Jun; Qin, Zi-Ke; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Juan; Sun, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-01

    For children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT), the survival is good with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is limited data on surgical results for cases in which there was no imaging or pathologic evidence of residual tumor, but in which serum tumor markers either increased or failed to normalize after an appropriate period of half-life time post-surgery. To determine the use of chemotherapy for children with stage II germ cell tumors, we analyzed the outcomes (relapse rate and overall survival) of patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1990 and May 2013. Twenty-four pediatric patients with a median age of 20 months (range, 4 months to 17 years) were enrolled in this study. In 20 cases (83.3%), the tumors had yolk sac histology. For definitive treatment, 21 patients underwent surgery alone, and 3 patients received surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. No relapse was observed in the 3 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas relapse occurred in 16 of the 21 patients (76.2%) treated with surgery alone. There were a total of 2 deaths. Treatment was stopped for 1 patient, who died 3 months later due to the tumor. The other patient achieved complete response after salvage treatment, but developed lung and pelvic metastases 7 months later and died of the tumor after stopping treatment. For children treated with surgery alone and surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, the 3-year event-free survival rates were 23.8% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.042), and the 3-year overall survival rates were 90.5% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.588). These results suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy can help to reduce the recurrence rate and increase the survival rate for patients with stage II germ cell tumors. PMID:25322864

  10. Survival analysis of children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors treated with surgery or surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Su-Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhen, Zi-Jun; Qin, Zi-Ke; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Juan; Sun, Fei-Fei

    2015-02-01

    For children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT), the survival is good with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is limited data on surgical results for cases in which there was no imaging or pathologic evidence of residual tumor, but in which serum tumor markers either increased or failed to normalize after an appropriate period of half-life time post-surgery. To determine the use of chemotherapy for children with stage II germ cell tumors, we analyzed the outcomes (relapse rate and overall survival) of patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1990 and May 2013. Twenty-four pediatric patients with a median age of 20 months (range, 4 months to 17 years) were enrolled in this study. In 20 cases (83.3%), the tumors had yolk sac histology. For definitive treatment, 21 patients underwent surgery alone, and 3 patients received surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. No relapse was observed in the 3 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas relapse occurred in 16 of the 21 patients (76.2%) treated with surgery alone. There were a total of 2 deaths. Treatment was stopped for 1 patient, who died 3 months later due to the tumor. The other patient achieved complete response after salvage treatment, but developed lung and pelvic metastases 7 months later and died of the tumor after stopping treatment. For children treated with surgery alone and surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, the 3-year event-free survival rates were 23.8% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.042), and the 3-year overall survival rates were 90.5% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.588). These results suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy can help to reduce the recurrence rate and increase the survival rate for patients with stage II germ cell tumors. PMID:25322864

  11. Distribution of sulfamonomethoxine and trimethoprim in egg yolk and white.

    PubMed

    Bilandži?, Nina; Boži?, ?ur?ica; Kolanovi?, Božica Solomun; Varenina, Ivana; Cvetni?, Luka; Cvetni?, Željko

    2015-07-01

    The distribution of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) and trimethoprim (TMP) in egg yolk and white was measured during and after administration of a SMM/TMP combination in laying hens in doses of 8gl(-)(1) and 12gl(-)(1) in drinking water for 7days. The SMM concentration reached maximal levels on day 2 of the post-treatment period for both doses (?gkg(-)(1)): 5920 and 9453 in yolk; 4831 and 6050 in white, in doses 1 and 2, respectively. Significant differences in the SMM and TMP concentrations between yolk and white in post treatment period were found. SMM dropped below the LOD (1.9?gkg(-1)) in yolk after day 16 and 19 for doses 1 and 2. TMP reached maximal levels on day 3 after drug administration for doses 1 and 2 (?gkg(-)(1)): 6521 and 7329 in yolk, 1370 and 1539 in white. TMP residues were measured above LOD (0.3?gkg(-)(1)) in yolk for both doses on day 37 post-treatment. PMID:25704680

  12. Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai Shuai; Wang, Fang; Tan, Su Jian; Wang, Ming Xiu; Sui, Na; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14-16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize. PMID:25566277

  13. Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai Shuai; Wang, Fang; Tan, Su Jian; Wang, Ming Xiu; Sui, Na; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14–16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction in maize. PMID:25566277

  14. Cytochemical characterization of yolk granule acid phosphatase during early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Dongchun; Wang, Lei

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a cytochemical method and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine acid phosphatase activities of yolk granules throughout the early developmental stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic change of yolk granule acid phosphatase, and the mechanisms underlying its involvement in yolk degradation during the early developmental stages of molluscs. Three types of yolk granules (YGI, YGII, and YGIII) that differed in electron density and acid phosphatase reaction were identified in early cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, trochophore, and veliger stages. The morphological heterogeneities of the yolk granules were related to acid phosphatase activity and degrees of yolk degradation, indicating the association of acid phosphatase with yolk degradation in embryos and larvae of molluscs. Fusion of yolk granules was observed during embryogenesis and larval development of C. gigas. The fusion of YGI (free of acid phosphatase reaction) with YGII (rich in acid phosphatase reaction) could be the way by which yolk degradation is triggered.

  15. Cytochemical characterization of yolk granule acid phosphatase during early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Dongchun; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a cytochemical method and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine acid phosphatase activities of yolk granules throughout the early developmental stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic change of yolk granule acid phosphatase, and the mechanisms underlying its involvement in yolk degradation during the early developmental stages of molluscs. Three types of yolk granules (YGI, YGII, and YGIII) that differed in electron density and acid phosphatase reaction were identified in early cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, trochophore, and veliger stages. The morphological heterogeneities of the yolk granules were related to acid phosphatase activity and degrees of yolk degradation, indicating the association of acid phosphatase with yolk degradation in embryos and larvae of molluscs. Fusion of yolk granules was observed during embryogenesis and larval development of C. gigas. The fusion of YGI (free of acid phosphatase reaction) with YGII (rich in acid phosphatase reaction) could be the way by which yolk degradation is triggered.

  16. Establishment of a quantitative mouse dorsal air sac model and its application to evaluate a new angiogenesis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, T; Semba, T; Sonoda, J; Kitoh, K; Yoshimatsu, K

    1999-01-01

    We have developed an improved mouse dorsal air sac model for quantifying in vivo tumor-induced angiogenesis. In our improved model, tumor angiogenesis is determined by measuring the blood volume in an area of skin held in contact with a tumor cell-containing chamber, using 51Cr-labeled red blood cells (RBC). The blood volume induced by murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells increased linearly with the cell number in the range from 2 x 10(5) to 5 x 10(6). Ten of 11 human tumor cell lines examined induced a significant increment in blood volume. For three representative human tumor cell lines (A549, WiDr. and HT1080 cells) that showed different angiogenic potencies, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) produced by the tumor cells cultured under conditions of hypoxia and high cell density were correlated with the degree of in vivo angiogenesis. Using the improved model, it was confirmed that TNP-470, a well-known inhibitor, and borrelidin, an antibiotic from Streptomyces rochei, significantly inhibited the WiDr cell-induced angiogenesis. Borrelidin also inhibited spontaneous lung metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma at the same dose that inhibited angiogenesis. Our results suggest that the improved mouse dorsal air sac model can be used for simple and quantitative measurement of tumor-induced angiogenesis and its inhibition. PMID:10757446

  17. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    E-print Network

    Díaz, L E Sánchez; Li, X; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the self-diffusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells)bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions,characterized by short-time self-diffusion coefficients D0s for the shells and D0y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of effective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diffusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and sim...

  18. Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Rawn, D F K; Sadler, A; Quade, S C; Sun, W-F; Lau, B P-Y; Kosarac, I; Hayward, S; Ryan, J J

    2011-06-01

    Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 3.03 ng g(-1) lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ?PBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ?PBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 0.053 ng g(-1) lipid). The ?-isomer was the dominant contributor to ?HBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ?PBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ?HBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study. PMID:21623506

  19. Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks

    PubMed Central

    Rawn, D.F.K.; Sadler, A.; Quade, S.C.; Sun, W.-F.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Kosarac, I.; Hayward, S.; Ryan, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g?1 lipid (median = 3.03 ng g?1 lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ?PBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ?PBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g?1 lipid (median = 0.053 ng g?1 lipid). The ?-isomer was the dominant contributor to ?HBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ?PBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ?HBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study. PMID:21623506

  20. 79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. Yolk androgens as pleiotropic mediators of physiological processes: A mechanistic review Kristen J. Navara a,

    E-print Network

    Navara, Kristen

    Development Growth Birds Avian egg yolks are made up of complex mixtures of physiologically relevantReview Yolk androgens as pleiotropic mediators of physiological processes: A mechanistic review content, researchers have unveiled potent physiological and behavioral effects on offspring

  2. Fossil egg sacs of Diaptomus (Crustaceae: Copepoda) in Late Quaternary lake sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Bennike

    1998-01-01

    In contrast to the exoskeleton or normal egg sacs of copepods, egg sacs with resting eggs of Diaptomus castor are exceptionally robust and can be preserved in the Quaternary sedimentary record. Egg sacs referred to Diaptomus cf. castor have been recovered from Late- and Postglacial lake sediments in Denmark and Greenland. The identification of fossil copepod egg sacs is important,

  3. Yolk steroid hormones and sex determination in reptiles with TSD.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K

    2003-07-01

    In reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the temperature at which the eggs are incubated determines the sex of the offspring. The molecular switch responsible for determining sex in these species has not yet been elucidated. We have examined the dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during embryonic development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, and the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and have found that yolk estradiol (E(2)) responds differentially to incubation temperature in both of these reptiles. Based upon recently reported roles for E(2) in modulation of steroidogenic factor 1, a transcription factor known to be significant in the sex differentiation process, we hypothesize that yolk E(2) is a link between temperature and the gene expression pathway responsible for sex determination and differentiation in at least some of these species. Here we review the evidence that supports our hypothesis. PMID:12849957

  4. Yolk coelomitis in Fiji Island banded iguanas (Brachylophus fasciatus).

    PubMed

    Stacy, Brian A; Howard, Lauren; Kinkaid, John; Vidal, Justin D; Papendick, Rebecca

    2008-06-01

    Yolk coelomitis is a major cause of death in captive sexually mature female Fiji Island banded iguanas (Brachylophus fasciatus) maintained by the Zoological Society of San Diego. The medical records, breeding histories, and pathology archival materials from this group were reviewed to study this health problem. From 1987 through 2004, deaths of nine of 21 adult females were due to yolk coelomitis. Most iguanas had a history of reproduction-related problems, which included reproductive failure, episodes of lethargy associated with ovarian activity, folliculostasis, ovostasis, and behavioral abnormalities. Most affected iguanas either were found dead or presented moribund and subsequently died or were euthanized. Clinical signs were nonspecific and included lethargy, cutaneous discoloration, and coelomic effusion. Yolk leakage in most cases was associated with the presence of large vitellogenic follicles undergoing atresia and resulted in coelomitis characterized by florid mesothelial proliferation. PMID:18634206

  5. Mobilization of ectopic yolk in Gallus gallus domesticus: a novel reverse lipid transport process.

    PubMed

    Cornax, Ingrid; Walzem, Rosemary L; Larner, Craig; Macfarlane, Ronald D; Klasing, Kirk C

    2013-05-15

    In many oviparous animals, bursting type atresia of ovarian follicles occurs during the reproductive cycle, resulting in the escape of yolk into the extracellular compartment. In birds, this ectopic yolk is rapidly cleared by an unknown process that involves the appearance of yolk-engorged macrophage-like cells. To study this unique type of lipid transport, we injected young male chickens intra-abdominally with egg yolk. Absorption of egg yolk from the body cavity markedly increased the triacylglyceride-rich fraction (TRL) of plasma lipoproteins and was coincident with increased levels of plasma triacylglycerides (TAGs) but not non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Thus, the transport of yolk lipids from the abdominal cavity appears to occur in lipoproteins and be more similar to the transport of hepatic TAGs to the periphery via lipoproteins than to transport of adipose TAGs to the periphery via NEFAs released by the action of lipases. When macrophages were exposed to yolk in vitro, they quickly phagocytized yolk; however, it is unclear whether this level of phagocytosis contributes significantly to total yolk clearance. Instead, the chicken macrophage may function more as a facilitator of yolk clearance through the modification of yolk lipoproteins and the regulation of the local and systemic immune response to ectopic yolk. Yolk appears to be anti-inflammatory in nature. Yolk did not increase levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and IFN? either in vivo or in vitro; in fact, yolk dampened many inflammatory changes caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Conversely, LPS-induced inflammation retarded yolk clearance from the abdominal cavity and plasma TAG levels. PMID:23348941

  6. Effects of Egg Yolk Source on the Cryopreservation of Stallion Spermatozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary W. Webb; Codi L. Burris; Sarah E. Harmon; Rachel H. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine whether replacement of chicken egg yolk, as a component of freezing extenders, with egg yolk from other avian species would improve the post-thaw motility and percentage of intact acrosomes of stallion spermatozoa. In the first experiment, substitution of chicken egg yolk with chukar egg yolk, as a component of the lactose–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid extender, improved (P

  7. The multivariate egg: quantifying within- and among-clutch correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens using multivariate mixed models.

    PubMed

    Postma, Erik; Siitari, Heli; Schwabl, Hubert; Richner, Heinz; Tschirren, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Egg components are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in birds and other oviparous species. Because different egg components can have opposite effects on offspring phenotype, selection is expected to favour their mutual adjustment, resulting in a significant covariation between egg components within and/or among clutches. Here we tested for such correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens in great tit (Parus major) eggs using a multivariate mixed-model approach. We found no association between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens within clutches, indicating that within clutches the two egg components are deposited independently. Across clutches, however, there was a significant negative relationship between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens, suggesting that selection has co-adjusted their deposition. Furthermore, an experimental manipulation of ectoparasite load affected patterns of covariance among egg components. Yolk immunoglobulins are known to play an important role in nestling immune defence shortly after hatching, whereas yolk androgens, although having growth-enhancing effects under many environmental conditions, can be immunosuppressive. We therefore speculate that variation in the risk of parasitism may play an important role in shaping optimal egg composition and may lead to the observed pattern of yolk immunoglobulin and yolk androgen deposition across clutches. More generally, our case study exemplifies how multivariate mixed-model methodology presents a flexible tool to not only quantify, but also test patterns of (co)variation across different organisational levels and environments, allowing for powerful hypothesis testing in ecophysiology. PMID:24127002

  8. Automatic segmentation and classification of gestational sac based on mean sac diameter using medical ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazendar, Shan; Farren, Jessica; Al-Assam, Hisham; Sayasneh, Ahmed; Du, Hongbo; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound is an effective multipurpose imaging modality that has been widely used for monitoring and diagnosing early pregnancy events. Technology developments coupled with wide public acceptance has made ultrasound an ideal tool for better understanding and diagnosing of early pregnancy. The first measurable signs of an early pregnancy are the geometric characteristics of the Gestational Sac (GS). Currently, the size of the GS is manually estimated from ultrasound images. The manual measurement involves multiple subjective decisions, in which dimensions are taken in three planes to establish what is known as Mean Sac Diameter (MSD). The manual measurement results in inter- and intra-observer variations, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully automated diagnosis solution to accurately identify miscarriage cases in the first trimester of pregnancy based on automatic quantification of the MSD. Our study shows a strong positive correlation between the manual and the automatic MSD estimations. Our experimental results based on a dataset of 68 ultrasound images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in identifying early miscarriage cases with classification accuracies comparable with those of domain experts using K nearest neighbor classifier on automatically estimated MSDs.

  9. Yolk androgens as pleiotropic mediators of physiological processes: A mechanistic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen J. Navara; Mary T. Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    Avian egg yolks are made up of complex mixtures of physiologically relevant substances. Androgens, in particular, accumulate in yolks in variable amounts based on social and environmental conditions experienced by laying females, and using experimental elevations of yolk androgen content, researchers have unveiled potent physiological and behavioral effects on offspring. These patterns and effects are exciting in an adaptive context,

  10. Yolk androgens vary inversely to maternal androgens in Eastern Bluebirds: an experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. NAVARA; L. M. SIEFFERMAN; G. E. HILL; M. T. MENDONÇA

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1. Female birds deposit variable amounts of androgens in the yolks of their eggs, and it has been suggested that yolk androgen deposition is an adaptive mechanism preparing offspring for a competitive environment. Breeding pairs of Eastern Bluebirds ( Sialia sialis ) Linnaeus were stimulated with an intruder presentation while ovarian follicles were developing. Yolk steroid concentrations in eggs

  11. European starling chicks benefit from high yolk testosterone levels during a drought year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M Pilz; Mart??n Quiroga; Hubert Schwabl; Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    2004-01-01

    Avian egg yolk contains androgenic hormones, such as testosterone, of maternal origin. Experimental elevation of yolk testosterone levels enhances growth of canary chicks. Success in sibling competition, due to increased begging, is presumed to underlie this growth enhancement, because canary hatchlings from testosterone-treated eggs beg longer in response to vibrational stimuli than controls. Furthermore, experimental elevation of both yolk androstenedione

  12. Lipid, fatty acid and carotenoid content of edible egg yolks from avian species: A comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassilia J. Sinanoglou; Irini F. Strati; Sofia Miniadis-Meimaroglou

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study has been conducted of the major lipid classes composition, as well as the fatty acid and carotenoid content in the yolk of conventional eggs from five avian species (ostrich, turkey, quail, duck and goose); the nutritional indices were calculated. The neutral lipids were the major yolk fractions but their proportions varied among species. All yolks and especially

  13. Interspecies variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Caldwell Hahn; Jeff S. Hatfield; Mahmoud A. Abdelnabi; Julie M. Wu; Lawrence D. Igl; Mary A Ottinger

    2005-01-01

    We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic brown- headed cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large

  14. Egg Yolk Layers Vary in the Concentration of Steroid Hormones in Two Avian Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Lipar; E. D. Ketterson; V. Nolan; J. M. Casto

    1999-01-01

    Maternally derived steroid hormones are known to be present in the yolks of avian eggs; however, the physiological mechanisms involved in their deposition remain largely unexplored. Investigations of steroid production by avian follicles have demonstrated temporal differences in the concentrations of progesterone, 17?-estradiol, and testosterone during yolk formation. Because yolk is deposited peripherally in concentric spheres as the oocyte develops,

  15. Achieving high reliability low cost lead-free SAC solder joints via Mn or Ce doping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiping Liu; Ning-Cheng Lee; Adriana Porras; Min Ding; Anthony Gallagher; Austin Huang; Scott Chen; Jeffrey ChangBing Lee

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the reliabilities of low Ag SAC alloys doped with Mn or Ce (SACM or SACC) were evaluated under JEDEC drop, dynamic bending, thermal cycling, and cyclic bending test conditions against eutectic SnPb, SAC105, and SAC305 alloys. The Mn or Ce doped low cost SAC105 alloys achieved a higher drop test and dynamic bending test reliability than SAC105

  16. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ishibash@aichi-med-u.ac.j [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Japan); Kamei, Seiji [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  17. Ectopic egg yolk in the abdominal cavity of a cockatiel.

    PubMed

    Gorham, S L; Akins, M; Carter, B

    1992-01-01

    A mature cockatiel was presented to the teaching hospital with acute, severe dyspnea and a markedly enlarged abdomen. The bird died 2 hours after admission and was necropsied. A 3-cm egg yolk was present in the abdominal cavity and caused cranial displacement of the abdominal viscera. Death occurred acutely and was probably due to severe respiratory distress. PMID:1417621

  18. Molecular Characteristics of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors and Comparison With Testicular Counterparts: Implications for Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E.; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Abeler, Vera M.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/?-catenin and TGF-?/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

  19. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  20. Morphofunctional transformations of the yolk syncytial layer during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Ekaterina Alexandrovna A; Efremov, Vladimir Ivanovich I

    2014-02-01

    The yolk syncytial layer (YSL) is a provisory extraembryonic structure of teleost fishes and representatives of some other taxa with meroblastic cleavage. The YSL of teleosts is a symplast with polymorphous polyploid nuclei. It is known to perform nutritional, morphogenetic, immune, and, probably, other functions. Data about the YSL organization, functioning and regulation is fragmentary. Although gene expression patterns and other aspects of YSL functioning have been studied in Danio rerio, the morphology of its YSL has not been described in detail. The study of zebrafish YSL structure on sequential developmental stages is necessary to recognize specific features of this important polyfunctional system in this model organism and to extend our knowledge about provisory systems. The thickness of the YSL and the distribution of its nuclei are not uniform on each stage and change during development. During oblong and sphere stages the internal YSL (I-YSL) is filled with yolk inclusions; interphase yolk syncytial nuclei (YSN) and mitotic asters can be seen. During doming and epiboly the external YSL (E-YSL) is thicker than I-YSL. On the subsequent stages the YSL is thickened caudally. The dorsal YSL part is thickened during early segmentation stages and becomes the thinnest YSL region later. The anterior part of the YSL is thin, but enlarges during larval period. The YSN of different size and diverse forms, from regular to lobed, are present and form clusters. The number of irregular-shaped nuclei increases during development. The YSL thickens in the end of endotrophic and in the course of endo-exotrophic period, and its cytoplasm contains numerous yolk inclusions. After yolk exhaustion the YSL is flat. As the YSL degrades, the YSN become pycnotic, and the YSL remnant probably is cleared by phagocytes. PMID:24122838

  1. In vitro multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis on the egg yolk membrane and penetration to the yolk contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to consumers of contaminated eggs. Although the nutrient-rich yolk interior is an uncommon location for S. Enteritidis contaminatio...

  2. Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

  3. Sac Hygroma After Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Successful Treatment with Endograft Relining

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Robert K., E-mail: rryu@nmff.org; Palestrant, Sarah; Ryu, Jessica [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine (United States); Trachtenberg, Jeffrey [Interventional Radiology Institute at Decatur Memorial Hospital (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Aneurysm sac expansion following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is typically associated with endoleaks that can be readily diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography (CTA), ultrasound, or catheter-directed arteriography. Sac hygromas are a cause of sac expansion without apparent endoleak and are presumed to be a result of ultrafiltration of serum manifested by accumulation of fibrinous, gelatinous material within the aneurysm sac following EVAR. Although there are no reported associated ruptures, sac expansion is nevertheless disconcerting and intervention is presumably indicated. We report a case of an expanding aneurysm after EVAR secondary to sac hygroma that was successfully treated with relining of the existing, original endograft.

  4. FAT BODY PRODUCED YOLK PROTEIN GENES IN HYPHANTRIA CUNEA ARE RELATED TO THE YP4 FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM YOLK PROTEIN SUBUNIT GENE OF PYRALID MOTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    cDNA clones for two of the yolk proteins, YP1 and YP2, produced by the fat body of the moth, Hyphantria cunea, were sequenced and found to have homology with the follicular epithelium yolk proteins of Pyralid moths. The sequence identity between YP1 and YP2 was very high (79.9%) and both cDNA clones...

  5. CYP1A induction and blue sac disease in early life stages of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to oil sands.

    PubMed

    Colavecchia, Maria V; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of natural oil sands on the early developmental stages of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and to determine whether biochemical responses in this species were similar to native fish caught in the Athabasca Oil Sands area. Early life stage (ELS) sediment toxicity tests were conducted using controls, reference sediments, natural oil sands, and industrially contaminated (wastewater pond) sediments collected from sites along the Athabasca River, Alberta (Canada). Eggs and larvae were observed for mortality, hatching, deformities, growth, and cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) activity using immunohistochemistry. E-Nat-, S-Nat-, and wastewater pond sediment-exposed groups showed significant premature hatching, reduced growth, and exposure-dependent increases in ELS mortality and larval malformations relative to controls. The most common larval deformities included edemas (pericardial, yolk sac, and subepidermal), hemorrhages, and spinal defects. Juveniles exposed to oil sands and wastewater pond sediments (96 h) demonstrated significantly increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (30- to 50-fold) as compared to controls. Reference sediment-exposed groups and water controls demonstrated reliable embryo and larval survival, minimal malformations, and negligible CYP1A staining. These observed signs of blue sac disease (ELS mortality, malformations, growth reductions, CYP1A activity induction) may produce deleterious reproductive effects in natural fish populations exposed to oil sands mixtures. PMID:16728374

  6. Decompression of the Endolymphatic Sac: Vertigo and Hearing Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson Álvares; Cruz Filho; José Evandro; P. de Aquino; Tobias Garcia Torres

    2009-01-01

    Surgery in the Meniere's disease is indicated when the vertigo is refractory to clinical treatment. Many surgical procedures have been proposed for the treatment of vertigo in this labyrinthopathy. In this work we aimed at the decompression of the endolymphatic sac. Objective: To analyze the postoperative outcomes of 18 patients with Meniere's disease as for the control of the vertigo

  7. Intratympanic gentamicin therapy for persistent vertigo after endolymphatic sac surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam J. Marzo; John P. Leonetti

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the role of intratympanic gentamycin therapy (ITGM) in controlling vertigo in patients with refractory Meniere's who have recurrent or persistent vertigo after endolymphatic sac surgery. Study Design and Setting: A retrospective review of 491 patients seen in a university balance clinic between July 1999 and July 2000. Of these, 68 patients had Meniere's disease; 4 patients had

  8. Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy: Creation of a Large Marsupialized Lacrimal Sac

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Je-Yeob; Choi, Mi-Young

    2006-01-01

    This retrospective study describes and evaluates the effectiveness of a modified technique of conventional endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) that minimizes the obstruction of a neo-ostium by creating an enlarged marsupialized lacrimal sac using mucosal flaps. Forty-two patients who had undergone 46 endoscopic DCR at a tertiary medical center, from 2002 to 2004, for correction of lacrimal system obstruction were investigated. The surgical technique involves elevation of a nasal mucosal flap, full sac exposure using a power drill, and shaping of the mucosal flap to cover denuded bone and juxtapose exposed sac mucosa. Postoperative symptoms and endoscopic findings of the neo-ostium were evaluated. Mean duration of follow-up was 5.9 months. An eighty-three percent primary success rate was observed, without any serious complications. Obstruction of the neo-ostium with granulation tissue was observed in eight cases, among which six underwent revision with success in all cases. Overall, 44 (96%) of 46 cases experienced surgical successes. Endoscopic DCR, a procedure in which a large marsupialized lacrimal sac is created from mucosal flaps, yields a very satisfactory success rate with straightforward and highly successful revision available for those in whom the primary procedure yields a substandard result. PMID:16891819

  9. Soil Moisture Retrieval Using the Aquarius/SAC-D Instruments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquarius/SAC-D will share common elements with several current and future satellite missions that provide soil moisture. Passive microwave soil moisture retrieval using low frequencies is currently performed using Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-E (AMSR-E) (C/X-band). This will extended ...

  10. Inflamed appendix in a femoral hernial sac: de Garengeot's hernia.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S S; Girn, H R S; Ainslie, W G

    2009-10-01

    Croissant de Garengeot's hernia is defined as the presence of an appendix in the femoral hernial sac. It is rare and occurs mostly in females. We report this hernia in a male patient along with the surgical management and review of literature. PMID:19225856

  11. Planar feature fitting based on Multi-BaySAC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Kang, Zhizhong

    2013-10-01

    To tackle the problem that classic RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus) is limited by the assumption that a single model accounts for all of the data inliers, an algorithm of multi-planar-feature fitting from 3D point cloud based on BaySAC algorithm (Bayes Sample Consensus) is proposed (called multiBaySAC). First, as the mathematical models of most of primitives to be fitted are determinate, a statistical algorithm of hypothesis model parameters histogram is proposed to detect potential planar features. Instead of assuming constant prior probabilities of data points and choosing initial data sets by random as RANSAC, we then implement a conditional sampling method -- BaySAC for robust parameters estimation of potential planar features, by computing the prior probability of each data point and updating the inlier probabilities using simplified Bayes' rule. For the purpose of multiple feature fitting, the sequential application of the above procedure is implemented following the removal of the detected set of inliers. The proposed approach is tested with point cloud data of buildings acquired by RIEGL VZ-400 laser scanner. The results show that the proposed Multi-BaySAC can achieve high computation efficiency and fitting accuracy of multiple planar feature fitting.

  12. SAC Minutes July 24, 2013 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Williams (NITAAC) ­ Via Phone Zedekiah Worsham (DSAPS) SAC Members not present: Anita Miles (CIT) Marilyn/Deborah Ivey (ORS) Anita Hughes/Terry Galloway (NCI) Debra Hawkins/Lisa Portner (NHLBI) Shamay Knox (NIAID. Supply Center and Self Service Stores was presented by George Martinez, Director, Division of Logistics

  13. ISTC SAC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics"

    E-print Network

    Medical spinoffs of High Energy Physics Knowledge and technology transfer from High Energy Physics (vi #12; 2 The Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Science & Technology Center (ISTC SAC) in cooperation with The Secretariat of the International Science & Technology Center (ISTC

  14. Estrogen Levels in House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) Egg Yolks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. BrookWaggoner

    1996-01-01

    Estrogen, when present in early embryonic development, regulates sexual differentiation in the avian nestling and adult. In this study, I developed a procedure to extract and quantify levels (by radioimmunoassay) of the estrogen, 17[beta]-estradiol, in house wren (Troglodytes aedon) egg yolk. Levels of 17[beta]-estradiol found in one clutch of eggs increased with the order of laying, indicating female house wrens

  15. Yolk is a Source of Maternal Testosterone for Developing Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert Schwabl

    1993-01-01

    The sex steroid hormones that affect development in birds have been thought to be produced exclusively by the embryo or neonate. I used radioimmunoassay to measure the amounts of androstenedione, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, 17beta-estradiol, and corticosterone in the yolk of freshly laid canary (Serinus canaria) and zebra finch (Poephila guttata) eggs. Testosterone was found in both canary and zebra finch eggs,

  16. Insulin-Egg Yolk Dispersions in Self Microemulsifying System

    PubMed Central

    Singnurkar, P. S.; Gidwani, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self microemulsifying dispersions were prepared by lyophilization followed by dispersion into self microemulsifying vehicle. The physicochemical characterization of selfmicroemulsifying dispersions includes such as insulin encapsulation efficiency, in vitro stability of insulin in presence of proteolytic enzymes and in vitro release. The biological activity of insulin from the dispersion was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in vivo using Wistar diabetic rats. The particle size ranged 1.023±0.316 ?m in diameter and insulin encapsulation efficiency was 98.2±0.9 %. Insulin hydrophobic self microemulsifying dispersions suppressed insulin release in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and shown to protect insulin from enzymatic degradation in vitro in presence of chymotripsin. Egg yolk encapsulated insulin was bioactive, demonstrated through both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:21369432

  17. Multidisciplinary Management of Lacrimal Sac/Nasolacrimal Duct Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    El-Sawy, Tarek; Frank, Steven J.; Hanna, Ehab; Sniegowski, Matthew; Lai, Stephen Y.; Nasser, Qasiem J.; Myers, Jeffrey; Esmaeli, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine rates of globe-sparing treatment and useful final visual function in patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas treated with multidisciplinary therapy. Methods The medical records of 14 patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinoma treated at 1 institution were retrospectively reviewed. Results The patients were 9 men and 5 women; the median age at diagnosis was 58.5 years (range, 45–73 years). Seven patients presented with epiphora, 7 with a palpable mass in the inferomedial orbit, and 2 with dacryocystitis. In 3 patients, the diagnosis of cancer was not considered until during or after dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Seven patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 2 transitional cell carcinoma, 2 adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 1 each adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation. Nine patients underwent surgical resection of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct, resection of the medial upper and lower eyelids including canaliculi, partial ethmoidectomy, and medial maxillectomy. One patient underwent lacrimal sac biopsy only as another primary malignancy was discovered on the work-up for systemic disease. Four patients underwent orbital exenteration because of extensive involvement of the orbital soft tissue. Radiotherapy was recommended for 13 patients; in 1 patient, radiotherapy was not recommended because the patient had an inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation that was completely excised. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy. Eight patients received chemotherapy concurrent with radiation therapy (5 patients), as neoadjuvant treatment (1 patient), or for progressive or metastatic disease (3 patients). The median follow-up time was 27 months (range, 6–96 months). In 10 patients, the globe was spared. In 9 of these 10 patients, visual acuity was the same as at baseline or better than 20/40 at last follow-up. Conclusions With multidisciplinary therapy, the eye can be spared and reasonable visual function can be preserved in most patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas. PMID:24195987

  18. A TEST OF WHETHER ECONOMY OR NUTRITION DETERMINES FECAL SAC INGESTION IN NESTING CORVIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEVIN J. MCGOWAN

    Parent birds of many species eat the fecal sacs produced by their nestlings. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain why the parents ingest, rather than simply remove the sacs. (1) The parental nutrition hypothesis proposes that the parent benefits energetically or nutritionally from ingesting the sacs (Morton 1979, Gliick 1988); and (2) the economic disposal hypothesis postulates that parents

  19. Egg yolk layers vary in the concentration of steroid hormones in two avian species.

    PubMed

    Lipar, J L; Ketterson, E D; Nolan, V; Casto, J M

    1999-08-01

    Maternally derived steroid hormones are known to be present in the yolks of avian eggs; however, the physiological mechanisms involved in their deposition remain largely unexplored. Investigations of steroid production by avian follicles have demonstrated temporal differences in the concentrations of progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone during yolk formation. Because yolk is deposited peripherally in concentric spheres as the oocyte develops, differences in the production of follicular hormones during yolk formation should be manifested in differences in the localization of steroids within layers of the yolk. To investigate this hypothesis we analyzed steroid hormone concentrations in layers of individual eggs of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). We found that in the dark-eyed junco the concentration of progesterone is significantly greater at the periphery of the yolk, while the concentration of 17beta-estradiol is significantly greater near the center of the yolk. We also found in both the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird that the concentration of testosterone remains constant from the interior to the intermediate layers of the yolk and then drops sharply between the intermediate and exterior layers. The patterns of hormone localization that we found agree with those predicted by studies of temporal changes in steroidogenesis in the maturing follicle of the chicken, thus suggesting that within-yolk variation in yolk steroid concentrations in the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird reflects temporal differences in the pattern of follicular steroidogenesis. Variation in the concentration of hormones among yolk layers presents a methodological concern for studies that involve the removal of yolk samples from viable eggs for subsequent hormonal analysis. This variation also has implications for the timing of embryonic exposure to steroid hormones. PMID:10417235

  20. Embryonic yolk removal affects a suite of larval salamander life history traits.

    PubMed

    Landberg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Egg size is a key life history trait affecting fitness, and it varies abundantly. The value of egg size to a mother and her offspring is often determined by a trade-off between investing more yolk in a few large eggs or less yolk into many more, smaller eggs. Smaller eggs are generally expected to be phenotypically inferior or females could increase their fitness by making more smaller eggs. However, many females produce a mix of egg sizes and natural yolk variation induces normal developmental responses which may persist into subsequent stages of a complex life history. Since sources of phenotypic variation are easily confounded, I surgically removed yolk from embryonic spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) using a sham surgery as a control and a split-clutch design to isolate the effects of yolk reserve variation from genetic sources of variation. Yolk removal induced early hatching, reduced developmental stage and hatchling body size. Small hatchlings stayed relatively small through the early larval period, but 17 weeks later the correlation with early larval body size was lost. When the experiment ended, larger individuals were further along in metamorphic development but mortality was independent of early larval body size. Variation in spotted salamander yolk reserves affects a suite of hatchling life history traits that persists into the larval period. Outside the laboratory, egg size effects may cascade throughout complex amphibian life histories. Applied experimentally and comparatively, this simple yolk removal technique may help identify how traits increase or decrease their response to maternal yolk investment. PMID:24323743

  1. Investigation of sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) modification to nylon film. 2. Study of SAC sorption isotherm and atomic force microscopic characterization of nylon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Watson, B.A.; Keown, R.W.; Malone, C.P.; Barteau, M.A. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Nylon 6 and nylon 66 films have been treated with aqueous sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) solutions at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 1.0 wt%. SAC uptakes at different treatment concentrations were measured and found to follow a BET isotherm. The surface morphologies of nylon film samples, including the original and SAC-treated films, have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For untreated nylon 6 and nylon 66 films, AFM images show a randomly distributed fibrillar surface structure. Characteristic widths of fibrils in the nylon 66 and 6 films were 150-225 and 75-150 nm, respectively. For SAC-treated nylon films, the AFM images revealed that the surfaces of the films became covered with nodule-like features having a diameter range of 25-60 nm. AFM analysis provides evidence that SAC treatment deposited a surface coating on nylon films. AFM images of SAC-treated nylon films suggest a mechanism for stain resistance in which the SAC first forms a thin coating on the nylon via bondings between attractive groups in the SAC and nylon polymers. After treatment at increased SAC concentration, the surface is covered with nodule-like deposits which likely serve as a physical barrier to dye permeation. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Cryopreservation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) primordial germ cells by vitrification of yolk-intact and yolk-depleted embryos using various cryoprotectant solutions.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Shogo; Kawakami, Yutaka; Eto, Yoshiki; Yamaha, Etsuro; Nagano, Masashi; Katagiri, Seiji; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-24

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of partial removal of yolk and cryoprotectant mixtures on the viability of cryopreserved primordial germ cells (PGCs) and elucidated the differentiation ability of cryopreserved PGCs in zebrafish. First, dechorionated yolk-intact and yolk-depleted (partially yolk removed) embryos, PGCs of which were labeled with green fluorescence protein (GFP), were vitrified after serial exposures to pretreatment solution (PS) and vitrification solution (VS) that contained ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) or propylene glycol at 3 and 5 M, respectively. Although partial removal of yolk improved the viability of cryopreserved PGCs, numbers of PGCs with pseudopodial movement were limited (0 to 2.6 cells/embryo). Next, yolk-depleted embryos were cryopreserved using mixtures of two types of cryoprotectants. The maximum survival rate of PGCs (81%; 9.6 cells/embryo) was obtained from the yolk-depleted embryos vitrified using PS containing 2 M EG + 1 M Me2SO and VS containing 3 M EG + 2 M Me2SO and 56% (5.3 cells/embryo) of PGCs showed pseudopodial movement. Finally, PGCs recovered from yolk-depleted embryos (wild-type) that were vitrified under the optimum condition were transplanted individually into 236 sterilized recipient blastulae (recessive light-colored). Seven recipients matured and generated progeny with characteristics inherited from the PGC donor. In conclusion, the authors confirmed the beneficial effects of partial removal of yolk on the viability of cryopreserved PGCs and that the viability of the PGCs was improved by using PS and VS that contained two types of cryoprotectants, especially PS containing 2 M EG + 1 M Me2SO and VS containing 3 M EG + 2 M Me2SO, and that recovered PGCs retained ability to differentiate into functional gametes. PMID:24513463

  3. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

    2002-01-01

    SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced components (ICARE), provided by CNES will permit improvement of risk estimation models for radiation effect on last generation integrated circuit technology. . On June 14th, 2000 CONAE and NASA signed an amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding for the SAC-C mission in order that the SAC-C satellite, were included in a constellation - named "Morning Constellation". It is integrated by USA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1, Terra, and Argentine SAC-C that feature on-board instruments from the United States, Argentina, Denmark, Italy, France, and Japan. The four satellite tracks on the Earth's surface are the same, their orbital height being 705 km and their inclination, 98.21 degrees. They cross the Equator at 10:00, 10:01, 10:15, and 10:30 hours, respectively (local time). Satellites comply with the World Wide Reference System. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken and will be presented in this paper. Several jointly sponsored technical workshops have been held, and also collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments have been made. One of the objectives of the AM Constellation is the collaboration in the case of emergencies, NASA and CONAE agreed to give preference in those situation in the planification of their satellite acquisitions. From all the possible hazardous events, the most important for the country are fire and floods. In relation to fires, CONAE is presently adapting and developing the algorithms for using MODIS data to generate a fire map product. Additionally research on fire detection is carried out using the data from the HSTC camera. In relation to flooding, CONAE works in cooperation to national institutions providing the data and, in some cases, producing flood extent maps. In particular MMRS data is demonstrating to be very effective due to its spectral and radiometric resolutions, and its large swath which is well suited for extended countries like Argentina.

  4. Positional cloning of the mouse saccharin preference (Sac) locus

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Li, Xia; Reed, Danielle R.; Ohmen, Jeffery D.; Li, Shanru; Chen, Zhenyu; Tordoff, Michael G.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Wu, Chenyan; West, David B.; Chatterjee, Alu; Ross, David A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in sweetener intake among inbred strains of mice are partially determined by allelic variation of the saccharin preference (Sac) locus. Genetic and physical mapping limited a critical genomic interval containing Sac to a 194-kb DNA fragment. Sequencing and annotation of this region identified a gene (Tas1r3) encoding the third member of the T1R family of putative taste receptors, T1R3. Introgression by serial backcrossing of the 194-kb chromosomal fragment containing the Tas1r3 allele from the high-sweetener preferring C57BL/6ByJ strain onto the genetic background of the low-sweetener preferring 129P3/J strain rescued its low sweetener preference phenotype. Polymorphisms of Tas1r3 that are likely to have functional significance were identified using analysis of genomic sequences and sweetener preference phenotypes of genealogically distant mouse strains. Tas1r3 has two common haplotypes, consisting of six single nucleotide polymorphisms: one haplotype was found in mouse strains with elevated sweetener preference and the other in strains relatively indifferent to sweeteners. This study provides compelling evidence that Tas1r3 is equivalent to the Sac locus and that the T1R3 receptor responds to sweeteners. PMID:11555487

  5. Endometriosis in a spigelian hernia sac: an unexpected finding.

    PubMed

    Moris, Demetrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Vernadakis, Spiridon

    2015-01-01

    Describes the existence of endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac. Spigelian Hernia is a rare ventral hernia, presenting difficulties in diagnosis and carrying a high incarceration and obstruction risk. Endometriomas occur due to implantation of endometrial cells into a surgical wound, most often after a cesarean delivery. A 37-year-old woman presented to our department with persistent abdominal pain, exacerbating during menses, and vomiting for 2 days. Physical examination revealed a mass-like lesion in the border between the left-upper and left-lower quadrant. Ultrasound examination was inconclusive and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed an abdominal wall mass. During surgery, a spigelian hernia was found 5 to 7 cm above a previous cesarean incision. Tissue like "chocolate cysts" was present at the hernia sac. Hernia was repaired while tissue was excised and sent for histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. Spigelian hernia is a hernia presenting difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac is a rare diagnosis, confirmed only histologically. Clinical suspicion can be posed only through symptoms and thorough investigation. PMID:25594648

  6. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    PubMed

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  7. Anti Echis carinatus venom antibodies from chicken egg yolk: Isolation, purification and neutralization efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Paul; J. Manjula; E. P. Deepa; Z. E. Selvanayagam; K. A. Ganesh; P. V. Subba Rao

    2007-01-01

    High titer antibodies (IgY) were raised in egg yolk of white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) by immunizing with the venom of Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper or carpet viper), an Indian venomous snake belonging to the family Viperidae. The anti-snake venom antibodies (antivenom) were isolated from egg yolk by the water dilution method, enriched by 19% sodium sulfate precipitation

  8. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: Relation with development

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sex- ual differentiation. From captive leopard, 1987; Bull et al., 1988). The influence of exogenous steroid hormones on gonadal sex has been studiedYolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: Relation

  9. Response of amphibian egg non-yolk cytoplasm to gravity orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study amphibian egg cytoplasmic organization and egg symmetrization at the molecular level, a library of seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Xenopus laevis non-yolk egg proteins was produced. Several of these MoAbs react with non-yolk cytoplasmic antigens which are unevenly distributed in the fertile Xenopus egg.

  10. Maternal Plasma and Egg Yolk Testosterone Concentrations during Embryonic Development in Green Anoles ( Anolis carolinensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. Lovern; Juli Wade

    2001-01-01

    Sex steroids of presumably maternal origin have been found in avian, crocodilian, and chelonian egg yolks, and they can affect offspring morphology and behavior. The present study reports testosterone (T) levels to which embryos are potentially exposed in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination. We documented plasma and yolk T concentrations in adult females, in

  11. Radioimmunoassay Analysis of Testosterone Levels in Clutches of House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) Egg Yolks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Fryzel

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that variation in intensity of aggressiveness and competitive ability among nestlings of a clutch may be attributed, at least partly, to differences in maternally deposited yolk testosterone that affects embryonic development (Schwabl 1993). We developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring yolk testosterone levels in house wren (Troglodytes aedon) eggs. This procedure was used in initial studies to

  12. Egg Yolk Colour Depending upon the Composition of the Feeding Mixture for Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dvo?ák; E. Straková; J. Kunová; V. Kunová

    2007-01-01

    Dvofiák P., E. Straková, J. Kunová, V. Kunová: Egg Yolk Colour Dependis upon the Composition of the Feeding Mixture for Laying Hens. Acta Vet Brno 2007, 76: 121-127. The aim of this study was to verify the possibility of replacement of fish meal by specially treated meal made of yellow lupin seed in relation to the yolk colour. The experiment

  13. Egg Yolk Color as Affected by Saponification of Different Natural Pigmenting Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Galobart; R. Sal; X. Rincon-Carruyo; E. G. Manzanilla; B. Vil; J. Gas

    SUMMARY Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of saponification of various yellow, red, or yellow and red xanthophylls from marigold flower and paprika fruit included at graded levels on egg yolk coloration in table and breaking eggs. Pigmentation was measured visually by the Roche yolk color fan, a subjective method, and by reflectance colorimetry, using a HunterLab MiniScan

  14. Yolk testosterone organizes behavior and male plumage coloration in house sparrows ( Passer domesticus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Strasser; Hubert Schwabl

    2004-01-01

    Vertebrate eggs contain maternal steroid hormones in their yolks; and in avian species the concentration of these steroids vary within and among clutches. The organizational actions of these variable doses of maternal steroids in the avian egg, analogous to those regulating the development of sexually dimorphic traits, are little explored. In this study, we examined the organizational effects of yolk

  15. The Energy Expenditure of Largemouth Bass Larvae, Micropterus salmoides, during Yolk Absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey C. Laurence

    1969-01-01

    This research was designed to determine if a metabolic energy deficit was a cause of mortality in larval largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). An energy budget was established which compared the energy available in the yolk to the energy utilized in catabolism for 24 hr intervals from the time of fertilization to complete yolk absorption. The energy available to an embryo

  16. Fat body expressed yolk protein genes in Hyphantria cunea are related to the YP4 follicular epithelium yolk protein subunit gene of pyralid moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Cheon; H. J. Kim; C. Y. Yun; H. J. Lee; I. H. Lee; P. D. Shirk; S. J. Seo

    2003-01-01

    cDNA clones for two of the yolk proteins, YP1 and YP2, produced by the fat body of the moth, Hyphantria cunea , were sequenced and found to be homologous to the follicular epithelium yolk proteins of pyralid moths. Both cDNA clones coded for polypeptides of 290 residues and the deduced amino acid sequence identity between YP1 and YP2 was very

  17. In Vitro Penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through Yolk Membranes of Eggs from Six Genetically Distinct Commercial Lines of Laying Hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication...

  18. Pakistan Vt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pakistan Vêt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS responsible for yolk rétention in broiler chicks. l: our dilieront expcrimonts were conducted to tlnd ont thé ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding

  19. Fatty acid profiles of processed chicken egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Tesedo, Javier; Barrado, Enrique; Sanz, M Angeles; Tesedo, Angel; de la Rosa, Francisco

    2006-08-23

    The fatty acid compositions of egg yolks subjected to industrial processing treatments, namely, homogenization, pasteurization, drying, and "omega-3-enrichment", were studied. In general, the total contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 n-9, and C18:2 n-6 fatty acids accounted for close to 90% of the total fatty acids. Statistical analysis of the data revealed correlations among the fatty acids; significant differences existed depending on the egg source and type of processing. Yolk samples enriched with omega-3 fatty acids clustered together owing to their higher C16:0, C16:1 n-7, C18:3 n-6, and C24:0 contents. Nonpasteurized/non-heat-treated samples formed another cluster because of their higher C18:1 n-11 and C18:1 n-9 contents, and the remaining samples formed another group due to their higher proportions of C18:0, C18:2 n-6, and C20:4 n-6. The relative proportions of essential fatty acids were similar in the four types of samples examined. PMID:16910716

  20. Maternal corticosterone is transferred into the egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Bettina; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Müller, Claudia; Brill, Sandra; Wagner, Hermann; Jenni, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Hormones deposited in the avian egg are considered in many studies to influence or to adjust offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions in an adaptive way. Several studies demonstrated an effect of corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, injected into the egg on the developing chick, but the injection of steroids in the egg is far from mimicking the natural distribution of the hormone in the egg. Other studies applied a stressor or corticosterone to the mother. However it is still debated whether an increase of circulating corticosterone in the mother translates into higher concentrations of corticosterone in the egg. Therefore, we investigated in captive barn owls Tyto alba whether circulating corticosterone in egg-laying females elevated within a physiological range, resulted in the deposition of corticosterone in eggs. We found that an increase in circulating corticosterone in the mother within the naturally occurring range translated into elevated concentrations of corticosterone in the yolk of subsequently laid eggs, indicating a specific time frame and yolk layer of corticosterone deposition. We conclude that increasing maternal plasma corticosterone within a naturally occurring range is an efficient tool to increase corticosterone concentration in the egg and to manipulate conditions for the developing embryo. PMID:22580154

  1. Conjugated linoleic acids alter the fatty acid composition and physical properties of egg yolk and albumen.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Bruce A; Feng, Shulin; Strom, Anna K; DeVitt, Amy A; Yu, Liangli; Li, Yong

    2003-11-01

    Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the fatty acid composition of different egg compartments after storage were studied. Four dietary treatments [supplemented with safflower oil (SAFF, control group), DHA, CLAs plus DHA (CAD), and CLAs alone] were administered to Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. Eggs from the different treatment groups were collected and stored for 10 weeks at 4 degrees C before analysis. Fatty acids from the yolk (yolk granules and plasma), egg albumen, and vitelline membrane were analyzed by gas chromatography. The yolk of eggs from hens given CLAs had significantly higher amounts of saturated fatty acids, typically 16:0 and 18:0, but lower amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared to eggs from the control group (SAFF). CLA content was highest in the yolk and present in both neutral and polar lipids, with the greatest concentrations in neutral lipids. DHA was incorporated mainly into yolk polar lipids. Lipids in yolk plasma and granules contained similar amounts of CLAs. The fatty acid compositions of vitelline membrane and egg albumen mirrored that of the egg yolk. CLA supplementation resulted in hard and rubbery yolks when compared to hard-cooked eggs from the control group. This study showed that feeding CLAs to hens led to accumulation of the isomers in polar and neutral lipids of the egg yolk and that these isomers migrated into egg albumen. Because the sensory properties of hard-cooked eggs were negatively affected by the enrichment of a mixture of CLA isomers in this study, further research should be conducted to evaluate how the different isomers alter the properties of egg yolk and albumen so that the quality of designed eggs containing CLAs and DHA can be improved. PMID:14582988

  2. [Pseudomyxoma peritonei spread into the right inguinal hernia sac--a case report].

    PubMed

    Cichon, Paulina; Drucis, Kamil; Kakol, Michal; Jastrzebski, Tomasz; Polec, Tomasz

    2013-10-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare, progressive disease of unknown origin. The incidence is estimated at about 1-2/100,000,000 per year. The primary tumor site is usually discovered in the appendix or- in case of women--in ovaries, appearing as tumors of low malignancy. Making an accurate diagnosis causes difficulties--symptoms tend to be misleading, suggesting more frequent pathologies of the abdominal cavity. It is also not rare that the patient is for a long time asymptomatic. We present a case of a 68-year-old patient of the Surgical Oncology Department treated for pseudomyxoma peritonei, diagnosed incidentally at the time of clinical examination for the reasons of chronic hypertension. The symptoms reported by the patient did not suggest any neoplastic process of the peritoneal cavity. Systemic chemotherapy of two paths (a total number of 10 cycles) did not result and at the time of post-treatment control, due to no response to standard chemotherapy, it was decided to administer chemotherapy intraperitoneally in hyperthermia (HIPEC). During the operation, peritoneal cytoreduction prior to the scheduled HIPEC was performed; the right-sided inguinal hernia was repaired. Within the hernia sac the implanted myxoid cells were found, their presence inside was probably the main reason of clinical manifestation of the disease. PMID:24340893

  3. Endothelial cell migration during murine yolk sac vascular remodeling occurs by means of a Rac1 and FAK activation pathway in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanism(s) controlling cell migration during vascular morphogenesis in vivo remain largely undefined. To address this within a physiological context, we used retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (Raldh2) null mouse embryos and demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) deficiency results in abnorm...

  4. Venous Sac Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation: Preliminary Experience Using Interlocking Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koji [Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa, 078-8510 (Japan); Tanimura, Keiichi; Honda, Masanori [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Utunomiya Hospital, 911-1 Takebayashi, Tochigi, 321 (Japan); Kikuno, Motoyuki [Department of Radiology, Takagi Hospital, 141-11 Sakami, Ohkawa, 831-0016 (Japan); Toei, Hisao; Hyodoh, Hideki; Furuse, Makoto [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Minamikawachi, Tochigi, 329-0498 (Japan); Yamada, Tomonori; Aburano, Tamio [Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa, 078-8510 (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the indication and advantages of venous sac embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using interlocking detachable coils (IDCs). Methods: We performed percutaneous embolization in 12 PAVMs in four patients using IDCs, initially placed in the venous sac or at the feeding artery to prevent systemic migration of additional coils. We placed the IDCs in the venous sac in PAVMs with the following vascular architecture: the draining vein was larger than the feeding arteries and both vessels were interposed with the venous sac or there were short feeding arteries. Results: Complete occlusion was achieved in all 12 PAVMs without significant complications. We deployed IDCs in the venous sac in eight PAVMs and in the feeding artery in four. Conclusion: Venous sac embolization may be beneficial in PAVMs with large out-flow vessels or short feeding arteries. IDCs are suitable for this procedure.

  5. SacPox from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a proficient lactonase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SacPox, an enzyme from the extremophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sac), was isolated by virtue of its phosphotriesterase (or paraoxonase; Pox) activity, i.e. its ability to hydrolyze the neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides. Later on, SacPox was shown to belong to the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase family that comprises natural lactonases, possibly involved in quorum sensing, and endowed with promiscuous, phosphotriesterase activity. Results Here, we present a comprehensive and broad enzymatic characterization of the natural lactonase and promiscuous organophosphorus hydrolase activities of SacPox, as well as a structural analysis using a model. Conclusion Kinetic experiments show that SacPox is a proficient lactonase, including at room temperature. Moreover, we discuss the observed differences in substrate specificity between SacPox and its closest homologues SsoPox and SisLac together with the possible structural causes for these observations. PMID:24894602

  6. Lacrimal Sac Cysticercosis: A Rare Site for Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Raoot, Amita

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infestation caused by larval cysts (cysticercus cellulosae) of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, most commonly affects the central nervous system, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the eye. Ocular adnexal infestation in cysticercosis can involve various sites within the eye like vitreous humor, subretinal tissue, extraocular muscle, and lacrimal gland. In this case report, a lump slightly below and medial to inner corner of eye, surgically removed from a 21-year-old male patient, was diagnosed as case of lacrimal sac cysticercosis on histopathological examination. To our knowledge, this is the one of rare sites for manifestation of cysticercus cellulosae. PMID:25478267

  7. Sac Hygroma After Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Successful Treatment with Endograft Relining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. Ryu; Sarah Palestrant; Jessica Ryu; Jeffrey Trachtenberg

    2007-01-01

    Aneurysm sac expansion following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is typically associated with endoleaks\\u000a that can be readily diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography (CTA), ultrasound, or catheter-directed arteriography. Sac\\u000a hygromas are a cause of sac expansion without apparent endoleak and are presumed to be a result of ultrafiltration of serum\\u000a manifested by accumulation of fibrinous, gelatinous material within the

  8. Intelligent Decoupled SAC-SVD Method in Color Space Transformation of Computer Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-long Kuo

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a decoupled SAC-SVD method to calculate color space transformation in single assignment C (SAC) language.\\u000a Chromaticity coordinate transformation is discussed based on the decoupled SAC-SVD method. The conventional color space transformation\\u000a is decomposed into three independent equations, respectively. Singular value decomposition (SVD) transformation is proposed\\u000a to provide the constant values for the associated derivation. Such an algorithm

  9. Individual variation in perfume blending in male greater sac-winged bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian C. Voigt

    2002-01-01

    Male greater sac-winged bats, Saccopteryx bilineata, use hovering flights to court females in their harem territory. While hovering, males fan a fragrant perfume from sac-like organs in the wing membrane towards the females. Each afternoon, males renew the perfumes of their wing sacs during a stereotypical and time-consuming behavioural sequence, which includes blending secretions from genital and gular glands. I

  10. Egg yolk identification and aging in mixed paint binding media by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sfakianaki, Sofia; Kouloumpi, Eleni; Anglos, Demetrios; Spyros, Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for the identification and quantitative analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context. In this report, we present an analytical NMR protocol for the identification and semiquantification of egg yolk binders and mixed binding media that also contain a drying oil, namely linseed oil. The samples studied have been artificially and/or naturally aged in order to simulate the composition of organic materials in paintings. Analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR spectra showed that egg yolk can be identified even in binding media of considerable age via signals originating from cholesterol and/or cholesterol oxidation products present in the aged binding medium. Based on cholesterol-related and other lipid signals in the NMR spectra of egg yolk binders, a molecular marker (R/F) that suggests the presence of egg yolk in paint binders is proposed. Via this marker, the presence of egg yolk in the organic material obtained from an early 18th century Greek icon is confirmed, and this is further verified by 2D NMR spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that NMR molecular markers developed to estimate the hydrolysis/oxidation state of oil paintings are also suitable for the analysis of egg yolk and mixed medium (egg yolk-linseed oil) binders, indicating the generality of the NMR methodological approach in the analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context. PMID:25280129

  11. Vertical Transmission of a Drosophila Endosymbiont Via Cooption of the Yolk Transport and Internalization Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Herren, Jeremy K.; Paredes, Juan C.; Schüpfer, Fanny; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma is a diverse bacterial clade that includes many vertically transmitted insect endosymbionts, including Spiroplasma poulsonii, a natural endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. These bacteria persist in the hemolymph of their adult host and exhibit efficient vertical transmission from mother to offspring. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism that underlies their vertical transmission, and here we provide strong evidence that these bacteria use the yolk uptake machinery to colonize the germ line. We show that Spiroplasma reaches the oocyte by passing through the intercellular space surrounding the ovarian follicle cells and is then endocytosed into oocytes within yolk granules during the vitellogenic stages of oogenesis. Mutations that disrupt yolk uptake by oocytes inhibit vertical Spiroplasma transmission and lead to an accumulation of these bacteria outside the oocyte. Impairment of yolk secretion by the fat body results in Spiroplasma not reaching the oocyte and a severe reduction of vertical transmission. We propose a model in which Spiroplasma first interacts with yolk in the hemolymph to gain access to the oocyte and then uses the yolk receptor, Yolkless, to be endocytosed into the oocyte. Cooption of the yolk uptake machinery is a powerful strategy for endosymbionts to target the germ line and achieve vertical transmission. This mechanism may apply to other endosymbionts and provides a possible explanation for endosymbiont host specificity. PMID:23462112

  12. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

  13. Spatiotemporal control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by Sac2 regulates endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Hsu, FoSheng; Hu, Fenghua; Mao, Yuxin

    2015-04-13

    It is well established that the spatial- and temporal-restricted generation and turnover of phosphoinositides (PIs) by a cascade of PI-metabolizing enzymes is a key regulatory mechanism in the endocytic pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the Sac1 domain-containing protein Sac2 is a PI 4-phosphatase that specifically hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in vitro. We further show that Sac2 colocalizes with early endosomal markers and is recruited to transferrin (Tfn)-containing vesicles during endocytic recycling. Exogenous expression of the catalytically inactive mutant Sac2C458S resulted in altered cellular distribution of Tfn receptors and delayed Tfn recycling. Furthermore, genomic ablation of Sac2 caused a similar perturbation on Tfn and integrin recycling as well as defects in cell migration. Structural characterization of Sac2 revealed a unique pleckstrin-like homology Sac2 domain conserved in all Sac2 orthologues. Collectively, our findings provide evidence for the tight regulation of PIs by Sac2 in the endocytic recycling pathway. PMID:25869669

  14. Ipilimumab After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Persistent or Progressive Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Immature Teratoma; Ovarian Mature Teratoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma With Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor With Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma With Seminoma

  15. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomov, Ognian C., E-mail: oikonomo@med.wayne.edu; Filios, Catherine, E-mail: cfilios@med.wayne.edu; Sbrissa, Diego, E-mail: dsbrissa@med.wayne.edu; Chen, Xuequn, E-mail: xchen@med.wayne.edu; Shisheva, Assia, E-mail: ashishev@med.wayne.edu

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis.

  16. Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) in Routine Diagnostic Work.

    PubMed

    Staak, Christian

    1996-01-01

    According to Linscott"s Directory of Immunological and Biological Reagents (1994/95) the commercial availability of egg-yolk antibodies (IgY) is extremely low. For preparation, cleaning and detection of IgY it would be of advantage to have a "Protein Y" available analogous to protein A and protein G for mammalian antibodies. Until now, the search for "Protein Y" was unsuccessful. IgY has been used for routine diagnostic work covering the following subjects: 1.Identification of the host species from abdominal blood of haematophageous insects; 2.IgY-anti-horse-Ig-PO conjugate for ELISA on dourine; 3.FITC-conjugated IgY-antirabies for diagnostic work on rabies; 4.FITC-conjugated IgY against avian virus diseases (Newcastle dis., Infectious bronchitis, Gumboro). In all cases satisfactory results have been achieved. PMID:11178478

  17. Malignant Germ Cell Tumors Display Common microRNA Profiles Resulting in Global Changes in Expression of mRNA Targets

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Roger D.; Murray, Matthew J.; Saini, Harpreet K.; van Dongen, Stijn; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Muralidhar, Balaji; Pett, Mark R.; Thornton, Claire M.; Nicholson, James C.; Enright, Anton J.; Coleman, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Despite their extensive clinical and pathological heterogeneity, all malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to originate from primordial germ cells. However, no common biological abnormalities have been identified to date. We profiled 615 microRNAs (miRNAs) in pediatric malignant GCTs, controls and GCT cell lines (48 samples in total) and re-analyzed available miRNA expression data in adult gonadal malignant GCTs. We applied the bioinformatic algorithm Sylamer to identify miRNAs that are of biological importance by inducing global shifts in mRNA levels. The most significant differentially expressed miRNAs in malignant GCTs were all from the miR-371~373 and miR-302 clusters (adjusted p<0.00005), which were over-expressed regardless of histological subtype [yolk sac tumor (YST)/seminoma/embryonal carcinoma (EC)], site (gonadal/extragonadal) or patient age (pediatric/adult). Sylamer revealed that the hexamer GCACTT, complementary to the 2-7 nucleotide miRNA seed AAGUGC shared by six members of the miR-371~373 and miR-302 clusters, was the only sequence significantly enriched in the 3?untranslated region (3?UTR) of mRNAs down-regulated in pediatric malignant GCTs (as a group), YSTs and ECs; and in adult YSTs (all versus non-malignant tissue controls; p<0.05). For the pediatric samples, down-regulated genes containing 3?UTR GCACTT showed significant over-representation of Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to cancer–associated processes, whereas for down-regulated genes lacking GCACTT, GO terms generally represented metabolic processes only, with few genes per term (adjusted p<0.05). We conclude that the miR-371~373 and miR-302 clusters are universally over-expressed in malignant GCTs and coordinately down-regulate mRNAs involved in biologically significant pathways. PMID:20332240

  18. Antimicrobial potential of egg yolk ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor of chicken egg.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Marie; Gautron, Joël; Berges, Magali; Attucci, Sylvie; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Labas, Valérie; Nys, Yves; Rehault-Godbert, Sophie

    2011-12-14

    Chicken egg ovoinhibitor is a multidomain Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with unknown function. Comparison of expression between different tissues indicated that ovoinhibitor is highly expressed in the magnum and liver followed by the uterus, which secrete egg white, egg yolk, and eggshell precursors, respectively. The results also revealed that ovoinhibitor expression is increased in the liver during sexual maturation followed by a subsequent decrease in mature hens. Ovoinhibitor was purified from the egg yolk plasma from nonfertilized eggs using two consecutive affinity chromatographies and gel filtration. Purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor was shown to inhibit trypsin and subtilisin. It was shown that purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus thuringiensis . The results suggest that this anti-protease plays a significant role in antibacterial egg defense against Bacillus spp., preventing contamination of table eggs (nonfertilized eggs) and protecting the chick embryo (fertilized eggs). PMID:22010862

  19. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during

    E-print Network

    Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

    Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants decades, eight studies measured persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in sea turtle eggs (Hillestad the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose

  20. Chemical investigations of wolf ( Canis lupus ) anal-sac secretion in relation to breeding season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Raymer; D. Wiesler; M. Novotny; C. Asa; L. D. Mech

    1985-01-01

    The volatile constituents of wolf anal-sac secretions were examined via capillary gas chromatography and compared among intact males, females, castrate males, ovariectomized females, and anosmic and pinealectomized males and females. Some chemical compounds were deemed significantly different (t test, 95% confidence level) among the groups both during and outside of the mating season, implying that the volatile components of anal-sac

  1. Sac-vein decompression for intractable Meniere's disease: Two-year treatment results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard J. Gianoli; Michael J. LaRouere; Jack M. Kartush; John Wayman

    1998-01-01

    Surgical intervention has been offered to patients with Meniere's disease who have failed medical treatment and have disabling symptoms. Surgical options have included labyrinthectomy (mechanical and chemical), vestibular neurectomy, and endolymphatic sac surgery with or without shunting. We present a modification of endolymphatic sac decompression surgery that includes wide decompression of the sigmoid sinus, posterior cranial fossa dura, and endolymphatic

  2. ter, electrical conductivity, activity of sac-charase, amount of proline and sugar spectra.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ter, electrical conductivity, activity of sac- charase, amount of proline and sugar spectra. A short time after intake of sugar solu- tions there are changes of sugar spectra, which can be explained by the effect of the enzyme invertase/saccharase. But, in addi- tion, there are sugar types in the honey sac

  3. Aneurysm sac pressure measurements after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Baum; Jeffrey P. Carpenter; Constantin Cope; Michael A. Golden; Omaida C. Velazquez; David G. Neschis; Marc E. Mitchell; Clyde F. Barker; Ronald M. Fairman

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: The goal of endovascular grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is to exclude the aneurysm sac from systemic pressure and thereby decrease the risk of rupture. Unlike conventional open surgery, branch vessels in the sac (eg, lumbar artery and inferior mesenteric artery [IMA]) are not ligated and can potentially transmit pressure. The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate

  4. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. 301... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Responsibilities 301.603-72 FAC-C and HHS SAC certification...

  5. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. 301... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Responsibilities 301.603-72 FAC-C and HHS SAC certification...

  6. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. 301... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Responsibilities 301.603-72 FAC-C and HHS SAC certification...

  7. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. 301... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Responsibilities 301.603-72 FAC-C and HHS SAC certification...

  8. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. 301... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Responsibilities 301.603-72 FAC-C and HHS SAC certification...

  9. The influence of locomotion on air-sac pressures in little penguins.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Baudinette, R V; Frappell, P B; Butler, P J

    2001-10-01

    Air-sac pressures have been reported to oscillate with wing beat in flying magpies and with foot paddling in diving ducks. We sought to determine the impact on air-sac pressure of wing beats during swimming and of the step cycle during walking in little penguins (Eudyptula minor). Fluctuations averaged 0.16+/-0.06 kPa in the interclavicular air sacs, but only 0.06+/-0.04 kPa in the posterior thoracic sac, generating a small differential pressure between sacs of 0.06+/-0.02 kPa (means +/- S.E.M., N=4). These fluctuations occurred at approximately 3 Hz and corresponded to wing beats during swimming, indicated by electromyograms from the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles. There was no abdominal muscle activity associated with swimming or exhalation, but the abdominal muscles were active with the step cycle in walking penguins, and oscillations in posterior air-sac pressure (0.08+/-0.038 kPa) occurred with steps. We conclude that high-frequency oscillations in differential air-sac pressure enhance access to and utilization of the O(2) stores in the air sacs during a dive. PMID:11707507

  10. GnRH - a Missing Link between Testosterone Concentrations in Yolk and Plasma and Its Intergenerational Effects

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Wendt; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Eens, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Despite the strong interest in hormone-mediated maternal effects two key questions concerning their mechanisms are as yet unanswered: First, whether the deposition of hormones in the egg yolk is coupled with the levels of these hormones in the maternal circulation, and second, whether epigenetic changes as induced by embryonic exposure to maternal yolk hormones impinge on yolk hormone deposition at adulthood. We investigated the responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in female canaries whose embryonic exposure to yolk testosterone had been manipulated. This enabled us to study to what extent GnRH interlinks testosterone concentrations in female circulation and egg yolk as well as the intergenerational potential of hormone-mediated maternal effects. As expected, canary females responded to GnRH with a rise in plasma testosterone. The GnRH-responsiveness was positively correlated with the yolk testosterone content. Factors stimulating the release of GnRH will, therefore, lead to an increase of testosterone in both plasma and egg, posing a potential constraint on the yolk hormone deposition due to testosterone related trade-offs within the laying female. Exposure to elevated yolk testosterone levels as embryo reduced the GnRH-responsiveness in adulthood, potentially limiting environmental influences on yolk testosterone deposition, but the concentrations of yolk testosterone itself were not affected. PMID:21829476

  11. Pterin-based ornamental coloration predicts yolk antioxidant levels in female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stacey L; Kennedy, Eileen A; Safran, Rebecca J; McGraw, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    1. Maternal investment in egg quality can have important consequences for offspring fitness. For example, yolk antioxidants can affect embryonic development as well as juvenile and adult phenotype. Thus, females may be selected to advertise their yolk antioxidant deposition to discriminatory males via ornamental signals, perhaps depending on the reproductive costs associated with signal production. 2. Female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) develop pterin-based orange colour patches during the reproductive season that influence male behaviour and that are positively associated with the phenotypic quality of the female and her offspring. Here, we assessed one potential developmental mechanism underlying the relationship between offspring quality and female ornamentation in S. virgatus, by examining the relationship between ornament expression and yolk antioxidant levels. 3. As expected, concentrations of the yolk antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) were strongly positively intercorrelated. Eggs from larger clutches had fewer antioxidants than eggs from smaller clutches, suggesting that females may be limited in antioxidant availability or use. Fertilized and unfertilized eggs did not differ in yolk antioxidant levels. 4. The size of a female's ornament was positively related to both the concentration and total amount of yolk antioxidants, and ornament colour was positively related to yolk antioxidant concentration. Thus, in S. virgatus, female ornaments may advertise egg quality. In addition, these data suggest that more ornamented females may produce higher-quality offspring, in part because their eggs contain more antioxidants. As the colour ornament of interest is derived from pterins, not carotenoids, direct resource trade-offs between ornaments and eggs may be eliminated, reducing reproductive costs associated with signalling. 5. This is the first example of a positive relationship between female ornamentation and yolk antioxidants in reptiles and may indicate the general importance of these patterns in oviparous vertebrates. PMID:21269301

  12. Yolk carotenoids and stable isotopes reveal links among environment, foraging behavior and seabird breeding success.

    PubMed

    Hipfner, J Mark; Dale, James; McGraw, Kevin J

    2010-06-01

    Nutrients that are limited in availability, such as carotenoids, are potentially involved in trade-offs between homeostasis and reproduction. Despite their importance, factors that affect the capacity of female birds to meet their carotenoid requirements are poorly understood. We used delta(15)N stable isotope analysis to relate foraging behavior to yolk carotenoid deposition in two seabirds, Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), during each of five years. As expected from their narrower trophic range, Cassin's auklets produced yolks with fewer carotenoid types than did rhinoceros auklets (one vs. three). Cassin's auklets also fed on a lower trophic level diet richer in carotenoids, yet had lower total yolk carotenoid levels, which suggests a role for species-specific adaptations for carotenoid uptake and utilization. Within both species, lower trophic-level feeding was linked to higher yolk carotenoid levels, but through different mechanisms. In Cassin's auklets, it was due to a population-wide response to environmental variation: in warm-water years, all females fed at a low trophic level and produced carotenoid-rich yolks. In rhinoceros auklets, it was due to individual differences similarly expressed in all years: females fed across a wide trophic range, and those that fed at a low trophic level produced carotenoid-rich yolks. Rhinoceros auklets bred more successfully in years when their yolks were rich in carotenoids, probably due to a correlated response to stronger marine primary production. Our results are novel because they link avian yolk carotenoid deposition to behavioral and environmental variations. PMID:20397031

  13. Egg yolk and bacteria growth medium for Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Watson, D W; Martin, P A; Schmidtmann, E T

    1993-07-01

    Six preparations of egg yolk media inoculated with Escherichia coli (Migula) were evaluated as an in vitro growth system for immature house flies, Musca domestica L. Larval development, based on pupation and eclosion success, was normal on all media supplemented with E. coli, but few larvae survived without bacteria (4%). Pupation (72%) and eclosion (63%) were significantly higher on egg yolk media without mannitol than on media with mannitol or on blood agar controls. PMID:8360911

  14. Regulation of yolk-androgen concentrations by plasma prolactin in the American kestrel.

    PubMed

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H; Sharp, P J

    2001-12-01

    The concentrations of maternally derived androgens in the yolks of avian eggs vary within and among clutches, but a mechanistic basis for this variation has not been elucidated. We investigated in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, whether changes in plasma-prolactin concentrations induced by changes in photoperiod and food supply affect yolk-androgen concentrations. Over the course of a photoinduced breeding period in the laboratory, we measured concentrations of plasma immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in female kestrels with ad libitum food availability (control) or food availability that was reduced during the early breeding period. In a second laboratory study, we administered via osmotic mini-pumps ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) to females beginning on the day they laid their first egg of a clutch (egg-day 1) to determine the effects of high prolactin concentrations on yolk-androgen concentrations. In both this study and one on free-living kestrels, we quantified changes in yolk-androgen concentrations with date of clutch initiation. Concentrations of ir-prolactin in nonlaying females rose with date, irrespective of food treatment. Egg-day 1 ir-prolactin concentrations were higher in control females laying late during the breeding phase than in those laying early. This increase was absent in food-reduced females. Yolk-androgen concentrations in eggs 3 and 4 but not eggs 1 and 2 of the clutch were higher in clutches initiated late than in clutches initiated early in the breeding phase in both the field and laboratory. o-prolactin treatment elevated yolk-testosterone but not androstenedione concentrations. These findings suggest that, in American kestrels, seasonal and laying-associated increases in plasma-prolactin concentrations elevate yolk-testosterone concentrations. Food availability and other factors may interact with date to regulate the effects of prolactin on yolk-testosterone deposition. PMID:11716575

  15. Human sperm chromosomes obtained from hamster eggs after sperm capacitation in TEST-yolk buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1985-01-01

    Human sperm chromosomes were obtained after capacitation with TES-Tris (TEST) yolk buffer and fusion with Syrian hamster eggs. Semen samples could be stored at 4/sup 0/C for 3 days and remain functional in the assay system. The efficiency of TEST yolk buffer for obtaining karyotypes was as good as, or greater than, the efficiency of standard BWW medium containing human serum albumin. 16 references, 3 tables.

  16. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  17. Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection.

  18. Environmental chemicals with known endocrine potential affect yolk protein content in the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Torsten; Schenk, Kamilla; Schulz, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    The use of vitellogenesis as a marker for possible effects of endocrine disrupting agents on insects was tested in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. As test substances the synthetic ecdysoid tebufenozide, and the endocrine disruptors bisphenol a and 4-n-nonylphenol were applied in a semi-static manner. The yolk protein contents of freshly emerged (24 h) male and female midges were determined by an ELISA procedure. In males, where always low amounts of immunoreactivity were apparent, yolk concentrations were lowered by 10% after a 80 microg/l tebufenozide treatment, and by 20-25% after exposition to bisphenol a at concentrations of 1, 100, and 3,000 microg/l. 4-n-nonylphenol contamination caused an inverted dose-response curve. At low test concentrations (1.9-30 microg/l) reduced yolk immunoreactivity occurred, while at medium concentrations (120 and 500 microg/l) no significant effects were observable. In the most highly contaminated group (2,000 microg/l) yolk protein immunoreactivity was elevated to 107% of the control. Female yolk protein contents were affected only in the 3,000 microg bisphenol a/l contaminated group, where yolk immunoreactivity was reduced by ca. 10% compared to the control. PMID:12442778

  19. Identification of environmental chemicals that induce yolk malabsorption in zebrafish using automated image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Kalasekar, Sharanya Maanasi; Zacharia, Eleni; Kessler, Noah; Ducharme, Nicole A; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Bondesson, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Environmental factors affecting nutrient availability during development can cause predisposition to diseases later in life. To identify chemicals in the environment capable of altering nutrient mobilization, we analyzed yolk malabsorption in the zebrafish embryo, which relies on maternally-derived yolk for nutrition during its first week of life. Embryos of the transgenic zebrafish line HGn50D, which fluoresce in the yolk syncytial layer, were exposed from two to five days post fertilization to different chemicals. We developed a software package to automatically and accurately segment and quantify the area of the fluorescing yolk in images captured at the end of the treatment period. Based on this quantification, we found that prochloraz decreased yolk absorption, while butralin, tetrabromobisphenol A, tetrachlorobisphenol A and tributyltin increased yolk absorption. Given the number and variety of industrial chemicals in commerce today, development of automated image processing to perform high-speed quantitative analysis of biological effects is an important step for enabling high throughput screening to identify chemicals altering nutrient absorption. PMID:25462786

  20. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain...

  1. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain...

  2. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain...

  3. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain...

  4. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain...

  5. Passive protective effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins against experimental Vibrio anguillarum infection in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Hong; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) has attracted much attention as a means for controlling infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. This study evaluated the protective effect of IgY against Vibrio anguillarum infection in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. IgY was isolated from egg yolks laid by hens initially immunized with formalin-inactivated V. anguillarum. Lower mortality of ayu was observed in groups treated with anti-V. anguillarum IgY (aVIgY), compared with those treated with saline or with nonspecific IgY (nspIgY). All fish in saline-treated groups died within seven days after bacterial inoculation. The bacterial load in blood, liver, and spleen was significantly lower in fish treated with aVIgY than in fish treated with nspIgY. aVIgY treatment significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor-? (PaTNF-?), interleukin-1? (PaIL-1?), transforming growth factor-? (PaTGF-?), and leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (PaLECT2) transcript levels in the head kidney, spleen, and liver of ayu challenged by V. anguillarum, compared with nspIgY treatment. The phagocytic activity of macrophages for V. anguillarum in the presence of specific IgY was significantly higher than that seen for nonspecific IgY. These results suggest that passive immunization by oral intubation with pathogen-specific IgY may provide a valuable treatment for V. anguillarum infection in ayu. PMID:24486630

  6. Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver ( Castor canadensis ): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon M. Walro; Gerald E. Svendsen

    1982-01-01

    Both sexes of beavers possess a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands located in paired subcutaneous cavities between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The castor sacs are not glandular in the histological sense, hence references to these structures as preputial glands or castor glands are misnomers. The wall of the castor sacs is

  7. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  8. Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrén, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 2–3 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (3000–4000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as an additional acoustic filter. Individual acoustic recognition may have been the primary function in the evolution of a size-variable air sac, and this function is retained in mother–young communication. In males sexual selection seems to have favoured a considerable size increase of the air sac and a switch to call series instead of single calls. Vocalization became restricted to the rutting period serving the attraction of females. We propose two possibilities for the acoustic function of the air sac in vocalization that do not exclude each other. The first assumes a coupling between air sac and the environment, resulting in an acoustic output that is a combination of the vocal tract resonance frequencies emitted via mouth and nostrils and the resonance frequencies of the air sac transmitted via the neck skin. The second assumes a weak coupling so that resonance frequencies of the air sac are lost to surrounding tissues by dissipation. In this case the resonance frequencies of the air sac solely influence the signal that is further filtered by the remaining vocal tract. According to our results one acoustic effect of the air sac in adult reindeer might be to mask formants of the vocal tract proper. In other cervid species, however, formants of rutting calls convey essential information on the quality of the sender, related to its potential reproductive success, to conspecifics. Further studies are required to solve this inconsistency. PMID:17310544

  9. Fat body expressed yolk protein genes in Hyphantria cunea are related to the YP4 follicular epithelium yolk protein subunit gene of pyralid moths.

    PubMed

    Cheon, H M; Kim, H J; Yun, C Y; Lee, H J; Lee, I H; Shirk, P D; Seo, S J

    2003-08-01

    cDNA clones for two of the yolk proteins, YP1 and YP2, produced by the fat body of the moth, Hyphantria cunea, were sequenced and found to be homologous to the follicular epithelium yolk proteins of pyralid moths. Both cDNA clones coded for polypeptides of 290 residues and the deduced amino acid sequence identity between YP1 and YP2 was very high (79.0%). Analysis of the secondary structure of the predicted polypeptides suggests that YP1 and YP2 do not form heteromeric proteins because of differences in secondary structure due to the lack of alpha helices in YP1. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts for YP1 (1.2 kb) and YP2 (1.1 kb) were present primarily in the female fat body with only trace levels detectable in the ovary of the adult female. In a developmental study, the YP1 and YP2 transcripts were first detectable in 10-day-old pupae and increased into the adult stage. These results suggest that the YP1 and YP2 genes in H. cunea have been recruited to replace the vitellogenin gene as the primary source of yolk proteins. During this process they have acquired a modified pattern of expression that is different from homologous genes reported in pyralid moths. The assessment of the evolution of proteinaceous yolk in these moths should serve as an excellent model for the evolution of gene recruitment. PMID:12864918

  10. Liposomes as an alternative to egg yolk in stallion freezing extender.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Elodie; Labbe, Catherine; Batellier, Florence; Duchamp, Guy; Beaumal, Valérie; Anton, Marc; Desherces, Serge; Schmitt, Eric; Magistrini, Michèle

    2012-01-15

    Egg yolk is normally used as a protective agent to freeze semen of equine and other species. However, addition of egg yolk in extenders is not without disadvantages and the demand to find cryoprotective alternatives is strong. The objective of this study was to test the cryoprotective capacities of liposomes composed of egg yolk phospholipids. Two experiments were conducted: 1) the first to determine the optimal composition and concentration of liposomes to preserve post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa; 2) the second to assess in vivo the cryoprotective capacities of these liposomes. In Experiment 2, post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analyzed. Experiment 1 demonstrated that liposomes composed of phospholipids E80 (commercial lecithins from egg yolk composed mainly of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) and of Hank's salts-glucose-lactose solution (E80-liposomes) were the most efficient in preserving post-thaw motility. The optimal concentration was 4 % (v/v). In Experiment 2, fertility rate after artificial insemination of semen frozen with E80-liposomes was 55 % (22/40) compared with 68 % (27/40) with the control extender containing egg yolk (EY) (p = 0.23). Post-thaw motility parameters were higher with EY than with E80-liposomes (p < 0.0001). For post-thaw membrane integrity no difference was observed between the two extenders (p = 0.08). Liposomes composed of egg yolk phospholipids appeared to be a promising alternative to replace egg yolk in semen freezing extenders in equine species. PMID:21924469

  11. XPS of oxygen atoms on Ag(111) and Ag(110) surfaces: accurate study with SAC/SAC-CI combined with dipped adcluster model.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    O1s core-electron binding energies (CEBE) of the atomic oxygens on different Ag surfaces were investigated by the symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method combined with the dipped adcluster model, in which the electron exchange between bulk metal and adsorbate is taken into account properly. Electrophilic and nucleophilic oxygens (O(elec) and O(nuc)) that might be important for olefin epoxidation in a low-oxygen coverage condition were focused here. We consider the O1s CEBE as a key property to distinguish the surface oxygen states, and series of calculation was carried out by the Hartree-Fock, Density functional theory, and SAC/SAC-CI methods. The experimental information and our SAC/SAC-CI results indicate that O(elec) is the atomic oxygen adsorbed on the fcc site of Ag(111) and that O(nuc) is the one on the reconstructed added-row site of Ag(110) and that one- and two-electron transfers occur, respectively, to the O(elec) and O(nuc) adclusters from the silver surface. PMID:23677698

  12. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  13. Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-09-01

    A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000(th) high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g(-1) at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g(-1) at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg(-1). The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles. PMID:23846530

  14. A new type of highly polymerized yolk protein from the cochineal insect Dactylopius confusus.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, R; Engler, D L; Bartnek, F; Van Antwerpen, R; Bluestein, H A; Gilkey, J C; Yepiz-Plascencia, G M

    1996-01-01

    A female specific protein was isolated from eggs and female hemolymph of cochineal insects, using density gradient ultracentrifugation, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and size exclusion column chromatography. The protein was found to consist of four different subunits with apparent molecular weights (Mr) 45,000, 49,000, 53,000, and 56,000, respectively. All four subunits were found to be glycosylated; no association of lipids was detected. Size exclusion column chromatography and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the native yolk protein exists as large polymers. Electron microscopy showed that these molecules are long, helical ribbons of variable size which are found in both hemolymph and eggs. Using cryo-electron microscopy, it was shown that the ribbons were 14.6 +/- 1.5 nm wide; the helix they form has a repeat distance of 104.9 +/- 11.3 nm and a diameter of 42.1 +/- 5 nm. A clear substructure of the ribbons was recognized. The newly identified protein is the major yolk protein of Dactylopius confusus and no other proteins resembling the more familiar vitellins of other insect species were detected. Moreover, the D. confusus yolk protein appears to be unique both in its subunit structure and in its polymerizing qualities. Thus, the cochineal yolk protein (CYP) is suggested to represent a new type of insect yolk protein. PMID:8742825

  15. Plasma corticosterone in nestling american kestrels: effects of age, handling stress, yolk androgens, and body condition.

    PubMed

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2001-05-01

    The effects of age, handling-induced stress, yolk androgens, and body condition on plasma corticosterone levels were investigated in free-living nestling American kestrels, Falco sparverius, a semialtricial falcon species. In an observational study, corticosterone levels varied with age and handling time. Specifically, corticosterone was low until age 15 days and then rose from age 20 through 25 days. Nestlings as young as age 10 days showed a handling-induced rise in corticosterone. Neither sex nor hatching order of the nestling affected corticosterone levels. Concentrations of maternally derived yolk androgens have previously been shown to be lower in first-laid than in later-laid eggs in the clutch. In an experimental study, androgens were injected into the yolk of the first-laid egg to elevate its levels to those of later-laid eggs, a treatment that substantially reduces nestling body condition compared with that of controls. Yolk androgen treatment elevated posthatching corticosterone levels compared with those of controls, and corticosterone levels were negatively correlated with body condition. These findings indicate that even very young, developing birds can show stress-induced increases in corticosterone and that age-related changes in corticosterone secretion may be modified by body condition and maternal effects such as yolk androgen deposition. The short- and long-term consequences of high glucocorticosteroid levels in young, developing vertebrates are largely unknown. PMID:11316426

  16. Cotton embryogenesis: The entrance and discharge of the pollen tube in the embryo sac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Jensen; Donald B. Fisher

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of the entrance and discharge of the pollen tube into the embryo sac of Gossypium hirsutum was made with the light and electron microscopes. The following sequence of events is seen in cotton:

  17. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (?C ? 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

  18. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  19. Histological evaluation of pearl-sac development in the Concho Pearly Mussel (Cyrtonaias tampicoens)

    E-print Network

    Tower, Stephan N.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the wound repair properties and epithelial cell proliferation in the processes necessary to develop a pearl-sac in the mantle of the Concho Pearly Mussel (Uniodidea: Cyrtonaias tampicoens). Samples...

  20. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SF-SAC and instructions for its completion may be obtained from the following Web page: http://harvester.census.gov/fac/collect/sfsac_01.pdf . It is also available from the address provided in §...

  1. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak.

  2. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-04-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak. PMID:25844359

  3. Vagal innervation of the air sacs in a songbird, Taenopygia guttata

    PubMed Central

    Kubke, M Fabiana; Ross, Jacqueline M; Wild, J Martin

    2004-01-01

    The air sacs of birds are thin-walled chambers connected to the lung that act as bellows in the ventilatory mechanism. Physiological evidence exists to suggest that they may contain receptors that are innervated by the vagus nerve, but no morphological study has examined the vagal innervation of these putative structures. To do this, we injected the cervical vagus nerve with choleragenoid and examined the innervation of the air sacs using light and confocal microscopy. We identified vagally innervated structures in the air sac wall that resemble the neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) described in the airways of many vertebrates. Although NEBs have been proposed to have a dual chemoreceptive and mechanoreceptive role, their specific function in the air sacs of birds remains unclear. PMID:15061754

  4. Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1)?Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2)?Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3)?Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4)?Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic. In addition, we conclude: (5)?The advent of avian unidirectional lung ventilation is not possible to pinpoint, as osteological correlates have yet to be identified for uni- or bidirectional lung ventilation. (6)?The origin and evolution of avian air sacs may have been driven by one or more of the following three factors: flow-through lung ventilation, locomotory balance, and/or thermal regulation. PMID:18825273

  5. Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

  6. Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1986-04-01

    Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

  7. Lipid components in anal scent sacs of three mongoose species ( Helogale parvula, Crossarchus obscurus, Suricata suricatta )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise M. Decker; David Ringelberg; David C. White

    1992-01-01

    Anal sac secretions of three social mongoose species (Helogale parvula, Crossarchus obscurus, andSuricata suricatta) were chemically analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compounds with high molecular weights (greater than 250) were found to distinguish the three species. Differences in composition suggest a possible species-specific role in scent marking. MaleH. parvula had vitamin E present in the anal sac, whereas

  8. Cu?O template synthesis of high-performance PtCu alloy yolk-shell cube catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sheng-Hua; He, Xu-Jun; Ding, Liang-Xin; Pan, Zheng-Wei; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Wu, Mingmei; Li, Gao-Ren

    2014-10-21

    Novel PtCu alloy yolk-shell cubes were fabricated via the disproportionation and displacement reactions in Cu2O yolk-shell cubes, and they exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation. PMID:25182273

  9. Detection of SNPs in the Cathepsin D Gene and Their Association with Yolk Traits in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Lei, Qiuxia; Han, Haixia; Li, Fuwei; Lu, Yan; Wang, Cunfang

    2013-01-01

    CTSD (Cathepsin D) is a key enzyme in yolk formation, and it primarily affects egg yolk weight and egg weight. However, recent research has mostly focused on the genomic structure of the CTSD gene and the enzyme’s role in pathology, and less is known about the enzyme’s functions in chickens. In this paper, the correlations between CTSD polymorphisms and egg quality traits were analyzed in local Shandong chicken breeds. CTSD polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism) and sequencing analysis. Two variants were found to be associated with egg quality traits. One variant (2614T>C), located in exon 3, was novel. Another variant (5274G>T), located in intron 4, was previously referred to as rs16469410. Overall, our results indicated that CTSD would be a useful candidate gene in selection programs for improving yolk traits. PMID:23431385

  10. Acoustic analysis of primate air sacs and their effect on vocalization.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Bart

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the acoustic impedance of primate air sacs and their interaction with the vocal tract. A lumped element model is derived and it is found that the inertance of the neck and the volume of the air sac are relevant, as well as the mass and stiffness of the walls (depending on the tissue). It is also shown that at low frequencies, radiation from the air sac can be non-negligible, even if the mouth is open. It is furthermore shown that an air sac can add one or two low resonances to the resonances of the oral tract, and that it shifts up the oral tract's resonances below approximately 2000 Hz, and shifts them closer together. The theory was verified by acoustic measurements and applied to the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). The theory describes the physical models and the siamang calls correctly, but appears incomplete for the howler monkey vocalizations. The relation between air sacs and the evolution of speech is discussed briefly, and it is proposed that an air sac would reduce the ability to produce distinctive speech, but would enhance the impression of size of the vocalizer. PMID:20000947

  11. Use of egg-yolk antibody for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasal secretions by ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zrein; G. Obert; M. H. V. van Regenmortel

    1986-01-01

    Summary Egg-yolk immunoglobulins extracted from the eggs of hens immunized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been used as a reagent in double sandwich ELISA for detecting RSV in nasal secretions. The sensitivity of virus detection was the same in indirect ELISA, using rabbit anti chicken globulin conjugate, as when biotinylated yolk globulin and labeled avidin were used for detection.

  12. Lipid Composition of Egg Yolk and Serum in Laying Hens Fed Diets Containing Black Cumin (Nigella sativa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed diets without or with 10 or 30 g of the whole seed of black cumin (Nigella sativa)\\/kg. The concentrations of total lipids, total cholesterol, phospholipids and triacylglycerols in serum and egg yolk were measured. Feeding of the diets with 1 and 3% black cumin seeds for a period of three months reduced egg yolk total cholesterol

  13. Laying-sequence-specific variation in yolk oestrogen levels, and relationship to plasma oestrogen in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tony D.; Ames, Caroline E.; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between plasma and yolk oestrogens in laying female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by manipulating plasma oestradiol (E2) levels, via injection of oestradiol-17?, in a sequence-specific manner to maintain chronically high plasma levels for later-developing eggs (contrasting with the endogenous pattern of decreasing plasma E2 concentrations during laying). We report systematic variation in yolk oestrogen concentrations, in relation to laying sequence, similar to that widely reported for androgenic steroids. In sham-manipulated females, yolk E2 concentrations decreased with laying sequence. However, in E2-treated females plasma E2 levels were higher during the period of rapid yolk development of later-laid eggs, compared with control females. As a consequence, we reversed the laying-sequence-specific pattern of yolk E2: in E2-treated females, yolk E2 concentrations increased with laying-sequence. In general therefore, yolk E2 levels were a direct reflection of plasma E2 levels. However, in control females there was some inter-individual variability in the endogenous pattern of plasma E2 levels through the laying cycle which could generate variation in sequence-specific patterns of yolk hormone levels even if these primarily reflect circulating steroid levels. PMID:15695208

  14. Plasma Yolk Precursor Dynamics during Egg Production by Female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila): Characterization and Indices of

    E-print Network

    372 Plasma Yolk Precursor Dynamics during Egg Production by Female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila characterized dynamics of the plasma yolk precursors vi- tellogenin (VTG), very-low-density lipoprotein (total state. Mean ( 1 SE) plasma concen- trations of VTG and total VLDL-TG for females with nonde- veloped

  15. Identification and comparisons of the yolk polypeptides and the genes which code for them in D. melanogaster sibling species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kozma; M. Bownes

    1986-01-01

    The yolk proteins stored in Drosophila, oocytes for utilisation during embryogenesis are an ideal system for studying the regulation of gene expression during development. The 3 major polypeptides found in yolk in D. melanogaster are synthesised in the fat body and ovarian follicle cells and selectively accumulated by the oocyte during vitellogenesis. In order to understand more about their regulation

  16. Stable Isotopes Link Diet to Avian Yolk Carotenoid Allocation: A Comparative Study of Five Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae)

    E-print Network

    and yolk color in relation to trophic level (based on d15 N values) in five species of seabirds belonging). For example, in many oviparous vertebrates, females deposit carotenoids into egg yolk to protect their off). Indeed, a number of studies have shown that the availability of dietary carotenoids can limit avian egg

  17. Are yolk androgens adjusted to environmental conditions? A test in two seabirds that lay single-egg clutches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BriAnne Addison; Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks; J. Mark Hipfner; Alexander S. Kitaysky

    2008-01-01

    It is widely believed that female birds strategically allocate androgens to yolk in the manner that best equips offspring for feeding conditions during their development. Because most avian studies have focused on multi-egg clutch species, and interpreted results within the framework of sibling competition, we still know little about how yolk androgens might be allocated in direct response to environmental

  18. The protective effect of egg yolk from different avian species during the cryopreservation of Karayaka ram semen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recai Kulaks?z; Çi?dem Çebi; Ergun Akçay; Ali Da?k?n

    2010-01-01

    Egg yolk is one of the most widely used cryoprotective components for sperm preservation and a wide range of factors affect its action on sperm motility, viability and fertilizing ability. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of different species egg yolk, namely the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), the goose (Anatidae anser), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), duck

  19. Egg size and yolk steroids vary across the laying order in cockatiel clutches: A strategy for reinforcing brood hierarchies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne P. Kozlowski; Robert E. Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    When a female bird begins incubation before clutch completion, the nestlings hatch sequentially, and a size hierarchy forms within the brood. This size hierarchy may be minimized or exacerbated through differential allocation of resources to eggs across the laying order. In this study, we characterize intra-clutch variation in cockatiel clutches by measuring egg mass, yolk mass, and concentrations of yolk

  20. VALIDATION OF EGG YOLK ANTIBODY TESTING AS A METHOD TO DETERMINE INFLUENZA STATUS IN WHITE LEGHORN HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of the avian influenza (AI) status of a flock has traditionally been done by detection of serum antibodies. However, for many diseases, detection of antibodies in egg yolk has been effective in monitoring disease status of laying flocks. This study compared the utility of egg yolk vers...

  1. ?-Cryptoxanthin biofortified maize (Zea mays) increases ?-cryptoxanthin concentration and enhances the color of chicken egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Q; Davis, C R; Schmaelzle, S T; Rocheford, T; Cook, M E; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-02-01

    The laying hen has a natural ability to deposit carotenoids into its egg yolks, especially the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein that is used commercially as an egg colorant. Can this ability to deposit carotenoids be used to enrich egg yolk provitamin A value? After a 10-d carotenoid depletion period in hens (n = 24), the effects of a 20-d intervention with high-?-cryptoxanthin, high-?-carotene, or typical yellow maize on color and carotenoid profile were compared with the effects of a white maize diet (n = 6/treatment). Eggs were collected every other day and yolks were analyzed by using a portable colorimeter to define the color space and by using an HPLC to determine the carotenoid profile. The high-?-cryptoxanthin and yellow maize increased ?-cryptoxanthin in the yolk (0.55 ± 0.08 to 4.20 ± 0.56 nmol/g and 0.55 ± 0.08 to 1.06 ± 0.12 nmol/g, respectively; P < 0.001). Provitamin A equivalents increased in eggs from hens fed high-?-cryptoxanthin maize (P < 0.001) but not the high-?-carotene maize. The color (L*, a*, and b*) assessment of the yolks showed an increase in the high-?-cryptoxanthin treatment for the red-green a* scale (P < 0.001) and a decrease for the light-dark L* scale (P < 0.001). No appreciable change was noted in the yellow-blue b* scale for the high-?-cryptoxanthin treatment; but significant changes were noted for the yellow (P = 0.002) and high-?-carotene maize (P = 0.005) treatments, which were most evident at the end of the washout period with white maize. ?-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified maize is a potential vehicle to elevate provitamin A equivalents and to enhance the color of yolks. This could lead to a human health benefit if widely adopted. PMID:22252357

  2. Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption. PMID:22876878

  3. The influence of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition of the egg yolk

    E-print Network

    Saloma Orozco, Abraham Eduardo

    1966-01-01

    by the fact that on a mole per mole basis triglycerides have 33% more fatty acids than do phospholipids. The polar lipids of the yolks from hens fed fat supplemented diets exhibited slightly higher ratios of total saturates to unsaturates than did those...THE INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE EGG YOLK A Thesis by ABRAHAM EDUARDO SALOMA OROZCO Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  4. Polyclonal Antibodies from Hen Egg Yolk (IgY) with Hydrolysis Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianghui Ma; Shuqing Sun; Xiangming Ma; Ting Li; Jie Meng; Jungang Fan

    2007-01-01

    Polyclonal catalytic antibodies (abzymes) play an important role in immunology research. In this study, we report polyclonal\\u000a antibodies IgYs isolated from chicken egg yolk with hydrolysis activity for the first time. The IgYs were raised in hens using\\u000a HNPBV [4-(hydroxy (naphthalen-2-yloxy) phosphoryl) butanoic acid] attached to BSA (Bovine serum albumin) as an immunogen.\\u000a Anti-(HNPBV-BSA) IgYs were isolated from yolks of

  5. Effect of natural zeolite on yolk:albumen ratio in hen eggs.

    PubMed

    Yannakopoulos, A L; Tserveni-Gousi, A S; Christaki, E

    1998-09-01

    1. The egg yolk: albumen (Y:A) ratio during the laying year was investigated in a commercial strain (Hisex) when natural zeolite was added to a layer's diet. 2. Dietary natural zeolite (NZ) increased both egg weight and albumen weight, while yolk weight was not significantly affected. 3. The Y:A ratio was less (more albumen) in eggs laid by hens on zeolite treatments. It was concluded that by feeding NZ it is possible to alter the Y:A ratio. PMID:9800035

  6. Multiscale Modeling of the Effect of Micro-alloying Mn and Sb on the Viscoplastic Response of SAC105 Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Subhasis; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Zhou, Bite; Bieler, Thomas R.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the time-dependent viscoplastic response of two relatively new SAC105-X solders—SAC105-05Mn (Sn1.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC105) doped with 0.05 wt.% Mn), and SAC105-55Sb (SAC105 doped with 0.55 wt.% Sb). The results showed that the addition of Mn or Sb increases the creep resistance of SAC105 solder by one to two orders of magnitude at the tested stress levels of 2-20 MPa. The addition of Mn as a fourth alloying element promotes homogeneous distribution of micron-scale Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compounds (IMCs), thereby reducing their interparticle spacing as compared to that of SAC105. On the other hand, addition of Sb does not change the spacing of the Cu6Sn5 particle, but promotes the formation of uniformly sized Sn dendritic lobes, homogeneously distributed in the whole solder joint. Moreover, Sb also forms a solid solution with Sn and strengthens the Sn matrix in SAC105-55Sb itself. The effects of these microstructural changes (obtained using image processing) on the secondary creep constitutive response of SAC105 solder interconnects were then modeled using a mechanistic multiscale creep model. The mechanistic model was able to accurately capture the trends in the secondary creep constitutive response of the alloys and to explain the improvement in creep resistance of SAC105 due to the addition of Mn and Sb.

  7. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L.; Barron, Megan E.; Roa, Jinae N.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3?, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3? sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3?-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H+ absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  8. General applicability of chicken egg yolk antibodies: the performance of IgY immunoglobulins raised against the hypoxia-inducible factor 1a

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GIERI CAMENISCH; MAURO TINI; DMITRI CHILOV; IVICA KVIETIKOVA; VICKRAM SRINIVAS; JAIME CARO; PATRICK SPIELMANN; ROLAND H. WENGER; MAX GASSMANN

    Avian embryos and neonates acquire passive immunity by transferring maternal immuno- globulins from serum to egg yolk. Despite being a convenient source of antibodies, egg yolk immuno- globulins (IgY) from immunized hens have so far re- ceived scant attention in research. Here we report the generation and rapid isolation of IgY from the egg yolk of hens immunized against thea

  9. A Mathematical Technique for Estimating Blastodisc:Yolk Volume Ratios instead of Egg Sizes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen S. Crawford; Eugene K. Balon; Kevin S. McCann

    1999-01-01

    Egg size alone is a poor and misleading variable in life-history studies. A mathematical technique for estimating yolk and blastodisc volume ratios in fishes, a much more meaningful character, is generated from first principles. The technique is demonstrated with an example of early ontogeny in fishes of the genus Lucania (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae). Wild, adult rainwater killifish, Lucania parva, and bluefin

  10. Effect of designer diets on egg yolk composition of 'White Leghorn' hens.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, T; Narahari, D

    2011-08-01

    A study was made on 96 'White Leghorn' hens on the influence of designer diets enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants from natural sources on egg yolk composition. The birds were divided into four equal groups viz. Control (without enrichment); FSE - (150 g flaxseeds + 200 mg vitamin E + 3 g spirulina/kg diet); FOSe (20 g fish oil + 0.2 mg organic Se (Sel-Plex) + 3 g spirulina/kg diet) and FSE + FOSe (75 g flaxseed + 10 g fish oil + 100 mg vitamin E + 0.1 mg organic Se + 3 g spirulina/kg diet). All three designer diets increased (p?yolk carotenoid pigments and omega-3 fatty acid levels with proportionate reduction in saturated fatty acid levels and no significant change in the oleic acid levels in the yolk lipids. The three diets also reduced (p?yolk cholesterol levels. Boiled eggs from all four groups had comparable sensory acceptability. Dietary Se and vitamin E supplementation acted synergistically in increasing omega-3 fatty acid levels in the egg. PMID:23572777

  11. Preparation and characterization of immunoglobulin yolk against the venom of Naja naja atra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sihong Liu; Weihua Dong; Tianhan Kong

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Cobra ( Naja naja atra ) bite is one of the leading causes of snake-bite mortality in China. The traditional anti- cobra venom serum therapy was found to be expensive and with high frequency of side effects. Therefore attempts were made to generate a high titer immunoglobulin from egg yolk (IgY) of crude cobra-venom immunized Leghorn hens, and to

  12. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...b ), and for retaining the classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a...egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test the resultant...

  13. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...b ), and for retaining the classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a...egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test the resultant...

  14. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  15. Regulation of Yolk-Androgen Concentrations by Plasma Prolactin in the American Kestrel

    E-print Network

    Sockman, Keith W.

    -prolactin concentrations induced by changes in photoperiod and food supply affect yolk-androgen concentrations. Over the course of a photoinduced breeding period in the laboratory, we measured concentrations of plasma im avail- ability that was reduced during the early breeding pe- riod. In a second laboratory study, we

  16. Consequences of maternal yolk testosterone for offspring development and survival: experimental test in a lizard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. ULLER; L. ASTHEIMER; M. OLSSON

    2007-01-01

    Summary 1. Hormone-mediated maternal effects and developmental plasticity are important sources of phenotypic variation, with potential consequences for trait evolution. Yet our understanding of the importance of maternal hormones for offspring fitness in natural populations is very limited, particularly in non-avian species. 2. We experimentally elevated yolk testosterone by injection of a physiological dose into eggs of the lizard Ctenophorus

  17. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS, TRANSPORT, AND PACKAGING OF PROTEINACEOUS YOLK IN OOCYTES OF ORCONECTES IMMUNIS

    PubMed Central

    Ganion, L. R.; Kessel, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The incorporation of leucine-3H into either ovarian or oocyte proteins occurs throughout vitellogenesis, but is at a maximum during early phases of this process. The labeling of ovarian and oocyte proteins is inhibited with cycloheximide. Oocytes are permeable to actinomycin D, and this drug does not affect the incorporation of amino acids into oocyte proteins but does block oocyte RNA synthesis. By means of both light microscope and high resolution radioautography, it has been demonstrated that the initial incorporation of leucine-3H under both in vitro and in vivo conditions occurs in elements of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the oocyte. Under pulse-chase conditions, the label subsequently becomes associated with intracisternal (precursor yolk) granules now aggregated within the cisternae of the connected smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum. By 7 days, mature yolk globules are extensively labeled. The results of experiments designed to assess the possible contribution of maternal blood proteins to yolk deposition indicate that such a contribution is minimal. It is concluded that the crayfish oocyte is programmed for and capable of synthesizing the massive store of proteinaceous yolk present in the egg at the end of oogenesis. PMID:5061951

  18. Intracellular synthesis, transport, and packaging of proteinaceous yolk in oocytes of Orconectes immunis.

    PubMed

    Ganion, L R; Kessel, R G

    1972-02-01

    The incorporation of leucine-(3)H into either ovarian or oocyte proteins occurs throughout vitellogenesis, but is at a maximum during early phases of this process. The labeling of ovarian and oocyte proteins is inhibited with cycloheximide. Oocytes are permeable to actinomycin D, and this drug does not affect the incorporation of amino acids into oocyte proteins but does block oocyte RNA synthesis. By means of both light microscope and high resolution radioautography, it has been demonstrated that the initial incorporation of leucine-(3)H under both in vitro and in vivo conditions occurs in elements of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the oocyte. Under pulse-chase conditions, the label subsequently becomes associated with intracisternal (precursor yolk) granules now aggregated within the cisternae of the connected smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum. By 7 days, mature yolk globules are extensively labeled. The results of experiments designed to assess the possible contribution of maternal blood proteins to yolk deposition indicate that such a contribution is minimal. It is concluded that the crayfish oocyte is programmed for and capable of synthesizing the massive store of proteinaceous yolk present in the egg at the end of oogenesis. PMID:5061951

  19. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on cryopreservation of Boer goat semen in Tris egg yolk extender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akeel Ahmed Memon; H. Wahid; Y. Rosnina; Y. M. Goh; M. Ebrahimi; F. M. Nadia; G. Audrey

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant added in different concentrations to the Tris egg yolk extenders on semen cytological parameters pre freezing and post thawing (motility, morphology, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity) of Boer goat spermatozoa. A total of 40 ejaculates from four Boer goat bucks were collected

  20. Designing a yolk-shell type porous organic network using a phenyl modified template.

    PubMed

    Shi, Song; Chen, Chen; Wang, Min; Ma, Jiping; Ma, Hong; Xu, Jie

    2014-08-21

    A new strategy was developed to introduce gold nanoparticles into the yolk-shell type porous organic networks under the assistance of a phenyl modified SiO2-based template. The obtained material showed good properties such as thermal-stability and anti-aggregation, and can be used as an efficient nanoreactor for the catalytic decomposition of cyclohexyl hydroperoxide. PMID:24983778

  1. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Carere, Claudio; Dijkstra, Cor; G. G. Groothuis, Ton

    2005-01-01

    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species, females increase yolk-testosterone levels and produce male-biased sex ratios when paired to more attractive males. We therefore predicted that especially sons benefit from elevated yolk androgens. Eggs were injected with testosterone or sesame oil (controls) after 2 days of incubation. Testosterone had no clear effect on sex-specific embryonic mortality and changed the pattern of early nestling mortality independent of offspring sex. Testosterone-treated eggs took longer to hatch than control eggs. Control males begged significantly longer than females during the first days after hatching and grew significantly faster. These sex differences were reduced in offspring from testosterone-treated eggs due to prolonged begging durations of daughters, enhanced growth of daughters and reduced growth of sons. The results show that variation in maternal testosterone can play an important role in avian sex allocation due to its sex-specific effects on offspring begging and growth. PMID:16519236

  2. Chicken egg yolk cytoplasmic proteome, mined via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessia Farinazzo; Umberto Restuccia; Angela Bachi; Luc Guerrier; Frederic Fortis; Egisto Boschetti; Elisa Fasoli; Attilio Citterio; Pier Giorgio Righetti

    2009-01-01

    The use of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), containing hexapeptides terminating with a primary amine, or modified with a terminal carboxyl group, or with a terminal tertiary amine, allowed discovering and identifying a large number of previously unreported egg yolk proteins. Whereas the most comprehensive list up to date [K. Mann, M. Mann, Proteomics, 8 (2008) 178–191] tabulated about 115

  3. Ruptured-yolk peritonitis and organochlorine residues in a royal tern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Stafford, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Ruptured-yolk peritonitis was responsible for the death of a royal tern. Lodgment of eggs in the oviduct was probably due to reverse peristalsis brought about by breakage of the thin-shelled eggs and secondary bacterial infection. The thin shells were apparently not related to the low levels of DDE and other organochlorine pollutants found in tissues and egg contents.

  4. The Major Yolk Protein in Sea Urchins Is a Transferrin-like, Iron Binding Protein

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    The Major Yolk Protein in Sea Urchins Is a Transferrin-like, Iron Binding Protein Jacqueline M the sequence shares identity to members of the transferrin superfamily of proteins. In vitro iron binding's transferrin-like properties is to shuttle iron to developing germ cells. © 2002 Elsevier Science (USA) Key

  5. Selective transport and packaging of the major yolk protein in the sea urchin

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    Abstract The major yolk protein of sea urchins is an iron-binding, transferrin-like molecule that is made is a transferrin-like * Corresponding author. Fax: 1-401-863-1182. E-mail address: rhet@brown.edu (G.M. Wessel). R

  6. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Yolk carotenoids and stable isotopes reveal links among

    E-print Network

    environment, foraging behavior and seabird breeding success J. Mark Hipfner · James Dale · Kevin J. Mc seabirds, Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), during birds deposit carotenoids into egg yolks to protect embryos against oxidative stress and boost

  7. Identification and analysis of the major yolk polypeptide from the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single major yolk polypeptide (YP) having a molecular mass of approximately 48,000 daltons (Da), was identified in the ovaries and oviposited eggs of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. The polypeptide was partially purified from oviposited eggs using gel permeation and ion-exchange chro...

  8. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  9. Sex-specific patterns of yolk androgen allocation depend on maternal diet in the zebra finch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison N. Rutstein; Lucy Gilbert; Peter J. B. Slater; Jeff A. Graves

    2005-01-01

    Females are predicted to adjust their reproductive investment in relation to resource quality. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), diet quality has been found to influence egg mass both between and within clutches. We tested the prediction that diet quality also affects the quantity of maternally allocated yolk testosterone and 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) between and within clutches. We also investigated whether this

  10. Sexually attractive phrases increase yolk androgens deposition in Canaries ( Serinus canaria)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurélie Tanvez; Nathalie Béguin; Olivier Chastel; André Lacroix; Gérard Lebouchera

    2004-01-01

    The androgen concentration in birds’ eggs varies with laying order, breeding conditions, and mate attractiveness. In passerine birds, mate attractiveness depends upon song quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of one criterion used by females to assess male song quality that is to say the presence of sexually attractive phrases on yolk androgen deposition. Twenty-five

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    PubMed Central

    Altunta?, A.; Aydin, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10?g?kg?1, or 20?g?kg?1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20?g?kg?1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20?g?kg?1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10?g?kg?1 or 20?g?kg?1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

  12. Manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod anodes for high capacity lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhengyang; Xu, Lin; Yan, Mengyu; Han, Chunhua; He, Liang; Hercule, Kalele Mulonda; Niu, Chaojiang; Yuan, Zefan; Xu, Wangwang; Qu, Longbing; Zhao, Kangning; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-01-14

    Transition metal oxides have attracted much interest for their high energy density in lithium batteries. However, the fast capacity fading and the low power density still limit their practical implementation. In order to overcome these challenges, one-dimensional yolk-shell nanorods have been successfully constructed using manganese oxide as an example through a facile two-step sol-gel coating method. Dopamine and tetraethoxysilane are used as precursors to obtain uniform polymer coating and silica layer followed by converting into carbon shell and hollow space, respectively. As anode material for lithium batteries, the manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod electrode has a reversible capacity of 660 mAh/g for initial cycle at 100 mA/g and exhibits excellent cyclability with a capacity of 634 mAh/g after 900 cycles at a current density of 500 mA/g. An enhanced capacity is observed during the long-term cycling process, which may be attributed to the structural integrity, the stability of solid electrolyte interphase layer, and the electrochemical actuation of the yolk-shell nanorod structure. The results demonstrate that the manganese oxide is well utilized with the one-dimensional yolk-shell structure, which represents an efficient way to realize excellent performance for practical applications. PMID:25490409

  13. Concentrations of Steroid Hormones in Layers and Biopsies of Chelonian Egg Yolks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel M. Bowden; Michael A. Ewert; Joseph L. Lipar; Craig E. Nelson

    2001-01-01

    The actions of circulating hormones, although relatively well understood for adults, are largely unknown for their developing embryos. Transfer of maternal hormones to the egg is known to occur in oviparous species, and recently the presence of hormonally heterogeneous yolk layers has been described in two avian species. To investigate the possibility of a similar phenomenon occurring in chelonian species,

  14. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) presenting as a groin mass mimicking and incarcerated hernia

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco-González, José

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The contents of a hernial sac can harbor preperitoneal fat, epiploon or some hollow viscera, with a malignant lesion in its interior being an unusual finding. Presentation of case We present the case of a 59 year-old male who arrived in the Emergency Department with an irreducible inguinal hernia, with no local signs of vascular compromise. The diagnosis was made after examining the hernia sac, using an inguinal approach, showing evidence of a largely necrosed gelatinous mass, which was resected by mid-line infraumbilical laparotomy. The mass was diagnosed as a high risk gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Discussion GIST are characterized by the absence of symptoms in most cases. The unusual presentation, as incarcerated hernia, allowed the diagnosis of this disease. The tumor measured 6 cm with a mitotic index greater than 5/50 CGA tumor is classified as high risk. The finding of a thickened peritoneum proceeded to opening. The exploration of the sac is critical. Conclusions Exploring the hernia sac in any complicated hernia, especially when the sac has macroscopic alterations and presence of areas of bleeding inside is essential. PMID:25544483

  15. Rhesus monkey sperm cryopreservation with TEST-yolk extender in the absence of permeable cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Correa, Liane M; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2009-02-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in ultra-rapid freezing with mammalian spermatozoa, especially for vitrification in the absence of cryoprotectants. Sperm cryopreservation in non-human primates has been successful, but the use of frozen-thawed sperm in standard artificial insemination (AI) remains difficult, and removal of permeable cryoprotectant may offer opportunities for increased AI success. The present study intended to explore the possibility of freezing rhesus monkey sperm in the absence of permeable cryoprotectants. Specifically, we evaluated various factors such as presence or absence of egg yolk, the percentage of egg yolk in the extenders, and the effect of cooling and thawing rate on the success of freezing without permeable cryoprotectants. Findings revealed that freezing with TEST in the absence of egg yolk offers little protection (<15% post-thaw motility). Egg yolk of 40% or more in TEST resulted in decreased motility, while egg yolk in the range of 20-30% yielded the most motile sperm. Cooling at a slow rate (29 degrees C/min) reduced post-thaw motility significantly for samples frozen with TEST-yolk alone, but had no effect for controls in the presence of glycerol. Similarly, slow thawing in room temperature air is detrimental for freezing without permeable cryoprotectant (<2% motility). In addition to motility, the ability of sperm to capacitate based on an increase in intracellular calcium levels upon activation with cAMP and caffeine suggested no difference between fresh and frozen-thawed motile sperm, regardless of treatment. In summary, the present study demonstrates that ejaculated and epididymal sperm from rhesus monkeys can be cryopreserved with TEST-yolk (20%) in the absence of permeable cryoprotectant when samples were loaded in a standard 0.25-mL straw, cooled rapidly in liquid nitrogen vapor at 220 degrees C/min, and thawed rapidly in a 37 degrees C water bath. This study also represents the first success of freezing without permeable cryoprotectant in non-human primates. PMID:18992734

  16. Endogenous yolk steroid hormones in turtles with different sex-determining mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Janzen, F J; Wilson, M E; Tucker, J K; Ford, S P

    1998-09-01

    Maternal transfer of nutrients, including steroid hormones, to embryos during gestation in viviparous amniotes is well known, but the concordant process in oviparous amniotes is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that steroid hormones are present in freshly laid eggs of archosaurs and that their concentrations may influence offspring phenotypes. This process might be especially important in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), because embryonic sex determination as well as other traits is thought to be influenced by temperature-dependent steroid metabolism. To evaluate the potential importance of endogenous steroid hormones to developing reptilian embryos, we (1) measured testosterone and estradiol-17beta levels in fresh eggs from natural populations of three species of turtles with TSD and two with genotypic sex determination (GSD), (2) evaluated testosterone concentrations within and among clutches of two turtle species with TSD, and (3) correlated clutch testosterone concentrations with incubation length, body mass, and sex ratio of offspring of two turtle species with TSD from eggs incubated at pivotal sex-determining temperatures. Turtles with TSD had higher levels of yolk testosterone (up to approximately 300 ng/g) than turtles with GSD (up to approximately 15 ng/g), suggesting a potential functional dichotomy between these two classes of sex-determining mechanisms; concentrations of yolk estradiol-17beta were low and fairly uniform among all five species (approximately 1 ng/g). Yolk testosterone varied substantially among, and relatively little within, clutches, indicating considerable potential as a mechanism behind clutch effects on offspring phenotypes. Steroid concentrations were unrelated to order of oviposition, unlike in birds, but yolk testosterone levels were correlated with incubation length and possibly with offspring sex ratio. Embryos of Chelydra serpentina serpentina from clutches with higher yolk testosterone hatched soonest at 21.8 degreesC; the opposite was true for Trachemys scripta elegans embryos incubated at 28.2 degreesC. At 27.6 degreesC, C. s. serpentina clutches with higher yolk testosterone produced more male-biased offspring sex ratios. Taken together, these results are strikingly consistent with published data on other oviparous amniotes and with the known physiology of follicular development and embryonic sexual differentiation in these disparate taxa. The findings of these experiments suggest that yolk testosterone in turtle eggs may be biologically significant. PMID:9707477

  17. Primary lymphoma of the lacrimal sac: an EORTC ophthalmic oncology task force study

    PubMed Central

    Sjö, L D; Ralfkiaer, E; Juhl, B R; Prause, J U; Kivelä, T; Auw?Haedrich, C; Bacin, F; Carrera, M; Coupland, S E; Delbosc, B; Ducrey, N; Kantelip, B; Kemeny, J L; Meyer, P; Sjö, N C; Heegaard, S

    2006-01-01

    Aim To define the clinical and histopathological characteristics of primary lacrimal sac lymphoma in a predominantly white population. Methods Specimens of lacrimal sac lymphoma and follow up data were solicited from members of the Ophthalmic Oncology Task Force of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the European Ophthalmic Pathology Society (EOPS). Specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and an immunohistochemical panel against leucocyte antigens was applied. Diagnosis was reached by consensus of five experienced pathologists according to the World Health Organization classification system. The histopathological findings were correlated with the clinical data. Results Of 15 primary lacrimal sac lymphomas, five (33%) were diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), five (33%) were extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), three were classified as “transitional MALT lymphoma,” being in transition from MALT lymphoma to DLBCL, and two were unclassified B cell lymphomas. Nine of the patients were female, and the median age at the time of diagnosis was 71?years (range 45–95?years). The most frequent presenting symptoms were epiphora (85%), swelling in the region of the lacrimal sac (79%), and dacryocystitis (21%). All but one patient presented in stage I. Systemic spread occurred in three of nine patients (33%). The 5?year overall survival was 65%. Conclusions DLBCL and MALT lymphoma are equally common in the lacrimal sac in contrast with the remaining periorbital and/or orbital region where MALT lymphoma predominates. PMID:16672329

  18. Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens: Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Rie

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn) were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo. PMID:21886826

  19. [Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Díaz, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibáñez Sandín, M D; Ureña Vilardell, V

    1986-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515886

  20. A complicated, metastatic, humeral air sac cystadenocarcinoma in a timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh).

    PubMed

    Azmanis, Panagiotis; Stenkat, Julia; Hübel, Jens; Böhme, Julia; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria Elisabeth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-03-01

    A 9-year-old male timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh) was presented because of inability to fly and suspected trauma. The owner also had observed dyspnea, with tail bobbing and open-beak breathing. On clinical examination, a hard, painful mass was palpable in the left proximal humerus and axillary area. Radiographs revealed a radiodense soft tissue mass of the left humerus with no bony involvement, multifocal opacities in lung and air sacs, and an enlarged spleen. An asymmetric, vascularized cyst was detected in the mass by ultrasound examination. Results of biopsy of the mass revealed multifocal cysts composed of unilayer isoprismatic cells laying in vascularized connective tissue. Because of the severity of clinical signs and the poor clinical condition, the bird was euthanatized. On postmortem examination, the findings were air sac cystadenocarcinoma involving the humeral air sac with metastases in the spleen and kidneys, atherosclerosis, pneumoconiosis, and mycotic granulomatous pneumonia and airsacculitis with isolation of Aspergillus niger. PMID:23772455

  1. Characterization and Comparison of Five SAC-based Solder Pastes for Pb-free Reflow Soldering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Chen; W. Wong; J. C. C. Lo; Fubin Song; S. W. R. Lee

    2007-01-01

    Based on literature review and industry survey, five types lead-free solder pastes, namely, SAC305 (96.5%Sn-3.0%Ag-0.5%Cu), SAC387 (95.5%Sn-3.8%Ag-0.7%Cu), SACS (96.2%Sn-2.5%Ag-0.8%Cu-0.5%Sb), SCN (99.3%Sn-0.7%Cu-0.05%Ni), and SACC (96.4%Sn-3.0%Ag-0.6%Cu-0.01%Ce) are studied in this paper. The basic properties of selected Pb-free solder pastes are tested based on IPC standards. These tests include solder paste particle size analysis, measurement of melting point, solder balling test, tack test

  2. Deafness due to bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours in a case of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kempermann, G; Neumann, H P; Scheremet, R; Volk, B; Mann, W; Gilsbach, J; Laszig, R

    1996-01-01

    A case of bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours is reported. In a patient with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, tumour growth in the right cerebellopontine angle caused deafness. The tumour was removed and classified as a metastasis from a thyroid carcinoma. However, on thyroidectomy no primary neoplasm could be found. Eight years later a similar tumour was operated on in the left petrosal bone. Histological appearance, immunocytochemical findings, and the clinical context gave evidence that the tumours had to be reclassified as endolymphatic sac tumours--extremely rare entities. The report supports the hypothesis, suggested by the few earlier case reports, that endolymphatic sac tumours could be one of the inherent tumour manifestations in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Images PMID:8795608

  3. User's guide to SAC, a computer program for computing discharge by slope-area method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    This user's guide contains information on using the slope-area program, SAC. SAC can be used to compute peak flood discharges from measurements of high-water marks along a stream reach. The Slope-area method used by the program is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) procedure presented in Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, beok 3, chapter A2, "Measurement of Peak Discharge by the Slope-Area Method." The program uses input files that have formats compatible with those used by the water-surface profile program (WSPRO) described in the Federal Highways Administration publication FHWA-IP-89-027. The guide briefly describes the slope-area method documents the input requirements and the output produced, and demonstrates use of SAC.

  4. Apomictic embryo sac development in a diploid sorghum line and its derived polyploids

    E-print Network

    Stover, Eddie Wayne

    1980-01-01

    APOMICTIC EMBRYO SAC DEVELOPMENT IN A DIPLOID SORGHUM LINE AND ITS DERIVED POLYPLOIDS A Thesis by EDDIE WAYNE STOVER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Plant Breeding APOMICTIC EMBRYO SAC DEVELOPMENT IN A DIPLOID SORGHUM LINE AND ITS DERIVED POLYPLOIDS A Thesis by EDDIE MAYNE STOVER Approved as to sty1e and content by: (Co-Chairman of Commit ee) P. c4...

  5. Experimental demonstration of variable weight SAC-OCDMA system for QoS differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the experimental and simulation results of variable-weight spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (VW-SAC-OCDMA) system is demonstrated. In the proposed system, three users with weights of 6, 4 and 2 each operating at data rate of 1.25 Gb/s represent video, data and voice services, respectively. Results show that for back-to-back system minimum average power of -20 dBm per chip is required to maintain the acceptable performance. Transmission up to 60 km of fiber is demonstrated. Using mathematical approximation the capacity of VW-SAC-OCDMA system is demonstrated.

  6. Beyond Yolk-Shell Nanoparticles: Fe3O4@Fe3C Core@Shell Nanoparticles as Yolks and Carbon Nanospindles as Shells for Efficient Lithium Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Kaixi; Xu, Qun; Zhou, Yunchun; Cheng, Fangyi; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-03-24

    To well address the problems of large volume change and dissolution of Fe3O4 nanomaterials during Li(+) intercalation/extraction, herein we demonstrate a one-step in situ nanospace-confined pyrolysis strategy for robust yolk-shell nanospindles with very sufficient internal void space (VSIVS) for high-rate and long-term lithium ion batteries (LIBs), in which an Fe3O4@Fe3C core@shell nanoparticle is well confined in the compartment of a hollow carbon nanospindle. This particular structure can not only introduce VSIVS to accommodate volume change of Fe3O4 but also afford a dual shell of Fe3C and carbon to restrict Fe3O4 dissolution, thus providing dual roles for greatly improving the capacity retention. As a consequence, Fe3O4@Fe3C-C yolk-shell nanospindles deliver a high reversible capacity of 1128.3 mAh g(-1) at even 500 mA g(-1), excellent high rate capacity (604.8 mAh g(-1) at 2000 mA g(-1)), and prolonged cycling life (maintaining 1120.2 mAh g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) for 100 cycles) for LIBs, which are much better than those of Fe3O4@C core@shell nanospindles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The present Fe3O4@Fe3C-C yolk-shell nanospindles are the most efficient Fe3O4-based anode materials ever reported for LIBs. PMID:25716070

  7. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A; Tax, David M J; Gillis, Ad J M; Dorssers, Lambert C J; Koestler, Devin C; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina's HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we identified specific and global methylation differences between GCT subtypes, providing insight into their developmental timing and underlying developmental biology. Data and extended annotation are deposited at GEO (GSE58538 and GPL18809). PMID:25859847

  8. Yolk hormone levels in the eggs of snapping turtles and painted turtles.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Although yolk steroids appear to play important roles in the development, growth, and behavior of some birds, their effects in oviparous reptiles are largely unknown. These investigations were initiated to determine initial levels of steroid hormones in the yolks of eggs from two turtle species. Clutches of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) eggs were collected and individual egg yolks were analyzed for estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and testosterone (T) using specific RIAs. E(2) and T levels differed significantly between species, the mean E(2) value in snapping turtles was 2.78+/-0.095 (ng/g) compared to 0.89+/-0.064 (ng/g) for painted turtles, and the mean value for T in snapping turtle yolks was 2.56+/-0.098 (ng/g) compared to 0.68+/-0.045 (ng/g) for painted turtles. In addition, E(2) levels were greater than T levels in both species. Within each species, there were significant differences among clutches from different females. E(2) levels in the snapping turtle yolks varied from a clutch mean of 1.38 to 4.55 ng/g and in painted turtles, the clutch means for E(2) varied from 0.34 to 1.34 ng/g. T levels demonstrated similar phenomena within species, with levels in snapping turtles varying from a clutch mean of 0.68 to 4.71 ng/g. Painted turtle levels of T varied from a clutch mean of 0.22 to 0.72 ng/g. There were also significant differences in the E(2)/T ratio, however, E(2)/T ratios did not differ between species. Painted turtle follicles of different sizes showed significant differences in levels of both E(2) and T, and these differences may reflect differing deposition patterns of these steroids in the egg yolk of this turtle during vitellogenesis. The differences in E(2) and T concentration reported here could have important implications for development, growth, and behavior in oviparous reptilian species. PMID:12161198

  9. Characterization of PHB1 and Its Role in Mitochondrial Maturation and Yolk Platelet Degradation during Development of Artemia Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiang; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Sun, Yu-Xia; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts) with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. Principal Finding Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. Conclusions/Significance PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development. PMID:25310573

  10. Large scale production of yolk-shell ?-tricalcium phosphate powders, and their bioactivities as novel bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-08-28

    This paper proposes the production of yolk-shell structured ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) powders using a spray-drying method, suitable for commercial scale production. Spray-dried precursor powders, consisting of calcium-phosphate salts and each of the various carbon source materials, are combusted in an oxygen atmosphere to obtain a yolk-shell structure. Only dextrin among the carbon source materials investigated shows promise in the production of ?-TCP yolk-shell powders. By evaluating their apatite-forming capacity in simulated body fluid, the outstanding bioactivity of ?-TCP yolk-shell powders is confirmed: numerous acicular and newly formed hydroxyl carbonate apatite crystals cover the entire ?-TCP surface after a single day of soaking. These crystals are observed on both the outer and inner surfaces of the shells, and on the outer surface of the core, which is encouraging for its potential use as a bone grafting material. PMID:25005151

  11. Automatic Segmentation of the Spinal Cord and the Dural Sac in Lumbar MR Images Using Gradient Vector Flow Field

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    Automatic Segmentation of the Spinal Cord and the Dural Sac in Lumbar MR Images Using Gradient that extracts the spinal cord and the dural sac from T2- weighted sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images Systems and be used daily for diagnostic examinations in many clinical settings [1]. The spinal cord

  12. Application of the COSMO-SAC-BP Solvation Model to Predictions of Normal Boiling Temperatures for Environmentally Significant Substances

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Application of the COSMO-SAC-BP Solvation Model to Predictions of Normal Boiling Temperatures perturbation theory. This COSMO-SAC-BP model was previously validated to successfully correlate normal boiling, herbicides, insecticides, and drugs,. The average absolute deviation in the predicted boiling points

  13. Purification of phospholipase A 2 homologue from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom using an affinity ligand from immunoglobulin yolk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-Yu Wang; Yong-Ming Bao; Li-Jia An

    2005-01-01

    A new efficient affinity ligand of immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) was made and used in the purification of phospholipase A2 (Gln49–PLA2) homologue from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom. Polyclonal antibodies specific against PLA2 homologue were prepared by immunize hens with PLA2 homologue as antigen and isolated from egg yolk by an immunoaffinity column coupled with PLA2 homologue immobilized on Sepharose 4

  14. Influence of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition of egg yolks and reproductive performance in the turkey

    E-print Network

    Cornett, Bonita Manis

    1966-01-01

    EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SUMMARY LITERATURE CITED Page iii 12 31 46 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 - Composition of Synthetic Diets Table 2 - Composition of Practical Breeder Diet 34 35 Table 3 - Patty Acid Composition... of Soybean Oil and Neatsfoot Oil 36 Table 4 - Patty Acid Composition of Diets 37 Table 5 - Yolk Fatty Acids at One and Three Months of Dietary Treatment (Polar Praction) 38 Table 6 - Yolk Fatty Acids at One and Three Months of Dietary Treatment (Neutral...

  15. Effect of high-pressure treatment on rheology of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with hen egg yolk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Anton; N Chapleau; V Beaumal; S Delépine; M de Lamballerie-Anton

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the potentiality of high-pressure treatment to stabilise microbiologically emulsions made with yolk without causing destabilisation and gelation. The effects of two levels of treatment (200 or 500 MPa) on the properties (oil droplet size, interfacial protein concentration and composition), the rheology, and the microbiology of yolk emulsions prepared at two pH values (3.0 and 7.0) were determined.

  16. Yolk testosterone and estradiol variation relative to clutch size, laying order and hatching asynchrony in Common Grackles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dylan Maddox; Rachel M. Bowden; Patrick J. Weatherhead

    2008-01-01

    Maternal effects are typically thought to enhance rather than reduce offspring performance, but asynchronous hatching (ASH)\\u000a in birds typically produces a size hierarchy within a clutch that frequently reduces the growth and survival of nestlings\\u000a from eggs that hatch later. Given that yolk steroids can significantly affect offspring phenotype and that in many species\\u000a the levels of yolk steroids have

  17. Use of Egg Yolk-Derived Immunoglobulin as an Alternative to Antibiotic Treatment for Control of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Hyun Shin; Mierha Yang; Seung Woo Nam; Jung Taik Kim; Na Hye Myung; Won-Gi Bang; Im Hwan Roe

    2002-01-01

    The present study evaluated the potential use of immunoglobulin prepared from the egg yolk of hens immunized with Helicobacter pylori (immunoglobulin Y (IgY)-Hp) in the treatment of H. pylori infections. The purity of our purified IgY-Hp was 91.3%, with a yield of 9.4 mg of IgY per ml of egg yolk. The titer for IgY-Hp was 16 times higher than

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of a sialyl Lewis X dimer from egg yolk as an inhibitor of E-selectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hung Lin; Makoto Shimazaki; Chi-Huey Wong; Mamoru Koketsu; Lekh Raj Juneja; Mujo Kim

    1995-01-01

    A dimeric sialyl Lewis X (SLex) glycopeptide was synthesized enzymatically in three steps from an N-linked oligosaccharide prepared from egg yolk. Treatment of delipidated hen egg yolk with the protease Orientase and neuraminidase gave a dimeric N-acetyllactosamine-containing oligosaccharide linked to asparagine. Addition of sialic acid and fucose catalyzed by ?-2,3-sialyltransferase and ?-1,3-fucosyltransferase provided the dimeric SLex, which was shown to

  19. Oxaliplatin encapsulated in PEG-coated cationic liposomes induces significant tumor growth suppression via a dual-targeting approach in a murine solid tumor model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amr S. Abu Lila; Shinji Kizuki; Yusuke Doi; Takuya Suzuki; Tatsuhiro Ishida; Hiroshi Kiwada

    2009-01-01

    We recently designed a PEG-coated cationic liposome targeted to angiogenic vessels and showed, in a murine dorsal air sac model, potent anti-angiogenic activity of an oxaliplatin (l-OHP) formulation of this liposome. In the present study, we extended the l-OHP formulation to a murine tumor-xenograft model. Following three injections, l-OHP containing PEG-coated cationic liposomes showed substantial tumor growth suppression and increased

  20. Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits. PMID:24128573

  1. Localization of yolk proteins and their possible precursors using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, in Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Barre, P; Bride, M; Beliard, R; Petracca, B

    1991-01-01

    Three major yolk proteins of 140, 100, 80 KD and a faint band of 440 KD were determined by gradient gel electrophoresis in the mature eggs of Helix aspersa. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised against mature oocyte extracts. The binding sites of these rabbit and hybridoma antibodies with the different yolk protein components were identified with a combination of WESTERN blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence and immunogold staining. All these techniques demonstrated materials immunologically similar to vitellins in the hemolymph and in the glandular cells of the digestive gland. The data suggest that, for its vitellogenesis, the garden-snail utilizes a heterosynthetic mechanism similar to that known in oviparous animals. The vitellogenins would be produced by the digestive gland. PMID:1747899

  2. Exploring cytoplasmic dynamics in zebrafish yolk cells by single particle tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cheng-Chun; Zhang, Bailin; Li, Che-Yu; Hsieh, Chih-Chien; Duclos, Guillaume; Treussart, François; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) have recently developed into an exciting new tool for bioimaging applications. The material possesses several unique features including high biocompatibility, easy bioconjugation, and perfect photostability, making it a promising optical nanoprobe in vitro as well as in vivo. This work explores the potential application of this novel nanomaterial as a photostable, nontoxic tracer in vivo using zebrafish as a model organism. We introduced FNDs into the yolk of a zebrafish embryo by microinjection at the 1-cell stage. Movements of the injected particles were investigated by using single particle tracking techniques. We observed unidirectional and stop-and-go traffic as part of the intricate cytoplasmic movements in the yolk cell. We determined a velocity in the range of 0.19 - 0.40 ?m/s for 40 particles moving along with the axial streaming in the early developmental stage (1 to 2 hours post fertilization) of the zebrafish embryos.

  3. Stable isotopes link diet to avian yolk carotenoid allocation: a comparative study of five auk species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    PubMed

    Hipfner, J Mark; Hobson, Keith A; Dale, James; McGraw, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of important but environmentally limited nutrients, such as carotenoids, often represents a trade-off between homeostasis and reproduction. However, key questions remain about how diet and species traits influence carotenoid allocation. We studied yolk carotenoid profiles and yolk color in relation to trophic level (based on delta(15)N values) in five species of seabirds belonging to the family Alcidae: common murre (Uria aalge), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata). In three species, which ranged from low (tufted puffin) to high (pigeon guillemot) trophic level, yolks had pink to red hues and contained exclusively astaxanthin, while yolks of species from a high trophic level (common murre) and from a generalist forager (rhinoceros auklet) had yellow to orange hues and contained astaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The absence of a systematic relationship between trophic level and carotenoid types suggests that these species possess adaptations for the uptake and use of specific carotenoids. In contrast, total yolk carotenoid concentrations were best explained by the combination of species and trophic level: lower-trophic-level feeding was linked to production of carotenoid-rich yolks, both across species and within the one generalist species. We conclude that both behavioral and physiological traits can play strong roles in the acquisition and allocation of critical nutrients from mothers to their offspring. PMID:20210648

  4. Unique cell wall abnormalities in the putative phosphoinositide phosphatase mutant AtSAC9.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Almut H; Youssef, Nabil N; DeWald, Daryll B

    2011-11-01

    SAC9 is a putative phosphoinositide phosphatase in Arabidopsis thaliana involved in phosphoinositide signaling. sac9-1 plants have a constitutively stressed phenotype with shorter roots which notably accumulate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and its hydrolysis product inositol trisphosphate. We investigated the primary roots of sac9-1 seedlings at the cytological and ultrastructural level to determine the structural basis for this altered growth. Despite the normal appearance of organelles and cytoplasmic elements, our studies reveal extreme abnormalities of cell wall and membrane structures in sac9-1 primary root cells, regardless of cell type, position within the meristematic area, and plane of section. Cell wall material was deposited locally and in a range of abnormal shapes, sometimes completely fragmenting the cell. Simple protuberances, broad flanges, diffuse patches, elaborate folds, irregular loops and other complex three-dimensional structures were found to extend randomly from the pre-existing cell wall. Abundant vesicles and excessive membrane material were associated with these irregular wall structures. We argue that a perturbed phosphoinositide metabolism most likely induces these observed abnormalities and hypothesize that a disorganized cytoskeleton and excessive membrane trafficking mediate the cell wall defects. PMID:21698459

  5. Defective histone supply causes condensin-dependent chromatin alterations, SAC activation and chromosome decatenation impairment

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Pineda, Marina; Cabello-Lobato, María J.; Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando; Prado, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The structural organization of chromosomes is essential for their correct function and dynamics during the cell cycle. The assembly of DNA into chromatin provides the substrate for topoisomerases and condensins, which introduce the different levels of superhelical torsion required for DNA metabolism. In particular, Top2 and condensin are directly involved in both the resolution of precatenanes that form during replication and the formation of the intramolecular loop that detects tension at the centromeric chromatin during chromosome biorientation. Here we show that histone depletion activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and impairs sister chromatid decatenation, leading to chromosome mis-segregation and lethality in the absence of the SAC. We demonstrate that histone depletion impairs chromosome biorientation and activates the Aurora-dependent pathway, which detects tension problems at the kinetochore. Interestingly, SAC activation is suppressed by the absence of Top2 and Smc2, an essential component of condensin. Indeed, smc2-8 suppresses catenanes accumulation, mitotic arrest and growth defects induced by histone depletion at semi-permissive temperature. Remarkably, SAC activation by histone depletion is associated with condensin-mediated alterations of the centromeric chromatin. Therefore, our results reveal the importance of a precise interplay between histone supply and condensin/Top2 for pericentric chromatin structure, precatenanes resolution and centromere biorientation. PMID:25300489

  6. Probabilistic Basis for 2000 SAC Federal Emergency Management Agency Steel Moment Frame Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Allin Cornell; Fatemeh Jalayer; Ronald O. Hamburger; Douglas A. Foutch

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a formal probabilistic framework for seismic design and assessment of structures and its application to steel moment-resisting frame buildings. This is the probabilistic basis for the 2000 SAC Federal Emergency Management Agency ~FEMA! steel moment frame guidelines. The framework is based on realizing a performance objective expressed as the probability of exceeding a specified performance level. Performance

  7. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system. PMID:23788706

  8. SAC 2005 -Santa Fe Sanitizing using Metadata in MetaXQuery

    E-print Network

    Dyreson, Curtis

    SAC 2005 - Santa Fe Sanitizing using Metadata in MetaXQuery Hao Jin and Curtis Dyreson School of E Marigold Data scope metadata security user Joe time timestamp begin end 2 5 Metadata scope metadata time as of Time 3 x Security of Joe x Language is English List book authors in MetaXQuery · Metadata

  9. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system. PMID:23788706

  10. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  11. Appendiceal pus in a hernia sac simulating strangulated femoral hernia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Tien-Fa; Chou, Yenn-Hwei

    2011-01-01

    Acute appendicitis involving the hernia sac is infrequent but well-documented in medical literature. In most instances, it occurs within the right inguinal (Amyand's hernia) or right femoral hernia (de Garengeot hernia). The diagnosis is always mistaken for incarcerated groin hernia. During surgery, the appendix itself, either perforated or strangulated, is most commonly encountered within the hernia sac. In very rare occasions, only appendiceal pus is found in the hernia sac. In this paper, we report the case of a 90-year-old woman with acute appendicitis and a tender mass in the right groin. Typical findings of acute appendicitis by computed tomography (CT) and incarcerated femoral hernia with groin cellulitis misled us into preoperative diagnosis of strangulated femoral hernia. Acute phlegmonous inflammation of the incarcerated femoral hernia sac containing pus only and acute suppurative appendicitis were found intraoperatively. This case presents a rare complication of acute appendicitis and the first report of CT-documented appendiceal pus-contained femoral hernia. Knowledge of this rare condition is helpful in establishing preoperative diagnosis and patient management decisions. PMID:21556351

  12. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties. PMID:25711821

  13. Long-term fate of the aneurysmal sac after endoluminal exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Y. Rhee; Mark K. Eskandari; Albert B. Zajko; Michel S. Makaroun

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Shrinkage of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the hallmark of successful endoluminal treatment. Our goal was to prospectively assess the midterm to long-term shrinkage of the AAA sac after endovascular repair. Methods: A total of 123 patients with AAA underwent endoluminal treatment with the Ancure device at our institution between February 1996 and February 2000. At least a

  14. A revision of the endemic South African sac spider genus Lessertina Lawrence, 1942 (Araneae: Eutichuridae).

    PubMed

    Haddad, Charles R

    2014-01-01

    The endemic South African sac spider genus Lessertina Lawrence, 1942, previously known only from the type species (L. mutica Lawrence, 1942), is revised. Both sexes of L. mutica are redescribed and the species is recorded from the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo Provinces. A new species, L. capensis sp. nov., is described from the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces. PMID:25544208

  15. In Vitro Inhibition of Oral Candida albicans by Chicken Egg Yolk Antibody (IgY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Z. Wang; B. Fan; L. G. Liu; X. Y. Hu; R. Y. Li; Y. Wei; Z. Wan; X. L. Deng

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure Candida albicans-specific chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) inhibition of fluconazole-sensitive and resistant strains of C. albicans in order to assess potential use in the prevention and treatment of oral candidiasis. In this study, laying hens were immunized,\\u000a and IgY was extracted by water dilution. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of IgY for inhibiting C.

  16. Passive immunization of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikoo Arasteh; A.-H. Aminirissehei; A. N. Yousif; L. J. Albright; T. D. Durance

    2004-01-01

    Passive immunization using pathogen-specific antibodies raised in chickens is a potential method for the protection of teleosts against diseases. The oral delivery route offers technical and economic advantages. In this study, the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of the egg yolks of vaccinated hens was used as a source of anti-Vibrio anguillarum IgY in intraperitoneal (IP) injection, oral intubation, or feeding of

  17. Effect of low and high egg yolk concentrations in the semen extender for goat semen cryopreservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. S. Bispo; G. Pugliesi; P. Galvão; M. T. Rodrigues; P. G. Ker; B. Filgueiras; G. R. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate two concentrations of egg yolk inclusion rates (20 and 2.5%) in the semen extender of goat semen cryopreserved during two seasons of the year. The study was conducted during a light-induced breeding season (Experiment 1), and during the natural breeding season (Experiment 2), in the southern hemisphere. Four ejaculates from each buck (n=2) were collected

  18. Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for analysis of egg yolk carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M S; Schweigert, F J

    2015-04-01

    Carotenoids accumulated in the egg yolk are of importance for two reasons. Firstly they are important pigments influencing customer acceptance and secondly they are essential components with positive health effects either as antioxidants or as precursor of vitamin A. Different analytical methods are available to quantitatively identify carotenoids from egg yolk such as spectrophotometric methods described by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Both methods have in common that they are time consuming, need a laboratory environment and well trained technical operators. Recently, a rapid lab-independent spectrophotometric method (iCheck, BioAnalyt GmbH, Germany) has been introduced that claims to be less time consuming and easy to operate. The aim of the current study was therefore to compare the novel method with the two standard methods. Yolks of 80 eggs were analysed as aliquots by the three methods in parallel. While both spectrometric methods are only able measure total carotenoids as total ß-carotene, HPLC enables the determination of individual carotenoids such lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, ß-carotene and ?-apocarotenoic ester. In general, total carotenoids levels as obtained by AOAC were in average 27% higher than those obtained by HPLC. Carotenoid values obtained by the reference methods AOAC and HPLC are highly correlated with the iCheck method with r(2) of 0.99 and 0.94 for iCheck vs. AOAC and iCheck vs. HPLC, respectively (both p<0.001). Bland Altman analysis showed that the novel iCheck method is comparable to the reference methods. In conclusion, the novel rapid and portable iCheck method is a valid and effective tool to determine total carotenoid of egg yolk under laboratory-independent conditions with little trained personal. PMID:25442548

  19. Development of enzyme-immunoassays based on egg yolk antibodies for the detection of mycotoxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Pichler; S Baumgartner; M Freudenschuss; S Palme; EM Binder; R Krska

    2001-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) proved to be a fast and simple method for the detection of mycotoxins and other\\u000a undesired contaminants in food and feed. The present study is focused on the optimisation and exploitation of the egg yolk\\u000a antibody technology in order to develop competitive ELISAs for the detection of mycotoxins in cereals. Due to its importance\\u000a as one

  20. Relationship between vitellogenin and its related egg yolk proteins in Sakhalin taimen ( Hucho perryi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoshi Hiramatsu; Akihiko Hara

    1996-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and its three egg yolk protein products, lipovitellin (Lv), phosvitin (Pv) and ??-component, were isolated from mature female Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi). Vg had an apparent molecular weight of 540 kDa and appeared as a major 240 kDa band in SDS-PAGE, which resolved into two major bands (165 and 125 kDa) after reduction. The estimated molecular weights of

  1. Effect of diet on triglyceride structure and composition of egg yolk lipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Couch; A. E. Saloma

    1973-01-01

    Hens were fed a practical diet supplemented and unsupplemented with 5% menhaden oil and a synthetic fat-free diet for a period\\u000a of 90 days. Egg yolks from hens fed each of the three diets were analyzed for fatty acid composition and positional distribution\\u000a of the fatty acids by successive chromatographic techniques. The triglycerides were resolved into fractions containing, 0,\\u000a 1,

  2. The heritability of egg yolk cholesterol level and its relationship to reproductive performance

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, Danis Lane

    1973-01-01

    , that an increase in serum cholesterol level in humans is closely associated with an increase in coronary disease. Although the method by which diet affects the cholesterol level of the blood is not clear at this time, the American Heart Association (1968... to determine how these important traits might be related to yolk cholesterol. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Diet and Cholesterol Metabolism. Much attention has been given to dietary cholesterol and fats in relation to blood serum choles- terol level and has been...

  3. Dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during development in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K Elf; J. W Lang; A. J Fivizzani

    2002-01-01

    Many oviparous reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); i.e., the temperature at which the egg is incubated determines the sex of the offspring. In TSD reptiles, yolk steroids not only may influence sex determination, but also may mediate hormonal effects on subsequent growth and behavior, as in some avian species. We investigated changes in the levels of estradiol (E2) and

  4. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30?cm H2O (2.94?kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are smaller in these deeper-diving species than in the spheniscid penguin of the morphometry study. If penguins do inhale to this maximum air sac volume prior to their deepest dives, the magnitude and distribution of the body O2 store would change considerably. In emperor penguins, total body O2 would increase by 75%, and the respiratory fraction would increase from 33% to 61%. We emphasize that the maximum pre-dive respiratory air volume is still unknown in penguins. However, even lesser increases in air sac volume prior to a dive would still significantly increase the O2 store. More refined evaluations of the respiratory O2 store and baroprotective mechanisms in penguins await further investigation of species-specific lung morphometry, start-of-dive air volumes and body buoyancy, and the possibility of air exhalation during dives. PMID:25740902

  5. Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Miyares, Rosa L.; de Rezende, Vitor B.; Farber, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies. PMID:24812437

  6. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on bull spermatozoa frozen in egg yolk-citrate extender.

    PubMed

    Shoae, A; Zamiri, M J

    2008-03-01

    Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the quality of frozen-thawed Holstein bull sperm in egg yolk-citrate extender was evaluated. High quality semen samples were diluted in egg yolk-citrate extenders containing 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mM BHT and subsequently frozen in liquid nitrogen. Pre-freeze and post-thaw progressive motility, and live/dead ratio and acrosomal integrity of 200 sperm per slide, stained with Eosin-Nigrosin and Giemsa, were evaluated at 0, 2 and 4 h after thawing. There was a significant decrease in forward motility, livability and acrosomal integrity up to 4 h after thawing the frozen sperm. Upon thawing, sperm progressive motility at 1 mM BHT was significantly (P<0.001) higher (11%) than other groups, but percentages of live sperm and live sperm with intact acrosomes were higher at 0.5 mM BHT. BHT at 4 mM BHT caused a significant decrease in motility, livability and acrosomal integrity during preparatory stages of freezing sperm. It is concluded that 0.5-1.0 mM BHT can be beneficial for freezing Holstein bull spermatozoa in egg yolk-citrate diluent, when inseminated immediately after thawing. PMID:17826014

  7. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-01-01

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17?-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds. PMID:17148167

  8. Successful image-guided percutaneous embolization of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm sac due to type II endoleak after endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    Wolosker, Nelson; Varella, Andrea Yasbek Monteiro; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Mendes, Cynthia de Almeida; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Pfeferman, Elcio

    2015-02-01

    The rupture of an aneurysm sac secondary to endoleak type II after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is a rare occurrence, routinely corrected by open surgery. Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous embolization of the aneurysm sac is a safe, efficient, and minimally invasive treatment option. We present a case of an endoleak type II associated to aneurysm sac rupture successfully treated by CT-guided percutaneous embolization of the aneurysm sac. PMID:25463347

  9. Primitive Fitting Based on the Efficient multiBaySAC Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus), that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes’ Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method) and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives), whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will aim at further optimizing this strategy through its application to other problems such as multiple point cloud co-registration and multiple image matching. PMID:25781620

  10. Mediastinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is divided into three sections: Anterior (front) Middle Posterior (back) Mediastinal tumors are rare. The most common ... In children, tumors are more common in the posterior mediastinum. These tumors often begin in the nerves ...

  11. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... genetic defects. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  12. Wilms' Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilms' tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms' tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  13. A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chenyao; Geng, Fang; He, Zhenjiao; Cai, Zhaoxia; Ma, Meihu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin. However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk was diluted with 6-fold delipidation solutions made of different types (pectin, ?-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and dextran sulfate) and concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) of polysaccharides, respectively. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5.0, and then kept overnight at 4°C before being centrifuged at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was added to 35% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and then centrifuged. The precipitant, which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were utilized to conduct qualitative analysis of IgY; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative analysis. The immunoreactivity of IgY was measured by ELISA. The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The optimal isolation of IgY for pectin, ?-carrageenan, dextran sulfate, and carboxymethylcellulose was at the concentration of 0.1%; for methylcellulose, optimal isolation was at 0.15%. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0.1% pectin. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8.36 mg/mL egg yolk and 83.3%, respectively, and the negative effect of IgY on immunoreactivity can be minimized. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods. Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale. PMID:25542196

  14. The role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with whole egg yolk for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiao-Xiang Dong; Sarah E Rodenburg; Dana Hill; Catherine A VandeVoort

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) extracted from hen egg yolk has recently been considered to be superior to whole egg yolk in sperm cryopreservation of various animal species. Meanwhile, there was a notion that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in egg yolk may have a negative effect on post-thaw survival. The role of LDL and HDL in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys has not

  15. Effect of trans, trans CLA Egg Enrichment from CLA-Rich Soy Oil on Yolk Fatty Acid Composition, Viscosity and Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicolas B

    2015-03-11

    CLA egg accumulation studies using cis, trans (c,t) isomers have been effective, but they reported adverse egg quality. trans, trans (t,t) CLA isomers have shown superior nutritional effects in rodent studies, but reports of t,t CLA-rich yolks are limited. The objectives were to determine the effect of t,t CLA-rich soy oil in feed on egg yolk viscosity, and yolk quality during refrigerated storage. Yolk fatty acids, viscosity, weight, index, moisture, pH, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS) were determined at 0, 20, and 30 storage days. CLA had minimal effect on fatty acid profiles, relative to c,t reports. CLA-rich yolk viscosity was greater than controls, and CLA yolks maintained higher viscosities during storage. Yolk weight and index were not affected by t,t CLA-rich soy oil. Yolks with the greatest CLA concentrations had the greatest VMS after 20 days of storage, and yolks containing lower CLA levels maintained greater VMS throughout 30 days of storage, relative to controls. PMID:25668072

  16. Effects of feeding flax and two types of sunflower seeds on fatty acid compositions of yolk lipid classes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z R; Ahn, D U; Sim, J S

    1991-12-01

    Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets high in oleic, linolenic, or linoleic acid prepared by incorporation of high oleic acid sunflower seed (HOAS), full-fat flax seed (FLAX), or regular high linoleic acid sunflower seed (HLAS), respectively, to investigate the effects of dietary fats on the fatty acid compositions of major lipid classes of chicken eggs. Egg production, Haugh units, specific gravity, and yolk total lipid content were measured. After 3 wk of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of yolk total lipids, triglycerides, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were measured by gas chromatography. Dietary treatments had no effect on egg production, Haugh units, specific gravity, or yolk total lipid content. Feeding HOAS increased yolk oleic acid by 17%, and the change was only in triglycerides. The increases of yolk linoleic and arachidonic acids upon HLAS feeding were distributed evenly among triglycerides and PC, with moderate effect in the PE fraction. The enrichment of linolenic acid in eggs from the FLAX regime was mainly in triglycerides. The longer chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic, dososapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids, were deposited exclusively in phospholipids, particularly in PE. The contents of the longer chain n-3 fatty acids in PE were three to seven times those in PC, indicating a preferential incorporation of these fatty acids into PE. PMID:1784568

  17. Sex-biased investment in yolk androgens depends on female quality and laying order in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lucy; Rutstein, Alison N.; Hazon, Neil; Graves, Jefferson A.

    2005-04-01

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts sex biases in parental investment according to parental condition. In addition, parents may need to sex bias their investment if there is an asymmetry between the sexes in offspring fitness under different conditions. For studying maternal differential investment, egg resources are ideal subjects because they are self contained and allocated unequivocally by the female. Recent studies show that yolk androgens can be beneficial to offspring, so here we test for sex-biased investment with maternal investment of yolk testosterone (T) in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) eggs. From the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, we predicted females to invest more in male eggs in optimum circumstances (e.g. good-condition mother, early-laid egg), and more in female eggs under suboptimal conditions (e.g. poor-condition mother, late-laid egg). This latter prediction is also because in this species there is a female nestling disadvantage in poor conditions and we expected mothers to help compensate for this in female eggs. Indeed, we found more yolk T in female than male eggs. Moreover, in accordance with our predictions, yolk T in male eggs increased with maternal quality relative to female eggs, and decreased with laying order relative to female eggs. This supports our predictions for the different needs and value of male and female offspring in zebra finches. Our results support the idea that females may use yolk androgens as a tool to adaptively manipulate the inequalities between different nestlings.

  18. Maternally derived yolk testosterone enhances the development of the hatching muscle in the red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus.

    PubMed

    Lipar, J L; Ketterson, E D

    2000-10-01

    Hatching asynchrony in avian species often leads to the formation of a size hierarchy that places last-hatched nestlings at a significant disadvantage. The hatching muscle (musculus complexus) is responsible for breaking the shell during hatching and for dorsal flexion of the neck during begging. An increase in its strength in last-hatched nestlings could mitigate the effects of hatching asynchrony by reducing the time required for hatching or enhancing the effectiveness of begging for parentally delivered food or both. We have previously found that yolk testosterone concentration increases with laying order in the red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that yolk testosterone has anabolic effects on the development of the complexus, thereby influencing competition among asynchronously hatched nestlings. We found that both yolk testosterone concentration and relative complexus mass (complexus mass/nestling body mass) increased with laying order and that these two variables were positively correlated in both newly hatched nestlings and in two-day-old broods. Moreover, direct injections of testosterone into egg yolks resulted in an increase in relative complexus mass, while injections of flutamide, a testosterone antagonist, resulted in a decrease in relative complexus mass. Neither yolk testosterone concentration nor relative complexus mass differed between male and female nestlings. PMID:11075714

  19. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  20. Egg size and yolk steroids vary across the laying order in cockatiel clutches: a strategy for reinforcing brood hierarchies?

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Corinne P; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2010-09-15

    When a female bird begins incubation before clutch completion, the nestlings hatch sequentially, and a size hierarchy forms within the brood. This size hierarchy may be minimized or exacerbated through differential allocation of resources to eggs across the laying order. In this study, we characterize intra-clutch variation in cockatiel clutches by measuring egg mass, yolk mass, and concentrations of yolk testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone. Cockatiels are a long-lived member of the Psittaciformes. Because asynchronous hatching may reduce sibling competition and allow for extended development periods in long-lived birds, we predicted that female cockatiels would allocate maternal resources in a way that would reinforce the brood size hierarchy. Significant within-clutch differences in egg size and steroid concentrations were observed. Eggs at the end of the laying sequence were smaller and had significantly smaller yolks than eggs early in the laying order. Fifth-laid eggs, as well as first-laid eggs, contained significantly lower concentrations of testosterone than eggs in other positions of the laying sequence. No differences in yolk androstenedione concentration were observed. Yolk corticosterone concentrations increased linearly with laying order. Together, these patterns might reinforce the brood size hierarchy created by asynchronous hatching. PMID:20600043

  1. Yolk platelets in Xenopus oocytes maintain an acidic internal pH which may be essential for sodium accumulation

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Yolk platelets constitute an embryonic endocytic compartment that stores maternally synthesized nutrients. The pH of Xenopus yolk platelets, measured by photometry on whole oocytes which had endocytosed FITC-vitellogenin, was found to be acidic (around pH 5.6). Experiments on digitonin-permeabilized oocytes showed that acidification was due to the activity of an NEM- and bafilomycin A1- sensitive vacuolar proton-ATPase. Proton pumping required chloride, but was not influenced by potassium or sodium. Passive proton leakage was slow, probably due to the buffer capacity of the yolk, and was dependent on the presence of cytoplasmic monovalent cations. In particular, sodium could drive proton efflux through an amiloride- sensitive Na+/H+ exchanger. 8-Bromo-cyclic-AMP was found to increase acidification, suggesting that pH can be regulated by intracellular second messengers. The moderately acidic pH does not promote degradation of the yolk platelets, which in oocytes are stable for weeks, but it is likely to be required to maintain the integrity of these organelles. Furthermore, the pH gradient created by the proton pump, when coupled with the Na+/H+ exchanger, is probably responsible for the accumulation and storage of sodium into the yolk platelets during oogenesis. PMID:8195288

  2. Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions.

    PubMed

    Bunger, Meike; Quataert, Miriam; Kamps, Lisette; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M; Togtema, Arnoud; van Amerongen, Aart; Mensink, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young subjects participated in this 6-weeks randomized controlled study. Subjects consumed either a "plain" control beverage (n?=?26), a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage (n?=?25), a dried version of this beverage (n?=?25), or a beverage composed of the dried individual components of the drink (n?=?24). The fresh and both dried versions of the lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage were able to increase serum lutein levels after 6 weeks of consumption (lutein change: -38?±?47?nmol/L, +304?±?113?nmol/L, +148?±?79?nmol/L and +178?±?83?nmol/L for control, fresh, dried and combined dried group respectively; p?yolk compared to the control drink. PMID:25017577

  3. Maternally derived yolk testosterone enhances the development of the hatching muscle in the red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus.

    PubMed Central

    Lipar, J L; Ketterson, E D

    2000-01-01

    Hatching asynchrony in avian species often leads to the formation of a size hierarchy that places last-hatched nestlings at a significant disadvantage. The hatching muscle (musculus complexus) is responsible for breaking the shell during hatching and for dorsal flexion of the neck during begging. An increase in its strength in last-hatched nestlings could mitigate the effects of hatching asynchrony by reducing the time required for hatching or enhancing the effectiveness of begging for parentally delivered food or both. We have previously found that yolk testosterone concentration increases with laying order in the red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that yolk testosterone has anabolic effects on the development of the complexus, thereby influencing competition among asynchronously hatched nestlings. We found that both yolk testosterone concentration and relative complexus mass (complexus mass/nestling body mass) increased with laying order and that these two variables were positively correlated in both newly hatched nestlings and in two-day-old broods. Moreover, direct injections of testosterone into egg yolks resulted in an increase in relative complexus mass, while injections of flutamide, a testosterone antagonist, resulted in a decrease in relative complexus mass. Neither yolk testosterone concentration nor relative complexus mass differed between male and female nestlings. PMID:11075714

  4. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  5. Transvaginal ultrasonographic quantitative assessment of accumulated cul-de-sac fluid.

    PubMed

    Rosen, D J; Ben-Nun, I; Arbel, Y; Altaras, M M; Goldberger, S B; Beyth, Y

    1992-02-01

    Preoperative quantitative assessment of pelvic fluid is an important diagnostic tool in clinical decision making. In this study, we used high-frequency transvaginal ultrasonography in 10 healthy women to assess both the correlation between various amounts of fluid installed in the cul-de-sac and ultrasonic imaging and to determine whether correct estimation of fluid volume can be reached. No fluid could be ultrasonically detected when the volume was less than 35 to 40 ml. Between 35 and 100 ml there was a clear image of accumulated fluid in the cul-de-sac with good correlation between volume and image, whereas with larger amounts no clear correlation between the amount of fluid introduced and size of fluid area visualized by ultrasonography was possible. Transvaginal ultrasonography may enable quantitative evaluation of certain volumes of pelvic fluid, although amounts less than 35 ml cannot be visualized. PMID:1536225

  6. Surgical experience of persistent type 2 endoleaks with aneurysmal sac enlargement after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Bang, Seung Ho; Park, Jae Bum; Chee, Hyun Keun; Kim, Jun Seok; Jang, Il Soo

    2014-04-01

    Herein, we present a case of a successful treatment of persistent type 2 endoleaks associated with aneurysmal sac enlargement after endovascular aneurysm repair in an elderly patient. We confirmed the diagnosis by abdominal computed tomography and selective angiography revealing an 11.0-cm aneurysm sac with type 2 endoleaks. An attempt for the endovascular embolization of collateral arteries was unsuccessful due to anatomic variations and their multiple complex communications. Instead, transperitoneal sacotomy and direct suturing on the feeding target vessels was successfully performed without any endograft damage. In conclusion, sacotomy appears to be a feasible therapeutic substitute where endovascular or other techniques have a high risk of failure and lead to unsuccessful results. PMID:24782972

  7. Lacrimal sac compression by an anterior ethmoidal mucocele presenting as a late complication of dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Olaleye, Oladejo; Salleh, Shizalia; David, Don; Bickerton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This was an unusual case of lacrimal sac compression by an anterior ethmoidal mucocele presenting as a late complication of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) that was jointly managed by ophthalmic and ENT surgeons via an endoscopic approach. A 22-year-old lady presented with a 12-month history of a painless lump in her left medial canthus area and a 6-month history of left intermittent epiphora. She had a DCR when she was 15 years old with initial symptom control until recent recurrence. There were no nasal or other eye symptoms. The rest of the eye and nasendoscopic examinations were unremarkable. An MRI scan suggested a dacryocystocele; however, a further CT scan revealed a 1.6 cm cystic lesion consistent with an anterior ethmoidal mucocele compressing the lacrimal sac. An endoscopic left anterior ethmoidectomy with marsupialisation of the mucocele was performed in combination with an endoscopic DCR. She made good post-operative recovery. PMID:24964413

  8. Papillary neoplasm of the endolymphatic sac in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, M B; Uro, E; Rouquette, I; Yardeni, E; Rumeau, J L

    1994-01-01

    Glandular tumours involving the middle ear and the mastoid are rare, and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma is difficult. Two distinct histopathological patterns are accepted. While their clinical presentation differs, both require primary surgical treatment and both have a high rate of local recurrence. The papillary form takes a more aggressive course and wider regional spread. This pattern occurs predominantly in women. Its microscopic appearance and clinical course have been extensively described by Heffner who considered it as "low-grade adenocarcinoma of probable endolymphatic sac origin". A few cases have been associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. The case of a 32 year old black woman is described. It is suggested that papillary adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac should be considered in the spectrum of neoplasms seen in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Images PMID:7962613

  9. Inflamed vermiform appendix within the sac of incarcerated left inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Turanl?, Sevim; Yüksel, Murat Ulvi; Pirhan, Yavuz; Çetin, Abdullah

    2011-09-01

    A 54-year-old male complained of a continuous pain together with an irreducible swelling of the left inguinal region 8 hours prior to admission to the surgical emergency department. His physical examination revealed a very painful, erythematous, irreducible swelling in the left inguinal region without abdominal peritoneal irritation. Routine blood tests disclosed mild leukocytosis. Abdominal plain X-ray film was not specific, and ultrasonography revealed a 10 cm in length inactive, edematous intestinal section within the inguinal hernia. With the diagnosis of strangulated inguinal hernia, he underwent surgical exploration through a transverse inguinal incision. By opening the hernia sac, 6-8 cc inflammatory fluid drained out, and an inflamed vermiform appendix adhered to the inner surface of the sac was seen. Appendicectomy and primary hernia repair were performed at the same time through the inguinal incision. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the histological examination of the specimen revealed an inflamed appendix. PMID:22090338

  10. Mitomycin C in the treatment of a Schneiderian (inverted) papilloma of the lacrimal sac.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Malcolm; Mollan, Susan P; Harrison, Dale; Taylor, Deryck; Lecuona, Karin

    2010-06-01

    Schneiderian papillomas are benign tumours, with an aggressive nature. A case with a recurrent Schneiderian papilloma of the nasolacrimal sac, who underwent an external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with irrigation of the nasolacrimal system with 0.02% mitomycin C (MMC), is presented at 18 months follow-up. External DCR using MMC, as an adjuvant therapy, is a novel approach to the treatment of Schneiderian papilloma of the nasolacrimal tract. It allows preservation of function, compared with the conventional treatment of dacryocystectomy. PMID:19629401

  11. An investigation of temperature influence on the SAC305 soldering on Cu-Ni-Au substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiang-Chen Hsu; Yu-Ming Wan; Chi-Hau Haung; Shen-Li Fu

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, the intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness as a function of annealing temperature has been carefully investigated. It is observed that the IMC ingredients along the Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder on the Cu-Ni-Ag substrate are (Ni, Cu)3Sn4 and (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 after IR-reflow process. Based on the measurement of IMC thickness and ball shear force, the following conclusions have been

  12. Reduction of lead free solder aging effects using doped SAC alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zijie Cai; Yifei Zhang; Jeffrey C. Suhling; Pradeep Lall; R. Wayne Johnson; Michael J. Bozack

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical response, and failure behavior of lead free solder joints in electronic assemblies are constantly evolving when exposed to isothermal aging and\\/or thermal cycling environments. In our prior work on aging effects, we have demonstrated that large degradations occur in the material properties (stiffness and strength) and creep behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) lead free solders during aging. These

  13. RELIABILITY TESTING OF Ni-MODIFIED SnCu AND SAC305 - ACCELERATED THERMAL CYCLING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joelle Arnold; Nathan Blattau; Craig Hillman; Keith Sweatman

    Interest in alternate lead free solder alloys has initiated a life prediction study of SN100C. This paper outlines the results of the thermal cycling portion of the testing and demonstrates that its robustness under accelerated life testing is somewhere between that of SnPb and SAC305 with its performance being dependent on the amount of strain to which it is subjected

  14. Morphology and growth mechanisms of SAC305-xNi\\/pad joints intermetallic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lifeng Wang; Jia Wang; Xue Liu; Xiaojing Liu

    2010-01-01

    The formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMC) is a key factor to the reliability of soldering joints in modern electronic mounting and packaging industry. In this paper, by means of Olympus, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis methods, the morphology and growth mechanisms of IMCs between SAC305-xNi and Cu joint during soldering as well as

  15. The influence of aging on the stress-strain and creep behavior of SAC solder alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifei Zhang; Zijie Cai; Muhannad Mustafa; Jeffrey C. Suhling; Pradeep Lall; Michael J. Bozack

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical response, and failure behavior of lead free solder joints in electronic assemblies are constantly evolving when exposed to isothermal aging and\\/or thermal cycling environments. In our prior work on aging effects, we have demonstrated that the observed material behavior variations of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) lead free solders during room temperature aging (25°C) and elevated temperature aging (125°C) were

  16. The effects of SAC alloy composition on aging resistance and reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifei Zhang; Zijie Cai; Jeffrey C. Suhling; Pradeep Lall; Michael J. Bozack

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical response, and failure behavior of lead free solder joints in electronic assemblies are constantly evolving when exposed to isothermal aging and\\/or thermal cycling environments. In our prior work on aging effects, we have demonstrated that the observed material behavior variations of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) lead free solders during room temperature aging (25degC) and elevated temperature aging (125degC) were

  17. AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SUGAR AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION BY EVERTED SACS OF HAMSTER INTESTINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM B. KINTER; T. HASTINGS WILSON

    1965-01-01

    Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of evcrted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C 14- or H~-labcled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorp- tivc cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to conccntrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles

  18. MRI of enlarged endolymphatic sacs in the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Okamoto; J. Ito; T. Furusawa; K. Sakai; S. Horikawa; S. Tokiguchi

    1998-01-01

    We studied ten inner ears of five patients with a bilateral large vestibular aqueduct syndrome, using CT and MRI. Although\\u000a the large vestibular aqueduct varied in size, a markedly dilated endolymphatic sac extending to the sigmoid sinus was demonstrated\\u000a bilaterally on MRI in all patients. The cause of hearing loss in this syndrome is unclear. However, it is suggested that

  19. Volatile constituents of dog ( Canis familiaris ) and coyote ( Canis latrans ) anal sacs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Preti; Earl L. Muetterties; Joseph M. Furman; James J. Kennelly; Bradford E. Johns

    1976-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds from the anal sac secretions of male and female dogs and coyotes were examined using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Short chain (C2–C6) acids and trimethylamine were major constituents. Changes in the type and abundance of the volatiles were examined across state of estrus, species, and gender. No consistent difference in the pattern of volatiles

  20. KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity Database for retrieving the relationships between metabolites and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Parvin, Aziza Kawsar; Ono, Naoaki; Tanaka, Ken; Hirai Morita, Aki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    Databases (DBs) are required by various omics fields because the volume of molecular biology data is increasing rapidly. In this study, we provide instructions for users and describe the current status of our metabolite activity DB. To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between the metabolites of organisms and the chemical-level contribution of metabolites to human health, we constructed a metabolite activity DB known as the KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB. It comprises 9,584 triplet relationships (metabolite-biological activity-target species), including 2,356 metabolites, 140 activity categories, 2,963 specific descriptions of biological activities and 778 target species. Approximately 46% of the activities described in the DB are related to chemical ecology, most of which are attributed to antimicrobial agents and plant growth regulators. The majority of the metabolites with antimicrobial activities are flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. The metabolites with plant growth regulatory effects include plant hormones. Over half of the DB contents are related to human health care and medicine. The five largest groups are toxins, anticancer agents, nervous system agents, cardiovascular agents and non-therapeutic agents, such as flavors and fragrances. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB is integrated within the KNApSAcK Family DBs to facilitate further systematized research in various omics fields, especially metabolomics, nutrigenomics and foodomics. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB could also be utilized for developing novel drugs and materials, as well as for identifying viable drug resources and other useful compounds. PMID:24285751

  1. Molecular detection and drought resistance analysis of Sac B-transgenic poplars ( Populus alba × P. glandulosa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiliang Li; Xiaohua Su; Bingyu Zhang; Zhiyi Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The propagation of drought-resistant transgenic poplars is one of the more effective ways to improve the ecological state\\u000a of arid regions. The expression of SacB gene in transgenic lines of Populus alba × P. glandulosa was analyzed by a semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Drought resistance of these transgenic lines was evaluated by water stress trials\\u000a in a greenhouse. Results showed that the

  2. Relining technique for continuous sac enlargement and modular disconnection secondary to endotension after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon Il; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun Mee; Park, Jae Young; Kim, Jang Yong; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun

    2014-03-01

    Endotension is an unpredictable late complication of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). This case report will discuss the successful treatment of enlarged aneurysmal sac due to endotension using the relining technique. An 81-year-old male complained of nondecreasing huge aneurysm sac. He had undergone EVAR for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years prior and no endoleak was found through follow-up. Initially computed tomography-guided sac aspiration was tried, but in vain, Relining using the double barrel technique and tubular endograft for modular diconnection, which was unexpectedly found in the original endograft, were performed sucessfully. During follow-up after the relining procedure, the size of aneurysm sac continued to decrease in size. The relining technique is effective mothod for treating endotension. PMID:24761425

  3. Relining technique for continuous sac enlargement and modular disconnection secondary to endotension after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon Il; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun Mee; Park, Jae Young; Kim, Jang Yong; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu

    2014-01-01

    Endotension is an unpredictable late complication of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). This case report will discuss the successful treatment of enlarged aneurysmal sac due to endotension using the relining technique. An 81-year-old male complained of nondecreasing huge aneurysm sac. He had undergone EVAR for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years prior and no endoleak was found through follow-up. Initially computed tomography-guided sac aspiration was tried, but in vain, Relining using the double barrel technique and tubular endograft for modular diconnection, which was unexpectedly found in the original endograft, were performed sucessfully. During follow-up after the relining procedure, the size of aneurysm sac continued to decrease in size. The relining technique is effective mothod for treating endotension. PMID:24761425

  4. Pathological, immunohistochemical and microbiologicalal analysis of lacrimal sac biopsies in patients with chronic dacrocystitis

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Rowayda Mahmoud; Hussein, Faten Aly; Idriss, Hisham Farouk; Hanafy, Nesrine Fathy; Abdallah, Dina Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    AIM To analyze cases of obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct which creates a fertile environment for secondary bacterial infection and can result in dacryocystitis, which is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue and a potential source of endophthalmitis following intraocular surgery. The majority of obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system are acquired ones occurring in adulthood and involving the distal parts of the system. Acquired obstruction may be primary/idiopathic or secondary to a wide variety of infectious, inflammatory, traumatic, mechanical, toxic or neoplastic causes mimicking idiopathic inflammation. These cases are treated by dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS The present study was conducted to determine the histopathologic, immunohistochemical and current microbiologic characteristics of lacrimal sac specimens in patients undergoing external dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS Non-specific lacrimal sac pathology was present in all 33 cases and 81.8% of the cases showed moderate chronic inflammation with a chronic inflammatory score (CIS) ranging between 4 and 6, whereas 12.12% showed severe inflammatory changes with a CIS of 7. Mild degree of inflammation was seen in 6.06% with a CIS of 3. The total prevalence of gram-positive, gram-negative, and culture-negative samples were 59.4%, 37.5%, and 3% respectively. CONCLUSION Non-specific chronic inflammation with fibrosis is indeed the most commonly reported histopathological finding in lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens. PMID:24392331

  5. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles From Champ and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond M.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP and SAC-C missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation 'Blackjack' GPS receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS/MET 1995 experiment. Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by JPL from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) shout forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We will show statistics of the differences as well as Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the differences. Depending upon availability of AIRS data, we plan to show individual profile comparisons between GPS radio occultation and AIRS retrievals.

  6. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond M.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP and SAC-C missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation 'Blackjack' GPS receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS/MET 1995 experiment. Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by JPL from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We will show statistics of the differences as well as Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the differences. Depending upon availability of AIRS data, we plan to show individual profile comparisons between GPS radio occultation and AIRS retrievals.

  7. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  8. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria tenella Infection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, JJ; Ren, CZ; Wang, SS; Liu, DD; Cao, LQ; Tao, JP

    2013-01-01

    Background To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effectively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated. Methods Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophilized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed. Results The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG), reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ? 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed at dosage ? 0.5% and 1.0% when BWG and caecal lesion were compared with the sodium salinomycin control group, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis. PMID:24454440

  9. Testosterone influences song behaviour and social dominance - but independent of prenatal yolk testosterone exposure.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, maternally derived yolk androgens have been shown to significantly alter offspring development, and a number of these effects persist into adulthood. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Mechanisms that have been suggested are changes in the endogenous androgen production post-hatching or changes in the sensitivity towards circulating androgens. We tested the effects of yolk testosterone on the plasma testosterone levels and the sensitivity to testosterone in 5months old male canaries that hatched from eggs that were either injected with testosterone (yT-males) or with a control solution (yC-males). Changes in sensitivity were investigated via the behavioural response to an experimental elevation of the plasma testosterone levels. We performed the experiment in fall (low endogenous testosterone production), focusing on testosterone dependent response traits (aggression and song). Before implantation, there was a non-significant trend that the plasma testosterone levels were lower in yT-males than in yC-males. Elevating the plasma testosterone concentrations increased aggressiveness, song bout length and similarity of repeated song elements (=consistency), with the latter likely being a consequence of testosterone-driven song crystallization. However, these effects were not different among yT- or yC-males in any of the parameters. Thus, our findings render it unlikely that changes in the sensitivity to testosterone post-hatching would form the main underlying mechanism of hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds. Further experiments are urgently needed in order to understand the nature of the phenotypic effects resulting from embryonic exposure to maternal yolk testosterone. PMID:24211320

  10. Egg yolk fatty acid profile of avian species--influence on human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Golzar Adabi, S H; Ahbab, M; Fani, A R; Hajbabaei, A; Ceylan, N; Cooper, R G

    2013-02-01

    Lipids are an important nutritional component of the avian egg. A review of the literature was completed to determine the fatty acid compositions in egg yolk from some avian species. Additionally, the nutritional influence of lipid and lipoprotein content on the plasma of male participants during 30-day feeding was discussed. The ostrich eggs had the highest unsaturated fatty acid and the lowest cholesterol content in relation to other avian species. Ostrich had a higher proportion of 18:3n-3 (p?yolk numerically contained much higher levels of 22:6n-3 than those found in turkeys, quails and geese, but the amount of 22:6n-3 in ostrich egg was lower by comparison with other species (p?yolks of all species and this decrease was marginal (p?

  11. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  12. Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen

    E-print Network

    Husseini, Munther Dawod

    1975-01-01

    , in the diet of laying hens to determine their effect on cholesterol mobilization in the egg yolk, and any other effects these products may have on cholesterol metabolism in the laying hen. Three hundred and eighty four White Leghorn pullets were used.... The pullets were divided into four replicated dietary treatments of ninety-six birds each. All treatment groups were fed on all vegetable protein basal diets. Group 1 pullets received the basal diet with 3. 0X added vegetable fat. Group 2 pullets received...

  13. The role of quail bronchitis virus as a possible precipitating factor in "air sac syndrome" of chickens

    E-print Network

    Payne, Jerry Bob

    1965-01-01

    THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partfal fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1965 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Approved as to style and dontent...

  14. Pleiotropic Alterations in Lipid Metabolism in Yeast sac1 Mutants: Relationship to “Bypass Sec14p” and Inositol Auxotrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Marcos P.; Kearns, Brian G.; Xie, Zhigang; Guo, Shuling; Sekar, M. Chandra; Hosaka, Kohei; Kagiwada, Satoshi; York, John D.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    1999-01-01

    SacIp dysfunction results in bypass of the requirement for phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (Sec14p) function in yeast Golgi processes. This effect is accompanied by alterations in inositol phospholipid metabolism and inositol auxotrophy. Elucidation of how sac1 mutants effect “bypass Sec14p” will provide insights into Sec14p function in vivo. We now report that, in addition to a dramatic accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, sac1 mutants also exhibit a specific acceleration of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis via the CDP-choline pathway. This phosphatidylcholine metabolic phenotype is sensitive to the two physiological challenges that abolish bypass Sec14p in sac1 strains; i.e. phospholipase D inactivation and expression of bacterial diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase. Moreover, we demonstrate that accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in sac1 mutants is insufficient to effect bypass Sec14p. These data support a model in which phospholipase D activity contributes to generation of DAG that, in turn, effects bypass Sec14p. A significant fate for this DAG is consumption by the CDP-choline pathway. Finally, we determine that CDP-choline pathway activity contributes to the inositol auxotrophy of sac1 strains in a novel manner that does not involve obvious defects in transcriptional expression of the INO1 gene. PMID:10397762

  15. Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver (Castor canadensis): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication.

    PubMed

    Walro, J M; Svendsen, G E

    1982-05-01

    Both sexes of beavers possess a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands located in paired subcutaneous cavities between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The castor sacs are not glandular in the histological sense, hence references to these structures as preputial glands or castor glands are misnomers. The wall of the castor sacs is plicate and comprised of three distinct zones: an outer layer of vascular connective tissue, a two-to five-cell-thick layer of mitotic epithelial cells, and several densely packed layers of cornified epithelium which grade into more widely separated sheets toward the lumen. Monocultures of a gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium were present in the lumen of all castor sac preparations. Differences in the frequency of castoreum deposition were not attributable to differences in the structure of the castor sacs. The anal glands of beavers are holocrine sebaceous glands. These glands develop more rapidly than the castor sacs. Anal gland tissue from embryos exhibited cellular characteristics associated with the production of sebum. Secretory activity was evident in all preparations. The relationship of castoreum and anal gland secretion to scent communication among beavers is discussed. PMID:24415179

  16. Broiler Breeder Age and Dietary Fat Influence the Yolk Fatty Acid Profiles of Fresh Eggs and Newly Hatched Chicks1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICKEY A. LATOUR; E. D. PEEBLES; S. M. DOYLE; T. PANSKY; T. W. SMITH; CAROLYN R. BOYLE

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of breeder age (36-, 51-, or 64-wk) and different dietary fat sources (3% added corn oil, poultry fat, or lard) on lipids in fresh egg yolks and yolks of newly hatched chicks. Isocaloric breeder diets were altered by the inclusion of different types of dietary fat such that

  17. Placental buffering of maternal steroid hormone effects on fetal and yolk hormone levels: a comparative study of a viviparous lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi, and an oviparous lizard, Sceloporus graciosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danika Painter; David H Jennings; Michael C Moore

    2002-01-01

    We investigated maternal-fetal hormone transfer in the mountain spiny lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi, a viviparous species with a simple chorioallantoic placenta. In one experiment, we examined the effect of elevated maternal progesterone on fetal and yolk hormone levels. Progesterone implants increased maternal progesterone nearly 100-fold; however, the resulting increase in fetal and yolk progesterone was only about 2% of that seen

  18. Design of highly sensitive and selective Au@NiO yolk-shell nanoreactors for gas sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhakar; Yoon, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hyun-Mook; Hwang, Su-Jin; Kwak, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2014-07-21

    Au@NiO yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple solution route and applied for efficient gas sensor towards H?S gas. Carbon encapsulated Au (Au@C core-shell) NPs were synthesized by glucose-assisted hydrothermal method, whereas Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were synthesized by precipitation method using Au@C core-shell NPs as a template. Sub-micrometer Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were formed having 50-70 nm Au NPs at the periphery of NiO shell (10-20 nm), which was composed of 6-12 nm primary NiO particles. Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs showed higher response for H2S compared to other interfering gases (ethanol, p-xylene, NH?, CO and H?). The maximum response was 108.92 for 5 ppm of H?S gas at 300 °C, which was approximately 19 times higher than that for the interfering gases. The response of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs to H?S was approximately 4 times higher than that of bare NiO hollow nanospheres. Improved performance of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs was attributed to hollow spaces that allowed the accessibility of Au NPs to gas molecules. It was suggested that adsorption of H?S on Au NPs resulted in the formation of sulfide layer, which possibly lowered its work function, and therefore tuned the electron transfer from Au to NiO rather NiO to Au, which leaded to increase in resistance and therefore response. PMID:24933405

  19. Effect of egg yolk, cryoprotectant, and various sugars on semen cryopreservation in endangered Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri).

    PubMed

    Garde, J J; del Olmo, A; Soler, A J; Espeso, G; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S

    2008-11-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from endangered species is a valuable tool for genetic management. Previous studies showed the feasibility of cryopreservation of spermatozoa from various endangered gazelles but have also revealed difficulties with available protocols for semen freezing in Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri). Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of (a) 5% or 20% egg yolk or 4% or 6% glycerol, and (b) addition of sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose and raffinose) on cryopreservation using a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST). A diluent containing 13.5% raffinose, 5% or 20% egg yolk, and 6% glycerol (REYG) was also evaluated. Semen was obtained by electroejaculation from 22 G. cuvieri males. Diluted samples were loaded into 0.25 ml straws, cooled to 5 degrees C over 1.5h (-0.16 degrees C/min), equilibrated at that temperature for 2h, frozen in nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Subsamples were assessed for motility and acrosome integrity upon collection, after refrigeration-equilibration, after freezing and thawing, and 2h after thawing. Use of TEST with 20% egg yolk or with 4% glycerol led to worse motility preservation, whereas TEST with 5% egg yolk and 6% glycerol led to better results. Addition of fructose, lactose or raffinose to TEST resulted in similar or worse preservation of motility than inclusion of glucose. On the other hand, use of a raffinose-based medium with 20% egg yolk and 6% glycerol (REYG) afforded better preservation of motility than use of TEST. With REYG, 20% egg yolk was better than 5% egg yolk for motility preservation. Differences were noted between males in their responses to cryopreservation when using different egg yolk or glycerol concentrations. Moreover, spermatozoa from most males exhibited better cryopreservation with REYG although some were better cryopreserved in TEST. The raffinose-based diluent thus represents an improvement over previous results but more work is needed to better characterize cryopreservation conditions for future routine banking of Cuvier's gazelle spermatozoa. PMID:18024015

  20. Peptides accompanying chicken egg yolk IgY--alternative methods of isolation and immunoregulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Zab?ocka, Agnieszka; Sosnowska, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Anna; Janusz, Maria; Polanowski, Antoni

    2014-04-01

    In the hen immune system the egg content plays as significant a role in the development of the chick as colostrum does in newborn mammals. One of the most important proteins in this system seems to be the main yolk immunoglobulin IgY. It has been shown that IgY is accompanied by an immunostimulatory polypeptide complex named yolkin. In this report the biological activities of yolkin separated by means of four different procedures are presented. It was shown that yolkin acts as an inducer rather than a modulator of cytokine and nitric oxide release, and does not participate in the protection of cells against destructive effects of reactive oxygen species. However, using the perchloric acid procedure it is possible to obtain a peptide fraction with higher inducing activity, stronger antioxidant properties and ability to decrease the NO level induced by lipopolysaccharide. The results obtained show that it is feasible to select one of the presented methods of yolkin isolation that yields a product of particular activity. The properties of yolk peptides not only indicate their roles in the development of chicks, but can also be useful for the regulation of some immunological disturbances. PMID:24534909

  1. Multifunctional peptides derived from an egg yolk protein hydrolysate: isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; D?browska, Anna; Szo?tysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Lubec, Gert; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2015-02-01

    An egg yolk protein by-product following ethanol extraction of phospholipids (YP) was hydrolyzed with pepsin to produce and identify novel peptides that revealed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory and antidiabetic (?-glucosidase and DPP-IV inhibitory) activities. The peptic hydrolysate of YP was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Isolated peptides were identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF) and the Mascot Search Results database. Four peptides of MW ranging from 1,210.62 to 1,677.88 Da corresponded to the fragments of Apolipoprotein B (YINQMPQKSRE; YINQMPQKSREA), Vitellogenin-2 (VTGRFAGHPAAQ) and Apovitellenin-1 (YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF). These peptides were chemically synthesized and showed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory or/and antidiabetic activities. Peptide YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF exerted the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 9.4 µg/mL. The peptide YINQMPQKSRE showed the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging and DPP-IV inhibitory activities and its ACE inhibitory activity (IC50) reached 10.1 µg/mL. The peptide VTGRFAGHPAAQ revealed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 365.4 µg/mL). A novel nutraceutical effect for peptides from an egg yolk hydrolysate was shown. PMID:25408464

  2. Comparing ethylene glycol with glycerol for cryopreservation of canine semen in egg-yolk TRIS extenders.

    PubMed

    Martins-Bessa, Ana; Rocha, António; Mayenco-Aguirre, A

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol (G) for ethylene glycol (EG) when cryopreserving dog semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 13 dogs was pooled into five samples and frozen in egg-yolk Tris extenders with variable ethylene glycol and glycerol concentrations, with or without Equex STM Paste. Two widely used glycerol extenders (Uppsala Equex II and Norwegian) were utilized as controls. Semen quality parameters assessed after thawing were total subjective motility (TSM), computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA), eosin-nigrosin staining, and flow cytometry (FC) after staining with the PI/Fitc-PSA (fluorescein isotiocianate conjugated with the agglutinin of Pisum sativum, PSA) fluorochromes. No advantages were seen in using EG to replace G when freezing dog semen or combining EG and G in the freezing medium. The Uppsala Equex II provided the best overall post-thaw parameters, followed by the egg-yolk Tris experimental extender with 5% EG and Equex STM Paste. The extender with 4% EG produced similar results to the Norwegian extender. High correlations (r>0.98) were obtained between eosin-nigrosin staining and FC, as well as between subjective and computerized motility assessment (r>0.90). PMID:16879862

  3. Social Instability in Laying Quail: Consequences on Yolk Steroids and Offspring's Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Floriane; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie; Kotrschal, Kurt; Guémené, Daniel; Bertin, Aline; Möstl, Erich; Houdelier, Cécilia

    2010-01-01

    Individual phenotypic characteristics of many species are influenced by non-genetic maternal effects. Female birds can influence the development of their offspring before birth via the yolk steroid content of their eggs. We investigated this prenatal maternal effect by analysing the influence of laying females' social environment on their eggs' hormonal content and on their offspring's development. Social instability was applied to groups of laying Japanese quail females. We evaluated the impact of this procedure on laying females, on yolk steroid levels and on the general development of chicks. Agonistic interactions were more frequent between females kept in an unstable social environment (unstable females) than between females kept in a stable social environment (stable females). Testosterone concentrations were higher in unstable females' eggs than in those of stable females. Unstable females' chicks hatched later and developed more slowly during their first weeks of life than those of stable females. The emotional reactivity of unstable females' chicks was higher than that of stable females' chicks. In conclusion, our study showed that social instability applied to laying females affected, in a non-genetic way, their offspring's development, thus stressing the fact that females' living conditions during laying can have transgenerational effects. PMID:21124926

  4. Production of Egg Yolk Antibodies Specific to House Dust Mite Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Han, Beom Ku; Han, Jae Yong; Hong, Jung Yeon; Kim, Mi Na; Heo, Won Il; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of indoor allergens associated with asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Chicken immunoglobulin (Ig) Y is known to be a good alternative to mice and rabbit antibody production. In this study, we produced IgYs specific to HDMs and investigated their IgE immunoreactivities. Materials and Methods Total IgYs were isolated from the yolks of White Leghorn hens immunized with either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus or D. farinae protein extract. Control antibodies were separated from the yolks of immunized hens with phosphate buffered saline. IgYs specific to HDMs were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis. Results The concentration of egg IgY specific to D. farinae in an immunized hen increased and the highest achieved was 661.3 ug/mg (per an egg) on day 47, compared with 760 ug/mg IgY specific to D. pteronyssinus on day 16. The D. pteronyssinus or D. farinae-specific IgY was detected by binding of each mite proteins, and their immunoreactivities were elevated dependent of the specific IgY concentration. Conclusion IgY specific to HDMs may be a promising antibody for immunological diagnosis as well as identification of possible resistance relating to HDM allergy. PMID:24954330

  5. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chong M.; Cui, Yi

    2012-05-02

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. The well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (?2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode.

  6. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    PubMed

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

  7. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b) raising serum HDL-C without an adverse affect on serum LDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio. Increased cholesterol, lutein and zeaxanthin intake from the 2 and 4 egg yolk interventions did not decrease the absorption of other carotenoids, such as alpha-cryptoxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, tocopherols and retinol from the diet. An unexpected increase was observed in serum alpha-cryptoxanthin and gamma-tocopherol concentrations during the 4 egg yolk phase, these carotenoids are normally present in low concentrations in serum. Lipoprotein distribution of carotenoids and tocopherols was also not affected by the increased egg consumption. In the pursuit of designing a highly bioavailable matrix for lutein/zeaxanthin, similar to the egg yolk micellar matrix, nanoemulsion formulations of lutein were developed using the MicrofluidizerRTM Processor technology. Lutein nanoemulsions are O/W emulsions of lutein which have particle sizes in the nanometer range (? 200 nm). Lutein consumed orally as a nanoemulsion was shown to have significantly greater bioavailability than lutein supplement-pills in pilot-scale clinical studies described here. However, lutein nanoemulsions did not raise plasma lutein concentrations to the same extent as egg yolks in a study performed on BALB/c mice. Formation of mixed micelles in the intestinal lumen during digestion and uptake of these micelles by enterocytes are crucial steps that dictate bioavailability i.e. the proportion of ingested lutein/carotenoid that enters the blood circulation and accumulates in the peripheral tissues such as the macula. In-vitro stomach and intestinal digestion experiments showed lutein nanoemulsions have significantly greater micellarization efficiency compared to egg yolks. Nanoemulsions with a phospholipid (PL) emulsifier containing 80% phosphatidyl choline (PC) or Polysorbate 80 as the emulsifier had better ability to form micelles during the intestinal digestion phase compared to a PL emulsifier with only 45% PC content. The micellar matrix coupled with nanometer sized parti

  9. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  10. The Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Egg Yolk Fatty Acids and Hatchability in Japanese Quail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Aydin; M. E. Cook

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) increased the ratio of saturated fattyacids to monounsaturated fatty acids in yolk and caused embryo mortality. Our prelimi- nary studies showed that CLA had less of an effect on hatchability of quail than chickens. Hence, the objective was to determine the effects of dietary CLA on quail egg fatty acid content and hatchability. Eight male-female Japanese

  11. Oral treatment with yolk antibodies for the prevention of C. albicans infections in chemotherapy treated children. A feasibility study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Wilhelmson; David Carlander; Anders Kreuger; Hans Kollberg; Anders Larsson

    2005-01-01

    Cancer patients treated with chemotherapy often become neutropenic, which predisposes for oral and systemic C. albicans infections. The purpose of this feasibility study was to find out if gargling with anti-C. albicans immunoglobulin Y from egg yolk can prevent oral candidiasis in children, treated for acute lymphatic leukemia. Four patients gargled with the antibodies once a day during the induction

  12. In Situ Carbon-Coated Yolk-Shell V2O3 Microspheres for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Le; Qu, Yang; Ren, Zhiyu; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Dongdong; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Lei; Fu, Honggang

    2015-01-28

    Metal oxide-based materials with yolk-shell morphology have been intensively investigated as important anodes for Li-ion batteries due to their large ion storage ability, high safety, and excellent cycling stability. In this work, in situ carbon-coated yolk-shell V2O3 microspheres were synthesized via a template-free polyol solvothermal method. The growth of yolk-shell microspheres underwent coordination and polymerization, followed by an inside-out Ostwald-ripening process and further calcination in N2 atmosphere. The thin amorphous carbon layers coating on the microspheres' surface came from polyol frameworks which could protect V2O3 during the charge-discharge process and led to a better stability in Li-ion batteries. The in situ carbon-coated yolk-shell V2O3 microspheres showed a capacity of 437.5 mAh·g(-1) after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A·g(-1), which was 92.6% of its initial capability (472.5 mAh·g(-1)). They were regarded as excellent electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibit good electrochemistry performance and stability. PMID:25569599

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance. PMID:25010164

  14. Transfer of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids from yolk to embryo during development of the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Decrock, F; Groscolas, R; McCartney, R J; Speake, B K

    2001-03-01

    This study examines the transfer of lipids from the yolk to the embryo of the king penguin, a seabird with a high dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids. The concentrations of total lipid, triacylglycerol (TAG), and phospholipid (PL) in the yolk decreased by ~80% between days 33 and 55 of development, indicating intensive lipid transfer, whereas the concentration of cholesteryl ester (CE) increased threefold, possibly due to recycling. Total lipid concentration in plasma and liver of the embryo increased by twofold from day 40 to hatching due to the accumulation of CE. Yolk lipids contained high amounts of C(20-22) n-3 fatty acids with 22:6(n-3) forming 4 and 10% of the fatty acid mass in TAG and PL, respectively. Both TAG and PL of plasma and liver contained high proportions of 22:6(n-3) ( approximately 15% in plasma and >20% in liver at day 33); liver PL also contained a high proportion of 20:4(n-6) (14%). Thus both 22:6(n-3) and 20:4(n-6), which are, respectively, abundant and deficient in the yolk, undergo biomagnification during transfer to the embryo. PMID:11171665

  15. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

  16. Effects of low-density lipoproteins extracted from different avian yolks on boar spermatozoa quality following freezing-thawing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Chun-Wei; Bu, Shu-Hai; Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Pang, Wei-Jun; Yang, Gong-She

    2014-05-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is known to protect boar sperm during freezing-thawing, but little information is known about the effects of LDL extracted from different avian egg yolks on post-thaw boar semen quality. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the effects of LDL at various concentrations and different species on boar sperm quality after freezing-thawing. LDL extracted from the yolk of hen egg, duck egg, quail egg, pigeon egg or ostrich egg was added to the extender at the concentrations of 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.1 g/ml, respectively, and their effects on frozen-thawed boar sperm quality were assessed. According to all measured parameters, the results showed that sperm motility, acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity were 43.20%, 52.57% and 48.13%, respectively, after being frozen-thawed with 0.09 g/ml LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk. All these quality parameters were higher than that of other groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results confirmed that LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk had the best cryoprotective effects on frozen-thawed boar sperm among all of the groups supplemented with LDL from five kinds of avian egg in extender. The optimum concentration of LDL extracted from pigeon egg in boar semen freezing extender was 0.09 g/ml. PMID:23194694

  17. Electron microscope studies on the origin and maturation of yolk in oocytes of the tunicate, Ciona intestinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Kessel

    1966-01-01

    The origin of proteinaceous yolk in oocytes of Ciona, intestinalis appears to involve the activity of two kinds of vesicles derived from the Golgi complex. One kind of vesicle contains a granular product of considerable density while the contents of the other type of vesicle are of low density. Both types of vesicles become widely dispersed in the ooplasm during

  18. Egg and yolk production traits in relation to ovum development, liver and liver moisture weight in dwarf and normal

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Egg and yolk production traits in relation to ovum development, liver and liver moisture weight and on ovum development were obtained from White Leghorn Dw and dw hens belonging to 4 sire families between 52 and 56 weeks of age. Ovum development was followed by the fat-soluble dye incorporation technique

  19. Dietary Forage Legume (Onobrychis altissima grossh.) Supplementation on Serum\\/Yolk Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Egg Shell Characteristics in Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the consumer's desire for healthier foods has increased the demand for animal products containing low cholesterol and enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. In response to the perceived need, poultry researchers have focused on reducing egg yolk cholesterol to satisfy the health conscious of consumers. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary forage legume

  20. The decline in yolk progesterone concentrations during incubation is dependent on embryonic development in the European starling

    E-print Network

    Casto, Joseph M.

    The decline in yolk progesterone concentrations during incubation is dependent on embryonic during early incubation. Two major findings result. First is that [3 H]-progesterone is metabolized suggest live embryos are necessary for metabolism of progesterone during early incubation, underscoring

  1. Endovascular sac sealing concept: will the Endologix Nellix™ device solve the deficiencies?

    PubMed

    Holden, A

    2015-06-01

    The deficiencies in current endovascular aneurysm repair include limited applicability to treat aneurysm anatomies, a significant reintervention rate to manage postprocedural complications and a requirement for postprocedural surveillance. Endovascular aneurysm sealing with the Nellix™ device offers the potential to address these issues by directly treating the aneurysm sac and minimizing the risk of endoleak of any type as well as device migration. The unique sealing technology of polymer filled endobags also provides an opportunity to treat aneurysm anatomies that could not be effectively treated with conventional endografts. The early clinical experience with Nellix™ supports these concepts but long-term durability is yet to be established. PMID:25584735

  2. Digital PCR technology detects brain-tumor-associated mutation in cerebrospinal fluid

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) and their colleagues have used digital versions of a standard molecular biology tool to detect a common tumor-associated mutation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with brain tumors. In their report being published in the open-access journal Molecular Therapy – Nucleic Acids, the investigators describe using advanced forms of the gene-amplification technology polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze bits of RNA carried in membrane-covered sacs called extracellular vesicles for the presence of a tumor-associated mutation in a gene called IDH1.

  3. Graft Distortion After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Association with Sac Morphology and Mid-Term Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Derek Alan [Department of Interventional Radiology, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); Edwards, Richard David [Radiology Department, Gartnavel Hospital, Glasgow G12 OYG (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard Gregory; Rowlands, Peter Christopher [Department of Interventional Radiology, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); Martin, Janis [Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); White, Donagh [Department of Interventional Radiology, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); Fear, Simon [Statistician, Roy Castle ICLCR, London Road, Liverpool L3 9TA (United Kingdom); Bakran, Ali; Brennan, John; Gilling-Smith, Geoffrey; Harris, Peter Lyon [Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, significance, and mechanism of stent-graft distortion after endovascular repair (EVR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm.Methods: EVR of abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in 51 cases (49 modular, bifurcated; 2 tube). Thirty-two patients were followed for 6 or more months and had equivalent baseline and follow-up images which could be used to determine changes in graft configuration. Sac dimensions were measured using computed tomographic (CT) images and graft-related complications were recorded.Results: Amongst 32 patients evaluated on follow-up, there was graft distortion in 24. Distorted grafts were significantly (p= 0.002) associated with sac diameter reduction (mean 5 mm) and sac length reduction (mean 8.1 mm). All graft-related complications occurred in the limbs of eight distorted grafts, with a mean reduction of sac length in this group of 7.8 mm on reformatted CT images.Conclusion: There was a highly significant association between graft distortion and limb complications, and reduced sac dimensions.

  4. Enhancement of Processability and Electrical Resistance by Use of Ag-Based Composite Inks Containing Ultrafine SAC305 Alloy Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Moo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Seok Pil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    We propose use of Ag/Sn-3.0 (wt.%) Ag-0.5 Cu (SAC305) composite ink to reduce sintering temperature, sintering time, and material costs. The SAC305 nanoparticle (NP) surfaces were not capped by any stabilizers, which are detrimental to the resistivity of the sintered tracks. Compared with commercial pure Ag ink, use of Ag/3.2 (vol.%) SAC305 composite ink containing ultrafine SAC305 NPs resulted in outstandingly enhanced processability, enabling faster sintering at low temperatures. The average sheet resistance of composite ink samples sintered for 25 min at 170°C was as low as 0.011 ?/?, comparable with that of a pure Ag sample sintered for over 30 min at 220°C. The morphology and the differential scanning calorimetry curves enabled explanation of the changes in the sintering behavior and sheet resistance. The Ag/SAC305 clusters in the composite ink sintered at 170°C grew, on average, to ~201.1-226.1 nm as a result of faster local liquid-phase sintering, and most of the Ag particles were mutually linked, dramatically changing the microstructure.

  5. Cloning structural gene sacB, which codes for exoenzyme levansucrase of Bacillus subtilis: expression of the gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gay, P; Le Coq, D; Steinmetz, M; Ferrari, E; Hoch, J A

    1983-01-01

    A clone bearing the structural gene sacB, coding for the exoenzyme levansucrase, was isolated from a library of Bacillus subtilis DNA that was cloned in phage lambda charon 4A on the basis of the transforming activity of the chimeric DNA. This lambda clone also was found to contain the sacR and smo loci. Subcloning the sacB-sacR region in plasmid pBR325 resulted in a clone which directed levansucrase synthesis in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence coding for the secreted protein was localized on the physical map of the cloned DNA. Images PMID:6402497

  6. General route to multifunctional uniform yolk/mesoporous silica shell nanocapsules: a platform for simultaneous cancer-targeted imaging and magnetically guided drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyu; Wang, Tingting; Yang, Lei; Liu, Cong; Wang, Chungang; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Y Andrew; Su, Zhongmin

    2012-09-24

    Hollow mesoporous SiO(2) (mSiO(2)) nanostructures with movable nanoparticles (NPs) as cores, so-called yolk-shell nanocapsules (NCs), have attracted great research interest. However, a highly efficient, simple and general way to produce yolk-mSiO(2) shell NCs with tunable functional cores and shell compositions is still a great challenge. A facile, general and reproducible strategy has been developed for fabricating discrete, monodisperse and highly uniform yolk-shell NCs under mild conditions, composed of mSiO(2) shells and diverse functional NP cores with different compositions and shapes. These NPs can be Fe(3)O(4) NPs, gold nanorods (GNRs), and rare-earth upconversion NRs, endowing the yolk-mSiO(2) shell NCs with magnetic, plasmonic, and upconversion fluorescent properties. In addition, multifunctional yolk-shell NCs with tunable interior hollow spaces and mSiO(2) shell thickness can be precisely controlled. More importantly, fluorescent-magnetic-biotargeting multifunctional polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified fluorescent Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) yolk-shell nanobioprobes as an example for simultaneous targeted fluorescence imaging and magnetically guided drug delivery to liver cancer cells is also demonstrated. This synthetic approach can be easily extended to the fabrication of multifunctional yolk@mSiO(2) shell nanostructures that encapsulate various functional movable NP cores, which construct a potential platform for the simultaneous targeted delivery of drug/gene/DNA/siRNA and bio-imaging. PMID:22907903

  7. Are yolk androgens adjusted to environmental conditions? A test in two seabirds that lay single-egg clutches.

    PubMed

    Addison, BriAnne; Benowitz-Fredericks, Z Morgan; Hipfner, J Mark; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2008-08-01

    It is widely believed that female birds strategically allocate androgens to yolk in the manner that best equips offspring for feeding conditions during their development. Because most avian studies have focused on multi-egg clutch species, and interpreted results within the framework of sibling competition, we still know little about how yolk androgens might be allocated in direct response to environmental conditions. Most oceanic birds are long-lived and lay single-egg clutches, and their breeding success is tightly linked to highly variable marine production. That combination: a variable breeding environment, long lives, and single-egg clutches, makes oceanic birds good subjects to test hypotheses about yolk androgen allocation strategies. We measured concentrations of two yolk androgens, androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T), in the single-egg clutches laid by early-laying Cassin's (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and rhinoceros (Cerorhinca monocerata) auklets at Triangle Island, British Columbia, Canada, in 2002-2004. Environmental conditions including sea-surface temperatures and the timing and intensity of marine primary production varied over the 3 years, and in response, both the timing and success of seabird breeding varied. As in other avian species, concentrations of A4 and T varied markedly among individual eggs in both species (by factors of 3-8), yet contrary to expectation, little of the variation could be attributed to year effects. The high interindividual variation and the lack of interannual variation suggest a non-adaptive explanation for yolk androgen deposition relative to environmental conditions in these species. PMID:18577385

  8. Evaluation of yolk protein levels as estrogenic biomarker in bivalves; comparison of the alkali-labile phosphate method (ALP) and a species-specific immunoassay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Morthorst, Jane E; Holbech, Henrik; Jeppesen, Morten; Kinnberg, Karin L; Pedersen, Knud L; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2014-11-01

    Altered concentration of the vertebrate yolk protein precursor vitellogenin is a recognized biomarker for endocrine disruption in fish, and within recent years yolk protein alteration has also been associated with endocrine disruption in bivalves. Species-specific, direct and sensitive methods for quantification of vitellogenin in fish have been available for years whereas bivalve yolk protein levels have been estimated indirectly by alkali-labile phosphate (ALP) liberated from high molecular weight proteins because the sequence and biochemical structure of most bivalve yolk proteins are unknown. By applying a species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for accurate determination of yolk protein level the impact of 17?-estradiol (57, 164 and 512 ng/L) on the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus was investigated and compared with ALP estimations. Seven weeks of exposure during the pre-spawning and spawning period had no consistent effect on yolk protein concentration in hemolymph, and ALP levels in hemolymph also remained unchanged in both males and females. Further, basal male and female ALP levels were indistinguishable whereas the ELISA demonstrated that yolk protein levels of females exceeded male levels at the time of sampling, although male basal levels were high compared to fish. Altogether it is shown that individual ALP levels do not reflect yolk protein levels and hence hemolymph ALP levels cannot serve as biomarker for estrogenic exposure during the pre-spawning and spawning period in U. tumidus. The necessity of sensitive and validated biomarkers for reliable interpretation of data and the utility of ALP and yolk protein levels as biomarkers in bivalves are discussed. PMID:25066673

  9. Design of highly sensitive and selective Au@NiO yolk-shell nanoreactors for gas sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Prabhakar; Yoon, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hyun-Mook; Hwang, Su-Jin; Kwak, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2014-06-01

    Au@NiO yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple solution route and applied for efficient gas sensor towards H2S gas. Carbon encapsulated Au (Au@C core-shell) NPs were synthesized by glucose-assisted hydrothermal method, whereas Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were synthesized by precipitation method using Au@C core-shell NPs as a template. Sub-micrometer Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were formed having 50-70 nm Au NPs at the periphery of NiO shell (10-20 nm), which was composed of 6-12 nm primary NiO particles. Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs showed higher response for H2S compared to other interfering gases (ethanol, p-xylene, NH3, CO and H2). The maximum response was 108.92 for 5 ppm of H2S gas at 300 °C, which was approximately 19 times higher than that for the interfering gases. The response of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs to H2S was approximately 4 times higher than that of bare NiO hollow nanospheres. Improved performance of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs was attributed to hollow spaces that allowed the accessibility of Au NPs to gas molecules. It was suggested that adsorption of H2S on Au NPs resulted in the formation of sulfide layer, which possibly lowered its work function, and therefore tuned the electron transfer from Au to NiO rather NiO to Au, which leaded to increase in resistance and therefore response.Au@NiO yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple solution route and applied for efficient gas sensor towards H2S gas. Carbon encapsulated Au (Au@C core-shell) NPs were synthesized by glucose-assisted hydrothermal method, whereas Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were synthesized by precipitation method using Au@C core-shell NPs as a template. Sub-micrometer Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were formed having 50-70 nm Au NPs at the periphery of NiO shell (10-20 nm), which was composed of 6-12 nm primary NiO particles. Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs showed higher response for H2S compared to other interfering gases (ethanol, p-xylene, NH3, CO and H2). The maximum response was 108.92 for 5 ppm of H2S gas at 300 °C, which was approximately 19 times higher than that for the interfering gases. The response of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs to H2S was approximately 4 times higher than that of bare NiO hollow nanospheres. Improved performance of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs was attributed to hollow spaces that allowed the accessibility of Au NPs to gas molecules. It was suggested that adsorption of H2S on Au NPs resulted in the formation of sulfide layer, which possibly lowered its work function, and therefore tuned the electron transfer from Au to NiO rather NiO to Au, which leaded to increase in resistance and therefore response. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Cross section SEM image of Au@NiO and NiO NPs sensing layer, response transient of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs at various temperatures and concentrations of H2S, stability test of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs at 400 °C for 5 ppm of H2S for 5 days, and schematic diagram of conduction of current in NiO and Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs containing grain boundaries. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01906g

  10. Egg colour reflects the amount of yolk maternal antibodies and fledging success in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Judith; Sanz, Juan J; Moreno, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Blue–green colours in avian eggs have been proposed as post-mating signals of female phenotypic quality to their mates. Egg colour may not only indicate female value, but also the quality of the eggs themselves and of resulting offspring. To date, there has been no demonstration of an association between egg colour and egg or offspring immune quality. We here show that the intensity of blue–green colour of pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca eggs reflects the amount of maternal antibodies in the yolk, a form of passive immunity crucial for offspring performance. Moreover, egg colour predicts fledging success. Also, incubating females in better condition lay more colourful eggs. The immunoglobulin level in incubating females is positively associated with that in the eggs. These results support the signalling hypothesis of eggshell coloration, underlining its role as an indicator of trans-generational transmission of immune defences in birds. PMID:17148396

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in a spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Andrea L; Traslavina, Ryan P; Emanuelson, Karen; Affolter, Verena K; Gaffney, Patricia M; Vernau, William; Williams, Colette; Wu, Connie I-kuan; Sturges, Beverly K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2013-12-01

    A 25-yr-old spayed female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) developed intermittent right pelvic limb lameness that persisted following conservative medical therapy. No obvious musculoskeletal lesions were noted on initial physical exam; however, spinal radiography was suspicious for possible intervertebral degenerative joint disease or discospondylitis. Despite prolonged medical therapy, the lameness progressed to minimal weight bearing and marked muscle atrophy of the right pelvic limb. Electromyography showed spontaneous activity in the muscles of right sciatic nerve distribution. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities in the right tibial and peroneal nerves were undetectable and markedly reduced, respectively. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large, space-occupying mass on the right side of the sacrum and pelvis. Antemortem fine-needle aspiration of the mass and postmortem histopathology resulted in diagnosis of a high-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac is very rare in domestic dogs and previously unreported in spotted hyenas. PMID:24450071

  12. A novel approach for noninvasive drug delivery and sensing through the amniotic sac.

    PubMed

    Azagury, Aharon; Amar-Lewis, Eliz; Mann, Ella; Goldbart, Riki; Traitel, Tamar; Jelinek, Raz; Hallak, Mordechai; Kost, Joseph

    2014-06-10

    Current invasive prenatal tests (amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling) are known for their risk to the fetus. In the last decade, the use and awareness of these prenatal tests have increased, resulting in growing demand for a safe, non-invasive, and accurate prenatal test. Chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) have long been used to increase transport phenomena across skin and other membranes (e.g., tympanic membrane). The amniotic sac membrane is called the chorioamnion (CA) membrane and serves as the physical barrier between the fetus and the mother. In this research, the effect of CPEs on human CA mass transport was evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo. The results show that the tested CPEs exhibit an enhancing effect on CA mass transport. Based on the permeability results, two mechanisms of action were suggested: "extractors" and "fluidizers". Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and rapid colorimetric screening measurements supported the mechanisms, based on which, more potent compounds were designed and tested for their enhancing effect. The enhancing mass transport effect of CPEs on CA membrane may be used both for sampling of cell-free DNA and for noninvasively administering drugs and other biological agents to the amniotic sac. PMID:24685707

  13. Embryo sac formation and early embryo development in Agave tequilana (Asparagaceae).

    PubMed

    González-Gutiérrez, Alejandra G; Gutiérrez-Mora, Antonia; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana is an angiosperm species that belongs to the family Asparagaceae (formerly Agavaceae). Even though there is information regarding to some aspects related to the megagametogenesis of A. tequilana, this is the first report describing the complete process of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, the early embryo and endosperm development process in detail. The objective of this work was to study and characterize all the above processes and the distinctive morphological changes of the micropylar and chalazal extremes after fertilization in this species. The agave plant material for the present study was collected from commercial plantations in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Ovules and immature seeds, previously fixed in FAA and kept in ethanol 70%, were stained based on a tissue clarification technique by using a Mayer's-Hematoxylin solution. The tissue clarification technique was successfully used for the characterization of the megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, mature embryo sac formation, the early embryo and endosperm development processes by studying intact cells. The embryo sac of A. tequilana was confirmed to be of the monosporic Polygonum-type and an helobial endosperm formation. Also, the time-lapse of the developmental processes studied was recorded. PMID:25332875

  14. Giant pandas are not an evolutionary cul-de-sac: evidence from multidisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Hu, Yibo; Yan, Li; Nie, Yonggang; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most endangered mammals and remains threatened by environmental and anthropogenic pressure. It is commonly argued that giant pandas are an evolutionary cul-de-sac because of their specialized bamboo diet, phylogenetic changes in body size, small population, low genetic diversity, and low reproductive rate. This notion is incorrect, arose from a poor understanding or appreciation of giant panda biology, and is in need of correction. In this review, we summarize research across morphology, ecology, and genetics to dispel the idea, once and for all, that giant pandas are evolutionary dead-end. The latest and most advanced research shows that giant pandas are successful animals highly adapted to a specialized bamboo diet via morphological, ecological, and genetic adaptations and coadaptation of gut microbiota. We also debunk misconceptions around population size, population growth rate, and genetic variation. During their evolutionary history spanning 8 My, giant pandas have survived diet specialization, massive bamboo flowering and die off, and rapid climate oscillations. Now, they are suffering from enormous human interference. Fortunately, continued conservation effort is greatly reducing impacts from anthropogenic interference and allowing giant panda populations and habitat to recover. Previous ideas of a giant panda evolutionary cul-de-sac resulted from an unsystematic and unsophisticated understanding of their biology and it is time to shed this baggage and focus on the survival and maintenance of this high-profile species. PMID:25274274

  15. Air Sac Nematode Monopetalonema alcedinis in a Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Ellen; Kelly, Kathleen; Hoberg, Eric P

    2014-10-01

    Sporadic and geographically widespread reports of parasites affecting the Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) have been published but few have described details of the pathology. A female, adult kingfisher was found dead in a heavily wooded area of a zoo in Maryland, USA. At necropsy, numerous sexually dimorphic, 4.4-40.5-cm adult Monopetalonema alcedinis nematodes were found tightly wound within the coelomic cavity between organs and completely filling the caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs. Abundant, 30-60-µm diameter, larvated, thick-walled ova were found in the bronchi and parabronchi, within the mesentery, and in the serosa of multiple coelomic organs. Monopetalonema alcedinis is a characteristic member of the superfamily Diplotriaenoidea, a group of nematodes occurring in birds and reptiles. Infective larvae within an invertebrate intermediate host are ingested and penetrate the intestine, traveling to the lungs and then into the air sacs, where the adult females release eggs. The ova are coughed up by the avian host and passed in feces. Specimens of M. alcedinis have been found in the Belted Kingfisher, although typically intensity of infection is low and infections remain asymptomatic. In contrast, we report the second documented case of high numbers of M. alcedinis resulting in pathologic changes in which parasitism contributed to host mortality. PMID:25271642

  16. Immune responsiveness of Japanese quail selected for egg yolk testosterone content under severe protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Kankova, Zuzana; Okuliarova, Monika; Zeman, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Yolk testosterone concentrations vary in response to environmental conditions and different testosterone contents can subsequently modify the phenotypic traits of offspring. Apart from effects on growth, proactive behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics, the possible negative impacts of maternal testosterone on the immune system are often considered a limitation for its deposition. The effects of maternal testosterone can be modulated by postnatal environmental conditions, such as the availability of food resources. However, the majority of studies considering the effects of maternal testosterone on the immune system have been conducted under optimum conditions. We evaluated the influence of genetic selection for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone content in Japanese quail on immune responsiveness of offspring to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation under severe protein restriction. Protein restriction negatively influenced body weight and performance in the PHA-test. We observed an increase in Cort (corticosterone) and He/Ly (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) after LPS, while no changes occurred in total IgY levels in the protein-restricted group. HET quails showed higher body mass and total IgY levels and lower He/Ly ratio than LET quails, while the PHA index and Cort concentration did not differ between lines. No interactions were found between protein restriction and genetic line. In conclusion, the immune response was not compromised under conditions of severe protein restriction in the faster growing HET line compared with the LET line. We hypothesise that the immune responsiveness of birds with higher yolk testosterone may be linked with other maternally-derived substances in a context-dependent manner. PMID:25086332

  17. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on cryopreservation of Boer goat semen in Tris egg yolk extender.

    PubMed

    Memon, Akeel Ahmed; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Goh, Y M; Ebrahimi, M; Nadia, F M; Audrey, G

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant added in different concentrations to the Tris egg yolk extenders on semen cytological parameters pre freezing and post thawing (motility, morphology, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity) of Boer goat spermatozoa. A total of 40 ejaculates from four Boer goat bucks were collected using an artificial vagina. Ten replicates of the ejaculates were diluted with a Tris egg yolk based extender which contained various concentrations (0.5mM, 1.0mM, 2.0mM and 3.0mM) of butylated hydroxytoluene while one sample was processed without supplementation of antioxidant and served as control. The diluted semen was cooled at 4°C and loaded into the straw and then stored in liquid nitrogen. It was evident that supplementation of BHT produces positive effect in terms of motility, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity in comparison with the control group in cooled and frozen Boer goat semen. Results showed significant differences in motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability of cooled and frozen Boer goat spermatozoa at different concentrations. Motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability was significantly higher in all treated groups than the control group (P<0.05) while there was no significant differences (P>0.05) in morphology trait between all group in cooled semen. However, improvement (P<0.05) was observed only in terms of the membrane integrity and acrosome integrity compared to the control and other treated groups in frozen semen. In conclusion, BHT can be used in cryopreservation of Boer goat semen in order to reduce the oxidative stress on spermatozoa. PMID:22024366

  18. Cholesterol and iron availability in yolk of laying hens feed with annatto ( Bixa orellana).

    PubMed

    Harder, M N C; Canniatti-Brazaca, S G; Coelho, A A D; Savino, V J M; Franco, C F O

    2007-03-01

    Pigmented egg yolks are more attractive. Popular culture treats annatto as a powerful anticholesterolemic agent, besides being widely used in the form of industry pigment. This work evaluated the effects of the addition of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in the feed of hens, verifying a possible alteration of cholesterol in the yolks, content of carotenes, and iron and available iron, over time. One hundred and twenty-five hens divided in control (0% - T1) and four annatto-added treatments (0.5% - T2; 1.0% - T3; 1.5% - T4, and 2.0% - T5) were used. Eggs were collected at 23, 25, 27, 29 and 30 weeks. The animals were randomly separated into five groups of five animals each. The cholesterol was measured by the colorimetric method, vitamin A (? and ? carotene) by spectrophotometry, total iron by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and dialysable iron by dialysis. Tukey's test was used at the 5% level for comparison of the averages. Regarding cholesterol, treatments T2 and T3 did not differ significantly. However, other treatments differed ( P ? 0.05) from the control, decreasing the cholesterol level as the percentage of annatto in the feed increased. In time, there was a significant increase ( P ? 0.05). For ? and ? carotene, T5 presented statistically higher values than the others ( P ? 0.05). With regard to total iron, T5 had higher values than the others. Dialysable iron was also higher, probably due to the increase in carotenes. Thus, we can conclude that the use of annatto in the feed of layer hens is useful, as it provokes the reduction of cholesterol and promotes an increase in the content of iron and carotenes in eggs. PMID:22444346

  19. N-glycan moieties of the crustacean egg yolk protein and their glycosylation sites.

    PubMed

    Roth, Ziv; Parnes, Shmuel; Wiel, Simy; Sagi, Amir; Zmora, Nili; Chung, J Sook; Khalaila, Isam

    2010-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of the egg yolk glycoprotein of crustaceans. In the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Vg is synthesized in the hepatopancreas, secreted to the hemolymph, and taken up by means of receptor-mediated endocytosis into the oocytes. The importance of glycosylation of Vg lies in its putative role in the folding, processing and transport of this protein to the egg yolk and in the fact that the N-glycan moieties could provide a source of carbohydrate during embryogenesis. The present study describes, for the first time, the structure of the glycan moieties and their sites of attachment to the Vg of M. rosenbergii. Bioinformatics analysis revealed seven putative N-glycosylation sites in M. rosenbergii Vg; two of these glycosylation sites are conserved throughout the Vgs of decapod crustaceans from the Pleocyemata suborder (N 159 and N 660). The glycosylation of six putative sites of M. rosenbergii Vg (N 151, N 159, N ,168 N ,614 N 660 and N 2300) was confirmed; three of the confirmed glycosylation sites are localized around the N-terminally conserved N-glycosylation site N 159. From a theoretical three-dimensional structure, these three N-glycosylated sites N 151, N 159, and N 168 were localized on the surface of the Vg consensus sequence. In addition, an uncommon high mannose N-linked oligosaccharide structure with a glucose cap (Glc1Man9GlcNAc2) was characterized in the secreted Vg. These findings thus make a significant contribution to the structural elucidating of the crustacean Vg glycan moieties, which may shed light on their role in protein folding and transport and in recognition between Vg and its target organ, the oocyte. PMID:19921429

  20. Moderate Heat Challenge Increased Yolk Steroid Hormones and Shaped Offspring Growth and Behavior in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Chanson, Marine; Delaveau, Joël; Mercerand, Frédéric; Möstl, Erich; Calandreau, Ludovic; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Collin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature–within the thermotolerance range- would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in turn, affect the morphology and behavioral phenotype of offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Laying hens were raised under a standard thermal condition at 21°C (controls) or 30°C (experimental) for 5 consecutive weeks. A significant increase was observed in the internal temperature of hens exposed to the warm treatment; however plasma corticosterone levels remained unaffected. The laying rate was not affected, but experimental hens laid lighter eggs than the controls during the treatment. As expected, the maternal thermal environment affected yolk hormone contents. Eggs laid by the experimental hens showed significantly higher concentrations of yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol. All chicks were raised under standard thermal conditions. The quality of hatchlings, growth, feeding behavior and emotional reactivity of chicks were analyzed. Offspring of experimental hens (C30 chicks) were lighter but obtained better morphological quality scores at hatching than the controls (C21 chicks). C30 chicks expressed lesser distress calls when exposed to a novel food. Unlike C21 chicks, C30 chicks expressed no preference for energetic food. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that moderate heat challenge triggers maternal effects and modulate the developmental trajectory of offspring in a way that may be adaptive. This suggests that the impact of heat challenges on captive or wild populations might have a cross-generation effect. PMID:23451257

  1. Using simple spray pyrolysis to prepare yolk-shell-structured ZnO-Mn3O4 systems with the optimum composition for superior electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-03-10

    A spray-pyrolysis process is introduced as an effective tool for the preparation of yolk-shell-structured materials with electrochemical properties suitable for anode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Yolk-shell-structured ZnO-Mn3O4 systems with various molar ratios of the Zn and Mn components are prepared. The yolk-shell-structured ZnO-Mn3O4 powders with a molar ratio of 1:1 of the Zn and Mn components are shown to have high capacities and good cycling performances. PMID:24532417

  2. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Letter from the ... Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor Dictionary Upcoming Webinars Anytime Learning Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors ...

  3. Enlarging cells initiating apomixis in Hieracium praealtum transition to an embryo sac program prior to entering mitosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tucker, Matthew R; Taylor, Jennifer M; Johnson, Susan D; Spriggs, Andrew; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Oelkers, Karsten; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2013-09-01

    Hieracium praealtum forms seeds asexually by apomixis. During ovule development, sexual reproduction initiates with megaspore mother cell entry into meiosis and formation of a tetrad of haploid megaspores. The sexual pathway ceases when a diploid aposporous initial (AI) cell differentiates, enlarges, and undergoes mitosis, forming an aposporous embryo sac that displaces sexual structures. Embryo and endosperm development in aposporous embryo sacs is fertilization independent. Transcriptional data relating to apomixis initiation in Hieracium spp. ovules is scarce and the functional identity of the AI cell relative to other ovule cell types is unclear. Enlarging AI cells with undivided nuclei, early aposporous embryo sacs containing two to four nuclei, and random groups of sporophytic ovule cells not undergoing these events were collected by laser capture microdissection. Isolated amplified messenger RNA samples were sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform and comparatively analyzed to establish indicative roles of the captured cell types. Transcriptome and protein motif analyses showed that approximately one-half of the assembled contigs identified homologous sequences in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), of which the vast majority were expressed during early Arabidopsis ovule development. The sporophytic ovule cells were enriched in signaling functions. Gene expression indicative of meiosis was notably absent in enlarging AI cells, consistent with subsequent aposporous embryo sac formation without meiosis. The AI cell transcriptome was most similar to the early aposporous embryo sac transcriptome when comparing known functional annotations and both shared expressed genes involved in gametophyte development, suggesting that the enlarging AI cell is already transitioning to an embryo sac program prior to mitotic division. PMID:23864557

  4. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as the brain and visual pathways, and the individual’s age and overall health. Three types of treatment are used: surgical removal of the tumor; radiation therapy, in which high-dose x-rays are used to kill the tumor ...

  5. Tumor Description

    E-print Network

    Abstract—This paper used a fuzzy kohonen neural network for medical image segmentation. Image segmentation plays a important role in the many of medical imaging applications by automating or facilitating the diagnostic. The paper analyses the tumor by extraction of the features of (area, entropy, means and standard deviation).These measurements gives a description for a tumor.

  6. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  7. Bone Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taken for other reasons, such as a sprained ankle or rotator cu? problem. Doctor Examination If you think you might have a bone tumor, see your doctor as soon as possible for diagnosis and treatment. Occasionally, infection, stress fractures, and other non-tumor conditions can closely resemble ...

  8. Isolation of a tumor factor responsible for angiogenesis

    E-print Network

    Judah Folkman; Ezio Merler; Charles Abernathy; Anb Gretchen

    1971-01-01

    Algire suggested that an attribute of tumor cells is their capacity to elicit continuously the growth of new capillary endothelium in vivo (1). Subsequently, Greene observed that tiny tumors implanted for more than a year in the anterior chamber of the guinea pig eye would not grow because they could not become vascularized (2). When these tumors were reimplanted in the muscle of a rabbit where they could become vascularized, they grew to a large size. The growth of tumors which have been implanted in any one of several different organs and maintained by a long-term perfusion stops when the tumor reaches a diameter of 3-4 mm (3). Further growth of tumor tissue in in vitro organ cultures cannot be sustained without neovascularization of the tumor (4). Neovascularization does not require direct contact by tumor cells since vessels have been elicited from the hamster cheek pottch by tumors contained in a Millipore filter (5, 6). Similar outgrowth of new blood vessels was observed by us when Millipore chambers containing cells of B-16 melanoma or Walker carcinoma were implanted into the dorsal air sac of rats. In the present communication, the isolation of a soluble factor from human and animal neoplasms which is mitogenic for capillary endothelium is described. This factor induces growth of new capillaries, and it is proposed that it is responsible for tumor angiogenesis. Materials and Methods Isolation of Tumor-Angiogenesis, Factor (TAF).l--Walker 256 ascites tumor was harvested from 21-day old Sprague-Dawley rats which had been injected with 2 X 106 tumor cells 4--5 days previously. About 5 ml of bloody aseites were removed aseptically from the exposed * This investigation was supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grants CA 08185-5-05,

  9. Infarction of lesser omental fat mimicking an exophytic pancreatic tumor by sonography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Dal Mo; Jin, Wook; Joh, Jin Hyun

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of infarction of lesser omental fat in a 30-year-old woman who presented with epigastric pain. Sonography revealed a painful echogenic mass in the epigastrium that could not be separated from the adjacent hyperechoic pancreas and mimicked an exophytic pancreatic tumor. On CT, the mass was identified as an inflammatory lipomatous mass in the lesser sac, leading to the diagnosis of infarction of lesser omental fat. The patient was successfully treated conservatively. PMID:21449000

  10. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON THE COST OF PRODUCING FINGERLINGS FROM CHANNEL CATFISH STOCKED AS SAC FRY OR AS HATCHERY-FED SWIM-UP FRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some producers stock channel catfish sac fry in nursery ponds as early as two days after hatching to reduce hatchery operating costs associated with the traditional practice of feeding swim-up fry for 7-10 days prior to stocking. This study was conducted to determine if stocking catfish sac fry two...

  11. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  12. Supplementation of laying hen feed with tocopherols and algal (Haematococcus pluvialis) astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enhancement and a novel use of egg yolk protein and lecithin in the formation of artificial oil bodies for stabilizing omega-3 oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie Ann Walker

    2011-01-01

    Feeding Study\\u000aAdding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Research on astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols indicates this compound is a potent antioxidants and provides health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed will result in egg yolks with increased nutrient content with minimum change in functional properties. Laying hens (W-36

  13. COMPETITIVE AND DOUBLE ANTIBODY SANDWICH ELISA FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF LACTOFERRINS BY USING MONOCLONAL AND CHICKEN EGG YOLK IgY ANTIBODIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoon Sunwoo; Naiyana Gujral; Mavanur Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Two effective competitive and double antibody sandwich ELISA based on monoclonal (MAb) and chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies were developed to determine lactoferrin (LF) content in infant and milk formulas. Leghorn laying hens were immunized with purified bovine and human LFs to produce anti-bovine LF and anti-human LF IgY antibody in the egg yolk. After 5–8 weeks of the immunization,

  14. PURIFICATION OF ANTI-HBsAg FROM EGG YOLKS OF IMMUNIZED HENS AND ITS APPLICATION FOR DETECTION OF HBsAg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manouchehr Makvandi; Reza Fiuzi PharmD

    2002-01-01

    Background- The hen's egg yolk possesses an immunoglobulin known as immunoglobulin (Ig) Y, with an advantage over conventional antibody production of certain antigens. The aims of this study were to produce anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the egg yolk of hens immunized with hepatitis B vaccine and to coat anti-HBsAg to the wells of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

  15. Three Hen Strains Fed Photoisomerized trans,trans CLA-Rich Soy Oil Exhibit Different Yolk Accumulation Rates and Source-Specific Isomer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2015-04-01

    Most CLA chicken feeding trials used cis,trans (c,t) and trans,cis (t,c) CLA isomers to produce CLA-rich eggs, while reports of trans,trans (t,t) CLA enrichment in egg yolks are limited. The CLA yolk fatty acid profile changes and the 10-12 days of feeding needed for maximum CLA are well documented, but there is no information describing CLA accumulation during initial feed administration. In addition, no information on CLA accumulation rates in different hen strains is available. The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model that described yolk CLA accumulation and depletion in three hen strains by using t,t CLA-rich soybean oil produced by photoisomerization. Diets of 30-week Leghorns, broilers, and jungle fowl were supplemented with 15 % CLA-rich soy oil for 16 days, and eggs were collected for 32 days. Yolk fatty acid profiles were measured by GC-FID. CLA accumulation and depletion was modeled by both quadratic and piecewise regression analysis. A strong quadratic model was proposed, but it was not as effective as piecewise regression in describing CLA accumulation and depletion. Broiler hen eggs contained the greatest concentration of CLA at 3.2 mol/100 g egg yolk, then jungle fowl at 2.9 mol CLA, and Leghorns at 2.3 mol CLA. The t,t CLA isomer levels remained at 55 % of total yolk CLA during CLA feeding. However, t-10,c-12 (t,c) CLA concentration increased slightly during CLA accumulation and was significantly greater than c-9,t-11 CLA. Jungle fowl had the smallest increase in yolk saturated fat with CLA yolk accumulation. PMID:25771890

  16. Higher incorporation of heterologous chicken immunoglobulin Y compared with homologous quail immunoglobulin Y into egg yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Bae, H-D; Kitaguchi, K; Horio, F; Murai, A

    2009-08-01

    In avian species, blood IgY is selectively incorporated into the yolks of maturing oocytes, although the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Our previous study showed that 22% of i.v.-injected heterologous chicken IgY (cIgY) was incorporated into egg yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). However, it is not known whether homologous quail IgY (qIgY) can be more efficiently incorporated into quail egg yolks than cIgY. Therefore, we compared the uptakes of qIgY and cIgY i.v. administered into quail egg yolks and further characterized the uptakes of these 2 antibodies into quail ovarian follicles. Quail IgY and cIgY purified from the blood of the respective bird were labeled with digoxigenin, and their uptakes into quail egg yolks were determined by ELISA. Unexpectedly, total incorporation of the injected qIgY was only one-third of that of cIgY, although much more qIgY was left in blood compared with cIgY, suggesting that qIgY is the less preferable antibody as a transport ligand into quail egg yolks. On the other hand, deposition of the qIgY into heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and ovarian follicular membrane was markedly higher than that of cIgY. Amino acid sequence analysis of 3 peptides derived from the trypsin-digested qIgY heavy chain revealed low homology between qIgY and cIgY. In conclusion, our results show that heterologous cIgY is more efficiently incorporated into quail egg yolks than homologous qIgY, possibly due to a distinctive antibody transport system existing in oocytes. The present results also may provide a new strategy for delivering useful proteinaceous substances into egg yolks in an attempt to produce designer eggs. PMID:19590086

  17. TUMOR VIRUSES

    E-print Network

    It has been known for many years that infection of an experimental animal with one of a relatively small group of viruses somehow resulted in the appearance of gross tumors. Because of this and the known intimate relationships between the infecting virus and the functions of the cell it invades, many scientists have hypothesized that cancer in man may well be of viral etiology. Yet even today when the amount and sophistication of tumor virus research has markedly increased in recent years, it is not known how a virus transforms a normal cell to one having the properties of a tumor cell nor is there direct evidence that viruses cause cancer in man. However, in the last five years there has been a remarkable change in the experimental approach to the study of tumor viruses. Whereas most early investigations were limited to observations of biological phenomena at the whole animal-gross tumor level, now modern, virological, biochemical, and immunological methods are used to examine the quantitative interaction of tumor viruses with the single cell in the transforming event and to look for determining characteristics of the tumor virus particles, as such. This has been a logical development as techniques in these basic areas have been discovered and applied to other biological problems. Thus, although the final answers are still far from being achieved, we find that a number of basic factors of importance in viral oncogenesis have been defined in certain experimental virus-induced tumor systems. IMPORTANCE OF IN VITRO SYSTEMS FOR VIRUS TRANSFORMATION The chief reason that we are able to start formulating some tentative answers to the question of how a virus transforms a normal cell to a tumor cell is the development of tissue culture systems in which virus transformation occurs in vitro. The degree of control that these isolated systems

  18. Glioneuronal Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Simon; Rudolf A. Kristof; Johannes Schramm

    \\u000a Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors are thought to arise from neuroepithelial cells. According to the 2007 WHO classification,\\u000a this group of tumors comprises ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma, desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and ganglioglioma,\\u000a dys-plastic cerebellar gangliocytoma (Lhermitte–Duclos disease), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), central neurocytoma,\\u000a cerebellar liponeurocytoma (CLN), paraganglioma of the cauda equina (PCE), and the more recently recognized subtypes papillary\\u000a glion-euronal

  19. Comparative Study of Endolymphatic Sac Decompression and Vestibular Neurectomy in Intractable Meniere's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqing; Han, Jie; Zhou, Xuanchen; Luan, Deheng; Xie, Fengyang; Gao, Kun

    2015-03-01

    To comparative study the clinical effect of endolymphatic sac decompression (ELSD) and vestibular neurectomy (VN) in intractable Meniere's disease (MD). The study included 30 MD intractable patients, 21 of which underwent ELSD and nine of which were treated by VN via retrosigmoid approach. Follow-up period ranged from 3 to 6 years. In 21 patients by ELSD, excellent vertigo control and good control were noted in 11 patients (52.4 %) and 4 patients (19.0 %), partial control in 4 and no control in 2 patients. All the 9 patients by VN, vertigo was excellent control. ELSD can improve hearing and tinnitus, but VN not. VN can achieve much better effect in improving vertigo in intractable MD patients. But relative to ELSD, it has much more disadvantages. PMID:25621233

  20. [Regeneration of transgenic Lespedeza thunbergii expressing levansucrase gene (Sac B) from Bacillus subtilis].

    PubMed

    Du, Jin-You; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Li, Wei; Hu, Dong-Nan; Hu, Zan-Min

    2006-11-01

    The Bacillus subtilis Sac B gene with the vacuolar targeting signal sequence driven by 35S promotor was transferred into Lespedeza thunbergii by Agrobacterium mediated method. Total 62 Kan-resistant plants were obtained, of which 5 plants were proved to be transgenic plants. The transgenic plants were characterized by PCR amplification, PCR-Southern hybridization and RT-PCR. The physiological assay results showed that the transgenic plants were more tolerant to stress than the controls under the condition of 200mmol/L NaCl and 5% PEG, respectively, and that the content of soluble sugar in trnsgenic plants was significantly higher than that of controls in the period of tests (5-15 days) under salt and PEG stress. PMID:17168316