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Sample records for yolk sac tumor

  1. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor outside of the midline of the body: a case report of a child with a yolk sac tumor of the pontocerebellar angle.

    PubMed

    Lazzareschi, Ilaria; Furfaro, Ilaria Francesca; Coccia, Paola; Puma, Nadia; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor is a rare germ cell neoplasm occurring mainly in the gonads. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is a very rare malignancy; its main distribution is along the midline of the body at three principal sites: mediastinum, central nervous system and retroperitoneum. Most yolk sac tumors are diagnosed between seven months and three years of age. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor in a 13-month-old child. The tumor was located in the pontocerebellar angle, an atypical location that may not have suggested a yolk sac tumor as first diagnosis. We want to highlight the importance of performing tumor marker measurements during the first year of life, also for tumors located away from the midline. PMID:20210256

  2. Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis. PMID:22978485

  3. Sinonasal pure yolk sac tumor: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Huei Chieh; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Li-yu

    2014-06-01

    Extragonadal pure yolk sac tumor of sinonasal origin is very rare. We report herein a case with sinonasal yolk sac tumor in a 1 year and 3 months old girl. The initial complaint was persistent nasal bleeding for about 2 months. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass in paranasal sinus that extended to oral cavity, nasopharynx, and oropharynx. The histology showed typical features of yolk sac tumor and the positive immunohistochemical staining of SALL4 and ?-fetoprotein. After tumor excision, adjuvant chemotherapy of JEB regimen was prescribed. After the follow-up for 13-months, ?-fetoprotein was normal and neither tumor progression nor metastasis was found. We review the previous literature and discuss the etiology, histology, treatment, and the prognosis of the rare sinonasal yolk sac tumor. PMID:24547992

  4. Extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor: case report and review of published work.

    PubMed

    Pasternack, Tanya; Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Piura, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumors are rare, with only nine cases documented previously in the published work. We report a case of extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor occurring synchronously with breast carcinoma. The patient underwent resection of the pelvic tumor and hepatic implant, omentectomy and breast lumpectomy with sentinel axillary lymph node biopsy. The uterus and bilateral adnexa were preserved. Postoperative adjuvant therapy for the yolk sac tumor included three cycles of the bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) regimen. This was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for the breast carcinoma. It is concluded that in women with extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor who wish to preserve childbearing capacity, fertility-saving surgery followed by fertility-preserving cisplatin-based chemotherapy is adequate and appropriate treatment. PMID:18840194

  5. A subcutaneous paraspinal yolk sac tumor in a child.

    PubMed

    Tekgndz, Sibel A; Bozkurt, Ceyhun; Sahin, Grses; Apaydin, Sema; ren, Ay?e C; Balkaya, Eda; Ertem, Ay?e U

    2014-03-01

    A 3-year-old girl underwent a surgery at an external center on July 2011 for a swelling in the left lumbar paravertebral subcutaneous region. The mass was completely excised and the pathologic diagnosis was a yolk sac tumor (YST). Laboratory tests revealed a serum ?-fetoprotein level of 278 IU/mL. Investigations using bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a scar tissue at the surgical site and lesions indicating metastasis at the lumbar first, second, third, and fifth vertebra. The patient was administered 5 cycles of PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin) treatment. The serum ?-fetoprotein was 3 IU/mL after the treatment. The lumbar magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy results were normal. The patient continues to be in remission since June 2012. YSTs are most commonly seen in the testis, ovary, and sacrococcygeal regions. Atypical locations have been reported with the primary lesion in the stomach, diaphragm, omentum, sino-nasal region, cranial base, lungs, vagina, and penis. Our case is probably a YST with an atypical location derived from preliminary cells left under the skin because of a migration defect. PMID:24556799

  6. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis. PMID:26798532

  7. Gonadoblastoma and hepatoid and endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: an update.

    PubMed

    Ulbright, Thomas M

    2014-07-01

    Dr Robert E. Scully greatly advanced our understanding of germ cell neoplasia to the extent that it is difficult to narrow the discussion of his contributions to this topic so that it can be covered in a brief article. This article accordingly focuses on some of the recent developments concerning 2 of his major contributions in this area-the gonadoblastoma (GB) and variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor. GB was defined by Dr Scully in 1953 and its features elaborated in detail by him in 1970. This neoplasm occurred in young patients who often displayed phenotypic sex ambiguities and frequently presented with primary amenorrhea. It was bilateral in 40%, and consisted of circumscribed nests of small sex cord cells and germinoma-like cells admixed with round deposits of eosinophilic, hyaline, often calcified material. These nests were set in a spindle cell gonadal stroma with Leydig-like or lutein-like cells. Because of his work we now understand that this precursor to invasive germ cell tumors occurs in patients with a specific form of disorder of sex development, namely gonadal dysgenesis, and only in those who have a particular portion of the Y chromosome, the GB locus/TSPY gene, within the gonadal tissue. An essential element to the development of GB appears to be a defect in the genetic pathway that leads to the development of Sertoli cells. Improperly formed Sertoli cells predispose to "delayed maturation" of the gonocytes of the gonad and predispose them to undergo malignant transformation. "Undifferentiated gonadal tissue" has been proposed as the precursor to the development of GB and consists of an unorganized mixture of apparently non-neoplastic germ cells, germ cells with delayed maturation, and neoplastic germ cells with sex cord cells and gonadal stroma. Two variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor were also recognized by Dr Scully. In the hepatoid variant features similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occurred, although primitive glandular foci and lack of liver involvement permitted its distinction in most cases. More recently this variant has been found to occasionally produce bile in canalicular-like structures and to stain strongly for both SALL4 and glypican 3, 2 recently described markers of yolk sac tumor. Recognition of hepatoid yolk sac tumor was followed by the description of a potential mimic, primary ovarian hepatoid carcinoma, which, however, occurred in a significantly older patient population and was occasionally associated with surface epithelial neoplasia. The endometrioid-like variant of yolk sac tumor simulated primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma. It can be suspected on routine stains because of primitive appearing nuclei, frequent subnuclear vacuoles, and in some cases association with more usual yolk sac tumor. Its recognition is now facilitated by a panel of immunohistochemical stains that are often expressed differentially in these 2 neoplasms--endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: positive for SALL4, glypican 3, and ?-fetoprotein; endometrioid adenocarcinoma: positive for cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen. Finally, Dr Scully contributed one of the first cases in the literature of yet another nuance in the complicated world of yolk sac neoplasia, namely the development of some tumors on the background of a surface epithelial neoplasm. This is analogous to the more common development of choriocarcinoma from carcinoma and, in the case of yolk sac tumor, diagnosis is aided clinically by the usual older age of the patient and nature of the associated neoplasia. PMID:24901396

  8. Transcription Factor GATA-4 Is Expressed in Pediatric Yolk Sac Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Siltanen, Susanna; Anttonen, Mikko; Heikkil, Pivi; Narita, Naoko; Laitinen, Mika; Ritvos, Olli; Wilson, David B.; Heikinheimo, Markku

    1999-01-01

    Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are malignant tumors that occur in the gonads of children and young adults, and at extragonadal sites in young children. The histological features of YSTs are variable and can be superimposed on other germ cell tumor histologies. Malignant endodermal cells within YSTs express ?-fetoprotein, which can be detected in tumor tissue or serum. However, additional markers of endoderm differentiation would be beneficial for the classification of these tumors. Transcription factor GATA-4 regulates the differentiation and function of murine yolk sac endoderm, and its expression correlates with proliferation and cell survival in certain tissues. To see whether GATA-4 plays a role in human YSTs, we surveyed its expression in human germ cell tumors and cell lines. Northern analysis demonstrated expression of GATA-4 mRNA in four human germ cell tumor lines exhibiting yolk sac endoderm differentiation. GATA-4 protein was detected in eight of nine pediatric YSTs by immunohistochemistry. Three of five immature teratomas exhibited GATA-4 in neural blastematous cells and in cylindrical epithelium, whereas all 16 mature teratomas were devoid of GATA-4. We conclude that GATA-4 is a clinically useful marker of human YSTs and speculate that it may play a role in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype. PMID:10595911

  9. Transcription factor GATA-4 is expressed in pediatric yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Siltanen, S; Anttonen, M; Heikkil, P; Narita, N; Laitinen, M; Ritvos, O; Wilson, D B; Heikinheimo, M

    1999-12-01

    Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are malignant tumors that occur in the gonads of children and young adults, and at extragonadal sites in young children. The histological features of YSTs are variable and can be superimposed on other germ cell tumor histologies. Malignant endodermal cells within YSTs express alpha-fetoprotein, which can be detected in tumor tissue or serum. However, additional markers of endoderm differentiation would be beneficial for the classification of these tumors. Transcription factor GATA-4 regulates the differentiation and function of murine yolk sac endoderm, and its expression correlates with proliferation and cell survival in certain tissues. To see whether GATA-4 plays a role in human YSTs, we surveyed its expression in human germ cell tumors and cell lines. Northern analysis demonstrated expression of GATA-4 mRNA in four human germ cell tumor lines exhibiting yolk sac endoderm differentiation. GATA-4 protein was detected in eight of nine pediatric YSTs by immunohistochemistry. Three of five immature teratomas exhibited GATA-4 in neural blastematous cells and in cylindrical epithelium, whereas all 16 mature teratomas were devoid of GATA-4. We conclude that GATA-4 is a clinically useful marker of human YSTs and speculate that it may play a role in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype. PMID:10595911

  10. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

  11. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

  12. Adult metastatic yolk sac tumor descending from an intra-abdominal testis: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHAO; YAN, BIN; WEI, YONG-BAO; YIN, ZHUO; ZHOU, KE-QIN; YANG, JIN-RUI

    2015-01-01

    Pure yolk sac tumors are extremely rare in adults; to the best of our knowledge, <20 cases have been reported. Multiple metastases originating from a pure yolk sac testicular tumor, descending from an intra-abdominal testis, are additionally extremely rare. In the present case, a man exhibiting a 30-year history of cryptorchidism and indirect inguinal hernia, was admitted to the Department of Urology (The Second Xiangya Hospital, Changsha, China) due to a mass that had descended from the abdominal cavity 7 months previously. Elevated levels of specific serum marker (?-fetoprotein, lactate dehydrogenase and human chorionic gonadotropin) did not indicate potential testicular germ cell types prior to surgery and pathological examination. Pathological results and immunohistochemistry revealed a testicular pure yolk sac tumor subsequent to surgery. The present case report and literature review describes the typical characteristics of an adult testicular yolk sac tumor, as well as the diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:26788184

  13. Yolk sac tumor of the external auditory canal: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huijuan; Tang, Qionglan; Zhen, Tiantian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Han, Anjia

    2015-01-01

    We report one case of yolk sac tumor of the ear and review the literature. The patient was a 9-month boy who scratched his right ear repeatedly one month ago. Computed tomography scan showed an irregular elongated mass image measuring 42×16 mm was found in the right external auditory canal. The tumor was located underneath of the epidermis with ulceration. Mild or moderate atypical round or oval tumor cells were arranged in nest and reticular pattern around vesicular or cystic spaces. Tumor cells had abundant eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm and marked nucleoli. Mitotic figures were about 7/10HPF. Poorly formed Schiller-Duvall body was occasionally present. The stroma was loose and rich in capillaries. Hyaline globules could be found in the stroma. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, SALL4, glypican-3, focal positive for EMA, vimentin, CD10, and CD34, but negative for a-fetoprotein, HCG, PLAP. The serum α-fetoprotein was 664.60 ng/mL (normal, ≤25 ng/mL). Yolk sac tumor of the ear is extremely rare, especially α-fetoprotein negative expression in our case. The differential diagnosis includes embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, paraganglioma, myoepithelioma, carcinoma of skin appendages, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26823835

  14. Yolk sac tumor of the external auditory canal: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huijuan; Tang, Qionglan; Zhen, Tiantian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Han, Anjia

    2015-01-01

    We report one case of yolk sac tumor of the ear and review the literature. The patient was a 9-month boy who scratched his right ear repeatedly one month ago. Computed tomography scan showed an irregular elongated mass image measuring 4216 mm was found in the right external auditory canal. The tumor was located underneath of the epidermis with ulceration. Mild or moderate atypical round or oval tumor cells were arranged in nest and reticular pattern around vesicular or cystic spaces. Tumor cells had abundant eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm and marked nucleoli. Mitotic figures were about 7/10HPF. Poorly formed Schiller-Duvall body was occasionally present. The stroma was loose and rich in capillaries. Hyaline globules could be found in the stroma. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, SALL4, glypican-3, focal positive for EMA, vimentin, CD10, and CD34, but negative for a-fetoprotein, HCG, PLAP. The serum ?-fetoprotein was 664.60 ng/mL (normal, ?25 ng/mL). Yolk sac tumor of the ear is extremely rare, especially ?-fetoprotein negative expression in our case. The differential diagnosis includes embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, paraganglioma, myoepithelioma, carcinoma of skin appendages, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26823835

  15. Transcription factor GATA-6 is expressed in malignant endoderm of pediatric yolk sac tumors and in teratomas.

    PubMed

    Siltanen, Susanna; Heikkil, Pivi; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Wilson, David B; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2003-10-01

    Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 play critical roles in mammalian yolk sac differentiation and function. Previously, we showed that GATA-4 is a potential marker for malignant yolk sac endoderm in pediatric germ cell tumors. This highly malignant tissue can cause diagnostic problems because yolk sac components may be difficult to differentiate from other, especially immature, tissue types in teratomas. In the search for new molecular markers for germ cell tumors, we have surveyed GATA-6 expression in benign and malignant pediatric germ cell tumors using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. GATA-6 was expressed in most yolk sac tumors examined and also in nonmalignant tissues including gut/respiratory epithelium, sebocytes, and neuroepithelium in mature and immature teratomas. Given that GATA-6 has not been discovered in sebocytes before, this finding was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of normal mouse samples, indicating a function for this transcription factor in the mammalian skin. Taken together, GATA-6 can be used to identify yolk sac components in pediatric germ cell tumors. Furthermore, it is also expressed in specific tissues in teratomas. GATA-6, together with GATA-4, can thus be used as a novel molecular marker in characterizing of pediatric germ cell tumors. PMID:12867597

  16. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma. PMID:26073245

  17. Yolk sac tumor in postmenopausal patients: pure or associated with adenocarcinoma, a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Przybycin, Christopher G

    2014-09-01

    Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) of the ovary usually present in young women and have been rarely reported in postmenopausal patients. Most of the cases in young patients are pure or associated with other germ cell components; however, in older patients there is an unusual association with Mllerian epithelial elements, for the most part malignant. We report two cases, both in older patients. One of the YSTs was associated with high-grade serous and endometrioid carcinoma, while the other case showed pure YST. The YST component showed positivity for SALL4, AFP and Glypican-3 and negative staining for PAX8 supporting a germ cell tumor differentiation; SALL4 and PAX8 markers have not been previously analyzed in this setting. Both tumors recurred within 7 months despite systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25083963

  18. CT imaging of ovarian yolk sac tumor with emphasis on differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang-Kang; Zheng, Yu; Lin, Jian-Bang; Xu, Gui-Xiao; Cai, Ai-Qun; Zhou, Xiu-Guo; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms. No radiological study has been done to compare the imaging findings between this type of tumor and other ovarian tumors. Here we analyzed the CT findings of 11 pathologically proven ovarian YSTs and compared their imaging findings with 18 other types of ovarian tumors in the same age range. Patient age, tumor size, tumor shape, ascites and metastasis of two groups did not differ significantly (P?>?0.05). A mixed solid-cystic nature, intratumoral hemorrhage, marked enhancement and dilated intratumoral vessel of two groups differed significantly (P?tumors. PMID:26074455

  19. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lin, ShaoChun; Li, XueHua; Feng, ShiTing; Peng, ZhenPeng; Huang, SiYun; Li, ZiPing

    2014-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement. PMID:25246826

  20. Primary yolk sac tumor of the liver: incidental finding in a patient transplanted for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lenci, Ilaria; Tariciotti, Laura; Baiocchi, Leonardo; Manzia, Tommaso Maria; Toti, Luca; Craboledda, Paolo; Callea, Francesco; Angelico, Mario; Tisone, Giuseppe

    2008-06-01

    A 64-year-old man with HBV-related cirrhosis presented with a liver nodule measuring 2.8 cm revealed by a routine ultrasound and concomitant increased alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) up to 400 UI/l. Contrast-enhanced CT was suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the patient underwent laser ablation procedure. Five months later, because of raised AFP up to 1600 UI/l, ultrasonography and abdominal CT were repeated, showing an increased diameter of liver nodule, measuring 3.8 cm. The patient underwent down-staged trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and then was entered into the active liver transplant (LT) list. Lamivudine was already started and the patient underwent LT showing HBV-DNA serum levels <10(3) log/copies at the time of surgery. Pathological analysis performed on the explanted liver showed, instead of the suspected HCC, hepatic yolk sac tumor with the presence of typical 'Schiller-Duval bodies'. The first 12 months of postoperative follow-up were excellent, with no evidence of tumor recurrence. PMID:18363574

  1. Pediatric Vaginal Yolk Sac Tumor: Reappraisal of Treatment Strategy in a Rare Tumor at a Unique Location.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Revathi; Ariffin, Hany; Krishnan, Shekhar; Abdullah, Wan A; Lin, Hai Peng

    2015-07-01

    Review of the management of 6 young girls with vaginal yolk sac tumor over 25 years showed that the ?-fetoprotein levels normalized in 5/6 within 4 cycles of primary cisplatin, bleomycin, etoposide (PEB)/carboplatin, etoposide, bleomycin (JEB)/cisplatin, vinblastine, bleomycin (PVB) chemotherapy. Radioimaging revealed residual tissue but viable tumor was found in only 1 of 2 biopsied. Resection/biopsy is necessary to avoid giving additional primary chemotherapy or to identify patients who need different treatment. If markers do not decay appropriately, PEB/JEB/PVB chemotherapy should not be continued. Taxol-containing salvage chemotherapy regimens, adjuvant modern radiotherapeutic treatment, and fertility-saving curative surgery should then be considered. Despite having mostly advanced disease, 5/6 patients were cured, 2 with chemotherapy alone. PMID:25929614

  2. Rare case of conus medullaris syndrome from a metastatic yolk sac tumor originating from the mediastinum of an adult male: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Scott D.; Shamie, Arya N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Yolk sac tumors (YST) are malignant neoplasms. They are a subtype of germ cell tumors and typically originate in the gonads although extragonadal origins of such tumors have been described. Yolk sac tumors are commonly found in the gonads of infants and children and are extremely rare in adults. The goal of this case report is to describe the clinical presentation of a rare case of metastatic extragonadal yolk sac tumor originating from the mediastinum and causing an acute conus medullaris syndrome in an adult male. Methods A 47-year old male presented to our emergency department with a one-day history of bilateral lower extremity weakness, urinary retention and bowel incontinence. Imaging revealed a destructive lesion and a burst fracture of the first lumbar vertebral body (L1) with severe spinal canal stenosis. An urgent spinal decompression and fusion was performed. Oncologic workup revealed a yolk sac tumor originating from the mediastinum. Results His neurologic function, including motor strength, bowel and bladder function improved in the postoperative period. Chemotherapy regimen of ifosfamide, etoposide and cisplatin was administered and radiation therapy was administered to the spine tumor bed. Conclusions Yolk sac tumors, although rare, should be considered in the long list differential diagnosis of an otherwise healthy male presenting with conus medullaris or spinal cord compression from metastatic disease without evidence of a testicular mass. Prompt diagnosis with urgent decompression of neural structures and stabilization of the spine may result in improvement in neurological function. PMID:26609514

  3. Sustainable complete remission in recurrence yolk sac tumor patient treated with tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, N A; Wang, P N; Huang, K G; Adlan, A S; Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old lady diagnosed with Stage 3 ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) underwent primary cytoreductive fertility sparing surgery, followed by conventional courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and etoposide. Recurrence at cul-da-sac was noted after a short period of remission and secondary debulking performed followed by four cycles of conventional chemotherapy. The patient's disease progressed despite courses of treatments. A joint team management including a hematologist was commenced following the failure of conventional chemotherapies. Two cycles of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with ifosfamide/cisplatin/etoposide (ICE) regimen, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were given. With this salvage treatment, she remained in complete remission and disease-free for more than 30 months, while maintaining her reproductive function. These approaches appear to be effective as a salvage treatment in selected cases of patients with ovarian germ cell tumor, especially those who failed primary conventional chemotherapy. PMID:23781595

  4. Sinonasal yolk sac (Endodermal sinus) tumor in an adult female--A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xianglin; Xia, Yang; Sasano, Hironobu; Gao, Hongwen

    2015-09-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST), also known as endodermal sinus tumor, is a highly malignant germ cell tumor that is extremely rare in the sinonasal region, especially in adults. To the best of our knowledge, only five such cases have been reported till date (four men, one woman). We present a case of sinonasal YST admixed with transitional cell carcinoma in a 58-year-old female. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the right ethmoid fissure infiltratinginto the posterior and anterior ethmoid sinuses and nasopharynx. Positron emission tomography examination showed a maximum standardized uptake value of 6.8. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen revealed two distinct features, YST and transitional cell carcinoma, with evidence of mutual transition that indicated the composite nature of the tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive immunoreactivity for Sal-like protein 4, ?-fetoprotein and glypican3, and negative immunoreactivity for placental alkaline phosphatase, CD30 and CD117 in the YST component. P40 and P63 were detected only in transitional cell carcinoma component. The tumor was subsequently excised and four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy at intervals of 3weeks were administered. At 8months after surgery, there was no evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis. We have also presented a literature review on YST in sinusoids. PMID:26095665

  5. "Somatic-type" malignancies arising from testicular germ cell tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 124 cases with emphasis on glandular tumors supporting frequent yolk sac tumor origin.

    PubMed

    Magers, Martin J; Kao, Chia-Sui; Cole, Cristina D; Rice, Kevin R; Foster, Richard S; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2014-10-01

    Somatic-type malignancies (SMs) in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare and mostly attributed to "transformation" of teratoma, although yolk sac tumor (YST) origin has also been proposed. We studied 124 cases of "SM" of testicular GCT origin from 106 patients to evaluate their morphology, immunohistochemical features (especially the utility of SALL4), and relationship to YST. Primitive neuroectodermal and nephroblastomatous tumors were excluded because of prior studies. Patients ranged in age from 15 to 68 years (mean, 33 y). The tumors ranged from 0.7 to 30 cm (mean, 7.6 cm) and involved the retroperitoneum (64%), abdomen/pelvis (10%), lung (10%), mediastinum (6%), supraclavicular region/neck (4%), testis (4%), and thigh (1%). Most initial diagnoses were sarcomas (n=68) or carcinomas (n=51). On review and immunohistochemical analysis, 7 of 45 adenocarcinomas were reclassified as glandular YSTs (GYST) on the basis of glypican-3 (GPC3) and/or ?-fetoprotein positivity and scant/absent reactivity for EMA and CK7. These occasionally (29%) had subnuclear and sometimes supranuclear vacuoles (endometrioid-like), whereas adenocarcinomas were more frequently mucinous (17%) or enteric-type (11%) than endometrioid-like (9%). Both expressed CDX2 frequently (83% and 63%, respectively). MUC protein 2, 4, 5, and 6 expression was more common in adenocarcinomas (7% to 36%) than in GYSTs (0% to 20%) but was infrequent. Both were often positive for SALL4, BerEP4, and MOC31; all were negative for TTF-1. On follow-up (GYST: range, 23 to 169 mo; mean, 81mo; adenocarcinoma: range, 1 to 170 mo; mean, 55 mo), 50% and 33% of patients with GYST and adenocarcinoma, respectively, died of disease. We reclassified 26 of 76 sarcomatoid tumors as sarcomatoid YSTs (SYST) on the basis of positive reactivity for both AE1/3 and GPC3. These tumors often had spindled and epithelioid cells in a fibromyxoid stroma. SYSTs were often (60%) SALL4 positive, whereas sarcomas were all negative. On follow-up (SYST: range, 1 to 259 mo; mean, 62 mo; sarcoma: range, 1 to 327 mo; mean, 70 mo), 50% and 29% of patients with SYST and sarcoma, respectively, died of disease, with most mortality occurring in those with high-grade tumors. We conclude that, on the basis of a panel of immunoreactivities, a significant number of "SMs" in testicular GCT patients are more accurately classified as either GYSTs or SYSTs. Ambiguous glandular tumors should be evaluated for GPC3, ?-fetoprotein, CK7, and EMA reactivity and sarcomatoid ones for GPC3, AE1/3, and SALL4 reactivity. PMID:24921638

  6. Endodermal origin of yolk-sac-derived teratomas.

    PubMed

    Sobis, H; Verstuyf, A; Vandeputte, M

    1991-01-01

    Mutant mice deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were used to induce teratomas. This enzyme is linked to the X chromosome, which can be inactivated in female embryo. The differences in the enzyme activity between yolk sac mesoderm and embryo versus yolk sac endoderm can be detected in female concepti by using appropriate crosses of wild-type and G6PD-deficient mice. Histochemical study showed that the dual cell population was observed in heterozygous embryos and in the embryomas derived from them. The teratomas derived from the corresponding yolk sac, however, were G6PD-positive from wild-type and G6PD-negative from homozygous enzyme-deficient mothers. We conclude that yolk-sac-derived teratomas are of endodermal origin because of the fact that the paternal X chromosome is inactivated in the yolk sac endoderm, whereas in the yolk sac mesoderm, as in the embryo, the inactivation is at random. PMID:2015799

  7. Many postchemotherapy sarcomatous tumors in patients with testicular germ cell tumors are sarcomatoid yolk sac tumors: a study of 33 cases.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Magers, Martin J; Rice, Kevin R; Cole, Cristina D; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2015-02-01

    Sarcomatoid neoplasms in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) may show diverse lineages and are usually attributed to "transformation" of teratoma, although origin from yolk sac tumor (YST) has also been suggested. We evaluated 33 sarcomatoid tumors from 23 TGCT patients that lacked specific features of a defined sarcoma subtype for a number of features, including: atypia (mild, moderate, severe), cellularity, tumor necrosis, mitotic index, stromal vascularity, cell profile (spindle or epithelioid), and stromal quality (myxoid and/or fibrous). Immunohistochemical staining analyses directed against cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), SALL4, glypican-3 (GPC3), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), p63, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD34, MUC4, smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, caldesmon, and myogenin were performed. Staining intensity (0=negative, 1=weak, 2=moderate, 3=strong) and extent (0=<1%, 1=1% to 10%, 2=10% to 50%, 3=>50%) were scored. Tumor grade based on the French sarcoma grading system was assessed, with grades 2-3 considered high grade. Tumors with at least moderate intensity and >10% (+) cells for both AE1/AE3 and GPC3 were considered to be sarcomatoid YST (SYST); 22 tumors from 14 patients (ages 18 to 38 y, mean 27 y) met these criteria and were the focus of this study. All SYSTs occurred after chemotherapy (3 to 132 mo after TGCT diagnosis; mean 42.5 mo, median 30.5 mo). They had spindled (100%; 19 predominant) and epithelioid cells (77%; 3 predominant) in myxoid to fibrous stroma. Thirteen exhibited at least focally severe nuclear atypia. Distinctive tumor "ringlets" and intercellular basement membrane deposits (parietal YST differentiation) were common. In addition to positivity for AE1/AE3 and GPC3, 15/22 were SALL4 (+), 10/22 were at least focally CD34 (+), and 2/22 were focally p63 (+). Fifty percent exhibited smooth muscle differentiation as evidenced by desmin (8/19), caldesmon (2/4), and/or SMA (4/6) reactivity. AFP, MUC4, GFAP, and myogenin were negative in all cases. On follow-up, 8/14 patients died of disease at 7 to 217 months (mean 58 mo) after the initial SYST diagnosis, whereas 5/14 were alive and had no evidence of disease (ANED) at 1 to 259 months (mean 83 mo). One patient died of unrelated causes at 39 months. Of the 11 patients with high-grade tumors, 8 were dead of disease, 1 died of an unrelated cause, and 2 were ANED; all 3 patients with low-grade tumors were ANED at 41 to 262 months (mean 128 mo). We conclude that a high proportion of sarcomatoid tumors in postchemotherapy resections of TGCT patients are SYSTs. These typically occur several years after diagnosis and behave aggressively when high grade. PMID:25229769

  8. Transdifferentiation of mouse visceral yolk sac cells into parietal yolk sac cells invitro.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shinomi; Tagawa, Yoh-Ichi; Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi

    2016-02-19

    The mouse embryonic yolk sac is an extraembryonic membrane that consists of a visceral yolk sac (VYS) and parietal yolk sac (PYS), and functions in hematopoietic-circulation in the fetal stage. The present study was undertaken to examine the normal development of both murine VYS and PYS tissues using various molecular markers, and to establish a novel VYS cell culture system invitro for analyzing differentiation potentials of VYS cells. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses of gene expression in VYS and PYS tissues during development revealed several useful markers for their identification: HNF1?, HNF4?, Cdh1 (E-cadherin), Krt8 and Krt18 for VYS epithelial cells, and Stra6, Snail1, Thbd and vimentin for PYS cells. PYS cells exhibited mesenchymal characteristics in gene expression and morphology. When VYS cells at 11.5 days of gestation were cultured invitro for 7 days, the number of HNF1?-, HNF4?-, E-cadherin- and cytokeratin-positive VYS epithelial cells was significantly reduced and, instead, Stra6-and vimentin-positive PYS-like cells increased with culture. RT-PCR analyses also demonstrated that gene expression of VYS markers decreased, whereas that of PYS markers increased in the primary culture of VYS cells. These data indicate that VYS epithelial cells rapidly transdifferentiate into PYS cells having mesenchymal characteristics invitro, which may provide a culture system suitable for studying molecular mechanisms of VYS transdifferentiation into PYS cells and also epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:26820538

  9. Yolk sac utilization in ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Mushi, E Z; Binta, M G; Chabo, R G

    2004-09-01

    The mass of residual yolk sac expressed as a percentage of initial mass of the egg from which the chick hatched decreased sharply in the first 2 days post-hatching. A gradual reduction occurred between 3 and 10 days after which a sharp decline was noted between 11 and 13 days post-hatching. The highest number of chicks with unabsorbed yolk sac was noted on day 5 post-hatching followed by days 6 and 7. Chick mortality followed the same pattern. The dynamics, causes and clinical consequences of yolk sac utilization are discussed. PMID:15580775

  10. The yolk sac tumor: reflections on a remarkable neoplasm and two of the many intrigued by it-Gunnar Teilum and Aleksander Talerman-and the bond it formed between them.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    One of the most remarkable of human neoplasms, the yolk sac tumor, is reviewed, emphasizing its histologic diversity and differential diagnosis, occurrence at many sites, and the shared passion for this unique neoplasm of Dr Gunnar Teilum (who deserves almost all credit for delineation of the nature of the tumor and its features) and Dr Aleksander Talerman (who made his own contribution to our knowledge of it) and the friendship it helped forge between these 2 distinguished pathologists. In a unique series of articles, beginning in the early 1940s, Teilum delineated the distinctive features of the neoplasm and recognized that it was 1 of 2 initially included as "mesonephroma ovarii" by Dr Walter Schiller in 1939 (the second we now know as clear cell carcinoma). Teilum named the tumor "endodermal sinus tumor" because it came to his attention that papillary formations common in the yolk sac tumor resembled the endodermal sinuses of the rat placenta. He focused on the histogenesis of the tumor and its morphologic features culminating in a classic paper in Cancer in 1959. Although Teilum and others recognized that yolk sac tumor could be a component of mixed germ cell tumors, Talerman was one of the first to emphasize that, particularly in the testis, it was common to see yolk sac tumor as a component of a mixed germ cell tumor. Teilum, working in Copenhagen, and Talerman, when the former was alive, working in Rotterdam, developed a warm friendship in part due to their great interest in the yolk sac tumor, although it also extended to other areas of gonadal neoplasia and indeed beyond the boundaries of medicine when they shared time together. The typical histologic features of the yolk sac tumor are the reticular-microcystic patterns Teilum described, but various other patterns, including solid and even rarer ones such as glandular and hepatoid, are now well known. There are some interesting variations in the age distribution of this tumor at various sites: for example, vaginal examples are almost restricted to children under 2 years of age; those of the testis that are pure also occur mostly in young boys (average age about 20 months) but are occasionally seen in later years; ovarian examples peak at about 19 years of age; mediastinal forms are mostly restricted to young adult males. Brief consideration is also given to the occurrence of this tumor at well-known extragonadal sites such as retroperitoneum, mediastinum, and pineal as well as more exotic locations. Note is made of the recently emphasized occurrence of the yolk sac tumor on the background of a somatic neoplasm, most often endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary. Given the wide ranging and fascinating clinical and pathologic aspects of the neoplasm, it is no surprise that it continues to be a source of great interest to any pathologist who sees one or more examples, and we are indebted to Dr Teilum for his monumental studies and to Dr Talerman for his own contributions. PMID:25395492

  11. Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Monica D.; Larina, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of the mouse embryonic yolk sac is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple genetic signaling pathways as well as biomechanical factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell, and cell-matrix interactions. During this early developmental window, the initial primitive vascular network of the yolk sac undergoes a dynamic remodeling process concurrent with the onset of blood flow, in which endothelial cells establish a branched, hierarchical structure of large vessels and smaller capillary beds. In this review, we will describe the molecular and biomechanical regulators which guide vascular remodeling in the mouse embryonic yolk sac, as well as live imaging methods for characterizing endothelial cell and hemodynamic function in cultured embryos. PMID:25191274

  12. Yolk sac absorption and initiation of growth in broilers.

    PubMed

    Chamblee, T N; Brake, J D; Schultz, C D; Thaxton, J P

    1992-11-01

    A series of three experiments was conducted to determine the role of the yolk sac in initiation of growth in broilers. In Experiment 1, absorption of the yolk sac was found to precede initiation of growth in newly hatched broilers by approximately 24 h. Because the yolk sac is essential for early initiation of growth, in Experiments 2 and 3 it was removed and diets with incremental fat levels of 3, 6, and 10% were fed to assess whether fat was essential for optimal growth during the neonatal period. Results suggest that dietary fat has its greatest effect on growth after 10 days of age. Therefore, initiation of growth may be more closely dependent upon other nutrients. PMID:1437968

  13. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells.

    PubMed

    Elinson, Richard P; Stewart, James R

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  14. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  15. Early chick mortality associated with rupture of the yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D P; Halvorson, D A

    1993-01-01

    Rupture of the yolk sac was identified in leghorn chicks from six placements of a commercial hatchery that had high mortality (up to 3%) during the first 3 days. The abdomens of these chicks were filled with cloudy yellowish fluid; kidneys were swollen, and many chicks also had severe visceral urate deposition (visceral gout). No significant bacterial growth was detected. The hatchery had recently hired new sexors. After the sexors were cautioned to handle the chicks more carefully, the problem abruptly subsided. In an experimental attempt to reproduce the condition, a graded series of doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 ml) of egg yolk were injected intraperitoneally into five groups of twenty 1-day-old chicks. Twelve of the 20 chicks that received the 4-ml dose died. They developed swollen, pale kidneys and had cloudy yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity, but no visceral urate deposition. Only six of the remaining 80 chicks that received lesser doses or no yolk died. PMID:8257362

  16. IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

  17. Yolk sac failure in embryopathy due to hyperglycemia: ultrastructural analysis of yolk sac differentiation associated with embryopathy in rat conceptuses under hyperglycemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinter, E; Reece, E A; Leranth, C Z; Sanyal, M K; Hobbins, J C; Mahoney, M J; Naftolin, F

    1986-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy is associated with an increased incidence of various congenital anomalies that occur during organogenesis. Because a well functioning yolk sac is crucial to embryonic growth and development during this period, we performed an ultrastructural study of the effects of excess glucose (total glucose 750 mg/dl, osmolality 305 mOsm/kg) on pregnancy day 10 (Witschi stage 13) rat conceptuses cultured for 48 hr in heat-inactivated male rat serum with and without added d- or l-glucose. Embryos exposed to excess d-glucose demonstrated decreased conceptus size (P less than 0.001), and gross malformations in a dose-related fashion. The visceral yolk sac capillaries and vitelline vessels of conceptuses in excess d-glucose were sparse, patchy, and nonuniformly located. Ultrastructurally, the visceral yolk sac endodermal cells had reduced numbers of rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and mitochondria. These obvious defects in yolk sac structure suggest that hyperglycemia during organogenesis has a primary deleterious effect on yolk sac function with resultant embryopathy. PMID:3738811

  18. Yolk Sac Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells from New World Mice (Necromys lasiurus) with Multipotent Differential Potential

    PubMed Central

    Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Mess, Andrea; Will, Snia Elisabete; Maiorka, Paulo Csar; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13%) and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%). Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73) and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog) as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117). In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:24918429

  19. Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David

    2013-01-01

    In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP+ blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP+ fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

  20. Retained caseous yolk sac in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus).

    PubMed

    Bodri, M S; Hendrick, M J; O'Brien, R T; Sadanaga, K K

    1990-10-01

    Retained yolk sacs are common in the domestic chicken and account for considerable morbidity and mortality during late embryonic development and within the first 10 days of life. What is believed to be the first recorded instance of a retained caseous yolk sac and its successful surgical removal from a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) is reported. The snake experienced no post-operative complications and continues to be well 16 mo following surgery. PMID:2250338

  1. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish. PMID:26035592

  2. Effects of age and strain on yolk sac utilization and leptin levels in newly hatched broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, J X; Luo, X G; Lu, L; Liu, B

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of yolk sac utilization and changes of leptin levels in serum, hypothalamus, and yolk sac with age were investigated in Beijing-You (BY) and Arbor Acres (AA) male broilers during 11 d after hatch. The growth rate and feed intake of BY broilers were lower (P < 0.0001) than those of AA broilers, but the dynamics of the weights and total energy contents of yolk sacs were similar between both strains and decreased exponentially with age. Leptin levels in yolk sacs of both broiler strains increased with age during 3 d posthatching. Compared with those of AA broilers, leptin levels in yolk sacs of BY broilers were greater (P yolk sac utilization were similar between BY and AA broilers and decreased exponentially with age. The developmental changes of leptin and NPY in serum and hypothalamus with age varied in parameter and strain, and both signal molecules might be involved in the early programming of feed intake in chickens, but the mechanisms need further studies. PMID:19038822

  3. Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma with yolk sac elements: a neoplasm of somatic or germ cell origin?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jaiyeola; Adegboyega, Patrick; Iloabachie, Kenny; Mooring, John Wesley; Lian, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma is an uncommon, aggressive, morphologically heterogenous tumor composed of cells derived from the 3 somatic layers. A histogenetic origin from a multipotential adult somatic stem cell with divergent differentiation has been favored over a germ cell origin. This assumption has been based on the lack of germ cell elements and, until recently, the absence of demonstrable amplification of 12p. We report a case that exhibited foci of yolk sac elements with papillary structures and intracytoplasmic periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant, ?-fetoprotein-positive, hyaline globules. An expanded area of undifferentiated cells, likely precursor cells, in the basal layer of the overlying mucosal epithelium transitions into and merges with the immature epithelial, neuroepithelial, and mesenchymal components. These previously unreported histomorphological features support the hypothesis that this tumor is a teratomatous tumor arising from pluripotent embryonic stem cells in the basal layer of the sinonasal epithelium. That notion is further supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization cytogenetic analysis, which showed a distinct subpopulation of the tumor cells with an extra copy of chromosome 12p13. PMID:20952296

  4. Copper sulfate toxicity to channel catfish fry: Yolk sac versus swim-up fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry from 5 separate spawns were exposed to dissolved copper sulfate (CuSO4) in a series of static toxicity experiments to observe age sensitivity in high and moderate alkalinity waters at 24 and 48 hrs at 23.1C. The waters had total alkalinity and total har...

  5. New development of the yolk sac theory in diabetic embryopathy: molecular mechanism and link to structural birth defects.

    PubMed

    Dong, Daoyin; Reece, E Albert; Lin, Xue; Wu, Yanqing; AriasVillela, Natalia; Yang, Peixin

    2016-02-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects and neural tube defects. With the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in women of childbearing age, diabetes mellitus-induced birth defects have become an increasingly significant public health problem. Maternal diabetes mellitus invivo and high glucose invitro induce yolk sac injuries by damaging the morphologic condition of cells and altering the dynamics of organelles. The yolk sac vascular system is the first system to develop during embryogenesis; therefore, it is the most sensitive to hyperglycemia. The consequences of yolk sac injuries include impairment of nutrient transportation because of vasculopathy. Although the functional relationship between yolk sac vasculopathy and structural birth defects has not yet been established, a recent study reveals that the quality of yolk sac vasculature is related inversely to embryonic malformation rates. Studies in animal models have uncovered key molecular intermediates of diabetic yolk sac vasculopathy, which include hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and its inhibitor thioredoxin-1, c-Jun-N-terminal kinases, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Yolk sac vasculopathy is also associated with abnormalities in arachidonic acid and myo-inositol. Dietary supplementation with fatty acids that restore lipid levels in the yolk sac lead to a reduction in diabetes mellitus-induced malformations. Although the role of the human yolk in embryogenesis is less extensive than in rodents, nevertheless, human embryonic vasculogenesis is affected negatively by maternal diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic studies have identified potential therapeutic targets for future intervention against yolk sac vasculopathy, birth defects, and other complications associated with diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26432466

  6. Yolk sac fatty acid composition, yolk absorption, embryo development, and chick quality during incubation in eggs from young and old broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Sahan, U; Ipek, A; Sozcu, A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the changes in yolk and yolk sac fatty acid composition and also to investigate egg content, yolk absorption, embryo development during incubation, and chick quality at hatch in eggs from 36- and 52-wk-old broiler breeders. The fatty acid profiles of the yolk, the yolk sac of embryos, and the residual yolk sac of chicks were analyzed before incubation, on d 18, and at hatch, respectively. Yolk sac weight, and embryo weight and length were measured on d 18, and chick weight and length were measured at hatch. Egg weight, yolk and albumen weight, yolk percentage, and yolk:albumen ratio increased as breeder age increased, but the albumen percentage decreased. Yolk absorption in absolute value (g) was higher in embryos from the old flock on d 18 and at hatch. Relative yolk absorption was similar between age groups on d 18, whereas it was higher in the young flock at hatch. Breeder age affected the yolk sac weight and was higher in the old flock during incubation. Embryo or chick weight and length, and yolk-free BW were affected by breeder age during incubation. These parameters were higher in the old flock with a difference of 3.7 g, 0.8 cm, and 2.6 g, respectively, on d 18 and 7.4 g, 1.4 cm, and 6.3 g, respectively, at hatch compared with the young flock. The effect of breeder age on fatty acid composition differed significantly by sampling day. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids were major fatty acids in the fresh yolk, ranging from 13.02 to 29.24%. These were followed by palmitoleic and arachidonic acids ranging from 1.24 to 7.04%, with the remaining fatty acids below 1%. Higher concentrations of myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids and lower concentrations of heptadeconoic, stearic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids were found in the residual yolk sac of the young flock than the old flock. The results showed preferentially selective absorption of some fatty acids by the embryo during incubation. PMID:24931969

  7. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN THE CHICK YOLK SAC.

    PubMed

    ANACKER, R L; FUKUSHI, K; PICKENS, E G; LACKMAN, D B

    1964-10-01

    Anacker, R. L. (Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), K. Fukushi, E. G. Pickens, and D. B. Lackman. Electron microscopic observations of the development of Coxiella burnetii in the chick yolk sac. J. Bacteriol. 88:1130-1138. 1964.-Yolk sac material, obtained daily over a period of 1 week from embryos inoculated with seed of phase I Coxiella burnetii strain Ohio 314 containing 250 units of penicillin, was examined by electron microscopy and other techniques for the presence of rickettsiae. The concentration of rickettsiae in the yolk sac, as determined by electron microscopy, light microscopy, the complement-fixation test, recovery of organisms, and mouse infectivity, was low for the first 3 days, increased rapidly 3 to 5 days after infection, and then remained relatively constant. Rickettsiae in 3- to 7-day cultures, when observed by electron microscopy, had dense fibrillar centers surrounded by less-dense cytoplasmic material containing granules approximately 15 mmu in diameter. The whole was enclosed by multiple external layers. Many appeared to be in various stages of binary fission, and one form which contained a cross-wall was observed. These forms readily combined with ferritin-labeled specific antibody. In rare instances, several kinds of "atypical" forms which did not combine with ferritin-labeled antibody were found in the cytoplasm of yolk-sac cells 4 to 5 days after inoculation; it is not certain whether these forms are artifacts or normal stages in the maturation of C. burnetii. These atypical forms were not observed in subsequent experiments in which embryonated eggs were inoculated with doses of penicillin varying from 0 to 4,000 units per egg. PMID:14219028

  8. Utilization of the sex-linked gene for imperfect albinism (S*ALS). 2. Yolk sac lipid utilization.

    PubMed

    Santos, G A; Silversides, F G

    1996-12-01

    The gene for sex-linked imperfect albinism (S*ALS) has been associated with reduced early growth and slow utilization of the yolk sac contents. Neonatal growth was studied using albino and nonalbino full siblings that were dissected at 2-d intervals from Day 16 of incubation to 7 d after hatch. Fatty acid composition of the yolk, yolk sac membrane, and liver was determined to study neonatal lipid metabolism. At hatch, albinos had similar BW and lower (P < 0.01) liver weights, suggesting reduced lipid transfer from the yolk sac during late incubation. Nonalbinos started gaining weight at 3 d after hatch, 1 d earlier than albino chicks. Albinos had reduced growth (P < 0.01), larger yolk sacs (P < 0.05), and similar (P > 0.05) yolk uptake from hatch to 7 d after hatch. Albino chicks also had lower body temperatures (P < 0.05) at 2, 4, and 6 d after hatch. Albinos had a slower rate of transfer of yolk lipids to the developing embryo in the last 2 d of incubation. The fatty acid composition of the yolk and yolk sac membrane was similar for both genotypes during the last 3 d of incubation, except for the level of stearic acid, which was higher (P < 0.05) for nonalbinos on Day 18 of incubation for both tissues and at 1 d after hatch for the yolk. The fatty acid composition of the livers of albinos and nonalbinos were similar (P > 0.05) during the neonatal period. For both genotypes, the hepatic level of oleic acid increased to Day 20 of incubation, remained constant to 1 d after hatch, and decreased sharply thereafter. The major difference between the genotypes was a slower rate of transfer of yolk lipids to the developing albino embryo in the last 2 d of incubation. PMID:9000266

  9. Effects of breeder age on mineral contents and weight of yolk sac, embryo development, and hatchability in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Hacan, O; Yalçin, S

    2014-02-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of breeder age on egg composition, changes of embryo, yolk sac, and yolk minerals during incubation and hatchability in Pekin ducks. A total of 495 freshly laid eggs were obtained from the same flock of Pekin ducks, aged 28, 34, and 40 wk, and were reared in accordance with the management guide of the duck breeders (Star 53-Grimaud Freres). At each breeder age, egg measurements were made on a random subsample of unincubated eggs. Embryo and yolk sac measurements were made on embryonic day (E) 12, E16, E20, and E25. On d 28 of incubation, the healthy ducklings were removed and sex of chicks was determined. All chicks were weighed and hatching results were determined. Egg weight and yolk percentages increased; however, albumen percentages, shell thickness, and yolk index decreased as the flock aged. Shell percentages, shell breaking strength, albumen index, and haugh units were not affected by breeder age. Also, breeder age affected the Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, and Zn levels in the yolk, except for Na level on day of setting, and breeder age affected the mineral consumed by embryo during incubation. However, on E25, the levels of examined minerals, except for P level in the yolk sac, were not statistically different in duck breeder age groups. Relative yolk sac and embryo weights of eggs obtained from different breeder ages varied from E16 to E25; however, embryo length was different in breeder age groups from E12 to E20. Hatching weight was affected by breeder age and sex. Hatching results were not different among breeder age groups. This study indicates that breeder age is important for some egg characteristics, relative yolk sac weight, some contents of minerals in the yolk, embryonic growth during incubation, and duckling weight. PMID:24570471

  10. Loss of PiT-1 Results in Abnormal Endocytosis in the Yolk Sac Visceral Endoderm

    PubMed Central

    Wallingford, Mary C.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2014-01-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22?Cre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE. PMID:25138534

  11. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-08

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  12. Histological Analyses Demonstrate the Temporary Contribution of Yolk Sac, Liver, and Bone Marrow to Hematopoiesis during Chicken Development

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Priscila Tavares; de Oliveira, Barbara Cristina Euzbio Pereira Dias; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Caputo, Luzia Ftima Gonalves; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM) region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3) and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage. PMID:24621665

  13. Biochemical changes during development of eggs and yolk-sac larvae of herring and plaice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Mingchen; Craik, J. C. A.

    1992-12-01

    Changes in quantities of water, sodium, potassium, lipid and protein were compared in developing eggs and yolk-sac larvae of herring Clupes harengus L., a species with demersal eggs, and plaice Pleuronectes platessa L., a species with pelagic eggs. The principal difference between the two species was the occurrence in herring, but not in plaice of considerable increases in water content and in one or both of the above ions at three distinct stages: at fertilization, during the middle stage of egg development, and in the days immediately after hatching. Newly hatched larvae of the two species differed greatly in water content because of the difference in mass and water content of the yolk, not in the water content of the rest of the body. In herring, there were increases in sodium and potassium which coincided broadly with the increase in water content. These differences are related to the gradual acquisition of buoyancy by herring during this period, comparable with the buoyancy conferred on plaice eggs at spawning by the already hydrated, yolk. Lipid and protein, which contribute little to buoyancy, decreased steadily throughout egg and larval development in both species.

  14. Vitamin D and chick embryonic yolk calcium mobilization: identification and regulation of expression of vitamin D-dependent Ca2(+)-binding protein, calbindin-D28K, in the yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Tuan, R S

    1991-03-01

    The developing chick embryo acquires calcium from two sources. Until about Day 10 of incubation, the yolk is the only source; thereafter, calcium is also mobilized from the eggshell. We have previously shown that during normal chick embryonic development, vitamin D is involved in regulating yolk calcium mobilization, whereas vitamin K is required for eggshell calcium translocation by the chorioallantoic membrane. We have studied here the biochemical action of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 in the yolk sac by examining the expression and regulation of the cytosolic vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28K. Two types of embryos are used for this study, normal embryos developing in ovo and embryos maintained in long-term shell-less culture ex ovo, the latter being dependent solely on the yolk as their calcium source. Our findings are (1) calbindin-D28K is expressed in the embryonic yolk sac, detectable at incubation Days 9 and 14; (2) the embryonic yolk sac calbindin-D28K resembles that of the adult duodenum in both molecular weight (Mr 28,000) and isoelectric point, as well as the presence of E-F hand Ca2(+)-binding structural domains; (3) systemic calcium deficiency caused by shell-less culture of chick embryos results in enhanced expression of calbindin-D28K in the yolk sac during late development; (4) yolk sac calbindin-D28K expression is inducible by 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 treatment in vivo and in vitro; and (5) immunohistochemistry revealed that yolk sac calbindin-D28K is localized exclusively to the cytoplasm of the yolk sac endoderm. These findings indicate that the chick embryonic yolk sac is a genuine target tissue of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3. PMID:1995395

  15. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON MODIFICATION OF YOLK SAC OF ZEBRAFISH EMBRYOS (DANIO RERIO) USING MICROINJECTION

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Low membrane permeability is one of the major obstacles to the successful cryopreservation of zebrafish embryos. The aim of the present study was to explore if this could be overcome by yolk modification with different cryoprotectants by micro-injection. Initial investigation of two cryoprotectants, methanol and sucrose, was undertaken to determine their suitability for micro-injection supplementation of the yolk mass. Intact zebrafish embryos at 50% epiboly stage were injected with Hanks' solution, 5.2 M methanol or 1.3 M sucrose yielding approximate final concentrations of 2.0 and 0.5 M of the cryoprotectants within the yolk sac respectively. After micro-manipulation, the embryos were cultured at 28C for three days and their survival assessed at the hatching stage. All micro-manipulations performed in the present study resulted in a significant decrease in embryo survival (P<0.05). Embryos micro-injected with methanol or sucrose were also subjected to a cooling procedure. They were placed in 3M methanol + 0.5 M sucrose at room temperature for 30 min and then cooled from 20C to 0C at 2C/min, from 0C to ?7.5C /min at 1C/min, seeded at ?7.5C and held for 10 min, before cooling at 0.3C/min to ? 20C or until full crystallization in all embryos. The processes of extra- and intracellular crystallization were studied by cryomicroscopy. The temperature of intracellular crystallization did not differ significantly between control and injected embryos. However, it was found that intracellular crystallization did not always happen instantly after extracellular crystallization. PMID:17256065

  16. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. PMID:26201370

  17. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    PubMed

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2015-01-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization. PMID:25199884

  18. Surgical Management of Endolymphatic Sac Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Rick A.; Hoa, Michael; Brackmann, Derald E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the cumulative experience of surgical management of endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) in the literature. To review the experience with ELST management at a tertiary referral-based otology-neurotology practice and present our approach to management. Study Design Retrospective patient review at a referral-based otology-neurotology practice. Methods A review of all available records from the House Clinic of patients with ELSTs was performed. Presentation, diagnostic workup, microsurgical approach, and outcomes were reviewed. Literature review using MEDLINE of studies reporting surgical outcomes of patients with ELSTs was also performed. Results Retrospective chart review revealed 18 patients with ELSTs who underwent surgical management. Grouping of these patients provides surgical outcomes on the largest group of mostly non–von Hippel-Lindau patients with ELSTs in the literature. Patients most commonly presented with sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and dizziness. A majority of patients presented with large tumors exhibiting significant destruction of surrounding structures including the cochlea, vestibule, and internal auditory canal. Patients underwent microsurgical resection with the intent of complete resection. Conclusions Although the extensive nature of ELSTs at time of diagnosis often precludes hearing preservation, complete microsurgical resection can be achieved safely with preservation of facial function in the majority of cases. PMID:24436884

  19. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the yolk sacs of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Mançanares, C A F; Oliveira, V C; Oliveira, L J; Carvalho, A F; Sampaio, R V; Mançanares, A C F; Souza, A F; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

    2015-10-01

    The yolk sac (YS) represents a promising source of stem cells for research because of the hematopoietic and mesenchymal cell niches that are present in this structure during the development of the embryo. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of YS tissue and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bovine YSs. Our results show that the YS is macroscopically located in the exocoelomic cavity in the ventral portion of the embryo and consists of a transparent membrane formed by a central sac-like portion and two ventrally elongated projections. Immunohistochemistry analyses were positive for OCT4, CD90, CD105, and CD44 markers in the YS of both gestational age groups. The MSCs of bovine YS were isolated using enzymatic digestion and were grown in vitro for at least 11 passages to verify their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization that revealed the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79 and the absence of CD45, CD44, and CD79, which are positive and negative markers of MSCs, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (chondrogenic: Alcian Blue, osteogenic: Alizarin Red, and adipogenic: Oil Red O) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analyses showed no differences in the patterns of gene expression between the groups or passages tested, with the exception of the expression of SOX2, which was slightly different in the G1P3 group compared to the other groups. Our results suggest that YS tissue from bovines can be used as a source of MSCs, which makes YS tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:26143361

  20. Definitive Hematopoiesis in the Yolk Sac Emerges from Wnt-Responsive Hemogenic Endothelium Independently of Circulation and Arterial Identity.

    PubMed

    Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Conway, Simon J; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2016-02-01

    Adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in low numbers in the midgestation mouse embryo from a subset of arterial endothelium, through an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. HSC-producing arterial hemogenic endothelium relies on the establishment of embryonic blood flow and arterial identity, and requires ?-catenin signaling. Specified prior to and during the formation of these initial HSCs are thousands of yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). EMPs ensure embryonic survival prior to the establishment of a permanent hematopoietic system, and provide subsets of long-lived tissue macrophages. While an endothelial origin for these HSC-independent definitive progenitors is also accepted, the spatial location and temporal output of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium over developmental time remain undefined. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of EMP emergence, and document the morphological steps of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Emergence of rounded EMPs from polygonal clusters of Kit(+) cells initiates prior to the establishment of arborized arterial and venous vasculature in the yolk sac. Interestingly, Kit(+) polygonal clusters are detected in both arterial and venous vessels after remodeling. To determine whether there are similar mechanisms regulating the specification of EMPs with other angiogenic signals regulating adult-repopulating HSCs, we investigated the role of embryonic blood flow and Wnt/?-catenin signaling during EMP emergence. In embryos lacking a functional circulation, rounded Kit(+) EMPs still fully emerge from unremodeled yolk sac vasculature. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling appears to be a common mechanism regulating hematopoietic emergence from hemogenic endothelium. These data illustrate the heterogeneity in hematopoietic output and spatiotemporal regulation of primary embryonic hemogenic endothelium. Stem Cells 2016;34:431-444. PMID:26418893

  1. Multifractal dimension and lacunarity of yolk sac vasculature after exposure to magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Costa, Edbhergue Ventura Lola; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque

    2015-05-01

    Several studies have reported about the effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on vascular tissue. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) can promote either inhibition or stimulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, depending upon the intensity and time of exposure to the MF. To investigate the possible effects of ELF-MF on vascular processes, it is necessary to employ methods that allow parameterization of the vascular network. Vascular network is a structure with fractal geometry; therefore, fractal methods have been used to evaluate its morphometric complexity. Here, we used the lacunarity parameter (complementary method of fractal analysis) and multifractal analyses to investigate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the embryonic yolk sac membrane (YSM) of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) with and without exposure to an external MF of 1 mT and 60 Hz. Lacunarity results showed that the vascular density was lower for the group exposed to the magnetic field for 9 h/day. In addition, multifractal analysis showed reduced vascularization in the experimental groups (6 h/day and 9 h/day of exposure to MF). Furthermore, multifractal analysis showed difference between the groups exposed for 12 and 24 h/day. Using multifractal methods (generalized dimensions and singularity spectrum), it was possible to characterize the vascular network of the quail embryo YSM as a multifractal object, therefore proving this method to be a more appropriate application than the traditional monofractal methods. PMID:25711525

  2. Effect of temperature on survival of northern pike embryos and yolk-sac larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, T.J.

    1982-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of water temperature and handling procedure on the percentage hatch of known-age northern pike (Esox lucius) embryos and on survival of the yolk-sac larvae. Embryos and larvae were incubated at constant temperatures from 3 to 24/sup 0/C. Optimum hatching range was 6.2 to 20.9/sup 0/C and maximum hatch occurred at 9 to 15/sup 0/C. The age of the embryo before temperature change and the test temperatures both had a significant effect on percentage hatch. Temperature had the greatest adverse effect on percentage hatch during the first 5 h of development. There was no significant difference in the number of embryos hatching when comparing those that developed for 5 h before temperature change with those that developed 12, 24, and 48 h before change. There was a significant increase in hatch for embryos that had developed 120 h before change. The type of temperature change (shock or tempered) did not significantly influence the percentage hatch or hatching temperature range of embryos 5 h old or older. Management implications are also discussed.

  3. Response of the chick embryo to live and heat-killed Campylobacter jejuni injected into the yolk sac.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. G.; Bueschkens, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Graded doses of live and heat-killed cells of Campylobacter jejuni were injected into the yolk-sac of 5-day-old chick embryos, and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) was determined 7 days later. A strain dependent virulence was seen. In the diluted series of cultures the LD50 values for live campylobacter ranged from 10(6) c.f.u. beyond the last dilution showing growth, that is to less than one organism per embryo. When the 22 strains were tested as heat-killed cells, the chick embryo LD50 values retained the same relative order of toxicity obtained with viable cells, but the LD50 values were increased by +1 to +4 log units. Heat-killed cells from strains known to be invasive, but non-toxigenic, were still lethal for the embryos, suggesting that viability was not solely necessary for virulence. Semi-pure lipopolysaccharide from a non-virulent strain of C. jejuni was not toxic to the embryos, but semi-pure and ultracentrifuge-purified lipopolysaccharide from the most lethal campylobacter strains gave LD50 values in the order of 3.0 micrograms lipopolysaccharide per ml (0.6 microgram per embryo) in the yolk-sac assay. No relationship between serotype and lethality was seen. Injection into the yolk-sac appears to be an easy, rapid and reproducible in vivo assay of the virulence of C. jejuni. PMID:2606163

  4. The Developing Chicken Yolk Sac Acquires Nutrient Transport Competence by an Orchestrated Differentiation Process of Its Endodermal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Raimund; Plieschnig, Julia A.; Finkes, Thomas; Riegler, Barbara; Hermann, Marcela; Schneider, Wolfgang J.

    2013-01-01

    During chicken yolk sac (YS) growth, mesodermal cells in the area vasculosa follow the migrating endodermal epithelial cell (EEC) layer in the area vitellina. Ultimately, these cells form the vascularized YS that functions in nutrient transfer to the embryo. How and when EECs, with their apical aspect directly contacting the oocytic yolk, acquire the ability to take up yolk macromolecules during the vitellina-to-vasculosa transition has not been investigated. In addressing these questions, we found that with progressive vascularization, the expression level in EECs of the nutrient receptor triad, LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, changes significantly. The receptor complex, competent for uptake of yolk proteins, is produced by EECs in the area vasculosa but not in the area vitellina. Yolk components endocytosed by LRP2-cubilin-amnionless, preformed and newly formed lipid droplets, and yolk-derived very low density lipoprotein, shown to be efficiently endocytosed and lysosomally processed by EECs, probably provide substrates for resynthesis and secretion of nutrients, such as lipoproteins. In fact, as directly demonstrated by pulse-chase experiments, EECs in the vascularized, but not in the avascular, region efficiently produce and secrete lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, and/or apoA-V. In contrast, perilipin 2, a lipid droplet-stabilizing protein, is produced exclusively by the EECs of the area vitellina. These data suggest a differentiation process that orchestrates the vascularization of the developing YS with the induction of yolk uptake and lipoprotein secretion by EECs to ensure embryo nutrition. PMID:23209291

  5. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 μg g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 μg g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 μg g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology. PMID:25527298

  6. Mesenchymal progenitor cells from canine fetal tissues: yolk sac, liver, and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Wenceslau, Cristiane Valverde; Miglino, Maria Anglica; Martins, Daniele Santos; Ambrsio, Carlos Eduardo; Lizier, Nelson Foresto; Pignatari, Graciela Conceio; Kerkis, Irina

    2011-09-01

    During fetal development, mesenchymal progenitor (MP) cells are co-localized in major hematopoietic territories, such as yolk sac (YS), bone marrow (BM), liver (LV), and others. Studies using mouse and human MP cells isolated from fetus have shown that these cells are very similar but not identical to adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Their differentiation potential is usually restricted to production of highly committed osteogenic and chondrogenic precursors. Such properties of fetal MP cells can be very useful for tissue regeneration, when a great number of committed precursors are required. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize MP cells from canine YS, BM, and LV in early and late stages of fetal development. Gestational stage was identified, and cell culture conditions were evaluated for efficient isolation of canine MP cells. All canine fetal MP cells expressed vimentin, nestin, and CD44 proteins. Cytokeratin 18 expression was observed in BM- and LV-MP cells, and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin expression was observed only in YS-MP cells. A small number of MP cells (5%) from LV and YS expressed Oct3/4 protein. The differentiation potential of canine fetal MP cells varied significantly: YS- and BM-MP cells differentiated into bone and cartilage, whereas LV-MP cells differentiation was limited to osteogenic fate. None of the canine fetal MP cells were able to differentiate into adipose cells. Our data suggest that canine fetal MP cells are an appropriate in vitro model to study MP biology from hematopoietic territories and they are a source of committed osteogenic and chondrogenic precursors for regenerative medicine. PMID:21529262

  7. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Aires, M.B.; Santos, J.R.A.; Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S.; Santos, A.C.V.; Fioretto, E.T.; Maria, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers. PMID:26176314

  8. In vitro human embryonic stem cell hematopoiesis mimics MYB-independent yolk sac hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Vanhee, Stijn; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Caeneghem, Yasmine; Verstichel, Greet; Van Roy, Nadine; Menten, Björn; Velghe, Imke; Philippé, Jan; De Bleser, Dominique; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Taghon, Tom; Leclercq, Georges; Kerre, Tessa; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Although hematopoietic precursor activity can be generated in vitro from human embryonic stem cells, there is no solid evidence for the appearance of multipotent, self-renewing and transplantable hematopoietic stem cells. This could be due to short half-life of hematopoietic stem cells in culture or, alternatively, human embryonic stem cell-initiated hematopoiesis may be hematopoietic stem cell-independent, similar to yolk sac hematopoiesis, generating multipotent progenitors with limited expansion capacity. Since a MYB was reported to be an excellent marker for hematopoietic stem cell-dependent hematopoiesis, we generated a MYB-eGFP reporter human embryonic stem cell line to study formation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. We found CD34+ hemogenic endothelial cells rounding up and developing into CD43+ hematopoietic cells without expression of MYB-eGFP. MYB-eGFP+ cells appeared relatively late in embryoid body cultures as CD34+CD43+CD45−/lo cells. These MYB-eGFP+ cells were CD33 positive, proliferated in IL-3 containing media and hematopoietic differentiation was restricted to the granulocytic lineage. In agreement with data obtained on murine Myb−/− embryonic stem cells, bright eGFP expression was observed in a subpopulation of cells, during directed myeloid differentiation, which again belonged to the granulocytic lineage. In contrast, CD14+ macrophage cells were consistently eGFP− and were derived from eGFP-precursors only. In summary, no evidence was obtained for in vitro generation of MYB+ hematopoietic stem cells during embryoid body cultures. The observed MYB expression appeared late in culture and was confined to the granulocytic lineage. PMID:25381126

  9. Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-08

    Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; Choriocarcinoma; Germinoma; Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Malignant Germ Cell Neoplasm; Extragonadal Seminoma; Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Seminoma

  10. GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) ACTIVITY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT VISCERAL YOLK-SAC DURING GESTATION WITH OR WITHOUT TRYPAN BLUE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk-sacs from untreated Sprague Dawley rat conceptuses were removed on days 9-18 of gestation and examined for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activities. All enzyme activities w...

  11. Changes in expression and localization of GPRC5B and RARalpha in the placenta and yolk sac during middle to late gestation in mice.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Miki; Morita, Maki; Kume, Shinichi; Manabe, Noboru

    2007-10-01

    The mRNA expression of GPRC5B, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, is induced by retinoic acid (RA). Because RA plays critical roles in embryonic development, reproductive functions, metabolism and homeostasis, GPRC5B is also considered crucial in these physiological events. We investigated the changes in expression of GPRC5B and RA receptor (RAR) alpha mRNAs and immunohistochemical localization of their proteins in the murine placenta and yolk sac at 13.5, 15.5 and 17.5 days post coitus. Stable levels of GPRC5B and RARalpha mRNAs were detected in the placenta and yolk sac. In the placenta, GPRC5B was present in maternal and fetal vascular endothelial cells, stromal cells, fibroblast-like cells and glycogen cells. A strong reaction to RARalpha was detected in maternal and fetal vascular endothelial cells and stromal cells. The levels of GPRC5B and RARalpha proteins in maternal and fetal vascular endothelial cells decreased with gestation. In the yolk sac, GPRC5B and RARalpha proteins were detected in vascular endothelial cells, but their levels did not change during the gestation period. These findings indicate that GPRC5B is involved in RA-dependent morphogenesis/angiogenesis and regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis in the murine placenta and yolk sac. PMID:17652913

  12. Structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) to inhibit chicken yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase related to OPI teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Josef

    2013-03-01

    This paper provides new information related to the mechanism of OPI (organophosphorus insecticides) teratogenesis. The COMFA (comparative molecular field analysis) and COMSIA (comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) suggest that the electrostatic and steric fields are the best predictors of OPI structural requirements to inhibit in ovo chicken embryo yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase, the proposed target for OPI teratogens. The dominant electrostatic interactions are localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-2 and carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents and carbon-3 substituents of crotonamides are the steric structural components that contribute to superiority of those OPI as in ovo inhibitors of kynurenine formamidase. PMID:23328119

  13. Immunocytochemical and biochemical characterization of the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex in rat L2 yolk sac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, M.; Orlando, R. A.; Saedi, M. S.; Woodward, L.; Kurihara, H.; Farquhar, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    Heymann nephritis in the rat is the most widely used model of human membranous glomerulonephritis. Glycoprotein (gp)330, a large (M(r) > 550,000) membrane-associated glycoprotein, has been identified as the main antigen in this autoimmune disease. Studies of gp330 and receptor-associated protein (RAP), its 44-kd subunit, have been restricted largely to rat kidney, as no stable cultured cell line has been available that expresses gp330. We have recently identified a rat yolk sac carcinoma cell line (L2) that expresses both gp330 and RAP. In this report, we have carried out detailed morphological, immunocytochemical, and biochemical studies characterizing the biosynthesis and localization of gp330 and RAP in the L2 rat yolk sac cell line. At the electron microscope level, the L2 cells are seen to be attached by cell junctions, and their predominant morphological features include extensive networks of rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and numerous clathrin-coated pits found on the cell membrane. By immunocytochemistry, gp330 was localized primarily to clathrin-coated pits at the cell surface, whereas RAP was localized predominantly to the lumen of the rough ER. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that gp330 spends a prolonged time maturing in the ER of L2 cells, as transport of gp330 to the Golgi complex (based on acquisition of endoglycosidase H resistance) is slow (t1/2 = 90 to 120 minutes). Gp330 reached the L2 cell surface beginning at 2 hours after synthesis, where it could be detected by cell surface immunoprecipitation. RAP was found to be an N-linked glycoprotein, and it remained endoglycosidase H-sensitive up to 4 hours after synthesis. Co-precipitation and co-sedimentation experiments demonstrated that gp330 and RAP form a large heterodimer (M(r) approximately 669,000) immediately after biosynthesis and are further assembled into a large hetero-oligomer in the ER. These findings demonstrate that the localization and the kinetics of assembly of gp330 and RAP into the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex are similar in both L2 cells and rat kidney. They also provide new information on the intracellular processing of these two molecules and their delivery to the cell surface. Thus, the L2 cell system should facilitate further characterization of the functions and interactions of gp330 and RAP, which may shed light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Heymann nephritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8238258

  14. Ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery of the siRNAs targeting MDR1 reduces drug resistance of yolk sac carcinoma L2 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MDR1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein is an ATP-dependent drug efflux transporter and related to drug resistance of yolk sac carcinoma. Ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery has been used as a novel and effective gene delivery method. We hypothesize that small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting MDR1 gene (siMDR1) delivery with microbubble and ultrasound can down-regulate MDR1 expression and improve responsiveness to chemotherapeutic drugs for yolk sac carcinoma in vitro. Methods Retroviral knockdown vector pSEB-siMDR1s containing specific siRNA sites targeting rat MDR1 coding region were constructed and sequence verified. The resultant pSEB-siMDR1 plasmids DNA were encapsulated with lipid microbubble and the DNA release were triggered by ultrasound when added to culture cells. GFP positive cells were counted by flow cytometry to determine transfection efficiency. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression of MDR1. P-glycoprotein function and drug sensitivity were analyzed by Daunorubicin accumulation and MTT assays. Results Transfection efficiency of pSEB-siMDR1 DNA was significantly increased by ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery in rat yolk sac carcinoma L2 (L2-RYC) cells. Ultrasound microbubble-mediated siMDR1s delivery effectively inhibited MDR1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels and decreased P-glycoprotein function. Silencing MDR1 led to decreased cell viability and IC50 of Vincristine and Dactinomycin. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery of MDR1 siRNA was safe and effective in L2-RYC cells. MDR1 silencing led to decreased P-glycoprotein activity and drug resistance of L2-RYC cells, which may be explored as a novel approach of combined gene and chemotherapy for yolk sac carcinoma. PMID:22035293

  15. Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor – a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Künzel, Julian; Agaimy, Abbas; Hornung, Joachim; Lell, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver; Semrau, Sabine; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare low-grade locally aggressive neoplasm of the inner ear that may occur sporadically or in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. We herein present a case of sporadic ELST in a 39-year-old man, treated using an interdisciplinary approach (surgery + radiotherapy), with a 10-year follow-up. The patient presented with hearing loss of sudden onset. The treatment of choice for ELST is radical tumor resection, which is associated with a good long-term prognosis. Remission may last for years, but there may be local recurrences, probably as a result of incomplete resection. Adjuvant radiotherapy is an option in case of recurrence and could be discussed after incomplete resection. The purpose of this report is to call attention to ELSTs, which are difficult to diagnose due to their rarity and variety of presentations. PMID:24966979

  16. Maternal low-protein diet programmes offspring growth in association with alterations in yolk leptin deposition and gene expression in yolk-sac membrane, hypothalamus and muscle of developing Langshan chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kaiqing; Xie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaojing; Chen, Lei; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2009-09-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the influence of maternal low-protein (LP) diet on offspring growth in the chicken. One hundred and twenty Chinese inbred Langshan breeder hens were allocated randomly into two groups fed diets containing low (10%, LP) or normal (15%) crude protein levels. Low dietary protein did not affect the body weight of hens, but significantly decreased the laying rate and egg weight. The yolk leptin content was significantly lower in eggs laid by LP hens, while no differences were detected for yolk contents of corticosterone, tri-iodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine. Despite significantly lower hatch weight, the LP offspring demonstrated obviously higher serum T3 concentration, which is in accordance with the faster post-hatch growth rate achieving significantly heavier body weight and pectoralis major muscle weight 4 weeks post-hatching. Expression of 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20-HSD) mRNA in the yolk-sac membrane was significantly down-regulated at embryonic day 14, whereas that of transthyretin and leptin receptor (LepR) was not altered. Moreover, hypothalamic expression of 20-HSD, glucocorticoid receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and LepR mRNA was significantly up-regulated in the LP group compared with their control counterparts. In the pectoralis major muscle, significantly higher expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-I receptor mRNA was observed in LP embryos. The present study provides evidence that maternal LP diet programmes post-hatch growth of the offspring. The associated alterations in yolk leptin deposition as well as in yolk-sac membrane, fetal hypothalamus and muscle gene expression may be involved in mediating such programming effect in the chicken. PMID:19267947

  17. DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-16

    Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  18. Transition of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids from the yolk to the liver of broiler breeder progeny via the residual yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, Astrid; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia; Willems, Els; Wang, Yufeng; Franssens, Lies; Delezie, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the transfer of maternal dietary fatty acids (FA) from the yolk to the developing offspring, with special emphasis on n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Six hundred forty Ross 308 breeders were housed from 6 to 58 wk of age in 16 pens resulting in 4 replicates per dietary treatment. They were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA (CON), or an n-3 FA enriched diet formulated to obtain an EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). At 28, 43, and 58 wk of age, 20 eggs per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At these same breeder ages, 600 fertilized eggs per treatment were incubated. At hatch the residual yolks of 25 chicks per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At every hatch, 180 chicks per treatment were raised under standard conditions and livers were sampled at d 1, 14, 28, and 38 d for FA analysis. Concentrations of EPA in the yolk and residual yolk of eggs laid by EPA-fed breeders were highest, next-to-highest for EPA=DHA-fed breeders, next-to-lowest for DHA-fed breeders, and lowest in those laid by control hens, reflecting the inclusion levels in the maternal diets. Yolk and residual yolk DHA concentrations, however, were not only elevated due to DHA supplementation, compared with the control diet, but also due to EPA supplementation. Offspring hepatic EPA concentrations were elevated until d 28 in all n-3 enriched groups, whereas hepatic DHA concentrations were only affected by EPA=DHA and DHA supplementation at d 1. No differences were found in hepatic DHA concentrations at later offspring ages. Considering the role of EPA and DHA in early development and growth, the maternal supply of these n-3 FA might improve offspring health and performance. PMID:25526724

  19. Autotaxin/lysophospholipase D-mediated lysophosphatidic acid signaling is required to form distinctive large lysosomes in the visceral endoderm cells of the mouse yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Koike, Seiichi; Keino-Masu, Kazuko; Ohto, Tatsuyuki; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Masu, Masayuki

    2009-11-27

    Autotaxin, a lysophospholipase D encoded by the Enpp2 gene, is an exoenzyme that produces lysophosphatidic acid in the extracellular space. Lysophosphatidic acid acts on specific G protein-coupled receptors, thereby regulating cell growth, migration, and survival. Previous studies have revealed that Enpp2(-/-) mouse embryos die at about embryonic day (E) 9.5 because of angiogenic defects in the yolk sac. However, what cellular defects occur in Enpp2(-/-) embryos and what intracellular signaling pathways are involved in the phenotype manifestation remain unknown. Here, we show that Enpp2 is required to form distinctive large lysosomes in the yolk sac visceral endoderm cells. From E7.5 to E9.5, Enpp2 mRNA is abundantly expressed in the visceral endoderm cells. In Enpp2(-/-) mouse embryos, lysosomes in the visceral endoderm cells are fragmented. By using a whole embryo culture system combined with specific pharmacological inhibitors for intracellular signaling molecules, we show that lysophosphatidic acid receptors and the Rho-Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)-LIM kinase pathway are required to form large lysosomes. In addition, electroporation of dominant negative forms of Rho, ROCK, or LIM kinase also leads to the size reduction of lysosomes in wild-type visceral endoderm cells. In Enpp2(-/-) visceral endoderm cells, the steady-state levels of cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization are reduced. In addition, perturbations of actin turnover dynamics by actin inhibitors cytochalasin B and jasplakinolide result in the defect in lysosome formation. These results suggest that constitutive activation of the Rho-ROCK-LIM kinase pathway by extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid by the action of autotaxin is required to maintain the large size of lysosomes in visceral endoderm cells. PMID:19808661

  20. Biosynthesis of oleic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids from their C18 precursors in the yolk sac membrane of the avian embryo.

    PubMed

    Speake, Brian K; Deans, Elizabeth A

    2004-08-01

    The yolk sac membrane (YSM) of the chicken embryo is known to express delta-9 and delta-6 desaturase activities, suggesting that biosynthesis of the unsaturated fatty acids 18:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 might occur during the transfer of yolk lipids across the YSM. If so, this biosynthesis could help to satisfy the demands of the embryonic tissues for these unsaturates. To assess the ability of the YSM to perform these conversions, pieces of the tissue were incubated in vitro with the precursor fatty acids, 14C-18:0, 14C-18:2n-6 or 14C-18:3n-3, and the recovery of radioactivity in the respective products, 18:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3, was determined. After 4 h of continuous incubation, radioactivity from these precursors was incorporated primarily into triacylglycerol and phospholipid of the tissue pieces. Only small proportions (0.3-4.7%) of this incorporated radioactivity were, however, recovered as 18:1n-9, 20:4n-6 or 22:6n-3. The majority of the incorporated label was retained in the form of the precursor fatty acids. After a 1-h pulse incubation with the 14C precursors, followed by a 3-h chase incubation in the absence of exogenous label, the conversion of incorporated radioactivity to the end product unsaturates was again relatively low (0.5-8.1%). Thus, although conversions of the precursors to the end product fatty acids were detectable in this system, the biosynthesis of these unsaturates is apparently a quantitatively minor pathway in the YSM. Nevertheless, since the amount of 18:2n-6 in the yolk lipids far exceeds that of 20:4n-6, the conversion of even a small proportion of the former to the latter fatty acid could significantly increase the supply of 20:4n-6 to the embryonic tissues. PMID:15325342

  1. Stomatin is mis-trafficked in the erythrocytes of overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, and is absent from normal primitive yolk sac-derived erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Britta; Parsons, Stephen F; Knpfle, Gisela; von Dring, Monika; Stewart, Gordon W

    2005-10-01

    The 32 kD lipid-raft-associated membrane protein 'stomatin' is deficient from the erythrocyte membrane in the Na+-K+ leaky haemolytic anaemia, overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (OHSt). To date, no mutation in the gene coding for this protein has so far been found in OHSt. In this study, we have analysed the distribution of stomatin in both cultured erythroid cells from OHSt patients and in normal embryological and fetal erythroid development. In erythroid cell cultures from OHSt patients, stomatin-immunoreactivity (stomatin-IR) was present in progenitor cells but remained restricted to the area of the multivesicular complexes and the nucleus in the developing cells and was not seen in the plasma membrane. This could be consistent with the idea that stomatin is an innocent passenger in a more fundamental trafficking abnormality. In normal embryonic development, we found that, in extraembryonic (yolk sac) erythropoiesis, neither the nucleated red cells nor their enucleated mature derivatives displayed any stomatin-IR. In contrast, all haemangiopoietic progenitor cells of intraembryonic haematopoiesis, starting with the mesodermal precursors in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region, exhibited strong stomatin-IR. The significance of this observation on these poorly understood cells is currently unclear. PMID:16197460

  2. Essential role of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha in the development of the intraplacental yolk sac/sinus of Duval in mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Y; Takakura, N; Yoshida, H; Nishikawa, S I

    1998-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) is expressed in multiple tissues and exerts its function throughout mouse embryogenesis. Upon screening the PDGFRalpha-expressing tissues in mouse embryos by immunohistochemistry using our established monoclonal antibody against murine PDGFRalpha, we found its expression in an epithelium lining a sinusoidal structure in placenta. This structure was proven to be the sinus of Duval, and the PDGFRalpha-positive epithelium to be the intraplacental yolk sac (IPY). The IPY has been postulated to be a derivative of primitive endoderm because of its morphology and its expression of vitamin D-dependent 9-kDa calcium-binding protein, and to play some roles in materno-fetal transport. In this study, we demonstrated that the IPY develops from primitive endoderm by its invagination into chorioallantoic placenta and continues to strongly express PDGFRalpha until the prenatal stage. Moreover, we found that the IPY is completely absent in PdgfraPh/PdgfraPh mutant embryos, which lack the Pdgfra gene, suggesting that the function of PDGFRalpha is essential to its formation. Hence, PDGFRalpha expressed in the IPY should be listed as a component of the cytokine network of murine placental development. PMID:9472924

  3. Changes in mouse liver and chicken embryo yolk sac membrane soluble proteins due to an organophosphorous insecticide (OPI) diazinon linked to several noncholinergic OPI effects in mice and chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Josef

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify proteins in mouse livers and chicken embryo yolk sac membranes whose quantities were altered by an organophosphorous insecticide (OPI) treatment and which might be linked, based on their functionality, to the recognized noncholinergic effects of OPI. Mice and fertile chicken eggs were treated with an OPI representative diazinon. The quantitative changes in mouse liver and chicken embryo yolk sac membrane soluble proteins caused by diazinon were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteins whose quantity was affected by diazinon were identified by the mass spectrometry. In mouse livers, the altered levels of several enzymes of glucose metabolism were considered with regards to amelioration of hyperglycemia due to diazinon; the reduced levels of 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase to the changes in the l-tryptophan to NAD metabolism caused by pyrimidinyl and crotonamide OPI; the reduced levels of catalase, peroxiredoxin and superoxide dismutase to OPI-increased lipid and/or kynurenine oxidation, the latter effect resulting also in increased urinary excretion of xanthurenic and kynurenic acids; and an increase in glutathione S-methyltransferase to OPI detoxification. In chicken embryo yolk sac membranes, the reduced availability of procollagen-proline dioxygenase may be the factor in micromelia caused by OPI in chicken embryos. PMID:25454523

  4. Amino acid starvation induced by protease inhibition produces differential alterations in redox status and the thiol proteome in organogenesis-stage rat embryos and visceral yolk sacs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Craig; Jilek, Joseph L; Sant, Karilyn E; Pohl, Jan; Reed, Matthew; Hansen, Jason M

    2015-12-01

    The process of embryonic nutrition in rodent conceptuses during organogenesis has been shown to involve a dominant histiotrophic mechanism where essential developmental substrates and micronutrients are supplied as whole maternal proteins or cargoes associated with proteins. The histiotrophic nutrition pathways (HNP) responsible for uptake and initial processing of proteins across maternal-conceptal interfaces involve uptake via receptor mediated endocytosis and protein degradation via lysosomal proteolysis. Chemical inhibition of either process can lead to growth deficits and malformation in the embryo (EMB), but selective inhibition of either HNP component will elicit a different subset of developmental perturbations. In vitro, whole embryo culture exposure of GD10 or GD11 rat conceptuses to the natural protease inhibitor, leupeptin, leads to significant reductions in all measured embryonic growth parameters as well as a myriad of other effects. Leupeptin doses of 10 μM or 20 μM over a 26-h period (GD10-GD11) and 50 μM over a 3 h pulse period produced significant decreases in the clearance of FITC-albumin from culture media. The near complete loss of acid soluble fluorescence and increased total visceral yolk sac (VYS) protein content confirmed the selective inhibition of proteolysis. Inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis thus deprives the developing EMB of essential nutrient amino acids producing conditions akin to amino acid starvation, but may also cause direct effects on pathways critical for normal growth and differentiation. Following leupeptin exposure for 26 or 6 h, total glutathione (GSH) concentrations dropped significantly in the VYS, but only slightly in yolk sac (YSF) and amniotic (AF) fluids. Cys concentrations increased in VYS and EMB, but dropped in YSF and AF fluids. Redox potentials (Eh) for the glutathione disulfide (GSSG)/glutathione (GSH) redox couple trended significantly toward the positive, confirming the net oxidation of conceptual tissues following leupeptin treatment. Analysis of the thiol proteome showed few alterations to specific pathways mapped to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database, but did reveal significant increases in concentrations of proteins associated with glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in the VYS and decreased concentrations proteins associated with ribosome biogenesis and function in the EMB. A subset of proteins elevated by >2-23-fold in the VYS were identified as serum (blood) proteins and represent the maternal-side proteins captured by the VYS and which are not degraded in the lysosomes as a result of leupeptin's inhibitory action. The observed constellation of proteins decreased in the EMB by leupeptin represent proteins from several adaptive pathways that are commonly altered in responses to amino acid starvation. These studies show clear differential responses to protease inhibition in VYS and EMB during organogenesis and suggest the possibility for additional roles of redox regulation, cellular adaptations and metabolic insufficiency caused by protease inhibition. PMID:26365578

  5. Comparison of Toxicity of Benzene Metabolite Hydroquinone in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Derived from Murine Embryonic Yolk Sac and Adult Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Liqiao; Li, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suhan; Huang, Wenting; Wang, Liping; Yang, Tan; Ma, Qiang; Bi, Yongyi

    2013-01-01

    Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. However, experimental evidence supporting the association is lacking at the present time. It is believed that benzene and its metabolites target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cause toxicity and cancer in the hematopoietic system. In the current study, we compared the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major metabolite of benzene in humans and animals, on mouse embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells (YS-HSCs) and adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs were isolated and enriched, and were exposed to HQ at increasing concentrations. HQ reduced the proliferation and the differentiation and colony formation, but increased the apoptosis of both YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. However, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HQ were more apparent and reduction of colony formation by HQ was more severe in YS-HSCs than in BM-HSCs. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed in HQ-treated YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. Cyp4f18 was induced by HQ both in YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs, whereas DNA-PKcs was induced in BM-HSCs only. The results revealed differential effects of benzene metabolites on embryonic and adult HSCs. The study established an experimental system for comparison of the hematopoietic toxicity and leukemogenicity of benzene and metabolites during mouse embryonic development and adulthood. PMID:23940708

  6. Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-04

    Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

  7. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  8. Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-27

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. Clinicopathologic study of endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and differential diagnosis of papillary tumors located at the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; Wang, Junmei; Cui, Yun; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Guilin; Fang, Jingyi; Yue, Shenglin; Xu, Li

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypes of 10 cases of endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and compared them with other papillary tumors, including eight cases of choroid plexus papilloma (CPP), three cases of atypical choroid plexus papilloma (ACPP), two cases of papillary ependymoma (PE), three cases of papillary meningioma (PM) and two cases of metastatic carcinoma (MC) the at cerebellopontine angle (CPA). The age at onset of ELST ranged from 13 to 39 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1. The clinical presentations were primarily ear-related symptoms. The temporal bones showed extensive destruction. Histologically, the important characteristics for differential diagnosis with CPP, which is most similar to ELST, include the quantity of blood vessels, the nuclei location at apical surface of the papillary, clear cytoplasm cells sometimes with visible vacuoles, psammoma bodies and dura or bone invasion. Immunohistochemistry stains for AE1/AE3, cytokeratin CK)5/6, epithelial membrane antigen, CK8/18, S-100, and synaptophysin are helpful in diagnosis of ELST. In ELST, ultrastructure of uniform 2??m vesicles in cytoplasm was seen, and gene analysis also showed missense mutation in exon 3. This study indicates that the above histological features combined with immunohistochemistry findings are important for making the correct diagnosis. Gene analysis should be used in patients without medical history to exclude von Hippel-Lindau disease. PMID:25944396

  10. Yolk spherocrystal: the structure, composition and liquid crystal template.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hua; Wan, Peng; Ma, Wentao; Zhong, Guirong; Cao, Lianxin; Hu, Jiming

    2008-07-01

    The structure and composition of the yolk spherocrystal, a biomineral developed in the egg yolk sac during the incubation of a chicken embryo, were investigated through various modern analytical methods. Additionally, inside the yolk sac, yolk liquid crystal, a liquid crystalline phase of lipid developed during the incubation of the embryo, was found and investigated. The spherocrystal was found to be a composite composed of calcium carbonate (vaterite and calcite, primarily the former) and the yolk liquid crystal, which is believed to act as an organic template for spherocrystals mineralization, in a concentric multi-layered sphere structure. Moreover, the yolk liquid crystal was found to have a concentric multi-layered spherical structure and a composition consistent with lecithin. We believed that the spherocrystals function as a reservoir for the storage of calcium in the egg yolk sac during the development of the embryo. PMID:18485735

  11. Growth hormone transgenesis and polyploidy increase metabolic rate, alter the cardiorespiratory response and influence HSP expression in response to acute hypoxia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) yolk-sac alevins.

    PubMed

    Polymeropoulos, Elias T; Plouffe, Debbie; LeBlanc, Sacha; Elliott, Nick G; Currie, Suzie; Frappell, Peter B

    2014-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic Atlantic salmon display accelerated growth rates compared with non-transgenics. GH-transgenic fish also display cardiorespiratory and metabolic modifications that accompany the increased growth rate. An elevated routine metabolic rate has been described for pre- and post-smolt GH-transgenic salmon that also display improvements in oxygen delivery to support the increased aerobic demand. The early ontogenic effects of GH transgenesis on the respiratory and cellular physiology of fish, especially during adverse environmental conditions, and the effect of polyploidy are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of GH transgenesis and polyploidy on metabolic, heart and ventilation rates and heat shock protein (HSP) levels after exposure to acute hypoxia in post-hatch Atlantic salmon yolk-sac alevins. Metabolic rate decreased with decreasing partial pressures of oxygen in all genotypes. In normoxia, triploid transgenics displayed the highest mass-specific metabolic rates in comparison to diploid transgenics and non-transgenic triploids, which, in contrast, had higher rates than diploid non-transgenics. In hypoxia, we observed a lower mass-specific metabolic rate in diploid non-transgenics compared with all other genotypes. However, no evidence for improved O2 uptake through heart or ventilation rate was found. Heart rate decreased in diploid non-transgenics while ventilation rate decreased in both diploid non-transgenics and triploid transgenics in severe hypoxia. Regardless of genotype or treatment, inducible HSP70 was not expressed in alevins. Following hypoxia, the constitutive isoform of HSP70, HSC70, decreased in transgenics and HSP90 expression decreased in all genotypes. These data suggest that physiological changes through GH transgenesis and polyploidy are manifested during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon. PMID:24675560

  12. Cytochrome P4501A1 is induced by PCB 77 and benzo[a]pyrene treatment but not by exposure to the Hudson River environment in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) post-yolk sac larvae.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nirmal K; Courtenay, Simon; Maxwell, Grace; Yuan, Zhanpeng; Chambers, R Christopher; Wirgin, Isaac

    2002-01-01

    In fish, the embryos and larvae are the life-stages most sensitive to damage from environmentally borne dioxin-like compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods are not routinely available to measure the body burdens of contaminants in embryos and larvae, thus precluding the investigation of links between exposure and biological effects. Quantification of expression of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) provides an index of relative exposure of natural populations to bioavailable aromatic hydrocarbons (AH) and an initial evaluation of their biological effects. We developed a quantitative approach to standardize total RNA loading and then used competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to quantify the CYP1A1 mRNA expression in environmentally exposed Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) post yolk-sac larvae (postlarvae) from the Hudson River, New York, and in chemically treated postlarval offspring of controlled laboratory crosses of Hudson River parents. Significant induction of CYP1A1 expression was observed in tomcod postlarvae exposed to waterborne 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) (four-fold) and benzo[a]-pyrene (eight-fold) compared with vehicle-exposed controls. In contrast, CYP1A1 was not induced in Hudson River-exposed postlarvae compared with vehicle-exposed controls. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using competitive RT-PCR for the measurement of gene expression in environmentally exposed larvae of sentinel species, and is consistent with the hypothesis that postlarvae exposed to the Hudson River environment have not bioaccumulated sufficient levels of AHs to induce CYP1A1 expression. The high levels of hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA expression previously reported in 5-8 month old juvenile tomcod from the Hudson River coincides with their descent to the benthic habitat and the onset of independent feeding on AH-contaminated benthic prey. PMID:12101635

  13. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Young Patients With Solid Tumors That Have Relapsed or Not Responded to Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  14. Primary Teratoma of the Lesser Sac: Lesser Sac Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Hardesty, Brandon M.; Ulbright, Thomas M.; Touloukian, Christopher; Einhorn, Lawrence H.

    2012-01-01

    Germ cell tumors predominantly involve the gonads but may rarely be found outside of the gonads, primarily in midline structures. We describe the case of a 27-year-old male with an asymptomatic 8?cm teratoma located within the lesser sac of his omentum. This is the fourth case of a teratoma located within the lesser sac of the omentum, which provides the opportunity to make some comparisons. Finally, we discuss some of the etiologic theories behind extragonadal germ cell tumors and how they relate to teratomas in the lesser sac. PMID:22606456

  15. Primary teratoma of the lesser sac: lesser sac teratoma.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Brandon M; Ulbright, Thomas M; Touloukian, Christopher; Einhorn, Lawrence H

    2012-01-01

    Germ cell tumors predominantly involve the gonads but may rarely be found outside of the gonads, primarily in midline structures. We describe the case of a 27-year-old male with an asymptomatic 8?cm teratoma located within the lesser sac of his omentum. This is the fourth case of a teratoma located within the lesser sac of the omentum, which provides the opportunity to make some comparisons. Finally, we discuss some of the etiologic theories behind extragonadal germ cell tumors and how they relate to teratomas in the lesser sac. PMID:22606456

  16. NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP., SALMONELLA SEROVARS AND OTHER BACTERIA IN UNABSORBED YOLKS OF MARKET AGE COMMERCIAL BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the developing avian embryo, the main energy source is the yolk. Towards the end of the incubation period, the remaining yolk sac is internalized into the abdominal cavity. At hatch, the remaining yolk comprises 20% of the chicks body weight and provides the nutrients needed for maintenance. ...

  17. Retroperitoneal Endodermal Sinus Tumor Patient with Palliative Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    This article is a case reflection of a personal encounter on the palliative care treatment required after the removal of a complicated case of a primary extra-gonadal retro-peritoneal endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor). This reflection is from the perspective of a recently graduated MD student who spent one month with an Indian pain management and palliative care team at the Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (IRCH), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi PMID:26962288

  18. Retroperitoneal Endodermal Sinus Tumor Patient with Palliative Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    This article is a case reflection of a personal encounter on the palliative care treatment required after the removal of a complicated case of a primary extra-gonadal retro-peritoneal endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor). This reflection is from the perspective of a recently graduated MD student who spent one month with an Indian pain management and palliative care team at the Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (IRCH), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. PMID:26962288

  19. Yolk utilisation in the newly hatched poult.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Noy Y; Sklan D

    1998-07-01

    1. Routes of yolk utilisation and some aspects of intestinal digestion and absorption were determined in the hatching poult and compared to the chick. 2. Transfer from yolk to blood was observed pre-hatch and up to 72 h post-hatch. From hatch the transport pattern was similar to the chick. 3. Transport from the yolk sac into the intestine via the yolk stalk was observed up to 120 h after hatch. Secretion was initially to the proximal ileum and reflux occurred, transporting contents to the proximal small intestine and gizzard. Antiperistaltic movements increased after hatch and secretion continued for longer post-hatch than in the chick. 4. In situ uptake of glucose per unit of duodenum did not change with age, whereas uptake of methionine and oleic acid decreased with age. In contrast, in the chick glucose and methionine uptake capacity increased slightly between hatch and 7 d. 5. The lipid class distribution of intestinal contents resembled that of yolk close to hatch, however, some lipolysis was observed in the duodenum. With age the proportion of free fatty acids increased rapidly, first in the duodenum then in the ileum and finally in the caecum. Yolk in the distal small intestine close to hatch did not appear to be utilised.

  20. Influence of yolk on blood metabolites in perinatal and neonatal chickens.

    PubMed

    Puvadolpirod, S; Thompson, J R; Green, J; Latour, M A; Thaxton, J P

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of the yolk sac during the perinatal period (i.e., from embryonic Day 18 through hatch) and until 15 days after hatching. Experiment 1 describes changes in several yolk components. Approximately 70% of the yolk was absorbed during the perinatal period. Moisture, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate fractions were all utilized during this period. In Experiment 2, the age at which set-point physiological levels of several blood metabolites, as well as the magnitudes of these levels, in deutectomized (DT) chicks (surgical ablation of the yolk sac within 1 hr post-hatch) were not different from non-DT controls. Results indicate that the yolk sac plays a central role in the hatching process of chicks, rather than serving as a major metabolic reserve during the neonatal period. PMID:9129969

  1. [Microglia arise from extra-embryonic yolk sac primitive progenitors].

    PubMed

    Ginhoux, Florent; Merad, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system (CNS). Adequate microglia function is crucial for the homeostasis of the CNS in health and disease, as they represent the first line of defence against pathogens, contributing to immune responses, but are also involved in tissue repair and remodeling. It is therefore crucial to better understand microglia origin and homeostasis. Much controversy remains regarding the nature of microglial progenitors, as the exact contribution and persistence of embryonic and post-natal hematopoietic progenitors to the adult microglial pool in the steady state remained unclear. In this study, we show that post-natal hematopoietic progenitors do not significantly contribute to microglia homeostasis in the adult brain in mice. In vivo lineage tracing studies established that adult microglia derives from primitive hematopoietic progenitors that arise before embryonic day 8. These results identify microglia as an ontogenically distinct population in the mononuclear phagocyte system and have implications for the use of embryonically-derived microglial progenitors for the treatment of various brain disorders. PMID:21880259

  2. Histopathology of pineal germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, A; Szathmari, A; Champier, J; Fvre-Montange, M; Jouvet, A

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) classically occur in gonads. However, they are the most frequent neoplasms in the pineal region. The pineal location of GCTs may be caused by the neoplastic transformation of a primordial germ cell that has mismigrated. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes 5 histological types of intracranial GCTs: germinoma and non-germinomatous tumors including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma and mature or immature teratoma. Germinomas and teratomas are frequently encountered as pure tumors whereas the other types are mostly part of mixed GCTs. In this situation, the neuropathologist has to be able to identify each component of a GCT. When diagnosis is difficult, use of recent immunohistochemical markers such as OCT(octamer-binding transcription factor)3/4, Glypican 3, SALL(sal-like protein)4 may be required. OCT3/4 is helpful in the diagnosis of germinomas, Glypican 3 in the diagnosis of yolk sac tumors and SALL4 in the diagnosis of the germ cell nature of an intracranial tumor. When the germ cell nature of a pineal tumor is doubtful, the finding of an isochromosome 12p suggests the diagnosis of GCT. The final pathological report should always be confronted with the clinical data, especially the serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein. PMID:24726316

  3. Can tumor cell suspension serve as an optical model of tumor tissue in situ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Vervoorts, Anja; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Moser, Joerg G.; Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim

    1999-01-01

    We determined and compared to the optical properties of five samples obtained from xenotransplanted chick embryos chorio- allantoic membrane tumors, five samples obtained from xenotransplanted chick embryos yolk sac membrane tumors, and five samples of concentrated tumor cells suspension (small cell lung carcinoma OAT 75). The absorption coefficient (mu) a, the scattering coefficient (mu) s, the anisotropy factor g, and the reduced scattering coefficient (mu) s' were evaluated in the spectral range from 600 nm to 900 nm with a step width of 10 nm from double integrating sphere measurements using an inverse Monte Carlo technique. The results have shown that the optical properties of the concentrated tumor cell suspension are similar to those of the chorio-allantoic membrane tumor, but are essentially different from the optical properties of the yolk sac membrane tumor. Cell vitality tests have shown that the cells were alive during and after the experiments. Therefore, the tumor cell suspension can serve as an optical model of the chorio-allantoic membrane tumor in situ for testing and developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.

  4. Current urologic care for testicular germ cell tumors in pediatric and adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Grantham, Erin C; Caldwell, Brian T; Cost, Nicholas G

    2016-02-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors make up 0.5% of pediatric malignancies, and 14% of adolescent malignancies. Young boys have primarily pure teratoma and pure yolk sac histologies; however, adolescent histology is mostly mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. Surgical excision of the primary tumor is the crux of treatment. Chemotherapy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, and targeted treatment of distant metastases make even widely disseminated disease treatable. Since the discovery of platinum-based chemotherapy, testicular germ cell tumors are a highly curable disease. However, adolescents remain the group with the highest mortality. Focus has expanded beyond survival to emphasize quality of life issues when optimizing treatment algorithms. PMID:26187598

  5. Imaging techniques in the diagnosis of lacrimal sac diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Polito, E; Leccisotti, A; Menicacci, F; Motolese, E; Addabbo, G; Paterra, N

    1995-01-01

    Lacrimal sac diverticulum is a rare condition characterized by a cystic structure communicating with the sac. This abnormality may be directly demonstrated by dacryocystography only in a few cases; in the remaining cases, preoperative diagnosis may be arduous. We report 3 cases of lacrimal sac diverticulum. In all patients, symptoms were represented by a palpable mass in the lacrimal sac region, associated with permanent (case 1) or episodic (cases 2 and 3) epiphora. In the first case, CT-dacryocystography revealed an apparently solid mass causing inferior lacrimal obstruction, and ultrasonography disclosed a cystic space, not communicating with the sac. At surgery, a sac diverticulum was identified and excised. In the second patient, CT showed a homogeneous rounded mass, whereas a cystic character was revealed by T1-weighted MRI. Dacryocystography showed a lateral impression on the lateral wall of the sac. Ultrasonography revealed a cystic space communicating with the lacrimal sac. In the third case, ultrasonography demonstrated a diverticulum. CT is often unable to discriminate tumors from lacrimal cysts, both showing a parenchymal density. MRI can differentiate lacrimal cystic spaces from solid tumors by T1 intensity and by demonstration of their walls, but it is nonspecific for diverticula. Only dacryocystography and B-scan ultrasonography can reveal the narrow communication between the sac and the diverticulum. Observation is the recommended management for asymptomatic cases. PMID:8545101

  6. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  7. SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

    2013-06-01

    The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

  8. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-07-22

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  9. Ovarian malignant mixed germ cell tumor with clear cell carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Zai-Ping; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumors of germ origin. Most patients are adolescent and young women, approximately two-thirds of them are under 20 years of age, occasionally in postmenopausal women. But clear cell carcinoma usually occurs in older patients (median age: 57-year old), and closely related with endometriosis. Here we report a case of a 55-year old woman with right ovarian mass that discovered by B ultrasonic. Her serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and ?-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Pathological examination revealed the tumor to be a mixed germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma and mature teratoma) with clear cell carcinoma in a background of endometriosis. Immunohistochemical staining showed SALL4 and PLAP were positive in germ cell tumor area, hCG, CD30 and OCT4 were positive in epithelial-like cells and giant synctiotrophoblastic cells, AFP, AAT, CD117 and Glyp3 were positive in yolk sac component, EMA and CK7 were positive in clear cell carcinoma, CD10 was positive in endometrial cells of endometriotic area. She was treated with surgery followed by seven courses of chemotherapy. She is well and serum levels of hCG and AFP have been decreased to normal levels. PMID:25674278

  10. ?-Fetoprotein-producing ovarian tumor in a postmenopausal woman with germ cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shiori; Yasuda, Masanori

    2013-02-01

    ?-Fetoprotein (AFP)-producing ovarian tumors (APOTs) are rarely encountered in postmenopausal women, irrespective of whether they are of the germ cell or non-germ cell type. The APOTs that do occur in postmenopausal women are characterized by variable histologies such as hepatoid carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and epithelial malignancies, most of which are combined. We herein present a case with APOT, which arose in a 58-year-old, gravida 2, para 2, postmenopausal woman. Preoperatively, the tumor, which was in the right ovary, was found to produce AFP (102768.0 ng/mL). The tumor was evenly composed of glands mimicking secretory endometrial gland or fetal gut accompanied by abundant stroma. Immunohistochemically, these glands were positive for SALL4, glypican-3, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1?. We considered the present case as an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma with adenofibroma showing germ cell differentiation, but it seemed controversial that this tumor should be designated as a yolk sac tumor of the glandular type. The expression profiles of SALL4, OCT4, glypican-3, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1? were thought to provide interesting implications to characterize the present case. PMID:22056036

  11. Pineal region tumors--neurosurgical review.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Ivan; Dizdarevic, Kemal; de Tribolet, Nicolas; Masic, Tarik; Muminagic, Sahib

    2009-01-01

    The treatment for the pineal region tumors depends on tumor histology. Nowadays, germinomas can be cured by radiotherapy and chemotherapy without surgical resection but the other pineal region tumors should be primary treated by surgery. Two microsurgical approaches, the infratentorial supracerebellar and the occipital transtentorial, are accepted as the main standard accesses to the pineal region. For benign pineal tumors (pineocytoma, meningioma, mature teratomas, symptomatic pineal cysts, etc.) radical surgical resection can be curative. For malignant tumors radical surgical resection is not an objective. Serum and CSF markers contribute to the diagnosis of pineal parenchymal tumors. b-HCG is mainly positive in choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas and mixed germ cell tumors and AFP is expressed by yolk sac tumors, embryonic carcinomas, immature teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors, b-HCG is usually low in germinomas which are often positive for PLAP on immunohistochemistry. Fifty-one pineal region tumors were surgically treated by senior author (NdT). Only 17 of them were the neoplasms originating from pineal body (pineal tumors). In conclusion it can be stressed that management of pineal tumors requires a multidisciplinary cooperation. With the exception of germinoma where only a biopsy is needed, the role of the surgeons still remains prominent as resection of pineal tumors requires high technical skill and experience as well as precise clinical judgment. PMID:20088167

  12. Over-expression of HOX-8, the human homologue of the mouse Hox-8 homeobox gene, in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Tanaka, M; Iwase, T; Naito, Y; Sugimura, H; Kino, I

    1993-07-15

    A human ovarian yolk sac tumor cDNA library was screened for homeobox genes with an oligonucleotide probe under low stringent condition. Three homeobox genes were isolated, two of which were identified as HHO.c1 and HB24. The third was highly homologous with the mouse Hox-8 gene and was designated as HOX-8. Studies on RNAs from 25 human tumor tissues and cell lines showed that the profile of HOX-8 expression was different from those of HHO.c1 and HB24. The expression of HOX-8 was not detected in hematopoietic tumor cells, in which HHO.c1 and HB24 were highly expressed. HOX-8 was expressed at higher levels in a variety of tumors of epithelial origin than in their corresponding normal tissues more frequently than HHO.c1 and HB24. All three homeobox genes were highly expressed in a yolk sac tumor, an immature tumor of gonadal origin. These results suggest that HOX-8 plays a more important role in human tumors of epithelial origin than those of hematopoietic origin. PMID:7687426

  13. Recent developments in SAC2000

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M

    1997-07-01

    Before discussing recent developments in SAC2000, I will summarize what SAC2000 is/does. SAC2000 is the rebirth and evolution of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) developed during the 1980`s for a variety of geophysical applications. Primary funding for the development of SAC2000 has been through the LLNL as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) CTBT R&D program. The primary development goals for SAC2000 have been to meet the seismic signal processing and analysis needs of the DOE CTBT R&D teams and the rest of the CTBT R&D community. SAC2000`s strengths include its ability to process a diverse range of data types, its extensive, well documented signal processing capabilities (both on-line and on the web at http://www-ep.es.llnl.gov/tvp/sac.html), its macro language, and its ability to do both branch and interactive processing. Its extensive usage (over 200 institutions worldwide) had also made it much easier for researchers to develop collaborative research projects. SAC2000`s extensive signal processing capabilities include: data inspection, signal correction, and quality control, unary and binary data operations, travel-time analysis, spectral analysis including high-resolution spectral estimation, spectrograms and binary sonograms, and array and three-component analysis. Recent development in SAC2000 include: enhanced compatibility with the CSS3.0 database schema, complete compatibility with the widely used SEED data format instrument responses, map making capabilities via an interface to GMT, a new three component polarization and phase identification tool, an external interface that allows users to define their own commands, and an interface to MATLAB that allows the user to use MATLAB commands and scripts on SAC data from within SAC2000. We have also implemented a number of commands to enhance user efficiency and numerous improvements and enhancements to many individual SAC commands. Current development in SAC2000 are motivated by the need for easy and efficient access to, and processing and interpretation of large amounts of data. We are also driven by the need to communicate results from SAC2000 to our database and other programs. Based on these needs, we have begun developing a new data structure for SAC 2000. This new structure will completely compatible with the standard SAC format but will also allow us to access, modify, and output all the information in CSS3.0 based oracle databases or CSS3.0 flat files. Given the variety of data types that are currently possible in SAC2000 and other programs, and the likelihood that additional data types or parameters will be needed in the future, we designing SAC2000`s new format to be easily extendible and anticipate incorporation of significant extensions to the CSS3.0 schema.

  14. Genetics and biology of human ovarian teratomas. III. Cytogenetics and origins of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Hoffner, L; Shen-Schwarz, S; Deka, R; Chakravarti, A; Surti, U

    1992-08-01

    This report presents cytogenetic data on three cases of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. All were diagnosed as malignant teratoma; case 1 with yolk sac elements; case 2 with elements of endodermal sinus tumor, embryonal carcinoma, and choriocarcinoma; and case 3 with yolk sac elements and embryonal carcinoma. Metaphase cells from each tumor, and normal tissue from the host, were karyotyped and scored for centromeric heteromorphisms in an attempt to determine the mechanism of origin. The karyotypes were 79,XXX,+1,+3,-6,+8,+12,+14,-15,+17, +20,+21,+22;49,XX,+8,+12,+22; and 48,XX,+3,+14, respectively. The analysis of centromeric heteromorphisms and DNA fingerprints of host and teratoma using the M13 probe revealed that one case originated from a germ cell before the first meiotic division. Normal host tissue was not available in case 2, but several centromeric markers were heterozygous in the tumor, indicating either meiosis I error or complete failure of germ cell meiosis. In the third case the centromeric heteromorphisms that were heterozygous in the host appeared to be homozygous for certain chromosomes and heterozygous for others in the tumor. These results suggest that germ cell teratomas could arise by the fusion of two ova. PMID:1521236

  15. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  16. Effects of the in ovo injection of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the yolk and serum characteristics of male and female broiler embryos.

    PubMed

    Bello, A; Nascimento, M; Pelici, N; Womack, S K; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D; Peebles, E D

    2015-04-01

    Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] in broiler embryos at 19 d of incubation:doi:have been shown to increase 3 times by the in ovo injection of 0.60??g 25(OH)D3 on 18 doi. In this trial, effects of the injection of 25(OH)D3 at 18 doi on the yolks and sera of male and female RossRoss 708 broiler embryos were assessed. On 18 doi, embryonated eggs that were set in a single stage incubator were assigned to 6 replicate trays within each of 2 injection treatment groups. Treatments included those injected with 100??L commercial diluent (control) and those injected with 0.60??g 25(OH)D3 in 100??L commercial diluent. On 19 doi, embryos and their yolk sacs were extracted for determination of sex, yolk weight, BW, serum CA and phosphorous concentrations, and yolk CA, phosphorous, moisture, dry matter, and lipid concentrations. The weight of female embryos with their attached yolk sacs as a percentage of set egg weight was greater than that of males (P=0.03). There were treatmentsex interactions for the weight of embryos with their attached yolk sacs relative to 19 doi egg weight (P=0.05) and for yolk CA concentration (P=0.004). In eggs that received 25(OH)D3, the weight of female embryos with their attached yolk sacs relative to 19 doi egg weight was higher than that of males (P=0.005), and percentage yolk CA was higher in control eggs containing female embryos in comparison to those containing males (P=0.007). An injection of 0.60??g 25(OH)D3 at 18 doi eliminated yolk CA differences associated with embryo sex, suggesting that 25(OH)D3 may influence sex-related differences in the rate of yolk CA absorption by broiler embryos and may be related to subsequent sex-related differences in posthatch bone strength. PMID:25691758

  17. Cul-de-Sac Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood

  18. Increased efficiency of testicular tumor chemotherapy by ultrasound microbubble-mediated targeted transfection of siMDR1.

    PubMed

    He, Yun; Bi, Yang; Ji, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Guanghui

    2015-11-01

    The MDR1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent drug efflux transporter and is related to drug resistance of yolk sac tumors. Drug resistence may be an important factor for the low efficiency of chemotherapy in the treatment of testicular tumors. P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene, is an ATP-binding cassette transporter. P-gp exhibits high expression in capillary endothelial cells of the testis and prevents the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapy agents in testicular tumor cells, resulting in drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to use specific siRNA to silence the expression of the MDR1 gene and P-gp, leading to the reversal of multidrug resistance of testicular tumors and contributing a suitable condition for chemotherapy. Ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery is a safe and effective tool for gene delivery. In the present study, we demonstrated that ultrasound microbubble-mediated delivery effectively improved the siMDR1 gene transfection in interstitial capillary endothelial cells of the testis, inhibited the expression of P-gp and increased daunorubicin accumulation. The testis tumor model was successfully constructed by injecting 1x10(7) yolk sac tumor cells in 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Ultrasound microbubble-mediated siMDR1 gene therapy improved the effect of chemotherapy on the testicular tumors. The testicular volume was reduced, the number of tumor cells within the testicular tissues decreased, and pathological changes were mostly recovered. Therefore, the present study indicated that ultrasound microbubble-mediated siMDR1 gene therapy in vivo reversed drug resistance by regulating P-gp expression, providing a promising method for the treatment of testicular tumors. PMID:26352437

  19. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  20. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  1. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  2. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  3. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  4. Lymphoid Progenitor Emergence in the Murine Embryo and Yolk Sac Precedes Stem Cell Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian embryos produce several waves of hematopoietic cells before the establishment of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) hierarchy. These early waves of embryonic hematopoiesis present a reversed hierarchy in which hematopoietic potential is first displayed by highly specialized cells that are derived from transient uni- and bipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoiesis progresses through multilineage erythro-myeloid progenitor cells that lack self-renewal potential and, subsequently, to make distinct lymphoid progenitor cells before culminating in detectable definitive HSC. This review provides an overview of the stepwise development of embryonic hematopoiesis. We focus on recent progress in demonstrating that lymphoid lineages emerge from hemogenic endothelial cells before the presence of definitive HSC activity and discuss the implications of these findings. PMID:24417306

  5. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  6. Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

  7. Primary malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang-Jun; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Yan, Hong; Han, Jing; Wang, Dan; Xu, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac is extremely rare. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage after excision or biopsy of a tumour. We treated a 59-year-old man with tearing and bloody discharge from the right eye. Clinical examination revealed a firm, localised mass at the inner canthus consistent with a lacrimal sac swelling. Sac washout demonstrated obstruction to entry into the lacrimal sac with a reflux of blood-stained fluid. The pathological findings and the immunohistochemical studies showed a malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac. We performed radical surgery and radiation therapy. Follow-up 4?months after surgery revealed no evidence of recurrence. Because this tumour often presents with symptoms similar to dacryocystitis and may masquerade as a chronic dacryocystitis, ophthalmologists should be aware of this disease entity when encountered with patients with epiphora and mass in the medial canthal area. PMID:22891020

  8. Pediatric germ cell tumors presenting beyond childhood?

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, J W; Stoop, J A; Rijlaarsdam, M A; Biermann, K; Smit, V T H B M; Hersmus, R; Looijenga, L H J

    2015-01-01

    Four cases are reported meeting the criteria of a pediatric (i.e., Type I) testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT), apart from the age of presentation, which is beyond childhood. The tumors encompass the full spectrum of histologies of pediatric TGCT: teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and various combinations of the two, and lack intratubular germ cell neoplasia/carcinoma in situ in the adjacent parenchyma. The neoplasms are (near)diploid, and lack gain of 12p, typical for seminomas and non-seminomas of the testis of adolescents and adults (i.e., Type II). It is proposed that these neoplasms are therefore late appearing pediatric (Type I) TGCT. The present report broadens the concept of earlier reported benign teratomas of the post-pubertal testis to the full spectrum of pediatric TGCT. The possible wide age range of pediatric TGCT, demonstrated in this study, lends credence to the concept that TGCT should according to their pathogenesis be classified into the previously proposed types. This classification is clinically relevant, because Type I mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are candidates for testis conserving surgery, as opposed to Type II mature teratomas, which have to be treated as Type II (malignant) non-seminomas. PMID:25427839

  9. Sisters of the sinuses: cetacean air sacs.

    PubMed

    Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    This overview assesses some distinguishing features of the cetacean (whale, dolphin, porpoise) air sac system that may relate to the anatomy and function of the paranasal sinuses in terrestrial mammals. The cetacean respiratory tract has been modified through evolution to accommodate living in water. Lack of paranasal sinuses in modern cetaceans may be a diving adaptation. Bone-enclosed air chambers are detrimental, as their rigid walls may fracture during descent/ascent due to contracting/re-expanding air volumes. Flexible-walled "sinuses" (extracranial diverticula) are a logical adaptation to diving. Odontocetes (toothed whales) exhibit several pairs of paranasal air sacs. Although fossil evidence indicates that paranasal sinuses occur in archaeocetes (ancestors/relatives of living cetaceans), it is not known whether the paranasal sacs derive from these sinuses. Sac pigmentation indicates that they derived from invaginations of the integument. Unlike sinuses, paranasal sacs are not circumferentially enclosed in bone, and therefore can accommodate air volume changes that accompany diving pressure changes. Paired pterygoid sacs, located ventrally along the cetacean skull, connect the pharynx and middle ear cavities. Mysticetes (baleen whales) have a large midline laryngeal sac. Although cetacean air sacs do not appear to be homologous to paranasal sinuses, they may serve some analogous respiratory, vocal, or structural functions. For example, these sacs may participate in gas exchange, thermoregulation, resonance, and skeletal pneumatization. In addition, they may subserve unique aquatic functions, such as increasing inspiratory volume, mitigating pressure-induced volume change, air shunting to reduce respiratory dead space, and facilitating underwater sound production and transmission. PMID:18951477

  10. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Changes in the protein secondary structure of hen's egg yolk determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy during the first eight days of incubation.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Sabrina; Drotleff, Astrid M; Ternes, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, incubation-induced alterations in the protein secondary structures of egg yolk and its major fractions (granules, plasma, and low-density lipoproteins [LDL]) were monitored during the first 8 d of embryogenesis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). Two factors potentially connected with egg yolk protein secondary structure changes were evaluated, i.e., the pH value of incubated egg yolk, and phosvitin, an important egg yolk protein assumed to play an important role in hematopoiesis as the iron carrier during early embryogenesis. However, neither the significant increase in pH value (6.07 to 6.92) of egg yolk during incubation of fertilized eggs, nor the release of iron from phosvitin were found to be directly related to the changes in protein secondary structure in egg yolk and its fractions. FTIR showed that the protein conformation in whole egg yolk, granules, and LDL was stable during incubation, but separate evaluation of the plasma fraction revealed considerable changes in secondary structure. However, it is unlikely that these changes were provoked by structure changes of the proteins originally present in plasma; instead, the physiological influx of albumen into the yolk sac was expected to play an important role in the protein modifications of egg yolk, as was shown both by FTIR and IEF of the water-soluble egg yolk proteins. Moreover, FTIR was used to determine the naturally occurring proportions (%) of the secondary structure elements in egg yolk and its 3 fractions on d 0 of incubation. The granules fraction mainly consisted of a mixture of inter- and intramolecular ?-sheets (57.04%0.39%). The plasma fraction was found to consist mainly of ?-helices (43.23%0.27%), whereas LDL was composed almost exclusively of intramolecular ?-sheets (67.36%0.56%) or ?-turns, or both. On the other hand, whole egg yolk was mainly composed of intermolecular ?-sheets (39.77%0.48%), potentially indicating molecular interchanges between the individual fractions. PMID:25577795

  12. Zebrafish epiboly: Spreading thin over the yolk.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Ashley E E

    2016-03-01

    Tissue thinning and spreading, a morphogenetic movement termed epiboly, is used widely during animal development. In zebrafish, epiboly is a prominent cell movement during gastrulation, whereby a squamous epithelium (the enveloping layer), a multi-layer of loosely packed cells (the deep cells), and a yolk nuclear syncytium (the yolk syncytial layer) undergo coordinated expansion to engulf the yolk and close the blastopore. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie epiboly is important not only for understanding animal development in general, but also for providing insights into fundamental cell behaviors including cell intercalation, cell adhesion, cell signaling, and epithelial morphogenesis. Here, recent work is reviewed with a focus on findings that advance our understanding of (1) the role of actomyosin motors in the yolk cell to drive epiboly, (2) the mechanisms that underlie the spreading of the epithelial enveloping layer, and (3) the regulation of deep cell movements by E-cadherin based adhesion. A discussion of how these new insights add to the current view of epiboly and future prospects is also presented. Overall, the study of zebrafish epiboly can provide general and broadly applicable insights into the genetic, molecular, and cellular control of morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 245:244-258, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26434660

  13. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of

  14. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  15. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180...

  16. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180...

  17. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180...

  18. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180...

  19. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180...

  20. The Hypoxia-Inducible Epigenetic Regulators Jmjd1a and G9a Provide a Mechanistic Link between Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jolene Caifeng; Lee, Kian Leong; Kitajima, Shojiro; Yang, Henry; Sun, Wendi; Fukuhara, Noriko; Zaiden, Norazean; Chan, Shing Leng; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes stem cell maintenance and tumor progression, but it remains unclear how it regulates long-term adaptation toward these processes. We reveal a striking downregulation of the hypoxia-inducible histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase JMJD1A as a hallmark of clinical human germ cell-derived tumors, such as seminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Jmjd1a was not essential for stem cell self-renewal but played a crucial role as a tumor suppressor in opposition to the hypoxia-regulated oncogenic H3K9 methyltransferase G9a. Importantly, loss of Jmjd1a resulted in increased tumor growth, whereas loss of G9a produced smaller tumors. Pharmacological inhibition of G9a also resulted in attenuation of tumor growth, offering a novel therapeutic strategy for germ cell-derived tumors. Finally, Jmjd1a and G9a drive mutually opposing expression of the antiangiogenic factor genes Robo4, Igfbp4, Notch4, and Tfpi accompanied by changes in H3K9 methylation status. Thus, we demonstrate a novel mechanistic link whereby hypoxia-regulated epigenetic changes are instrumental for the control of tumor growth through coordinated dysregulation of antiangiogenic gene expression. PMID:25071150

  1. Comparing and Contrasting NAEYC and SACS Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Mary Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe, compare, and contrast an early childhood departmental accreditation process from the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and a college/university-wide accreditation process from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). The history of higher education…

  2. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  3. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. Ovarian yolk formation in fishes: Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of lipid droplets and vitellogenin-derived yolk proteins.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Todo, Takashi; Sullivan, Craig V; Schilling, Justin; Reading, Benjamin J; Matsubara, Takahiro; Ryu, Yong-Woon; Mizuta, Hiroko; Luo, Wenshu; Nishimiya, Osamu; Wu, Meiqin; Mushirobira, Yuji; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Hara, Akihiko

    2015-09-15

    Fish egg yolk is largely derived from vitellogenins, which are synthesized in the liver, taken up from the maternal circulation by growing oocytes via receptor-mediated endocytosis and enzymatically processed into yolk proteins that are stored in the ooplasm. Lipid droplets are another major component of fish egg yolk, and these are mainly composed of neutral lipids that may originate from maternal plasma lipoproteins. This review aims to briefly summarize our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying yolk formation in fishes. A hypothetical model of oocyte growth is proposed based on recent advances in our knowledge of fish yolk formation. PMID:25660470

  5. Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Actual SAC105, SAC305, and SAC405 Solder Joints by Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Yu, D.; Park, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the mechanical properties of three lead-free solder alloys 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405), 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305), and 98.5Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) at the solder joint scale. Several actual ChipArray ball grid array (CABGA) packages were cross-sectioned, polished, and used as test vehicles. Compressive tests were performed using a nanocharacterization system over the temperature range of 25C to 105C. Images of the cross-sectioned solder joints were recorded by microscope during the tests. The recorded images were then processed by using a digital image correlation (DIC) program to calculate the displacement and strain fields on the solder joints. Finite-element method (FEM) modeling was used to extract the Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the solder alloys over the temperature range. The methodology developed in this paper enables characterization of the mechanical properties of the actual solder joints at low strain range with high accuracy.

  6. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5' AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  7. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  8. Migratory constraints on yolk precursors limit yolk androgen deposition and underlie a brood reduction strategy in rockhopper penguins.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; Williams, Tony D; Eens, Marcel; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2012-12-23

    Hormonally mediated maternal effects link maternal phenotype and environmental conditions to offspring phenotype. The production of lipid-rich maternal yolk precursors may provide a mechanism by which lipophilic steroid hormones can be transported to developing yolks, thus predicting a positive correlation between yolk precursors in mothers and androgen levels in eggs. Using rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), which produce a two-egg clutch characterized by extreme egg-size dimorphism, reversed hatching asynchrony and brood-reduction, we examined correlations between circulating concentrations of the primary yolk-precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and levels of yolk androgens. Previous work in Eudyptes penguins has shown that egg-size dimorphism is the product of migratory constraints on yolk precursor production. We predicted that if yolk precursors are constrained, androgen transport to developing yolks would be similarly constrained. We reveal positive linear relationships between maternal VTG and androgens in small A-eggs but not larger B-eggs, which is consistent with a migratory constraint operating on the A-egg. Results suggest that intra-clutch variation in total yolk androgen levels depends on the production and uptake of yolk precursors. The brood reduction strategy common to Eudyptes might thus be best described as the result of a migratory constraint. PMID:22809718

  9. Uptake and photodynamic activity of porphycenes in tumor cells implanted on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidi, Ronit; Gottfried, Varda; Kimel, Sol

    1996-01-01

    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a convenient model for the study of photodynamic therapy (PDT). This membrane has a rich vasculature, which mimics the tumor neovasculature, and can also serve as a host for implanted tumors. The transparency of the CAM enables in-vivo monitoring of vascular changes during and post PDT, without the need to sacrifice test animals at each time point. Video documentation and analysis of events occurring during and after irradiation permit the quantification of changes in vessel morphology, blood perfusion and tumor development. The compounds tested in this study belong to a family of potential sensitizers -- the porphycenes. These are phorphyrin isomers based on a 16-membered macrocycle, in which the four methine moieties linking the pyrrole rings have been replaced by two direct bonds and two ethine bridges. Experiments were performed on blood vessels of the intact CAM and on recurrent human melanoma cells implanted on the CAM. Tumor selectivity was demonstrated by measuring drug uptake using fluorescence methods. A sensitizer injected systemically into the embryo yolk sac could be detected in the blood vessels 30 min after injection; 1 h later the sensitizer had preferentially accumulated in the tumor. Tumors were irradiated at the optimal uptake time (after 1 h) for 16 min with a 20 mW HeNe laser. Video image analysis showed that 96 h after irradiation tumors had decreased to 5% of their original size. In contrast, non-irradiated control tumors on the same CAM, continued to proliferate and grew to more than twice their original size. In addition, we observed a difference in the damage mechanism after systemic compared to topical administration. Topical application followed by irradiation caused fast necrosis of tumors, which might suggest direct damage to tumor cells, whereas after systemic administration, PDT damage was manifested by slower necrosis, presumably caused by vascular destruction.

  10. Exome sequencing of bilateral testicular germ cell tumors suggests independent development lineages.

    PubMed

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M; Berg, Kaja G; Bakken, Anne C; Bruun, Jarle; Foss, Sophie D; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2015-02-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  11. Exome Sequencing of Bilateral Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Suggests Independent Development Lineages12

    PubMed Central

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M.; Berg, Kaja G.; Bakken, Anne C.; Bruun, Jarle; Foss, Sophie D.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I.

    2015-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  12. Homology of Drosophila yolk proteins and the triacylglycerol lipase family.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, P; Ab, G

    1988-08-01

    Drosophila yolk proteins consist of a set of related proteins of 50,000 Mr. They are derived from slightly larger precursors by cleavage of a signal peptide. In this respect, they differ from the yolk proteins of other insects which are proteolytic fragments of precursors of 200,000 Mr or larger, termed vitellogenins and probably homologous to the vitellogenins of other egg-laying species. We report here a comparative amino acid analysis demonstrating that the Drosophila yolk proteins are non-homologous to the vitellogenin group of yolk proteins, but surprisingly are related to the triacylglycerol lipase family. PMID:3139889

  13. INFLUENCE OF WATER PROVISION TO CHICKS PRIOR TO PLACEMENT ON PERFORMANCE ON INCIDENCE OF UNABSORBED YOLK SACS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, the levels of bacteria recovered from broiler carcass halves after immersion chilling in a low volume of water (2.1 L/kg) were greater than the levels of bacteria recovered from halves after immersion chilling in a high volume of water (16.8 L/kg). A second study was conducted ...

  14. Improved avian influenza virus isolation rates from wild waterfowl cloacal swabs using yolk sac inoculation of embryonating chicken egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) remains of interest to researchers as a pathogen that infects many economically important bird species. Asymptomatic wild birds, such as waterfowl species, can shed virus and spread it to domestic poultry, where it can cause severe damage. Effective laboratory methods t...

  15. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed. PMID:25419620

  16. Whisker Formation on SAC305 Soldered Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschter, S.; Snugovsky, P.; Bagheri, Z.; Kosiba, E.; Romansky, M.; Kennedy, J.; Snugovsky, L.; Perovic, D.

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the results of a whisker formation study on SAC305 assemblies, evaluating the effects of lead-frame materials and cleanliness in different environments: low-stress simulated power cycling (50-85C thermal cycling), thermal shock (-55C to 85C), and high temperature/high humidity (85C/85% RH). Cleaned and contaminated small outline transistors, large leaded quad flat packs (QFP), plastic leaded chip carrier packages, and solder balls with and without rare earth elements (REE) were soldered to custom designed test boards with Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. After assembly, all the boards were cleaned, and half of them were recontaminated (1.56 g/cm2 Cl-). Whisker length, diameter, and density were measured. Detailed metallurgical analysis on components before assembly and on solder joints before and after testing was performed. It was found that whiskers grow from solder joint fillets, where the thickness is less than 25 m, unless REE was present. The influence of lead-frame and solder ball material, microstructure, cleanliness, and environment on whisker characteristics is discussed. This article provides detailed metallurgical observations and select whisker length data obtained during this multiyear testing program.

  17. Open Reintervention for Aneurysmal Sac Enlargement after EVAR

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Arudo; Hirai, Yuuki; Tamura, Kentaro; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Ishida, Atsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    We performed a late open reintervention for aneurysmal sac enlargement due to persistent type 2 endoleak (PT2EL) after EVAR for 8 of 286 patients. Surgical techniques are as follows: (1) The entire aneurysmal body was exposed. (2) All the aortic branched vessels were ligated. (3) The aneurysmal sac was opened followed by the performance of complete hemostasis. (4) An equine pericardium was wrapped and sutured to the aneurysmal sac to for reinforcement. This method is considered to be one of the feasible options for the treatment of aneurysmal sac re-enlargement after EVAR. PMID:25298845

  18. Environmental influence on yolk steroids in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Albergotti, Lori C; McCoy, Michael W; Mutz, Jessica; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-11-01

    The egg yolk serves as a significant source of maternally derived steroids that are available to the embryo during early development. Altered deposition of yolk steroids can change the developmental trajectory of the embryo and have long lasting or permanent consequences. Alligators from contaminated environments have shown significant reproductive and developmental dysfunction, and it is unclear if altered deposition of yolk steroids could be a contributing factor. Alligator eggs were collected from Lake Woodruff (a reference lake), Lake Apopka (a site of known agricultural contamination), and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) (home of the Kennedy Space Center and a site of heavy metal contamination). The yolks of eggs at embryonic stages 12 (prior to sex determination) and 24 (post-sex determination) were evaluated for concentrations of progesterone, 17-beta estradiol, and testosterone. Yolk concentrations of progesterone were significantly lower at embryonic stage 12 in eggs from Lake Apopka and MINWR when compared to eggs from Lake Woodruff. Yolk concentrations of 17-beta estradiol were significantly lower at embryonic stage 12 in eggs from MINWR when compared to the other two sites. Reductions in yolk 17-beta estradiol concentrations from embryonic stage 12 to 24 were significantly attenuated in eggs from MINWR versus that of Lakes Woodruff and Apopka. This study suggests that altered deposition of yolk steroids, and possibly differential utilization by the embryo, could be a contributory mechanism in the reproductive and developmental abnormalities seen in alligators from contaminated locales. PMID:20650885

  19. Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ziaja, Damian; Bolkowski, Tomasz; Januszewski, Krzysztof; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Wioletta; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4?cm in diameter) tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand's hernia). Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women. PMID:25802791

  20. Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, F; Giangaspero, F; Piana, S; Andreoli, A; Ricci, R

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination. The lesion occurred in a 72-year-old male who presented with a long-standing history of right-sided hearing loss and a few-week history of progressive facial nerve palsy and right aural pain. At histology, the tumor was composed of pseudoglandular spaces with papillary infoldings. Lumina contained colloid-like material. The lesion was surgically removed with suboccipital approach following endoarterial embolization. This study emphasizes that low-grade adenocarcinomas of endolymphatic sac origin extending to posterior cranial fossa and jugular paraganglioma may be indistinguishable preoperatively at clinical and radiological levels. PMID:9323449

  1. Perforated appendix with periappendicular abscess in a inguinal hernia sac--Amyand's hernia.

    PubMed

    Zaharie, F; Tomu?, C; Mocan, L; Barto?, A; Barto?, D; Zaharie, R; Iancu, C

    2012-01-01

    Amyand's hernia is a rare form of inguinal hernia, where the appendix is included in the hernia sac. We present the emergency case of an 81-year-old patient with right inguinal pseudo-tumor, accompanied by marked local pain, nausea, low grade fever and bowel disorders. Emergency surgery is indicated due to a suspected incarcerated inguinal hernia with imminent strangulation. The intraoperatory findings reveal the presence of a periappendicular abscess as the cause of gangrenous appendicitis, perforated in the right indirect inguinal hernia sac. The practice includes the evacuation of the abscess, appendectomy and surgical cure of the inguinal hernia--Bassini's procedure, Douglas drainage and subcutaneous drainage. The postoperative outcome was favorable, the patient being discharged on the fifth postoperative day. Postoperative checks performed at 3 and 9 months have not revealed the presence of a hernia recurrence. PMID:23025121

  2. Tissue-resident versus monocyte-derived macrophages in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Qods; Keirsse, Jiri; Laoui, Damya; Movahedi, Kiavash; Van Overmeire, Eva; Van Ginderachter, Jo A

    2016-01-01

    The tumor-promoting role of macrophages has been firmly established in most cancer types. However, macrophage identity has been a matter of debate, since several levels of complexity result in considerable macrophage heterogeneity. Ontogenically, tissue-resident macrophages derive from yolk sac progenitors which either directly or via a fetal liver monocyte intermediate differentiate into distinct macrophage types during embryogenesis and are maintained throughout life, while a disruption of the steady state mobilizes monocytes and instructs the formation of monocyte-derived macrophages. Histologically, the macrophage phenotype is heavily influenced by the tissue microenvironment resulting in molecularly and functionally distinct macrophages in distinct organs. Finally, a change in the tissue microenvironment as a result of infectious or sterile inflammation instructs different modes of macrophage activation. These considerations are relevant in the context of tumors, which can be considered as sites of chronic sterile inflammation encompassing subregions with distinct environmental conditions (for example, hypoxic versus normoxic). Here, we discuss existing evidence on the role of macrophage subpopulations in steady state tissue and primary tumors of the breast, lung, pancreas, brain and liver. PMID:26145884

  3. Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sacpollen tube interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai Shuai; Wang, Fang; Tan, Su Jian; Wang, Ming Xiu; Sui, Na; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 1416 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sacpollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sacpollen tube interaction in maize. PMID:25566277

  4. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  5. Expression of Transcription Factors and Nuclear Receptors in Mixed Germ Cell-Sex Cord Stromal Tumor and Related Tumors of the Gonads.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lawrence M; Cheng, Liang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we compare the expression of OCT4, SALL4, and TSPYL1 in mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumor (MGC-SCST) of either gonad to that of normal adult testis, classic and spermatocytic seminoma, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified, gonadoblastoma, and dysgerminoma to determine the entity or entities that most closely resemble MGC-SCST by immunohistochemistry of germ cells. The most useful transcription factor was OCT4. In addition, to its already described value in distinguishing germinoma and embryonal carcinoma from yolk sac tumor and in differentiating classic from spermatocytic seminoma, we found that OCT4 is useful in confirming or ruling out potential malignancy in MGC-SCST of either gonad. Expression of OCT4 in most ovarian MGC-SCSTs resembles that of dysgerminoma, whereas most testicular examples resemble that of spermatocytic seminoma and normal adult testis. Thus, most MGC-SCSTs of the ovary are potentially malignant, and corresponding tumors of the testis are mostly benign; however, exceptions likely can be detected by the use of OCT4, potentially leading to more appropriate clinical management in some cases. SALL4 is an underutilized transcription factor that is useful in distinguishing testicular MGC-SCST from sex cord stromal tumor, unclassified in those neoplasms where the germ cells are sparse or unevenly distributed. Compared with other transcription factors studied, TSPY and its congener TSPYL1 have little value in the assessment of germ cell tumors because of their relatively wide range of expression in normal adult testis and in germ cell tumors. PMID:26107563

  6. Yolk carotenoids increase fledging success in great tit nestlings.

    PubMed

    Marri, Viviana; Richner, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Avian mothers can influence offspring phenotype through the deposition of different compounds into eggs, such as antibodies, hormones and antioxidants. The concentration of carotenoids in yolk is larger than in maternal plasma, suggesting an important role of these compounds for offspring development. Since carotenoids have to be acquired from the diet, they may be available in limiting amounts to the mothers. Here, we investigated the role of egg carotenoids for offspring growth by experimentally increasing the concentration of yolk lutein, the main carotenoid in great tit (Parus major) yolk. We subsequently measured body condition, oxidative stress, immune response, plumage colouration and fledging success. Lutein increased body mass soon after hatching and fledging success, but did not affect tarsus length, oxidative stress, immune response and plumage colouration. The higher content of yolk lutein could have increased body mass by reducing oxidative stress caused by high metabolic rates of rapidly growing embryos or by promoting cell differentiation and proliferation. The positive effect of lutein on fledging success seems to be mediated by its influence on body mass 3 days post-hatch, since these two traits were correlated. The finding that our treatment did not affect traits measured later in the nestling period, except for fledging success, suggests that yolk lutein has short-term effects that are essential to increase survival until fledging. Our study shows the positive effect of yolk lutein on offspring survival in the great tit, and therefore suggests an important role of carotenoid-mediated maternal effects. PMID:25142046

  7. VIEW ALONG FLIGHT LINE, SHOWING SAC ALERT BUILDINGS. FROM LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG FLIGHT LINE, SHOWING SAC ALERT BUILDINGS. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, ELECTRIC POWER STATION BUILDING (BUILDING 3000) AND CREW READINESS BUILDING (BUILDING 2897). VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  8. 79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  9. Immunohistochemical studies of metastatic germ-cell tumors in retroperitoneal dissection specimens: a sensitive and specific panel.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shuting; Wei, Shi; Pasha, Theresa L; Yao, Yuan; Tomaszewski, John E; Bing, Zhanyong

    2013-08-01

    Germ-cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common malignancies in adolescent and young men. These tumors are highly treatable, even at an advanced stage; therefore, accurate diagnosis is imperative. In this study, we evaluated immunohistochemical stains for SALL4, NANOG, glypican-3 (GPC3), D2-40, and CD30 with adequate control in retroperitoneal dissection specimens under the same laboratory conditions. The study groups included 31 cases of metastatic testicular GCTs with the following components: 11 seminomas, 14 embryonal carcinoma (ECs), 12 yolk sac tumor (YSTs), 8 teratomas, 10 cases of metastatic melanomas, 14 cases of malignant lymphomas, and 11 cases of metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinoma. SALL4 showed diffuse nuclear labeling for all seminomas, ECs, and YSTs. NANOG showed diffuse nuclear positivity in all seminomas and ECs. Metastatic carcinomas, melanomas, and malignant lymphomas were negative for these 2 markers. Gypican-3, D2-40, and CD30 showed sensitive staining for YSTs, seminomas, and ECs, respectively. In conclusion, SALL4 and NANOG are sensitive and specific markers for GCTs. GPC3, D2-40, and CD30 are sensitive but not specific for individual components of GCTs and may be useful in aiding in the differential diagnosis for the individual component of GCTs when the identity of GCT is established. PMID:23893437

  10. Giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac.

    PubMed

    Wantz, G E

    1989-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine patients with 237 hernias of the groin who were at high risk for recurrence after classic hernioplasty were operated upon; the procedure of giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac (GPRVS) was used. The patients in this series had predominantly recurrent and re-recurrent hernias. However, a few were obese with bilateral primary direct hernias and some had associated connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. GPRVS eliminates hernias of the groin by rendering the peritoneum inextensible by placing, in the preperitoneal space, a large prosthesis that extends far beyond the borders of the myopectineal orifice. The myopectineal orifice is the weak spot at which all hernias of the groin begin and is bounded by the rectus, oblique abdominal and iliopsoas muscles and the pectin of the pubis. In bilateral GPRVS, the peritoneum of both groins is reinforced with a single prosthesis inserted in the preperitoneal space through the midline. In unilateral GPRVS, the mesh envelops the peritoneum of a single groin. This simplifies the operation and makes it suitable for surgical centers that perform outpatient operations. The prosthesis with the best physical characteristics for GPRVS is Mersilene (polyester fiber). Unsutured prostheses of polypropylene and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) may not adhere at the far edges, leading to a failure and recurrence. The over-all recurrence rate in this series of problem hernias was 3.7 per cent, which is extremely good. However, the rate becomes outstanding if recurrences resulting from meshes unsuitable for GPRVS are excluded. PMID:2814751

  11. Suppressor analysis of fimbrin (Sac6p) overexpression in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sandrock, T M; Brower, S M; Toenjes, K A; Adams, A E

    1999-01-01

    Yeast fimbrin (Sac6p) is an actin filament-bundling protein that is lethal when overexpressed. To identify the basis for this lethality, we sought mutations that can suppress it. A total of 1326 suppressor mutations were isolated and analyzed. As the vast majority of mutations were expected to simply decrease the expression of Sac6p to tolerable levels, a rapid screen was devised to eliminate these mutations. A total of 1324 mutations were found to suppress by reducing levels of Sac6p in the cell. The remaining 2 mutations were both found to be in the actin gene and to make the novel changes G48V (act1-20) and K50E (act1-21). These mutations suppress the defect in cytoskeletal organization and cell morphology seen in ACT1 cells that overexpress SAC6. These findings indicate that the lethal phenotype caused by Sac6p overexpression is mediated through interaction with actin. Moreover, the altered residues lie in the region of actin previously implicated in the binding of Sac6p, and they result in a reduced affinity of actin for Sac6p. These results indicate that the two mutations most likely suppress by reducing the affinity of actin for Sac6p in vivo. This study suggests it should be possible to use this type of suppressor analysis to identify other pairs of physically interacting proteins and suggests that it may be possible to identify sites where such proteins interact with each other. PMID:10101157

  12. Automatic segmentation and classification of gestational sac based on mean sac diameter using medical ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazendar, Shan; Farren, Jessica; Al-Assam, Hisham; Sayasneh, Ahmed; Du, Hongbo; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound is an effective multipurpose imaging modality that has been widely used for monitoring and diagnosing early pregnancy events. Technology developments coupled with wide public acceptance has made ultrasound an ideal tool for better understanding and diagnosing of early pregnancy. The first measurable signs of an early pregnancy are the geometric characteristics of the Gestational Sac (GS). Currently, the size of the GS is manually estimated from ultrasound images. The manual measurement involves multiple subjective decisions, in which dimensions are taken in three planes to establish what is known as Mean Sac Diameter (MSD). The manual measurement results in inter- and intra-observer variations, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully automated diagnosis solution to accurately identify miscarriage cases in the first trimester of pregnancy based on automatic quantification of the MSD. Our study shows a strong positive correlation between the manual and the automatic MSD estimations. Our experimental results based on a dataset of 68 ultrasound images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in identifying early miscarriage cases with classification accuracies comparable with those of domain experts using K nearest neighbor classifier on automatically estimated MSDs.

  13. Cytochemical characterization of yolk granule acid phosphatase during early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Dongchun; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a cytochemical method and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine acid phosphatase activities of yolk granules throughout the early developmental stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic change of yolk granule acid phosphatase, and the mechanisms underlying its involvement in yolk degradation during the early developmental stages of molluscs. Three types of yolk granules (YGI, YGII, and YGIII) that differed in electron density and acid phosphatase reaction were identified in early cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, trochophore, and veliger stages. The morphological heterogeneities of the yolk granules were related to acid phosphatase activity and degrees of yolk degradation, indicating the association of acid phosphatase with yolk degradation in embryos and larvae of molluscs. Fusion of yolk granules was observed during embryogenesis and larval development of C. gigas. The fusion of YGI (free of acid phosphatase reaction) with YGII (rich in acid phosphatase reaction) could be the way by which yolk degradation is triggered.

  14. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Ccile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  15. Effect of domestic cooking methods on egg yolk xanthophylls.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2012-12-26

    Xanthophylls are a class of bioactive compounds known to play an important role in preventing age-related macular degeneration. Egg yolk is a rich source of highly bioavailable xanthophylls including lutein and zeaxanthin. The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, frying, microwaving) on egg yolk xanthophyll content were investigated. A LC-(APCI)-MS/MS method was used to identify and quantify all-E- and Z-isomers of lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and ?-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester in fresh and cooked egg yolks. Both fresh and cooked yolks showed similar xanthophyll profiles but with higher contents of Z-isomers in cooked samples. All-E-lutein was the most affected, with 22.5%, 16.7%, and 19.3% reductions in boiled, microwaved, and fried yolk extracts, respectively. Total xanthophyll losses ranged from 6% to 18%. The results presented here could be useful in calculating the dietary intake of xanthophylls and also in assessing the xanthophyll profiles and contents of egg-containing products. PMID:23205520

  16. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  17. INTRACRANIAL GERM CELL TUMORS WITH MTOR MUTATION ARE COMMON IN BASAL GANGLIA

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Ryo; Fukuoka, Kohei; Ichimura, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial germ cell tumors (iGCTs) are the second most common CNS tumors in patients under 14 years old in Japan. But, their molecular genetic profile is largely unknown. METHODS: We have analyzed a total of 198 germ cell tumors (GCTs) including 133 iGCTs (69 pure germinomas, 56 non-germinomatous GCTs and 8 metastatic tumors) as well as 65 testicular germ cell tumors (tGCTs) (39 seminomas and 26 non-seminoma GCTs) were collected from 13 centers participating in the Intracranial Germ Cell Tumor Consortium in Japan. Somatic mutations in all coding exons were investigated by whole exome sequencing (WES) using SureSelectXT Human All Exon v4 and a GAIIx or HiSeq 2000 system in 41 tumors and the matched normal DNAs. Targeted sequencing with a set of custom made PCR primers was performed using either an IonTorrent PGM or Proton System. The results were integrated with the patients' clinical information that was available for 124 iGCT patients. RESULTS: On average, 15.4 non-synonymous somatic mutations were observed in each tumor, ranging from 1 to 140 by WES in 41 iGCTs. MTOR was the second most frequently mutated in both iGCTs (9 cases, 7%) and tGCTs (6%). Collectively, the genes involved in the PI3K/MTOR pathway (e.g., MTOR, PTEN) were mutated in 13% of all GCTs. Clinical parameters of the 9 iGCTs with MTOR mutation were: median age of onset = 15 years old; 7 males and 2 females; 5 germinomas, 3 teratomas and one yolk sac tumor; 5 basal ganglia tumors, 2 pineal tumors, one neurohypophyseal tumor and a medulla oblongata tumor. Age, sex, histology and clinical behavior are within the scope of iGCT except for extraordinary high frequency of basal ganglia GCTs. CONCLUSIONS: iGCTs with MTOR mutation are frequent in iGCTs in basal ganglia. SECONDARY CATEGORY: Pediatrics.

  18. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  19. DNA methylation analysis reveals distinct methylation signatures in pediatric germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aberrant DNA methylation is a prominent feature of many cancers, and may be especially relevant in germ cell tumors (GCTs) due to the extensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs in the germ line during normal development. Methods We used the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer Methylation Panel to compare DNA methylation in the three main histologic subtypes of pediatric GCTs (germinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST); N?=?51) and used recursively partitioned mixture models (RPMM) to test associations between methylation pattern and tumor and demographic characteristics. We identified genes and pathways that were differentially methylated using generalized linear models and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We also measured global DNA methylation at LINE1 elements and evaluated methylation at selected imprinted loci using pyrosequencing. Results Methylation patterns differed by tumor histology, with 18/19 YSTs forming a distinct methylation class. Four pathways showed significant enrichment for YSTs, including a human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway. We identified 190 CpG loci with significant methylation differences in mature and immature teratomas (q?tumor histology and location. Conclusion Understanding methylation patterns may identify the developmental stage at which the GCT arose and the at-risk period when environmental exposures could be most harmful. Further, identification of relevant genetic pathways could lead to the development of new targets for therapy. PMID:23806198

  20. Glipizide, an antidiabetic drug, suppresses tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liu; Ye, Yuxiang; Li, Jiangchao; Ding, Yi; Wang, Huiping; Wang, Jintao; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; Kenneth Ka Ho, Lee; Li, Weidong; Song, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Lijing

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in the development, progression and metastasis of various human cancers. Herein, we report the discovery of glipizide, a widely used drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, as a promising anticancer agent through the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. By high-throughput screening (HTS) of an FDA approved drug library utilizing our in vivo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and yolk sac membrane (YSM) models, glipizide has been identified to significantly inhibit blood vessel formation and development. Moreover, glipizide was found to suppress tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis using xenograft tumor and MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse models. We further revealed that the anticancer capability of glipizide is not attributed to its antiproliferative effects, which are not significant against various human cancer cell lines. To investigate whether its anticancer efficacy is associated with the glucose level alteration induced by glipizide application, glimepiride, another medium to long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug in the same class, was employed for the comparison studies in the same fashion. Interestingly, glimepiride has demonstrated no significant impact on the tumor growth and metastasis, indicating that the anticancer effects of glipizide is not ascribed to its antidiabetic properties. Furthermore, glipizide suppresses endothelial cell migration and the formation of tubular structures, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis by up-regulating the expression of natriuretic peptide receptor A. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of glipizide as a potential cancer therapy, and also for the first time, provide direct evidence to support that treatment with glipizide may reduce the cancer risk for diabetic patients. PMID:25294818

  1. Yolk steroid hormones and sex determination in reptiles with TSD.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K

    2003-07-01

    In reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the temperature at which the eggs are incubated determines the sex of the offspring. The molecular switch responsible for determining sex in these species has not yet been elucidated. We have examined the dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during embryonic development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, and the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and have found that yolk estradiol (E(2)) responds differentially to incubation temperature in both of these reptiles. Based upon recently reported roles for E(2) in modulation of steroidogenic factor 1, a transcription factor known to be significant in the sex differentiation process, we hypothesize that yolk E(2) is a link between temperature and the gene expression pathway responsible for sex determination and differentiation in at least some of these species. Here we review the evidence that supports our hypothesis. PMID:12849957

  2. Rearranging gastrulation in the name of yolk: evolution of gastrulation in yolk-rich amniote eggs.

    PubMed

    Arendt, D; Nübler-Jung, K

    1999-03-01

    Gastrulating birds and mammals form a primitive streak in lieu of a circular blastopore, and a conspicuous underlying tissue layer, the hypoblast. In an attempt to understand the evolution of these amniote characteristics, pregastrula and gastrulation stages in selected amniotes are compared with the more ancestral situation in amphibians. At blastula/blastoderm stages, the overall fate maps and the arrangement of tissues around the organizer are rather similar, as is exemplified by a comparison of gene expression and fate maps in the frog and chick. Compared with amphibians, however, the eggs of reptiles, birds and monotreme mammals have a disproportionately large yolk that alters gastrulation morphology. During amphibian gastrulation, the organizer moves from anterior to posterior, to lay down the dorsal axis around the vegetal hemisphere (Arendt, D., Nübler-Jung, K., 1997. Dorsal or ventral: similarities in fate maps and gastrulation patterns in annelids, arthropods and chordates. Mech. Dev. 61, 1-15). In contrast, in amniote eggs, the large yolk impedes the organizer from moving around the entire vegetal hemisphere so that axis formation begins and ends at the same side of the egg. This has apparently provoked an evolutionary transformation of an amphibian-like blastopore, first into the 'blastoporal canal' of reptiles, and then into the birds' and mammals' primitive streak. The blastopore divides into two functionally divergent parts, one as the site of mesoderm internalization ('intraembryonic blastopore') and the other as the site of ectodermal epiboly ('extraembryonic blastopore'). The hypoblast is proposed to derive from the 'endodermal wedge' that is seen already in the amphibian gastrula. Hypoblast formation would then represent a special kind of gastrulation movement that also exists in the amphibians, and for which the term 'hypoboly' is introduced. PMID:10330481

  3. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  4. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling.

    PubMed

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  5. Survival analysis of children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors treated with surgery or surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Su-Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhen, Zi-Jun; Qin, Zi-Ke; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Juan; Sun, Fei-Fei

    2015-02-01

    For children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT), the survival is good with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is limited data on surgical results for cases in which there was no imaging or pathologic evidence of residual tumor, but in which serum tumor markers either increased or failed to normalize after an appropriate period of half-life time post-surgery. To determine the use of chemotherapy for children with stage II germ cell tumors, we analyzed the outcomes (relapse rate and overall survival) of patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1990 and May 2013. Twenty-four pediatric patients with a median age of 20 months (range, 4 months to 17 years) were enrolled in this study. In 20 cases (83.3%), the tumors had yolk sac histology. For definitive treatment, 21 patients underwent surgery alone, and 3 patients received surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. No relapse was observed in the 3 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas relapse occurred in 16 of the 21 patients (76.2%) treated with surgery alone. There were a total of 2 deaths. Treatment was stopped for 1 patient, who died 3 months later due to the tumor. The other patient achieved complete response after salvage treatment, but developed lung and pelvic metastases 7 months later and died of the tumor after stopping treatment. For children treated with surgery alone and surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, the 3-year event-free survival rates were 23.8% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.042), and the 3-year overall survival rates were 90.5% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.588). These results suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy can help to reduce the recurrence rate and increase the survival rate for patients with stage II germ cell tumors. PMID:25322864

  6. Survival analysis of children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors treated with surgery or surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Su-Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhen, Zi-Jun; Qin, Zi-Ke; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Juan; Sun, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-01

    For children with stage II testicular malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT), the survival is good with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is limited data on surgical results for cases in which there was no imaging or pathologic evidence of residual tumor, but in which serum tumor markers either increased or failed to normalize after an appropriate period of half-life time post-surgery. To determine the use of chemotherapy for children with stage II germ cell tumors, we analyzed the outcomes (relapse rate and overall survival) of patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1990 and May 2013. Twenty-four pediatric patients with a median age of 20 months (range, 4 months to 17 years) were enrolled in this study. In 20 cases (83.3%), the tumors had yolk sac histology. For definitive treatment, 21 patients underwent surgery alone, and 3 patients received surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. No relapse was observed in the 3 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas relapse occurred in 16 of the 21 patients (76.2%) treated with surgery alone. There were a total of 2 deaths. Treatment was stopped for 1 patient, who died 3 months later due to the tumor. The other patient achieved complete response after salvage treatment, but developed lung and pelvic metastases 7 months later and died of the tumor after stopping treatment. For children treated with surgery alone and surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, the 3-year event-free survival rates were 23.8% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.042), and the 3-year overall survival rates were 90.5% and 100%, respectively (P = 0.588). These results suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy can help to reduce the recurrence rate and increase the survival rate for patients with stage II germ cell tumors. PMID:25322864

  7. The Atg1-Tor pathway regulates yolk catabolism in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Hallie; Sopko, Richelle; Coughlin, Margaret; Perrimon, Norbert; Mitchison, Tim

    2015-11-15

    Yolk provides an important source of nutrients during the early development of oviparous organisms. It is composed mainly of vitellogenin proteins packed into membrane-bound compartments called yolk platelets. Catabolism of yolk is initiated by acidification of the yolk platelet, leading to the activation of Cathepsin-like proteinases, but it is unknown how this process is triggered. Yolk catabolism initiates at cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Using maternal shRNA technology we found that yolk catabolism depends on the Tor pathway and on the autophagy-initiating kinase Atg1. Whereas Atg1 was required for a burst of spatially regulated autophagy during late cellularization, autophagy was not required for initiating yolk catabolism. We propose that the conserved Tor metabolic sensing pathway regulates yolk catabolism, similar to Tor-dependent metabolic regulation on the lysosome. PMID:26395483

  8. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  9. Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

  10. Quantitative anatomy of the guinea pig endolymphatic sac.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Kelli; Henson, Miriam M; Henson, O W; Gewalt, Sally L; Salt, Alec N

    2002-12-01

    The endolymphatic sac is believed to represent one of the primary loci for endolymph volume regulation in the inner ear. Quantitative analysis of physiologic measurements from the endolymphatic sac requires knowledge of the anatomy of the structure, specifically the luminal volume and the variation of cross-sectional area with distance along the sac. Recently techniques have become available to make these measurements. In the present study, fixed, isolated specimens of the guinea pig endolymphatic sac were imaged by high-resolution magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) or by histological serial sections. Structures were reconstructed and quantified using image analysis software. In specimens imaged by MRM the endolymphatic sac volume, including tissue and lumen, was 359 nl for the intraosseous region and 106 nl for the extraosseous region, totaling 465 nl for the entire structure. The luminal volumes were 131 nl for the intraosseous region and 13 nl for the extraosseous region, totaling 144 nl. In histological specimens the volume, including tissue and lumen, was 414 nl for the intraosseous region and 121 nl for the extraosseous region, totaling 535 nl for the entire structure. The luminal volumes were 152 nl for the intraosseous region and 26 nl for the extraosseous region, totaling 179 nl. Differences in volume estimates obtained by the two methods were not statistically significant and variation was dominated by inter-specimen variation. Pooling the data, the total volume of the endolymphatic sac in the guinea pig including tissue and lumen was 506 nl (S.D. 100, n=17) and the volume of the lumen was 169 nl (S.D. 48, n=14). PMID:12433391

  11. Sac Hygroma After Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Successful Treatment with Endograft Relining

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Robert K. Palestrant, Sarah; Ryu, Jessica; Trachtenberg, Jeffrey

    2007-06-15

    Aneurysm sac expansion following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is typically associated with endoleaks that can be readily diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography (CTA), ultrasound, or catheter-directed arteriography. Sac hygromas are a cause of sac expansion without apparent endoleak and are presumed to be a result of ultrafiltration of serum manifested by accumulation of fibrinous, gelatinous material within the aneurysm sac following EVAR. Although there are no reported associated ruptures, sac expansion is nevertheless disconcerting and intervention is presumably indicated. We report a case of an expanding aneurysm after EVAR secondary to sac hygroma that was successfully treated with relining of the existing, original endograft.

  12. Morphofunctional transformations of the yolk syncytial layer during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Ekaterina Alexandrovna A; Efremov, Vladimir Ivanovich I

    2014-02-01

    The yolk syncytial layer (YSL) is a provisory extraembryonic structure of teleost fishes and representatives of some other taxa with meroblastic cleavage. The YSL of teleosts is a symplast with polymorphous polyploid nuclei. It is known to perform nutritional, morphogenetic, immune, and, probably, other functions. Data about the YSL organization, functioning and regulation is fragmentary. Although gene expression patterns and other aspects of YSL functioning have been studied in Danio rerio, the morphology of its YSL has not been described in detail. The study of zebrafish YSL structure on sequential developmental stages is necessary to recognize specific features of this important polyfunctional system in this model organism and to extend our knowledge about provisory systems. The thickness of the YSL and the distribution of its nuclei are not uniform on each stage and change during development. During oblong and sphere stages the internal YSL (I-YSL) is filled with yolk inclusions; interphase yolk syncytial nuclei (YSN) and mitotic asters can be seen. During doming and epiboly the external YSL (E-YSL) is thicker than I-YSL. On the subsequent stages the YSL is thickened caudally. The dorsal YSL part is thickened during early segmentation stages and becomes the thinnest YSL region later. The anterior part of the YSL is thin, but enlarges during larval period. The YSN of different size and diverse forms, from regular to lobed, are present and form clusters. The number of irregular-shaped nuclei increases during development. The YSL thickens in the end of endotrophic and in the course of endo-exotrophic period, and its cytoplasm contains numerous yolk inclusions. After yolk exhaustion the YSL is flat. As the YSL degrades, the YSN become pycnotic, and the YSL remnant probably is cleared by phagocytes. PMID:24122838

  13. Soil Moisture Retrieval Using the Aquarius/SAC-D Instruments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquarius/SAC-D will share common elements with several current and future satellite missions that provide soil moisture. Passive microwave soil moisture retrieval using low frequencies is currently performed using Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-E (AMSR-E) (C/X-band). This will extended ...

  14. "Uncommon Contents of Inguinal Hernial Sac": A Surgical Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sunder; Shrivastva, Madhuri; Verma, R K; Goyal, Snigdha

    2015-12-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is the most common surgery done by both young and experienced surgeons. The hernia in the inguinal region usually contains the omentum and small intestine but rarely can contain unusual contents like the appendix, ovary with fallopian tubes, urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, and cecum. The aim of this study is to present our experience of uncommon contents in the inguinal hernia sac and their surgical management. A retrospective study of 330 patients who underwent inguinal hernia repair was carried out over a period of 3 years from January 2008 to December 2011. Only five patients presented with unusual contents in the inguinal hernia sac; an incidence of 1.5 %. Two of them had vermiform appendix, with acute appendicitis (Amyand's hernia) noted in one of them. The patient with acute appendicitis underwent appendicectomy with herniorrhaphy, while in the other, hernioplasty with mesh was done as the patient was with normal appendix. In one case, the urinary bladder was the content of the inguinal hernia sac and there were two cases with the ovary and fallopian tubes as its content. In all these cases, contents were replaced back and hernia repair was done. Unusual contents of the hernial sac may create a surgical dilemma (whether to save or sacrifice the organ) during hernia repair even to an experienced surgeon. PMID:26730015

  15. In vitro multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis on the egg yolk membrane and penetration to the yolk contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to consumers of contaminated eggs. Although the nutrient-rich yolk interior is an uncommon location for S. Enteritidis contaminatio...

  16. Effect of egg yolk on cryopreservation of rhesus monkey ejaculated and epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2009-01-01

    Sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys has not been successful when applied in standard, intravaginal artificial insemination; thus, there is a need for substantial improvement in current cryopreservation protocols. The present study was part of our systematic approach to optimize the cryopreservation procedure. Specifically, we tested whether modification of the concentration of egg yolk, the dilution method, and the time delay between ejaculation and adding egg yolk would result in significant improvement of postthaw motility for ejaculated sperm. We also tested the effects of presence and absence of egg yolk on cryopreservation of ejaculated and epididymal sperm. Our findings indicated that the concentration of egg yolk (2%-50%, vol/vol), the dilution method, and the delay (1-5 hours) in addition of egg yolk had no significant effect on postthaw motility of ejaculated rhesus monkey sperm. The presence of egg yolk yielded significantly higher motility after thawing than samples without egg yolk for ejaculated and epididymal sperm. The present study suggests that as long as egg yolk is present in the extender, details such as the amount of egg yolk, as well as when and how to add the egg yolk, have little impact on the ultimate freezing outcomes for ejaculated rhesus monkey sperm. We also discuss the possible mechanism of the protective role of egg yolk in sperm cryopreservation. PMID:19168448

  17. Extragonadal malignant germ cell tumors: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 48 cases at a single Chinese institution

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Primary extragonadal malignant germ cell tumors (EMGCTs) are rare and characterized by the location in the midline of the body, including mediastinum, CNS, retroperitoneum and coccyx. EMGCTs present with different clinical and biologic characteristics in different tumor locations. Accurately diagnosing MEGCTs would be very difficult by performing on HE staining alone, and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of EMGCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, CD117, PLAP, AFP, ?-HCG and CD30 in EMGCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 48 patients with EMGCTs. EMGCTs were found to occur predominantly in males, especially for mediastinal MGCTs. The tumor locations included mediastinum, CNS and retroperitoneum. The mediastinum and CNS were the most common sites of EMGCTs. Seminoma/germinomas (64.6%) was the most common histological subtypes of EMGCTs. Chest pain, dyspnea, cough and fever were the most common clinical presentations in mediastinal MGCTs. Headache, visual disturbances, endocrine abnormalities, and signs of increased intracranial pressure were common clinical symptoms in CNS MGCTs. Abdominal mass with or without pain, backache and weight loss were common clinical presentations in retroperitoneal MGCTs. PLAP, CD117 and OCT3/4 were highly expressed in seminomas/gernimomas. CD30, EMA and CK AE1/3 staining were positive in embryonal carcinoma. AFP and ?-HCG positive staining are characteristic in yolk sac tumors and choriocarcinoma, respectively. Patients with seminomas/germinomas had a better prognosis than those with NS/G-GCTs. Our finding suggests that the accurate diagnosis of EMGCTs is critical not only for predicting the tumor progression but also for patient management. Immunohistochemical markers have become an important tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of EMGCTs. PMID:26191277

  18. Direct endothelial junction restoration results in significant tumor vascular normalization and metastasis inhibition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vijayendra; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Son, Jimin; Lee, Keunho; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Rho, Seung-Sik; Ahn, Sunjoo; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2014-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells with considerable diminution in expression of related transcription factors. Moreover, cancer stem cell population dropped substantially in Sac-1004 treated tumor tissues. Taken together, our results showed that direct restoration of vascular junction could be a significant strategy to induce normalization of tumor blood vessels and reduce metastasis. PMID:24811731

  19. Specificity of brachyury in the distinction of chordoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and germ cell tumors: a study of 305 cases.

    PubMed

    Sangoi, Ankur R; Karamchandani, Jason; Lane, Brooke; Higgins, John P; Rouse, Robert V; Brooks, James D; McKenney, Jesse K

    2011-03-01

    Brachyury is recognized as a specific marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, and has become a defining immunohistochemical feature of chordoma. The main differential diagnostic consideration for chordoma is chondrosarcoma, which is known to lack brachyury expression. However, within the spectrum of genitourinary neoplasia, metastatic germ cell tumors and clear cell renal cell carcinoma may also be close morphological mimics of chordoma, particularly given the increasing prevalence of small tissue samples from image-guided biopsies. Although immunoreactivity for brachyury has been reported in a few germ cell tumors, a thorough characterization of staining by specific subtype has not been performed in a large series. Additionally, brachyury expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma has not been well studied. In this study, immunohistochemical expression with the brachyury antibody was evaluated in 111 germ cell tumors, 30 non-neoplastic and neoplastic (non-germ cell) testicular tissues, and 184 metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas using tissue microarray technology. In addition, immunoreactivity for PAX-8 and SALL-4 was evaluated in 12 chordomas on whole section. No nuclear brachyury expression was identified in any of the 101 germ cell tumors within the tissue microarray (including choriocarcinoma (1), embryonal carcinoma (20), intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (2), seminoma (64), spermatocytic seminoma (1), teratoma (5) and yolk sac tumor (8)), in any of the 30 non-neoplastic and neoplastic (non-germ cell) testicular tissues, or in any of the 10 whole-section seminomas. All 184 metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas were also non-reactive for brachyury. All 12 chordomas showed strong nuclear immunoreactivity for brachyury, but no expression of SALL-4. In all, 1 of 12 chordoma cases showed patchy, 1+ nuclear immunoreactivity for PAX-8. This study confirms the specificity of brachyury for chordoma in the differential diagnostic distinction from the potential genitourinary mimics, germ cell tumors and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. PMID:21102418

  20. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. PMID:26530954

  1. FAT BODY PRODUCED YOLK PROTEIN GENES IN HYPHANTRIA CUNEA ARE RELATED TO THE YP4 FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM YOLK PROTEIN SUBUNIT GENE OF PYRALID MOTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    cDNA clones for two of the yolk proteins, YP1 and YP2, produced by the fat body of the moth, Hyphantria cunea, were sequenced and found to have homology with the follicular epithelium yolk proteins of Pyralid moths. The sequence identity between YP1 and YP2 was very high (79.9%) and both cDNA clones...

  2. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

  3. Phase separation behavior of egg yolk suspensions after anionic polysaccharides addition.

    PubMed

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Temelli, Feral; Wu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the interactions between three anionic polysaccharides (gum arabic, xanthan gum and ?-carrageenan) and egg yolk at pH 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 and possible phase separation behavior. Zeta potential of egg yolk was not affected by gum arabic addition while it became more negative at pH 5 after xanthan gum and ?-carrageenan addition. The particle size of ?-carrageenan yolk suspension was considerably higher than the other polysaccharide yolk suspensions at pH below 6 but was dramatically decreased at alkaline pH. Most polysaccharide yolk suspensions formed either a biphasic or a monophasic system, whereas three distinct phases were observed for xanthan gum yolk suspension at pH 6. Protein profile analysis of the lipid-rich cream phase obtained from xanthan gum added yolk showed similarities to apoproteins from low density lipoproteins (LDL) of egg yolk. Microscopy analysis indicated the co-presence of xanthan gum and LDL in the creamy phase, within a network formed by xanthan gum. It was suggested that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the egg yolk and xanthan gum as well as xanthan gum's rheological properties could be responsible for the unique phase separation observed in the study. The findings of this study can form the basis for future studies to develop a new method to separate LDL from egg yolk. PMID:25498638

  4. Primary Epitopes of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies to Peptidophosphogalactomannan†

    PubMed Central

    Tuekam, Brigitte A.; Bonetti, Sandra J.; Gander, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Egg yolks from hens immunized with peptidophosphogalactomannan (pPGalManii), which contains 10 phosphocholine diester residues and is secreted by Penicillium fellutanum, contain antibodies against 5-O-β-d-galactofuranosyl epitopes. These epitopes were the only significant determinants in pPGalManii. Approximately 60-fold less pPGalManii (1.6 μM galactofuran chains) was required for 50% inhibition than galactofurano-oligosaccharides or pPGalMan containing two galactofuranosyl residues per chain. PMID:9605999

  5. Investigation of sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) modification to nylon film. 2. Study of SAC sorption isotherm and atomic force microscopic characterization of nylon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Watson, B.A.; Keown, R.W.; Malone, C.P.; Barteau, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    Nylon 6 and nylon 66 films have been treated with aqueous sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) solutions at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 1.0 wt%. SAC uptakes at different treatment concentrations were measured and found to follow a BET isotherm. The surface morphologies of nylon film samples, including the original and SAC-treated films, have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For untreated nylon 6 and nylon 66 films, AFM images show a randomly distributed fibrillar surface structure. Characteristic widths of fibrils in the nylon 66 and 6 films were 150-225 and 75-150 nm, respectively. For SAC-treated nylon films, the AFM images revealed that the surfaces of the films became covered with nodule-like features having a diameter range of 25-60 nm. AFM analysis provides evidence that SAC treatment deposited a surface coating on nylon films. AFM images of SAC-treated nylon films suggest a mechanism for stain resistance in which the SAC first forms a thin coating on the nylon via bondings between attractive groups in the SAC and nylon polymers. After treatment at increased SAC concentration, the surface is covered with nodule-like deposits which likely serve as a physical barrier to dye permeation. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Mobilization and harvesting of peripheral blood stem cells in pediatric patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Veljkovic, Dobrila; Vujic, Dragana; Nonkovic, Olivera Serbic; Jevtic, Dragana; Zecevic, Zeljko; Lazic, Emilija

    2011-12-01

    Survival of patients with high-risk pediatric solid tumors has improved with the introduction of a high-dose chemotherapy regimen and autologous stem cell rescue. Here, we present our data regarding the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and harvesting in children with solid tumors. From November 2002 to March 2010, 85 children underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection; 35 (41.1%) of them weighed less than 20 kg and were diagnosed with neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, medulloblastoma, yolk sac sarcoma, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The mobilization regimens included disease-specific chemotherapy plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in most of the patients. The median age and weight at the time of apheresis was 36 months and 13.5 kg, respectively. Large-volume leukapheresis was performed with the aim of reducing the psychological and financial impact of leukapheresis by reducing the number of procedures while collecting a large number of cells. The median number of mobilization and leukapheresis procedures per case was one. The pre-apheresis CD34+ cell count ranged from 2 to 845 L, with a median of 24 L. A median of four patient blood volumes was processed per procedure, lasting 279 min (range, 113-420?min). A radial catheter was used for harvesting in 35 procedures (71.4%). The median yield of CD34+ cells was 6.610(6) /kg per patient. The targeted dose of 510(6) /kg CD34+ cells was realized in 80% of patients. The tolerance of peripheral blood stem cell collection in our patients was good. In conclusion, the collection of peripheral blood stem cells is an effective and safe procedure, even when conducted on the youngest children. PMID:22107695

  7. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a 24-years experience

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all primary CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. ?-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of primary CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs. PMID:25400782

  8. Molecular Characteristics of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors and Comparison With Testicular Counterparts: Implications for Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E.; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Abeler, Vera M.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/?-catenin and TGF-?/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

  9. Endoscopic examination of snakes by access through an air sac.

    PubMed

    Jekl, V; Knotek, Z

    2006-03-25

    Sixteen boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), three royal pythons (Python regius) and 15 Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were examined endoscopically by access through the air sac. The snakes were immobilised in a ventral position using a half-open anaesthetic system with assisted ventilation and a mixture of isoflurane and oxygen. The rigid endoscope was introduced percutaneously and the internal structure of the lungs and the air sac, and the shape, size and external surface of the liver were visible in the cranial direction. In the smaller snakes the bifurcation and caudal part of the trachea could be viewed, provided the endoscope was positioned in a retrograde orientation. The caudal orientation of the endoscope made it possible to view the gall bladder and the size, shape and surface of the spleen. In some cases, the pancreas and the surface of the stomach and colon could be monitored. Endoscopy through the air sac also made it possible to check the major veins in the coelom. The snakes were monitored for at least 30 days after the intervention and no changes in their respiratory function or general health were observed. PMID:16565339

  10. Positional cloning of the mouse saccharin preference (Sac) locus

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Li, Xia; Reed, Danielle R.; Ohmen, Jeffery D.; Li, Shanru; Chen, Zhenyu; Tordoff, Michael G.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Wu, Chenyan; West, David B.; Chatterjee, Alu; Ross, David A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in sweetener intake among inbred strains of mice are partially determined by allelic variation of the saccharin preference (Sac) locus. Genetic and physical mapping limited a critical genomic interval containing Sac to a 194-kb DNA fragment. Sequencing and annotation of this region identified a gene (Tas1r3) encoding the third member of the T1R family of putative taste receptors, T1R3. Introgression by serial backcrossing of the 194-kb chromosomal fragment containing the Tas1r3 allele from the high-sweetener preferring C57BL/6ByJ strain onto the genetic background of the low-sweetener preferring 129P3/J strain rescued its low sweetener preference phenotype. Polymorphisms of Tas1r3 that are likely to have functional significance were identified using analysis of genomic sequences and sweetener preference phenotypes of genealogically distant mouse strains. Tas1r3 has two common haplotypes, consisting of six single nucleotide polymorphisms: one haplotype was found in mouse strains with elevated sweetener preference and the other in strains relatively indifferent to sweeteners. This study provides compelling evidence that Tas1r3 is equivalent to the Sac locus and that the T1R3 receptor responds to sweeteners. PMID:11555487

  11. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    PubMed

    Krtl, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Bhme, Jrg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  12. [Topography, relations and transformation of lumbar lymphatic sacs].

    PubMed

    Sharkus, Ye A

    2015-01-01

    The peculiarities of the structure, skeletotopy, and syntopy of the lumbar lymphatic collector were studied on 20 5-8 week-old embryos and on 80 9-36 week-old fetuses using a complex macro-microscopic method. It is found that the lumbar lymphatic collector in fetuses at 9-10 weeks was represented by retroperitoneal and retroaortic lymphatic sacs that had a fusion mode of formation and were interconnected. Retroperitoneal sac was located in the projection of L(I)-L(IV) and was in contact with the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava, aortic lumbar paraganglia, abdominal aortic plexus and ganglia of sympathetic trunk. Retroaortic sack at L(I)-L(II) was adjacent to posterior surface of the aorta, the lumbar vertebrae and the medial crus of the diaphragm. These topical relations were preserved throughout the whole fetal period. However, in fetuses of 11-13 weeks lymphatic sacs formed the lymphatic plexuses, while in fetuses of 14-36 weeks they formed lumbar lymph nodes and their interconnecting vessels. PMID:25958724

  13. The Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Sac1 Is Required for Midline Axon Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seongsoo; Kim, Sungdae; Nahm, Minyeop; Kim, Euijae; Kim, Tai-Il; Yoon, Jin Ho; Lee, Seungbok

    2011-01-01

    Sac1 phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatases are important regulators of PtdIns(4)P turnover at the ER, Golgi, and plasma membrane (PM) and are involved in diverse cellular processes including cytoskeletal organization and vesicular trafficking. Here, we present evidence that Sac1 regulates axon guidance in the embryonic CNS of Drosophila. Sac1 is expressed on three longitudinal axon tracts that are defined by the cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin II (Fas II). Mutations in the sac1 gene cause ectopic midline crossing of Fas II-positive axon tracts. This phenotype is rescued by neuronal expression of wild-type Sac1 but not by a catalytically-inactive mutant. Finally, sac1 displays dosage-sensitive genetic interactions with mutations in the genes that encode the midline repellent Slit and its axonal receptor Robo. Taken together, our results suggest that Sac1-mediated regulation of PIs is critical for Slit/Robo-dependent axon repulsion at the CNS midline. PMID:22042447

  14. Effect of egg yolk on growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 7H12 liquid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kononov, Y.; Ta, K.D.; Heifets, L.

    1988-07-01

    Of 92 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum specimens, 86 showed growth in two types of 7H12 broth, one with egg yolk and the other without egg yolk. In addition, two strains grew only in plain 7H12 broth without yolk, and four others were recovered only in the medium supplemented with egg yolk. The radiometrically detected growth was higher in the presence of egg yolk, corresponding to a higher number of CFU per milliliter in these cultures. The improvement of growth in 7H12 broth supplemented with egg yolk was most noticeable in cultures isolated from sputum specimens having a low number of acid-fast bacilli in the smear and producing only a few colonies on solid media.

  15. New genetic regulators question relevance of abundant yolk protein production in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Borghgraef, Charline; Beets, Isabel; Caers, Jelle; Temmerman, Liesbet

    2015-01-01

    Vitellogenesis or maternal yolk formation is considered critical to the reproduction of egg-laying animals. In invertebrates, however, most of its regulatory genes are still unknown. Via a combined mapping and whole-genome sequencing strategy, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate novel regulators of yolk production in the nematode model system Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition to isolating new alleles of rab-35, rab-10 and M04F3.2, we identified five mutant alleles corresponding to three novel regulatory genes potently suppressing the expression of a GFP-based yolk reporter. We confirmed that mutations in vrp-1, ceh-60 and lrp-2 disrupt endogenous yolk protein synthesis at the transcriptional and translational level. In contrast to current beliefs, our discovered set of mutants with strongly reduced yolk proteins did not show serious reproduction defects. This raises questions as to whether yolk proteins per se are needed for ultimate reproductive success. PMID:26553710

  16. New genetic regulators question relevance of abundant yolk protein production in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rompay, Liesbeth Van; Borghgraef, Charline; Beets, Isabel; Caers, Jelle; Temmerman, Liesbet

    2015-01-01

    Vitellogenesis or maternal yolk formation is considered critical to the reproduction of egg-laying animals. In invertebrates, however, most of its regulatory genes are still unknown. Via a combined mapping and whole-genome sequencing strategy, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate novel regulators of yolk production in the nematode model system Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition to isolating new alleles of rab-35, rab-10 and M04F3.2, we identified five mutant alleles corresponding to three novel regulatory genes potently suppressing the expression of a GFP-based yolk reporter. We confirmed that mutations in vrp-1, ceh-60 and lrp-2 disrupt endogenous yolk protein synthesis at the transcriptional and translational level. In contrast to current beliefs, our discovered set of mutants with strongly reduced yolk proteins did not show serious reproduction defects. This raises questions as to whether yolk proteins per se are needed for ultimate reproductive success. PMID:26553710

  17. Trophoblast expression dynamics of the tumor suppressor gene gastrokine 2.

    PubMed

    Fahlbusch, Fabian B; Ruebner, Matthias; Huebner, Hanna; Volkert, Gudrun; Bartunik, Hannah; Winterfeld, Ilona; Hartner, Andrea; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Noegel, Stephanie C; Marek, Ines; Wachter, David; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kehl, Sven; Rascher, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Gastrokines (GKNs) were originally described as stomach-specific tumor suppressor genes. Recently, we identified GKN1 in extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) of human placenta. GKN1 treatment reduced the migration of the trophoblast cell line JEG-3. GKN2 is known to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells and may interact with GKN1. Recently, GKN2 was detected in the placental yolk sac of mice. We therefore aimed to further characterize placental GKN2 expression. By immunohistochemistry, healthy first-trimester placenta showed ubiquitous staining for GKN2 at its early gestational stage. At later gestational stages, a more differentiated expression pattern in EVT and villous cytotrophoblasts became evident. In healthy third-trimester placenta, only EVT retained strong GKN2 immunoreactivity. In contrast, HELLP placentas showed a tendency of increased levels of GKN2 expression with a more prominent GKN2 staining in their syncytiotrophoblast. Choriocarcinoma cell lines did not express GKN2. Besides its trophoblastic expression, we found human GKN2 in fibrotic villi, in amniotic membrane and umbilical cord. GKN2 co-localized with smooth muscle actin in villous myofibroblasts and with HLA-G and GKN1 in EVT. In the rodent placenta, GKN2 was specifically located in the spongiotrophoblast layer. Thus, the gestational age-dependent and compartment-specific expression pattern of GKN2 points to a role for placental development. The syncytial expression of GKN2 in HELLP placentas might represent a reduced state of functional differentiation of the syncytiotrophoblast. Moreover, the specific GKN2 expression in the rodent spongiotrophoblast layer (equivalent to human EVT) might suggest an important role in EVT physiology. PMID:26070363

  18. Treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous germ-cell tumor by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell rescue.

    PubMed

    Tada, T; Takizawa, T; Nakazato, F; Kobayashi, S; Koike, K; Oguchi, M; Ishii, E; Amano, Y

    1999-08-01

    Nongerminomatous germ-cell tumor (NGGCT) in the central nervous system (CNS) is still highly lethal. The present study evaluated the outcome of high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell rescue (ASCR). The patients included three cases of choriocarcinoma, two cases of embryonal carcinoma and one case of yolk sac carcinoma. High-dose cisplatin (200 mg/m2), etoposide (1250 mg/m2) and ACNU (150 mg/m2) were administrated in combination with ASCR to patients at complete remission as a result of surgical removal, irradiation, and from four to seven courses of induction chemotherapy. All the patients treated with this therapy were alive from one to seven years after the diagnosis, living with good performance status. The patients have not required any additional treatments after ASCR. The myelosuppression period, characterized by fewer than 500/microl peripheral neutrophils, ranged from 8 to 15 days (median, 11.5 days). Within seven days of ASCR, high fever was found in four patients. Although mild liver dysfunction was found in all patients, renal dysfunction was not observed. Hearing disturbance was found in 50% of the patients. This treatment regime will improve long-term survival for patients with NGGCT. PMID:10582672

  19. Quail egg yolk: a novel cryoprotectant for the freeze preservation of Poitou jackass sperm.

    PubMed

    Trimeche, A; Anton, M; Renard, P; Gandemer, G; Tainturier, D

    1997-06-01

    For many years, attempts have been made to establish a sperm bank for the Poitou jackass population which is threatened with extinction. Unfortunately, no cryopreservation technique has ever been described for spermatozoa of this species. In an attempt to find a suitable technique, we studied the relative effectiveness of chicken egg yolk and quail egg yolk in preserving the motility and characteristics of movement of Poitou jackass spermatozoa during the freezing-thawing process. Semen was diluted to 60 x 10(6) sperm/ml in a preservation medium containing 4% (v/v) glycerol with 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, or 20% (v/v) of chicken or quail egg yolk. The chemical composition of these two eggs was compared. Effects were assessed using an automated analyzer which measured curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), and the velocity of the average path. Linearity was defined as VSL/VCL x 100. The amplitude of the lateral head displacement was also measured. It was found that after the freeze-thaw process, quail egg yolk improved the percentages of motile and progressively undulating spermatozoa and the movement characteristics compared with chicken egg yolk. The optimal concentration of quail egg yolk was 10%. The general composition of the two types of egg yolk were similar, but quail egg yolk contained significantly more phosphatidylcholine, less phosphatidylethanolamine, and a smaller ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids than chicken egg yolk. The improvement of motility for frozen-thawed Poitou jackass spermatozoa using frozen-thawed quail egg yolk compared to chicken egg yolk may be due to the differences in composition of the two yolks. PMID:9200823

  20. Embryonic yolk removal affects a suite of larval salamander life history traits.

    PubMed

    Landberg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Egg size is a key life history trait affecting fitness, and it varies abundantly. The value of egg size to a mother and her offspring is often determined by a trade-off between investing more yolk in a few large eggs or less yolk into many more, smaller eggs. Smaller eggs are generally expected to be phenotypically inferior or females could increase their fitness by making more smaller eggs. However, many females produce a mix of egg sizes and natural yolk variation induces normal developmental responses which may persist into subsequent stages of a complex life history. Since sources of phenotypic variation are easily confounded, I surgically removed yolk from embryonic spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) using a sham surgery as a control and a split-clutch design to isolate the effects of yolk reserve variation from genetic sources of variation. Yolk removal induced early hatching, reduced developmental stage and hatchling body size. Small hatchlings stayed relatively small through the early larval period, but 17 weeks later the correlation with early larval body size was lost. When the experiment ended, larger individuals were further along in metamorphic development but mortality was independent of early larval body size. Variation in spotted salamander yolk reserves affects a suite of hatchling life history traits that persists into the larval period. Outside the laboratory, egg size effects may cascade throughout complex amphibian life histories. Applied experimentally and comparatively, this simple yolk removal technique may help identify how traits increase or decrease their response to maternal yolk investment. PMID:24323743

  1. Hatching and residual yolk internalization in lizards: evolution, function and fate of the amnion.

    PubMed

    Pezaro, N; Doody, J S; Green, B; Thompson, M B

    2013-01-01

    Most egg-laying vertebrates hatch without depleting the entire yolk reserve. The residual yolk is internalized before emergence from the egg is completed and the yolk is subsequently metabolized during early neonatal life. Here we provide the first description of the mechanism of yolk internalization in non-avian reptiles. We describe the hatching of two lizard species (Physignathus lesueurii and Varanus rosenbergii) and provide a step-by-step account of sequence of events leading to yolk internalization and emergence from the egg. We also conducted incubation experiments to determine the cause of failed yolk internalization. Contraction of the ruptured amnion is the mechanism by which the residual yolk is internalized, which provides an explanation for the functional significance of amniotic contractions. Failures of internalization occur when the amount of residual yolk exceeds that which can be enclosed by the ruptured amnion. We conclude that, because of the connections formed between the amnion and both the allantois and chorion, the pipping and retraction of the amnion pulls the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) off the surface of the eggshell, which impairs the capacity for gas exchange and forces the embryo to breach the eggshell to commence breathing. We further speculate that the loss of amniotic contractions in mammals may indicate an incompatibility of amnion-assisted yolk internalization with viviparity, an evolutionary process that could be tested by examining viviparous squamates. PMID:25098634

  2. Super chilling enhances preservation of the freshness of salted egg yolk during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, T; Watanuki, C; Ariizumi, M; Shigematsu, Y; Kobayashi, H; Hasegawa, M; Watanabe, K

    2009-03-01

    Pasteurized egg yolk with 10% (w/w) salt was stored at 5, -5, -15, -20, and -30 degrees C for 1 to 6 mo, respectively. Changes in generation of volatiles of the stored samples (5 and -5 degrees C for 6 mo) were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS. Emulsifying properties of egg yolk stored at -5, -15, -20, and -30 degrees C for 1 mo, respectively, were also evaluated by measurement of emulsion particle diameters in model emulsions prepared with the yolk samples. In addition, structural changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the egg yolks dependent on storage conditions for 6 mo were evaluated by (31)P-NMR. Volatile compounds such as hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal increased in egg yolk during storage at 5 degrees C; however, volatile compounds hardly increased in any samples stored at -5 degrees C (super chilling). The mean emulsion particle diameter in super chilled egg yolk was significantly smaller than that in egg yolk stored at the other lower temperatures. In addition, the results of (31)P-NMR evaluation suggested that prevention of structural changes of LDL resulted in maintenance of emulsifying properties of egg yolk. Thus, these results indicate that super chilling is an effective means of preserving salted egg yolk during long-term storage. PMID:19323743

  3. Endothelial cell migration during murine yolk sac vascular remodeling occurs by means of a Rac1 and FAK activation pathway in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanism(s) controlling cell migration during vascular morphogenesis in vivo remain largely undefined. To address this within a physiological context, we used retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (Raldh2) null mouse embryos and demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) deficiency results in abnorm...

  4. Rhinosporidiosis of lacrimal sac: An interesting case of orbital swelling

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Maity, Kuntal; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Baitalik, Debasis; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar; Gupta, Vivek; Kumar, Ashwini; Dalal, Bibhas Saha; Malik, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic localized granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an aquatic protistan parasite belonging to a clade, Mesomycetozoea. Infestation of Rhinosporidiosis to the eye and adnexa is termed oculosporidiosis, in such cases, conjunctival mucosa is mostly involved; however in our case, it involved only the lacrimal sac and deeper periorbital tissue and presented as a case of orbital swelling. Surgical excision of the lesion was done, postoperatively dapsone therapy was given for 6 months, and the patient responded very well with no recurrence till date.

  5. Venous Sac Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation: Preliminary Experience Using Interlocking Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koji; Tanimura, Keiichi; Honda, Masanori; Kikuno, Motoyuki; Toei, Hisao; Hyodoh, Hideki; Furuse, Makoto; Yamada, Tomonori; Aburano, Tamio

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the indication and advantages of venous sac embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using interlocking detachable coils (IDCs). Methods: We performed percutaneous embolization in 12 PAVMs in four patients using IDCs, initially placed in the venous sac or at the feeding artery to prevent systemic migration of additional coils. We placed the IDCs in the venous sac in PAVMs with the following vascular architecture: the draining vein was larger than the feeding arteries and both vessels were interposed with the venous sac or there were short feeding arteries. Results: Complete occlusion was achieved in all 12 PAVMs without significant complications. We deployed IDCs in the venous sac in eight PAVMs and in the feeding artery in four. Conclusion: Venous sac embolization may be beneficial in PAVMs with large out-flow vessels or short feeding arteries. IDCs are suitable for this procedure.

  6. Metastatic Treated Malignant Germ Cell Tumors: Is SALL4 a Better Marker Than Placental Alkaline Phosphatase?

    PubMed

    Andeen, Nicole K; Tretiakova, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that in the metastatic setting and after treatment, expression of immunohistochemical markers may be diminished or lost. Transcription factor SALL4 (sal-like protein 4) has been recognized as a sensitive marker for both primary and metastatic malignant germ cell tumors (MGCTs), but has not been tested in the posttreatment setting. We sought to determine the level of SALL4 expression in treatment-resistant metastatic MGCT in comparison with pan-GCT marker placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP). Thirty-six previously treated MGCTs, 16 untreated primary testicular MGCTs, and 4 cytology specimens were immunostained for SALL4 and PLAP, and staining characteristics were evaluated. In the treated MGCT group, there was diffuse SALL4 nuclear immunoreactivity in the majority of cases (27/36, 75%), labeling seminoma, yolk-sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, and primitive neuroectodermal components. No treated metastatic MGCT lacked SALL4 immunoreactivity. In contrast, PLAP was diffusely expressed in only 14/36 (39%) cases of treated MGCTs, showed scattered focal weak to moderate positivity in 13/36 (36%), and was virtually absent in 9/36 (25%) cases. Both markers had scattered expression limited to the epithelial components of teratomatous regions. SALL4 also outperformed PLAP on a small sample of cytology blocks. Although SALL4 is not entirely specific, it is a highly sensitive marker with strong diffuse nuclear reactivity in the majority of MGCTs in the posttreatment setting, at significantly higher levels than PLAP (P<0.001). Persistent expression of SALL4 in metastatic MGCTs resistant to chemoradiation also raises the possibility for targeted systemic therapy as the anti-SALL4 peptide continues to be developed. PMID:25906119

  7. Penetration of Salmonella enteritidis and S. heidelberg strains into egg yolks during 36 hour ambient temperature storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Salmonella deposition inside yolks is uncommon in naturally contaminated eggs, migration through the vitelline membrane into the nutrient-rich yolk contents could enable rapid bacterial multiplication. Egg refrigeration restricts both penetration and growth, but a recently proposed national...

  8. Response of amphibian egg non-yolk cytoplasm to gravity orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study amphibian egg cytoplasmic organization and egg symmetrization at the molecular level, a library of seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Xenopus laevis non-yolk egg proteins was produced. Several of these MoAbs react with non-yolk cytoplasmic antigens which are unevenly distributed in the fertile Xenopus egg.

  9. YOLK UTILIZATION IN SUMMER FLOUNDER ('PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS') EMBRYOS AND LARVAE REARED AT TWO TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of rearing temperature on growth and yolk utilization in embryos and larvae of the summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus has been investigated. Rates of development, growth and yolk conversion efficiencies were determined for embryos and larvae reared at 16 and 21C....

  10. Aneurysm Sac Enlargement after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, Siem A; Jonker, Frederik H W; Moll, Frans L; van Herwaarden, Joost A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of current knowledge regarding abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) that could potentially lead to aortic rupture. A search on Pubmed was performed. A total of 705 articles were found after initial search, of which 49 were included in the final selection. Reports on the incidence of aneurysm enlargement after EVAR vary between 0.2% and 41%. Continuous growth could lead to rupture of the aneurysm sac. There are several supposed risk factors for growth after EVAR. Endoleaks remain a hot topic as these could lead to persistent pressurization of the aneurysm sac causing growth. Various types of endoleak exist, of which each kind requires an individual treatment approach, other risk factors for aneurysm growth include endotension and the use of EVAR outside instructions for use (IFU). Reinterventions after EVAR are common; however, it is unclear how frequently these are required because of aneurysm enlargement. Aneurysm enlargement after EVAR remains a subject of debate, as this could lead to aortic rupture. This emphasizes the need for life-long radiologic surveillance during follow-up. Aortic growth after EVAR is often a result of endoleak; however, in some cases, no endoleak is detectable. Endoleak in combination with aortic growth >5mm generally requires reintervention. A cause of concern is the liberal use of endovascular devices outside the IFU that may result in increased risk of AAA growth after EVAR. PMID:26627324

  11. Maternal corticosterone is transferred into the egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Bettina; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Mller, Claudia; Brill, Sandra; Wagner, Hermann; Jenni, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Hormones deposited in the avian egg are considered in many studies to influence or to adjust offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions in an adaptive way. Several studies demonstrated an effect of corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, injected into the egg on the developing chick, but the injection of steroids in the egg is far from mimicking the natural distribution of the hormone in the egg. Other studies applied a stressor or corticosterone to the mother. However it is still debated whether an increase of circulating corticosterone in the mother translates into higher concentrations of corticosterone in the egg. Therefore, we investigated in captive barn owls Tyto alba whether circulating corticosterone in egg-laying females elevated within a physiological range, resulted in the deposition of corticosterone in eggs. We found that an increase in circulating corticosterone in the mother within the naturally occurring range translated into elevated concentrations of corticosterone in the yolk of subsequently laid eggs, indicating a specific time frame and yolk layer of corticosterone deposition. We conclude that increasing maternal plasma corticosterone within a naturally occurring range is an efficient tool to increase corticosterone concentration in the egg and to manipulate conditions for the developing embryo. PMID:22580154

  12. Effect of egg yolk plasma on dog sperm cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Corcini, C D; Goularte, K L; Bongalhardo, D C; Lucia, T; Jardim, R D; Varela Junior, A S

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the quality of frozen-thawed dog spermatozoon after the inclusion of egg yolk plasma (EYP) instead of whole egg yolk (EY) in the cryopreservation extender and after distinct periods of exposure to EYP. Seven mongrel dogs were used as sperm donors, and EYP was obtained by centrifugation. In Experiment 1, post-thawing sperm motility (MOT) and integrity of membrane (INT) and acrosome (ACR) were superior for spermatozoon extended with 20% EYP T2 than with 20% EY (P<0.05), although normal sperm morphology (MOR) did not differ (P>0.05). In Experiment 2, after ejaculates extended with 20% EYP were cooled at 5C for 2, 6 and 10h before freezing, MOT, INT and ACR were similar among periods (P>0.05). Thus, dog spermatozoon extended with 20% EYP can be kept cooled for up to 10h prior to freezing, achieving post-thawing quality greater than that obtained with the inclusion of EY in freezing extenders. PMID:25735406

  13. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2015-11-01

    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area.

  14. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2015-12-21

    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area. PMID:26567966

  15. Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    1995-12-01

    I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

  16. [The orbital implant after exenteration of the orbit with the preservation of the eyelids and the conjunctival sac].

    PubMed

    Krsn, J; Novk, V; Otradovec, J

    2006-04-01

    In ophthalmology, the orbital exenteration presents the most mutilating surgical procedure. The surgical technique presented by authors, preserves the eyelids and conjunctival sac. This surgical procedure was suggested and repeatedly performed in adult patients with extensive benign tumors (mostly meningeomas) by J. Otradovec and J. Safr. The enucleation of the eyeball preceded this type of surgery. The final state made it possible to put the prosthesis into the conjunctival sac. Today we inform about further development of this surgical technique and according to our own experiences we widen its indications to some malignant tumors (rhabdomyosarcoma and metastases of the retinoblastoma, etc.) in children. The initial cutaneous incision starts in the eyebrow area and is directed toward the bone of the orbital rim. The preparation of the tissue underneath the intact conjunctival sac to the lower aspect of the bone orbital rim follows. After folding the conjuctival-cutaneous sac back, the real content of the orbit is exenterated in the classical manner. After the hemostasis in the orbital apex, the flap is returned to its primary position and suturing of the primary incision in anatomical layers terminates the surgery. The authors refer about a boy, now 17 years old, who underwent at the age of three years the exenteration of the orbit in this manner due to a rhabdomyosarcoma. The authors also refer about the development and application of a special type of prosthesis made from silicone rubber--implant grade--filling out the orbital space and forming the anterior segment of the eye. The prosthesis was created from a classical orbital implant, regularly used in enucleation surgery and a conjunctival implant, a convex-concave plate with diameter of 20 mm. Both parts are made from the same type of silicon rubber and were connected together by vulcanization. The orbital implant was eliptically extended according to the measurements of the orbital casting made from dental impression matter. The cosmetic part, simulating the colored iris and the pupil, was prepared from a polyester sheet, painted with acrylic paint. It was fixated on the conjunctival prosthesis and covered with a transparent silicone foil. For the first time, the prosthesis was applied at the age of seven years, and during the next ten-years period, it was three times exchanged mostly for a bigger model. This procedure guaranteed proper growing of the orbital area and symmetrical development of the face. The prosthesis also carries out the prosthetic role and cosmetically it looks similarly like after the enucleation without the implant. PMID:16640047

  17. Spatiotemporal control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by Sac2 regulates endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, FoSheng; Hu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the spatial- and temporal-restricted generation and turnover of phosphoinositides (PIs) by a cascade of PI-metabolizing enzymes is a key regulatory mechanism in the endocytic pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the Sac1 domaincontaining protein Sac2 is a PI 4-phosphatase that specifically hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in vitro. We further show that Sac2 colocalizes with early endosomal markers and is recruited to transferrin (Tfn)-containing vesicles during endocytic recycling. Exogenous expression of the catalytically inactive mutant Sac2C458S resulted in altered cellular distribution of Tfn receptors and delayed Tfn recycling. Furthermore, genomic ablation of Sac2 caused a similar perturbation on Tfn and integrin recycling as well as defects in cell migration. Structural characterization of Sac2 revealed a unique pleckstrin-like homology Sac2 domain conserved in all Sac2 orthologues. Collectively, our findings provide evidence for the tight regulation of PIs by Sac2 in the endocytic recycling pathway. PMID:25869669

  18. OSMOTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN THE HEN'S EGG, AS DETERMINED BY COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF YOLK AND WHITE.

    PubMed

    Howard, E

    1932-09-20

    The osmotic pressure of the yolk and white of the hen's egg have been shown to be identical, by means of direct freezing point determinations, dialyses, and vapor pressure measurements. Dialysates of egg yolk slow the rate of ice formation compared with NaCl solutions. They also show a marked change of freezing rate as the freezing point is approached. The anomalous freezing behavior of this material may lead to errors in the determination of the true freezing point which would tend to make the value for the yolk erroneously low. The postulate of a vital activity at the yolk membrane maintaining an osmotic pressure difference is thus shown to be unnecessary, since a simple osmotic equilibrium exists between the yolk and the white. PMID:19872681

  19. An emerging complimentary medicine-yolk oil made from heating method.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tsung-Ming; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Loh, El-Wui

    2012-07-01

    Yolk oil is common in Asia. According to the Flora Sinensis, yolk oil is a multipurpose medicine, with specific dermatological and fever indications. Nowadays, it is generally used as a complimentary medicine for heart diseases. Yolk oil can be made from heating or chemical extraction method. It is generally believed that yolk oil made from heating (YOheat) method is more effective as a medicine than that from extraction (YOext). The technical details of the heating method remain an issue of argument, including the degree of char and the threat of carcinogens formed during the heating process. Most yolk oil related studies used YOext as research material. Nevertheless, animal studies have showed that YOheat reduced triglycerides and total cholesterol in rodent liver. It is expected an easy-to-make complimentary medicine like YOheat may become even more common and thus evidence based studies should be conducted to verify its pharmacological effects and safety. PMID:24716133

  20. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomov, Ognian C. Filios, Catherine Sbrissa, Diego Chen, Xuequn Shisheva, Assia

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis.

  1. Decision Making in a Data-Poor Environment: Management of Brain Metastases From Testicular and Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice.A 32-year-old man with a history of a mixed germ cell tumor of the testis presented with acute-onset, right-sided weakness and numbness. His previous treatment included orchiectomy, which revealed a 5-cm tumor that was 95% yolk sac tumor and 5% embryonal carcinoma, and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I disease in January 2010, which revealed no nodal metastases. Starting in June 2010, he was treated with four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin for pulmonary and thoracic lymph node metastases and a rising serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level. He subsequently received four cycles of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin for relapse in the lungs and mediastinal nodes with a rising AFP level starting in January 2011. He reported having a 2-week history of intermittent headaches in December 2011, when he presented with acute-onset, right-sided weakness and numbness. Computed tomographs of the head was obtained and demonstrated a left parietal intracranial hemorrhage without midline shift or hydrocephalus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a complex, 4.5-cm mass consistent with a hemorrhagic metastasis. His serum AFP level was elevated at 47 ng/mL. The patient became progressively obtunded and underwent emergency surgical decompression and resection of the tumor. Histopathologic evaluation of the resected tissue showed metastatic germ cell tumor predominantly consisting of a yolk sac element (Fig 1). His AFP level declined rapidly after resection, and computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of metastatic disease. However, 2 weeks later, his AFP level rose again, and repeat MRI of the brain showed a 3-cm mass in the left mesial parietal lobe adjacent to the resection site. He started treatment with filgrastim to facilitate collection of circulating hematopoietic stem cells. Several days later, after apheresis, he received his first of two cycles of high-dose carboplatin 700 mg/m(2) on days -5, -4, and -3 and etoposide 750 mg/m(2) on days -5, -4, and -3. The patient had a complete response to high-dose chemotherapy and no major acute complications. His cancer remains in complete remission 3 years later without additional treatment. His three lines of chemotherapy left him with chronic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26668343

  2. Conjugated linoleic acids alter the fatty acid composition and physical properties of egg yolk and albumen.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Bruce A; Feng, Shulin; Strom, Anna K; DeVitt, Amy A; Yu, Liangli; Li, Yong

    2003-11-01

    Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the fatty acid composition of different egg compartments after storage were studied. Four dietary treatments [supplemented with safflower oil (SAFF, control group), DHA, CLAs plus DHA (CAD), and CLAs alone] were administered to Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. Eggs from the different treatment groups were collected and stored for 10 weeks at 4 degrees C before analysis. Fatty acids from the yolk (yolk granules and plasma), egg albumen, and vitelline membrane were analyzed by gas chromatography. The yolk of eggs from hens given CLAs had significantly higher amounts of saturated fatty acids, typically 16:0 and 18:0, but lower amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared to eggs from the control group (SAFF). CLA content was highest in the yolk and present in both neutral and polar lipids, with the greatest concentrations in neutral lipids. DHA was incorporated mainly into yolk polar lipids. Lipids in yolk plasma and granules contained similar amounts of CLAs. The fatty acid compositions of vitelline membrane and egg albumen mirrored that of the egg yolk. CLA supplementation resulted in hard and rubbery yolks when compared to hard-cooked eggs from the control group. This study showed that feeding CLAs to hens led to accumulation of the isomers in polar and neutral lipids of the egg yolk and that these isomers migrated into egg albumen. Because the sensory properties of hard-cooked eggs were negatively affected by the enrichment of a mixture of CLA isomers in this study, further research should be conducted to evaluate how the different isomers alter the properties of egg yolk and albumen so that the quality of designed eggs containing CLAs and DHA can be improved. PMID:14582988

  3. In Vitro Penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through Yolk Membranes of Eggs from Six Genetically Distinct Commercial Lines of Laying Hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication...

  4. Using life-histories to predict and interpret variability in yolk hormones.

    PubMed

    Love, O P; Gilchrist, H G; Bêty, J; Wynne-Edwards, K E; Berzins, L; Williams, T D

    2009-09-01

    Variation in yolk hormones is assumed to provide the plasticity necessary for mothers to individually optimize reproductive decisions via changes in offspring phenotype, the benefit being to maximise fitness. However, rather than routinely expecting adaptive variation within all species, the pattern and magnitude of yolk hormone deposition should theoretically relate to variation in life-histories. Here we present data on intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone in three species along a developmental continuum (European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): fully altricial; black guillemot (Cepphus grylle): semi-precocial; common eider (Somateria mollissima): fully precocial) to examine how and why variation in life-histories might relate to the evolution of variation in yolk steroids. Starlings and guillemots showed a significant increase in yolk corticosterone across the laying sequence; however, we found no pattern within eider clutches. Moreover, starlings showed the largest difference (94.6%) in yolk corticosterone between first- and last-laid eggs, whereas guillemots showed a moderate difference (58.9%). Despite these general species-specific patterns, individuals showed marked variation in the intra-clutch patterns of yolk corticosterone within each species indicating potential differences in intra-clutch flexibility among females. It is well documented that exposure to elevated yolk glucocorticoids reduces offspring quality at birth/hatching in many taxa and it has therefore been proposed that elevated yolk levels may modulate offspring competition and/or facilitate brood reduction under harsh conditions in birds. Our data suggests that intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone has the potential to act as an adaptive maternal effect in species where modulation of competition between nest-bound offspring would benefit mothers (starlings and guillemots). However, in precocial species where mothers would not benefit from a modulation of offspring quality, intra-clutch variation in yolk hormones may play little or no adaptive role. While future phylogenetically-controlled studies will be helpful in examining questions of adaptive mechanisms once more data on yolk corticosterone becomes available, our results nonetheless suggest that research on the evolutionary role of yolk hormones can benefit by a priori incorporating species-specific life-history-driven hypotheses. PMID:18952089

  5. Endometriosis within a left-sided inguinal hernia sac

    PubMed Central

    Albutt, Katherine; Glass, Charity; Odom, Stephen; Gupta, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder wherein ectopic endometrial glands and stroma are found at extrauterine sites. Extrapelvic endometriosis is a well-documented, yet rare, disease entity that can affect almost any organ system. Inguinal endometriosis is an extremely rare disease entity characterized by tender inguinal swelling. Here we report a case of a sudden-onset and acutely painful left inguinal hernia with concordant endometriosis. A review of the literature is presented. The presence of isolated endometriosis contained within a left-sided inguinal hernia sac has, to our knowledge, never been reported. Often diagnosed incidentally or on histologic examination, general surgeons should consider inguinal endometriosis in the differential diagnosis of inguinal masses, even in the absence of catamenial symptoms. Surgical excision, with gynecologic follow-up, is locally curative and the treatment of choice for inguinal endometriosis. PMID:24876515

  6. Ground water in the Cul-de-Sac Plain, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rmy C.

    1949-01-01

    The Cul-de-Sac Plain is perhaps the most important agricultural area in Haiti because of its nearness and accessibility to Port-au-Prince, the nation's capital, metropolis, and principal seaport. Most of the agricultural produce consumed in Port-au-Prince as well as a considerable part of that exported from Haiti is grown in the plain. Because of variable and poorly distributed rainfall, high temperature, and high evaporation, semiarid climatic conditions prevail in the plain. Irrigation is, therefore, necessary for successful farming. There are no regulatory or storage facilities on the streams that enter the plain, but the mean and low-water stream flow and the discharge of springs are almost entirely appropriated for irrigation. Ground water has been utilized for irrigation to an increasing extent by the Haitian American Sugar Company, which has put down about 100 wells in the plain since 1919. Outside the existing irrigated areas of the plain are large tracts of potentially irrigable land that are uncultivated and agriculturally unproductive for lack of water. The object of the present study was to determine the possibilities of bringing these lands into cultivation by irrigation from wells. This study was part of a larger program of the Food Supply Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, to increase the production of food in Haiti. From September through November 1948 the senior author, a member of the U. S. Geological Survey, spent three months in the field in an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. He was ably assisted by Mr. Rmy C. Lemoine, Haitian engineer-geologist, employed by the Food Supply Division. The field work included principally the geologic mapping of' the plain and the adjacent mountain borders, a ground-water inventory of existing wells and springs, and a general evaluation of significant geologic and hydrologic features.

  7. Sac1, a putative regulator that is critical for survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during sulfur deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J P; Yildiz, F H; Grossman, A

    1996-01-01

    The sac1 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is aberrant in most of the normal responses to sulfur limitation; it cannot synthesize arylsulfatase, does not take up sulfate as rapidly as wild-type cells, and does not synthesize periplasmic proteins that normally accumulate during sulfur-limited growth. Here, we show that the sac1 mutant dies much more rapidly than wild-type cells during sulfur deprivation; this emphasizes the vital role of the acclimation process. The loss of viability of the sac1 mutant during sulfur deprivation is only observed in the light and is mostly inhibited by DCMU. During sulfur-stress, wild-type cells, but not the sac1 mutant, downregulate photosynthesis. Thus, death of the sac1 mutant during sulfur deprivation is probably a consequence of its inability to downregulate photosynthesis. Furthermore, since SAC1 is necessary for the downregulation of photosynthesis, the process must be highly controlled and not simply the result of a general decrease in protein synthesis due to sulfur limitation. Genomic and cDNA copies of the SAC1 gene have been cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of Sac1 is similar to an Escherichia coli gene that may involved in the response of E.coli to nutrient deprivation. Images PMID:8641280

  8. Infestation of the lacrimal sac by Rhinosporidium seeberi: A clinicopathological case report

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Mohan, Ashwin; Sumathi, V; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2013-01-01

    Rhinosporidium seeberi, till recently known as a fungus, has been reclassified as a protistan parasite. It infects humans and many animal species. The authors describe a rare case of oculosporidiosis with involvement of the lacrimal sac exhibiting features of idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease in a young male patient. Clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis have been discussed. PMID:24212311

  9. The black lacrimal sac: a clinicopathological correlation of a malignant melanoma with anterior lacrimal crest infiltration.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Aditi; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Mulay, Kaustubh; Naik, Milind N; Honavar, Santosh G

    2014-02-01

    Primary lacrimal sac melanoma is an extremely rare clinical entity with fewer than 25 cases reported in the literature. We present a well-documented case of lacrimal sac melanoma with anterior lacrimal crest infiltration and discuss the clinical, radiological and histopathological features along with surgical challenges and treatment. PMID:23456510

  10. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

  11. Characterization of yolk platelets isolated from developing embryos of Arbacia punctulata.

    PubMed

    Armant, D R; Carson, D D; Decker, G L; Welply, J K; Lennarz, W J

    1986-02-01

    Yolk platelets, a major organelle of sea urchin eggs and embryos, were isolated from Arbacia punctulata and biochemically characterized over the course of development to the pluteus stage. Fractionation by sucrose gradient centrifugation revealed yolk platelets in two major density classes. The low-density yolk platelet fraction could be obtained as a very homogeneous preparation and was highly enriched in acid phosphatase activity, while depleted of mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase) and plasma membrane (phosphodiesterase) marker enzymes. The chemical composition of low-density yolk platelets prepared from eggs and embryos at various stages of development remained unchanged in terms of phospholipid, triglyceride, hexose, sialic acid, RNA, and protein. However, analysis of the major yolk platelet glycoproteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a number of stage-specific changes. These glycoproteins were found to be major glycoproteins of crude embryo lysates and were predominantly of the polymannose, N-linked type. The predominance of polymannose-type glycoproteins in yolk platelets was further demonstrated by their staining with concanavalin A-colloidal gold in Lowicryl-embedded sections of embryos. These studies represent the first systematic biochemical characterization of intact yolk platelets and the changes in them during early embryonic development. PMID:3949072

  12. The effect of partial removal of yolk on the chilling sensitivity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed

    Liu; Zhang; Rawson

    1999-11-01

    The effect of partial removal of yolk on the survival of zebrafish embryos and the chilling sensitivity of yolk-reduced embryos were investigated at several stages of embryo development. Dechorionated embryos were punctured with a sharp microneedle and approximately 50 to 75% of yolk content was released following multiple punctures. The survival of yolk-reduced embryos was found to be stage dependent. Only 7.9% of 26-somite (24 h) embryos survived, whereas 56.7% of prim-6 (27 h), 62.4% of prim-15 (34 h), and 81.3% of high-pec (49 h) embryos survived after partial removal of yolk. For chilling sensitivity studies the yolk-reduced embryos at high-pec stage were cultured in embryo medium for 2, 6, or 24 h to allow embryo recovery before they were chilled at 0 degrees C for 6 h. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were seen in normalized survivals between control and yolk-reduced embryos following a 2- or 6-h recovery period. However, when the recovery period was extended to 24 h, the yolk-reduced embryos showed significant (P < 0.05) higher survival than that of chilled controls and the significance was more pronounced (P < 0.01) after a longer period (10 h) of chilling. Similar results were also obtained with embryos at prim-6 stage. These results indicated that after partial removal of yolk, zebrafish embryos at post-prim-6 stage can survive well and their sensitivity to chilling can be reduced. This may have significant implications in alleviating certain difficulties confronting the cryopreservation of fish embryos. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10600257

  13. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  14. Novel hollow and yolk-shell structured periodic mesoporous polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yeru; Mai, Weicong; Huang, Junlong; Huang, Zhike; Fu, Ruowen; Zhang, Mingqiu; Wu, Dingcai; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2016-02-11

    The pioneered construction of novel monodisperse hollow and yolk-shell structured periodic mesoporous polymer nanoparticles was reported by the development of an efficient reactive interface-guided co-assembly approach. PMID:26735805

  15. Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lossky, M.; Wensink, P.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates the expression of the genes for yolk protein of Drosophila melanogaster and the tissue specific function of the regulatory element which activates transcription in vivo. 70 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Formation of complexes between lecithin and apovitellenin I, an avian egg-yolk apoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fretheim, K; Sleigh, R W; Burley, R W

    1986-02-01

    In a study of lipid-protein interactions in egg yolk, it was found that L-alpha-dipalmitoyl lecithin gave two distinct noncovalent complexes (A and B) with apovitellenin I, an apoprotein in the major yolk lipoprotein. Interaction took place under widely varied conditions, and yolk lecithin gave similar complexes. Complex A, which was formed within minutes, consisted of round particles of about 9 nm diameter. Complex B, which was formed more slowly, consisted of larger particles, possibly resembling curved discs, with diameter of 30-40 nm. The preparation and some properties of these complexes are described. It is suggested that they may be suitable for an extensive study of phospholipid-protein interactions in yolk. PMID:3959774

  17. Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrn, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 23 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (30004000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as an additional acoustic filter. Individual acoustic recognition may have been the primary function in the evolution of a size-variable air sac, and this function is retained in motheryoung communication. In males sexual selection seems to have favoured a considerable size increase of the air sac and a switch to call series instead of single calls. Vocalization became restricted to the rutting period serving the attraction of females. We propose two possibilities for the acoustic function of the air sac in vocalization that do not exclude each other. The first assumes a coupling between air sac and the environment, resulting in an acoustic output that is a combination of the vocal tract resonance frequencies emitted via mouth and nostrils and the resonance frequencies of the air sac transmitted via the neck skin. The second assumes a weak coupling so that resonance frequencies of the air sac are lost to surrounding tissues by dissipation. In this case the resonance frequencies of the air sac solely influence the signal that is further filtered by the remaining vocal tract. According to our results one acoustic effect of the air sac in adult reindeer might be to mask formants of the vocal tract proper. In other cervid species, however, formants of rutting calls convey essential information on the quality of the sender, related to its potential reproductive success, to conspecifics. Further studies are required to solve this inconsistency. PMID:17310544

  18. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Rijlaarsdam MA; Tax DM; Gillis AJ; Dorssers LC; Koestler DC; de Ridder J; Looijenga LH

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina's HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we identified specific and global methylation differences between GCT subtypes, providing insight into their developmental timing and underlying developmental biology. Data and extended annotation are deposited at GEO (GSE58538 and GPL18809).

  19. A Cathepsin-L is required for invasive behavior during Air Sac Primordium development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Brenneman, Breanna; Fields, Christopher; Srivastava, Ajay

    2015-10-01

    The Drosophila Air Sac Primordium (ASP) has emerged as an important structure where cellular, genetic and molecular events responsible for invasive behavior and branching morphogenesis can be studied. In this report we present data which demonstrate that a Cathepsin-L encoded by the gene CP1 in Drosophila is necessary for invasive behavior during ASP development. We find that CP1 is expressed in ASP and knockdown of CP1 results in suppression of migratory and invasive behavior observed during ASP development. We further show that CP1 possibly regulates invasive behavior by promoting degradation of Basement Membrane. Our data provide clues to the possible role of Cathepsin L in human lung development and tumor invasion, especially, given the similarities between human lung and Drosophila ASP development. PMID:26341534

  20. Pterin-based ornamental coloration predicts yolk antioxidant levels in female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stacey L; Kennedy, Eileen A; Safran, Rebecca J; McGraw, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    1. Maternal investment in egg quality can have important consequences for offspring fitness. For example, yolk antioxidants can affect embryonic development as well as juvenile and adult phenotype. Thus, females may be selected to advertise their yolk antioxidant deposition to discriminatory males via ornamental signals, perhaps depending on the reproductive costs associated with signal production. 2. Female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) develop pterin-based orange colour patches during the reproductive season that influence male behaviour and that are positively associated with the phenotypic quality of the female and her offspring. Here, we assessed one potential developmental mechanism underlying the relationship between offspring quality and female ornamentation in S. virgatus, by examining the relationship between ornament expression and yolk antioxidant levels. 3. As expected, concentrations of the yolk antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) were strongly positively intercorrelated. Eggs from larger clutches had fewer antioxidants than eggs from smaller clutches, suggesting that females may be limited in antioxidant availability or use. Fertilized and unfertilized eggs did not differ in yolk antioxidant levels. 4. The size of a female's ornament was positively related to both the concentration and total amount of yolk antioxidants, and ornament colour was positively related to yolk antioxidant concentration. Thus, in S. virgatus, female ornaments may advertise egg quality. In addition, these data suggest that more ornamented females may produce higher-quality offspring, in part because their eggs contain more antioxidants. As the colour ornament of interest is derived from pterins, not carotenoids, direct resource trade-offs between ornaments and eggs may be eliminated, reducing reproductive costs associated with signalling. 5. This is the first example of a positive relationship between female ornamentation and yolk antioxidants in reptiles and may indicate the general importance of these patterns in oviparous vertebrates. PMID:21269301

  1. Vitellogenesis in the crayfish Rhynchocinetes typus: role of hepatopancreas in lipid yolk biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Muoz, G; Donghi, S; Cerisola, H

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical studies in lipid composition of yolk granules from the crayfish Rhynchocinetes typus is shown to be composed mainly of cholesterol and phospholipids. Thin layer chromatography analysis demonstrates phosphatidyl-choline, -ethanolamine and -serine as its major phospholipidic components. In vivo labeling experiments using 32P-orthophosphoric acid suggest that two of the major yolk phospholipid components, phosphatidyl -choline and -serine could be synthesized in the hepatopancreas and subsequently transported via hemolymph to the growing oocyte. PMID:2073678

  2. Testing an egg yolk supplemented diet on boars to aid in sperm adaptation at 5C.

    PubMed

    Casas, Isabel; Miller-Lux, Yvonne; Osborne, Betty; Bonet, Sergi; Althouse, Gary C

    2015-01-01

    In many species, extended semen can be stored at low temperatures to slow bacterial growth. However, boar semen performs poorly at temperatures below 15 C and this poses unique challenges, as it is not easy to maintain a constant 15-19 C during shipment. Some extenders have been formulated with egg yolk for storage at 5 C but the addition of egg yolk is not applicable in the majority of commercial operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if boar dietary supplementation with powdered egg yolk imparts any protective effects on sperm quality when stored at 15 C and 5 C for up to 11 days in a conventional extender. Ten boars were fed a commercial diet with the addition of 0.11 Kg of powdered egg yolk for 10 weeks. Ejaculates collected on weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 were processed for storage at both 15 C and 5 C and compared with ejaculates from boars fed a standard diet. Throughout an 11-day storage period, sperm quality was assessed including several motility and morphologic parameters and select plasma membrane properties (fluidity, integrity, and triacylglycerol content). Linear regression models were used to describe effects of treatment, storage day, week and temperature on all sperm parameters. Overall, there were minimal beneficial effects of egg yolk treatment on sperm quality parameters. Sperm from egg yolk supplemented boars did have a slower decline in viability and plasma membrane fluidity than that observed in the control sperm when stored at 5 C (p < 0.001). Additionally, there was an increase in total morphologic abnormalities in sperm from egg yolk fed boars compared to controls at week 10 (p yolk to crossbred boars. PMID:25966000

  3. Regulation of yolk-androgen concentrations by plasma prolactin in the American kestrel.

    PubMed

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H; Sharp, P J

    2001-12-01

    The concentrations of maternally derived androgens in the yolks of avian eggs vary within and among clutches, but a mechanistic basis for this variation has not been elucidated. We investigated in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, whether changes in plasma-prolactin concentrations induced by changes in photoperiod and food supply affect yolk-androgen concentrations. Over the course of a photoinduced breeding period in the laboratory, we measured concentrations of plasma immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in female kestrels with ad libitum food availability (control) or food availability that was reduced during the early breeding period. In a second laboratory study, we administered via osmotic mini-pumps ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) to females beginning on the day they laid their first egg of a clutch (egg-day 1) to determine the effects of high prolactin concentrations on yolk-androgen concentrations. In both this study and one on free-living kestrels, we quantified changes in yolk-androgen concentrations with date of clutch initiation. Concentrations of ir-prolactin in nonlaying females rose with date, irrespective of food treatment. Egg-day 1 ir-prolactin concentrations were higher in control females laying late during the breeding phase than in those laying early. This increase was absent in food-reduced females. Yolk-androgen concentrations in eggs 3 and 4 but not eggs 1 and 2 of the clutch were higher in clutches initiated late than in clutches initiated early in the breeding phase in both the field and laboratory. o-prolactin treatment elevated yolk-testosterone but not androstenedione concentrations. These findings suggest that, in American kestrels, seasonal and laying-associated increases in plasma-prolactin concentrations elevate yolk-testosterone concentrations. Food availability and other factors may interact with date to regulate the effects of prolactin on yolk-testosterone deposition. PMID:11716575

  4. Human sperm chromosomes obtained from hamster eggs after sperm capacitation in TEST-yolk buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1985-01-01

    Human sperm chromosomes were obtained after capacitation with TES-Tris (TEST) yolk buffer and fusion with Syrian hamster eggs. Semen samples could be stored at 4/sup 0/C for 3 days and remain functional in the assay system. The efficiency of TEST yolk buffer for obtaining karyotypes was as good as, or greater than, the efficiency of standard BWW medium containing human serum albumin. 16 references, 3 tables.

  5. Effect of electron beam irradiation on physical, physiochemical, and functional properties of liquid egg yolk during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Huang, S; Herald, T J; Mueller, D D

    1997-11-01

    Raw yolk of 1-d-old eggs was either subjected to linear electron beam irradiation at approximately 2.5 kGy dosage or not processed. Both irradiated and nonprocessed egg yolk samples were stored at -15 C after irradiation. Testing was conducted on 0, 1, 7, 15, 30, and 60 d of storage. Development of storage modulus (G') was delayed in irradiated samples after 7 d, which suggests that less structure was developed in irradiated egg yolk than in nonprocessed egg yolk during storage. Irradiated samples retained more soluble protein within the first 7 d and showed slightly improved emulsion capacity over that from nonprocessed samples. However, irradiated egg yolk was less bright than nonprocessed samples. No differences were observed in SDS-PAGE patterns of soluble proteins and delipidized low density lipoprotein (LDL). The LDL isolated from irradiated liquid egg yolk showed no difference in N-terminal amino acids compared to that of nonprocessed egg yolk, indicating no detectable cleavage of LDL. However, the denaturation temperature of irradiated samples at Day 0 shifted about 1 C lower than that of the nonprocessed sample. Results indicated that electron beam irradiation did not cause significant physical, chemical or functional changes of egg yolk, or cleavage of egg yolk protein. Therefore, electron beam irradiation could serve as a preservation method for liquid egg yolk. PMID:9355158

  6. Physiological constraints and the influence of diet on fatty acids in the yolk of gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua.

    PubMed

    Polito, Michael J; Koopman, Heather N; Able, Stephanie; Walsh, Jennifer; Goebel, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Avian yolk fatty acids (FA) composition is influenced by two main factors: maternal diet and genetic factors that regulate FA metabolism. However, due to embryonic developmental requirements, yolk FA are thought to be physiologically constrained and less useful for dietary and trophic studies. We assessed the relative contributions of diet and physiological constraints in determining the yolk FA composition of a marine bird, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) by comparing FA signatures of yolks and prey between a captive, controlled- feeding experiment and a wild population. Captive and wild yolk FA signatures differed even though both groups' yolk lipids were composed primarily of three FA (16:0, 18:0 and 18:1n-9). Differences were due to FA occurring in relatively low abundance, but which mirrored differences in the FA composition of diets. However, yolk FA signatures were correlated across three penguin species suggesting that common developmental constraints can be relatively more important than species-specific differences in diet or egg-laying physiology. While yolk FA are constrained, several minor components of yolk FA are reflective of diets and the calibration coefficients resulting from this study have the potential to be incorporated into predictive models and allow for quantitative dietary and trophic studies using FA analysis of penguin egg yolks. PMID:22327194

  7. Identification of environmental chemicals that induce yolk malabsorption in zebrafish using automated image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Kalasekar, Sharanya Maanasi; Zacharia, Eleni; Kessler, Noah; Ducharme, Nicole A; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Environmental factors affecting nutrient availability during development can cause predisposition to diseases later in life. To identify chemicals in the environment capable of altering nutrient mobilization, we analyzed yolk malabsorption in the zebrafish embryo, which relies on maternally-derived yolk for nutrition during its first week of life. Embryos of the transgenic zebrafish line HGn50D, which fluoresce in the yolk syncytial layer, were exposed from two to five days post fertilization to different chemicals. We developed a software package to automatically and accurately segment and quantify the area of the fluorescing yolk in images captured at the end of the treatment period. Based on this quantification, we found that prochloraz decreased yolk absorption, while butralin, tetrabromobisphenol A, tetrachlorobisphenol A and tributyltin increased yolk absorption. Given the number and variety of industrial chemicals in commerce today, development of automated image processing to perform high-speed quantitative analysis of biological effects is an important step for enabling high throughput screening to identify chemicals altering nutrient absorption. PMID:25462786

  8. Successful ram semen cryopreservation with lyophilized egg yolk-based extender.

    PubMed

    Alcay, Selim; Berk Toker, M; Gokce, Elif; Ustuner, Burcu; Tekin Onder, N; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Nur, Zekariya; Kemal Soylu, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lyophilized egg yolk extender on ram semen cryopreservation. Ejaculates with a thick consistency, rapid wave motion (3-5 on a 0-5 scale) and >75% initial motility were pooled. Sperm were diluted to final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in lyophilized egg yolk or fresh egg yolk extenders using two-step dilution method. The equilibrated semen was frozen in 0.25 mL straws. Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane functional integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) at three time points: after dilution with extender A, equilibration and post-thaw. The results showed that freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and thawing) had negative effects on motility (P<0.001), plasma membrane integrity (P<0.001), acrosome integrity (P<0.001) and DNA integrity (P<0.001). In the study, there were no significant differences between lyophilized and fresh egg yolk extenders when comparing motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity between groups. In conclusion, lyophilized egg yolk extender provided similar cryoprotective effects with fresh egg yolk extender to cryopreserve ram semen. PMID:26277039

  9. Research note: an assessment of egg yolk structure using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, M J; Lirette, A; Etches, R J; Towner, R A; Janzen, E G

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the inner structure of the egg using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Proton images of fertile and infertile eggs and eggs from hens fed a corn-based or a flax-based diet were generated using a Spectroscopy Imaging Systems unit. Phantom eggs, made from homogenized albumen and homogenized yolk in a plastic shell, were imaged as controls. Eggs were imaged individually on their side, in the sagittal plane. A single image was generated through the center of the yolk. Images clearly distinguished the eggshell, air space, albumen, and yolk. Within the yolk of both fertile and infertile eggs, the latebra, the neck of the latebra, and four to six pairs of concentric yolk rings were visible, although the rings were less clearly defined in eggs from hens fed the flax-based diet. The embryo was not visible after 24 h of incubation but yolk stratification could still be resolved. Rings were not evident in the phantom eggs. It was concluded that MRI can be used successfully in assessing the microanatomy of eggs. PMID:1470595

  10. Analysis for stress environment in the alveolar sac model

    PubMed Central

    Pidaparti, Ramana M.; Burnette, Matthew; Heise, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Better understanding of alveolar mechanics is very important in order to avoid lung injuries for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for treatment of respiratory problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the alveolar mechanics for two different alveolar sac models, one based on actual geometry and the other an idealized spherical geometry using coupled fluid-solid computational analysis. Both the models were analyzed through coupled fluid-solid analysis to estimate the parameters such as pressures/velocities and displacements/stresses under mechanical ventilation conditions. The results obtained from the fluid analysis indicate that both the alveolar geometries give similar results for pressures and velocities. However, the results obtained from coupled fluid-solid analysis indicate that the actual alveolar geometry results in smaller displacements in comparison to a spherical alveolar model. This trend is also true for stress/strain between the two models. The results presented indicate that alveolar geometry greatly affects the pressure/velocities as well as displacements and stresses/strains. PMID:24932320

  11. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  12. Ipilimumab After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Persistent or Progressive Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Immature Teratoma; Ovarian Mature Teratoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma With Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor With Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma With Seminoma

  13. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  14. Prepuce mucosal graft for forniceal and conjunctival sac reconstruction in surgically intractable symblepharon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hye; Sa, Ho-Seok; Woo, Kyung; Kim, Yoon-Duck

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy who had severe burns in the right eye from a firecracker injury 2 years previously was referred to our hospital with severe and recurrent symblepharon. The patient had received conjunctival sac reconstruction with amniotic membrane grafts twice at another hospital. A symblepharon lysis and conjunctival sac reconstruction with a mouth mucosal graft was performed. Eight months after surgery, he could not wear a prosthesis due to the recurrence of symblepharon. A prepuce mucosal graft obtained from circumcision was applied for forniceal and conjunctival sac reconstruction. One year postoperatively, the patient showed no recurrence of symblepharon and could comfortably wear a prosthesis. The prepuce is a useful alternative donor tissue in a male patient with no other available donor sites for conjunctival sac reconstruction. PMID:20966797

  15. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-04-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak. PMID:25844359

  16. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (?C ? 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

  17. Vagal innervation of the air sacs in a songbird, Taenopygia guttata

    PubMed Central

    Kubke, M Fabiana; Ross, Jacqueline M; Wild, J Martin

    2004-01-01

    The air sacs of birds are thin-walled chambers connected to the lung that act as bellows in the ventilatory mechanism. Physiological evidence exists to suggest that they may contain receptors that are innervated by the vagus nerve, but no morphological study has examined the vagal innervation of these putative structures. To do this, we injected the cervical vagus nerve with choleragenoid and examined the innervation of the air sacs using light and confocal microscopy. We identified vagally innervated structures in the air sac wall that resemble the neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) described in the airways of many vertebrates. Although NEBs have been proposed to have a dual chemoreceptive and mechanoreceptive role, their specific function in the air sacs of birds remains unclear. PMID:15061754

  18. Phosphoregulatory protein 14-3-3 facilitates SAC1 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Bajaj Pahuja, Kanika; Wang, Jinzhi; Blagoveshchenskaya, Anastasia; Lim, Lillian; Madhusudhan, M S; Mayinger, Peter; Schekman, Randy

    2015-06-23

    Most secretory cargo proteins in eukaryotes are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and actively exported in membrane-bound vesicles that are formed by the cytosolic coat protein complex II (COPII). COPII proteins are assisted by a variety of cargo-specific adaptor proteins required for the concentration and export of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adaptor proteins are key regulators of cargo export, and defects in their function may result in disease phenotypes in mammals. Here we report the role of 14-3-3 proteins as a cytosolic adaptor in mediating SAC1 transport in COPII-coated vesicles. Sac1 is a phosphatidyl inositol-4 phosphate (PI4P) lipid phosphatase that undergoes serum dependent translocation between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex and controls cellular PI4P lipid levels. We developed a cell-free COPII vesicle budding reaction to examine SAC1 exit from the ER that requires COPII and at least one additional cytosolic factor, the 14-3-3 protein. Recombinant 14-3-3 protein stimulates the packaging of SAC1 into COPII vesicles and the sorting subunit of COPII, Sec24, interacts with 14-3-3. We identified a minimal sorting motif of SAC1 that is important for 14-3-3 binding and which controls SAC1 export from the ER. This LS motif is part of a 7-aa stretch, RLSNTSP, which is similar to the consensus 14-3-3 binding sequence. Homology models, based on the SAC1 structure from yeast, predict this region to be in the exposed exterior of the protein. Our data suggest a model in which the 14-3-3 protein mediates SAC1 traffic from the ER through direct interaction with a sorting signal and COPII. PMID:26056309

  19. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Interaction of Typical Sac10b Family Proteins with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yao, Hong-Wei; Ge, Meng; Pan, Xian-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The Sac10b protein family is regarded as a family of DNA-binding proteins that is highly conserved and widely distributed within the archaea. Sac10b family members are typically small basic dimeric proteins that bind to DNA with cooperativity and no sequence specificity and are capable of constraining DNA negative supercoils, protecting DNA from Dnase I digestion, and do not compact DNA obviously. However, a detailed understanding of the structural basis of the interaction of Sac10b family proteins with DNA is still lacking. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Mth10b, an atypical member of the Sac10b family from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ΔH, at 2.2 Å. Unlike typical Sac10b family proteins, Mth10b is an acidic protein and binds to neither DNA nor RNA. The overall structure of Mth10b displays high similarity to its homologs, but three pairs of conserved positively charged residues located at the presumed DNA-binding surface are substituted by non-charged residues in Mth10b. Through amino acids interchanges, the DNA-binding ability of Mth10b was restored successfully, whereas the DNA-binding ability of Sso10b, a typical Sac10b family member, was weakened greatly. Based on these results, we propose a model describing the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions of typical Sac10b family proteins with DNA that explains all the characteristics of the interactions between typical Sac10b family members and DNA. PMID:22511977

  20. Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

  1. Phosphoregulatory protein 14-3-3 facilitates SAC1 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj Pahuja, Kanika; Wang, Jinzhi; Blagoveshchenskaya, Anastasia; Lim, Lillian; Madhusudhan, M. S.; Mayinger, Peter; Schekman, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Most secretory cargo proteins in eukaryotes are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and actively exported in membrane-bound vesicles that are formed by the cytosolic coat protein complex II (COPII). COPII proteins are assisted by a variety of cargo-specific adaptor proteins required for the concentration and export of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adaptor proteins are key regulators of cargo export, and defects in their function may result in disease phenotypes in mammals. Here we report the role of 14-3-3 proteins as a cytosolic adaptor in mediating SAC1 transport in COPII-coated vesicles. Sac1 is a phosphatidyl inositol-4 phosphate (PI4P) lipid phosphatase that undergoes serum dependent translocation between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex and controls cellular PI4P lipid levels. We developed a cell-free COPII vesicle budding reaction to examine SAC1 exit from the ER that requires COPII and at least one additional cytosolic factor, the 14-3-3 protein. Recombinant 14-3-3 protein stimulates the packaging of SAC1 into COPII vesicles and the sorting subunit of COPII, Sec24, interacts with 14-3-3. We identified a minimal sorting motif of SAC1 that is important for 14-3-3 binding and which controls SAC1 export from the ER. This LS motif is part of a 7-aa stretch, RLSNTSP, which is similar to the consensus 14-3-3 binding sequence. Homology models, based on the SAC1 structure from yeast, predict this region to be in the exposed exterior of the protein. Our data suggest a model in which the 14-3-3 protein mediates SAC1 traffic from the ER through direct interaction with a sorting signal and COPII. PMID:26056309

  2. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  3. Inter-species variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.; Abdelnabi, M.; Wu, J.; Igl, L.D.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large range of differences in yolk testosterone among the seven passerine species examined, with significant differences between those at the high end (Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia , Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, and House Sparrow, Passer domesticus ) and those at the low end (Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe, and House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus ). We also found that the testosterone level in cowbird eggs was intermediate in relation to host species levels and was significantly lower than that in three common cowbird hosts (Song Sparrow, Red-winged Blackbird, and House Sparrow), but not significantly different from three others. Geographical comparisons of yolk testosterone levels in all cowbird subspecies and populations from several regions showed no significant differences, though a trend that deserves further exploration was the pattern of lowest level in the ancestral population of cowbirds in the central prairies and of highest level in the northwestern population where range invasion occurred approximately 40 years ago. The levels of 17 betaestradiol were similar in the seven songbird species examined, which is consistent with current hypotheses that this hormone plays a role in embryonic sexual differentiation. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the large differences observed among species in absolute level of yolk testosterone are the relevant focal point or whether target tissue sensitivity differences mediate the effects of this yolk steroid, particularly between parasitic and non-parasitic species.

  4. Inter-species variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Wu, J.M.; Igl, L.D.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large range of differences in yolk testosterone among the seven passerine species examined, with significant differences between those at the high end (song sparrow Melospiza melodia, red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, and house sparrow, Passer domesticus) and those at the low end (eastern phoebe Sayornis phoebe, and house finch Carpodacus mexicanus). We also found that the testosterone level in cowbird eggs was intermediate in relation to host species levels and was significantly lower than that in three common cowbird hosts (song sparrow, red-winged blackbird, and house sparrow), but not significantly different from three others. Geographical comparisons of yolk testosterone levels in all cowbird subspecies and populations from several regions showed no significant differences, though a trend that deserves further exploration was the pattern of lowest level in the ancestral population of cowbirds in the central prairies and of highest level in the northwestern population where range invasion occurred approximately 40 years ago. The levels of 17 beta-estradiol were similar in the seven songbird species examined, which is consistent with current hypotheses that this hormone plays a role in embryonic sexual differentiation. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the large differences observed among species in absolute level of yolk testosterone are the relevant focal point or whether target tissue sensitivity differences mediate the effects of this yolk steroid, particularly between parasitic and non-parasitic species.

  5. Signals from the yolk cell induce mesoderm, neuroectoderm, the trunk organizer, and the notochord in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ober, E A; Schulte-Merker, S

    1999-11-15

    We have analyzed the role of the zebrafish yolk cell in the processes of mesoderm induction and establishment of the organizer. By recombining blastomere-free yolk cells and animal cap tissue we have shown that the yolk cell itself can induce mesoderm in neighboring blastomeres. We further demonstrate the competence of all blastomeres to form mesoderm, suggesting the endogenous mesoderm inducing signal to be locally restricted. Ablation of the vegetal third of the yolk cell during the first 20 min of development does not interfere with mesoderm formation in general, but results in completely ventralized embryos. These embryos lack the notochord, neuroectoderm, and the anterior-most 14-15 somites, demonstrating that the ablation affects the formation of the trunk-, but not the tail region of the embryo. This suggests the presence of a trunk organizer in fish. The dorsalized mutant swirl (zbmp-2b) shows expanded dorsal structures and missing ventral structures. In contrast to the phenotypes obtained upon the ablation treatment in wild-type embryos, removal of the vegetal-most yolk in swirl mutants results in embryos which do form neuroectoderm and anterior trunk somites. However, both wild-type and swirl mutants lack a notochord upon vegetal yolk removal. These ablation experiments in wild-type and swirl mutant embryos demonstrate that in zebrafish dorsal determining factors originate from the vegetal part of the yolk cell. These factors set up two independent activities: one induces the notochord and the other is involved in the formation of the neuroectoderm and the trunk region by counteracting the function of swirl. In addition, these experiments show that the establishment of the anteroposterior axis is independent of the dorsoventral axis. PMID:10545228

  6. Sac1Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to CharcotMarieTooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination. PMID:25113029

  7. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nndez, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRLSac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin. PMID:25869668

  8. Sac1--Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2014-08-25

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1–Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  9. Maternal yolk androgens stimulate territorial behaviour in black-headed gull chicks.

    PubMed

    Mller, Wendt; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2009-10-23

    Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal androgens. The concentrations of these yolk androgens are affected by the maternal environment, such as the level of social competition, parasite exposure or food conditions. Since yolk androgens have been shown to affect a wide array of offspring traits, they may adjust the chicks to the expected post-hatching environment, but experimental evidence is still scarce. We investigate in colonial breeding black-headed gulls whether high concentrations of yolk androgens, such as those found in environments with high numbers of social interactions, facilitate aggressiveness and territorial behaviour of the chicks. Black-headed gulls are highly suitable for this, as the semi-precocial chicks defend the natal territory and food against intruders. We manipulated yolk androgen concentrations and investigated their role in both within-nest and between-nest aggression. We found that chicks hatching from androgen-treated eggs defended the natal territory more often than their nest mates from control eggs, without increasing sibling aggression. This suggests that variation in yolk androgen concentrations in relation to the social environment of the mother may indeed allow adjustment of the offspring's behaviour to the expected frequency of territorial interactions with conspecifics post-hatching. PMID:19515649

  10. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens’ performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p < 0.05). Fish oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26261709

  11. Endocytosis of the major yolk proteins of the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia: Uptake kinetics and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakosky, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The oocytes of Lepidopteran insects take up several yolk proteins in defined proportions even though their relative availability in the hemolymph changes during the several days required to complete yolk formation in all the eggs. There are three hemolymph yolk precursors, vitellogenin, microvitellogenin and lipophorin; one precursor, paravitellogenin is produced in the ovary. The control mechanism for their proportional endocytosis is not known. In this thesis, the author describe the purification of all four proteins and the radiolabeling of the hemolymph precursors. The radiolabeled proteins were tested with an in vitro incubation system to assess the biological activity of the proteins and the reliability of the incubation methods. All of the labeled probes were transferred from the incubation medium to yolk spheres within the oocyte in a saturable, energy-dependent, and stage-specific manner. The rates of uptake were similar to the estimated rates of uptake in situ. The concentration dependence of in vitro uptake was investigated and found to be consistent with in situ concentrations and the composition of yolk in mature eggs. Two precursors, vitellogenin and lipophorin, competed for uptake indicating that they share a common binding site while the third, microvitellin, did not compete with the others. Though vitellogenin and lipophorin competed for uptake, only vitellogenin displayed the unique ability to increase the uptake rate of microvitellin and fluid in vitro.

  12. Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-09-01

    A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000(th) high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g(-1) at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g(-1) at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg(-1). The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles. PMID:23846530

  13. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens' performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p < 0.05). Fish oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26261709

  14. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L.; Barron, Megan E.; Roa, Jinae N.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3−, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3− sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3−-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H+ absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  15. Separating a Mixture of Egg Yolk and Egg White Using Foam Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Tiffany M.; Edwards, Ross A.; Tanner, Robert D.

    A mixture created by blending with a spatula, an egg yolk and an egg white from the same egg can serve as a binary system for testing to see how well foam fractionation can be used to separate two different groups of proteins naturally found together. This mixture of two phases is particularly attractive for such a study because the two phases can be visualized distinctly when in their separated states. It has been shown that air alone at a low flow rate and with little or no water added can effect visually clean separations of egg yolk from egg white, making this a "green" separation process. The white precedes the yolk in the process, which takes less than 10 min at a laboratory scale.

  16. EGG YOLK FACTOR OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. II. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LIPASE ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    SHAH, D B; WILSON, J B

    1965-04-01

    Shah, D. B. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and J. B. Wilson. Egg yolk factor of Staphylococcus aureus. II. Characterization of the lipase activity. J. Bacteriol. 89:949-953. 1965.-The staphylococcal egg yolk factor was characterized as a lipase. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 7.8, but the optimal pH of stability was 7. Substrate specificity data showed that the relative rate of hydrolysis was lowest with triacetin as substrate, was maximal with tributyrin, and decreased as the chain length of the acyl moieties increased. The enzyme showed an absolute requirement for a fatty acid acceptor like calcium, when the acyl moiety of triglyceride was water-insoluble. Magnesium, strontium, and barium functioned equally well as fatty acid acceptors. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze coconut oil, peanut oil, olive oil, and egg yolk oil. PMID:14276120

  17. Zebrafish Embryonic Lipidomic Analysis Reveals that the Yolk Cell Is Metabolically Active in Processing Lipid.

    PubMed

    Fraher, Daniel; Sanigorski, Andrew; Mellett, Natalie A; Meikle, Peter J; Sinclair, Andrew J; Gibert, Yann

    2016-02-16

    The role of lipids in providing energy and structural cellular components during vertebrate development is poorly understood. To elucidate these roles further, we visualized lipid deposition and examined expression of key lipid-regulating genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. We also conducted a semiquantitative analysis of lipidomic composition using liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry. Finally, we analyzed processing of boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) lipid analogs injected into the yolk using thin layer chromatography. Our data reveal that the most abundant lipids in the embryo are cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and triglyceride. Moreover, we demonstrate that lipids are processed within the yolk prior to mobilization to the embryonic body. Our data identify a metabolically active yolk and body resulting in a dynamic lipid composition. This provides a foundation for studying lipid biology during normal or pharmacologically compromised embryogenesis. PMID:26854233

  18. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-01-01

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk. PMID:26690134

  19. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-01-01

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk. PMID:26690134

  20. ?-Cryptoxanthin biofortified maize (Zea mays) increases ?-cryptoxanthin concentration and enhances the color of chicken egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Q; Davis, C R; Schmaelzle, S T; Rocheford, T; Cook, M E; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-02-01

    The laying hen has a natural ability to deposit carotenoids into its egg yolks, especially the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein that is used commercially as an egg colorant. Can this ability to deposit carotenoids be used to enrich egg yolk provitamin A value? After a 10-d carotenoid depletion period in hens (n = 24), the effects of a 20-d intervention with high-?-cryptoxanthin, high-?-carotene, or typical yellow maize on color and carotenoid profile were compared with the effects of a white maize diet (n = 6/treatment). Eggs were collected every other day and yolks were analyzed by using a portable colorimeter to define the color space and by using an HPLC to determine the carotenoid profile. The high-?-cryptoxanthin and yellow maize increased ?-cryptoxanthin in the yolk (0.55 0.08 to 4.20 0.56 nmol/g and 0.55 0.08 to 1.06 0.12 nmol/g, respectively; P < 0.001). Provitamin A equivalents increased in eggs from hens fed high-?-cryptoxanthin maize (P < 0.001) but not the high-?-carotene maize. The color (L*, a*, and b*) assessment of the yolks showed an increase in the high-?-cryptoxanthin treatment for the red-green a* scale (P < 0.001) and a decrease for the light-dark L* scale (P < 0.001). No appreciable change was noted in the yellow-blue b* scale for the high-?-cryptoxanthin treatment; but significant changes were noted for the yellow (P = 0.002) and high-?-carotene maize (P = 0.005) treatments, which were most evident at the end of the washout period with white maize. ?-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified maize is a potential vehicle to elevate provitamin A equivalents and to enhance the color of yolks. This could lead to a human health benefit if widely adopted. PMID:22252357

  1. In Vitro Penetration of Egg Yolks by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg Strains During 36-hour Ambient Temperature Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Salmonella deposition inside egg yolks is uncommon, migration through the vitelline membrane into the nutrient-rich yolk contents could enable rapid bacterial multiplication. Egg refrigeration restricts both penetration and growth, but a recently proposed national S. enteritidis control pro...

  2. The effects of biopolymer encapsulation on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk during in vitro human digestion.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  3. Penetration of Salmonella enteritidis through the yolk membrane in eggs from six genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infected laying hens can deposit Salmonella enteritidis inside developing eggs and thereby transmit disease to humans. Although deposition of S. enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in the albumen or on the yolk (vitelline) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs, migration across...

  4. VALIDATION OF EGG YOLK ANTIBODY TESTING AS A METHOD TO DETERMINE INFLUENZA STATUS IN WHITE LEGHORN HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of the avian influenza (AI) status of a flock has traditionally been done by detection of serum antibodies. However, for many diseases, detection of antibodies in egg yolk has been effective in monitoring disease status of laying flocks. This study compared the utility of egg yolk vers...

  5. Affinity transfer to the archaeal extremophilic Sac7d protein by insertion of a CDR.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Sabino; Bhar, Ghislaine; Maillasson, Mike; Mouratou, Barbara; Pecorari, Frdric

    2014-10-01

    Artificially transforming a scaffold protein into binders often consists of introducing diversity into its natural binding region by directed mutagenesis. We have previously developed the archaeal extremophilic Sac7d protein as a scaffold to derive affinity reagents (Affitins) by randomization of only a flat surface, or a flat surface and two short loops with natural lengths. Short loops are believed to contribute to stability of extremophilic proteins, and loop extension has been reported detrimental for the thermal and chemical stabilities of mesophilic proteins. In this work, we wanted to evaluate the possibility of designing target-binding proteins based on Sac7d by using a complementary determining region (CDR). To this aim, we inserted into three different loops a 10 residues CDR from the cAb-Lys3 anti-lysozyme camel antibody. The chimeras obtained were as stable as wild-type (WT) Sac7d at extreme pH and their structural integrity was supported. Chimeras were thermally stable, but with T(m)s from 60.9 to 66.3C (cf. 91C for Sac7d) which shows that loop extension is detrimental for thermal stability of Sac7d. The loop 3 enabled anti-lysozyme activity. These results pave the way for the use of CDR(s) from antibodies and/or extended randomized loop(s) to increase the potential of binding of Affitins. PMID:25301962

  6. Flow in a terminal alveolar sac model with expanding walls using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Harding, Edward M; Robinson, Risa J

    2010-07-01

    Particles depositing on alveolar walls is of concern due to their potential to migrate through the blood-gas barrier. Whole-lung dosimetry models do not account for the flow field inside the alveoli and therefore may not accurately describe alveolar deposition. Studies that quantify the flow patterns in realistic geometries are limited and results inconsistent. This study aims to better understand the fluid characteristics in the terminal air sacs; specifically, alveolar mouth to depth flow rate ratio, penetration depth of residual air, and diffusive versus convective particle motion. A terminating alveolar sac with expanding alveolar walls was constructed using 13 truncated sphere-shaped alveoli, with dimensions consistent with published morphometry data. The flow field was governed by a measured in vivo breathing curve for normal volumes over periods of 2 and 4 seconds, analyzed numerically and compared to previous literature. Recirculation was not present, consistent with prior studies. Flow rate ratios (0.18-0.36) were within the range (0.057-1) previously reported. Penetration depths were less than 33% into the air sac during inhalation, decreasing in length for air inside the sac to zero near the wall. Pclet numbers indicated diffusion dominated flow for all submicron-sized particles. However, convection was significant at the duct entrance for particles >0.5 micron and inside the sac for particles >1 micron. Wall motion induced convection may not always be negligible, and if neglected could affect the accuracy of deposition predictions for certain particle sizes and flow conditions. PMID:20462393

  7. Cryopreservation of rabbit semen using non-permeable cryoprotectants: effectiveness of different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) from egg yolk versus egg yolk or sucrose.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Rosato, M P; Manchisi, A

    2014-12-30

    This study was designed to identify the most effective non-permeable cryoprotectant (CPA) for the cryopreservation of rabbit semen by comparing the effects of different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) on post-thaw sperm quality with those of whole egg yolk or sucrose. In a second experiment, the performance of the non-permeable CPAs identified as most effective was assessed in vivo by determining reproductive performances. Pooled semen samples were diluted to a ratio of 1:1 (v:v) in freezing extender (Tris-citrate-glucose and 16% dimethylsulfoxide as permeable CPA) containing as non-permeable CPAs 6, 8, 10 or 15% LDL from egg yolk, 0.1M sucrose, or 15% egg yolk. The semen was loaded in 0.25mL straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. After thawing, we determined sperm motility, viability, osmotic resistance, and acrosome and DNA integrity. Our results clearly revealed a significant effect of LDL concentration on semen quality. Also, at an optimal concentration of 10%, motility and acrosome integrity were improved over the values recorded for egg yolk (P<0.05). Based on the in vitro data, 3 groups of does (n=30 each) were inseminated with fresh semen or semen frozen using sucrose or 10% LDL. Sucrose led to a significantly higher conception rate than LDL and reproductive performance was similar to that observed for fresh semen. Our findings indicate the markedly better performance of sucrose in vivo as a non-permeable CPA for the cryopreservation of rabbit semen. PMID:25465902

  8. Pollen tubes introduce Raspberry bushy dwarf virus into embryo sacs during fertilization processes.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Masamichi; Yoshida, Tetu; Shimura, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-10-01

    We developed a fertilization method in which pollen tubes entered into embryo sacs without any need to contact surrounding female sporophytic cells by using Torenia fournieri (Torenia) plants under the condition of hindering movement of the virus from a stigma, which is the first infection site leading to systemic infection. When RBDV-infected Torenia pollen grains were used for the developed fertilization method, the virus was transmitted to the seeds by pollen tubes germinating from them. On the other hand, no seeds were infected with the virus when Torenia plants were pollinated with healthy Torenia pollen grains in combination with RBDV-infected raspberry pollen grains, which caused the virus infection in the stigma by penetration of their pollen tubes arrested in its style. Our results indicate that vertical transmission of RBDV by pollen occurs in the transport of the virus into embryo sacs by pollen tubes reaching the embryo sacs. PMID:26176979

  9. Deafness due to bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours in a case of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kempermann, G; Neumann, H P; Scheremet, R; Volk, B; Mann, W; Gilsbach, J; Laszig, R

    1996-01-01

    A case of bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours is reported. In a patient with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, tumour growth in the right cerebellopontine angle caused deafness. The tumour was removed and classified as a metastasis from a thyroid carcinoma. However, on thyroidectomy no primary neoplasm could be found. Eight years later a similar tumour was operated on in the left petrosal bone. Histological appearance, immunocytochemical findings, and the clinical context gave evidence that the tumours had to be reclassified as endolymphatic sac tumours--extremely rare entities. The report supports the hypothesis, suggested by the few earlier case reports, that endolymphatic sac tumours could be one of the inherent tumour manifestations in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Images PMID:8795608

  10. User's guide to SAC, a computer program for computing discharge by slope-area method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    This user's guide contains information on using the slope-area program, SAC. SAC can be used to compute peak flood discharges from measurements of high-water marks along a stream reach. The Slope-area method used by the program is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) procedure presented in Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, beok 3, chapter A2, "Measurement of Peak Discharge by the Slope-Area Method." The program uses input files that have formats compatible with those used by the water-surface profile program (WSPRO) described in the Federal Highways Administration publication FHWA-IP-89-027. The guide briefly describes the slope-area method documents the input requirements and the output produced, and demonstrates use of SAC.

  11. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc mtastatique : propos dun cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Rsum Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez ladulte. Ces tumeurs se caractrisent par un mauvais pronostic un stade mtastatique avanc. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le prsent article, le cas clinique dun adulte de 32 ans qui prsentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc mtastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagne de quatre cycles de chimiothrapie base de blomycine, dtoposide et de cisplatine. Il a rpondu compltement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  12. Experimental demonstration of variable weight SAC-OCDMA system for QoS differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the experimental and simulation results of variable-weight spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (VW-SAC-OCDMA) system is demonstrated. In the proposed system, three users with weights of 6, 4 and 2 each operating at data rate of 1.25 Gb/s represent video, data and voice services, respectively. Results show that for back-to-back system minimum average power of -20 dBm per chip is required to maintain the acceptable performance. Transmission up to 60 km of fiber is demonstrated. Using mathematical approximation the capacity of VW-SAC-OCDMA system is demonstrated.

  13. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 70 cases with emphasis on its wide morphologic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chia-Sui; Cornejo, Kristine M; Ulbright, Thomas M; Young, Robert H

    2015-09-01

    The clinical and pathologic features of 70 juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) of the testis are presented. The patients were from 30 weeks gestational age to 10 years old; 60 of 67 (90%) whose ages are known to us were 6 months old or younger. Sixty-two underwent gonadectomy, 6 wedge excision, and 2 only biopsy. Twenty-six tumors were left sided and 22 right sided. Six occurred in an undescended testis and 2 in dysgenetic gonads. The most common presentation was a testicular mass (65%), followed by an "enlarging testis" (25%). Six of 14 patients in whom it was measured had "elevated" serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP), likely physiologically, and 1 had gynecomastia. The tumors measured 0.5 to 5 cm (mean, 1.7 cm; median, 1.5 cm) and were most commonly well circumscribed and typically yellow-tan; approximately 2/3 had a cystic component, whereas 1/3 were entirely solid. Microscopic examination typically showed a lobular growth, punctuated in 67 cases by variably sized and shaped follicles containing material that was basophilic (21%), eosinophilic (44%), or of both characters (35%); 3 lacked follicles. In nonfollicular areas, the tumor cells typically grew diffusely but occasionally had a corded arrangement (26%) or reticular appearance (29%). The stroma was either fibrous or fibromyxoid; hemorrhage associated with hemosiderin-laden macrophages was focally seen in 16%. The tumor cells were mostly small to medium sized with round to oval nuclei containing inconspicuous nucleoli and moderate to abundant, but occasionally scant, pale to lightly eosinophilic, sometimes vacuolated, cytoplasm; nuclear grooves were infrequent (6%). Focal columnar morphology was seen in 27% of the tumors. Mitoses were plentiful in 37%, and apoptosis was prominent in 46%. Intratubular tumor was seen in 43% and entrapped seminiferous tubules in 70%. Lymphovascular invasion was present in 2 cases, rete testis involvement in 4, and necrosis in 1. Rare features/patterns included: regressed tumor with hyalinization and prominent blood vessels (13%), papillary growth (4%), basaloid morphology (1%), spindle cell predominance (1%), microcystic foci (1%), adult granulosa cell-like (1%) patterns, and hyaline globules (1%). Inhibin (16/18), calretinin (8/9), WT1 (6/7), FOXL2 (12/12), SF-1 (12/12), and SOX9 (6/11) were positive, whereas SALL4 and glypican-3 were consistently negative in the neoplastic granulosa cells. Only 1 of 10 tumors was focally positive for ?-fetoprotein. JGCT is a rare neoplasm with a wide morphologic spectrum that also occurs rarely in undescended testes and dysgenetic gonads. The solid and reticular patterns may pose diagnostic challenges, but the lobular appearance and follicular differentiation are characteristic. Immunohistochemical stains may aid in its distinction from other tumors of young male individuals, particularly yolk sac tumor, a neoplasm that peaks at a somewhat later age. Twenty-four patients with follow-up, including 4 of 6 patients treated with wedge resection/biopsy, had no evidence of disease (2 to 348 mo; mean, 83 mo; median, 61 mo). One additional patient was alive at 260 months, but the disease status is unknown. The benign clinical course of all cases of JGCT with follow-up, despite often frequent mitotic activity, supports testis sparing surgery when technically feasible. PMID:26076062

  14. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS, TRANSPORT, AND PACKAGING OF PROTEINACEOUS YOLK IN OOCYTES OF ORCONECTES IMMUNIS

    PubMed Central

    Ganion, L. R.; Kessel, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The incorporation of leucine-3H into either ovarian or oocyte proteins occurs throughout vitellogenesis, but is at a maximum during early phases of this process. The labeling of ovarian and oocyte proteins is inhibited with cycloheximide. Oocytes are permeable to actinomycin D, and this drug does not affect the incorporation of amino acids into oocyte proteins but does block oocyte RNA synthesis. By means of both light microscope and high resolution radioautography, it has been demonstrated that the initial incorporation of leucine-3H under both in vitro and in vivo conditions occurs in elements of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the oocyte. Under pulse-chase conditions, the label subsequently becomes associated with intracisternal (precursor yolk) granules now aggregated within the cisternae of the connected smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum. By 7 days, mature yolk globules are extensively labeled. The results of experiments designed to assess the possible contribution of maternal blood proteins to yolk deposition indicate that such a contribution is minimal. It is concluded that the crayfish oocyte is programmed for and capable of synthesizing the massive store of proteinaceous yolk present in the egg at the end of oogenesis. PMID:5061951

  15. Multifunctional yolk-in-shell nanoparticles for pH-triggered drug release and imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyu; Qi, Bin; Moore, Thomas; Wang, Fenglin; Colvin, Daniel C; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; Gore, John C; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Mefford, O Thompson; Alexis, Frank; Anker, Jeffrey N

    2014-08-27

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are synthesized for both pH-triggered drug release and imaging with radioluminescence, upconversion luminescent, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The particles have a yolk-in-shell morphology, with a radioluminescent core, an upconverting shell, and a hollow region between the core and shell for loading drugs. They are synthesized by controlled encapsulation of a radioluminescent nanophosphor yolk in a silica shell, partial etching of the yolk in acid, and encapsulation of the silica with an upconverting luminescent shell. Metroxantrone, a chemotherapy drug, was loaded into the hollow space between X-ray phosphor yolk and up-conversion phosphor shell through pores in the shell. To encapsulate the drug and control the release rate, the nanoparticles are coated with pH-responsive biocompatible polyelectrolyte layers of charged hyaluronic acid sodium salt and chitosan. The nanophosphors display bright luminescence under X-ray, blue light (480 nm), and near infrared light (980 nm). They also served as T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with relaxivities of 3.5 mM(-1) s(-1) (r1 ) and 64 mM(-1) s(-1) (r2 ). These multifunctional nanocapsules have applications in controlled drug delivery and multimodal imaging. PMID:24753264

  16. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption

  17. Identification and analysis of the major yolk polypeptide from the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single major yolk polypeptide (YP) having a molecular mass of approximately 48,000 daltons (Da), was identified in the ovaries and oviposited eggs of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. The polypeptide was partially purified from oviposited eggs using gel permeation and ion-exchange chro...

  18. Comparison of freeze-dried and extruded Spirulina platensis as yolk pigmenting agents.

    PubMed

    Ross, E; Puapong, D P; Cepeda, F P; Patterson, P H

    1994-08-01

    Experiment 1 was an 8-wk study with Japanese quail fed 0, .5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0% of freeze-dried spirulina or the dry equivalent of fresh spirulina extruded with corn. Experiment 2 was a 16-wk repeat of Experiment 1 using levels of 0, .25, .5, 1.0, and 2.0% spirulina. In the third experiment, corn, barley, and cassava were extruded with fresh spirulina equal to 1% of the dried product, and each feedstuff fed with 1% freeze-dried spirulina. Four replicates of five quail were assigned to each treatment. Yolk color increased with increasing dietary levels of spirulina in Experiment 1. There also was a consistent increase in yolk color with freeze-dried spirulina compared with the extruded spirulina. This pattern was also seen in Experiment 2. In addition, eggs from quail fed the extruded corn control diet had markedly lower yolk scores than those from quail fed the untreated corn control diet. The mean Roche yolk color score of eggs from quail fed corn, barley, or cassava extruded with spirulina was 5.91, 3.55, and 6.70, respectively. These values were respectively 1.41, 1.89, and 4.06 units greater than the corresponding control values. PMID:7971672

  19. Deposition of genetically engineered human antibodies into the egg yolk of hens.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, S M; Morrison, S; Wims, L; Trinh, K R; Wildeman, A G; Bonselaar, J; Etches, R J

    1998-10-01

    To determine if human immunoglobulins (hIg) are capable of being transported into the hen's egg, 10 microg each of purified hIgG and hIgA were intravenously injected into SC Hyline(TM) hens and their presence in egg yolk and egg white was determined by ELISA. In both cases deposition into the egg yolk was observed and in the case of hIgA, deposition was also observed in the egg white. Two stably transfected DT40 cell lines secreting recombinant human IgG3 and IgA (rhIgG3 and rhIgA) were injected into laying hens. The DT40 cells colonized the host and rhIgG3 and rhIgA were deposited in egg yolk. Deposition of rhIgA was also observed in the egg white. These data demonstrate that human immunoglobulins and other foreign proteins may be targeted to the chicken's egg. In view of the high rate of reproduction, the short generation interval, the high rates of egg production and the extensive infrastructure to fractionate egg yolk proteins, it should be possible to produce large amounts of foreign protein in the eggs of transgenic chickens. PMID:9853953

  20. Determination of the Gelation Mechanism of Freeze-Thawed Hen Egg Yolk.

    PubMed

    Au, Carmen; Acevedo, Nuria C; Horner, Harry T; Wang, Tong

    2015-11-25

    A study of yolks stored up to 168 d at -20 C was conducted to determine the gelation behavior and mechanism of freeze-thawed yolk. Methods used were rheology, native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native- and SDS-PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy for matrix mobility. Results indicate that both constituents of plasma and granules contributed to gelation of yolk under freezing. PAGE analyses suggest that granular proteins participated in aggregation during freeze-thaw. Increasing gel strength and particle size and decreasing water and lipid-water mobility indicate that lipoproteins or apolipoproteins aggregated. At storage times ?84 d, increased protein and lipid mobility, the detection of smaller particles, and secondarily increased gel strength suggest the liberation of protein or lipoprotein components from previously formed aggregates and further aggregation of these constituents. Disruption of the gelled yolk matrix observed with TEM supported that ice crystal formation was required for gelation to occur. A two-stage dynamic gelation model is thus proposed. PMID:26527230

  1. Effects of yolk contamination, shearing, and heating on foaming properties of fresh egg white.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Wang, T

    2009-03-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of yolk contamination, shearing, and thermal treatment on foaming properties of liquid egg white. Samples obtained from industrial processing were also evaluated. Whipping and purging methods were both used to assess their effectiveness and sensitivity in evaluating foaming. A concentration as low as 0.022% (as-is basis) of yolk contamination caused significant reductions in foaming capacity and foaming speed. The neutral lipid fraction of egg yolk caused the major detrimental effect on foaming, and phospholipids fraction did not give significant foaming reduction at a concentration as high as 0.1%. High-speed and short-time shearing caused no apparent damage but longer shearing time significantly impaired foaming. Heat-induced foaming change is a function of temperature and holding time. Foaming was significantly reduced at a temperature of 55 degrees C for 10 min, whereas it did not change up to 3 min at a heating temperature of 62 to 64 degrees C. Industrial processing steps (pumping, pipe transfer, and storage) did not produce negative effects on foaming of the final products and the controlled pasteurization was actually beneficial for good foaming performance. Therefore, yolk contamination of the egg white was the major factor in reducing foaming properties of the white protein. PMID:19323729

  2. Multifunctional yolk-in-shell nanoparticles for pH-triggered drug release and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongyu; Qi, Bin; Moore, Thomas; Wang, Fenglin; Colvin, Daniel C.; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; Gore, John C.; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Mefford, O. Thompson; Alexis, Frank; Anker, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are synthesized for both pH-triggered drug release and imaging with radioluminescence, upconversion luminescent, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The particles have a yolk-in-shell morphology, with a radioluminescent core, an upconverting shell, and a hollow region between the core and shell for loading drugs. They are synthesized by controlled encapsulation of a radioluminescent nanophosphor yolk in a silica shell, partial etching of the yolk in acid, and encapsulation of the silica with an upconverting luminescent shell. Metroxantrone, a chemotherapy drug, was loaded into the hollow space between X-ray phosphor yolk and up-conversion phosphor shell through pores in the shell. To encapsulate the drug and control the release rate, the nanoparticles are coated with pH-responsive biocompatible polyelectrolyte layers of charged hyaluronic acid sodium salt and chitosan. The nanophosphors display bright luminescence under X-ray, blue light (480 nm), and infrared light (980 nm). They also served as T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with relaxivities of 3.5 mM−1 s−1 (r1) and 64 mM−1s−1 (r2). These multifunctional nanocapsules have applications in controlled drug delivery and multimodal imaging. PMID:24753264

  3. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  4. Serum and egg yolk antibody detection in chickens infected with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections has primarily relied on labor intensive collection and serological testing of serum, but for many poultry diseases, easier to collect yolk samples have replaced serum for surveillance testing. A time course LPAIV infection s...

  5. Ruptured-yolk peritonitis and organochlorine residues in a royal tern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Stafford, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Ruptured-yolk peritonitis was responsible for the death of a royal tern. Lodgment of eggs in the oviduct was probably due to reverse peristalsis brought about by breakage of the thin-shelled eggs and secondary bacterial infection. The thin shells were apparently not related to the low levels of DDE and other organochlorine pollutants found in tissues and egg contents.

  6. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    PubMed Central

    Altunta?, A.; Aydin, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10?g?kg?1, or 20?g?kg?1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20?g?kg?1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20?g?kg?1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10?g?kg?1 or 20?g?kg?1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

  7. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification,...

  8. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification,...

  9. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification,...

  10. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification,...

  11. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification,...

  12. Yolk-shell structure of polyaniline-coated sulfur for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weidong; Yu, Yingchao; Chen, Hao; DiSalvo, Francis J; Abrua, Hctor D

    2013-11-01

    Lithiumsulfur batteries have attracted much attention in recent years due to their high theoretical capacity of 1672 mAh g(1) and low cost. However, a rapid capacity fade is normally observed, attributed mainly to polysulfide dissolution and volume expansion. Although many strategies have been reported to prolong the cyclability, the high cost and complex preparation processes still hinder their practical application. Here, we report the synthesis of a polyanilinesulfur yolkshell nanocomposite through a heating vulcanization of a polyanilinesulfur coreshell structure. We observed that this heating treatment was much more effective than chemical leaching to prepare uniform yolkshell structures. Compared with its sulfurpolyaniline coreshell counterparts, the yolkshell nanostructures delivered much improved cyclability owing to the presence of internal void space inside the polymer shell to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur during lithiation. The yolkshell material exhibited a stable capacity of 765 mAh g(1) at 0.2 C after 200 cycles, representing a promising future for industrial scale LiS batteries. PMID:24112042

  13. Rhesus monkey sperm cryopreservation with TEST-yolk extender in the absence of permeable cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Correa, Liane M; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2009-02-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in ultra-rapid freezing with mammalian spermatozoa, especially for vitrification in the absence of cryoprotectants. Sperm cryopreservation in non-human primates has been successful, but the use of frozen-thawed sperm in standard artificial insemination (AI) remains difficult, and removal of permeable cryoprotectant may offer opportunities for increased AI success. The present study intended to explore the possibility of freezing rhesus monkey sperm in the absence of permeable cryoprotectants. Specifically, we evaluated various factors such as presence or absence of egg yolk, the percentage of egg yolk in the extenders, and the effect of cooling and thawing rate on the success of freezing without permeable cryoprotectants. Findings revealed that freezing with TEST in the absence of egg yolk offers little protection (<15% post-thaw motility). Egg yolk of 40% or more in TEST resulted in decreased motility, while egg yolk in the range of 20-30% yielded the most motile sperm. Cooling at a slow rate (29 degrees C/min) reduced post-thaw motility significantly for samples frozen with TEST-yolk alone, but had no effect for controls in the presence of glycerol. Similarly, slow thawing in room temperature air is detrimental for freezing without permeable cryoprotectant (<2% motility). In addition to motility, the ability of sperm to capacitate based on an increase in intracellular calcium levels upon activation with cAMP and caffeine suggested no difference between fresh and frozen-thawed motile sperm, regardless of treatment. In summary, the present study demonstrates that ejaculated and epididymal sperm from rhesus monkeys can be cryopreserved with TEST-yolk (20%) in the absence of permeable cryoprotectant when samples were loaded in a standard 0.25-mL straw, cooled rapidly in liquid nitrogen vapor at 220 degrees C/min, and thawed rapidly in a 37 degrees C water bath. This study also represents the first success of freezing without permeable cryoprotectant in non-human primates. PMID:18992734

  14. Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-08-01

    A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g-1 at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g-1 at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg-1. The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles.A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g-1 at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g-1 at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg-1. The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01675g

  15. [Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Daz, T; Cuevas Agustn, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibez Sandn, M D; Urea Vilardell, V

    1986-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515886

  16. Net transfer and incorporation of yolk n-3 fatty acids into developing chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Sim, J S

    1993-01-01

    The effect of egg yolk fatty acid composition on the uptake and utilization of essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids by the developing chick embryo was studied. Eggs were enriched with n-9, n-3, or n-6 fatty acids by incorporating sunflower seed high in oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), flax seed rich in linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), or sunflower seed high in linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) into the laying hen diets. Fertile eggs were collected and incubated. The fatty acid composition of eggs and newly hatched chicks were compared. Feeding diets containing flax seed increased (P < .05) total n-3 fatty to 528.4 mg compared with 53.9 and 39.3 mg for eggs from hens fed diets with high oleic acid or regular sunflower seed, respectively. Levels of C18:2 n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acids were higher in eggs from hens fed diets containing regular or high oleic acid sunflower seeds. Dietary fat did not influence the total lipid content of the egg yolk or total lipids of chick tissues. The fatty acid composition of the hatched progeny was significantly altered by egg yolk lipids. However, the percentage incorporation of essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids into the progeny increased when yolk sources of these fatty acids were low. The developing chick embryo appeared to preferentially take up docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid from the yolk lipids. Evidence also suggests that conversion of C18:2 n-6 and C18:2 n-3 to longer chain n-3 or n-6 fatty acids occurs during the incubation period. PMID:8426851

  17. Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens: Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Rie

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn) were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo. PMID:21886826

  18. Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Federer, R.N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A.N.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  19. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties. PMID:25711821

  20. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  1. Floating dural sac sign is a sensitive magnetic resonance imaging finding of spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Hatazawa, Jun; Sato, Shinya; Kanoto, Masafumi; Fukao, Akira; Kayama, Takamasa

    2013-01-01

    We would like to propose floating dural sac sign, which is observed as a hyperintense band or rim around the spinal dural sac on axial T2-weighted images, as a sensitive sign to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. One hundred patients with orthostatic headache were prospectively registered in 11 hospitals. These patients were examined by brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (n = 89), radioisotope cisternography (n = 89), MR myelography (n = 86), axial T2-weighted imaging of the spine (n = 70), and computed tomography myelography (n = 2). In this study, we separately evaluated the imaging findings of intracranial hypotension and spinal CSF leakage. Among 100 patients, 16 patients were diagnosed as having spinal CSF leaks. Of 70 patients examined with axial T2-weighted imaging, 14 patients were diagnosed with spinal CSF leaks, and floating dural sac sign was observed in 17 patients, 13 patients with spinal CSF leaks and 4 without CSF leaks (sensitivity 92.9%, specificity 92.9%). Of 86 patients examined by MR myelography, extradural fluid was observed in only 3 patients (sensitivity 21.4%, specificity 100%). The floating dural sac sign was a sensitive sign that can be used to identify CSF leakage. Spinal axial T2-weighted imaging might be a good screening method for spinal CSF leakage that can help to avoid the need for lumbar puncture. PMID:23615408

  2. 2 CFR Appendix X to Part 200 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) X Appendix X to Part 200 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and... PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. X Appendix X to Part 200Data...

  3. Gross and cytological characteristics of normal feline anal-sac secretions.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Jessica L; Scott, Danny W; Erb, Hollis N

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the gross and cytological characteristics of secretions from normal feline anal sacs. Thirty cats with no recent history of anal-sac disease were selected consecutively and their anal sacs manually expressed. The color, cell counts, or presence of solid portions of the secretions in the youngest cats (<1 year old) were not significantly different from the rest. Young cats (<1 year old) tended to more often have watery secretions. The secretions contained 13 (median) epithelial cells per 600x magnification microscopic field, basophilic background debris, and a mixture of Gram-positive cocci (83 per field; median), Gram-negative cocci (38 per field; median), and Gram-negative rods (1.8 per field; median). Most secretions had occasional neutrophils, and a minority of cats had occasional yeasts in their secretion. Erythrocytes were found only rarely. Extreme heterogeneity existed in gross color, consistency, and amount of solid material. Hence, these latter parameters would not be valid indicators of anal-sac disease. PMID:18282777

  4. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 41, App. A,...

  5. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 41, App. A,...

  6. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 41, App. A,...

  7. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 41, App. A,...

  8. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 41, App. A,...

  9. Defective histone supply causes condensin-dependent chromatin alterations, SAC activation and chromosome decatenation impairment

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Pineda, Marina; Cabello-Lobato, Mara J.; Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando; Prado, Flix

    2014-01-01

    The structural organization of chromosomes is essential for their correct function and dynamics during the cell cycle. The assembly of DNA into chromatin provides the substrate for topoisomerases and condensins, which introduce the different levels of superhelical torsion required for DNA metabolism. In particular, Top2 and condensin are directly involved in both the resolution of precatenanes that form during replication and the formation of the intramolecular loop that detects tension at the centromeric chromatin during chromosome biorientation. Here we show that histone depletion activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and impairs sister chromatid decatenation, leading to chromosome mis-segregation and lethality in the absence of the SAC. We demonstrate that histone depletion impairs chromosome biorientation and activates the Aurora-dependent pathway, which detects tension problems at the kinetochore. Interestingly, SAC activation is suppressed by the absence of Top2 and Smc2, an essential component of condensin. Indeed, smc2-8 suppresses catenanes accumulation, mitotic arrest and growth defects induced by histone depletion at semi-permissive temperature. Remarkably, SAC activation by histone depletion is associated with condensin-mediated alterations of the centromeric chromatin. Therefore, our results reveal the importance of a precise interplay between histone supply and condensin/Top2 for pericentric chromatin structure, precatenanes resolution and centromere biorientation. PMID:25300489

  10. Follow-Up Survey of Former SAC Students Who Transferred to a Four Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold

    In 1982, a follow-up study was conducted of Santa Ana College (SAC) graduates who had transferred to and were currently attending four neighboring four-year colleges: California State University, Fullerton; California State University, Long Beach; California Polytechnic University; and the University of California, Irvine. Surveys were mailed to

  11. Modeling the Rate-Dependent Durability of Reduced-Ag SAC Interconnects for Area Array Packages Under Torsion Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Vikram; Menon, Sandeep; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael G.

    2013-08-01

    Solder durability models frequently focus on the applied strain range; however, the rate of applied loading, or strain rate, is also important. In this study, an approach to incorporate strain rate dependency into durability estimation for solder interconnects is examined. Failure data were collected for SAC105 solder ball grid arrays assembled with SAC305 solder that were subjected to displacement-controlled torsion loads. Strain-rate-dependent (Johnson-Cook model) and strain-rate-independent elastic-plastic properties were used to model the solders in finite-element simulation. Test data were then used to extract damage model constants for the reduced-Ag SAC solder. A generalized Coffin-Manson damage model was used to estimate the durability. The mechanical fatigue durability curve for reduced-silver SAC solder was generated and compared with durability curves for SAC305 and Sn-Pb from the literature.

  12. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation

    PubMed Central

    Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others. PMID:26661752

  13. Primitive Fitting Based on the Efficient multiBaySAC Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus), that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes’ Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method) and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives), whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will aim at further optimizing this strategy through its application to other problems such as multiple point cloud co-registration and multiple image matching. PMID:25781620

  14. Primitive fitting based on the efficient multiBaySAC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus), that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes' Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method) and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives), whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will aim at further optimizing this strategy through its application to other problems such as multiple point cloud co-registration and multiple image matching. PMID:25781620

  15. A comparative histopathological evaluation of sacs from boys and girls with inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Glden; Akta?, Safiye; Orta, Ragip; Yegane, Serafettin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and to compare histopathologic alterations of hernia sacs obtained from patients with inguinal hernia with those of the peritoneal tissue from patients operated on for other abdominal disorders. Samples were obtained from 42 pediatric patients with uni- or bilateral hernias, and from 30 pediatric control patients without hernia. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori's trichrome, and Gomori's reticulin. Furthermore, they were immunohistochemically stained with anti-synaptophysin for the quantification of neural structures. All the slides were examined for six parameters, including variations in tissue and collagen types, the presence of inflammation and proliferation of vessels, neural plexus, and mesothelial cells. The results were evaluated statistically using the independent T-test and the Mann-Whitney-U test. Parametric tests revealed a higher presence of large neural plexus (p = 0.003), increased proliferation of mesothelial cells (p = 0.009), and hypervascularization (p = 0.003) in sacs of the hernia group. There were also major changes that were dependent on the sex of the patients. Most part of hernia sacs tissue was found to be fibrous and adipose in most boy patients, but was fibro-muscular in girls with inguinal hernia (male/female p = 0.03), while the tissues were fibro-adipose in both sexes in the control group (inguinal hernia/control p = 0.016). Similarly, vascular proliferation was mainly encountered in hernia sacs of girls (p = 0.013). These features were not observed in the control groups. Therefore, on the basis of sex, we determined whether or not these findings could indicate the difference between the etiopathologic mechanisms of inguinal hernias. Furthermore, we went into the question of whether or not the comprehensive examination of hernia sacs sufficed to enlighten the etiology of hernias. PMID:15462500

  16. Crystal plasticity finite element analysis of deformation behaviour in SAC305 solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, Payam

    Due to the awareness of the potential health hazards associated with the toxicity of lead (Pb), actions have been taken to eliminate or reduce the use of Pb in consumer products. Among those, tin (Sn) solders have been used for the assembly of electronic systems. Anisotropy is of significant importance in all structural metals, but this characteristic is unusually strong in Sn, making Sn based solder joints one of the best examples of the influence of anisotropy. The effect of anisotropy arising from the crystal structure of tin and large grain microstructure on the microstructure and the evolution of constitutive responses of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. Insights into the effects of key microstructural features and dominant plastic deformation mechanisms influencing the measured relative activity of slip systems in SAC305 are obtained from a combination of optical microscopy, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), slip plane trace analysis and crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling. Package level SAC305 specimens were subjected to shear deformation in sequential steps and characterized using optical microscopy and OIM to identify the activity of slip systems. X-ray micro Laue diffraction and high energy monochromatic X-ray beam were employed to characterize the joint scale tensile samples to provide necessary information to be able to compare and validate the CPFE model. A CPFE model was developed that can account for relative ease of activating slip systems in SAC305 solder based upon the statistical estimation based on correlation between the critical resolved shear stress and the probability of activating various slip systems. The results from simulations show that the CPFE model developed using the statistical analysis of activity of slip system not only can satisfy the requirements associated with kinematic of plastic deformation in crystal coordinate systems (activity of slip systems) and global coordinate system (shape changes) but also this model is able to predict the evolution of stress in joint level SAC305 sample.

  17. Beyond yolk-shell nanoparticles: Fe3O4@Fe3C core@shell nanoparticles as yolks and carbon nanospindles as shells for efficient lithium ion storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Kaixi; Xu, Qun; Zhou, Yunchun; Cheng, Fangyi; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-03-24

    To well address the problems of large volume change and dissolution of Fe3O4 nanomaterials during Li(+) intercalation/extraction, herein we demonstrate a one-step in situ nanospace-confined pyrolysis strategy for robust yolk-shell nanospindles with very sufficient internal void space (VSIVS) for high-rate and long-term lithium ion batteries (LIBs), in which an Fe3O4@Fe3C core@shell nanoparticle is well confined in the compartment of a hollow carbon nanospindle. This particular structure can not only introduce VSIVS to accommodate volume change of Fe3O4 but also afford a dual shell of Fe3C and carbon to restrict Fe3O4 dissolution, thus providing dual roles for greatly improving the capacity retention. As a consequence, Fe3O4@Fe3C-C yolk-shell nanospindles deliver a high reversible capacity of 1128.3 mAh g(-1) at even 500 mA g(-1), excellent high rate capacity (604.8 mAh g(-1) at 2000 mA g(-1)), and prolonged cycling life (maintaining 1120.2 mAh g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) for 100 cycles) for LIBs, which are much better than those of Fe3O4@C core@shell nanospindles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The present Fe3O4@Fe3C-C yolk-shell nanospindles are the most efficient Fe3O4-based anode materials ever reported for LIBs. PMID:25716070

  18. Yolk hormone levels in the eggs of snapping turtles and painted turtles.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Although yolk steroids appear to play important roles in the development, growth, and behavior of some birds, their effects in oviparous reptiles are largely unknown. These investigations were initiated to determine initial levels of steroid hormones in the yolks of eggs from two turtle species. Clutches of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) eggs were collected and individual egg yolks were analyzed for estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and testosterone (T) using specific RIAs. E(2) and T levels differed significantly between species, the mean E(2) value in snapping turtles was 2.78+/-0.095 (ng/g) compared to 0.89+/-0.064 (ng/g) for painted turtles, and the mean value for T in snapping turtle yolks was 2.56+/-0.098 (ng/g) compared to 0.68+/-0.045 (ng/g) for painted turtles. In addition, E(2) levels were greater than T levels in both species. Within each species, there were significant differences among clutches from different females. E(2) levels in the snapping turtle yolks varied from a clutch mean of 1.38 to 4.55 ng/g and in painted turtles, the clutch means for E(2) varied from 0.34 to 1.34 ng/g. T levels demonstrated similar phenomena within species, with levels in snapping turtles varying from a clutch mean of 0.68 to 4.71 ng/g. Painted turtle levels of T varied from a clutch mean of 0.22 to 0.72 ng/g. There were also significant differences in the E(2)/T ratio, however, E(2)/T ratios did not differ between species. Painted turtle follicles of different sizes showed significant differences in levels of both E(2) and T, and these differences may reflect differing deposition patterns of these steroids in the egg yolk of this turtle during vitellogenesis. The differences in E(2) and T concentration reported here could have important implications for development, growth, and behavior in oviparous reptilian species. PMID:12161198

  19. Assessment of Egg Yolk Oil Extraction Methods of for ShiZhenKang Oil by Pharmacodynamic Index Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Pan, Yu; Yan, Jianye; Huang, Dan; Li, Shunxiang

    2016-01-01

    To assess the extraction methods of egg yolk oil in ShiZhenKang (SZK) oil, which is used to treat eczema, a mice model of eczema was established by using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). The therapeutic effects of egg yolk oil extracted by different methods from SZK oil on the model of acute eczema in mice were evaluated. The oil yield rate of ethanol extraction is 42.06%. Its egg yolk oil is orange and has a rich, sweet, egg smell. Moreover, the SZK oil prepared from it has a very good therapeutic effect on the model of acute eczema in mice. The alcohol extraction method is the preferable method according to a comprehensive evaluation of each index of seven kinds of methods to extract the egg yolk oil. PMID:26797592

  20. Characterization of PHB1 and Its Role in Mitochondrial Maturation and Yolk Platelet Degradation during Development of Artemia Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiang; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Sun, Yu-Xia; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts) with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. Principal Finding Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. Conclusions/Significance PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development. PMID:25310573

  1. Combining anti-cancer drugs with artificial sweeteners: synthesis and anti-cancer activity of saccharinate (sac) and thiosaccharinate (tsac) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2].

    PubMed

    Al-Jibori, Subhi A; Al-Jibori, Ghassan H; Al-Hayaly, Lamaan J; Wagner, Christoph; Schmidt, Harry; Timur, Suna; Baris Barlas, F; Subasi, Elif; Ghosh, Shishir; Hogarth, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    The new platinum(II) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] (sac=saccharinate) and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2] (tsac=thiosaccharinate) have been prepared, the X-ray crystal structure of cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] x H2O reveals that both saccharinate anions are N-bound in a cis-arrangement being inequivalent in both the solid-state and in solution at room temperature. Preliminary anti-cancer activity has been assessed against A549 human alveolar type-II like cell lines with the thiosaccharinate complex showing good activity. PMID:25216367

  2. Newly Deposited Maternal Hormones can be Detected in the Yolks of Oviductal Eggs in the Green Anole Lizard

    PubMed Central

    COHEN, RACHEL E.; WADE, JULI

    2011-01-01

    Studies often examine egg yolks after oviposition with the goal of drawing conclusions about maternal allocation of gonadal steroid hormones and how it may affect offspring development. However, these hormones might originate from a few sources, including the ovary, blood plasma, or the embryo itself. The goal of this study was to investigate whether maternal steroids can enter oviductal eggs. In Experiment 1, gravid female green anole lizards were injected with 1 μCi 3H-T. Plasma, ovarian follicles (separated into yolking and non-yolking samples), and shelled oviductal eggs were collected at times ranging from 15 min to 24 hr after treatment. Main effects of tissue, time, and an interaction between them all existed on recovered 3H-hormone corrected for tissue mass. Of particular interest, there was a decrease in plasma with coincident increase in eggs. In Experiment 2, females were injected with doses ranging from 0.01 to 0.45 μCi of 3H-T per gram body weight. Across tissues, 3H-hormone levels corrected for mass were greater with increasing doses. Values also differed among tissues and an interaction was detected. Within each dose, plasma and non-yolking follicles generally had higher concentrations of 3H-hormone than did yolking follicles and oviductal eggs. However, at and after 6 hr, eggs had higher total radioactivity levels than both yolking and non-yolking follicles had (not corrected for mass). The results indicate that steroids can cross through relatively well-formed shells before oviposition, suggesting a way in which maternal hormones might influence developmental factors after yolk deposition. PMID:20336789

  3. Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

  4. The prevention and treatment effects of egg yolk high density lipoprotein on the formation of atherosclerosis plaque in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Shima; Parsaei, Heidar; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Yazdi, Abbas Tabatabaei; Hadjzadeh, Mosa-Al-Reza; Rajabzadeh, Aliakbar; Malayeri, Sina Omid

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Atherosclerosis is the main leading cause of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential preventive effect of egg yolk HDL on the atherosclerosis plaque formation. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups: A; normal diet, B; hyper-cholesterolemic diet, C; hypercholesterolemic + 400 mg/kg egg yolk HDL D; hypercholesterolemic +100 mg/kg egg yolk HDL and E; 200 mg/kg egg yolk HDL. At the end of the experiment, the lipid profiles were measured by spectrophotometric method. The histological sections of thoracic aorta also were taken and analyzed under light microscope. Results: At the end of the 2nd and the 4th weeks, there was a significant increase of cholesterol level in groups B, C, and D compared to group A (P<0.05). Following HDL treatment, triglyceride (TG) levels increased significantly versus group A and also the TG level decreased significantly in group C, D, and E versus group B (P<0.01). Egg yolk HDL significantly increased HDL-C in groups C, D, and E (P<0.01) compared to groups A and B (P<0.05). The surface area of the atherosclerotic plaque was increased significantly in group B versus group A (P<0.001). Egg yolk HDL consumption reduced the plaque size significantly (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that treatment with egg yolk HDL increased serum HDL-C and decreased atherosclerotic plaque size in rabbits. Thus, egg yolk HDL may be considered as an anti-atherosclerotic treatment for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26019796

  5. Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen

    PubMed Central

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50°C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P < 0.05), and the supplementation of L-cysteine in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group IV) improved both progressive motility (P < 0.05) and acrosome integrity (P < 0.01). The use of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk alone (group II) did not enhance any of the post-thawed semen qualities (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity. PMID:19633681

  6. 'Endogenous yolk' as the precursor of a possible fertilization envelope in a crab (Carcinus maenas).

    PubMed

    Goudeau, M; Lachaise, F

    1980-01-01

    After the egg attachment to a maternal ovigerous seta, the Carcinus maenas embryo is enclosed in a tripartite capsule. The innermost layer (envelope 2) which is also the main part of this capsule, is generally detected after egg-laying and is most probably closely related to the fecondation phenomenon. The precursor material of envelope 2, arising from the egg by a massive and very fast exocytosis process, appears as numerous ring-shaped granules. These granules, originated from numerous cortical vesicles perhaps intercommunicating with each others, are observed early in the ooplasm during oogenesis. These so-called ring-shaped granules seem very identical in form with the disc-shaped granules which are classically described as composing the endogenous or intracysternal yolk of many Decapoda crustacean oocytes. In view of our results the role of these granules, in endogenous yolk formation, is re-examined and discussed. PMID:7434334

  7. Novel yolk-shell structure bismuth-rich bismuth molybdate microspheres for enhanced visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinliang; Liu, Xinjuan; Sun, Zhuo; Sun, Yi; Pan, Likun

    2015-08-15

    The yolk-shell structure Bi(4-2x)Mo(x)O6 (x?1) microspheres were successfully synthesized via a simple solvothermal method. The morphology, structure and photocatalytic performances of the samples in the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectra, respectively. The results show that the yolk-shell structure Bi(2.38)Mo(0.81)O6 microspheres exhibit the best photocatalytic performance for the degradation of RhB and MO with a degradation rate of 99% and 72% under visible light irradiation. PMID:25935281

  8. Exploring cytoplasmic dynamics in zebrafish yolk cells by single particle tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cheng-Chun; Zhang, Bailin; Li, Che-Yu; Hsieh, Chih-Chien; Duclos, Guillaume; Treussart, François; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) have recently developed into an exciting new tool for bioimaging applications. The material possesses several unique features including high biocompatibility, easy bioconjugation, and perfect photostability, making it a promising optical nanoprobe in vitro as well as in vivo. This work explores the potential application of this novel nanomaterial as a photostable, nontoxic tracer in vivo using zebrafish as a model organism. We introduced FNDs into the yolk of a zebrafish embryo by microinjection at the 1-cell stage. Movements of the injected particles were investigated by using single particle tracking techniques. We observed unidirectional and stop-and-go traffic as part of the intricate cytoplasmic movements in the yolk cell. We determined a velocity in the range of 0.19 - 0.40 μm/s for 40 particles moving along with the axial streaming in the early developmental stage (1 to 2 hours post fertilization) of the zebrafish embryos.

  9. Chitosan gel formulations containing egg yolk oil and epidermal growth factor for dermal burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Yenilmez, E; Ba?aran, E; Arslan, R; Berkman, M S; Gven, U M; Bayu, C; Yazan, Y

    2015-02-01

    In the present study chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (EYO) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) were formulated successfully aiming at enhanced topical treatment of dermal burns the combination of traditional approaches with modern drug delivery systems. Physicochemical properties of the formulations were analyzed and efficacy of the formulations prepared were evaluated versus a commercial product; Silverdin (1% silver sulfadiazine) in vivo on Wistar rats. Burns were generated on the back of the rats and at predetermined time intervals tissue samples were collected and evaluated histologically. The analyses showed that chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (E1) and chitosan based gel formulations containing EYO and EGF (M1) formulations seem to be better alternatives for Silverdin with a significant difference (p < 0.05) considering healing ranks of tissue samples. PMID:25997244

  10. Yolk contributes steroid to the multidimensional endocrine environment of embryos of Niveoscincus metallicus, a viviparous skink with a moderately complex placenta.

    PubMed

    Parsley, Laura M; Wapstra, Erik; Jones, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    Maternally-derived testosterone (T) and 17-?-oestradiol (E2) provide epigenetic mechanisms by which mothers can actively influence offspring phenotype. In amniotes, maternal steroids may be derived from yolk or transferred across the placenta according to parity mode. Viviparous reptiles utilise both a yolk and a placenta to support their developing embryos, but it has not yet been confirmed whether yolk is a source of maternal T and E2 in such species. We investigated this question using the viviparous lizard Niveoscincus metallicus as our model species. We measured T and E2 in the yolks during vitellogenesis, immediately post-ovulation and at progressive stages of gestation. Our results confirm that yolk is a substantial source of T and E2 in N. metallicus. Contrary to the pattern seen in many oviparous species, we did not observe a marked decline in yolk concentrations of either T or E2 after the initiation of sexual differentiation in the embryos. Rather, we found no statistically significant decline in yolk concentrations of both T and E2 post-ovulation. In viviparous reptiles that utilise both yolk and placenta to nourish their embryos, yolk likely plays an important role in these dynamics but that role is not yet clear. Further research is warranted to understand the importance of yolk steroids in the endocrine environment of the developing viviparous reptile. PMID:24561224

  11. Dynamic predictive model for growth of Salmonella enteritidis in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Gumudavelli, V; Subbiah, J; Thippareddi, H; Velugoti, P R; Froning, G

    2007-09-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contamination of poultry eggs is a major human health concern worldwide. The risk of SE from shell eggs can be significantly reduced through rapid cooling of eggs after they are laid and their storage under safe temperature conditions. Predictive models for the growth of SE in egg yolk under varying ambient temperature conditions (dynamic) were developed. The growth of SE in egg yolk under several isothermal conditions (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 37, 39, 41, and 43 degrees C) was determined. The Baranyi model, a primary model, was fitted with growth data for each temperature and corresponding maximum specific growth rates were estimated. Root mean squared error (RMSE) values were less than 0.44 log10 CFU/g and pseudo-R2 values were greater than 0.98 for the primary model fitting. For developing the secondary model, the estimated maximum specific growth rates were then modeled as a function of temperature using the modified Ratkowsky's equation. The RMSE and pseudo-R2 were 0.05/h and 0.99, respectively. A dynamic model was developed by integrating the primary and secondary models and solving it numerically using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta method to predict the growth of SE in egg yolk under varying temperature conditions. The integrated dynamic model was then validated with 4 temperature profiles (varying) such as linear heating, exponential heating, exponential cooling, and sinusoidal temperatures. The predicted values agreed well with the observed growth data with RMSE values less than 0.29 log10 CFU/g. The developed dynamic model can predict the growth SE in egg yolk under varying temperature profiles. PMID:17995649

  12. Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for analysis of egg yolk carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M S; Schweigert, F J

    2015-04-01

    Carotenoids accumulated in the egg yolk are of importance for two reasons. Firstly they are important pigments influencing customer acceptance and secondly they are essential components with positive health effects either as antioxidants or as precursor of vitamin A. Different analytical methods are available to quantitatively identify carotenoids from egg yolk such as spectrophotometric methods described by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Both methods have in common that they are time consuming, need a laboratory environment and well trained technical operators. Recently, a rapid lab-independent spectrophotometric method (iCheck, BioAnalyt GmbH, Germany) has been introduced that claims to be less time consuming and easy to operate. The aim of the current study was therefore to compare the novel method with the two standard methods. Yolks of 80 eggs were analysed as aliquots by the three methods in parallel. While both spectrometric methods are only able measure total carotenoids as total -carotene, HPLC enables the determination of individual carotenoids such lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, -carotene and ?-apocarotenoic ester. In general, total carotenoids levels as obtained by AOAC were in average 27% higher than those obtained by HPLC. Carotenoid values obtained by the reference methods AOAC and HPLC are highly correlated with the iCheck method with r(2) of 0.99 and 0.94 for iCheck vs. AOAC and iCheck vs. HPLC, respectively (both p<0.001). Bland Altman analysis showed that the novel iCheck method is comparable to the reference methods. In conclusion, the novel rapid and portable iCheck method is a valid and effective tool to determine total carotenoid of egg yolk under laboratory-independent conditions with little trained personal. PMID:25442548

  13. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; Garca, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, E P

    2009-03-01

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder or a nonsupplemented control diet and orally challenged at d 7 posthatch with 5.0 x 10(3) sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts. Body weight gain between d 0 and 10 and fecal oocyst shedding between d 5 and 10 postinfection were determined as parameters of protective immunity. Chickens given 10 or 20% hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder showed significantly increased BW gain and reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with control birds fed the nonsupplemented diet. In another trial, lower IgY concentrations (0.01, 0.02, and 0.05%) were used to treat birds with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts of E. acervulina. Total oocyst shedding was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in chickens fed the 0.02 and 0.05% hyperimmune IgY supplemented-diets compared with animals fed the nonsupplemented diet. Similarly, chickens fed 0.5% of hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder diet and challenged with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts exhibited reduced oocyst shedding compared with the control birds given 0.5% of IgY from nonimmunized hen eggs, although BW gain was not affected. We conclude that passive immunization of chickens with anti-coccidia IgY antibodies provide protective immunity against coccidiosis challenge infection. PMID:19211525

  14. Yolk formation and degradation during oocyte maturation in seabream Sparus aurata: involvement of two lysosomal proteinases.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, O; Carletta, R; Cambi, A; Vita, A; Bromage, N

    1999-01-01

    Oocyte growth within the follicle is preponderantly due to the accumulation of hepatically derived yolk protein (vitellogenin, VTG) by receptor-mediated endocytosis; once in the oocyte, VTG is partially processed and stored in yolk globules. In some pelagic egg-laying marine teleosts, additional cleavages of yolk proteins followed by a pronounced water uptake occur concomitantly with final oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to establish the lysosomal enzymes involved in these two proteolytic processes that characterize oocyte maturation of seabream Sparus aurata. The enzymatic activities of several cathepsins were assessed in the various classes of oocytes. Changes in cathepsin B, D, and L activity were found depending on the oocyte maturation stage; cathepsin B and D were found to be at maximum level in early-vitellogenesis oocytes, and cathepsin L in mid-vitellogenesis ones. Cathepsin D and L were purified from seabream ovary, and their roles in VTG and lipovitellin (LV) proteolysis, respectively, were analyzed. Here we demonstrate directly that one of the catalysts for the intraoocytic processing of VTG in yolk proteins is cathepsin D; however, we cannot exclude also a role of cathepsin B in the same process. On the other hand, cathepsin L is responsible for the second proteolytic cleavage of the LV components. We postulate that the acquisition of buoyancy by eggs through the hydration process may be regulated by enzymatic activation at the appropriate time of oocyte maturation, this process probably being the key event in the reproduction of this marine pelagic egg spawner. PMID:9858498

  15. Endophilin B is required for the Drosophila oocyte to endocytose yolk downstream of Oskar.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Cheng; Chiang, Wei; Liou, Willisa; Lee, Wei-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Wang, Pei-Yu; Li, Yi-Chen; Tanaka, Tsubasa; Nakamura, Akira; Pai, Li-Mei

    2014-02-01

    The nutritional environment is crucial for Drosophila oogenesis in terms of controlling hormonal conditions that regulate yolk production and the progress of vitellogenesis. Here, we discovered that Drosophila Endophilin B (D-EndoB), a member of the endophilin family, is required for yolk endocytosis as it regulates membrane dynamics in developing egg chambers. Loss of D-EndoB leads to yolk content reduction, similar to that seen in yolkless mutants, and also causes poor fecundity. In addition, mutant egg chambers exhibit an arrest at the previtellogenic stage. D-EndoB displayed a crescent localization at the oocyte posterior pole in an Oskar-dependent manner; however, it did not contribute to pole plasm assembly. D-EndoB was found to partially colocalize with Long Oskar and Yolkless at the endocytic membranes in ultrastructure analysis. Using an FM4-64 dye incorporation assay, D-EndoB was also found to promote endocytosis in the oocyte. When expressing the full-length D-endoB(FL) or D-endoB(?SH3) mutant transgenes in oocytes, the blockage of vitellogenesis and the defect in fecundity in D-endoB mutants was restored. By contrast, a truncated N-BAR domain of the D-EndoB only partially rescued these defects. Taken together, these results allow us to conclude that D-EndoB contributes to the endocytic activity downstream of Oskar by facilitating membrane dynamics through its N-BAR domain in the yolk uptake process, thereby leading to normal progression of vitellogenesis. PMID:24401369

  16. Preparation and lithium storage performance of yolk-shell Si@void@C nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Su, Liwei; Xie, Jian; Xu, Yawei; Wang, Lianbang; Wang, Yuanhao; Ren, Manman

    2015-07-21

    Yolk-shell Si@void@C nanocomposites are prepared via a facile method of resorcinol-formaldehyde coating and LiOH etching, without SiO2 pre-modification on Si particles, expensive carbon sources, or environmentally-unfriendly HF solutions. Profiting from these favorable features, Si@void@C nanocomposites exhibit considerable reversible capacities (628 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles) and good rate performances. PMID:26082288

  17. The transfer of docosahexaenoic acid from the yolk to the tissues of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Maldjian, A; Farkas, K; Noble, R C; Cocchi, M; Speake, B K

    1995-09-14

    Changes in the amounts of the major fatty acids present in the lipids of the yolk complex and the embryo were delineated during embryogenesis of the chicken. The rates of transfer of palmitic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids from the lipids of the yolk complex were essentially identical. In contrast, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was preferentially transferred from the yolk complex at a rate which was significantly higher than that exhibited by the other major fatty acids. The rates of accumulation of both arachidonic acid and DHA in the lipids of the whole embryo were significantly greater than the rates observed for the C16 and C18 fatty acids, particularly between days 12 and 16 of the 21-day embryonic period. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of plasma lipid throughout development indicated that the triacylglycerol fraction contained relatively high proportions (up to approx. 14% w/w of total fatty acids) of DHA, but much lower proportions (approx. 3%) of arachidonic acid. In contrast, plasma phospholipid was enriched in arachidonic acid (up to approx. 18%), but contained much lower proportions (generally less than 3%) of DHA. A considerable amount of DHA was incorporated into adipose tissue triacylglycerol, so that by the time of hatching, the tissue represented a major store of this fatty acid. Over the hatching period, the amount of DHA in adipose triacylglycerol decreased dramatically, by up to 85%, whereas there was little or no change in the amounts of the other major fatty acyl components in this tissue. The amount of DHA as a component of brain phospholipid increased continuously throughout the developmental period studied. However, by the time of hatching, the amount of DHA in brain phospholipid represented less than 10% of the amount of this fatty acid originally present in the lipids of the yolk. PMID:7548187

  18. Comparing ethylene glycol with glycerol for cryopreservation of buffalo bull semen in egg-yolk containing extenders.

    PubMed

    Swelum, A A; Mansour, H A; Elsayed, A A; Amer, H A

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol for ethylene glycol when cryopreserving buffalo semen. Semen of eight buffalo bulls was mixed, pooled, and frozen in one of these four diluents: centrifuged Tris egg yolk glycerol; centrifuged Tris egg yolk ethylene glycol; centrifuged Milk egg yolk glycerol; or centrifuged Milk egg yolk ethylene glycol. Semen quality parameters assessed after thawing were motility, survivability, livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Conception rate and pregnancy rate were calculated after insemination of 104 buffaloes by straws of different groups (26 female/extender). Improvement in livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity, conception rate, and pregnancy rate were seen when using ethylene glycol to replace glycerol when freezing buffalo bull semen in centrifuged TRIS egg yolk 61.15 0.73, 24.85 0.41, 69.10 0.81, 71.75 0.72, 46.2%, and 46.2%, respectively, followed by centrifuged milk egg yolk extenders. PMID:21664674

  19. Differential Effects of Maternal Yolk Androgens on Male and Female Offspring: A Role for Sex-Specific Selection?

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major) with a literature review to test the hypothesis that sex-specific selection on traits affected by yolk androgens determines which sex is more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure. An experimental increase of the testosterone content in the egg boosted the post-hatching growth of male, but not female great tit nestlings. However, I found no evidence that survival selection on body mass or size is acting differently in the two sexes. A literature review revealed that yolk androgen manipulations affect the growth of males and females differently across species. Interestingly, in studies performed in the wild a significant association between the strength and direction of sexual size dimorphism and sex-specific sensitivities to yolk androgens was observed. In studies performed in captivity, no such relationship was found. Thus, across species there is some evidence that sex-specific selection on body size influences how strongly growth trajectories of males and females are affected by maternally-derived yolk androgens. PMID:26192990

  20. Uniform yolk-shell iron sulfide-carbon nanospheres for superior sodium-iron sulfide batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Xiao; Yang, Jianping; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua Kun; Zhang, Wei-Xian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-metal sulfide battery holds great promise for sustainable and cost-effective applications. Nevertheless, achieving high capacity and cycling stability remains a great challenge. Here, uniform yolk-shell iron sulfide-carbon nanospheres have been synthesized as cathode materials for the emerging sodium sulfide battery to achieve remarkable capacity of ? 545 mA h g(-1) over 100 cycles at 0.2 C (100 mA g(-1)), delivering ultrahigh energy density of ? 438 Wh kg(-1). The proven conversion reaction between sodium and iron sulfide results in high capacity but severe volume changes. Nanostructural design, including of nanosized iron sulfide yolks (? 170 nm) with porous carbon shells (? 30 nm) and extra void space (? 20 nm) in between, has been used to achieve excellent cycling performance without sacrificing capacity. This sustainable sodium-iron sulfide battery is a promising candidate for stationary energy storage. Furthermore, this spatially confined sulfuration strategy offers a general method for other yolk-shell metal sulfide-carbon composites. PMID:26507613

  1. Is the unique negatively charged polypeptide of crayfish yolk HDL a component of crustacean vitellin?

    PubMed

    Abdu, U; Yehezkel, G; Weil, S; Ziv, T; Sagi, A

    2001-08-01

    The yolk protein of Cherax quadricarinatus contains six major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subunits with the approximate molecular masses of 177, 155, 106, 95, 86, and 75 kDa, of which only the 106-kDa polypeptide is negatively charged. On the basis of their molecular weights, time of appearance and disappearance, their floating density and susceptibility to enzyme degradation (by a serine proteinase), these six HDL polypeptides were classified into two subgroups. One group comprises the higher-molecular-weight compounds above 106 kDa, and the other includes the lower-molecular-weight compounds up to 95 kDa. Other than being different from the lower-molecular-weight polypeptides, the negatively charged 106-kDa polypeptide was significantly different from members of its higher-molecular-weight group belonging to a different, less abundant, yolk protein as shown by HPLC separation. Immunological studies and peptide mapping in which the 106-kDa polypeptide did not show similarity to any of the other HDL components confirmed these differences. Moreover, the amino acid composition of the 106-kDa polypeptide was different from that of known vitellin from other crustacean species. This unique negatively charged polypeptide presents an enigma as it is known to be a secondary vitellogenic-related HDL polypeptide, immunolocalized in yolk globules; however, it is different to all the other HDL polypeptides, thus presenting the question whether it is indeed a component of "classical" crustacean vitellin. PMID:11479901

  2. Motility and fertility of rabbit sperm cryopreserved using soybean lecithin as an alternative to egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Teruo; Fan, Jianglin; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to investigate whether soy lecithin can be used as an alternative cryoprotectant to establish a procedure that does not require the use of egg yolk to cryopreserve rabbit strains. Semen from Japanese White rabbits was frozen with HEPES extender containing 20% egg yolk (EYH), 0.5% (Lec-0.5), 1.5% (Lec-1.5), 2.5% (Lec-2.5), or 3.5% (Lec-3.5; wt/vol) lecithin (type IV-S, ?30%), and the motility of thawed sperm was analyzed. The sperm motility in the Lec-1.5 group was significantly higher than that in the Lec-2.5 and 3.5 groups and equivalent to the EYH group. From 17 rounds of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm in the EYH and Lec-1.5 groups, 12 rabbits in both groups were pregnant (70.6%) and delivered offspring. The litter size was 3.3 in the EYH group and 5.1 in the Lec-1.5 group. These results indicate that soy lecithin can be used as a substitute for egg yolk as a cryoprotectant on the basis of motility and fertility of the frozen-thawed rabbit sperm and that 1.5% lecithin (type IV-S, ?30%) in the semen extender was the optimum concentration for rabbit sperm cryopreservation. PMID:26208436

  3. Uniform yolk-shell iron sulfide-carbon nanospheres for superior sodium-iron sulfide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Xiao; Yang, Jianping; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua Kun; Zhang, Wei-Xian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-10-01

    Sodium-metal sulfide battery holds great promise for sustainable and cost-effective applications. Nevertheless, achieving high capacity and cycling stability remains a great challenge. Here, uniform yolk-shell iron sulfide-carbon nanospheres have been synthesized as cathode materials for the emerging sodium sulfide battery to achieve remarkable capacity of ~545 mA h g-1 over 100 cycles at 0.2 C (100 mA g-1), delivering ultrahigh energy density of ~438 Wh kg-1. The proven conversion reaction between sodium and iron sulfide results in high capacity but severe volume changes. Nanostructural design, including of nanosized iron sulfide yolks (~170 nm) with porous carbon shells (~30 nm) and extra void space (~20 nm) in between, has been used to achieve excellent cycling performance without sacrificing capacity. This sustainable sodium-iron sulfide battery is a promising candidate for stationary energy storage. Furthermore, this spatially confined sulfuration strategy offers a general method for other yolk-shell metal sulfide-carbon composites.

  4. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl.

    PubMed

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-06-22

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds. PMID:17148167

  5. Sex differences in yolk hormones depend on maternal social status in Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed Central

    Mller, Wendt; Eising, Corine M; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2002-01-01

    Maternal hormones are known to be present in avian eggs and can have beneficial effects on chick development. Recently, differences in avian yolk steroid concentrations between the sexes have been demonstrated, and in this context steroids have been proposed to be part of the avian sex-determining mechanism. In our study, we show that it is very unlikely that androgen concentrations alone are the decisive part of the sex-determining mechanism. We found that sex-specific differences in the yolk hormones strongly depend on the social rank of the mother. First, dominant females, but not subdominant females, allocated significantly more testosterone to male eggs than to female eggs. Second, subordinate females increased the testosterone concentrations of female eggs. This pattern of yolk hormone deposition can be functionally explained. In polygynous species such as the chicken, reproductive success is more variable in males than in females. Parental investment in sons or daughters is therefore expected to occur in direct relation to parental rearing capacities. We found that the social status of a hen was indeed negatively correlated with her maternal capacities (for example, body mass, egg mass). Differential androgen deposition might thus provide a mechanism for adaptive maternal investment depending on both the sex of the egg and the social status of the mother. PMID:12427318

  6. Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Miyares, Rosa L.; de Rezende, Vitor B.; Farber, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies. PMID:24812437

  7. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 185-197, 2016. PMID:26419601

  8. Development of SAC-OCDMA in FSO with multi-wavelength laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi, Majid; Mamdoohi, Ghazaleh; Muhammad Noor, Ahmad Shukri; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Ahmad Anas, Siti Barirah

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a free space optical network, based on spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) with a multi-wavelength laser source. A detailed theoretical analysis that represents the characteristics of SAC-OCDMA system was developed. In addition to the impact of turbulence, influences of several system noises such as optical beat interference (OBI), relative intensity noise, and receiver noises, have been studied. From the numerical results, it was found that the influence of OBI is more dominant, especially at higher received power. Two different codes, namely, modified quadratic congruence and modified double weight, are then compared with the latter which provides better performance. A transmission distance of 2.6 km with 10 users and an 8 cm aperture diameter is advisable whenever the turbulence is moderate. These results can be improved when a beam divergence smaller than 1 mrad is utilized.

  9. Projected CAP/SAC-CI method with smooth Voronoi potential for calculating resonance states.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Masahiro; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Sommerfeld, Thomas

    2016-01-15

    The complex absorbing potential (CAP)/symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method has been combined with a smooth Voronoi potential, which was recently introduced in the extrapolation procedure, to locate ?* resonance states of small- to medium-size molecules. Here, the projected CAP/SAC-CI method is combined with this potential and used to calculate the double-bond and heteroaromatic ?* resonances of acetaldehyde, butadiene, glyoxal, pyridine, pyrazine, and furan. As observed in the pilot applications, the corrected ?-trajectories provide a stable resonance energy and width or lifetime regardless of the size parameter (rcut ) of the smooth Voronoi potential. However, in general, the stabilization behavior of the trajectories is clearer for larger rcut values, which implies that the interaction of the CAP with the valence electrons is more advantageously addressed by a larger "cavity" size. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26194084

  10. Papillary neoplasm of the endolymphatic sac in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, M B; Uro, E; Rouquette, I; Yardeni, E; Rumeau, J L

    1994-01-01

    Glandular tumours involving the middle ear and the mastoid are rare, and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma is difficult. Two distinct histopathological patterns are accepted. While their clinical presentation differs, both require primary surgical treatment and both have a high rate of local recurrence. The papillary form takes a more aggressive course and wider regional spread. This pattern occurs predominantly in women. Its microscopic appearance and clinical course have been extensively described by Heffner who considered it as "low-grade adenocarcinoma of probable endolymphatic sac origin". A few cases have been associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. The case of a 32 year old black woman is described. It is suggested that papillary adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac should be considered in the spectrum of neoplasms seen in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Images PMID:7962613

  11. [Operative treatment for lumbar disc protrusion with fragment of nucleus pulposus in the dural sac].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q P

    1992-12-01

    Four cases of lumbar disc protrusion with fragments of nucleus pulposus in the dural sac are reported, representing 0.3% of 1555 cases surgically treated over the past 35 years. All four cases were severely affected with distinct clinical manifestations of prolapsed disc, acute onset or sudden deterioration, pain, numbness, weakness, partial or complete paraplegia, and disturbances of urination and defecation accompanied by symptoms of severe and extensive spinal stenosis. They were treated with total laminectomy, section of dural sac, separation of adhesion and removal of fragments of nucleus pulposus. The results were excellent in one, Good in two and fair in one patient as revealed by the follow-up study which ranged from 4 months to 6 years. The clinical features, pathology, cause of prolapse, diagnosis, some points for attention concerning its management as well as that of adhesive arachnoiditis are discussed. PMID:1339746

  12. Multi-level security for computer networking: SAC digital network approach

    SciTech Connect

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    For telecommunications systems simultaneously handling data of different security levels, multilevel secure (MLS) operation permits maximum use of resources by automatically providing protection to users with various clearances and needs-to-know. The strategic air command (SAC) is upgrading the primary record data system used to command and control its strategic forces. The upgrade, called the SAC Digital Network (SACDIN), is designed to provide multilevel security to support users and external interfaces, with allowed accesses ranging from unclassified to top secret. SACDIN implements a security kernel based upon the Bell and Lapadula security model. This study presents an overview of the SACDIN security architecture and describes the basic message flow across the MLS network. 7 references.

  13. Type I Endoleak-like Phenomenon Causing Rupture of the Replaced Aneurysm Sac 12 Years after Open Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Masahiro; Ikezawa, Teruo; Banno, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Only a few cases of endoleak following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm repair have been reported. We treated a patient with a type I endoleak-like phenomenon occuring 12 years after conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Computed tomography demonstrated dilation of the surgically replaced, once-shrunken aneurysm sac to a diameter of 3.5 cm. Thrombus was identified between the graft and the sac. Four months later the sac ruptured, and emergency repair was performed. Dehiscence of the proximal anastomosis causing dilation and tearing of the sac was found. Dilation of a surgically replaced aneurysm sac after initial shrinkage may suggest an endoleak-like phenomenon requiring second repair. PMID:23555348

  14. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB)

    PubMed Central

    Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodrguez-Alegra, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; Lpez Mungua, Agustn

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final levan profile in reactions with sucrose as substrate. PMID:26600431

  15. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB).

    PubMed

    Mndez-Lorenzo, Luz; Porras-Domnguez, Jaime R; Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodrguez-Alegra, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; Lpez Mungua, Agustn

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final levan profile in reactions with sucrose as substrate. PMID:26600431

  16. Macrofauna community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds SAC, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past two decades, growing concerns have been raised regarding the effects of towed fishing gears, such as trawls and dredges, on deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Trawling disturbs the benthic communities both physically and biologically, and can eliminate the most vulnerable organisms and modify habitat structure; chronically disturbed communities are often dominated by opportunistic species. The European Union is under obligation to designate a network of offshore Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by the end of 2012 based on the perceived expectation that these networks will help protect marine biodiversity and that within these areas, faunal abundance and diversity will be higher than the surrounding fished areas. The Darwin Mounds, only discovered in 1998, are located in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1000 m. Deep-water trawling regularly took place in the region of the Darwin Mounds; however in 2004 the mounds were designated as the first offshore SAC in UK and the area is now closed to bottom trawling. As part of the HERMIONE programme the influence of human impact on the Oceans was one of the key themes and in June 2011, an investigation of the macrofaunal community structure at comparable sites both inside and outside of the Darwin Mound SAC was undertaken. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. This could indicate that a few years of preservation are not enough time to determine a recovery by the macrofaunal community of cold-water ecosystems and that a continued monitoring over a longer term is necessary to fully understand the impact of fishery closures.

  17. Influence of phosphorous content on microstructure development at the Ni-P Plating/SAC interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Zbigniew; Wojewoda-Budka, Joanna; Wierzbicka-Miernik, Anna; Sypien, Anna; Szczerba, Maciej; Zieba, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the commonly used Ni-P surface finish of 4.3 and 11.6 wt. % of P content electroless plated on nickel substrates followed by their reaction with SAC305 solder were performed. It was demonstrated that the Ni-4.3P plating was crystalline, while the Ni-11.6P was mostly amorphous. The transformation of the Ni-P into Ni3P phase took place at 672 K and 605 K for low and high P amount, respectively. The activation energy ( E a ) of the crystallization processes in the Ni-P plating was lower for the Ni-11.6P plating. Interaction of SAC305 solder with both types of the inspected plating showed the creation of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 phase in the form of thin layer and large scallops, while for Ni-11.6P/SAC305 interface also (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 phase. The thickness of these phases was larger in the case of low phosphorous containing plating. The Ni-11.6P plating after the reaction with SAC305 totally transformed into Ni12P5, while the enrichment in P up to 10.5 wt. % occurred in the Ni-4.3P which did not lead to the appearance of any NixPy type phases. After the reaction of plating with solder the Ni2SnP phase was not identified. This was related to the absence of spalling phenomenon of the intermetallics into solder. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Effects of vitrification on ram spermatozoa using free-egg yolk extenders.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Olga; Vidal, Ana; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Iniesta-Cuerda, María; Ramón, Manuel; del Olmo, Enrique; Fernández-Santos, Rocío; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana Josefa

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the behavior of ram spermatozoa subjected to a vitrification process in free-egg yolk diluents in relation with conventional diluents and cryopreservation protocol used in this species. Previously it was investigated the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sucrose and glycerol, based on different concentrations (sucrose at 0.03 M, 0.05 M, 0.15 M and 0.25 M; and glycerol at 3%, 7%, 14% and 18%) compared to a commercial extender (Biladyl® with 20% egg yolk and 7% glyerol). Cryoprotectants which reported less toxicity were chosen to perform the vitrification and results were compared with the conventional cryopreservation. Semen from three rams was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm evaluation was carried out at 0, 2 and 4h through the incubation time at 37°C for the experiment of toxicity and, at thawing when cryopreservation was performed. The sperm quality throughout the incubation time always resulted lower (P⩽0.05) for the free-egg yolk diluents in relation to Biladyl® (control), obtaining the lowest values of sperm quality with the highest concentrations of sucrose and glycerol. The vitrification was carried out with combinations of sucrose and glycerol (sucrose at 0.03 and 0.05 M with 3% and 7% of glycerol, respectively) and with Biladyl® (at different sperm concentrations). The vitrification decreased drastically (P⩽0.05) the sperm quality when combinations of sucrose and glycerol were used. Nevertheless, the sperm samples vitrified with Biladyl® at the lowest sperm concentration showed acceptable values of viability, acrosome integrity and DFI, although the sperm motility was strongly decreased. In conclusion, the use of vitrification with diluents based on combinations of sucrose and glycerol did not work for semen cryopreservation of ram. Promising results were obtained when diluents with egg yolk were used in the vitrification procedure, although more studies are necessary to improve this technique and the use of diluents without egg yolk. PMID:26004240

  19. Bone tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  20. Successful treatment of endotension and aneurysm sac enlargement with endovascular stent graft reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Lin, Peter H; Dardik, Alan; Lee, W Anthony; El Sayed, Hosam F; Zhou, Wei

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) enlarges after successful endovascular repair because of endoleak, which is persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac. In the absence of detectable endoleak, AAA may still expand, in part because of endotension, which is persistent pressurization within the excluded aneurysm. We report three patients who underwent successful endovascular AAA repair using the Excluder device (W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz). Although their postoperative surveillance showed an initial aneurysm regression, delayed aneurysm enlargement developed in all three, apparently due to endotension. Endovascular treatment was performed in which endograft reinforcement with a combination of aortic cuff and iliac endograft extenders were inserted in the previously implanted stent grafts. The endograft reinforcement procedure successfully resulted in aneurysm sac regression in all three patients. Our study underscores the significance of increased graft permeability as a mechanism of endotension and delayed aneurysm enlargement after successful endovascular AAA repair. In addition, our cases illustrate the feasibility and efficacy of an endovascular treatment strategy when endotension and aneurysm sac enlargement develops after endovascular AAA repair. PMID:17606128

  1. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  2. Pathological, immunohistochemical and microbiologicalal analysis of lacrimal sac biopsies in patients with chronic dacrocystitis

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Rowayda Mahmoud; Hussein, Faten Aly; Idriss, Hisham Farouk; Hanafy, Nesrine Fathy; Abdallah, Dina Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    AIM To analyze cases of obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct which creates a fertile environment for secondary bacterial infection and can result in dacryocystitis, which is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue and a potential source of endophthalmitis following intraocular surgery. The majority of obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system are acquired ones occurring in adulthood and involving the distal parts of the system. Acquired obstruction may be primary/idiopathic or secondary to a wide variety of infectious, inflammatory, traumatic, mechanical, toxic or neoplastic causes mimicking idiopathic inflammation. These cases are treated by dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS The present study was conducted to determine the histopathologic, immunohistochemical and current microbiologic characteristics of lacrimal sac specimens in patients undergoing external dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS Non-specific lacrimal sac pathology was present in all 33 cases and 81.8% of the cases showed moderate chronic inflammation with a chronic inflammatory score (CIS) ranging between 4 and 6, whereas 12.12% showed severe inflammatory changes with a CIS of 7. Mild degree of inflammation was seen in 6.06% with a CIS of 3. The total prevalence of gram-positive, gram-negative, and culture-negative samples were 59.4%, 37.5%, and 3% respectively. CONCLUSION Non-specific chronic inflammation with fibrosis is indeed the most commonly reported histopathological finding in lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens. PMID:24392331

  3. Abnormalities occurring during female gametophyte development result in the diversity of abnormal embryo sacs and leads to abnormal fertilization in indica/japonica hybrids in rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Yue; Lu, Yong-Gen; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting. PMID:19166488

  4. Sac3, an Snf1-like serine/threonine kinase that positively and negatively regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J P; Yildiz, F H; Grossman, A R

    1999-01-01

    The Sac3 gene product of Chlamydomonas positively and negatively regulates the responses of the cell to sulfur limitation. In wild-type cells, arylsulfatase activity is detected only during sulfur limitation. The sac3 mutant expresses arylsulfatase activity even when grown in nutrient-replete medium, which suggests that the Sac3 protein has a negative effect on the induction of arylsulfatase activity. In contrast to its effect on arylsulfatase activity, Sac3 positively regulates the high-affinity sulfate transport system-the sac3 mutant is unable to fully induce high-affinity sulfate transport during sulfur limitation. We have complemented the sac3 mutant and cloned a cDNA copy of the Sac3 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Sac3 gene product is similar to the catalytic domain of the yeast Snf1 family of serine/threonine kinases and is therefore classified as a Snf1-related kinase (SnRK). Specifically, Sac3 falls within the SnRK2 subfamily of kinases from vascular plants. In addition to the 11 subdomains common to Snf1-like serine/threonine kinases, Sac3 and the plant kinases have two additional subdomains and a highly acidic C-terminal region. The role of Sac3 in the signal transduction system that regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation is discussed. PMID:10368187

  5. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A; Tax, David M J; Gillis, Ad J M; Dorssers, Lambert C J; Koestler, Devin C; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina's HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we identified specific and global methylation differences between GCT subtypes, providing insight into their developmental timing and underlying developmental biology. Data and extended annotation are deposited at GEO (GSE58538 and GPL18809). PMID:25859847

  6. Genome Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Provide Clues to the Origin and Pathogenesis of Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A.; Tax, David M. J.; Gillis, Ad J. M.; Dorssers, Lambert C. J.; Koestler, Devin C.; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina’s HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we identified specific and global methylation differences between GCT subtypes, providing insight into their developmental timing and underlying developmental biology. Data and extended annotation are deposited at GEO (GSE58538 and GPL18809). PMID:25859847

  7. Beneficial effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC) on blood glucose and pancreatic antioxidant system in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ganapathy; Ponmurugan, Ponnusamy

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of S-allyl cysteine (SAC) on the antioxidant defense system of pancreas in streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetes in rats. The levels of blood glucose and TBARS in plasma and pancreas were estimated in control and experimental groups of rats. To assess the changes in the cellular antioxidant defense system, the level of reduced glutathione in plasma and pancreas and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were assayed in pancreatic tissue homogenate. The levels of glucose, TBARS and enzymatic antioxidants were altered in diabetic rats. These alterations were reverted back to near control levels after the treatment of SAC. The antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of SAC was compared with glyclazide, a well-known hypoglycemic drug. These findings suggest that SAC treatment exerts a therapeutic protective nature in diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:20839055

  8. New insights into the functional roles of reactive oxygen species during embryo sac development and fertilization in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Martn, Mara Victoria; Distefano, Ayeln Mariana; Zabaleta, Eduardo Julin; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Previously considered as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as essential signaling molecules in eukaryotes. Recent evidence showed that maintenance of ROS homeostasis during female gametophyte development is crucial for embryo sac patterning and fertilization. Although ROS are exclusively detected in the central cell of mature embryo sacs, the study of mutants deficient in ROS homeostasis suggests that controlled oxidative bursts might take place earlier during gametophyte development. Also, a ROS burst that depends on pollination takes place inside the embryo sac. This oxidative response might be required for pollen tube growth arrest and for sperm cell release. In this mini-review, we will focus on new insights into the role of ROS during female gametophyte development and fertilization. Special focus will be made on the mitochondrial Mn-Superoxide dismutase (MSD1), which has been recently reported to be essential for maintaining ROS homeostasis during embryo sac formation. PMID:23887494

  9. A novel hemizygous SACS mutation identified by whole exome sequencing and SNP array analysis in a Chinese ARSACS patient.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Li, X B; Zi, X H; Shen, L; Hu, Zh M; Huang, Sh X; Yu, D L; Li, H B; Xia, K; Tang, B S; Zhang, R X

    2016-03-15

    The array of autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) has expanded worldwide after the first description in the Charlevoix-Saguenay region of Québec. Here, we report a Chinese ARSACS patient presenting progressive peripheral neuropathy (CMTNS2=15) with horizontal gaze nystagmus and mild spastic gait. Genetic studies including whole exome sequencing (WES), Sanger sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis revealed a novel hemizygous nonsense mutation (c.11803C>T, p.Gln3935X) of SACS and a 1.33Mb deletion involved in SACS on chromosome 13q12.12 in the patient. Our findings highlight the necessity of SACS mutation screening in the gene panel of inherited peripheral neuropathies, and stress the need of testing copy number variation (CNV) in SACS mutation screening. PMID:26944128

  10. Distributed Hydrologic Modeling in the Western US Using SNOW17 and SAC-SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakbaz, B.; Behrangi, A.; Hsu, K.; Imam, B.; Sorooshian, S.

    2008-05-01

    Distributed hydrologic modeling is currently viewed as a potential pathway to improve streamflow simulations by addressing the sensitivity of runoff generation to the spatial variability of precipitation and basin properties. The US National Weather Service (NWS) initiated the Distributed Modeling Intercomparison Project (DMIP) to guide NWS's distributed modeling research in this regard. This study is based on our participation of DMIP-2 Western basin experiment. A semi-distributed version of the US NWS snow accumulation and ablation model (SNOW17) and Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA) was implemented to conduct hourly streamflow simulations at the basin outlet. The model uses sub-basins as the computational elements of hydrologic modeling with each sub-basin consisting of lumped SNOW17 and SAC-SMA. The SNOW17, which uses Mean Areal Precipitation (MAP) and Temperature (MAT) as inputs, generates the amount of rain plus melt at each sub- basin. The output of the SNOW17 is then introduced as input to the lumped SAC-SMA to generate runoff response components at each sub-basin. Fast response components are routed over the hillslopes using the corresponding sub-basin unit hydrograph, while slow response components bypass the hillslopes and are added directly to the sub-basin outlet. Then, a sub-basin-to-sub-basin channel routing is performed using the kinematic wave routing method. The model is applied to the 715 km2 East Fork Carson River basin at Markleeville, CA. Eight years of grid-based precipitation and temperature; provided by DMIP-2, are used for calibration. Several calibration scenarios are tested using the Shuffled Complex Evolution Method (Duan et al, 1992) and the Multi Step Automatic Calibration Scheme (Hogue et al, 2000). Results of the above-mentioned calibration scenarios as well as those of simulations using a priori parameters of the SAC-SMA model (Koren et al, 2000) and SNOW17 (Anderson, 2006) will be discussed. The discussion will address the model performance with respect to streamflow at the basin outlet and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at selected SNOTEL sites within the basin. These results show that the semi-distributed version of the SNOW17 and SAC-SMA has the potential to improve hydrologic simulations in mountainous regions.

  11. Promising Loci and Genes for Yolk and Ovary Weight in Chickens Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Because it serves as the cytoplasm of the oocyte and provides a large amount of reserves, the egg yolk has biological significance for developing embryos. The ovary and its hierarchy of follicles are the main reproductive organs responsible for yolk deposition in chickens. However, the genetic architecture underlying the yolk and ovarian follicle weights remains elusive. Here, we measured the yolk weight (YW) at 11 age points from onset of egg laying to 72 weeks of age and measured the follicle weight (FW) and ovary weight (OW) at 73 weeks as part of a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL) and Dongxiang chickens (DX). For all ages, YWs exhibited moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates (0.25–0.38), while the estimates for FW (0.16) and OW (0.20) were relatively low. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait identified 12, 3, and 31 novel significant associations with YW, FW, and OW, respectively. A list of candidate genes such as ZAR1, STARD13, ACER1b, ACSBG2, and DHRS12 were identified for having a plausible function in yolk and follicle development. These genes are important to the initiation of embryogenesis, lipid transport, lipoprotein synthesis, lipid droplet promotion, and steroid hormone metabolism, respectively. Our study provides for the first time a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for follicle and ovary weight. Identification of the promising loci as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic yolk weight and ovarian follicle development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the alteration of yolk weight at different age points. PMID:26332579

  12. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are smaller in these deeper-diving species than in the spheniscid penguin of the morphometry study. If penguins do inhale to this maximum air sac volume prior to their deepest dives, the magnitude and distribution of the body O2 store would change considerably. In emperor penguins, total body O2 would increase by 75%, and the respiratory fraction would increase from 33% to 61%. We emphasize that the maximum pre-dive respiratory air volume is still unknown in penguins. However, even lesser increases in air sac volume prior to a dive would still significantly increase the O2 store. More refined evaluations of the respiratory O2 store and baroprotective mechanisms in penguins await further investigation of species-specific lung morphometry, start-of-dive air volumes and body buoyancy, and the possibility of air exhalation during dives. PMID:25740902

  13. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is composed of a layer of cubical epithelial cells with loose, interposed intercellular spaces. The sac contains a large luminal cavity, in which endolymph and numerous otoconia are present. The epithelial cells of different portions of the sac have a similar structure. These cells contain an abundance of cytoplasmic organelles, including ribosomes, Golgi complexes, and numerous vesicles. Two types of vesicles are found in the epithelial cells: the "floccular" vesicle and the "granular" vesicle. The floccular vesicles are located in the supra- and lateral-nuclear cytoplasm and contain floccular material. The granular vesicles have a fine granular substance and are usually situated apposed to the apical cell membrane. The granular vesicles are suggested to be secreted into the lumen, while the floccular vesicles are thought to be absorbed from the lumen and conveyed to the intercellular spaces by the epithelial cells. The apical surfaces of the epithelial cells bear numerous microvilli. Apparently floating cells, which bear long microvilli on the free surfaces, are observed in the lumen of the ES. Based on the fine structure, the function of the endolymphatic sac of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster is discussed.

  14. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  15. Egg size and yolk steroids vary across the laying order in cockatiel clutches: a strategy for reinforcing brood hierarchies?

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Corinne P; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2010-09-15

    When a female bird begins incubation before clutch completion, the nestlings hatch sequentially, and a size hierarchy forms within the brood. This size hierarchy may be minimized or exacerbated through differential allocation of resources to eggs across the laying order. In this study, we characterize intra-clutch variation in cockatiel clutches by measuring egg mass, yolk mass, and concentrations of yolk testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone. Cockatiels are a long-lived member of the Psittaciformes. Because asynchronous hatching may reduce sibling competition and allow for extended development periods in long-lived birds, we predicted that female cockatiels would allocate maternal resources in a way that would reinforce the brood size hierarchy. Significant within-clutch differences in egg size and steroid concentrations were observed. Eggs at the end of the laying sequence were smaller and had significantly smaller yolks than eggs early in the laying order. Fifth-laid eggs, as well as first-laid eggs, contained significantly lower concentrations of testosterone than eggs in other positions of the laying sequence. No differences in yolk androstenedione concentration were observed. Yolk corticosterone concentrations increased linearly with laying order. Together, these patterns might reinforce the brood size hierarchy created by asynchronous hatching. PMID:20600043

  16. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  17. Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions.

    PubMed

    Bunger, Meike; Quataert, Miriam; Kamps, Lisette; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M; Togtema, Arnoud; van Amerongen, Aart; Mensink, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young subjects participated in this 6-weeks randomized controlled study. Subjects consumed either a "plain" control beverage (n?=?26), a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage (n?=?25), a dried version of this beverage (n?=?25), or a beverage composed of the dried individual components of the drink (n?=?24). The fresh and both dried versions of the lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage were able to increase serum lutein levels after 6 weeks of consumption (lutein change: -38??47?nmol/L, +304??113?nmol/L, +148??79?nmol/L and +178??83?nmol/L for control, fresh, dried and combined dried group respectively; p?yolk compared to the control drink. PMID:25017577

  18. Sex-biased investment in yolk androgens depends on female quality and laying order in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lucy; Rutstein, Alison N.; Hazon, Neil; Graves, Jefferson A.

    2005-04-01

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts sex biases in parental investment according to parental condition. In addition, parents may need to sex bias their investment if there is an asymmetry between the sexes in offspring fitness under different conditions. For studying maternal differential investment, egg resources are ideal subjects because they are self contained and allocated unequivocally by the female. Recent studies show that yolk androgens can be beneficial to offspring, so here we test for sex-biased investment with maternal investment of yolk testosterone (T) in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) eggs. From the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, we predicted females to invest more in male eggs in optimum circumstances (e.g. good-condition mother, early-laid egg), and more in female eggs under suboptimal conditions (e.g. poor-condition mother, late-laid egg). This latter prediction is also because in this species there is a female nestling disadvantage in poor conditions and we expected mothers to help compensate for this in female eggs. Indeed, we found more yolk T in female than male eggs. Moreover, in accordance with our predictions, yolk T in male eggs increased with maternal quality relative to female eggs, and decreased with laying order relative to female eggs. This supports our predictions for the different needs and value of male and female offspring in zebra finches. Our results support the idea that females may use yolk androgens as a tool to adaptively manipulate the inequalities between different nestlings.

  19. Enhanced yolk testosterone influences behavioral phenotype independent of sex in Japanese quail chicks Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Niall Daisley, Jonathan; Bromundt, Vivien; Mstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2005-02-01

    Studies have demonstrated an effect of yolk testosterone levels on the physiology and behavior of nestling birds. In order to investigate this phenomenon experimentally in a precocial bird, we enhanced yolk testosterone, but within the physiological range, by injecting 50 ng testosterone in ethanol into Japanese quail Coturnix japonica eggs prior to incubation. The chicks hatching from these as well as from control eggs that had received the carrier-only or were left unmanipulated were subject to a number of behavioral tests from hatching to the age of 3 weeks. In addition, fecal samples were taken during a 90-min isolation period to determine a physiological response to a stressor. Experimental chicks performed a detour task faster and approached novel objects sooner than did the controls. Chicks from treated eggs took a longer time to start distress vocalizing and also produced less distress calls during open-field trials, took on average a larger number of trials for them to show tonic immobility and also excreted lower levels of corticosterone metabolites (BM) than did the controls. In response to a stressor, excreted BM was initially higher in the control chicks, as compared to the experimental birds. Induced behavioral effects were independent of sex with no sex treatment interactions found. In sum, experimentally enhanced testosterone levels in the eggs shifted individual behavioral phenotype towards "bold" or "proactive", irrespective of sex. We conclude that testosterone in the yolk influences the coping style of hatchlings and may be a potential means of maternal influence on offspring phenotype. PMID:15664022

  20. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria tenella Infection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, JJ; Ren, CZ; Wang, SS; Liu, DD; Cao, LQ; Tao, JP

    2013-01-01

    Background To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effectively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated. Methods Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophilized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed. Results The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG), reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed at dosage ≥ 0.5% and 1.0% when BWG and caecal lesion were compared with the sodium salinomycin control group, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis. PMID:24454440

  1. Dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during development in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Many oviparous reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); i.e., the temperature at which the egg is incubated determines the sex of the offspring. In TSD reptiles, yolk steroids not only may influence sex determination, but also may mediate hormonal effects on subsequent growth and behavior, as in some avian species. We investigated changes in the levels of estradiol (E(2)) and testosterone (T) during development in yolks of snapping turtle eggs, examined how incubation temperature affects hormone levels, and determined how hormones in turtle eggs are influenced by individual females (=clutch effects). Results indicate significant decreases in both hormones (>50% decline) by the end of the sex-determining period, when two-thirds of the development is complete. The declines in both E(2) and T were significantly affected by incubation temperature, but in different ways. Eggs incubated at female-producing temperatures maintained high levels, those incubated at male-producing temperatures had low E(2) values, and eggs incubated at pivotal temperatures had intermediate levels of E(2). At all three temperatures, T values underwent significant but approximately equal declines, except during the developmental stages just after the sex-determining period, when T levels decreased more at the male-producing temperature than at either of the other two temperatures. Initially, there were significant clutch effects in both hormones, but such differences, attributable to individual females, were maintained only for E(2) later in development. Here we report for the first time that incubation temperature significantly affects the hormonal environment of the developing embryo of a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Based on this and related findings, we propose that yolk sex steroids influence sexual differentiation in these TSD species and play a role in sex determination at pivotal temperatures. PMID:12161199

  2. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the egg yolk of birds from Lake Shihwa, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hoon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Kyu Tae; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) were measured in egg yolks of three species of birds, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius), and parrot bill (Paradoxornis webbiana), collected in and around Lake Shihwa, Korea, which receives wastewaters from an adjacent industrial complex. Mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) ranged from 185 to 314 ng/g ww and were similar to those reported for bird eggs from other urban areas. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were also found in egg yolks often at great concentrations. Mean concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) ranged from 95 to 201 ng/g ww. Perfluorooctanoic acid was detected in 32 of 44 egg samples, but concentrations were 100-fold less than those of PFOS. Relative concentrations of PFAs in all three species were similar with the predominance of PFOS (45-50%). There was a statistically significant correlation between PFUnA and perfluorodecanoic acid in egg yolks (p < 0.05), suggesting a common source of PFCAs. Using measured egg concentrations and diet concentrations, the ecological risk of the PFOS and PFA mixture to birds in Lake Shihwa was evaluated using two different approaches. Estimated hazard quotients were similar between the two approaches. The concentration of PFOS associated with 90th centile in bird eggs was 100-fold less than the lowest observable adverse effect level determined for birds, and those concentrations were 4-fold less than the suggested toxicity reference values. On the basis of limited toxicological data, current concentrations of PFOS are less than what would be expected to have an adverse effect on birds in the Lake Shihwa region. PMID:18754515

  3. Vertebrate and nematode genes coding for yolk proteins are derived from a common ancestor.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, D; Gerber-Huber, S; van het Schip, F D; Gruber, M; Ab, G; Wahli, W

    1987-10-01

    One of the most obvious characteristics of the egg cells of oviparous animals is their large size resulting to a major extent from the deposition of nutritional reserves, mainly constituted of yolk proteins. In general, these are derived from a precursor called vitellogenin, which undergoes posttranslational modifications during secretion and during transport into and storage within the oocytes. Comparative analysis of the structural organization of the vitellogenin gene and of its product in different species shows that the vitellogenin gene is very ancient and that in vertebrates the gene may have more resemblance to the earliest gene than in invertebrates. PMID:3427014

  4. Air sac PO2 and oxygen depletion during dives of emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Knower Stockard, T; Heil, J; Meir, J U; Sato, K; Ponganis, K V; Ponganis, P J

    2005-08-01

    In order to determine the rate and magnitude of respiratory O2 depletion during dives of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), air sac O2 partial pressure (PO2) was recorded in 73 dives of four birds at an isolated dive hole. These results were evaluated with respect to hypoxic tolerance, the aerobic dive limit (ADL; dive duration beyond which there is post-dive lactate accumulation) and previously measured field metabolic rates (FMRs). 55% of dives were greater in duration than the previously measured 5.6-min ADL. PO2 and depth profiles revealed compression hyperoxia and gradual O2 depletion during dives. 42% of final PO2s during the dives (recorded during the last 15 s of ascent) were <20 mmHg (<2.7 kPa). Assuming that the measured air sac PO2 is representative of the entire respiratory system, this implies remarkable hypoxic tolerance in emperors. In dives of durations greater than the ADL, the calculated end-of-dive air sac O2 fraction was <4%. The respiratory O2 store depletion rate of an entire dive, based on the change in O2 fraction during a dive and previously measured diving respiratory volume, ranged from 1 to 5 ml O2 kg(-1) min(-1) and decreased exponentially with diving duration. The mean value, 2.1+/-0.8 ml O2 kg(-1) min(-1), was (1) 19-42% of previously measured respiratory O(2) depletion rates during forced submersions and simulated dives, (2) approximately one-third of the predicted total body resting metabolic rate and (3) approximately 10% of the measured FMR. These findings are consistent with a low total body metabolic rate during the dive. PMID:16043602

  5. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  6. Yolk embolism associated with trauma in vitellogenic sea turtles in Florida (USA): a review of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Brian A; Foley, Allen; Garner, Michael M; Mettee, Nancy

    2013-12-01

    Case information and postmortem examination findings are presented for 11 adult female sea turtles in reproductive form that died in Florida, USA. All had abundant, large vitellogenic follicles, and most were either gravid or had recently nested. Species included six loggerheads (Caretta caretta) and five green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Identified proximate causes of death included falls or entrapment by obstructions on nesting beaches, burial under collapsed dunes, and other traumatic injuries of different causes. Evidence of yolk embolization was found in 10 cases and suspected in an 11th turtle. Ten turtles also had various amounts of free intracoelomic yolk. Although the effects of yolk embolization are uncertain at this time, precedence of pathologic importance in other species suggests that embolism may complicate traumatic injuries, including seemingly minor events. PMID:24450066

  7. Ribonuclease like 5 regulates zebrafish yolk extension by suppressing a p53-dependent DNA damage response pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yixing; Zhao, Xinyuan; Sheng, Jinghao; Gao, Xiangwei; Ou, Zhao; Xu, Zhengping

    2015-08-01

    Ribonuclease like 5 (Rnasel5) is a novel member of the zebrafish ribonuclease A family and its expression is increased during early embryogenesis. However, the in vivo biological function of Rnasel5 remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that knockdown of Rnasel5 by morhpolinos caused shrunken yolk extension as well as increased DNA damage at yolk syncytial layer and external tissue layers via the activation of p53 pathway. In addition, the morphological defects caused by Rnasel5 knockdown can be partially rescued by mRNA injection. Our findings provide the first functional characterization of Rnasel5 in zebrafish development and reveal its critical role in yolk extension by modulation of the p53 pathway. PMID:25980932

  8. Early sac shrinkage predicts a low risk of late complications after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Bastos Gonçalves, F; Baderkhan, H; Verhagen, H J M; Wanhainen, A; Björck, M; Stolker, R J; Hoeks, S E; Mani, K

    2014-01-01

    Background Aneurysm shrinkage has been proposed as a marker of successful endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Patients with early postoperative shrinkage may experience fewer subsequent complications, and consequently require less intensive surveillance. Methods Patients undergoing EVAR from 2000 to 2011 at three vascular centres (in 2 countries), who had two imaging examinations (postoperative and after 6–18 months), were included. Maximum diameter, complications and secondary interventions during follow-up were registered. Patients were categorized according to early sac dynamics. The primary endpoint was freedom from late complications. Secondary endpoints were freedom from secondary intervention, postimplant rupture and direct (type I/III) endoleaks. Results Some 597 EVARs (71·1 per cent of all EVARs) were included. No shrinkage was observed in 284 patients (47·6 per cent), moderate shrinkage (5–9 mm) in 142 (23·8 per cent) and major shrinkage (at least 10 mm) in 171 patients (28·6 per cent). Four years after the index imaging, the rate of freedom from complications was 84·3 (95 per cent confidence interval 78·7 to 89·8), 88·1 (80·6 to 95·5) and 94·4 (90·1 to 98·7) per cent respectively. No shrinkage was an independent risk factor for late complications compared with major shrinkage (hazard ratio (HR) 3·11; P < 0·001). Moderate compared with major shrinkage (HR 2·10; P = 0·022), early postoperative complications (HR 3·34; P < 0·001) and increasing abdominal aortic aneurysm baseline diameter (HR 1·02; P = 0·001) were also risk factors for late complications. Freedom from secondary interventions and direct endoleaks was greater for patients with major sac shrinkage. Conclusion Early change in aneurysm sac diameter is a strong predictor of late complications after EVAR. Patients with major sac shrinkage have a very low risk of complications for up to 5 years. This parameter may be used to tailor postoperative surveillance. PMID:24752772

  9. Sigmoid carcinoma localized in the sac of a right inguinoscrotal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Papachrysostomou, Marios; Oikonomou, Christiana; Villias, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    The inguinoscrotal hernia with colonic malignancy in the sac presents rare but severe consequence. The most common side of this type of hernia is the left one while the most common part of the large bowel is the sigmoid colon. The clinical picture can be easily confused with simple inguinoscrotal hernia unless the clinician is alert to the presence of certain sinister symptoms and signs. We report an extremely rare case of a 91-year-old man presented with anemia who had a right inguinoscrotal hernia containing a sigmoid colon carcinoma. PMID:26604606

  10. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... functioning tumors, and they can cause a wide array of symptoms depending upon the hormone affected. Tumors ... functioning tumor can cause problems if it grows large enough to press on the optic nerves, the ...

  11. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  12. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  13. Wilms tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor ... tumor is the most common form of childhood kidney cancer. The exact cause of this tumor in ... Other birth defects linked to this type of kidney cancer include certain urinary tract problems and swelling ...

  14. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age. PMID:26174350

  15. Correlation analysis of the total IgY level in hen serum, egg yolk and offspring serum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between IgY levels of the serum and the yolk has been well documented in wild and domestic birds. The levels of total yolk IgY can be an index of the general health status of birds and may contribute to breeding programs when fitness of the offspring is a concern. We measured the levels of total serum IgY and yolk IgY in three different breeds (White Leghorn, Silkie and Dongxiang blue-shell) using indirect ELISA, and found that there was a significantly positive correlation between the levels of total serum IgY and total yolk IgY in all three breeds (White Leghorn: r = 0.404, P < 0.001, n = 100; Silkie: r = 0.561, P < 0.001, n = 70; Dongxiang blue-shell: r = 0.619, P < 0.001, n = 30). We also measured the total serum IgY levels in the 3-day-old offspring hatched from the Silkie hens and results were significantly correlated for serum IgY levels (r = 0.535, P < 0.001, n = 70) and the yolk IgY levels (r = 0.481, P < 0.001, n = 70). The regression analysis showed simple linear regression between IgY levels in hen serum, yolk and offspring serum. Our results suggest that total IgY level could be used as an index for chicken fitness. PMID:23497583

  16. An evaluation of soybean lecithin as an alternative to avian egg yolk in the cryopreservation of fish sperm.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Bozkurt, Yusuf; Yavas, Ilker

    2013-08-01

    Plant-derived lecithin has been used as a more sanitary alternative to avian egg yolk in livestock sperm cryopreservation protocols but its efficacy for cryopreserving fish sperm has not previously been tested comparatively. Here various concentrations of soybean lecithin were evaluated for the cryopreservation of carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm. Sexually mature fish were induced to spermiation and ovulation with ovopel. The extenders were prepared by using 300 mM glucose, 10% DMSO, supplemented with different ratios of lecithin (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) and 10% egg yolk (control I). Negative control was made without egg yolk and soybean lecithin (control II). The pooled semen was diluted separately at ratio of 1:3 (v/v) by using egg yolk and soybean-based extenders. Diluted semen placed into 0.25 ml straws were equilibrated at 4 C for 15 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Fertilization was conducted using a ratio of 1 10(5)spermatozoa/egg. Supplementation of 10% lecithin to extender showed the best cryoprotective effect for sperm motility and duration of motility against freezing damage compared to 15%, 20% and control II groups (p<0.05). Cryopreserved sperm with extender containing 10% lecithin provided a greater result in terms of fertilization success when compared to extenders containing 20% lecithin or control II (p<0.05). It is concluded that the animal protein-free extender containing 10% soybean lecithin has a similar cryoprotective actions with conventional egg yolk-based extender against freezing damages and fertilization. Therefore, soybean lecithin is a suitable alternative to avian egg yolk for the cryopreservation of fish sperm. PMID:23727066

  17. Design of highly sensitive and selective Au@NiO yolk-shell nanoreactors for gas sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhakar; Yoon, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hyun-Mook; Hwang, Su-Jin; Kwak, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2014-07-21

    Au@NiO yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple solution route and applied for efficient gas sensor towards H₂S gas. Carbon encapsulated Au (Au@C core-shell) NPs were synthesized by glucose-assisted hydrothermal method, whereas Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were synthesized by precipitation method using Au@C core-shell NPs as a template. Sub-micrometer Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were formed having 50-70 nm Au NPs at the periphery of NiO shell (10-20 nm), which was composed of 6-12 nm primary NiO particles. Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs showed higher response for H2S compared to other interfering gases (ethanol, p-xylene, NH₃, CO and H₂). The maximum response was 108.92 for 5 ppm of H₂S gas at 300 °C, which was approximately 19 times higher than that for the interfering gases. The response of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs to H₂S was approximately 4 times higher than that of bare NiO hollow nanospheres. Improved performance of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs was attributed to hollow spaces that allowed the accessibility of Au NPs to gas molecules. It was suggested that adsorption of H₂S on Au NPs resulted in the formation of sulfide layer, which possibly lowered its work function, and therefore tuned the electron transfer from Au to NiO rather NiO to Au, which leaded to increase in resistance and therefore response. PMID:24933405

  18. Controllable synthesis of yolk-shell-structured metal oxides with seven to ten components for finding materials with superior lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-11-01

    A new concept for discovering multicomponent nanostructured materials with good electrochemical properties is proposed. Yolk-shell-structured transition metal oxide powders with seven to ten components and simple crystal structures are prepared by continuous spray pyrolysis. The multicomponent yolk-shell powders with complex compositions show excellent Li(+) storage properties for lithium ion batteries. PMID:25238055

  19. Effect of egg yolk, cryoprotectant, and various sugars on semen cryopreservation in endangered Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri).

    PubMed

    Garde, J J; del Olmo, A; Soler, A J; Espeso, G; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S

    2008-11-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from endangered species is a valuable tool for genetic management. Previous studies showed the feasibility of cryopreservation of spermatozoa from various endangered gazelles but have also revealed difficulties with available protocols for semen freezing in Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri). Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of (a) 5% or 20% egg yolk or 4% or 6% glycerol, and (b) addition of sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose and raffinose) on cryopreservation using a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST). A diluent containing 13.5% raffinose, 5% or 20% egg yolk, and 6% glycerol (REYG) was also evaluated. Semen was obtained by electroejaculation from 22 G. cuvieri males. Diluted samples were loaded into 0.25 ml straws, cooled to 5 degrees C over 1.5h (-0.16 degrees C/min), equilibrated at that temperature for 2h, frozen in nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Subsamples were assessed for motility and acrosome integrity upon collection, after refrigeration-equilibration, after freezing and thawing, and 2h after thawing. Use of TEST with 20% egg yolk or with 4% glycerol led to worse motility preservation, whereas TEST with 5% egg yolk and 6% glycerol led to better results. Addition of fructose, lactose or raffinose to TEST resulted in similar or worse preservation of motility than inclusion of glucose. On the other hand, use of a raffinose-based medium with 20% egg yolk and 6% glycerol (REYG) afforded better preservation of motility than use of TEST. With REYG, 20% egg yolk was better than 5% egg yolk for motility preservation. Differences were noted between males in their responses to cryopreservation when using different egg yolk or glycerol concentrations. Moreover, spermatozoa from most males exhibited better cryopreservation with REYG although some were better cryopreserved in TEST. The raffinose-based diluent thus represents an improvement over previous results but more work is needed to better characterize cryopreservation conditions for future routine banking of Cuvier's gazelle spermatozoa. PMID:18024015

  20. Increased yolk testosterone facilitates prenatal perceptual learning in Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Mstl, Erich; Lickliter, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Prenatal learning plays an important role in the ontogeny of behavior and birds provide a useful model to explore whether and how prenatal exposure to hormones of maternal origin can influence prenatal learning and the development of behavior. In this study we assessed if prenatal exposure to yolk testosterone can influence auditory learning in embryos of Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). We experimentally enhanced testosterone concentrations in bobwhite quail eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these T-treated eggs as well as control embryos that had received the vehicle-only or were non-treated were exposed to an individual bobwhite hen's maternal call for 120 min over the course of the day prior to hatching. All chicks were tested at 24 h following hatching for their auditory preference between the familiar bobwhite maternal call versus an unfamiliar bobwhite maternal call. T-treated chicks spent significantly more time in proximity to the familiar call compared to the unfamiliar call and also showed shorter latencies to approach the familiar call than control birds. Increased emotional reactivity, i.e. propensity to express fear responses, was also found in T-treated chicks. Baseline heart rates recorded in a second group of T-treated embryos and control embryos did not differ, which suggests no effect of yolk testosterone on baseline arousal level. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the influence of prenatal exposure to testosterone on auditory learning. PMID:19646986

  1. Accumulation of the major yolk protein and zinc in the agametogenic sea urchin gonad.

    PubMed

    Unuma, Tatsuya; Sawaguchi, Sayumi; Yamano, Keisuke; Ohta, Hiromi

    2011-10-01

    Sea urchins of both sexes store the nutrients necessary for gametogenesis in nutritive phagocytes of the agametogenic gonad. A zinc-binding protein termed the major yolk protein (MYP) is stored here as two isoforms: the egg-type (predominant in egg yolk granules) and the coelomic fluid-type (a precursor with greater zinc-binding capacity). MYP is used during gametogenesis as material for synthesizing gametic proteins and other components. We investigated its accumulation and relationship to zinc contents in gonads during the non-reproductive season in Pseudocentrotus depressus. MYP constituted most of the protein in coelomic fluid and gonads. Both ovaries and testes grew gradually, accumulating MYP and zinc during the year. Total zinc contents and the ratio of coelomic fluid-type to egg-type protein were higher in ovaries than in testes as gametogenesis approached. Most of the zinc in the coelomic fluid was bound to MYP, and the concentrations of MYP and zinc were elevated toward the onset of oogenesis in the female coelomic fluid. Thus, MYP accumulates in the agametogenic ovaries and testes during the non-reproductive season, playing a role as a carrier to transport zinc to the gonad. Transportation of zinc by MYP is more active in females than in males. PMID:22042441

  2. Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Hwa; Kim, Jimin; Yoon, Hyung-Sook; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone on egg quality. For 2 weeks hens received either control or experimental diet containing corticosterone at 30 mg/kg diet. Feed intake and egg production were monitored daily, and body weight measured weekly. Egg weights and egg quality were measured daily. Corticosterone treatment resulted in a remarkable increase in feed intake and sharp decrease in egg production compared with control (p<0.05) whereas body weight remained unchanged. Decreased albumen height, but no changes in egg weight, led to decreased Haugh unit (p<0.05). Corticosterone caused elevated eggshell thickness (p<0.05) without altering weight and strength, suggesting possible changes in shell structure. Yolk color and redness were increased by corticosterone (p<0.05) but lightness and yellowness were either not changed or inconsistent over the time period of measurements. Increased concentrations in plasma were also found for corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and amylase (p<0.05), suggesting that corticosterone increased protein breakdown, renal dysfunctions and pancreatitis. Together, the current results imply that dietary corticosterone affects egg quality such as yolk colors and shell thickness, in addition to its effects on feed intake and egg production. PMID:25925061

  3. Multifunctional peptides derived from an egg yolk protein hydrolysate: isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; D?browska, Anna; Szo?tysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Lubec, Gert; Chrzanowska, Jzefa

    2015-02-01

    An egg yolk protein by-product following ethanol extraction of phospholipids (YP) was hydrolyzed with pepsin to produce and identify novel peptides that revealed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory and antidiabetic (?-glucosidase and DPP-IV inhibitory) activities. The peptic hydrolysate of YP was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Isolated peptides were identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF) and the Mascot Search Results database. Four peptides of MW ranging from 1,210.62 to 1,677.88 Da corresponded to the fragments of Apolipoprotein B (YINQMPQKSRE; YINQMPQKSREA), Vitellogenin-2 (VTGRFAGHPAAQ) and Apovitellenin-1 (YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF). These peptides were chemically synthesized and showed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory or/and antidiabetic activities. Peptide YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF exerted the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 9.4 g/mL. The peptide YINQMPQKSRE showed the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging and DPP-IV inhibitory activities and its ACE inhibitory activity (IC50) reached 10.1 g/mL. The peptide VTGRFAGHPAAQ revealed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 365.4 g/mL). A novel nutraceutical effect for peptides from an egg yolk hydrolysate was shown. PMID:25408464

  4. Quantitative H NMR analysis of egg yolk, alcohol, and total sugar content in egg liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Monika; Koospal, Verena; Bauer-Christoph, Claudia; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Diehl, Bernd; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-04-29

    Analyzing egg liqueurs for compliance with legal requirements means several different time-consuming preparations and analytical processes. In this paper, we describe the approach to use quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy as an accurate alternative technique. (1)H NMR analysis comprised two different rapid sample preparations for water-soluble or nonpolar ingredients. Fifteen egg liqueurs were analyzed for alcoholic strength and content of total sugar and egg yolk (estimated by cholesterol as a marker substance) with both classical methods and quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results of both methods showed excellent correlations for alcoholic strength (R = 0.996, p < 0.001) and content of total sugar (R = 0.989, p < 0.001) and cholesterol (R = 0.995, p < 0.001). Besides, NMR spectra revealed further information: a signal of phosphatidylcholine at about ? = 3.20 ppm served as a second marker for the egg yolk content, and characteristic signals of lactose at ? = 4.46 ppm and butyric acid at ? = 0.97 ppm indicated the use of milk products, which has to be declared for lactose-intolerant consumers. PMID:25860435

  5. Sequences in antibody molecules important for receptor-mediated transport into the chicken egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Sherie L; Mohammed, Mansoor S; Wims, Letitia A; Trinh, Ryan; Etches, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Large quantities of antibodies are transported into the yolk of the chicken's egg. We have identified several regions within the antibody molecule important for its uptake into the egg yolk. An intact Fc and hinge region but not the Fc-associated carbohydrate are required for transport. Our data suggest that the C(H)2/C(H)3 interface is recognized by the receptor responsible for immunoglobulin (Ig) transport. At this interface, residues 251-254 form an exposed loop on the surface of C(H)2. Chicken IgY (cIgY) has the sequence LYIS and human IgG (hIgG) has the sequence LMIS at these positions; mutation of MIS to glycines results in an IgG that is not transported. A second site important for transport is at positions 429-432 within C(H)3. All transported antibodies have the sequence HEAL, whereas, murine IgG2b (mIgG2b) with the sequence HEGL and cIgA with the sequence HDGI fail to be transported. hIgA has the HEAL sequence and is transported. PMID:11792430

  6. Effects of dietary corticosterone on yolk colors and eggshell quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Hwa; Kim, Jimin; Yoon, Hyung-Sook; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone on egg quality. For 2 weeks hens received either control or experimental diet containing corticosterone at 30 mg/kg diet. Feed intake and egg production were monitored daily, and body weight measured weekly. Egg weights and egg quality were measured daily. Corticosterone treatment resulted in a remarkable increase in feed intake and sharp decrease in egg production compared with control (p<0.05) whereas body weight remained unchanged. Decreased albumen height, but no changes in egg weight, led to decreased Haugh unit (p<0.05). Corticosterone caused elevated eggshell thickness (p<0.05) without altering weight and strength, suggesting possible changes in shell structure. Yolk color and redness were increased by corticosterone (p<0.05) but lightness and yellowness were either not changed or inconsistent over the time period of measurements. Increased concentrations in plasma were also found for corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and amylase (p<0.05), suggesting that corticosterone increased protein breakdown, renal dysfunctions and pancreatitis. Together, the current results imply that dietary corticosterone affects egg quality such as yolk colors and shell thickness, in addition to its effects on feed intake and egg production. PMID:25925061

  7. Production of Egg Yolk Antibodies Specific to House Dust Mite Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Han, Beom Ku; Han, Jae Yong; Hong, Jung Yeon; Kim, Mi Na; Heo, Won Il; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of indoor allergens associated with asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Chicken immunoglobulin (Ig) Y is known to be a good alternative to mice and rabbit antibody production. In this study, we produced IgYs specific to HDMs and investigated their IgE immunoreactivities. Materials and Methods Total IgYs were isolated from the yolks of White Leghorn hens immunized with either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus or D. farinae protein extract. Control antibodies were separated from the yolks of immunized hens with phosphate buffered saline. IgYs specific to HDMs were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis. Results The concentration of egg IgY specific to D. farinae in an immunized hen increased and the highest achieved was 661.3 ug/mg (per an egg) on day 47, compared with 760 ug/mg IgY specific to D. pteronyssinus on day 16. The D. pteronyssinus or D. farinae-specific IgY was detected by binding of each mite proteins, and their immunoreactivities were elevated dependent of the specific IgY concentration. Conclusion IgY specific to HDMs may be a promising antibody for immunological diagnosis as well as identification of possible resistance relating to HDM allergy. PMID:24954330

  8. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid. 1. Fatty acid modification of yolks and neonatal fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Latour, M A; Devitt, A A; Meunier, R A; Stewart, J J; Watkins, B A

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on neonatal fatty acid metabolism. In this study, layer hens (n = 40) were divided into four equal groups and subjected to the following treatments. Group A served as the control group, Group B received 1 g CLA every other day, Group C received 1 g CLA every 4th d, and Group D was sham-supplemented with 1 g safflower oil every other day. After 4 mo of feeding, Group B hens exhibited an increase in BW and egg size; however, there were no differences noted in feed consumption among the various treatment groups. At the same time, hens were inseminated with a constant dose of pooled rooster semen to evaluate changes in chick liver and yolk fatty acid metabolism during neonatal growth. At hatch and through 6 d of age, there were no significant differences in breakout data (fertility and numbers of early-, mid-, or late-dead chicks) or chick BW, respectively. However, Group B chicks exhibited an increase in liver 18:3n3 and 22:1n9 and a decrease in 20:3n6 and 22:5n3 fatty acids when compared with chicks from Groups A and D. Also noted for Group B chicks, yolk 18:0 fatty acid was higher than that for Group A and D chicks. These results suggest that CLA alters lipid metabolism in growing chicks. PMID:10875761

  9. Immune-Relevant and Antioxidant Activities of Vitellogenin and Yolk Proteins in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chen; Zhang, Shicui

    2015-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg), the major egg yolk precursor protein, is traditionally thought to provide protein- and lipid-rich nutrients for developing embryos and larvae. However, the roles of Vtg as well as its derived yolk proteins lipovitellin (Lv) and phosvitin (Pv) extend beyond nutritional functions. Accumulating data have demonstrated that Vtg, Lv and Pv participate in host innate immune defense with multifaceted functions. They can all act as multivalent pattern recognition receptors capable of identifying invading microbes. Vtg and Pv can also act as immune effectors capable of killing bacteria and virus. Moreover, Vtg and Lv are shown to possess phagocytosis-promoting activity as opsonins. In addition to these immune-relevant functions, Vtg and Pv are found to have antioxidant activity, which is able to protect the host from oxidant stress. These non-nutritional functions clearly deepen our understanding of the physiological roles of the molecules, and at the same time, provide a sound basis for potential application of the molecules in human health. PMID:26506386

  10. Production and characterization of egg yolk antibodies against bovine alimentary tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, O; Jawor, P; Kope?, W; Skiba, T; Stefaniak, T

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of hens with bovine vaccines (C, R, T) on the course of IgY antibodies production against selected bovine E. coli strains, rota- and coronaviruses in egg yolk in farm conditions. The hens (40 individuals per group) were vaccinated twice, subcutaneously in four week interval and eggs were harvested once a week. Control group consisted of eggs sampled from non-vaccinated hens located in neighbouring cages. The antibody activity was measured by ELISA. All used vaccines induced the rise of IgY antibody in egg yolks. Based on the duration and the highest level of IgY antibody against bovine alimentary tract pathogens C vaccine was further used in next two trials for vaccination of 1000 hens each time. Double immunization seems to be enough in mounting response against examined pathogens for several weeks. Immunization with C vaccine allowed to harvest eggs with satisfactory levels of E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus IgY antibodies which may be used to evaluate their protective effect by oral administration in calves. PMID:23971196

  11. Graft Distortion After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Association with Sac Morphology and Mid-Term Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Derek Alan; Edwards, Richard David; McWilliams, Richard Gregory; Rowlands, Peter Christopher; Martin, Janis; White, Donagh; Fear, Simon; Bakran, Ali; Brennan, John; Gilling-Smith, Geoffrey; Harris, Peter Lyon

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, significance, and mechanism of stent-graft distortion after endovascular repair (EVR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm.Methods: EVR of abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in 51 cases (49 modular, bifurcated; 2 tube). Thirty-two patients were followed for 6 or more months and had equivalent baseline and follow-up images which could be used to determine changes in graft configuration. Sac dimensions were measured using computed tomographic (CT) images and graft-related complications were recorded.Results: Amongst 32 patients evaluated on follow-up, there was graft distortion in 24. Distorted grafts were significantly (p= 0.002) associated with sac diameter reduction (mean 5 mm) and sac length reduction (mean 8.1 mm). All graft-related complications occurred in the limbs of eight distorted grafts, with a mean reduction of sac length in this group of 7.8 mm on reformatted CT images.Conclusion: There was a highly significant association between graft distortion and limb complications, and reduced sac dimensions.

  12. Cystic Lymhangioma of the Lesser Sac in Adult Presenting with Features of Gastric Outlet Obstruction - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sathasivam Suresh; Das, Sri Aurobindo Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lymphangioma is a paediatric benign tumour, occurs commonly in head and neck region. Adult intraabdominal lymphangiomas are uncommon and only few cases of lesser sac cystic lymphangioma are reported in the literature. We present a case of lesser sac cystic lymphangioma in a 26-year-old lady who presented with features of gastric outlet obstruction. Clinical examination revealed a 10x10 cm firm, non tender, mobile intraabdominal lump in the epigastrium. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed possible external compression at the body of the stomach. Ultrasound demonstrated a multicystic lesion, with internal echoes in one locule. CECT showed a large multiloculated cystic lesion with hyper-dense content in the lesser sac extending up to the left lobe of the liver and indenting the stomach, lesser sac, and upper border of pancreas. On surgical exploration, a 10X8 cm multi cystic lesion with clear fluid was found in the lesser sac very close to the lesser curvature of stomach. Histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed features of cystic lymphangioma. Though very rare, intraabdominal cystic lymphangiomas should be considered in all atypical cases of gastric outlet obstruction. A reasonable knowledge about these benign lesions will aid in establishing the diagnosis and surgical management. PMID:26672967

  13. Fructan Accumulation and Sucrose Metabolism in Transgenic Maize Endosperm Expressing a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SacB Gene.

    PubMed Central

    Caimi, P. G.; McCole, L. M.; Klein, T. M.; Kerr, P. S.

    1996-01-01

    Over 40,000 species of plants accumulate fructan, [beta]-2-1- and [beta]-2-6-linked polymers of fructose as a storage reserve. Due to their high fructose content, several commercial applications for fructans have been proposed. However, plants that accumulate these polymers are not agronomically suited for large-scale cultivation or processing. This study describes the transformation of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SacB gene into maize (Zea mays L.) callus by particle bombardment. Tissue-specific expression and targeting of the SacB protein to endosperm vacuoles resulted in stable accumulation of high-molecular-weight fructan in mature seeds. Accumulation of fructan in the vacuole had no detectable effect on kernel development or germination. Fructan levels were found to be approximately 9-fold higher in sh2 mutants compared to wild-type maize kernels. In contrast to vacuole-targeted expression, starch synthesis and endosperm development in mature seeds containing a cytosolically expressed SacB gene were severely affected. The data demonstrate that hexose resulting from cytosolic SacB activity was not utilized for starch synthesis. Transgenic seeds containing a chimeric SacB gene provide further evidence that the dominant pathway for starch synthesis in maize endosperm is through uridine diphosphoglucose catalyzed by the enzyme sucrose synthase. PMID:12226187

  14. Cystic Lymhangioma of the Lesser Sac in Adult Presenting with Features of Gastric Outlet Obstruction - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sathasivam Suresh; Das, Sri Aurobindo Prasad; Kate, Vikram

    2015-11-01

    Cystic lymphangioma is a paediatric benign tumour, occurs commonly in head and neck region. Adult intraabdominal lymphangiomas are uncommon and only few cases of lesser sac cystic lymphangioma are reported in the literature. We present a case of lesser sac cystic lymphangioma in a 26-year-old lady who presented with features of gastric outlet obstruction. Clinical examination revealed a 10x10 cm firm, non tender, mobile intraabdominal lump in the epigastrium. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed possible external compression at the body of the stomach. Ultrasound demonstrated a multicystic lesion, with internal echoes in one locule. CECT showed a large multiloculated cystic lesion with hyper-dense content in the lesser sac extending up to the left lobe of the liver and indenting the stomach, lesser sac, and upper border of pancreas. On surgical exploration, a 10X8 cm multi cystic lesion with clear fluid was found in the lesser sac very close to the lesser curvature of stomach. Histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed features of cystic lymphangioma. Though very rare, intraabdominal cystic lymphangiomas should be considered in all atypical cases of gastric outlet obstruction. A reasonable knowledge about these benign lesions will aid in establishing the diagnosis and surgical management. PMID:26672967

  15. Enhancement of Processability and Electrical Resistance by Use of Ag-Based Composite Inks Containing Ultrafine SAC305 Alloy Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Moo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Seok Pil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    We propose use of Ag/Sn-3.0 (wt.%) Ag-0.5 Cu (SAC305) composite ink to reduce sintering temperature, sintering time, and material costs. The SAC305 nanoparticle (NP) surfaces were not capped by any stabilizers, which are detrimental to the resistivity of the sintered tracks. Compared with commercial pure Ag ink, use of Ag/3.2 (vol.%) SAC305 composite ink containing ultrafine SAC305 NPs resulted in outstandingly enhanced processability, enabling faster sintering at low temperatures. The average sheet resistance of composite ink samples sintered for 25 min at 170C was as low as 0.011 ?/?, comparable with that of a pure Ag sample sintered for over 30 min at 220C. The morphology and the differential scanning calorimetry curves enabled explanation of the changes in the sintering behavior and sheet resistance. The Ag/SAC305 clusters in the composite ink sintered at 170C grew, on average, to ~201.1-226.1 nm as a result of faster local liquid-phase sintering, and most of the Ag particles were mutually linked, dramatically changing the microstructure.

  16. The Protein Complex of Neurodegeneration-related Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Sac3 and ArPIKfyve Binds the Lewy Body-associated Synphilin-1, Preventing Its Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Compton, Lauren M; Kumar, Rita; Tisdale, Ellen J; Chen, Xuequn; Shisheva, Assia

    2015-11-20

    The 5-phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac3, in which loss-of-function mutations are linked to neurodegenerative disorders, forms a stable cytosolic complex with the scaffolding protein ArPIKfyve. The ArPIKfyve-Sac3 heterodimer interacts with the phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve in a ubiquitous ternary complex that couples PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis with turnover at endosomal membranes, thereby regulating the housekeeping endocytic transport in eukaryotes. Neuron-specific associations of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 heterodimer, which may shed light on the neuropathological mechanisms triggered by Sac3 dysfunction, are unknown. Here we conducted mass spectrometry analysis for brain-derived interactors of ArPIKfyve-Sac3 and unraveled the ?-synuclein-interacting protein Synphilin-1 (Sph1) as a new component of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex. Sph1, a predominantly neuronal protein that facilitates aggregation of ?-synuclein, is a major component of Lewy body inclusions in neurodegenerative ?-synucleinopathies. Modulations in ArPIKfyve/Sac3 protein levels by RNA silencing or overexpression in several mammalian cell lines, including human neuronal SH-SY5Y or primary mouse cortical neurons, revealed that the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex specifically altered the aggregation properties of Sph1-GFP. This effect required an active Sac3 phosphatase and proceeded through mechanisms that involved increased Sph1-GFP partitioning into the cytosol and removal of Sph1-GFP aggregates by basal autophagy but not by the proteasomal system. If uncoupled from ArPIKfyve elevation, overexpressed Sac3 readily aggregated, markedly enhancing the aggregation potential of Sph1-GFP. These data identify a novel role of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex in the mechanisms controlling aggregate formation of Sph1 and suggest that Sac3 protein deficiency or overproduction may facilitate aggregation of aggregation-prone proteins, thereby precipitating the onset of multiple neuronal disorders. PMID:26405034

  17. A novel approach for noninvasive drug delivery and sensing through the amniotic sac.

    PubMed

    Azagury, Aharon; Amar-Lewis, Eliz; Mann, Ella; Goldbart, Riki; Traitel, Tamar; Jelinek, Raz; Hallak, Mordechai; Kost, Joseph

    2014-06-10

    Current invasive prenatal tests (amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling) are known for their risk to the fetus. In the last decade, the use and awareness of these prenatal tests have increased, resulting in growing demand for a safe, non-invasive, and accurate prenatal test. Chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) have long been used to increase transport phenomena across skin and other membranes (e.g., tympanic membrane). The amniotic sac membrane is called the chorioamnion (CA) membrane and serves as the physical barrier between the fetus and the mother. In this research, the effect of CPEs on human CA mass transport was evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo. The results show that the tested CPEs exhibit an enhancing effect on CA mass transport. Based on the permeability results, two mechanisms of action were suggested: "extractors" and "fluidizers". Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and rapid colorimetric screening measurements supported the mechanisms, based on which, more potent compounds were designed and tested for their enhancing effect. The enhancing mass transport effect of CPEs on CA membrane may be used both for sampling of cell-free DNA and for noninvasively administering drugs and other biological agents to the amniotic sac. PMID:24685707

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in a spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Andrea L; Traslavina, Ryan P; Emanuelson, Karen; Affolter, Verena K; Gaffney, Patricia M; Vernau, William; Williams, Colette; Wu, Connie I-kuan; Sturges, Beverly K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2013-12-01

    A 25-yr-old spayed female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) developed intermittent right pelvic limb lameness that persisted following conservative medical therapy. No obvious musculoskeletal lesions were noted on initial physical exam; however, spinal radiography was suspicious for possible intervertebral degenerative joint disease or discospondylitis. Despite prolonged medical therapy, the lameness progressed to minimal weight bearing and marked muscle atrophy of the right pelvic limb. Electromyography showed spontaneous activity in the muscles of right sciatic nerve distribution. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities in the right tibial and peroneal nerves were undetectable and markedly reduced, respectively. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large, space-occupying mass on the right side of the sacrum and pelvis. Antemortem fine-needle aspiration of the mass and postmortem histopathology resulted in diagnosis of a high-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac is very rare in domestic dogs and previously unreported in spotted hyenas. PMID:24450071

  19. The Importance of Gestational Sac Size of Ectopic Pregnancy in Response to Single-Dose Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Kimiaei, Parichehr; Khani, Zahra; Marefian, Azadeh; Gholampour Ghavamabadi, Maryam; Salimnejad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed in a selective group of 185 patients diagnosed with and treated for ectopic pregnancy. Intramuscular administration of a single dose of methotrexate (50?mg/m2) was performed to measure predictors of failure or resistance to treatment necessitating surgical intervention. During the time of treatment with a single dose of MTX, 20 patients (10.8%) failed to response, in which 6 of 20 (30%) indicated side effects to MTX and rupture of the ectopic pregnancy. Remaining cases (n = 14) showed resistance to the drug; the level of ?-hCG did not fall at least 15% during 7 days after treatment and necessitated laparotomy. In backward-step analysis by multiple logistic regressions of various types of predictor factors, size of gestational sac (coefficient = 1.91, OR = 6.78, 95% confidence interval = 3.188.22) and baseline level ?-hCG (coefficient = 1.60, OR = 5.0, 95% confidence interval = 4.266.72) had significant correlation with leading EP patients failing to response to MTX. This study suggests that further investigation for finding relative contraindications of MTX treatment in EP women should be considered on the gestational sac size because other variables are in the causal pathway of this variable. PMID:23762575

  20. Kinetic Profiles of Inflammatory Mediators in the Conjunctival Sac Fluid of Patients upon Photorefractive Keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tisato, Veronica; Perri, Paolo; Rimondi, Erika; Melloni, Elisabetta; Lamberti, Giuseppe; Milani, Daniela; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) represents a therapeutic option to remodel corneal stroma and to compensate refractive errors, which involves inflammatory and/or regenerative processes. In this context, the modulation of cytokines/chemokines in the conjunctival sac fluid and their role in the maintenance of the corneal microenvironment during the healing process upon refractive procedures has not been deeply investigated. In this study, serial samples of conjunctival sac fluid of patients (n = 25) undergoing PRK were harvested before and at different time points after surgery. The levels of 29 cytokines/chemokines/growth factors involved in inflammatory/immune processes were measured with a multiplex array system. The results have firstly highlighted the different pattern of cytokine expression between the microenvironment at the anterior surface of the eye and the systemic circulation. More importantly, the kinetic of modulation of cytokines/chemokines at the conjunctival level following PRK revealed that while the majority of cytokines/chemokines showed a significant decrease, MCP-1 emerged in light of its pronounced and significant increase soon after PRK and during the follow-up. This methodological approach has highlighted the role of MCP-1 in the healing process following PRK and has shown a potential for the identification of expression/modulation of soluble factors for biomarker profiling in ocular surface diseases. PMID:26525345

  1. Giant pandas are not an evolutionary cul-de-sac: evidence from multidisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Hu, Yibo; Yan, Li; Nie, Yonggang; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most endangered mammals and remains threatened by environmental and anthropogenic pressure. It is commonly argued that giant pandas are an evolutionary cul-de-sac because of their specialized bamboo diet, phylogenetic changes in body size, small population, low genetic diversity, and low reproductive rate. This notion is incorrect, arose from a poor understanding or appreciation of giant panda biology, and is in need of correction. In this review, we summarize research across morphology, ecology, and genetics to dispel the idea, once and for all, that giant pandas are evolutionary dead-end. The latest and most advanced research shows that giant pandas are successful animals highly adapted to a specialized bamboo diet via morphological, ecological, and genetic adaptations and coadaptation of gut microbiota. We also debunk misconceptions around population size, population growth rate, and genetic variation. During their evolutionary history spanning 8 My, giant pandas have survived diet specialization, massive bamboo flowering and die off, and rapid climate oscillations. Now, they are suffering from enormous human interference. Fortunately, continued conservation effort is greatly reducing impacts from anthropogenic interference and allowing giant panda populations and habitat to recover. Previous ideas of a giant panda evolutionary cul-de-sac resulted from an unsystematic and unsophisticated understanding of their biology and it is time to shed this baggage and focus on the survival and maintenance of this high-profile species. PMID:25274274

  2. Ex Vivo Intestinal Sacs to Assess Mucosal Permeability in Models of Gastrointestinal Disease.

    PubMed

    Mateer, Sean W; Cardona, Jocelle; Marks, Ellen; Goggin, Bridie J; Hua, Susan; Keely, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial barrier is the first innate defense of the gastrointestinal tract and selectively regulates transport from the lumen to the underlying tissue compartments, restricting the transport of smaller molecules across the epithelium and almost completely prohibiting epithelial macromolecular transport. This selectivity is determined by the mucous gel layer, which limits the transport of lipophilic molecules and both the apical receptors and tight junctional protein complexes of the epithelium. In vitro cell culture models of the epithelium are convenient, but as a model, they lack the complexity of interactions between the microbiota, mucous-gel, epithelium and immune system. On the other hand, in vivo assessment of intestinal absorption or permeability may be performed, but these assays measure overall gastrointestinal absorption, with no indication of site specificity. Ex vivo permeability assays using "intestinal sacs" are a rapid and sensitive method of measuring either overall intestinal integrity or comparative transport of a specific molecule, with the added advantage of intestinal site specificity. Here we describe the preparation of intestinal sacs for permeability studies and the calculation of the apparent permeability (Papp) of a molecule across the intestinal barrier. This technique may be used as a method of assessing drug absorption, or to examine regional epithelial barrier dysfunction in animal models of gastrointestinal disease. PMID:26891144

  3. Performance Analysis of SAC Optical PPM-CDMA System-Based Interference Rejection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsowaidi, N.; Eltaif, Tawfig; Mokhtar, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we aim to theoretically analyse optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system that based on successive interference cancellation (SIC) using pulse position modulation (PPM), considering the interference between the users, imperfection cancellation occurred during the cancellation process and receiver noises. Spectral amplitude coding (SAC) scheme is used to suppress the overlapping between the users and reduce the receiver noises effect. The theoretical analysis of the multiple access interference (MAI)-limited performance of this approach indicates the influence of the size of M-ary PPM on OCDMA system. The OCDMA system performance improves with increasing M-ary PPM. Therefore, it was found that the SIC/SAC-OCDMA system using PPM technique along with modified prime (MPR) codes used as signature sequence code offers significant improvement over the one without cancellation and it can support up to 103 users at the benchmarking value of bit error rate (BER) = 10-9 with prime number p = 11 while the system without cancellation scheme can support only up to 52 users.

  4. Comparative analysis and functional mapping of SACS mutations reveal novel insights into sacsin repeated architecture.

    PubMed

    Romano, Alessandro; Tessa, Alessandra; Barca, Amilcare; Fattori, Fabiana; de Leva, Maria Fulvia; Terracciano, Alessandra; Storelli, Carlo; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Verri, Tiziano

    2013-03-01

    Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is a neurological disease with mutations in SACS, encoding sacsin, a multidomain protein of 4,579 amino acids. The large size of SACS and its translated protein has hindered biochemical analysis of ARSACS, and how mutant sacsins lead to disease remains largely unknown. Three repeated sequences, called sacsin repeating region (SRR) supradomains, have been recognized, which contribute to sacsin chaperone-like activity. We found that the three SRRs are much larger (?1,100 residues) than previously described, and organized in discrete subrepeats. We named the large repeated regions Sacsin Internal RePeaTs (SIRPT1, SIRPT2, and SIRPT3) and the subrepeats sr1, sr2, sr3, and srX. Comparative analysis of vertebrate sacsins in combination with fine positional mapping of a set of human mutations revealed that sr1, sr2, sr3, and srX are functional. Notably, the position of the pathogenic mutations in sr1, sr2, sr3, and srX appeared to be related to the severity of the clinical phenotype, as assessed by defining a severity scoring system. Our results suggest that the relative position of mutations in subrepeats will variably influence sacsin dysfunction. The characterization of the specific role of each repeated region will help in developing a comprehensive and integrated pathophysiological model of function for sacsin. PMID:23280630

  5. Les rivie?res et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rmy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivires de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivire Grise ou Grande Rivire du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivire Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle des altitudes de 1,300 1,800 mtres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent lamont travers des gorges profondes et sont loignes de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  6. Chemically intuitive indices for charge-transfer excitation based on SAC-CI and TD-DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Masahiro; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2013-11-01

    A recently proposed charge-transfer (CT) index and some related quantities aimed to the description of CT excitations in push-pull donor-acceptor model systems were computed in vacuum and in ethanol by the direct symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method including solvent effects by means of the nonequilibrium state-specific approach. The effects of both solvation and electron correlations on these quantities were found to be significant. The present results are also in line with previous time-dependent (TD) density functional theory calculations and they demonstrate that SAC-CI provides a description of the excitation character close to that of TD-PBE0. Indeed, CT indices evaluated by the SAC-CI and TD-PBE0 would be useful in the field of materials chemistry, for the design and development of novel molecular materials. PMID:24037799

  7. Isolation and microinjection of active sperm nuclei into egg cells and central cells of isolated maize embryo sacs.

    PubMed

    Matthys-Rochon, E; Ml, R; Heizmann, P; Dumas, C

    1994-02-01

    Artificial fertilisation was attempted in maize by microinjecting sperm nuclei into the egg cell or central cell of isolated embryo sacs. A protocol for isolation of nuclei from pollen grains was developed and a pure fraction of sperm nuclei was obtained after centrifugation on a Percoll gradient. The in vitro transcriptional activity of the nuclei was tested by incorporation of radioactive UTP into RNA. The level of labelled nucleotide incorporation increased and reached a maximum after between 30 and 40 min in the incubation medium. The embryo sacs were enzymatically isolated and their viability determined by observation of cytoplasmic streaming in the female cells. The embryo sacs were immobilised by embedding in low-melting-point agarose and a single male nucleus was injected with a bevelled microcapillary. The presence of the injected nucleus in the egg or central cell was demonstrated using a cytological approach. This paper presents an alternative method for studying the intimate processes of fertilisation in plants. PMID:7881913

  8. Influence of soy oil source and dietary supplementation of vitamins E and C on the oxidation status of serum and egg yolk, and the lipid profile of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Irandoust, H; Ahn, D U

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding vitamins E and C to diets containing 3.5% refined soy oil (SO), recycled soy oil (RSO), or acidulated soy oil soapstocks (ASS) on 1) fatty acid (FA) profile, and cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and ?-tocopherol (?-T) concentrations of yolk, and 2) the oxidation status of serum and yolk. Twelve dietary treatments, using 3 oil sources, 2 levels of vitamin E (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), and 2 levels of vitamin C (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), were prepared. A total of 300 W36 Hy-line laying hens, from 44 to 56 weeks of age, were placed in 60 cages (5 birds/cage) and 5 cages were randomly assigned to one of the 12 diets. Blood samples and eggs were collected after 84 d on trial. No interactions among main effects were found for any of the traits studied. Oil sources had little effects on the FA profile of the yolk, except for C18:3 that was higher (P-value of < 0.01) in the hens fed SO than those fed RSO or ASS. Vitamin E supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1 but decreased that of C18:2 and C22:6n3 in the yolk. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased C18:0 and C18:3 concentrations in the yolk but decreased the n6 to n3 FA ratio. The concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in serum and yolk were not affected by dietary treatment but ?-tocopherol concentration increased (P-value of < 0.01) by the dietary vitamin E. Compared with the hens fed the SO diets, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in serum was higher with RSO diet but lower with ASS diet. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation decreased (P-value of < 0.05) serum MDA. Yolk FA profile was affected not only by the FA profile of the oil source used in diet, but also by the supplementation of vitamin E and C. The results showed that triglyceride profile, but not cholesterol content, of egg was affected by fatty acid profile of the supplemental oil and the vitamin C and E supplementations. PMID:26500276

  9. Enlarging cells initiating apomixis in Hieracium praealtum transition to an embryo sac program prior to entering mitosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tucker, Matthew R; Taylor, Jennifer M; Johnson, Susan D; Spriggs, Andrew; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Oelkers, Karsten; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2013-09-01

    Hieracium praealtum forms seeds asexually by apomixis. During ovule development, sexual reproduction initiates with megaspore mother cell entry into meiosis and formation of a tetrad of haploid megaspores. The sexual pathway ceases when a diploid aposporous initial (AI) cell differentiates, enlarges, and undergoes mitosis, forming an aposporous embryo sac that displaces sexual structures. Embryo and endosperm development in aposporous embryo sacs is fertilization independent. Transcriptional data relating to apomixis initiation in Hieracium spp. ovules is scarce and the functional identity of the AI cell relative to other ovule cell types is unclear. Enlarging AI cells with undivided nuclei, early aposporous embryo sacs containing two to four nuclei, and random groups of sporophytic ovule cells not undergoing these events were collected by laser capture microdissection. Isolated amplified messenger RNA samples were sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform and comparatively analyzed to establish indicative roles of the captured cell types. Transcriptome and protein motif analyses showed that approximately one-half of the assembled contigs identified homologous sequences in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), of which the vast majority were expressed during early Arabidopsis ovule development. The sporophytic ovule cells were enriched in signaling functions. Gene expression indicative of meiosis was notably absent in enlarging AI cells, consistent with subsequent aposporous embryo sac formation without meiosis. The AI cell transcriptome was most similar to the early aposporous embryo sac transcriptome when comparing known functional annotations and both shared expressed genes involved in gametophyte development, suggesting that the enlarging AI cell is already transitioning to an embryo sac program prior to mitotic division. PMID:23864557

  10. VALIDATION OF EGG YOLK ANTIBODY TESTING AS A METHOD TO DETERMINE INFLUENZA STATUS IN WHITE LEGHORN HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two groups of mature specific-pathogen-free white leghorn hens were inoculated topically with a recent H7N2 avian influenza (AI) virus or subcutaneously with an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine produced from the same AI virus. Antibody levels detected in serum and egg yolk on days 0, 7, 14, 18 and ...

  11. [Separation and identification of red pigments in natural red yolk of duck's eggs by HPLC-MS-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangzhong; Zhang, Min; Peng, Guanghua; Wang, Haibin; Zhang, Shenghua

    2004-05-01

    The natural red yolk of duck's eggs is produced by the laying duck in the lake areas in southward of China. In the laying duck breeding areas such as Honghu, Jianli, Xiantao, Tianmen and Hanchuan citys in Hubei Province, the culturists are used to feeding fresh pondweeds to the laying ducks. The yolk of duck's eggs is natural red with the chrominance reaching up to and/or above RCF (Roche Yolk Color Fan) 15. The red pigment components of natural red yolk of duck's eggs were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) and high resolution electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Four isomers of red pigments were separated by HPLC on a RP-C18 column with methanol-water (99.5:0.5, v/v) as mobile phase. The lambda(max) of the four components were 482, 488, 496, 501 nm, respectively, and all of them were single peak on chromatogram. They had the same molecular mass (Mr = 562), and had the same fragment peaks of MS2 with rhodoxanthin. The molecular formula of red pigments was determined as C40H50O2 by high resolution EI-MS. The results indicate that the red pigment is rhodoxanthin, and they are all cis-isomers of rhodoxanthin. PMID:15712896

  12. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is important for reducing egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The nutrient-rich yolk interior is a relatively infrequent location for initial SE deposition in eggs, but migration across the vitelline membrane can ...

  13. Dopamine as a Carbon Source: The Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Carbon Spheres and Yolk-Structured Carbon Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Liu, Rui; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Li, Chen; Unocic, Raymond R; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Gao, Hongjun; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    A facile and versatile synthesis using dopamine as a carbon source gives hollow carbon spheres and yolk-shell Au{at}Carbon nanocomposites. The uniform nature of dopamine coatings and their high carbon yield endow the products with high structural integrity. The Au{at}C nanocomposites are catalytically active.

  14. Study on development of Vipera lebetina snake anti-venom in chicken egg yolk for passive immunization.

    PubMed

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour

    2015-11-01

    Chicken egg yolk antibodies against Vipera lebetina venom were evaluated for their antivenom potential. White leghorn hens were immunized with detoxified V. lebetina venom (?-irradiated venom). The detoxified venom (200?g) was mixed with an equal volume of complete Freund's adjuvant and was injected intramuscularly into the hens. The antibodies showed high activity (1.6 LD50/mL) in egg yolks after 12 d of venom injection. The eggs were collected after 12days, and the egg yolks were removed and washed with purified water to remove any contamination with egg whites. The purification was performed using a method described by Maya Devi etal., followed by gel filtration (Sephadex G-50). The purity and molecular weight of antivenom antibodies (IgY) were determined using electrophoresis, and the molecular weight was found to be approximately 185kDa. The potency of IgY was 6 LD50/mL (mice), i.e., 1mL of IgY could neutralize 43.8?g of standard V. lebetina venom). Our results showed that chicken egg yolk antibodies were effective in neutralizing the lethality and several pharmacological effects of V. lebetina venom and could be used for developing effective antivenom. PMID:25700656

  15. Spindle-shaped nanoscale yolk/shell magnetic stirring bars for heterogeneous catalysis in macro- and microscopic systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuliang; Cao, Changyan; Peng, Li; Huang, Peipei; Sun, Yongbin; Wei, Fang; Song, Weiguo

    2016-01-28

    A new type of spindle-shaped nanoscale yolk/shell magnetic stirring bar containing noble metal nanoparticles was prepared. The as-synthesized Pd-Fe@meso-SiO2 not only showed impressive activity and stability as a heterogeneous catalyst in a macroscopic flask system, but also acted as an efficient nanoscale magnetic stir bar in a microscopic droplet system. PMID:26592917

  16. Controlled Formation of Metal@Al2O3 Yolk-Shell Nanostructures with Improved Thermal Stability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Lin, Xi-Jie; Sun, Yong-Gang; Bin, De-Shan; Cao, An-Min; Wan, Li-Jun

    2015-12-16

    Yolk-shell structured nanomaterials have shown interesting potential in different areas due to their unique structural configurations. A successful construction of such a hybrid structure relies not only on the preparation of the core materials, but also on the capability to manipulate the outside wall. Typically, for Al2O3, it has been a tough issue in preparing it into a uniform nanoshell, making the use of Al2O3-based yolk-shell structures a challenging but long-awaited task. Here, in benefit of our success in the controlled formation of Al2O3 nanoshell, we demonstrated that yolk-shell structures with metal confined inside a hollow Al2O3 nanosphere could be successfully achieved. Different metals including Au, Pt, Pd have been demonstrated, forming a typical core@void@shell structure. We showed that the key parameters of the yolk-shell structure such as the shell thickness and the cavity size could be readily tuned. Due to the protection of a surrounding Al2O3 shell, the thermal stability of the interior metal nanoparticles could be substantially improved, resulting in promising performance for the catalytic CO oxidation as revealed by our preliminary test on Au@Al2O3. PMID:26619036

  17. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed

    PubMed Central

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5–10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  18. Supplementation of laying-hen feed with palm tocos and algae astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Laurie A; Wang, Tong; Xin, Hongwei; Dolde, David

    2012-02-29

    Adding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols are potent antioxidants that provide health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed would result in an increased nutrient content in egg yolk with minimum changes in functional properties. Laying hens (Hy-Line W-36 breed) were fed four diets with different supplementation levels of palm toco concentrate and algae biomass containing astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Egg yolks were analyzed for physical, chemical, and functional properties. The feed with the highest nutrient concentration was also studied for stability of these antioxidants using the Arrhenius approach. No significant differences were observed in functional properties except for emulsification capacity and sensory characteristics among eggs from different diet treatments. Changes in egg yolk color reached the maximum values at day 8. Incorporation of tocopherols and tocotrienols increased until day 8, astaxanthin incorporation increased until day 10, and all decreased thereafter. Feed nutrients resulted in a dose-response relationship of these compounds in the egg yolk. The transfer efficiency ranged from 0 to 9.9% for tocotrienols and tocopherols and from 7.6 to 14.9% for astaxanthin at their peak values. Results of the Arrhenius accelerated stability study showed significant differences in the shelf life of various nutrients, and these results can be used to properly formulate and store the feed materials. PMID:22276647

  19. Fabrication of magnetic yolk-shell nanocatalysts with spatially resolved functionalities and high activity for nitrobenzene hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Guo, Chun-Zao; Wang, Guang-Hui; Li, Wen-Cui; Bongard, Hans-Josef; Lu, An-Hui

    2013-05-10

    In cracking from: Highly engineered bifunctional yolk-shell nanocatalysts with tailored structural configuration, that is, hollow carbon spheres as the matrix, entrapped magnetite nanoparticles in the core, and in situ formed and highly dispersed noble metal nanoparticles within the carbon shells as active catalytic sites, were prepared. These nanocatalysts show high activity, reusability, and good magnetic separation properties. PMID:23536472

  20. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  1. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

  2. Induction of Passive Immunity in Broiler Chickens Against Eimeria acervulina by Hyperimmune Egg Yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  3. Effects of different rearing and feeding systems on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Pignoli, Giovanni; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Mandrioli, Mara; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Laura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2009-12-23

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks produced with two rearing systems (battery cages and free-range) and two types of feedings (conventional and organic) were studied. Nine fresh egg yolks of each crossed treatment were pooled, frozen for a month, freeze-dried, vacuum-packed, and kept at -18 degrees C until analysis. No significant differences were observed in the lipid (58.0-62.1%) and total sterol contents (33.0-35.5 g/kg of lipids) of the freeze-dried egg yolks. Free rearing and conventional feeding systems resulted in significantly higher total tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, and lutein contents, as compared to the battery cage and the organic feed, respectively. However, no significant differences were found in lipid oxidation (peroxide value = 0.7-0.9 mequiv of O(2)/kg of fat; thiobarbituric reactive substances = 1.0-1.3 mg of malonylaldehyde/kg of sample) and cholesterol oxidation (28.8-43.5 mg of cholesterol oxidation products/kg of lipids; 0.08-0.12% oxidized cholesterol) of freeze-dried egg yolks except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, which was significantly lower in samples obtained with organic feed. PMID:20000852

  4. Study on development of Vipera lebetina snake anti-venom in chicken egg yolk for passive immunization

    PubMed Central

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk antibodies against Vipera lebetina venom were evaluated for their antivenom potential. White leghorn hens were immunized with detoxified V. lebetina venom (γ-irradiated venom). The detoxified venom (200 μg) was mixed with an equal volume of complete Freund's adjuvant and was injected intramuscularly into the hens. The antibodies showed high activity (1.6 LD50/mL) in egg yolks after 12 d of venom injection. The eggs were collected after 12 days, and the egg yolks were removed and washed with purified water to remove any contamination with egg whites. The purification was performed using a method described by Maya Devi et al., followed by gel filtration (Sephadex G-50). The purity and molecular weight of antivenom antibodies (IgY) were determined using electrophoresis, and the molecular weight was found to be approximately 185 kDa. The potency of IgY was 6 LD50/mL (mice), i.e., 1 mL of IgY could neutralize 43.8 μg of standard V. lebetina venom). Our results showed that chicken egg yolk antibodies were effective in neutralizing the lethality and several pharmacological effects of V. lebetina venom and could be used for developing effective antivenom. PMID:25700656

  5. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana)

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Justin; Loziuk, Philip L.; Muddiman, David C.; Daniels, Harry V.; Reading, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    The three white perch (Morone americana) vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS). Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like]) that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13). Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis). The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to late stage fish larvae prior to the onset of exogenous feeding and its composition in the egg yolk may relate to different early life histories among this diverse group of animals. PMID:26580971

  6. Structure of a major yolk glycoprotein and its processing pathway by limited proteolysis are conserved in echinoids.

    PubMed

    Scott, L B; Lennarz, W J

    1989-03-01

    To study the fate of the yolk glycoproteins found in eggs and embryos of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a polyclonal antibody to a 90-kDa polymannose glycoprotein found in the embryo was prepared. Immunoblot analysis of total proteins over the course of development showed that this antibody recognized a family of glycoproteins. Concomitant with the disappearance of the major 160-kDa yolk glycoprotein of the egg during embryogenesis, glycoproteins with a lower molecular mass appeared. These glycoproteins (115, 108, 90, 83, and 68 kDa) were purified from S. purpuratus and analyzed by limited proteolysis and peptide mapping. This analysis revealed that these glycoproteins were cleavage products derived from the major yolk glycoprotein. The antibody to the 90-kDa glycoprotein in S. purpuratus embryos was used to identify a homologous set of yolk glycoproteins with similar molecular masses in the embryos of three other species in the class Echinoidea: Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus. However, eggs from other echinoderm classes and from Xenopus laevis, Drosophila melanogaster, and the chicken did not contain any cross-reactive molecules. Cross-reactivity within the class Echinoidea was not due to a common carbohydrate epitope, because the antibody recognized the glycoproteins even after the N-linked carbohydrate side chains were enzymatically removed. The major yolk glycoprotein (160-170 kDa) from each of the three sea urchin species was purified and analyzed. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of these glycoproteins revealed striking similarities in pI and in amino acid and monosaccharide composition. The results of peptide mapping also supported the conclusion that the 160- to 170-kDa glycoproteins from the four echinoids are structurally homologous glycoproteins containing N-linked polymannose chains. Immunolocalization by electron microscopy in S. purpuratus showed that the yolk glycoproteins remained within the yolk platelet throughout development, and that externalization of the 160-kDa glycoprotein or its cleavage products was not detectable. PMID:2645184

  7. Yolk androstenedione in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus): uptake and sex-dependent alteration of growth and behavior.

    PubMed

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Z Morgan; Hodge, Melissa

    2013-11-01

    In birds, causes and consequences of variation in maternally-derived steroids in egg yolk have been the subject of intense experimentation. Many studies have quantified or manipulated testosterone ("T") and one of its immediate precursors, androstenedione ("A4") - often lumping the two steroids as "androgens" and treating them as functionally equivalent. However, yolk A4 is deposited in substantially higher concentrations than T, binds only weakly to the androgen receptor, and is readily converted into either T or estrone by steroidogenic enzymes present during embryonic development. Thus it may not be appropriate to assume that A4 has the same effect as T. In addition, A4's metabolic fate is likely to differ between females and males. The goals of this study were to examine the sex-specific uptake and metabolism of yolk A4 and consequences of elevated levels of yolk A4 on development and behavior of domestic chicks. Eggs were injected with 2? Ci of tritiated androstenedione; radioactivity was detected in all tissues of day 7 and day 16 embryos and found in both aqueous and organics phases of day 7 yolk, with no difference between sexes. A second set of eggs was injected with 125ng of A4. A4 increased growth of morphological traits (tarsus, beak) in females, but not males. A4 males had smaller combs than controls; there was no treatment effect in females. A4 reduced tonic immobility behavior in both sexes. The results of this study illustrate the importance of distinguishing both between androgens and between sexes when investigating avian endocrine maternal effects. PMID:23871777

  8. The composition of egg yolk absorbed by fasted ostrich (Struthio camelus L.) chicks from 1 to 7 days posthatching and for ostrich (Struthio camelus L.) chicks from 1 to 16 days posthatching on a prestarter broiler diet.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, M; Brand, T S; Soley, J T; Boomker, E A

    2012-06-01

    This study was performed to obtain information on yolk utilization in fasted and fed ostrich chicks posthatching. The fasted trial lasted for 7 d, whereas the fed trial continued for 16 d. Fasted ostrich chicks showed a decrease of 31.3 g of BW, with yolk weight decreasing by 28.9 g daily after hatching. Yolk weight comprised 28% of 1-d-old ostrich chick BW and decreased to 12% at 7 d of age. Only 44.4% of the fasted ostrich chick yolk was assimilated over the trial period. Crude protein content of the yolk decreased by 13.2 g daily. Fat content increased by 1.77% daily, whereas total yolk fat weight decreased with 8.91 g daily. Slaughter weight of fed ostrich chicks increased, with yolk weight decreasing by 16.3 g daily. Yolk content for fed ostrich chicks was 26% of BW at 2 d of age. Ostrich chicks absorb 30% of yolk over the first 4 d, 67% after 8 d, and only deplete the yolk after 14 d posthatch. Fasted ostrich chicks absorbed the yolk content at a rate of 28.9 g/d, compared with 22.3 g/d over the first 8 d and 16.3 g/d over the 16 d for fed ostrich chicks. The CP content of the yolk decreased by 6.84 g daily in fed ostrich chicks, whereas fat content of the yolk increased by 1.39% daily, although total yolk fat weight decreased by 6.61 g daily. Yolk weight and total CP decreased faster over the first 7 d in the fasted ostrich chicks compared with the fed ostrich chicks, which indicated that the decrease in yolk weight could be attributed to absorption of protein from the yolk. Fat content decreased faster over the first 8 d from the yolk of the fed ostrich chicks compared with that from the yolk of the fasted ostrich chicks, which could indicate that external feed has a positive influence on the absorption of fat from the yolk content. PMID:22582291

  9. Preparation of asparagine-linked monoglucosylated high-mannose-type oligosaccharide from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Seko, Akira; Takeda, Yoichi; Ito, Yukishige

    2015-06-26

    Monoglucosylated high-mannose-type glycan (Glc1Man9GlcNAc2: G1M9) is well-known as a key glycoform in the glycoprotein folding process, which is specifically recognized by lectin chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this work, we developed an efficient method for the preparation of G1M9-Asn. The G1M9-Asn was obtained from the IgY-rich fraction derived from hen egg yolk by the digestion with pronase. The ?-amino group of asparagine in G1M9-Asn was protected with the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group and the labeled glycans were subsequently purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This method will provide useful substrates for analysis of the glycoprotein folding cycle in the ER. PMID:25970848

  10. The oxidation of cholesterol in the yolk of selective traditional Chinese egg products.

    PubMed

    Yang, S C; Chen, K H

    2001-03-01

    The yolks of traditional chicken egg products (Tiedan, Ludan, and Chayedan) and duck egg products (raw and cooked Xiandan, immersed and coated Pidan) were subjected to moisture, lipid, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) determinations as well as cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products (COP) analysis. The main COP detected for these egg products included 20-hydroxycholesterol and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, other types of COP were not detected. The contents of COP formed in traditional egg products varied, depending upon the types of egg products. The cholesterol oxidation ratio for traditional Chinese chicken egg products ranged from 1.14 to 1.75%, whereas that for traditional Chinese duck egg products ranged from 1.18 to 1.90%. Those traditional egg products that required pickling in salt or alkaline, cooking, hot air drying, and exposure to oxygen and heat all produced COP. PMID:11261569

  11. Sequence homologies among the three yolk polypeptide (Yp) genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Y L; Kunert, C J; Postlethwait, J H

    1987-01-01

    To identify candidates for cis-acting sequences that regulate the sex-, stage-, and cell-specific expression of three coordinately regulated yolk polypeptide genes (Yp) in Drosophila melanogaster, we have mapped the Yp3 transcript, sequenced a 4278 bp DNA fragment containing the Yp3 gene, compared Yp3 region sequences to corresponding parts of Yp1 and Yp2, and compared the predicted amino acid sequence of YP3 to YP1 and YP2. The results showed that the Yps are largely homologous in translated regions, especially in the 3' half of the genes. Untranscribed flanking regions had little homology. A conserved inverted repeat (the H-box) has homology both to vertebrate steroid hormone receptor binding sites and to the ecdysone control region of Drosophila's hsp23. These results identify sequences to mutate in order to define elements that regulate Yp gene expression and govern YP polypeptide function. Images PMID:3029679

  12. Size-selective yolk-shell nanoreactors with nanometer-thin porous polymer shells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ying; Shmakov, Sergey N; Register, Paul; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2015-09-01

    Yolk-shell nanoreactors with metal nanoparticle core and ultrathin porous polymer shells are effective catalysts for heterogeneous reactions. Polymer shells provide size-selectivity and improved reusability of catalyst. Nanocapsules with single-nanometer porous shells are prepared by vesicle-templated directed assembly. Metal nanoparticles are formed either by selective initiation in pre-fabricated nanocapsules or simultaneously with the creation of a crosslinked polymer shell. In this study, we investigated the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde catalyzed by gold nanoparticles and hydrogenation of cyclohexene catalyzed by platinum nanoparticles. Comparison of newly created nanoreactors with commercially available nanoparticles revealed superior reusability and size selectivity in nanoreactors while showing no negative effect on reaction kinetics. PMID:26223572

  13. Yolk-shell structured Gd2O3:Eu(3+) phosphor prepared by spray pyrolysis: the effect of preparation conditions on microstructure and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-01-14

    Gd2O3:Eu(3+) yolk-shell phosphor powders with high photoluminescence intensity were prepared by spray pyrolysis. Preparation temperature and spray solution concentration were varied to find the optimum process conditions for preparation of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) with yolk-shell structure. The formation mechanism of yolk-shell Gd2O3:Eu(3+) was systematically investigated by observing the microstructures of particles produced under various preparation conditions. The morphological structure of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) powders was clearly dependent on reactor temperature and on the precursor solution concentration. Eventually, pure yolk-shell structured Gd2O3:Eu(3+) powders were obtained for a reaction temperature of 1000 C and concentration of the spray solution below 0.2 M. Also, the yolk-shell structure formed showed high thermal stability, making it possible to maintain the original spherical yolk-shell structure through calcination at high temperatures. As a result, highly crystalline Gd2O3:Eu(3+) phosphor powders having yolk-shell structure and an agglomeration-free spherical shape were successfully synthesized by spray pyrolysis. These phosphor powders were shown to have good photoluminescence characteristics. PMID:25424414

  14. Synergetic Effect of Yolk-Shell Structure and Uniform Mixing of SnS-MoS? Nanocrystals for Improved Na-Ion Storage Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-11-11

    Mixed metal sulfide composite microspheres with a yolk-shell structure for sodium-ion batteries are studied. Tin-molybdenum oxide yolk-shell microspheres prepared by a one-pot spray pyrolysis process transform into yolk-shell SnS-MoS2 composite microspheres. The discharge capacities of the yolk-shell and dense-structured SnS-MoS2 composite microspheres for the 100th cycle are 396 and 207 mA h g(-1), and their capacity retentions measured from the second cycle are 89 and 47%, respectively. The yolk-shell SnS-MoS2 composite microspheres with high structural stability during repeated sodium insertion and desertion processes have low charge-transfer resistance even after long-term cycling. The synergetic effect of the yolk-shell structure and uniform mixing of the SnS and MoS2 nanocrystals result in the excellent sodium-ion storage properties of the yolk-shell SnS-MoS2 composite microspheres by improving their structural stability during cycling. PMID:26484615

  15. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  16. Comparative Study of Endolymphatic Sac Decompression and Vestibular Neurectomy in Intractable Meniere's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqing; Han, Jie; Zhou, Xuanchen; Luan, Deheng; Xie, Fengyang; Gao, Kun

    2015-03-01

    To comparative study the clinical effect of endolymphatic sac decompression (ELSD) and vestibular neurectomy (VN) in intractable Meniere's disease (MD). The study included 30 MD intractable patients, 21 of which underwent ELSD and nine of which were treated by VN via retrosigmoid approach. Follow-up period ranged from 3 to 6years. In 21 patients by ELSD, excellent vertigo control and good control were noted in 11 patients (52.4%) and 4 patients (19.0%), partial control in 4 and no control in 2 patients. All the 9 patients by VN, vertigo was excellent control. ELSD can improve hearing and tinnitus, but VN not. VN can achieve much better effect in improving vertigo in intractable MD patients. But relative to ELSD, it has much more disadvantages. PMID:25621233

  17. [The case of the nematode Setaria equina found in the vaginal sac of the stallion's scrotum].

    PubMed

    Korna?, S?awomir; Pozor, Ma?gorzata; Oklski, Adam; Nowosad, Bogus?aw

    2010-01-01

    The nematode Setaria equina usually reside in body cavities and do not cause clinical symptoms. From time to time, however, these parasites can be located in the scrotum and spermatic cord inflicting pain and edema in these body parts. The aim of the study was to describe the case of the nematode Setaria equina found in the vaginal sac of the stallion's scrotum. During the study, thorough examination of 50 isolated testicles of 25 stallions was conducted. The horses were obtained post-slaughter from the local slaughterhouse near Krakow. In one of examined stallions, two females of Setaria equina of 80 and 110 mm in length were found attached to the surface of the testicle. A part of one of the nematode was found in the space between the surface of the testicle and the epididymis. During the examination of the testicle sections, chronic inflammation (orchitis chronica) and focal necrosis perivascularis were found. PMID:21452525

  18. Response of the pigeon crop sac to mammotrophic hormones: Comparison between relaxin and prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Bani, G.; Sacchi, T.B.; Bigazzi, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The effects of relaxin (RLX), a hormone that has previously been demonstrated to have mammotrophic properties, were studied in the pigeon crop sac, a well-known target organ for mammotrophic and lactogenic hormones, and compared with the effects produced by prolactin (PRL). The two hormones were injected directly over the crop at different doses and the response was evaluated after differing times of exposure. RLX causes a dose-related increase in wet and dry weights and ({sup 3}H)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)uridine uptake by the crop mucosa, as well as morphological changes indicating growth and differentiation of the epithelial cells similar to those occurring during physiological activation in incubation and hatching. At the doses assayed, the effects of RLX were nearly identical to those obtained following PRL in the short-term experiments, but differences in functional responses were found in the long-term experiment.

  19. Five new species of the Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Araneae: Corinnidae).

    PubMed

    Haddad, Charles R; Mbo, Zingisile

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Corinnidae: Corinninae) currently only comprises two described species, the type species M. martini Simon, 1898 and M. natalis (Pocock, 1898), which have both recently been redescribed. The leg and setal morphology of Messapus is studied using scanning electron microscopy for the first time, for M. martini and M. tigris sp. n., and additional characters are provided to supplement a recent generic description. Five new species are described in the current paper: M. megae sp. n. (? ?, from Zimbabwe), M. meridionalis sp. n. (?, from South Africa), M. seiugatus sp. n. (?, from Guinea), M. tigris sp. n. (?, from Botswana and Namibia), and M. tropicus sp. n. (? ?, from Democratic Republic of the Congo). All five species are arboreal spiders occurring on bark, lower foliage strata and the canopies of forest and savannah trees. An identification key to the seven species of the genus is provided. PMID:26701488

  20. Automatic measurement of early gestational sac diameters from one scan session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Siping; Li, Shengli; Wang, Tianfu

    2011-03-01

    Gestational sac (GS) diameters are commonly measured by routine ultrasound in early pregnancy. However, manually searching for the standardized plane of GS (SPGS) and measuring the diameters are time-consuming. In this paper, we develop a three-stage automatic solution for this procedure. In order to precisely and efficiently locate the position of GS in each frame, a coarse to fine GS detection scheme based on AdaBoost algorithm is explored. Then, an efficient method based on local context information is introduced to reduce the false positives (FP) generated by the above detection process. Finally, a database (DB) guided spectral segmentation is proposed to separate GS region from the background for further diameters measurement. Experiments carried out on 31 videos show that by using the proposed methods, the number of SPGS searching error is only one, and the average measurement error is 0.059 for the length diameters and 0.083 for the depth diameters.