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Laparoscopic treatment of a Yolk Sac Tumor: case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We report the case of a yolk sac tumor of the ovary in a 26 years old woman. The laparoscopic approach and the BEP chemotherapy were fundamental to have a minimally invasive treatment and to preserve fertility. PMID:24251245

Guida, Maurizio; Pignata, Sandro; Palumbo, Anna Rita; Miele, Gianmarco; Marra, Maria Luisa; Visconti, Federica; Zullo, Fulvio


Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor composed of immature teratoma, yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.  


We report the case of a 19-year-old woman experiencing lower abdominal distension and pain. Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). A large mass was detected in the abdomen by physical examination and by transvaginal ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a smooth-surfaced, spherical, solid tumor was found on the left ovary, measuring 11.5 x 9.9 x 6.9 cm. Histological evaluation revealed that the tumor consisted of a combination of immature teratoma, Yolk Sac Tumor, and embryonal carcinoma; this is a very rare combination in mixed germ cell tumors. PMID:25518772

Wang, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Qian, Zhida; Qing, Jiale; Zhao, Mengdam; Huang, Lili



Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component  

PubMed Central

Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan



Sustainable complete remission in recurrence yolk sac tumor patient treated with tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell.  


A 21-year-old lady diagnosed with Stage 3 ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) underwent primary cytoreductive fertility sparing surgery, followed by conventional courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and etoposide. Recurrence at cul-da-sac was noted after a short period of remission and secondary debulking performed followed by four cycles of conventional chemotherapy. The patient's disease progressed despite courses of treatments. A joint team management including a hematologist was commenced following the failure of conventional chemotherapies. Two cycles of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with ifosfamide/cisplatin/etoposide (ICE) regimen, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were given. With this salvage treatment, she remained in complete remission and disease-free for more than 30 months, while maintaining her reproductive function. These approaches appear to be effective as a salvage treatment in selected cases of patients with ovarian germ cell tumor, especially those who failed primary conventional chemotherapy. PMID:23781595

Abdullah, N A; Wang, P N; Huang, K G; Adlan, A S; Casanova, J



A bilateral primary yolk sac tumor of the lung associated with chromosome 3 polysomy  

PubMed Central

Extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCTs) in the lung are extremely rare and their pathogenesis is poorly understood. We report a case in a 48-year-old female which was very aggressive and stained positive for primoridial germ cell markers. Interestingly, there was chromosome 3 polysomy noted. To our knowledge this is the first chromosomal aberration noted in a primary germ cell tumor of the lung. PMID:23114647

Arora, Shitij; Patel, Harish; Mir, Pervez; Mishra, Sneha; Kalra, Amita; Sawhney, Harinder; Duffoo, Frantz; Macera, Mike; Abdu, Afaf; Thelmo, William



"Somatic-type" malignancies arising from testicular germ cell tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 124 cases with emphasis on glandular tumors supporting frequent yolk sac tumor origin.  


Somatic-type malignancies (SMs) in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare and mostly attributed to "transformation" of teratoma, although yolk sac tumor (YST) origin has also been proposed. We studied 124 cases of "SM" of testicular GCT origin from 106 patients to evaluate their morphology, immunohistochemical features (especially the utility of SALL4), and relationship to YST. Primitive neuroectodermal and nephroblastomatous tumors were excluded because of prior studies. Patients ranged in age from 15 to 68 years (mean, 33 y). The tumors ranged from 0.7 to 30 cm (mean, 7.6 cm) and involved the retroperitoneum (64%), abdomen/pelvis (10%), lung (10%), mediastinum (6%), supraclavicular region/neck (4%), testis (4%), and thigh (1%). Most initial diagnoses were sarcomas (n=68) or carcinomas (n=51). On review and immunohistochemical analysis, 7 of 45 adenocarcinomas were reclassified as glandular YSTs (GYST) on the basis of glypican-3 (GPC3) and/or ?-fetoprotein positivity and scant/absent reactivity for EMA and CK7. These occasionally (29%) had subnuclear and sometimes supranuclear vacuoles (endometrioid-like), whereas adenocarcinomas were more frequently mucinous (17%) or enteric-type (11%) than endometrioid-like (9%). Both expressed CDX2 frequently (83% and 63%, respectively). MUC protein 2, 4, 5, and 6 expression was more common in adenocarcinomas (7% to 36%) than in GYSTs (0% to 20%) but was infrequent. Both were often positive for SALL4, BerEP4, and MOC31; all were negative for TTF-1. On follow-up (GYST: range, 23 to 169 mo; mean, 81mo; adenocarcinoma: range, 1 to 170 mo; mean, 55 mo), 50% and 33% of patients with GYST and adenocarcinoma, respectively, died of disease. We reclassified 26 of 76 sarcomatoid tumors as sarcomatoid YSTs (SYST) on the basis of positive reactivity for both AE1/3 and GPC3. These tumors often had spindled and epithelioid cells in a fibromyxoid stroma. SYSTs were often (60%) SALL4 positive, whereas sarcomas were all negative. On follow-up (SYST: range, 1 to 259 mo; mean, 62 mo; sarcoma: range, 1 to 327 mo; mean, 70 mo), 50% and 29% of patients with SYST and sarcoma, respectively, died of disease, with most mortality occurring in those with high-grade tumors. We conclude that, on the basis of a panel of immunoreactivities, a significant number of "SMs" in testicular GCT patients are more accurately classified as either GYSTs or SYSTs. Ambiguous glandular tumors should be evaluated for GPC3, ?-fetoprotein, CK7, and EMA reactivity and sarcomatoid ones for GPC3, AE1/3, and SALL4 reactivity. PMID:24921638

Magers, Martin J; Kao, Chia-Sui; Cole, Cristina D; Rice, Kevin R; Foster, Richard S; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Ulbright, Thomas M



Many postchemotherapy sarcomatous tumors in patients with testicular germ cell tumors are sarcomatoid yolk sac tumors: a study of 33 cases.  


Sarcomatoid neoplasms in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) may show diverse lineages and are usually attributed to "transformation" of teratoma, although origin from yolk sac tumor (YST) has also been suggested. We evaluated 33 sarcomatoid tumors from 23 TGCT patients that lacked specific features of a defined sarcoma subtype for a number of features, including: atypia (mild, moderate, severe), cellularity, tumor necrosis, mitotic index, stromal vascularity, cell profile (spindle or epithelioid), and stromal quality (myxoid and/or fibrous). Immunohistochemical staining analyses directed against cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), SALL4, glypican-3 (GPC3), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), p63, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD34, MUC4, smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, caldesmon, and myogenin were performed. Staining intensity (0=negative, 1=weak, 2=moderate, 3=strong) and extent (0=<1%, 1=1% to 10%, 2=10% to 50%, 3=>50%) were scored. Tumor grade based on the French sarcoma grading system was assessed, with grades 2-3 considered high grade. Tumors with at least moderate intensity and >10% (+) cells for both AE1/AE3 and GPC3 were considered to be sarcomatoid YST (SYST); 22 tumors from 14 patients (ages 18 to 38 y, mean 27 y) met these criteria and were the focus of this study. All SYSTs occurred after chemotherapy (3 to 132 mo after TGCT diagnosis; mean 42.5 mo, median 30.5 mo). They had spindled (100%; 19 predominant) and epithelioid cells (77%; 3 predominant) in myxoid to fibrous stroma. Thirteen exhibited at least focally severe nuclear atypia. Distinctive tumor "ringlets" and intercellular basement membrane deposits (parietal YST differentiation) were common. In addition to positivity for AE1/AE3 and GPC3, 15/22 were SALL4 (+), 10/22 were at least focally CD34 (+), and 2/22 were focally p63 (+). Fifty percent exhibited smooth muscle differentiation as evidenced by desmin (8/19), caldesmon (2/4), and/or SMA (4/6) reactivity. AFP, MUC4, GFAP, and myogenin were negative in all cases. On follow-up, 8/14 patients died of disease at 7 to 217 months (mean 58 mo) after the initial SYST diagnosis, whereas 5/14 were alive and had no evidence of disease (ANED) at 1 to 259 months (mean 83 mo). One patient died of unrelated causes at 39 months. Of the 11 patients with high-grade tumors, 8 were dead of disease, 1 died of an unrelated cause, and 2 were ANED; all 3 patients with low-grade tumors were ANED at 41 to 262 months (mean 128 mo). We conclude that a high proportion of sarcomatoid tumors in postchemotherapy resections of TGCT patients are SYSTs. These typically occur several years after diagnosis and behave aggressively when high grade. PMID:25229769

Howitt, Brooke E; Magers, Martin J; Rice, Kevin R; Cole, Cristina D; Ulbright, Thomas M



Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular remodeling of the mouse embryonic yolk sac is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple genetic signaling pathways as well as biomechanical factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. During this early developmental window, the initial primitive vascular network of the yolk sac undergoes a dynamic remodeling process concurrent with the onset of blood flow, in which endothelial cells establish a branched, hierarchical structure of large vessels and smaller capillary beds. In this review, we will describe the molecular and biomechanical regulators which guide vascular remodeling in the mouse embryonic yolk sac, as well as live imaging methods for characterizing endothelial cell and hemodynamic function in cultured embryos.

Garcia, Monica; Larina, Irina



The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells  

PubMed Central

The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.



The annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.  


The annular hematoma of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. In this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. Small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial trophoblast surrounded the capillaries. Cellular trophoblast covered part of the luminal surface of the curtain region, whereas masses of apparently degenerating syncytium were present on other areas of the surface. Maternal erythrocytes, released into the uterine lumen from the curtain region, were phagocytized and degraded by the columnar cells of the trophoblastic annulus. No evidence of iron or pigment accumulation was evident in the parietal endodermal cells underlying the annular trophoblast. Parietal endodermal cells were characterized by cuboidal shape, widely dilated intercellular spaces, and cytoplasm containing granular endoplasmic reticulum. Endodermal cells of the visceral yolk-sac accumulated large numbers of electron-dense granules as well as glycogen in their cytoplasm. Hemopoietic areas and vitelline capillaries were found subjacent to the visceral endoderm. The various portions of the yolk-sac wall of Blarina appear to perform complementary functions which are probably important in maternal-fetal iron transfer. PMID:677046

King, B F; Enders, A C; Wimsatt, W A




E-print Network

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 125 EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL YOLK SAC INFECTION WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI, A and B containing 50 birds each. Experimental infection with E. coli was given intra yolk to group of fractional serum proteins. Results showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to gross pathological

Boyer, Edmond


Primitive intrapericardial teratoma associated with yolk sac tumour.  


An intrapericardial vacuolated mass compressing and displacing the heart was diagnosed by echocardiography in a foetus of 22 weeks gestation. The birth was induced for early signs of foetal distress at 29 weeks and, after two initial pericardial evacuation procedures, the tumour was resected radically 7 days after birth at a weight of 1.55 kg. Mass histology showed teratoma associated with yolk sac tumour. We comment on the overall approach adopted after foetal diagnosis and the histopathological features of the tumour, and try to draw conclusions on patient outcome data. PMID:24447774

Cetrano, Enrico; Polito, Angelo; Carotti, Adriano



Molecular characterization of oct4-expressing yolk sac endoderm stem cell lines.  

E-print Network

The extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) defines the yolk sac, a set of membranes that provide essential support for mammalian embryos. Recently, the committed XENprecursor was identified in the embryonic Inner Cell Mass (ICM) as a group of cells...

Debeb, Bisrat Godefay



Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels  

PubMed Central

In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP+ blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP+ fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David



Targeting of both mouse neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 genes severely impairs developmental yolk sac and embryonic angiogenesis.  


Neuropilins (NP1 and NP2) are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors that mediate developmental and tumor angiogenesis. Transgenic mice, in which both NP1 and NP2 were targeted (NP1(-/-)NP2(-/-)) died in utero at E8.5. Their yolk sacs were totally avascular. Mice deficient for NP2 but heterozygous for NP1 (NP1(+/-)NP2(-/-)) or deficient for NP1 but heterozygous for NP2 (NP1(-/-)NP2(+/-)) were also embryonic lethal and survived to E10-E10.5. The E10 yolk sacs and embryos were easier to analyze for vascular phenotype than the fragile poorly formed 8.5 embryos. The vascular phenotypes of these E10 mice were very abnormal. The yolk sacs, although of normal size, lacked the larger collecting vessels and had less dense capillary networks. PECAM staining of yolk sac endothelial cells showed the absence of branching arteries and veins, the absence of a capillary bed, and the presence of large avascular spaces between the blood vessels. The embryos displayed blood vessels heterogeneous in size, large avascular regions in the head and trunk, and blood vessel sprouts that were unconnected. The embryos were about 50% the length of wild-type mice and had multiple hemorrhages. These double NP1/NP2 knockout mice had a more severe abnormal vascular phenotype than either NP1 or NP2 single knockouts. Their abnormal vascular phenotype resembled those of VEGF and VEGFR-2 knockouts. These results suggest that NRPs are early genes in embryonic vessel development and that both NP1 and NP2 are required. PMID:11891274

Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Asakura, Masanori; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Sanada, Shoji; Tashiro, Fumi; Niwa, Hitoshi; Miyazaki Ji, Jun-ichi; Hirota, Seiichi; Kitamura, Yukihiko; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Fujisawa, Hajime; Klagsbrun, Michael; Hori, Masatsugu



Primary yolk sac tumour of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We present a case of rare primary yolk sac tumour of the urinary bladder in adulthood. A 31-year-old female patient presented with a history of chronic ketamine abuse, which has not previously been shown to be associated with malignancy development. The final diagnosis was established only after radical cystectomy. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed paraaortic lymph node metastasis. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy. A review of the literature revealed that surgical excision and cisplatin-based chemotherapy remain to be the standard of care for extragonadal yolk sac tumours. PMID:24348848





Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unabsorbed yolk sacs are being investigated as a possible vehicle for vertical transmission of Campylobacter and salmonellae from broiler breeder hens to broilers. However, it is unknown at what frequency unabsorbed yolk sacs exist in present day commercial broilers at the time of processing. Two ...


Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma with yolk sac elements: a neoplasm of somatic or germ cell origin?  


Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma is an uncommon, aggressive, morphologically heterogenous tumor composed of cells derived from the 3 somatic layers. A histogenetic origin from a multipotential adult somatic stem cell with divergent differentiation has been favored over a germ cell origin. This assumption has been based on the lack of germ cell elements and, until recently, the absence of demonstrable amplification of 12p. We report a case that exhibited foci of yolk sac elements with papillary structures and intracytoplasmic periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant, ?-fetoprotein-positive, hyaline globules. An expanded area of undifferentiated cells, likely precursor cells, in the basal layer of the overlying mucosal epithelium transitions into and merges with the immature epithelial, neuroepithelial, and mesenchymal components. These previously unreported histomorphological features support the hypothesis that this tumor is a teratomatous tumor arising from pluripotent embryonic stem cells in the basal layer of the sinonasal epithelium. That notion is further supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization cytogenetic analysis, which showed a distinct subpopulation of the tumor cells with an extra copy of chromosome 12p13. PMID:20952296

Thomas, Jaiyeola; Adegboyega, Patrick; Iloabachie, Kenny; Mooring, John Wesley; Lian, Timothy



Characterization of calcium carbonate crystals in pigeon yolk sacs with different incubation times.  


Calcium carbonate crystals are known to form in the yolk sacs of fertile pigeon eggs at late stages of incubation. The composition and structure of these crystals were investigated, the crystallization environment was inspected, and the physical chemistry constants of the yolk fluid were determined through the incubation period. Polarized light microscopy was used to observe the generation and distribution of calcium carbonate crystals in the yolk sac. In addition, X-ray diffraction was employed to analyze the composition and crystal phase of the yolk sac. A decalcification and deproteination method was established to analyze the ultrastructure and composition of the crystals, as well as the internal relationship between inorganic and organic phases of the crystals. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate the characteristics of the crystals. Our results demonstrated that the calcium carbonate crystals were mainly composed of vaterite and calcite, with vaterite being the major component. Vaterite, a type of biomaterial generated by an organic template control, presented as a concentric hierarchical spherical structure. The organic nature of the biomaterial prevented vaterite from transforming into calcite, which is more thermodynamically stable than vaterite. Additionally, the configuration, size, and aggregation of vaterite were also mediated by the organic template. This bio-vaterite was found during the incubation period and is valuable in calcium transport during embryonic development. PMID:24602270

Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Hu, Jingxiao; Tong, Hua



Activity of digestive enzymes in yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus): indication of readiness for first feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of determining when larvae should be offered food is particularly difficult in a species such as Atlantic halibut that has a long yolk-sac period (280–320 degree days, dd). In order to help determine at what age Atlantic halibut larvae are able to digest food, we compared the activities of key digestive enzymes in four yolk-sac stages at an

Anna Gawlicka; Brigitte Parent; Michael H Horn; Neil Ross; Ingegjerd Opstad; Ole J Torrissen



Molecular markers of yolk sac fry development in nine families of lake trout.  


Salmonids in certain areas of North America and northern Europe suffer from reproductive disturbances manifested through the death of yolk sac fry. These disturbances are referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the Great Lakes region and M74 in the Baltic Sea. Both of these syndromes have been associated with reduced concentrations of thiamine in affected females and their eggs. However, large variations in signs and mortality, both within and between the individual syndromes, have been reported. Yolk sac fry mortality (M74) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar has been shown to be associated with reduced DNA binding of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), reduced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein, decreased capillary density, and down-regulation of adult-type globin gene transcription (which is responsible for the protein part of adult hemoglobin). One of the main effects of all of these changes is reduced oxygen transport to the tissues of affected fry. In this study, the developmental patterns of HIF-1 DNA binding, VEGF protein expression, and adult-type globin gene transcription were analyzed in nine family groups of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. The results indicate that HIF-1 DNA binding and globin gene transcription increase from hatch to the end of yolk sac stage. Interindividual and between-family biological variations were detected, especially in VEGF protein expression and globin gene transcription. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using these molecular markers in investigating the etiology of EMS and making comparisons between the mechanisms of different salmonid yolk sac fry mortalities. PMID:20218502

Vuori, Kristiina A; Paavilainen, Tiia; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Czesny, Sergiusz; Rinchard, Jacques



Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor



Effects of breeder age on mineral contents and weight of yolk sac, embryo development, and hatchability in Pekin ducks.  


The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of breeder age on egg composition, changes of embryo, yolk sac, and yolk minerals during incubation and hatchability in Pekin ducks. A total of 495 freshly laid eggs were obtained from the same flock of Pekin ducks, aged 28, 34, and 40 wk, and were reared in accordance with the management guide of the duck breeders (Star 53-Grimaud Freres). At each breeder age, egg measurements were made on a random subsample of unincubated eggs. Embryo and yolk sac measurements were made on embryonic day (E) 12, E16, E20, and E25. On d 28 of incubation, the healthy ducklings were removed and sex of chicks was determined. All chicks were weighed and hatching results were determined. Egg weight and yolk percentages increased; however, albumen percentages, shell thickness, and yolk index decreased as the flock aged. Shell percentages, shell breaking strength, albumen index, and haugh units were not affected by breeder age. Also, breeder age affected the Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, and Zn levels in the yolk, except for Na level on day of setting, and breeder age affected the mineral consumed by embryo during incubation. However, on E25, the levels of examined minerals, except for P level in the yolk sac, were not statistically different in duck breeder age groups. Relative yolk sac and embryo weights of eggs obtained from different breeder ages varied from E16 to E25; however, embryo length was different in breeder age groups from E12 to E20. Hatching weight was affected by breeder age and sex. Hatching results were not different among breeder age groups. This study indicates that breeder age is important for some egg characteristics, relative yolk sac weight, some contents of minerals in the yolk, embryonic growth during incubation, and duckling weight. PMID:24570471

Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Hacan, O; Yalçin, S



Apolipoprotein B-related gene expression and ultrastructural characteristics of lipoprotein secretion in mouse yolk sac during embryonic development.  


In mice, the yolk sac appears to play a crucial role in nourishing the developing embryo, especially during embryonic days (E) 7;-10. Lipoprotein synthesis and secretion may be essential for this function: embryos lacking apolipoprotein (apo) B or microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), both of which participate in the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, are apparently defective in their ability to export lipoproteins from yolk sac endoderm cells and die during mid-gestation. We therefore analyzed the embryonic expression of apoB, MTP, and alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP), which have been associated with the assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins in the adult liver, at different developmental time points. MTP expression or activity was found in the yolk sac and fetal liver, and low levels of activity were detected in E18.5 placentas. alpha-TTP mRNA and protein were detectable in the fetal liver, but not in the yolk sac or placenta. Ultrastructural analysis of yolk sac visceral endoderm cells demonstrated nascent VLDL within the luminal spaces of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus at E7.5 and E8.5. The particles were reduced in diameter at E13.5 and reduced in number at E18.5;-19. The data support the hypothesis that the yolk sac plays a vital role in providing lipids and lipid-soluble nutrients to embryos during the early phases (E7;-10) of mouse development. secretion in mouse yolk sac during embryonic development. PMID:10553000

Terasawa, Y; Cases, S J; Wong, J S; Jamil, H; Jothi, S; Traber, M G; Packer, L; Gordon, D A; Hamilton, R L; Farese, R V



Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.  


PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22?Cre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE. PMID:25138534

Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M



Calcitropic gene expression suggests a role for the intraplacental yolk sac in maternal-fetal calcium exchange.  


The expression of calcitropic genes and proteins was localized within murine placenta during late gestation (the time frame of active calcium transfer) with an analysis of several gene-deletion mouse models by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), the PTH/PTHrP receptor, calcium receptor, calbindin-D(9k), Ca(2+)-ATPase, and vitamin D receptor were all highly expressed in a localized structure of the murine placenta, the intraplacental yolk sac, compared with trophoblasts. In the PTHrP gene-deleted or Pthrp-null placenta in which placental calcium transfer is decreased, calbindin-D(9k) expression was downregulated in the intraplacental yolk sac but not in the trophoblasts. These observations indicated that the intraplacental yolk sac contains calcium transfer and calcium-sensing capability and that it is a probable route of maternal-fetal calcium exchange in the mouse. PMID:11832378

Kovacs, Christopher S; Chafe, Linda L; Woodland, Mandy L; McDonald, Kirsten R; Fudge, Neva J; Wookey, Peter J



Histological Analyses Demonstrate the Temporary Contribution of Yolk Sac, Liver, and Bone Marrow to Hematopoiesis during Chicken Development  

PubMed Central

The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM) region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3) and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage. PMID:24621665

Guedes, Priscila Tavares; de Oliveira, Barbara Cristina Euzébio Pereira Dias; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo



Modeling murine yolk sac hematopoiesis with embryonic stem cell culture systems  

PubMed Central

The onset of hematopoiesis in mammals is defined by generation of primitive erythrocytes and macrophage progenitors in embryonic yolk sac. Laboratories have met the challenge of transient and swiftly changing specification events from ventral mesoderm through multipotent progenitors and maturing lineage-restricted hematopoietic subtypes, by developing powerful in vitro experimental models to interrogate hematopoietic ontogeny. Most importantly, studies of differentiating embryonic stem cell derivatives in embryoid body and stromal coculture systems have identified crucial roles for transcription factor networks (e.g. Gata1, Runx1, Scl) and signaling pathways (e.g. BMP, VEGF, WNT) in controlling stem and progenitor cell output. These and other relevant pathways have pleiotropic biological effects, and are often associated with early embryonic lethality in knockout mice. Further refinement in subsequent studies has allowed conditional expression of key regulatory genes, and isolation of progenitors via cell surface markers (e.g. FLK1) and reporter-tagged constructs, with the purpose of measuring their primitive and definitive hematopoietic potential. These observations continue to inform attempts to direct the differentiation, and augment the expansion, of progenitors in human cell culture systems that may prove useful in cell replacement therapies for hematopoietic deficiencies. The purpose of this review is to survey the extant literature on the use of differentiating murine embryonic stem cells in culture to model the developmental process of yolk sac hematopoiesis.

COOK, Brandoch D.



The effect of temperature on embryonic and yolk-sac larval development in the burbot Lota lota.  


The present study investigated the effect of various temperature regimes on embryonic and yolk-sac larval development of the burbot Lota lota. At constant temperature regimes a high percentage of ready-to-hatch embryos, hatched larvae and normally shaped larvae was observed at the lowest temperature (2° C), which significantly decreased with increasing temperatures (4 and 6° C). No larvae hatched at 9° C. The stream temperature regime had no effect on the percentage of ready-to-hatch embryos, but significantly decreased the percentage of hatched larvae and of normally shaped larvae. The lake temperature regime did not affect the viability variables. Also an abrupt temperature increase from 2 to 4° C after 8 days and from 2 to 9° C after 48 days had no effect on the evaluated viability variables. For yolk-sac larvae no temperature related mortalities or abnormalities were observed between 2 and 9° C. PMID:22880731

Lahnsteiner, F; Kletzl, M; Weismann, T



HoxB4 Confers Definitive Lymphoid-Myeloid Engraftment Potential on Embryonic Stem Cell and Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which primitive embryonic blood progenitors contribute to definitive lymphoid-myeloid hematopoiesis in the adult remains uncertain. In an effort to characterize factors that distinguish the definitive adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and primitive progenitors derived from yolk sac or embryonic stem (ES) cells, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of HoxB4, a homeotic selector gene implicated in

Michael Kyba; Rita C. R. Perlingeiro; George Q. Daley



Yolk-sac–derived macrophages regulate fetal testis vascularization and morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Organogenesis of the testis is initiated when expression of Sry in pre-Sertoli cells directs the gonad toward a male-specific fate. The cells in the early bipotential gonad undergo de novo organization to form testis cords that enclose germ cells inside tubules lined by epithelial Sertoli cells. Although Sertoli cells are a driving force in the de novo formation of testis cords, recent studies in mouse showed that reorganization of the vasculature and of interstitial cells also play critical roles in testis cord morphogenesis. However, the mechanism driving reorganization of the vasculature during fetal organogenesis remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that fetal macrophages are associated with nascent gonadal and mesonephric vasculature during the initial phases of testis morphogenesis. Macrophages mediate vascular reorganization and prune errant germ cells and somatic cells after testis architecture is established. We show that gonadal macrophages are derived from primitive yolk-sac hematopoietic progenitors and exhibit hallmarks of M2 activation status, suggestive of angiogenic and tissue remodeling functions. Depletion of macrophages resulted in impaired vascular reorganization and abnormal cord formation. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for macrophages in testis morphogenesis and suggest that macrophages are an intermediary between neovascularization and organ architecture during fetal organogenesis. PMID:24912173

DeFalco, Tony; Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Williams, Alyna V.; Sams, Dustin M.; Capel, Blanche



In vitro human embryonic stem cell hematopoiesis mimics MYB-independent yolk sac hematopoiesis.  


Although hematopoietic precursor activity can be generated in vitro from human embryonic stem cells, there is no solid evidence for the appearance of multipotent, self-renewing and transplantable hematopoietic stem cells. This could be due to short half-life of hematopoietic stem cells in culture or, alternatively, human embryonic stem cell-initiated hematopoiesis may be hematopoietic stem cell-independent, similar to yolk sac hematopoiesis, generating multipotent progenitors with limited expansion capacity. Since a MYB was reported to be an excellent marker for hematopoietic stem cell-dependent hematopoiesis, we generated a MYB-eGFP reporter human embryonic stem cell line to study formation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. We found CD34(+) hemogenic endothelial cells rounding up and developing into CD43(+) hematopoietic cells without expression of MYB-eGFP. MYB-eGFP(+) cells appeared relatively late in embryoid body cultures as CD34(+)CD43(+)CD45(-/lo) cells. These MYB-eGFP(+) cells were CD33 positive, proliferated in IL-3 containing media and hematopoietic differentiation was restricted to the granulocytic lineage. In agreement with data obtained on murine Myb(-/-) embryonic stem cells, bright eGFP expression was observed in a subpopulation of cells, during directed myeloid differentiation, which again belonged to the granulocytic lineage. In contrast, CD14(+) macrophage cells were consistently eGFP(-) and were derived from eGFP-precursors only. In summary, no evidence was obtained for in vitro generation of MYB(+) hematopoietic stem cells during embryoid body cultures. The observed MYB expression appeared late in culture and was confined to the granulocytic lineage. PMID:25381126

Vanhee, Stijn; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Caeneghem, Yasmine; Verstichel, Greet; Van Roy, Nadine; Menten, Björn; Velghe, Imke; Philippé, Jan; De Bleser, Dominique; Lambrecht, Bart N; Taghon, Tom; Leclercq, Georges; Kerre, Tessa; Vandekerckhove, Bart



Deficiency of Zonula Occludens-1 Causes Embryonic Lethal Phenotype Associated with Defected Yolk Sac Angiogenesis and Apoptosis of Embryonic Cells  

PubMed Central

Zonula occludens (ZO)-1/2/3 are the members of the TJ-MAGUK family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases associated with tight junctions. To investigate the role of ZO-1 (encoded by Tjp1) in vivo, ZO-1 knockout (Tjp1?/?) mice were generated by gene targeting. Although heterozygous mice showed normal development and fertility, delayed growth and development were evident from E8.5 onward in Tjp1?/? embryos, and no viable Tjp1?/? embryos were observed beyond E11.5. Tjp1?/? embryos exhibited massive apoptosis in the notochord, neural tube area, and allantois at embryonic day (E)9.5. In the yolk sac, the ZO-1 deficiency induced defects in vascular development, with impaired formation of vascular trees, along with defective chorioallantoic fusion. Immunostaining of wild-type embryos at E8.5 for ZO-1/2/3 revealed that ZO-1/2 were expressed in almost all embryonic cells, showing tight junction-localizing patterns, with or without ZO-3, which was confined to the epithelial cells. ZO-1 deficiency depleted ZO-1-expression without influence on ZO-2/3 expression. In Tjp1+/+ yolk sac extraembryonic mesoderm, ZO-1 was dominant without ZO-2/3 expression. Thus, ZO-1 deficiency resulted in mesoderms with no ZO-1/2/3, associated with mislocalization of endothelial junctional adhesion molecules. As a result, angiogenesis was defected in Tjp1?/? yolk sac, although differentiation of endothelial cells seemed to be normal. In conclusion, ZO-1 may be functionally important for cell remodeling and tissue organization in both the embryonic and extraembryonic regions, thus playing an essential role in embryonic development. PMID:18353970

Katsuno, Tatsuya; Umeda, Kazuaki; Matsui, Takeshi; Hata, Masaki; Tamura, Atsushi; Itoh, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Kosei; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Tsukita, Shoichiro



Toxicity of parathion on embryo and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata l.): effects on survival, cholinesterase, and carboxylesterase activity.  


This study was conducted to examine the acute toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) parathion on embryos and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and to investigate the effects of this compound on cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activity of seabream larvae in the phase of endogenous feeding. The 72-h LC50 for yolk-sac larvae (0.523 mg L?¹) was about two-fold lower than the 48-h LC50 for embryos (1.005 mg L?¹). Parathion significantly inhibited the activity of ChE and CaE activity in yolk sac larvae but there were not significant differences in the sensitivity of both esterases to parathion as inferred by their 72-h IC50 values. Larvae exposed to parathion for 72 h showed a 70% inhibition of the whole body acetylcholinesterase at approximately the LC50. PMID:19565633

Arufe, M Isabel; Arellano, Juana M; Albendín, Gemma; Sarasquete, Carmen



[Study on toxic effects of ammonia on embryonic and yolk-sac stage larvae of rare minnow].  


To investigate the toxicity to fish which were exposed to ammonia during early life stages. This study choose rare minnow which is unique to China for experimental subject. Representative toxicological endpoints were observed and recorded during the development of embryo and yolk-sac stage larvae. Meanwhile, selected ammonia transporter protein Rhbg gene as a toxicity parameter to reflect the changes of rare minnow embryos Rhbg gene expression. The result shows that ammonia we have chosen in this research had an influence on many toxic effects including the hatching rate of fry, mortality rate, the slowing of heart rate and arrhythmia, unformed functional swim bladder, the decreasing of body length and weight and the occurrence of pericardium and yolk-sac edema etc. But other toxicological endpoints have relatively weak effect. The ammonia also affect the Rhbg gene expression changes, especially that of Rhbg gene at 72 hours post-fertilization distinctly. Rhbg may have important functions to facilitate ammonia transport during rare minnow embryo stages. PMID:22720585

Wang, Zhi-Jian; Lu, Zeng-Hui; Shi, Ping



Assay and properties of rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1. cap alpha. -hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

An in vitro assay has been developed for the rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase). The subcellular location and some properties of the enzyme are described. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ produced from incubations of yolk sac homogenates was extracted, purified by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and straight- and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and measured by a competitive binding assay using chick intestinal receptor. The reaction is linear with time for up to 45 min at a substrate concentration of 80 and 4-6 mg/mL microsomal protein. The enzyme, located in the microsomes, requires molecular oxygen and NADPH. Metyrapone (1 x 10/sup -3/ M) was found to inhibit 1-hydroxylation, but a 90% carbon monoxide-10% oxygen atmosphere did not, leaving open the question of involvement of cytochrome P-450. Diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, a lipid peroxidase inhibitor, inhibited 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

Paulson, S.K.; Phelps, M.; DeLuca, H.F.



Papillary endolymphatic sac tumor: a case report.  


Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term "aggressive papillary middle ear tumor" has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition. PMID:22953101

Arava, S; Soumya, R M; Chitragar, S; Safaya, R; Chandrashekhar, S H; Thakar, Alok



Emergence of Multipotent Hemopoietic Cells in the Yolk Sac and Paraaortic Splanchnopleura in Mouse Embryos, Beginning at 8.5 Day Postcoitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show by an in vitro approach that multipotent hemopoietic cells can be detected in the body of the mouse embryo between the stages of 10-25 somites (8.5-9.5 days of gestation)-i.e., prior to liver colonization (28-32 pairs of somites). Interestingly, hemopoietic cells appear in parallel in this location, the paraaortic splanchnopleura, and in the yolk sac, where they represent a

Isabelle Godin; Francoise Dieterlen-Lievre; Ana Cumano



Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplantation embryos.  


The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research describes the protein composition of human and bovine blastocoel fluid, which is surrounded by the trophectoderm and undifferentiated cells of the inner cell mass. In this study, we further examine the changes in the protein composition in both the primitive YS fluid and the embryonic cells during early and slightly later stage cell differentiation in the developing bovine embryo. In vitro-produced Day 6 embryos were transferred into a recipient heifer and after 7 days of further in vivo culture, ovoid and elongated Day 13 embryos were recovered by flushing both uterine horns after slaughter. The primitive YS fluid and cellular components were isolated from 12 ovoid and three elongated embryos and using nano-high-performance liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation proteomic analysis, a total of 9652 unique proteins were identified. We performed GO term and keyword analyses of differentially expressed proteins in the fluid and the cells of the two embryonic stages, along with a discussion of the biological perspectives of our data with relation to morphogenesis and embryo-maternal communication. Our study thereby provides a considerable contribution to the current knowledge of bovine preimplantation development. PMID:25015784

Jensen, Pernille L; Beck, Hans C; Petersen, Tonny S; Stroebech, Lotte; Schmidt, Mette; Rasmussen, Lars M; Hyttel, Poul



Gestational changes in calbindin-D9k in rat uterus, yolk sac, and placenta: implications for maternal-fetal calcium transport and uterine muscle function.  

PubMed Central

Calbindin-D9k was quantified and its cellular location was defined in uterus, yolk sac, and placenta. In late gestation (days 17 to term) coordinated induction of calbindin-D9k was seen in uterine epithelial lining cells and juxtaposed yolk sac visceral epithelium as well as the intraplacental yolk sac epithelium. The induction of calbindin-D9k in these cells coincided with the time of exponential fetal bone growth and maximal fetal accumulation of calcium, suggesting a role of the protein in these epithelial layers in maternal-fetal calcium transport. Dynamic changes also occurred in the calbindin-D9k contents of the two layers of uterine smooth muscle (outer longitudinal and inner circular) during mid- and late gestation. During early pregnancy (days 0-4), calbindin-D9k was present in the two smooth muscle layers. By midgestation (day 10), calbindin-D9k had decreased by a factor of 10 in these tissue layers. During late gestation calbindin-D9k rebounded in the inner circular smooth muscle layer. These uterine changes of early and midgestation were reproduced by the endocrine changes of pseudopregnancy. Progesterone appeared to be a good candidate for controlling the midgestational decrease of uterine muscle calbindin-D9k, as it blunted estrogen's induction of the protein in the muscle layers and stroma in a dose-dependent manner. Changes in myometrial calbindin-D9k may reflect variations in muscular calcium storage, thereby representing alterations in potential for contraction. Images PMID:2717621

Mathieu, C L; Burnett, S H; Mills, S E; Overpeck, J G; Bruns, D E; Bruns, M E



Three-dimensional architecture of the tubular endocytic apparatus and paramembranous networks of the endoplasmic reticulum in the rat visceral yolk-sac endoderm.  


The three-dimensional architecture of the tubular endocytic apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum in the rat yolk-sac endoderm was investigated after loading with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated concanavalin A by intrauterine administration. After 30 min, small vesicles (50-150 nm in diameter), small tubules (80-100 nm in diameter) and large vacuoles (0.2-1.0 microns in diameter) in the apical cytoplasm were labeled with the tracer, but lysosomes (1.0-3.5 microns in diameter) in the supranuclear cytoplasm were not labeled until 60 min after loading. Stereo-viewing of the labeled small tubules in thick sections revealed that they were not isolated structures but formed three-dimensional anastomosing networks, which were also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy after maceration with diluted osmium tetroxide. Their earlier labeling with the endocytic tracer, localization in the apical cytoplasm and three-dimensional network formation indicated that the labeled small tubules represented tubular endosomes (tubular endocytic apparatus). These well-developed membranous networks provided by the tubular endosomes are suggested to facilitate the receptor-mediated endocytosis and transcytosis of the maternal immunoglobulin in the rat yolk-sac endoderm. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed lace-like networks of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum near the lateral plasma membrane. Their possible involvement in transport of small molecules or electrolytes is discussed. PMID:7528100

Ichimura, T; Hatae, T; Sakurai, T; Ishida, T



Modeling transport and survival of anchoveta eggs and yolk-sac larvae in the coastal zone off central-southern Chile: Assessing spatial and temporal spawning parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrodynamic model was coupled to an individual-based model (IBM) initialized with conditions observed during 2004 to examine the influence of spatial and temporal spawning parameters on transport and survival of Engraulis ringens in central-southern Chile. Processes modeled were transport, growth, and mortality of the early stages. The results showed that spatial and temporal variations in spawning modulated the survival of anchoveta eggs and yolk-sac larvae. The resultant transport of the early stages had an important south-north direction. In terms of connectivity, the greatest transfer of eggs and larvae to the pre-recruitment zone came from four spawning zones. Retention occurred in all spawning zones and was strongest in the Gulf of Arauco and at Lebu- Corral. Mortality due to temperature and advective losses was more intense at higher latitudes ( Lebu- Corral). Observed and simulated distributions of eggs and larvae were compared, and the differences are discussed herein. A conceptual model is proposed, and we discuss the relevance of IBMs as useful tools with which to assess spawning zones for purposes of management.

Soto-Mendoza, Samuel; Parada, Carolina; Castro, Leonardo; Colas, Francois; Schneider, Wolfgang




E-print Network

retention and yolk sac infection is considered as an important cause of death in chicken as well: Yolk retention, poultry, yolk sac infection. INTRODUCTION During incubation, extraembryonic membranes stalk. Just before hatching, the yolk sac is pulled from the egg cavity to abdomen of chick

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Comparison of Toxicity of Benzene Metabolite Hydroquinone in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Derived from Murine Embryonic Yolk Sac and Adult Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. However, experimental evidence supporting the association is lacking at the present time. It is believed that benzene and its metabolites target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cause toxicity and cancer in the hematopoietic system. In the current study, we compared the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major metabolite of benzene in humans and animals, on mouse embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells (YS-HSCs) and adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs were isolated and enriched, and were exposed to HQ at increasing concentrations. HQ reduced the proliferation and the differentiation and colony formation, but increased the apoptosis of both YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. However, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HQ were more apparent and reduction of colony formation by HQ was more severe in YS-HSCs than in BM-HSCs. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed in HQ-treated YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. Cyp4f18 was induced by HQ both in YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs, whereas DNA-PKcs was induced in BM-HSCs only. The results revealed differential effects of benzene metabolites on embryonic and adult HSCs. The study established an experimental system for comparison of the hematopoietic toxicity and leukemogenicity of benzene and metabolites during mouse embryonic development and adulthood. PMID:23940708

Zhu, Jie; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Liqiao; Li, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suhan; Huang, Wenting; Wang, Liping; Yang, Tan; Ma, Qiang; Bi, Yongyi



Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Young Patients With Solid Tumors That Have Relapsed or Not Responded to Treatment

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Germ cell tumors in atypical locations: experience of the TGM 95 SFCE trial.  


The yolk sac tumor is one of the most common malignant germ cell tumors in young children and typically occurs in the gonads. We report 6 cases of children less than 30 months old with extragonadal atypical locations of yolk sac tumor. These rare diagnoses were established by raised serum ?-fetoprotein levels and biopsies. These patients were treated according to the French TGM 95 trial. All the patients are alive disease-free after ?2.5 years of follow-up. We want to highlight the importance of measuring the ?-fetoprotein levels in very young children presenting with any midline tumor, even if the tumor is not located in the typical extragonadal sites such as the sacrococcyx, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, or vagina. PMID:24351970

Sudour-Bonnange, Hélène; Orbach, Daniel; Kalfa, Nicolas; Fasola, Sylvie; Patte, Catherine



Histopathology of tumors of the pineal region.  


Pineal region tumors are heterogeneous lesions and include mainly pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPRs) and germ cell tumors (GCTs). This article describes the cystic pineal gland compared with normal tissue and histopathological features of the most frequent pineal region tumors. PPTs are subdivided into pineocytoma (grade I), pineoblastoma (grade IV) and tumors with intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs; grades II-III). A grading system based on the number of mitoses and neurofilament protein expression distinguishes low- from high-grade PPTID. PTPR is a new tumoral entity thought to originate from the subcommissural organ. GCTs include germinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma and are often of mixed histologic composition. New histogenetic data for GCTs are presented. PMID:20465391

Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Champier, Jacques; Jouvet, Anne



Effects of incubator humidity and hen age on yolk composition in broiler hatching eggs from young breeders.  


The effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) and incubator relative humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on yolk sac weight and composition in broiler hatching eggs between 16 and 19 d of incubation were evaluated. Percentage yolk sac weight was reduced in eggs from the youngest (26 wk) breeder hens and in eggs incubated at 53% RH. Percentage yolk moisture, in eggs from the youngest hens, was lowest at 16 d and was highest at 19 d, and percentage yolk lipid was highest at 16 and 17 d of incubation in eggs from 30-wk-old hens. Percentage yolk lipid content was higher at 63% RH compared with 53% RH in eggs from 26-wk-old breeders but was lower in eggs incubated at a 43% RH compared with 53 and 63% RH from 30-wk-old breeders. Yolk stearic and arachidonic acid concentrations were higher and myristic acid concentration was lower in eggs from the 26-wk-old hens. Conversely, the highest yolk concentrations of linolenic and palmitoleic acids occurred in eggs from 30- and 28-wk-old breeders, respectively. At 16, 17, 18, and 19 d of incubation, yolk oleic acid concentrations were significantly, but variably, affected by breeder age, whereas linoleic acid concentration was highest in 26-wk-old breeders only at 19 d. Palmitic acid concentration at 17 d was lower in eggs incubated at 53% RH compared with 43 and 63% RH. Rate of yolk uptake from the yolk sac by embryos may be increased by incubating eggs at 53% RH, and the effects of changes in RH between 43 and 63% on yolk lipid content are influenced by breeder age. PMID:11599703

Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Gardner, C W; Brake, J; Bruzual, J J; Gerard, P D



Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma



Information Cul de Sac  

E-print Network

Korea has a "comprehensive official fantasy worldview" which even the smallest of outside information leaks could easily destroy. And so, instead of the information superhighway, North Korea has the information cul de sac. #ceas #hacker #North...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William



Glypican 3 expression in pediatric malignant solid tumors.  


Purpose?Glypican 3 (GPC3) is one of the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that binds to the cell membrane, and it is known as an oncofetal protein in adult malignant tumors. Clinical trials using a GPC3 peptide vaccine have already been started in Japan as a new immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in adult patients. To investigate the possibility of GPC3 immunotherapy for pediatric malignant tumors, we assessed the expression of GPC3 in pediatric malignant tumors. Methods?Immunohistochemically, the GPC3 expression was examined in 159 pediatric solid tumors, including 35 cases of neuroblastoma, 30 cases of Wilms tumor, 10 cases of hepatoblastoma, 25 cases of germ cell tumors, 56 cases of rhabdomyosarcoma, and 3 cases of other tumors. In addition, to clarify the physiological expression during the fetal to neoinfantile period, autopsy specimens of subjects without any neoplastic diseases were assessed in 9 fetal cases and 21 neoinfantile cases. The serum levels of GPC3 were also analyzed using specimens obtained from 53 subjects by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results?Histologically, a high rate of GPC3 expression was noted in 10 (90.9%) of the 11 subjects with yolk sac tumors and 6 (60.0%) of the 10 subjects with hepatoblastoma. In addition, 9 (30.0%) of the 30 subjects with Wilms tumors and 14 (25.0%) of the 56 subjects with rhabdomyosarcoma were positive for the expression of GPC3. Concerning autopsy specimens, most of the 23 subjects younger than 7 months showed positive findings in the liver (94.7%) and kidney (81.8%). Two subjects (100%) with yolk sac tumors and six (75.0%) of the eight subjects with hepatoblastoma serologically demonstrated a high rate of positive expression. Concerning the distribution of the serum GPC3 level according to age, 8 (80.0%) of the 10 subjects younger than 1?year showed a positive finding, while only 16 (37.3%) of the 43 subjects older than 1?year showed a positive finding. Conclusion?Most cases of hepatoblastoma and yolk sac tumor, and some cases of other tumors were found to express GPC3 either histologically or serologically. On the other hand, GPC3 was physiologically expressed during the fetal and neoinfantile period under 1?year of age. Although, more preliminary data and experience are required, patients older than 1?year that show a positive finding for GPC3 are considered to be appropriate candidates to receive the new immunotherapy using GPC3 peptide vaccination. PMID:25344940

Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Sakura; Souzaki, Ryota; Miyoshi, Kina; Kohashi, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakatsura, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Tomoaki



Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.  

PubMed Central

Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H



Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.  


Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H



A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François



Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6, and their potential downstream effectors in ovarian germ cell tumors.  


Ovarian germ cell tumors (GCTs) are histologically heterogeneous neoplasms originating from activated germ cells, the oocyte stem cells. These rare tumors often contain many different tissues mixed together, and malignant components are occasionally hidden within benign tissues thus complicating the diagnosis. The reasons for the variable differentiation of germ cells are still largely unknown. As transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 as well as their downstream factors (e.g. HNF-4, BMP-2 and Ihh) are essential for normal yolk sac development, we studied their expression in 19 ovarian GCTs. Endodermal markers were expressed distinctively in different GCT types. The malignant endoderm in yolk sac tumors expressed all factors of endodermal development included in the study. Dysgerminomas, on the contrary, expressed only GATA-4 and, in a minority of cases, Ihh and BMP-2. The results suggest that GATA-4 and GATA-6 detected in the ovarian GCTs have retained their normal function. The fact that GATA-6 and HNF-4 are expressed exclusively in endodermal tissues indicates that these transcription factors play a role in the differentiation of germ cells towards the endodermal phenotype. Analysis of the nuclear transcription factors in tumor tissue could serve as a new informative diagnostic tool for ovarian GCTs. PMID:16110260

Mannisto, Susanna; Butzow, Ralf; Salonen, Jonna; Leminen, Arto; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Heikinheimo, Markku



Yolk size and ovulation order determine fertility within double-yolked duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) eggs.  


Herein we examined the effects of yolk size and ovulation order on the fertilisation of yolks within double-yolked (DY) duck eggs. Single-yolked (SY) duck eggs had high fertility (89.98%), whereas in DY duck eggs fertility was low (51.9% yolks). The yolks closer to the airspace (Yolk 1) in DY eggs had higher fertility (68.82% vs 34.98% for Yolk 2; Pn=550) compared with large (?105g) DY eggs (54.56%; n=768; PP=0.003). Although Yolk 2 fertility was low, it was not affected by egg size. DY eggs with zero fertilised yolks were significantly lighter than DY eggs with one (P=0.007) or two (P<0.001) fertilised yolks (i.e. larger DY eggs were more likely to have fertilised yolks). Larger eggs (?105g) have larger yolks and the evidence here shows that an optimal yolk size is a significant positive factor in achieving fertilization by dislodging spermatozoa, after ovulation, from their storage sites. PMID:25109712

Salamon, Attila; Kent, John P



Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Occurrence of glycosphingolipids in chicken egg yolk.  

PubMed Central

Chicken egg yolk was found to contain a unique glycosphingolipid pattern not seen in other types of tissue or cell. These glycosphingolipids were isolated in pure form and their structures established by sequential enzymic hydrolysis and permethylation analysis. The major gangliosides in chicken egg yolk are N-acetylneuraminosylgalactosylceramide, N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide and di-N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide. The only neutral glycosphingolipid found in chicken egg yolk is galactosylceramide. Images Fig. 1. PMID:567981

Li, S C; Chien, J L; Wan, C C; Li, Y T



Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab!  

E-print Network

Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab! Cholesterol (1) is a major component of cell membranes. An egg yolk contains about 200 milligrams of cholesterol, much of it bound as complex lipid. In this experiment, you will purify cholesterol from an egg

Taber, Douglass


Cul-de-Sac Kids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood…

Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.



Pediatric germ cell tumors presenting beyond childhood?  


Four cases are reported meeting the criteria of a pediatric (i.e., Type I) testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT), apart from the age of presentation, which is beyond childhood. The tumors encompass the full spectrum of histologies of pediatric TGCT: teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and various combinations of the two, and lack intratubular germ cell neoplasia/carcinoma in situ in the adjacent parenchyma. The neoplasms are (near)diploid, and lack gain of 12p, typical for seminomas and non-seminomas of the testis of adolescents and adults (i.e., Type II). It is proposed that these neoplasms are therefore late appearing pediatric (Type I) TGCT. The present report broadens the concept of earlier reported benign teratomas of the post-pubertal testis to the full spectrum of pediatric TGCT. The possible wide age range of pediatric TGCT, demonstrated in this study, lends credence to the concept that TGCT should according to their pathogenesis be classified into the previously proposed types. This classification is clinically relevant, because Type I mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are candidates for testis conserving surgery, as opposed to Type II mature teratomas, which have to be treated as Type II (malignant) non-seminomas. PMID:25427839

Oosterhuis, J W; Stoop, J A; Rijlaarsdam, M A; Biermann, K; Smit, V T H B M; Hersmus, R; Looijenga, L H J



Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma manifesting in a hernia sac.  


Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM) is a tumor of uncertain malignant potential that usually occurs as a multifocal lesion of the female peritoneum, and is incidentally found at the time of surgery. We present here a multifocal case that had arisen from the lining of a hernia sac. To our knowledge, only four cases of this event have been previously described. A review of the five cases reported, including our case, revealed that the mean age of the patients was 56.6±8.35 years. There was predominance in men (4:1). In four cases, the lesion was incidental. Most tumors were found in inguinal hernias. Four cases presented with gross abnormalities in the hernia sac. All the five patients were alive with no evidence of WDPM after a mean follow-up of 38.6 months. Extensive sampling of this rare lesion helps to rule out an epithelial malignant mesothelioma and prevents overtreatment. PMID:24860916

Val-Bernal, José Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Val, Daniel; Garijo, María Francisca



Occult oncocytoma of the lacrimal sac.  


Oncocytoma of the lacrimal sac is a rarely encountered clinical entity. We report the case of a 72-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have bilateral nasolacrimal duct obstruction during a pre-cataract surgery screening. Subsequently, she underwent bilateral dacryocystectomy. Histopathological examination of the left lacrimal sac revealed a tumour composed of acini lined by oncocytic cells; features consistent with those of a lacrimal sac oncocytoma. Although rare, oncocytomas arising from the lacrimal sac may co-exist with a nasolacrimal duct obstruction. This report describes the histological and immunochemistry characteristics of oncocytomas and underscores the need to subject all excised lacrimal sacs to histopathological examination. PMID:24526865

Mulay, Kaustubh; Nair, Akshay; Honavar, Santosh G



Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and...Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food...required by the applicable sections of parts 101 and...



21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...



21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...are pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment...or other treatment to render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...



21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...are pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment...or other treatment to render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...



21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.  

...are pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment...or other treatment to render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...



21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...are pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment...or other treatment to render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...



Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.



Primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac: the first reported case  

PubMed Central

Primary lacrimal sac tumor is extremely rare, and moreover, glandular tumor is exceptional. Herein, we described the first documented case of primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac. A 79-year-old Japanese female presented with persistent swelling of her left lower eyelid. Computed tomography demonstrated an irregular-shaped tumor involving the left lacrimal sac, lower eyelid, sinonasal tract, and internal side of the left orbit. Biopsy from the eyelid revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Histopathological study of the resected lacrimal sac tumor revealed an infiltrative neoplastic growth that was composed of cribriform structures with comedonecrosis. The neoplastic cells had relatively rich granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and large round to oval nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli. The left cervical lymph nodes had metastatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 and androgen receptor. Moreover, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 4E-BP1, and p4E-BP1 were expressed. According to these results, an ultimate diagnosis of primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac was made. Only 9 cases of primary lacrimal sac adenocarcinoma have been reported, and this is the first reported case of ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland shows an aggressive clinical course, and the present case had multiple cervical lymph node metastases. This report is the first to demonstrate that mTOR pathway proteins, which are central proteins involved in carcinogenesis, are activated in ductal adenocarcinoma. Therefore, mTOR inhibitor may be a potential candidate for treatment of this highly aggressive carcinoma. PMID:24040460

Ishida, Mitsuaki; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Kohzaki, Hideaki; Arikata, Masahiko; Shimizu, Takeshi; Okabe, Hidetoshi



Two Case Reports of a Malignant Germ Cell Tumor of Ovary and a Granulosa Cell Tumor: Interest of Tumoral Immunochemistry in the Identification and Management  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this article, we present two case reports. The first case was a malignant germ cell tumor of the right ovary in a 23-year old woman and the second case was a bilateral undifferentiated granulosa cell tumor in a 71-year old woman. The aim of these reports is to illustrate the interest of the immunohistochemical analysis to define the correct diagnosis, to better classify these ovarian tumors and improve their management. Methods: In this study, we report two cases. The first case concerns a 23-year old woman (A) with a mixed germ cell tumor of the right ovary [dysgerminoma (75%), yolk sac tumor (20%), and a mature teratoma (5%)], and the second case concerns a 71-year old woman (B) with a bilateral non-differentiated and necrotic granulosa cell tumor of both ovaries. The staging system was used according to both the classifications: International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1987 for ovarian cancer and TNM code 2009. Results: The immunostaining establishes the malignancy and the immunochemistry contributes to confirm effectively the right diagnosis (Tables 2 and 3). Conclusion: An immunohistochemical analysis is mandatory for the choice of chemotherapy to obtain a better response of the disease and improve the survival prognosis. The efficiency of the chemotherapy authorizes a conservative surgery including a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy preserving fertility (A). Concerning the non-dysgerminoma tumor (B), and after a surgical staging and debulking, chemotherapy was recommended. The type of tumor and its histological feature conditioned the choice of treatment. The benefit of the immunohistological analysis in this case allowed the right adjuvant treatment. PMID:24982844

Bouquet de Jolinière, J.; Ben Ali, N.; Fadhlaoui, A.; Dubuisson, J. B.; Guillou, L.; Sutter, A.; Betticher, D.; Hoogewoud, H. M.; Feki, A.



RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in  

E-print Network

RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in Eggs of the Lizard, Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination, yolk testosterone (T) concentration is greater in male previous studies. If yolk T levels are also sex-specific before eggs are laid, a period during which

Wade, Juli


Sisters of the sinuses: cetacean air sacs.  


This overview assesses some distinguishing features of the cetacean (whale, dolphin, porpoise) air sac system that may relate to the anatomy and function of the paranasal sinuses in terrestrial mammals. The cetacean respiratory tract has been modified through evolution to accommodate living in water. Lack of paranasal sinuses in modern cetaceans may be a diving adaptation. Bone-enclosed air chambers are detrimental, as their rigid walls may fracture during descent/ascent due to contracting/re-expanding air volumes. Flexible-walled "sinuses" (extracranial diverticula) are a logical adaptation to diving. Odontocetes (toothed whales) exhibit several pairs of paranasal air sacs. Although fossil evidence indicates that paranasal sinuses occur in archaeocetes (ancestors/relatives of living cetaceans), it is not known whether the paranasal sacs derive from these sinuses. Sac pigmentation indicates that they derived from invaginations of the integument. Unlike sinuses, paranasal sacs are not circumferentially enclosed in bone, and therefore can accommodate air volume changes that accompany diving pressure changes. Paired pterygoid sacs, located ventrally along the cetacean skull, connect the pharynx and middle ear cavities. Mysticetes (baleen whales) have a large midline laryngeal sac. Although cetacean air sacs do not appear to be homologous to paranasal sinuses, they may serve some analogous respiratory, vocal, or structural functions. For example, these sacs may participate in gas exchange, thermoregulation, resonance, and skeletal pneumatization. In addition, they may subserve unique aquatic functions, such as increasing inspiratory volume, mitigating pressure-induced volume change, air shunting to reduce respiratory dead space, and facilitating underwater sound production and transmission. PMID:18951477

Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T



Rhodocyclus Gelatinosus Biomass for Egg Yolk Pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Biomass of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodocyclus gelatinosus was used at different levels in laying hens' rations as a xanthophyll source. Sixty-four hens were used in the experiment that investigated the effects of different biomass concentrations on weight gain, egg production, egg weight, and yolk color as compared with a control group that received no biomass supplementation in the ration.

E. H. G. Ponsano; M. F. Pinto; M. Garcia Neto; P. M. Lacava


Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.



SAC Minutes Wednesday, Nov 14, 2012  

E-print Network

the booking of the Norm on Monday, Jan 21 from 5pm - midnight by Association of Latin American Students and they will have photography there." ...Tabled OTHER BUSINESS FOLLOW-UP Philip to get in touch with Alishia on SAC

Pulfrey, David L.


Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac.  


A well-differentiated, oncocytic adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac recurred locally in a patient during a period of 13 years. This appears to be the second documented instance of such a neoplasm. PMID:629677

Peretz, W L; Ettinghausen, S E; Gray, G F



Waterside Stress Assisted Corrosion (SAC) of Boiler Tubes  

E-print Network

Waterside Stress Assisted Corrosion (SAC) of Boiler Tubes School of Materials Science Boiler Areas Susceptible to SAC · Generally SAC initiates near weld joints on cold side of tubes · SAC cracks are difficult to detect inaccessibility · Failures Detected at Various Locations in Boilers

Das, Suman


Systemic Par-4 inhibits non-autochthonous tumor growth  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor protein Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells. Extracellular Par-4 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell cultures by binding, via its effector SAC domain, to cell surface GRP78 receptor. However, the functional significance of extracellular Par-4/SAC has not been validated in animal models. We show that Par-4/SAC-transgenic mice express systemic Par-4/SAC protein and are resistant to the growth of non-autochthonous tumors. Consistently, secretory Par-4/SAC pro-apoptotic activity can be transferred from these cancer-resistant transgenic mice to cancer-susceptible mice by bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, intravenous injection of recombinant Par-4 or SAC protein inhibits metastasis of cancer cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that extracellular Par-4/SAC is systemically functional in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis progression, and may merit investigation as a therapy. PMID:21613819

Brandon, Jason; Qiu, Shirley; Shelton, Brent J; Spear, Brett; Bondada, Subbarao; Bryson, Scott



SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

Gulich, J. M.; White, C.



Temporally separated bilateral anal sac gland carcinomas in four dogs.  


Anal sac gland carcinoma arising from the apocrine secretory epithelium in the anal sac wall, is locally invasive and highly metastatic. The majority of anal sac gland carcinomas are unilateral on presentation, but bilateral tumours have been identified. This case series presents the outcome of four unique cases of unilateral anal sac gland carcinoma which subsequently developed contralateral anal sac gland carcinoma 50 to 390 days after removal of the initial tumour. Median survival was 1035 days after initial diagnosis and 807 days after diagnosis of the second anal sac gland carcinoma. PMID:23659267

Bowlt, K L; Friend, E J; Delisser, P; Murphy, S; Polton, G



Androgen-Receptor Positive Lacrimal Sac Adenocarcinoma Demonstrating Long-Lasting Response to LHRH Analog Plus Abiraterone Treatment  

PubMed Central

Tumors arising at the lacrimal sac are extremely rare, as a limited number of cases have been reported worldwide. They are commonly primary and the majority of them are malignant and epithelial in origin. Adenocarcinomas account for a small percentage of these tumors. Treatment of local disease mainly includes complete surgical resection. However, metastatic disease has a poor prognosis and the development of new treatment strategies is highly important. Research efforts mainly focus on the identification of molecular targets for therapy. Herein, we describe for the first time a case of a patient with an androgen receptor expressing adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac that had an impressive response to abiraterone.

Vagia, Elena; Economopoulou, Panagiota; Oikonomopoulos, Nikolaos; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, George; Psyrri, Amanda



Testicular and paratesticular tumors and tumor-like lesions in the first 2 decades.  


The spectrum of testicular tumors and tumor-like lesions that affect young patients (defined for purposes of this article as less than 20 years old) differs significantly from that in an older age group. Although germ cell tumors remain the single largest category, they are a smaller proportion than in adults. Furthermore the pathogenesis and behavior of comparably named germ cell tumors differ depending on whether or not they have developed in prepubertal or postpubertal patients. This is most apparent for the teratomas, which are almost uniformly benign in children but, with some notable exceptions, malignant in the older patients. But even the most common malignant tumor of the testis in children, the yolk sac tumor, despite its identical morphology, lacks the association with other germ cell tumor types, including intratubular germ cell neoplasia, and more aggressive behavior that typify the adult tumors. Among the sex cord-stromal tumors, the juvenile granulosa cell tumor predominates in children, mostly occurs in those under 1-year old, and, for all intents and purposes, is not seen in the postpubertal period. It has a distinctive morphology and, to date, a uniformly benign outcome. There are additional tumors in the sex cord-stromal group that are mostly seen in young patients, including the large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor and intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia. The former is sometimes associated with the Carney syndrome and, to date, all of the latter with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subtypes of lymphomas and leukemias that involve the testis in children are rare in older patients, and similar remarks pertain to the metastatic tumors, where neuroblastoma (especially) and Wilms? tumor are most common but may be mimicked by primary tumors originating in the paratestis. The pseudoneoplastic lesion, the testicular "tumor" of the adrenogenital syndrome, is usually found in young patients and bears a strong resemblance to the Leydig cell tumor, although there are features that allow its distinction, which is important given its frequently bilateral nature and amenability to medical management through glucocorticoid administration. One of the preferential sites for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the paratestis of young patients, where the spindle cell variant predominates. The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor (retinal anlage tumor) usually occurs in the first year of life, typically involves the epididymis, and uncommonly metastasizes. Occasional cases of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor present in the paratestis of teenagers, and some distinctive tumor-like lesions of the paratestis may also be seen, including meconium periorchitis and splenic-gonadal fusion (occupying both testis and paratestis). These tumors and tumor-like lesions and many others are discussed in this review with the hope it will provide the diagnostic pathologist aid in recognizing the lesions and providing some insight into their clinical significance. PMID:25440720

Ulbright, Thomas M; Young, Robert H



13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE


68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE


SAC Minutes Thursday, July 26, 2012  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTIONS The chair was passed to Adam Melhem at 4:31pm. 2. PRESENTATIONS The Knitting and Sewing Club CLARKE MCCORKELL: "BE IT RESOLVED THAT SAC approve the constitution of Knitting and Sewing Club as an AMS club." *started as social knitting group in Totem last year. ...Carried MOVED ADAM MELHEM, SECONDED

Pulfrey, David L.


SAC Tax Help Prepared Feb. 2010  

E-print Network

1 SAC Tax Help Prepared Feb. 2010 Disclaimer: We are not tax experts, and cannot be held responsible for your tax forms. (neither can DBBS, WashU, etc...) 1 Taxes for international students Go to for tax information from the Office for International

Doering, Tamara


SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 24, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Wednesday, Oct 24, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 3:00pm Attendance: Adam Melhem, Alishia Adam, Caroline Wong, Elaine Kuo, Clarke Mccorkell, Kathleen Handfield, Barnabas Caro, Philip He, Jeffrey Smith with athletics Adam and Nicola to follow up with club regarding finances 3. MOVED ALISHIA ADAM, SECONDED PHILIP

Pulfrey, David L.


SAC Minutes Thursday, January 12, 2012  

E-print Network

SAC Minutes Thursday, January 12, 2012 SUB ROOM 266J, 5:00 pm Attendance: Elaine Kuo, Audrey, 2011." ...Carried The chair was passed to AUDREY GARDINER. 5. BOOKINGS The chair was passed to AUDREY stay overnight in the SUB? Please see the attached email for more info. ...Carried MOVED AUDREY

Pulfrey, David L.


Adult alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the lacrimal sac.  


Lacrimal sac tumours are rare, but must be considered in the diagnosis of patients presenting with masses in the medial canthal region. We report a single case of lacrimal sac rhabdomyosarcoma in a 31-year-old man. The patient self-presented to the eye department with a 4-week history of discomfort, epiphora and a medial canthal mass. After no response to 1 week of oral antibiotics for a presumed diagnosis of dacryocystitis and the presence of firm mass extending above the medial canthal tendon, surgical exploration was carried out which revealed a lacrimal sac mass. Histologically this showed an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, which was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. After 4 rounds of chemotherapy and 50.4Gy of radical radiotherapy, the patient is well with no signs of further local or distant disease at 11-months follow-up and 20 months following initial diagnosis. To our knowledge, there are no previously reported adult cases of lacrimal sac alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the peer-reviewed literature. We want to highlight the unique diagnosis in this case as well as drawing attention to the possibility of malignancy in patients responding poorly to management when an initial diagnosis of dacryocystitis is made in the presence of a medial canthal mass. PMID:25207922

Neffendorf, James E; Bagdonaite, Laura; Mudhar, Hardeep S; Pearson, Andrew R



Hernia sacs: is histological examination necessary?  


The hernia sac is a common surgical pathology specimen which can occasionally yield unexpected diagnoses. The College of American Pathologists recommends microscopic examination of abdominal hernias, but leaves submission of inguinal hernias for histology to the discretion of the pathologist. To validate this approach at a tertiary care centre, we retrospectively reviewed 1426 hernia sacs derived from inguinal, femoral and abdominal wall hernias. The majority of pathologies noted were known to the clinician, including herniated bowel, lipomas and omentum. A malignancy was noted in three of 800 inguinal hernias and seven of 576 abdominal wall hernias; five of these lesions were not seen on gross examination. Other interesting findings in hernia sacs included appendices, endometriosis, a perivascular epithelioid cell tumour, and pseudomyxoma peritoneii. All hernia sacs should be examined grossly as most pathologies are grossly visible. The decision to submit inguinal hernias for histology may be left to the discretion of the pathologist, but abdominal and femoral hernias should be submitted for histology. PMID:23794497

Wang, Tao; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar




E-print Network

1 UNIVERSITY SECRETARIAT STUDENT APPEALS How to Appeal to SAC #12;2 ACADEMIC APPEALS INFORMATION who are considering appealing a petition, reappraisal or academic honesty decision to the Senate Appeals Committee from their Faculty Council. It is intended to answer general questions that students may


A Rare Case of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour: Clinicopathologic Study and Surgical Management  

PubMed Central

Objective. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising from the intrapetrous portion of the endolymphatic sac, either isolated or in association with the von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a sporadic case of ELST with an overview of the literature and a discussion of clinic-radiological, histopathologic, and surgical findings. Case Report. A young woman presented with a progressive hearing loss in the left ear. Otoscopy showed a reddish, bleeding hypotympanic mass. CT demonstrated an expansile lytic mastoid lesion extending to the middle ear, with bone erosion. MRI confirmed a lesion of increased signal on T1-weighted sequences. The patient underwent a canal wall-down tympanoplasty with complete removal of the tumor. Histopathology was consistent with a papillary ELST. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and chromogranin A. Conclusion. This paper highlights the rarity of ELST, the need for an accurate neuroradiological and immunohistochemical study at the early stages, and the timeliness of surgical treatment. PMID:24991442

Ferri, Emanuele; Amadori, Maurizio; Armato, Enrico; Pavon, Ida



Aquarius/SAC-D Educational Wall Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a poster about the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission, with an image depicting the satellite in orbit. The back of the poster describes the mission's scientific goals and benefits, including the scientific value of maps of sea surface salinity. The Hands On Activities & Online Data Tools panel gives an overview of the classroom lessons and tools that are available on the mission website.


Cecal bascule herniation into the lesser sac  

PubMed Central

Cecal bascule is a rare cause of bowel obstruction in which a mobile cecum folds anteriorly and superiorly over the ascending colon. Herein, we present the first case of internal herniation of a cecal bascule into the lesser sac through the foramen of winslow, aiming at discussing radiological findings, differential diagnosis, and surgical management of this uncommon condition. A 75-year-old female presented to the emergency room with an 18-h history of sudden onset sharp, progressively worsening abdominal pain associated with vomiting. Physical exam revealed abdominal distention and epigastric tenderness while initial laboratory tests were unremarkable. Computed tomography of her abdomen and pelvis showed a loop of distended colon within lesser sac without signs of bowel ischemia or perforation. On exploratory laparotomy, a cecal bascule was found herniating into lesser sac via foramen of winslow. Upon reduction, the cecum appeared viable therefore a cecopexy was performed without bowel resection. Unlike cecal volvulus, cecal bascule consists of no axial rotation of the bowel with no mesenteric vascular compromise and therefore ischemia would only occur from intraluminal tension or extraluminal compression from the borders of foramen of winslow. The management of internal herniation of a cecal bascule is always surgical including anatomic resection or cecopexy. PMID:25516868

Makarawo, Tafadzwa; Macedo, Francisco Igor; Jacobs, Michael J



Cecal bascule herniation into the lesser sac.  


Cecal bascule is a rare cause of bowel obstruction in which a mobile cecum folds anteriorly and superiorly over the ascending colon. Herein, we present the first case of internal herniation of a cecal bascule into the lesser sac through the foramen of winslow, aiming at discussing radiological findings, differential diagnosis, and surgical management of this uncommon condition. A 75-year-old female presented to the emergency room with an 18-h history of sudden onset sharp, progressively worsening abdominal pain associated with vomiting. Physical exam revealed abdominal distention and epigastric tenderness while initial laboratory tests were unremarkable. Computed tomography of her abdomen and pelvis showed a loop of distended colon within lesser sac without signs of bowel ischemia or perforation. On exploratory laparotomy, a cecal bascule was found herniating into lesser sac via foramen of winslow. Upon reduction, the cecum appeared viable therefore a cecopexy was performed without bowel resection. Unlike cecal volvulus, cecal bascule consists of no axial rotation of the bowel with no mesenteric vascular compromise and therefore ischemia would only occur from intraluminal tension or extraluminal compression from the borders of foramen of winslow. The management of internal herniation of a cecal bascule is always surgical including anatomic resection or cecopexy. PMID:25516868

Makarawo, Tafadzwa; Macedo, Francisco Igor; Jacobs, Michael J



Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we study the self-diffusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diffusion coefficients D^0s for the shells and D^0y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of effective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diffusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We find that the yolks, which have no effect on the shell-shell static structure, influence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.



Improved avian influenza virus isolation rates from wild waterfowl cloacal swabs using yolk sac inoculation of embryonating chicken egg  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Avian influenza virus (AIV) remains of interest to researchers as a pathogen that infects many economically important bird species. Asymptomatic wild birds, such as waterfowl species, can shed virus and spread it to domestic poultry, where it can cause severe damage. Effective laboratory methods t...


A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.



Tissue AP-2gamma and Oct-3/4, and serum CA 125 as diagnostic and prognostic markers of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.  


Histology, clinical stage and treatment response are used to define the prognosis of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs). However, additional biological tools to guide treatment in MOGCTs would be desirable. We evaluated the prognostic value of several serum and tissue markers in MOGCTs. Medical charts of 30 women were reviewed as regards preoperative and treatment-related factors, with a mean follow-up time of 92 months (range 2-205). Serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and CA 125 were determined, and immunohistochemistry for CA 125 as well as the pluripotent stem cell markers AP-2gamma and Oct-3/4 was performed in tumor specimens and the NCC-IT human germinoma cell line. Overall survival was 73%. Elevated preoperative levels of serum CA 125 were prognostic of progressive disease (p<0.05). Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that in most cases the elevated CA 125 levels originated from the tumor tissue. Most dysgerminomas as well as the germinoma cell line were positive for AP-2gamma and Oct-3/4, whereas the majority of yolk sac tumors and immature teratomas were negative. Taken together, increased preoperative serum CA 125 levels indicate poor prognosis of MOGCTs. Tissue AP-2gamma and Oct-3/4 are associated with dysgerminomas and can thus be used as additional differential diagnostic tools in MOGCTs. PMID:18497549

Salonen, Jonna; Leminen, Arto; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Butzow, Ralf; Heikinheimo, Markku; Heikinheimo, Oskari



Specific Lignin Accumulation in Granulated Juice Sacs of Citrus maxima.  


Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed. PMID:25419620

Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming



21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...



Composition, accumulation and utilization of yolk lipids in teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid reserves in teleost eggs are stored in lipoprotein yolk and, in some species, a discrete oil globule. Lipoprotein yolk lipids are primarily polar lipids, especially phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and are rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Oil consists of neutral lipids and is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Egg lipids are derived

Murray D. Wiegand



Air sac adenocarcinoma of the sternum in a Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).  


Respiratory neoplasia is rarely reported in avian species. A 17-yr-old Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus) was admitted with a 2-wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass in the left pectoral muscle. Radiology showed a mass silhouetting the heart and the liver. Supportive treatment was provided, but the bird died during the seventh weekly visit to drain thoracic cavity fluid. Necropsy showed a white, 3 x 3 x 2-cm, hard, gritty sternal mass. Histology showed a nonencapsulated, moderately differentiated air sac carcinoma of the sternum. Immunohistochemically the neoplasm was cytokeratin positive and vimentin and calretinin negative. This is the first report of an air sac neoplasia in a Quaker parrot and one of few respiratory tumors in psittacines. PMID:25632693

Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Micco, Teresa; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S



Open Reintervention for Aneurysmal Sac Enlargement after EVAR  

PubMed Central

We performed a late open reintervention for aneurysmal sac enlargement due to persistent type 2 endoleak (PT2EL) after EVAR for 8 of 286 patients. Surgical techniques are as follows: (1) The entire aneurysmal body was exposed. (2) All the aortic branched vessels were ligated. (3) The aneurysmal sac was opened followed by the performance of complete hemostasis. (4) An equine pericardium was wrapped and sutured to the aneurysmal sac to for reinforcement. This method is considered to be one of the feasible options for the treatment of aneurysmal sac re-enlargement after EVAR. PMID:25298845

Hiraoka, Arudo; Hirai, Yuuki; Tamura, Kentaro; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Ishida, Atsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Yoshitaka, Hidenori



Whisker Formation on SAC305 Soldered Assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the results of a whisker formation study on SAC305 assemblies, evaluating the effects of lead-frame materials and cleanliness in different environments: low-stress simulated power cycling (50-85°C thermal cycling), thermal shock (-55°C to 85°C), and high temperature/high humidity (85°C/85% RH). Cleaned and contaminated small outline transistors, large leaded quad flat packs (QFP), plastic leaded chip carrier packages, and solder balls with and without rare earth elements (REE) were soldered to custom designed test boards with Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. After assembly, all the boards were cleaned, and half of them were recontaminated (1.56 µg/cm2 Cl-). Whisker length, diameter, and density were measured. Detailed metallurgical analysis on components before assembly and on solder joints before and after testing was performed. It was found that whiskers grow from solder joint fillets, where the thickness is less than 25 µm, unless REE was present. The influence of lead-frame and solder ball material, microstructure, cleanliness, and environment on whisker characteristics is discussed. This article provides detailed metallurgical observations and select whisker length data obtained during this multiyear testing program.

Meschter, S.; Snugovsky, P.; Bagheri, Z.; Kosiba, E.; Romansky, M.; Kennedy, J.; Snugovsky, L.; Perovic, D.



Cytochemical characterization of yolk granule acid phosphatase during early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a cytochemical method and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine acid phosphatase activities of yolk granules throughout the early developmental stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic change of yolk granule acid phosphatase, and the mechanisms underlying its involvement in yolk degradation during the early developmental stages of molluscs. Three types of yolk granules (YGI, YGII, and YGIII) that differed in electron density and acid phosphatase reaction were identified in early cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, trochophore, and veliger stages. The morphological heterogeneities of the yolk granules were related to acid phosphatase activity and degrees of yolk degradation, indicating the association of acid phosphatase with yolk degradation in embryos and larvae of molluscs. Fusion of yolk granules was observed during embryogenesis and larval development of C. gigas. The fusion of YGI (free of acid phosphatase reaction) with YGII (rich in acid phosphatase reaction) could be the way by which yolk degradation is triggered.

Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Dongchun; Wang, Lei



Glipizide, an antidiabetic drug, suppresses tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis.  


Angiogenesis is involved in the development, progression and metastasis of various human cancers. Herein, we report the discovery of glipizide, a widely used drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, as a promising anticancer agent through the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. By high-throughput screening (HTS) of an FDA approved drug library utilizing our in vivo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and yolk sac membrane (YSM) models, glipizide has been identified to significantly inhibit blood vessel formation and development. Moreover, glipizide was found to suppress tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis using xenograft tumor and MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse models. We further revealed that the anticancer capability of glipizide is not attributed to its antiproliferative effects, which are not significant against various human cancer cell lines. To investigate whether its anticancer efficacy is associated with the glucose level alteration induced by glipizide application, glimepiride, another medium to long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug in the same class, was employed for the comparison studies in the same fashion. Interestingly, glimepiride has demonstrated no significant impact on the tumor growth and metastasis, indicating that the anticancer effects of glipizide is not ascribed to its antidiabetic properties. Furthermore, glipizide suppresses endothelial cell migration and the formation of tubular structures, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis by up-regulating the expression of natriuretic peptide receptor A. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of glipizide as a potential cancer therapy, and also for the first time, provide direct evidence to support that treatment with glipizide may reduce the cancer risk for diabetic patients. PMID:25294818

Qi, Cuiling; Zhou, Qin; Li, Bin; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liu; Ye, Yuxiang; Li, Jiangchao; Ding, Yi; Wang, Huiping; Wang, Jintao; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Li, Weidong; Song, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Lijing



CYP1A Induction and Blue SAC Disease in Early Developmental Stages of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Exposed to Retene.  


Early life stages of rainbow trout were exposed to different regimes of water-borne retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) to determine if there is an ontogenic stage particularly sensitive to retene toxicity, and if cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) induction is a forerunner to blue sac disease (BSD), the syndrome of toxicity. CYP1A protein concentrations, measured by immunohistochemistry, were first detected during organogenesis, when organ and enzyme systems are first being developed, and steadily increased until swim-up. The prevalence of signs of BSD rose 1 wk following a marked increase in CYP1A activity after hatch, suggesting that CYP1A induction is related to BSD. The larval stage was the most sensitive to retene toxicity, based on CYP1A induction and a high prevalence of BSD. The most common signs of BSD were hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and mortality, but hemorrhaging was the first and most frequently observed response. Tissue concentrations of retene were elevated just after fertilization, but decreased steadily as fish developed to the swim-up stage, most likely due to the establishment of more efficient metabolic and excretory systems in later stages of development. PMID:12746134

Brinkworth, Lyndon; Hodson, Peter; Tabash, Samir; Lee, Patricia



CYP1A induction and blue sac disease in early developmental stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) exposed to retene.  


Early life stages of rainbow trout were exposed to different regimes of water-borne retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) to determine if there is an ontogenic stage particularly sensitive to retene toxicity, and if cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) induction is a forerunner to blue sac disease (BSD), the syndrome of toxicity. CYP1A protein concentrations, measured by immunohistochemistry, were first detected during organogenesis, when organ and enzyme systems are first being developed, and steadily increased until swim-up. The prevalence of signs of BSD rose 1 wk following a marked increase in CYP1A activity after hatch, suggesting that CYP1A induction is related to BSD. The larval stage was the most sensitive to retene toxicity, based on CYP1A induction and a high prevalence of BSD. The most common signs of BSD were hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and mortality, but hemorrhaging was the first and most frequently observed response. Tissue concentrations of retene were elevated just after fertilization, but decreased steadily as fish developed to the swim-up stage, most likely due to the establishment of more efficient metabolic and excretory systems in later stages of development. PMID:12751390

Brinkworth, Lyndon C; Hodson, Peter V; Tabash, Samir; Lee, Patricia



Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction  

PubMed Central

The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14–16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction in maize. PMID:25566277

Wang, Shuai Shuai; Wang, Fang; Tan, Su Jian; Wang, Ming Xiu; Sui, Na; Zhang, Xian Sheng



Arf tumor suppressor and miR-205 regulate cell adhesion and formation of extraembryonic endoderm from pluripotent stem cells.  


Induction of the Arf tumor suppressor (encoded by the alternate reading frame of the Cdkn2a locus) following oncogene activation engages a p53-dependent transcriptional program that limits the expansion of incipient cancer cells. Although the p19(Arf) protein is not detected in most tissues of fetal or young adult mice, it is physiologically expressed in the fetal yolk sac, a tissue derived from the extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn). Expression of the mouse p19(Arf) protein marks late stages of ExEn differentiation in cultured embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from either embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. Arf inactivation delays differentiation of the ExEn lineage within EBs, but not the formation of other germ cell lineages from pluripotent progenitors. Arf is required for the timely induction of ExEn cells in response to Ras/Erk signaling and, in turn, acts through p53 to ensure the development, but not maintenance, of the ExEn lineage. Remarkably, a significant temporal delay in ExEn differentiation detected during the maturation of Arf-null EBs is rescued by enforced expression of mouse microRNA-205 (miR-205), a microRNA up-regulated by p19(Arf) and p53 that controls ExEn cell migration and adhesion. The noncanonical and canonical roles of Arf in ExEn development and tumor suppression, respectively, may be conceptually linked through mechanisms that govern cell attachment and migration. PMID:23487795

Li, Chunliang; Finkelstein, David; Sherr, Charles J



Yolk hydrolases in the eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a role for inorganic polyphosphate towards yolk mobilization.  


Despite being the main insect pest on soybean crops in the Americas, very few studies have approached the general biology of the lepidopteran Anticarsia gemmatalis and there is a paucity of studies with embryo formation and yolk mobilization in this species. In the present work, we identified an acid phosphatase activity in the eggs of A. gemmatalis (agAP) that we further characterized by means of biochemistry and cell biology experiments. By testing several candidate substrates, this enzyme proved chiefly active with phosphotyrosine; in vitro assays suggested a link between agAP activity and dephosphorylation of egg yolk phosphotyrosine. We also detected strong activity with endogenous and exogenous short chain polyphosphates (PolyP), which are polymers of phosphate residues involved in a number of physiological processes. Both agAP activity and PolyP were shown to initially concentrate in small vesicles clearly distinct from typically larger yolk granules, suggesting subcellular compartmentalization. As PolyP has been implicated in inhibition of yolk proteases, we performed in vitro enzymatic assays with a cysteine protease to test whether it would be inhibited by PolyP. This cysteine protease is prominent in Anticarsia egg homogenates. Accordingly, short chain PolyP was a potent inhibitor of cysteine protease. We thereby suggest that PolyP hydrolysis by agAP is a triggering mechanism of yolk mobilization in A. gemmatalis. PMID:24140472

Oliveira, Danielle M P; Gomes, Fabio M; Carvalho, Danielle B; Ramos, Isabela; Carneiro, Alan B; Silva-Neto, Mario A C; de Souza, Wanderley; Lima, Ana P C A; Miranda, Kildare; Machado, Ednildo A



Yolk steroid hormones and sex determination in reptiles with TSD.  


In reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the temperature at which the eggs are incubated determines the sex of the offspring. The molecular switch responsible for determining sex in these species has not yet been elucidated. We have examined the dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during embryonic development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, and the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and have found that yolk estradiol (E(2)) responds differentially to incubation temperature in both of these reptiles. Based upon recently reported roles for E(2) in modulation of steroidogenic factor 1, a transcription factor known to be significant in the sex differentiation process, we hypothesize that yolk E(2) is a link between temperature and the gene expression pathway responsible for sex determination and differentiation in at least some of these species. Here we review the evidence that supports our hypothesis. PMID:12849957

Elf, P K




PubMed Central

A description of the fine structure of the yolk of the unincubated hen's egg has been provided, which will serve as a basis for further studies on yolk digestion. The gross components of the yolk (that is, free-floating lipid drops, yellow and white yolk spheres together with their enclosed lipid subdroplets, and aqueous protein fluid) could be recognized by phase contrast and low power electron microscopy. The majority of the lipid drops, whether free floating or enclosed within yolk spheres, were composed of particles about 30 to 60 A in diameter. The protein component of the yolk was found to consist of round profiles about 250 A in diameter. The surfaces of the yolk spheres were of three types, and it is difficult to decide which represents the true structure although reasons are given for believing that yolk spheres are not normally enclosed by membranes identical with cell membranes. PMID:13866859

Bellairs, Ruth



The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.  


1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology. PMID:24783946

Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B



Chromosome X-encoded Cancer/Testis antigens are less frequently expressed in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors than in seminomas  

PubMed Central

Cancer/Testis (CT) antigens are normally only expressed in germ cells and yet are aberrantly activated in a wide variety of human cancers. Most chromosome X-encoded CT antigens (CT-X) show restricted expression in pre-meiotic germ cells in adult testis, except for the expression of SPANX in post-meiotic germ cells. In the present study, the expression of eight CT-X antigens (MAGE-A, NY-ESO-1, GAGE, MAGE-C1/CT7, MAGE-C2/CT10, CT45, SAGE1, and SPANX) in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors was evaluated immunohistochemically, including 24 embryonal carcinomas, 20 yolk sac tumors, 9 teratomas, and 3 choriocarcinomas, and the results were compared to our previous study of 77 classic seminomas and 2 spermatocytic seminomas. SPANX was not detected in any germ cell tumors tested. Spermatocytic seminoma showed strong expression of all CT-X antigens tested (except SPANX), reflecting their origin from adult CT-Xpositive pre-meiotic germ cells. Classic seminomas, originating from prenatal gonocytes, showed widely variable frequency of CT-X antigen expression, ranging from > 80% (CT7, CT10, CT45, and GAGE), 63% (MAGE-A), 18% (NY-ESO-1) to only 4% (SAGE1). In comparison, non-seminomatous germ cell tumors expressed CT-X antigens much less frequently and usually only in small subsets of tumor cells. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) were mostly CT-X-negative, even in CT-X positive classic seminomas. These findings indicate that CT-X antigens are not expressed in the fetal precursor cells for germ cell tumors, and their expression likely reflects germ cell differentiation of the neoplastic cells (in seminomas) or aberrant gene activation as cancer antigens (in non-seminomatous tumors). PMID:23885216

Chen, Yao-Tseng; Cao, Dengfeng; Chiu, Rita; Lee, Peishan



Interspecies variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic brown- headed cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large

D. Caldwell Hahn; Jeff S. Hatfield; Mahmoud A. Abdelnabi; Julie M. Wu; Lawrence D. Igl; Mary A Ottinger



Yolk androgens vary inversely to maternal androgens in Eastern Bluebirds: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Female birds deposit variable amounts of androgens in the yolks of their eggs, and it has been suggested that yolk androgen deposition is an adaptive mechanism preparing offspring for a competitive environment. Breeding pairs of Eastern Bluebirds ( Sialia sialis ) Linnaeus were stimulated with an intruder presentation while ovarian follicles were developing. Yolk steroid concentrations in eggs




Selective transport and packaging of the major yolk protein in the sea urchin  

E-print Network

Selective transport and packaging of the major yolk protein in the sea urchin Jacqueline M. Brooks Abstract The major yolk protein of sea urchins is an iron-binding, transferrin-like molecule that is made of yolk transport, endocytosis, and packaging during the vitellogenic phase of oogenesis in the sea urchin

Wessel, Gary M.


Chicken Egg Yolk Enhances Focus Formation by Subgroup B, C and D Rous Sarcoma Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Focus formation by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) was significantly enhanced when virus was incubated with the saline fraction of chloroform extracted chicken egg yolk, prior to infecting chicken embryo cells. The enhancement was restricted to members of RSV subgroups B, C and D and was proportional to yolk dilution. Subgroup A virus was never affected. In all, IO8 yolk




79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD


SAC Minutes March 26, 2014 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee  

E-print Network

of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services Office of Acquisition and Logistics Management SUBJECT: SAC on the NIH Learning Management System (LMS). 3. Expiring Lines Update was presented by Cristy Perrin, PPMB

Rau, Don C.


SAC Minutes April 24, 2013 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee  

E-print Network

of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services Office of Acquisition and Logistics Management SUBJECT: SAC processing time and errors associated with paper invoices. Pilot Phase 2 will assess process and system

Rau, Don C.


4 Yolk Proteins JOSEPH G. KUNKEL and JOHN H. NORDIN  

E-print Network

1.6 Structural classes of vitellogenins 89 1.7 Genetic approaches to vitellin structure 90 2 Yolk.2.1 Vitellogenin amino acid composition 91 2.2.2 Vitellogenin peptide compositions 94 2.2.3 Vitellogenin oligosaccharide 95 2.2.4 Microheterogeneity of vitellin oligosaccharide 96 2.2.5 Vitellogenin lipids 97 2

Kunkel, Joseph G.


21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR prepared by freezing egg yolks that conform to § 160.180, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the...



Epiploic appendicitis in inguinal hernia sac presenting an inguinal mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inguinal hernia sometimes surprises surgeons with its unexpected content. Epiploic appendagitis in hernia sac is a very rare\\u000a entity. We report a 60-year-old male patient with a painless inguinal mass. Surgical exploration showed a 4-cm mass beneath\\u000a the external oblique aponeurosis that consisted of a hernia sac containing an inflamed and remarkably swollen appendix epiploica\\u000a of the sigmoid colon secondary

H. Kulacoglu; H. Tumer; R. Aktimur; A. Kusdemir



Morphofunctional transformations of the yolk syncytial layer during zebrafish development.  


The yolk syncytial layer (YSL) is a provisory extraembryonic structure of teleost fishes and representatives of some other taxa with meroblastic cleavage. The YSL of teleosts is a symplast with polymorphous polyploid nuclei. It is known to perform nutritional, morphogenetic, immune, and, probably, other functions. Data about the YSL organization, functioning and regulation is fragmentary. Although gene expression patterns and other aspects of YSL functioning have been studied in Danio rerio, the morphology of its YSL has not been described in detail. The study of zebrafish YSL structure on sequential developmental stages is necessary to recognize specific features of this important polyfunctional system in this model organism and to extend our knowledge about provisory systems. The thickness of the YSL and the distribution of its nuclei are not uniform on each stage and change during development. During oblong and sphere stages the internal YSL (I-YSL) is filled with yolk inclusions; interphase yolk syncytial nuclei (YSN) and mitotic asters can be seen. During doming and epiboly the external YSL (E-YSL) is thicker than I-YSL. On the subsequent stages the YSL is thickened caudally. The dorsal YSL part is thickened during early segmentation stages and becomes the thinnest YSL region later. The anterior part of the YSL is thin, but enlarges during larval period. The YSN of different size and diverse forms, from regular to lobed, are present and form clusters. The number of irregular-shaped nuclei increases during development. The YSL thickens in the end of endotrophic and in the course of endo-exotrophic period, and its cytoplasm contains numerous yolk inclusions. After yolk exhaustion the YSL is flat. As the YSL degrades, the YSN become pycnotic, and the YSL remnant probably is cleared by phagocytes. PMID:24122838

Kondakova, Ekaterina Alexandrovna A; Efremov, Vladimir Ivanovich I



Direct endothelial junction restoration results in significant tumor vascular normalization and metastasis inhibition in mice  

PubMed Central

Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells with considerable diminution in expression of related transcription factors. Moreover, cancer stem cell population dropped substantially in Sac-1004 treated tumor tissues. Taken together, our results showed that direct restoration of vascular junction could be a significant strategy to induce normalization of tumor blood vessels and reduce metastasis. PMID:24811731

Agrawal, Vijayendra; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Son, Jimin; Lee, Keunho; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Rho, Seung-Sik; Ahn, Sunjoo; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen



Automatic segmentation and classification of gestational sac based on mean sac diameter using medical ultrasound image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound is an effective multipurpose imaging modality that has been widely used for monitoring and diagnosing early pregnancy events. Technology developments coupled with wide public acceptance has made ultrasound an ideal tool for better understanding and diagnosing of early pregnancy. The first measurable signs of an early pregnancy are the geometric characteristics of the Gestational Sac (GS). Currently, the size of the GS is manually estimated from ultrasound images. The manual measurement involves multiple subjective decisions, in which dimensions are taken in three planes to establish what is known as Mean Sac Diameter (MSD). The manual measurement results in inter- and intra-observer variations, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully automated diagnosis solution to accurately identify miscarriage cases in the first trimester of pregnancy based on automatic quantification of the MSD. Our study shows a strong positive correlation between the manual and the automatic MSD estimations. Our experimental results based on a dataset of 68 ultrasound images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in identifying early miscarriage cases with classification accuracies comparable with those of domain experts using K nearest neighbor classifier on automatically estimated MSDs.

Khazendar, Shan; Farren, Jessica; Al-Assam, Hisham; Sayasneh, Ahmed; Du, Hongbo; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah A.



Pediatric germ cell tumors and maternal vitamin supplementation: A Children's Oncology Group Study  

PubMed Central

Maternal vitamin supplementation has been linked to a reduced risk of several pediatric malignancies. We examined this relationship in a study of childhood germ cell tumors (GCTs). Subjects included 278 GCT cases diagnosed <15 years during 1993-2001 at a United States or Canadian Children's Oncology Group Institution and 423 controls that were ascertained through random digit dialing matched to cases on sex, and age within one year. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for the association between GCTs and maternal vitamin use at several time points during and around pregnancy. In models controlling for the child's age, sex, household income, and maternal education, any maternal vitamin use during the 6 months prior to conception through nursing was associated with a non-significant reduced risk of GCTs (OR=0.7; 95% CI 0.0.4-1.2). Inverse associations were observed for both extragonadal (OR=0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.6) and gonadal (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.3-1.1) tumors and for dysgerminoma/seminoma (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.2-1.3) and teratoma (OR=0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.9) but not yolk sac tumors (OR=1.1; 95% CI 0.5-2.3). No consistent patterns were found with respect to vitamin use during the periconceptional period (6 months before pregnancy and first trimester) or first trimester specifically. In conclusion, while our study suggests that maternal vitamin supplementation may reduce the risk or pediatric GCTs in the offspring, the small study size and limitations inherent to observational studies must be considered when interpreting these results. PMID:19755653

Johnson, Kimberly J.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Ross, Julie A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Shu, Xiao Ou



Molecular Characteristics of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors and Comparison With Testicular Counterparts: Implications for Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/?-catenin and TGF-?/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E.; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Abeler, Vera M.



Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a 24-years experience  

PubMed Central

Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all primary CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. ?-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of primary CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs. PMID:25400782

Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang



Phase separation behavior of egg yolk suspensions after anionic polysaccharides addition.  


The objectives of this study were to understand the interactions between three anionic polysaccharides (gum arabic, xanthan gum and ?-carrageenan) and egg yolk at pH 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 and possible phase separation behavior. Zeta potential of egg yolk was not affected by gum arabic addition while it became more negative at pH 5 after xanthan gum and ?-carrageenan addition. The particle size of ?-carrageenan yolk suspension was considerably higher than the other polysaccharide yolk suspensions at pH below 6 but was dramatically decreased at alkaline pH. Most polysaccharide yolk suspensions formed either a biphasic or a monophasic system, whereas three distinct phases were observed for xanthan gum yolk suspension at pH 6. Protein profile analysis of the lipid-rich cream phase obtained from xanthan gum added yolk showed similarities to apoproteins from low density lipoproteins (LDL) of egg yolk. Microscopy analysis indicated the co-presence of xanthan gum and LDL in the creamy phase, within a network formed by xanthan gum. It was suggested that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the egg yolk and xanthan gum as well as xanthan gum's rheological properties could be responsible for the unique phase separation observed in the study. The findings of this study can form the basis for future studies to develop a new method to separate LDL from egg yolk. PMID:25498638

Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Temelli, Feral; Wu, Jianping



The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling.  


Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter



The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling  

PubMed Central

Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter



Estrogen Levels in House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) Egg Yolks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen, when present in early embryonic development, regulates sexual differentiation in the avian nestling and adult. In this study, I developed a procedure to extract and quantify levels (by radioimmunoassay) of the estrogen, 17[beta]-estradiol, in house wren (Troglodytes aedon) egg yolk. Levels of 17[beta]-estradiol found in one clutch of eggs increased with the order of laying, indicating female house wrens

V. BrookWaggoner



Separation of Phosvitin from Egg Yolk without Using Organic Solvents  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a new method to separate phosvitin from egg yolk without using organic solvents. Phosvitin was extracted from yolk granules using 10% NaCl or 10% (NH4)2SO4 (final concentration) and then treated with heat to precipitate the lipoproteins from the extracted solution. The optimal pH for the phosvitin extraction from yolk granules was determined, and the iron-binding ability of the extracted phosvitin (final product) was tested. Adding 10% (NH4)2SO4 disrupted the granules, and the subsequent thermal treatment at 90°C for 1 h precipitated low density and high density lipoproteins, which enabled separation of phosvitin by centrifugation. The phosvitin concentration in the extract was significantly higher when the pH of the solution was adjusted to pH ?9. The purity and recovery rate of phosvitin at the end of the separation process were approximately 78% and 56%, respectively. The separated phosvitin was confirmed to have ferrous and ferric iron binding ability. The advantages of this new method compared with the traditional methods include no organic solvents and high-priced equipment are needed for the separation. Also, this method is more environment and consumer friendly than that of the traditional methods. PMID:25049750

Jung, Samooel; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Cheorun



Sac Hygroma After Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Successful Treatment with Endograft Relining  

SciTech Connect

Aneurysm sac expansion following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is typically associated with endoleaks that can be readily diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography (CTA), ultrasound, or catheter-directed arteriography. Sac hygromas are a cause of sac expansion without apparent endoleak and are presumed to be a result of ultrafiltration of serum manifested by accumulation of fibrinous, gelatinous material within the aneurysm sac following EVAR. Although there are no reported associated ruptures, sac expansion is nevertheless disconcerting and intervention is presumably indicated. We report a case of an expanding aneurysm after EVAR secondary to sac hygroma that was successfully treated with relining of the existing, original endograft.

Ryu, Robert K., E-mail:; Palestrant, Sarah; Ryu, Jessica [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine (United States); Trachtenberg, Jeffrey [Interventional Radiology Institute at Decatur Memorial Hospital (United States)



A novel laparoscopic specimen entrapment device to facilitate morcellation of large renal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reusable laparoscopic instrument consisting of a flexible deployment ring and a barrel was fabricated, and an impermeable sac was sutured to the flexible ring before entrapment of the specimen and morcellation. The laparoscopic specimen entrapment device facilitated placement of large renal tumors within a sac for morcellation.

Stephen E Pautler; Frank S Harrington; Glen W McWilliams; McClellan M Walther



Modifying yolk fatty acid composition to improve the health quality of shell eggs  

E-print Network

were evaluated. The effects of consumption of n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs on human blood lipid parameters were also investigated. Dietary fat did not alter egg production parameters, total yolk fat or yolk cholesterol (CHOL). Yolk fatty acid... fatty acid consumption results in the production of leukotriene B, which is less biochemically active than the 4-series. Leukotriene B, formation is advantageous in reducing CHD risk in that an injury to the blood vessel wall is less likely...

Van Elswyk, Mary Elizabeth



Egg yolk layers vary in the concentration of steroid hormones in two avian species.  


Maternally derived steroid hormones are known to be present in the yolks of avian eggs; however, the physiological mechanisms involved in their deposition remain largely unexplored. Investigations of steroid production by avian follicles have demonstrated temporal differences in the concentrations of progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone during yolk formation. Because yolk is deposited peripherally in concentric spheres as the oocyte develops, differences in the production of follicular hormones during yolk formation should be manifested in differences in the localization of steroids within layers of the yolk. To investigate this hypothesis we analyzed steroid hormone concentrations in layers of individual eggs of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). We found that in the dark-eyed junco the concentration of progesterone is significantly greater at the periphery of the yolk, while the concentration of 17beta-estradiol is significantly greater near the center of the yolk. We also found in both the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird that the concentration of testosterone remains constant from the interior to the intermediate layers of the yolk and then drops sharply between the intermediate and exterior layers. The patterns of hormone localization that we found agree with those predicted by studies of temporal changes in steroidogenesis in the maturing follicle of the chicken, thus suggesting that within-yolk variation in yolk steroid concentrations in the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird reflects temporal differences in the pattern of follicular steroidogenesis. Variation in the concentration of hormones among yolk layers presents a methodological concern for studies that involve the removal of yolk samples from viable eggs for subsequent hormonal analysis. This variation also has implications for the timing of embryonic exposure to steroid hormones. PMID:10417235

Lipar, J L; Ketterson, E D; Nolan, V; Casto, J M




Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Yolk proteins are thought,to enter certain eggs by a process akin to micropinocytosis but the detailed mechanism,has not been,previously depicted. In this study the formation,of protein yolk was,investigated in the mosquito,Aedes aegypti L. Ovaries were fixed in phos- phate-buffered osmium tetroxide, for electron microscopy, before and at intervals after a meal of blood. The deposition of protein yolk in

T. F. Roth; K. R. Porter



Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.  


Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk. PMID:20308406

Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C



SacY, a Transcriptional Antiterminator from Bacillus subtilis, Is Regulated by Phosphorylation In Vivo†  

PubMed Central

SacY antiterminates transcription of the sacB gene in Bacillus subtilis in response to the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. We have found that it can substitute for BglG, a homologous protein, in antiterminating transcription of the bgl operon in Escherichia coli. We therefore sought to determine whether, similarly to BglG, SacY is regulated by reversible phosphorylation in response to the availability of the inducing sugar. We show here that two forms of SacY, phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated, exist in B. subtilis cells and that the ratio between them depends on the external level of sucrose. Addition of sucrose to the growth medium after SacY phosphorylation in the cell resulted in its rapid dephosphorylation. The extent of SacY phosphorylation was found to be proportional to the cellular levels of SacX, a putative sucrose permease which was previously shown to have a negative effect on SacY activity. Thus, the mechanism by which the sac sensory system modulates sacB expression in response to sucrose involves reversible phosphorylation of the regulator SacY, and this process appears to depend on the SacX sucrose sensor. The sac system is therefore a member of the novel family of sensory systems represented by bgl. PMID:9457872

Idelson, Maria; Amster-Choder, Orna



doi 10.1098/rspb.2000.1163 Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival  

E-print Network

Females may favour some o¡spring over others by di¡erential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A 4) than yolks of ¢rst-laid eggs. To investigate the e¡ects of these yolk androgens on nestling `¢tness’, we injected both T and A 4 into the yolks of ¢rstlaid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of ¢rstlaid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A 4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no e¡ect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive signi¢cance, such `transgenerational ’ e¡ects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction.

Keith W. Sockman; Hubert Schwabl


Embryonic yolk removal affects a suite of larval salamander life history traits.  


Egg size is a key life history trait affecting fitness, and it varies abundantly. The value of egg size to a mother and her offspring is often determined by a trade-off between investing more yolk in a few large eggs or less yolk into many more, smaller eggs. Smaller eggs are generally expected to be phenotypically inferior or females could increase their fitness by making more smaller eggs. However, many females produce a mix of egg sizes and natural yolk variation induces normal developmental responses which may persist into subsequent stages of a complex life history. Since sources of phenotypic variation are easily confounded, I surgically removed yolk from embryonic spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) using a sham surgery as a control and a split-clutch design to isolate the effects of yolk reserve variation from genetic sources of variation. Yolk removal induced early hatching, reduced developmental stage and hatchling body size. Small hatchlings stayed relatively small through the early larval period, but 17 weeks later the correlation with early larval body size was lost. When the experiment ended, larger individuals were further along in metamorphic development but mortality was independent of early larval body size. Variation in spotted salamander yolk reserves affects a suite of hatchling life history traits that persists into the larval period. Outside the laboratory, egg size effects may cascade throughout complex amphibian life histories. Applied experimentally and comparatively, this simple yolk removal technique may help identify how traits increase or decrease their response to maternal yolk investment. PMID:24323743

Landberg, Tobias



The effect of oxytetracycline on the fat content and fatty acid composition of the egg yolk.  


The effects of oxytetracycline (OXT) at doses of 0.291, 0.461, 0.922, 1.383 and 1.844 g/l in drinking water on the egg quality and on the fat content and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were studied. OXT had no effect on egg weight, yolk weight or shell thickness. Increasing availability of OXT in water reduced cholesterol and triglyceride in the egg yolk while it had no effect on the phospholipid content. OXT at higher doses favoured unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to saturated fatty acids in the yolk. PMID:2861053

Shaddad, S A; Wasfi, I A; Yassein, O E; Ali, A E; Maglad, M A; Adam, S E



CYP1A induction and blue sac disease in early life stages of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to oil sands.  


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of natural oil sands on the early developmental stages of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and to determine whether biochemical responses in this species were similar to native fish caught in the Athabasca Oil Sands area. Early life stage (ELS) sediment toxicity tests were conducted using controls, reference sediments, natural oil sands, and industrially contaminated (wastewater pond) sediments collected from sites along the Athabasca River, Alberta (Canada). Eggs and larvae were observed for mortality, hatching, deformities, growth, and cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) activity using immunohistochemistry. E-Nat-, S-Nat-, and wastewater pond sediment-exposed groups showed significant premature hatching, reduced growth, and exposure-dependent increases in ELS mortality and larval malformations relative to controls. The most common larval deformities included edemas (pericardial, yolk sac, and subepidermal), hemorrhages, and spinal defects. Juveniles exposed to oil sands and wastewater pond sediments (96 h) demonstrated significantly increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (30- to 50-fold) as compared to controls. Reference sediment-exposed groups and water controls demonstrated reliable embryo and larval survival, minimal malformations, and negligible CYP1A staining. These observed signs of blue sac disease (ELS mortality, malformations, growth reductions, CYP1A activity induction) may produce deleterious reproductive effects in natural fish populations exposed to oil sands mixtures. PMID:16728374

Colavecchia, Maria V; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L



Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following endolymphatic sac surgery.  


Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence is a rare otologic entity that presents with third window signs and symptoms. Petrous apex cholesteatoma, fibrous dysplasia, high riding jugular bulb, and eosinophilic granuloma have been reported to be associated with posterior semicircular canal dehiscence. Here we report a case of development of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following an endolymphatic sac surgery for the first time. PMID:22689472

Kiumehr, Saman; Mahboubi, Hossein; Djalilian, Hamid R



Final Report to: -English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project)  

E-print Network

`soft' bottom-up approaches need to be coupled with relatively `hard' top-down approaches. Final ReportFinal Report to: - English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project) An evaluation of approaches) An evaluation of approaches for promoting relevant authority and stakeholder participation in European Marine

Jones, Peter JS


Acute epiploic appendagitis in hernia sac: CT appearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an unusual cause of acute abdomen due to acute epiploic appendagitis located within an incisional hernia sac. The contrast-enhanced CT showed an oval fat density structure with surrounding inflammation in the transverse mesocolon. The contrast-enhanced CT findings of the inflammation of appendices epiploicae of the transverse colon were diagnostic in this case.

Ajay K. Singh; Debra Gervais; James Rhea; Peter Mueller; Robert A. Noveline



SAC Minutes August 28, 2013 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee  

E-print Network

of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services Office of Acquisition and Logistics Management SUBJECT: SAC to complete the "eVIP View-Only Web-Based Training". The course is available on the NIH Learning Management System (LMS). Course duration is 60 minutes. All (2 and 3-way) pilot vendor awards must have correct

Rau, Don C.


SAC Minutes April 23, 2014 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee  

E-print Network

of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services Office of Acquisition and Logistics Management SUBJECT: SAC, enterprise data management, systems engineering, identity and access management, ERP IT infrastructure. 2. eGOS Demonstration was presented by Michelle Street, NITAAC Electronic Government Ordering System

Rau, Don C.


SAC Minutes July 24, 2013 TO: Simplified Acquisition Committee  

E-print Network

of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services Office of Acquisition and Logistics Management SUBJECT: SAC. Supply Center and Self Service Stores was presented by George Martinez, Director, Division of Logistics deliveries. Storage at no cost for bulk or large purchases made through the New Business System (NBS) or Self

Rau, Don C.


Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Following Endolymphatic Sac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence is a rare otologic entity which presents with third window signs and symptoms. Petrous apex cholesteatoma, fibrous dysplasia, high riding jugular bulb, and eosinophilic granuloma have been reported to be associated with posterior semicircular canal dehiscence. Here we report a case of development of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following an endolymaphatic sac surgery for the first time. PMID:22689472

Kiumehr, Saman; Mahboubi, Hossein; Djalilian, Hamid R.



The Probabilistic Basis for the 2000 SAC/FEMA Steel Moment Frame C. Allin Cornell1  

E-print Network

The Probabilistic Basis for the 2000 SAC/FEMA Steel Moment Frame Guidelines C. Allin Cornell1 for the 2000 SAC/FEMA steel moment frame guidelines. The framework is based on realizing a performance being met. This format has been adopted in the SAC/FEMA guidelines. Keywords Probabilistic performance

Sweetman, Bert


Voids and yolk-shells from crystals that coat particles.  


We investigate curvature-driven core-shell morphology that emerges when polycrystalline shells of ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate framework coordination polymer) grow on colloid-sized particles. In early growth stages, the shell is continuous, but it transforms to yolk-shell, with neither sacrificial template nor core etching, because of geometrical frustration. A design rule is developed regarding how local surface curvature matters. Comparing shells grown on cubic, rod-like, and peanut-shaped hematite core particles, we validate the argument. PMID:25243973

Sindoro, Melinda; Granick, Steve



Radioimmunoassay Analysis of Testosterone Levels in Clutches of House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) Egg Yolks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence indicates that variation in intensity of aggressiveness and competitive ability among nestlings of a clutch may be attributed, at least partly, to differences in maternally deposited yolk testosterone that affects embryonic development (Schwabl 1993). We developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring yolk testosterone levels in house wren (Troglodytes aedon) eggs. This procedure was used in initial studies to

Kimberly A. Fryzel



The Major Yolk Protein Vitellogenin Interferes with the Anti-Plasmodium Response in the Malaria Mosquito  

E-print Network

The Major Yolk Protein Vitellogenin Interferes with the Anti-Plasmodium Response in the Malaria with the antiparasitic response. Lipophorin (Lp) and vitellogenin (Vg), two nutrient transport proteins, reduce, Oulad-Abdelghani M, Levashina EA, Marois E (2010) The Major Yolk Protein Vitellogenin Interferes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Route of egg yolk protein uptake in the oocytes of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The route of egg yolk protein uptake into the oocytes of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus, was studied using immunohistochemical and electron microscopical methods. Although a significant immunofluorescence with anti-vitellin-immunoglobulin was observed in the enlarged follicle cells surrounding oil globule stage oocytes of the early vitellogenic ovary, no fluorescence was detected in shrunken follicle cells surrounding oocytes in the yolk granule

I. Yano; R. M. Krol; R. M. Overstreet; W. E. Hawkins



Egg Yolk Color as Affected by Saponification of Different Natural Pigmenting Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of saponification of various yellow, red, or yellow and red xanthophylls from marigold flower and paprika fruit included at graded levels on egg yolk coloration in table and breaking eggs. Pigmentation was measured visually by the Roche yolk color fan, a subjective method, and by reflectance colorimetry, using a HunterLab MiniScan

J. Galobart; R. Sal; X. Rincon-Carruyo; E. G. Manzanilla; B. Vil; J. Gas


Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: Relation with development  

E-print Network

Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: Relation February 2013 Accepted 16 February 2013 Available online 4 March 2013 Keywords: Yolk Temperature-dependent sex determination Testosterone Reptile Maternal effects a b s t r a c t The leopard gecko (Eublepharis

Crews, David


The Major Yolk Protein in Sea Urchins Is a Transferrin-like, Iron Binding Protein  

E-print Network

The Major Yolk Protein in Sea Urchins Is a Transferrin-like, Iron Binding Protein Jacqueline M and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 The major yolk protein (MYP) in sea urchins has, it is found in both sexes of sea urchins where it is presumed to play a physiological role in gametogenesis

Wessel, Gary M.


The Energy Expenditure of Largemouth Bass Larvae, Micropterus salmoides, during Yolk Absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was designed to determine if a metabolic energy deficit was a cause of mortality in larval largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). An energy budget was established which compared the energy available in the yolk to the energy utilized in catabolism for 24 hr intervals from the time of fertilization to complete yolk absorption. The energy available to an embryo

Geoffrey C. Laurence



Yolk testosterone organizes behavior and male plumage coloration in house sparrows ( Passer domesticus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate eggs contain maternal steroid hormones in their yolks; and in avian species the concentration of these steroids vary within and among clutches. The organizational actions of these variable doses of maternal steroids in the avian egg, analogous to those regulating the development of sexually dimorphic traits, are little explored. In this study, we examined the organizational effects of yolk

Rosemary Strasser; Hubert Schwabl



Response of amphibian egg non-yolk cytoplasm to gravity orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to study amphibian egg cytoplasmic organization and egg symmetrization at the molecular level, a library of seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Xenopus laevis non-yolk egg proteins was produced. Several of these MoAbs react with non-yolk cytoplasmic antigens which are unevenly distributed in the fertile Xenopus egg.

Smith, R. C.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.



Sex steroids in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): uncoupled maternal plasma and yolking follicle concentrations, potential  

E-print Network

Sex steroids in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): uncoupled maternal plasma and yolking follicle Accepted 4 June 2003 Abstract The sex steroids testosterone (T) and estradiol-17b (E2) play important roles steroid levels (which can influence reproductive function) and yolk steroid levels (which can influence

Wade, Juli


The influence of diet on fatty acids in the egg yolk of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid concentrations found in the yolk of green sea turtles reflect differences in the diet of the mothers. All of the\\u000a 12 fatty acids measured in yolk samples were significantly different between eggs produced from the pellet and wild-type diets.\\u000a However, the relative pattern of yolk fatty acids in the green turtle mirrored those of other reptiles. Yolk samples

Kathryn S. Craven; Joe Parsons; Stephen A. Taylor; Carolyn N. Belcher; David W. Owens





The osmotic pressure of the yolk and white of the hen's egg have been shown to be identical, by means of direct freezing point determinations, dialyses, and vapor pressure measurements. Dialysates of egg yolk slow the rate of ice formation compared with NaCl solutions. They also show a marked change of freezing rate as the freezing point is approached. The anomalous freezing behavior of this material may lead to errors in the determination of the true freezing point which would tend to make the value for the yolk erroneously low. The postulate of a vital activity at the yolk membrane maintaining an osmotic pressure difference is thus shown to be unnecessary, since a simple osmotic equilibrium exists between the yolk and the white. PMID:19872681

Howard, E



De Novo Development and Progression of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour in von Hippel-Lindau Disease: An Observational Study and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare invasive lesions of the temporal bone that are commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. This report describes serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) findings over a period of 6 years in a 12-year-old patient who developed an ELST after 3.5 years surveillance for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 1.5 × 8 mm tumor was identified on MRI within the endolymphatic duct when the patient presented with audiovestibular symptoms due to intralabyrinthine hemorrhage. The tumor demonstrated subsequent growth over 25 months until the patient agreed to undergo surgical resection by subtotal petrosectomy. De novo development and the natural history have been described only in six previous cases. MRI is regarded to be unreliable with respect to the ability to demonstrate an ELST in the presence of intralabyrinthine hemorrhage, with only two out of four previously reported patients demonstrating positive MRI findings. Little is known about the precise origin (endolymphatic duct versus sac), growth, and symptom correlation. This case highlights that new audiovestibular symptoms are a potential clinical clue and intralabyrinthine hemorrhage is a neuroimaging indicator for the presence of an ELST, which based on high-resolution MRI appears to originate in the endolymphatic duct rather than sac. PMID:24436921

Eze, Nwaneka; Huber, Alexander; Schuknecht, Bernhard



Allosteric Activation of the Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Sac1 by Anionic Phospholipids  

PubMed Central

Sac family phosphoinositide phosphatases comprise an evolutionarily conserved family of enzymes in eukaryotes. Our recently determined crystal structure of the Sac phosphatase domain of yeast Sac1, the founding member of the Sac family proteins, revealed a unique conformation of the catalytic P-loop and a large positively charged groove at the catalytic site. We now report a unique mechanism for the regulation of its phosphatase activity. Sac1 is an allosteric enzyme that can be activated by its product phosphatidylinositol or anionic phospholipid phosphatidylserine. The activation of Sac1 may involve conformational changes of the catalytic P-loop induced by direct binding with the regulatory anionic phospholipids in the large cationic catalytic groove. These findings highlight the fact that lipid composition of the substrate membrane plays an important role in the control of Sac1 function. PMID:22452743



Irreducible inguinal hernia with appendices epiploicae in the sac  

PubMed Central

Inguinal hernia has a nature to surprise surgeons with its unexpected contents. Appendix epiploicae alone in the hernial sac is a rare entity and that too if hypertrophied and presenting as irreducible hernia is still more uncommon. We report a 52-year-old male with complains of irreducible inguinal mass with little pain on Left side for seven days. A diagnosis of irreducible inguinal hernia was made and the patient was treated laparoscopically by Trans-Abdominal Pre-Peritoneal Mesh Hernioplasty (TAPP). As a surprise, content of the hernial sac was enlarged / hypertrophied appendix epiploicae of sigmoid colon with appendigitis. Patient also had and incidental hernia on the other side, which was repaired in the same sitting. Postoperative recovery of the patient was excellent. PMID:19547689

Jain, Mayank; Khanna, Shashi; Sen, Bimalendu; Tantia, Om



Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA Network with 8DPSK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique is required to meet the increased demand for high speed, large capacity communications in optical networks. In this paper, the transmission performance of a spectral amplitude coding (SAC)-OCDMA network is investigated when a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) is used as the transmission link using 8DPSK modulation. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Simulation results reveal that the transmission distance is limited mainly by the fiber dispersion when high coding chip rate is used. For a two-user SAC-OCDMA network operating with 2 Gbit/s data rate and two wavelengths for each user, the maximum allowable transmission distance is about 15 km.

Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Anuar, M. S.



SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced components (ICARE), provided by CNES will permit improvement of risk estimation models for radiation effect on last generation integrated circuit technology. . On June 14th, 2000 CONAE and NASA signed an amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding for the SAC-C mission in order that the SAC-C satellite, were included in a constellation - named "Morning Constellation". It is integrated by USA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1, Terra, and Argentine SAC-C that feature on-board instruments from the United States, Argentina, Denmark, Italy, France, and Japan. The four satellite tracks on the Earth's surface are the same, their orbital height being 705 km and their inclination, 98.21 degrees. They cross the Equator at 10:00, 10:01, 10:15, and 10:30 hours, respectively (local time). Satellites comply with the World Wide Reference System. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken and will be presented in this paper. Several jointly sponsored technical workshops have been held, and also collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments have been made. One of the objectives of the AM Constellation is the collaboration in the case of emergencies, NASA and CONAE agreed to give preference in those situation in the planification of their satellite acquisitions. From all the possible hazardous events, the most important for the country are fire and floods. In relation to fires, CONAE is presently adapting and developing the algorithms for using MODIS data to generate a fire map product. Additionally research on fire detection is carried out using the data from the HSTC camera. In relation to flooding, CONAE works in cooperation to national institutions providing the data and, in some cases, producing flood extent maps. In particular MMRS data is demonstrating to be very effective due to its spectral and radiometric resolutions, and its large swath which is well suited for extended countries like Argentina.

Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.



Steatorrhoea in rats with an intestinal cul-de-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steatorrhoea in rats with an intestinal cul-de-sac is mainly due to malabsorption of alimentary fats but faecal lipids of endogenous origin are also increased. Steatorrhoea depends on the site of the blind loop in the small intestine and is mainly caused by bacterial proliferation in the lumen of the gut. The aetiological role of Gram-positive anaerobic microbes, especially Clostridium welchii,

P. P. Hoet; H. Eyssen



WITH-Loop-Folding in SAC - Condensing Consecutive Array Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new compiler optimization called With-loop-folding. It is based on a special loop construct, the with-loop, which in the functional language SAC (for Single Assignment C) serves as a versatile vehicle to describe array operations\\u000a on an elementwise basis. A general mechanism for combining two of these With-loops into a single loop construct is presented. This mechanism

Sven-bodo Scholz



Endometriosis in a spigelian hernia sac: an unexpected finding.  


Describes the existence of endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac. Spigelian Hernia is a rare ventral hernia, presenting difficulties in diagnosis and carrying a high incarceration and obstruction risk. Endometriomas occur due to implantation of endometrial cells into a surgical wound, most often after a cesarean delivery. A 37-year-old woman presented to our department with persistent abdominal pain, exacerbating during menses, and vomiting for 2 days. Physical examination revealed a mass-like lesion in the border between the left-upper and left-lower quadrant. Ultrasound examination was inconclusive and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed an abdominal wall mass. During surgery, a spigelian hernia was found 5 to 7 cm above a previous cesarean incision. Tissue like "chocolate cysts" was present at the hernia sac. Hernia was repaired while tissue was excised and sent for histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. Spigelian hernia is a hernia presenting difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac is a rare diagnosis, confirmed only histologically. Clinical suspicion can be posed only through symptoms and thorough investigation. PMID:25594648

Moris, Demetrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Vernadakis, Spiridon



Substitution of silk stabilimenta for egg sacs by Allocyclosa bifurca (Araneae: Araneidae) suggests that silk stabilimenta function as camouflage devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The matching form and orientation of egg sacs and spiders, the match between egg sac color and that of the spider, ontogenetic changes in spider coloration that occur when egg sacs begin to be produced, differences in the positions of the spiders' legs during the day and at night, and coordinated changes in spider and egg sac colors in

William G. Eberhard



Embryo and yolk compositional relationships in broiler hatching eggs during incubation.  


Developmental relationships between yolk, embryo body, and embryo liver compositions during incubation were determined in two trials. In Trial 1, embryo body moisture, fat, and CP contents and embryo liver moisture and fat contents were determined. In Trial 2, relative yolk weights, moisture, fat, and fatty acid contents, relative wet and dry embryo weights and moisture contents, and relative wet and dry liver weights and moisture contents were determined. In Trial 1, embryo moisture decreased sigmoidally between Days 6 and 21, whereas embryo fat increased between Days 12 and 21 of incubation; embryo CP displayed sequential fluctuations throughout incubation. However, an overall significant decrease in embryo CP occurred between Days 6 and 21. Liver fat content increased between Days 12 and 21, whereas liver moisture decreased through Day 18, with a subsequent increase by Day 21. In Trial 2, relative yolk weight and moisture content decreased, whereas percentage yolk lipid content increased between Days 6 and 15. Relative wet and dry embryo weights changed in a similar manner, with rapid increases between Days 12 and 18 of incubation. Embryo moisture and CP were negatively correlated to embryo fat content. Furthermore, relative embryo and liver DM were related to yolk palmitic acid concentration, whereas yolk oleic acid was correlated only with liver DM. In conclusion, embryos and their livers displayed differential accumulations of moisture and DM during incubation, and these differences exhibited distinctive associations with various yolk fatty acids. PMID:10536793

Peebles, E D; Li, L; Miller, S; Pansky, T; Whitmarsh, S; Latour, M A; Gerard, P D



Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio).  


Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone. PMID:21510950

Hahn, D Caldwell



Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

Hahn, D. Caldwell



Egg yolk identification and aging in mixed paint binding media by NMR spectroscopy.  


NMR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for the identification and quantitative analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context. In this report, we present an analytical NMR protocol for the identification and semiquantification of egg yolk binders and mixed binding media that also contain a drying oil, namely linseed oil. The samples studied have been artificially and/or naturally aged in order to simulate the composition of organic materials in paintings. Analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR spectra showed that egg yolk can be identified even in binding media of considerable age via signals originating from cholesterol and/or cholesterol oxidation products present in the aged binding medium. Based on cholesterol-related and other lipid signals in the NMR spectra of egg yolk binders, a molecular marker (R/F) that suggests the presence of egg yolk in paint binders is proposed. Via this marker, the presence of egg yolk in the organic material obtained from an early 18th century Greek icon is confirmed, and this is further verified by 2D NMR spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that NMR molecular markers developed to estimate the hydrolysis/oxidation state of oil paintings are also suitable for the analysis of egg yolk and mixed medium (egg yolk-linseed oil) binders, indicating the generality of the NMR methodological approach in the analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25280129

Sfakianaki, Sofia; Kouloumpi, Eleni; Anglos, Demetrios; Spyros, Apostolos



Effects of egg yolk proteins on the longitudinal bone growth of adolescent male rats.  


Hen egg is a nutritional store for a new life. We examined the effect of egg yolk proteins on longitudinal bone growth in the rat. Protein fractions from egg yolk were tested. Milk protein, casein, was used as a control. The bone growth rate was significantly increased by yolk water-soluble protein (YSP, 100 mg/kg) administration for 5 d. The bone morphogenetic protein-2 immunostaining of growth plate was also increased. Considering the results, YSP can be used as a growth-promoting factor. PMID:15564680

Leem, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-Gyou; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Mujo; Lee, Young-Ja; Kim, Hye Kyung



SacPox from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a proficient lactonase  

PubMed Central

Background SacPox, an enzyme from the extremophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sac), was isolated by virtue of its phosphotriesterase (or paraoxonase; Pox) activity, i.e. its ability to hydrolyze the neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides. Later on, SacPox was shown to belong to the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase family that comprises natural lactonases, possibly involved in quorum sensing, and endowed with promiscuous, phosphotriesterase activity. Results Here, we present a comprehensive and broad enzymatic characterization of the natural lactonase and promiscuous organophosphorus hydrolase activities of SacPox, as well as a structural analysis using a model. Conclusion Kinetic experiments show that SacPox is a proficient lactonase, including at room temperature. Moreover, we discuss the observed differences in substrate specificity between SacPox and its closest homologues SsoPox and SisLac together with the possible structural causes for these observations. PMID:24894602



Quantitative analysis in spontaneous canine anal sac gland adenomas and carcinomas.  


Stained cytological specimens from 7 canine anal sac gland adenomas and 11 canine anal sac gland carcinomas were analyzed by computer-assisted nuclear morphometry. In each case, the nuclei of at least 100 neoplastic cells were measured, and the mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), mean nuclear diameter (MND) and nuclear roundness (NR) were calculated. The study aimed to evaluate (1) the possibility of using nuclear cytomorphometry as an auxiliary diagnostic method to differentiate between canine anal sac gland adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and (2) the prognostic value of nuclear morphometry in canine anal sac gland adenocarcinomas. The results indicated that (1) MNA, MNP, MND and NR could be used as effective auxiliary tools for differential diagnosis between canine anal sac gland adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and (2) MNA, MNP and MND are reliable prognostic indicators for canine anal sac gland adenocarcinomas. PMID:18457852

Simeonov, Radostin; Simeonova, Galina



Ipilimumab After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Persistent or Progressive Cancer

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Immature Teratoma; Ovarian Mature Teratoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma With Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor With Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma With Seminoma



The value of a neighborhood street with reference to the cul-de-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides empirical evidence from Halifax, Nova Scotia, confirming the view that the type of neighborhood street can affect home values. The study identifies two categories of streets-the cul-de-sac and the grid-and measures their impacts on home value. The hypothesis that the cul-de-sac would attract premium values was supported by the study. In this study, the cul-de-sac generated a

Paul K. Asabere



Some Factors Determining the Order of Elimination of Culs-de-sac in the Maze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five white rats were put through an animal maze with nine culs-de-sac until the correct pathway was run nine times out of ten without any observable tendency to enter a cul-de-sac. The experiment was undertaken with a view to determine the kind of relation existing between the positions of the culs-de-sac and their temporal order of elimination, and the relative

C. J. Warden



Individual variation in perfume blending in male greater sac-winged bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male greater sac-winged bats, Saccopteryx bilineata, use hovering flights to court females in their harem territory. While hovering, males fan a fragrant perfume from sac-like organs in the wing membrane towards the females. Each afternoon, males renew the perfumes of their wing sacs during a stereotypical and time-consuming behavioural sequence, which includes blending secretions from genital and gular glands. I

Christian C. Voigt



ORIGINAL PAPER Are yolk androgens and carotenoids in barn swallow eggs  

E-print Network

carotenoids and androgens in egg yolk relate to parental quality in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica and therefore may be regulated by different mechanisms. Keywords Barn swallow. Hirundo rustica . Investment

Safran, Rebecca


Antimicrobial potential of egg yolk ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor of chicken egg.  


Chicken egg ovoinhibitor is a multidomain Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with unknown function. Comparison of expression between different tissues indicated that ovoinhibitor is highly expressed in the magnum and liver followed by the uterus, which secrete egg white, egg yolk, and eggshell precursors, respectively. The results also revealed that ovoinhibitor expression is increased in the liver during sexual maturation followed by a subsequent decrease in mature hens. Ovoinhibitor was purified from the egg yolk plasma from nonfertilized eggs using two consecutive affinity chromatographies and gel filtration. Purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor was shown to inhibit trypsin and subtilisin. It was shown that purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus thuringiensis . The results suggest that this anti-protease plays a significant role in antibacterial egg defense against Bacillus spp., preventing contamination of table eggs (nonfertilized eggs) and protecting the chick embryo (fertilized eggs). PMID:22010862

Bourin, Marie; Gautron, Joël; Berges, Magali; Attucci, Sylvie; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Labas, Valérie; Nys, Yves; Rehault-Godbert, Sophie



Hierarchical mesoporous yolk-shell structured carbonaceous nanospheres for high performance electrochemical capacitive energy storage.  


Hierarchical mesoporous yolk-shell structured carbon nanospheres (YSCNs) with an ordered mesoporous carbon core and a microporous carbon shell show excellent electrochemical performance with a maximal specific capacitance of 159 F g(-1). PMID:25563395

Yang, Tianyu; Zhou, Ruifeng; Wang, Da-Wei; Jiang, San Ping; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Monteiro, Michael J; Liu, Jian



Regulation of Yolk-Androgen Concentrations by Plasma Prolactin in the American Kestrel  

E-print Network

from a diameter of 1 mm to a full-sized ovum at ovulation (Johnson, 1996), and the period of rapid yolk deposition, when the ovum is still contained in the follicle and surrounded by the steroidogenic theca

Sockman, Keith W.


Characterization of the sacQ genes from Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed Central

The sacQ gene from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. Deletion analysis shows that it encodes a 46-amino-acid polypeptide homologous to the B. subtilis sacQ gene product. The polypeptide, when it is overexpressed, activates the expression of a number of target genes in B. subtilis, all encoding secreted enzymes: alkaline protease, levansucrase, beta-glucanase(s), xylanase, and alpha-amylase. The maximum stimulations measured for alkaline protease and levansucrase were by a factor of 70 and 50, respectively, when the sacQ gene from B. licheniformis was present on a multicopy plasmid in B. subtilis. The sacQ genes from B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, cloned in the same multicopy plasmid, were compared under the same conditions. The sacQ gene from B. licheniformis was more efficient than the sacQ gene from B. subtilis in producing the hypersecretion phenotype. The sacQ structural genes from B. subtilis and B. licheniformis were placed under the control of the same inducible promoter. Hypersecretion was specifically obtained under conditions of full induction of the promoter. The target site of levansucrase regulation by sacQ was identified as a 440-base-pair fragment located in the 5' noncoding region of sacB, suggesting transcriptional control. Images PMID:3098732

Amory, A; Kunst, F; Aubert, E; Klier, A; Rapoport, G



GnRH - a Missing Link between Testosterone Concentrations in Yolk and Plasma and Its Intergenerational Effects  

PubMed Central

Despite the strong interest in hormone-mediated maternal effects two key questions concerning their mechanisms are as yet unanswered: First, whether the deposition of hormones in the egg yolk is coupled with the levels of these hormones in the maternal circulation, and second, whether epigenetic changes as induced by embryonic exposure to maternal yolk hormones impinge on yolk hormone deposition at adulthood. We investigated the responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in female canaries whose embryonic exposure to yolk testosterone had been manipulated. This enabled us to study to what extent GnRH interlinks testosterone concentrations in female circulation and egg yolk as well as the intergenerational potential of hormone-mediated maternal effects. As expected, canary females responded to GnRH with a rise in plasma testosterone. The GnRH-responsiveness was positively correlated with the yolk testosterone content. Factors stimulating the release of GnRH will, therefore, lead to an increase of testosterone in both plasma and egg, posing a potential constraint on the yolk hormone deposition due to testosterone related trade-offs within the laying female. Exposure to elevated yolk testosterone levels as embryo reduced the GnRH-responsiveness in adulthood, potentially limiting environmental influences on yolk testosterone deposition, but the concentrations of yolk testosterone itself were not affected. PMID:21829476

Müller, Wendt; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Eens, Marcel



Regulation of yolk-androgen concentrations by plasma prolactin in the American kestrel.  


The concentrations of maternally derived androgens in the yolks of avian eggs vary within and among clutches, but a mechanistic basis for this variation has not been elucidated. We investigated in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, whether changes in plasma-prolactin concentrations induced by changes in photoperiod and food supply affect yolk-androgen concentrations. Over the course of a photoinduced breeding period in the laboratory, we measured concentrations of plasma immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in female kestrels with ad libitum food availability (control) or food availability that was reduced during the early breeding period. In a second laboratory study, we administered via osmotic mini-pumps ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) to females beginning on the day they laid their first egg of a clutch (egg-day 1) to determine the effects of high prolactin concentrations on yolk-androgen concentrations. In both this study and one on free-living kestrels, we quantified changes in yolk-androgen concentrations with date of clutch initiation. Concentrations of ir-prolactin in nonlaying females rose with date, irrespective of food treatment. Egg-day 1 ir-prolactin concentrations were higher in control females laying late during the breeding phase than in those laying early. This increase was absent in food-reduced females. Yolk-androgen concentrations in eggs 3 and 4 but not eggs 1 and 2 of the clutch were higher in clutches initiated late than in clutches initiated early in the breeding phase in both the field and laboratory. o-prolactin treatment elevated yolk-testosterone but not androstenedione concentrations. These findings suggest that, in American kestrels, seasonal and laying-associated increases in plasma-prolactin concentrations elevate yolk-testosterone concentrations. Food availability and other factors may interact with date to regulate the effects of prolactin on yolk-testosterone deposition. PMID:11716575

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H; Sharp, P J



Neutralization of the pharmacological effects of Cobra and Krait venoms by chicken egg yolk antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-month-old white leghorn chickens were immunized with 50?g of Common Cobra (Naja naja) and 30?g of Krait venoms (Bungarus caeruleus) to generate antivenom antibodies against the venom antigen. Chickens received booster doses of increasing concentrations of venom at 14 days time intervals to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. The antivenom from immunized chicken egg yolk was extracted by

S. Meenatchisundaram; G. Parameswari; A. Michael; S. Ramalingam



The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis.

Ikonomov, Ognian C., E-mail:; Filios, Catherine, E-mail:; Sbrissa, Diego, E-mail:; Chen, Xuequn, E-mail:; Shisheva, Assia, E-mail:



Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white.  


Veterinary drugs and feed additives (especially some coccidiostats) can be absorbed by the digestive tract of laying hens and transferred to the egg. Physicochemical characteristics of these compounds determine their pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution to and within the egg. Traditionally the quite lipid soluble drugs and additives are expected to yield residues only in the fat-rich yolk. However, the quite lipid soluble drug doxycycline--as well as many other drugs--showed during long-term administration higher residues in white than in yolk. In a model study with 11 sulfonamides differing in pK(a) value and lipid solubility, their distribution in vivo between yolk and white was determined. Neither differences in pK(a) values nor those in lipid solubility could explain the distributions found. Binding to egg white macromolecules in vivo as an explanatory factor was tested with five sulfonamides, and no correlation between binding and the distribution of sulfonamides between white and yolk was found. Literature data on the distribution of drugs between egg white and yolk showed a reasonable consistency within drugs and a large variability among drugs (as could be expected). This larger database also did not provide a clue as to what factor determines the distribution of a drug between egg white and yolk when given to laying hens. PMID:11141291

Kan, C A; Petz, M



Changes in yolk states of duck egg during long-term brining.  


To elucidate the relationship between shyandan yolk formation and NaCl penetration degree, fresh duck eggs were brined in 26% NaCl and a prolonged brining test was conducted for up to 24 weeks. Shyandan yolk was obtained from brine-cured duck shell eggs in 26% NaCl for 4-6 weeks and subsequently heated at 85 degrees C for 90 min. Though NaCl contents for albumen and yolk increased to 14.8 and 8.9%, respectively, during the prolonged test for up to 24 weeks, the R values (NaCl/water x 100) were similar (increased from 0.6 to 21) throughout the brining process. The oil-off ratio of the yolk increased rapidly from 14 to 50% (0-6 weeks) and gradually decreased during the extended brining. Granulation and gelation of yolk appeared in the different stages of the brining process. This study demonstrates that the formation of shyandan yolk was determined by the degree of NaCl penetration. PMID:10563961

Lai, K M; Chi, S P; Ko, W C



Identification of environmental chemicals that induce yolk malabsorption in zebrafish using automated image segmentation.  


Environmental factors affecting nutrient availability during development can cause predisposition to diseases later in life. To identify chemicals in the environment capable of altering nutrient mobilization, we analyzed yolk malabsorption in the zebrafish embryo, which relies on maternally-derived yolk for nutrition during its first week of life. Embryos of the transgenic zebrafish line HGn50D, which fluoresce in the yolk syncytial layer, were exposed from two to five days post fertilization to different chemicals. We developed a software package to automatically and accurately segment and quantify the area of the fluorescing yolk in images captured at the end of the treatment period. Based on this quantification, we found that prochloraz decreased yolk absorption, while butralin, tetrabromobisphenol A, tetrachlorobisphenol A and tributyltin increased yolk absorption. Given the number and variety of industrial chemicals in commerce today, development of automated image processing to perform high-speed quantitative analysis of biological effects is an important step for enabling high throughput screening to identify chemicals altering nutrient absorption. PMID:25462786

Kalasekar, Sharanya Maanasi; Zacharia, Eleni; Kessler, Noah; Ducharme, Nicole A; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Bondesson, Maria



Studies on the effect of supplementing boar semen cryopreservation media with different avian egg yolk types on in vitro post-thaw sperm quality.  


Fertility after insemination of cryopreserved boar semen is currently below that of fresh semen. In an attempt to improve the post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of boar sperm, semen was frozen using an adapted Westendorf method in which the chicken egg yolk was replaced by either duck or quail egg yolk. The different composition of the yolk types, particularly the amount of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, were thought to potentially afford a greater level of protection to sperm against damage during freezing and thawing. Sperm frozen in medium containing chicken egg yolk displayed higher motility immediately after thawing, but there was no difference in the motility of sperm frozen with different types of egg yolk 3 or 6 h after thawing and maintenance at 37 degrees C. Sperm frozen in media containing chicken or duck egg yolk had a higher proportion of intact acrosomes immediately after thawing than sperm frozen in medium containing quail egg yolk, but 6 h after thawing and maintenance at 37 degrees C the sperm that had been frozen in medium containing chicken egg yolk had a higher proportion of intact acrosomes than the sperm frozen in media containing duck or quail egg yolk. Analysis of the composition of the different yolk types showed that the basic components of the yolks were similar, but the ratios of fatty acids and phospholipid classes differed. Duck egg yolk had more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than chicken egg yolk, which had more MUFA than quail egg yolk. Duck egg yolk contained more phosphotidylinositol (PI) than chicken or quail egg yolks and quail egg yolk contained more phosphotidylserine than either chicken or duck egg yolks. The differences in post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of boar sperm when frozen in media containing the different types of egg yolk may be due to the variation in composition. PMID:16420332

Bathgate, R; Maxwell, W M C; Evans, G



Abdominal delivery in the intact amniotic sac in twin pregnancy.  


Abstract Objective: There has been an increasing trend for Caesarean deliveries in twin pregnancies over the last decades; preferred mode of delivery is still unclear. The article presents the mode of twin delivery within intact amniotic sac. Methods: The intrapartum courses in 70 matched twin pairs extracted by Caesarean section were analysed. Neonates were distributed to two groups - main (delivered "en caul") and control (delivered by conventional Caesarean section) groups, and subdivided according to gestational age at the time of delivery: 28-30 weeks, 31-33 weeks and 34-37 weeks. Neonates delivered first and second were matched by pairs. Results: The duration of Caesarean section was higher in the main group (delivered "en caul"). Apgar score at 5-th min depend on the gestational age at birth and was higher in main group. Mechanical ventilation term and length of hospital stay were lower in main group. Postnatal neurological examination showed lower incidence of brain damage in the main group. During the first year of life, neonates extracted within intact amniotic sac showed lower morbidity rate. This was correct also for pairs of neonates matched by delivery order. Conclusions: Presented method improves neonates' Apgar score, reduces the need for resuscitation and influence of intrapartum negative factors. The length of hospital stay and hospitalisation rate for the first year of life were also lower in neonates delivered "en caul", providing an economical benefit. PMID:25308206

Radzinsky, Viktor; Akhmadeev, Nariman; Fatkullin, Ildar; Fatkullin, Farid



Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang



Mammalian laryngseal air sacs add variability to the vocal tract impedance: Physical and computational modeling  

PubMed Central

Cavities branching off the main vocal tract are ubiquitous in nonhumans. Mammalian air sacs exist in human relatives, including all four great apes, but only a substantially reduced version exists in humans. The present paper focuses on acoustical functions of the air sacs. The hypotheses are investigated on whether the air sacs affect amplitude of utterances and?or position of formants. A multilayer synthetic model of the vocal folds coupled with a vocal tract model was utilized. As an air sac model, four configurations were considered: open and closed uniform tube-like side branches, a rigid cavity, and an inflatable cavity. Results suggest that some air sac configurations can enhance the sound level. Furthermore, an air sac model introduces one or more additional resonance frequencies, shifting formants of the main vocal tract to some extent but not as strongly as previously suggested. In addition, dynamic range of vocalization can be extended by the air sacs. A new finding is also an increased variability of the vocal tract impedance, leading to strong nonlinear source-filter interaction effects. The experiments demonstrated that air-sac-like structures can destabilize the sound source. The results were validated by a transmission line computational model. PMID:18647005

Riede, Tobias; Tokuda, Isao T.; Munger, Jacob B.; Thomson, Scott L.



Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MA DEP) Scientific Advisory Committee on Health Effects of Perchlorate (SAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MA DEP Scientific Advisory Committee on Health Effects of Perchlorate (SAC) was comprised of an independent advisory committee, augmented with a number of specialists with expertise in subject areas covered in the Department's assessment of the health effects of perchlorate. The SAC provided input and peer review of the MA DEP perchlorate toxicology assessment and RfD development.

Robert Utiger; Rosalind Brown; Charles Emerson


Inter-species variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large range of differences in yolk testosterone among the seven passerine species examined, with significant differences between those at the high end (song sparrow Melospiza melodia, red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, and house sparrow, Passer domesticus) and those at the low end (eastern phoebe Sayornis phoebe, and house finch Carpodacus mexicanus). We also found that the testosterone level in cowbird eggs was intermediate in relation to host species levels and was significantly lower than that in three common cowbird hosts (song sparrow, red-winged blackbird, and house sparrow), but not significantly different from three others. Geographical comparisons of yolk testosterone levels in all cowbird subspecies and populations from several regions showed no significant differences, though a trend that deserves further exploration was the pattern of lowest level in the ancestral population of cowbirds in the central prairies and of highest level in the northwestern population where range invasion occurred approximately 40 years ago. The levels of 17 beta-estradiol were similar in the seven songbird species examined, which is consistent with current hypotheses that this hormone plays a role in embryonic sexual differentiation. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the large differences observed among species in absolute level of yolk testosterone are the relevant focal point or whether target tissue sensitivity differences mediate the effects of this yolk steroid, particularly between parasitic and non-parasitic species.

Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Wu, J.M.; Igl, L.D.; Ottinger, M.A.



Inter-species variation in yolk steroid levels and a cowbird-host comparison  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined variability in yolk hormone levels among songbird species and the role of yolk steroids as a mechanism for enhanced exploitation of hosts by the parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater. Within-clutch variation in yolk steroids has been found in several avian species in single species studies, but few comparisons have been made among species. We found a large range of differences in yolk testosterone among the seven passerine species examined, with significant differences between those at the high end (Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia , Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, and House Sparrow, Passer domesticus ) and those at the low end (Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe, and House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus ). We also found that the testosterone level in cowbird eggs was intermediate in relation to host species levels and was significantly lower than that in three common cowbird hosts (Song Sparrow, Red-winged Blackbird, and House Sparrow), but not significantly different from three others. Geographical comparisons of yolk testosterone levels in all cowbird subspecies and populations from several regions showed no significant differences, though a trend that deserves further exploration was the pattern of lowest level in the ancestral population of cowbirds in the central prairies and of highest level in the northwestern population where range invasion occurred approximately 40 years ago. The levels of 17 betaestradiol were similar in the seven songbird species examined, which is consistent with current hypotheses that this hormone plays a role in embryonic sexual differentiation. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the large differences observed among species in absolute level of yolk testosterone are the relevant focal point or whether target tissue sensitivity differences mediate the effects of this yolk steroid, particularly between parasitic and non-parasitic species.

Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.; Abdelnabi, M.; Wu, J.; Igl, L.D.; Ottinger, M.A.



pH sensing via bicarbonate-regulated “soluble” adenylyl cyclase (sAC)  

PubMed Central

Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a source of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3?, 5? monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is directly regulated by bicarbonate (HCO?3) ions. In living cells, HCO?3 ions are in nearly instantaneous equilibrium with carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH due to the ubiquitous presence of carbonic anhydrases. Numerous biological processes are regulated by CO2, HCO?3, and/or pH, and in a number of these, sAC has been shown to function as a physiological CO2/HCO3/pH sensor. In this review, we detail the known pH sensing functions of sAC, and we discuss two highly-studied, pH-dependent pathways in which sAC might play a role. PMID:24324443

Rahman, Nawreen; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.



Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.



Endometriosis within a left-sided inguinal hernia sac.  


Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder wherein ectopic endometrial glands and stroma are found at extrauterine sites. Extrapelvic endometriosis is a well-documented, yet rare, disease entity that can affect almost any organ system. Inguinal endometriosis is an extremely rare disease entity characterized by tender inguinal swelling. Here we report a case of a sudden-onset and acutely painful left inguinal hernia with concordant endometriosis. A review of the literature is presented. The presence of isolated endometriosis contained within a left-sided inguinal hernia sac has, to our knowledge, never been reported. Often diagnosed incidentally or on histologic examination, general surgeons should consider inguinal endometriosis in the differential diagnosis of inguinal masses, even in the absence of catamenial symptoms. Surgical excision, with gynecologic follow-up, is locally curative and the treatment of choice for inguinal endometriosis. PMID:24876515

Albutt, Katherine; Glass, Charity; Odom, Stephen; Gupta, Alok



Ground water in the Cul-de-Sac Plain, Haiti  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cul-de-Sac Plain is perhaps the most important agricultural area in Haiti because of its nearness and accessibility to Port-au-Prince, the nation's capital, metropolis, and principal seaport. Most of the agricultural produce consumed in Port-au-Prince as well as a considerable part of that exported from Haiti is grown in the plain. Because of variable and poorly distributed rainfall, high temperature, and high evaporation, semiarid climatic conditions prevail in the plain. Irrigation is, therefore, necessary for successful farming. There are no regulatory or storage facilities on the streams that enter the plain, but the mean and low-water stream flow and the discharge of springs are almost entirely appropriated for irrigation. Ground water has been utilized for irrigation to an increasing extent by the Haitian American Sugar Company, which has put down about 100 wells in the plain since 1919. Outside the existing irrigated areas of the plain are large tracts of potentially irrigable land that are uncultivated and agriculturally unproductive for lack of water. The object of the present study was to determine the possibilities of bringing these lands into cultivation by irrigation from wells. This study was part of a larger program of the Food Supply Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, to increase the production of food in Haiti. From September through November 1948 the senior author, a member of the U. S. Geological Survey, spent three months in the field in an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. He was ably assisted by Mr. Rémy C. Lemoine, Haitian engineer-geologist, employed by the Food Supply Division. The field work included principally the geologic mapping of' the plain and the adjacent mountain borders, a ground-water inventory of existing wells and springs, and a general evaluation of significant geologic and hydrologic features.

Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.



Transitional cell-type papillary carcinoma of the lacrimal sac manifesting as a medial canthal skin lesion.  


A 61-year-old man presented with a 2.5?cm fungating skin lesion above the right medial canthus, accompanied by fluctuance and subtle inferotemporal globe displacement. The tumor had erupted 2 months previously and grown rapidly. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 4.2?×?2.8?×?2.1?cm exophytic mass of the right orbit, superimposed on chronic dacryocystitis. Incisional biopsy disclosed faulty epithelial maturation sequence with possible basement membrane invasion. The patient underwent wide excision with medial maxillectomy, inferior turbinectomy, ethmoidectomy, and partial rhinectomy. The orbital floor was then reconstructed; a paramedian forehead flap and myocutaneous cheek advancement flap were used to fill cutaneous defects. All surgical margins were negative on both frozen and permanent sections. Definitive histopathology was consistent with transitional cell type papillary carcinoma of the lacrimal sac. Adjuvant radiotherapy was recommended, but the patient has declined further treatment. He remains recurrence-free at one year. PMID:24911210

Erickson, Benjamin P; Modi, Yasha S; Ko, Marcus J; Hussain, Rehan M; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen; Johnson, Thomas E



Small cell tumors of the thyroid gland: a review.  


The small cell group of thyroid tumors that includes lymphoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, secondary neoplasms, as well as tumors with uncertain histogenesis, remains as a valid diagnostic cul-de-sac due to its heterogeneous constitution. The existence of small cell thyroid tumors with EWSR1-FLI1 rearrangement together with neuroendocrine and/or carcinomatous differentiation raises not only differential diagnostic problems but also a very interesting therapeutic dilemma. This review explores the classification of small cell tumors of the thyroid taking into account the immunophenotype and molecular profile of such tumors. PMID:24275884

Eloy, Catarina; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel



Endocytosis of the major yolk proteins of the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia: Uptake kinetics and interactions  

SciTech Connect

The oocytes of Lepidopteran insects take up several yolk proteins in defined proportions even though their relative availability in the hemolymph changes during the several days required to complete yolk formation in all the eggs. There are three hemolymph yolk precursors, vitellogenin, microvitellogenin and lipophorin; one precursor, paravitellogenin is produced in the ovary. The control mechanism for their proportional endocytosis is not known. In this thesis, the author describe the purification of all four proteins and the radiolabeling of the hemolymph precursors. The radiolabeled proteins were tested with an in vitro incubation system to assess the biological activity of the proteins and the reliability of the incubation methods. All of the labeled probes were transferred from the incubation medium to yolk spheres within the oocyte in a saturable, energy-dependent, and stage-specific manner. The rates of uptake were similar to the estimated rates of uptake in situ. The concentration dependence of in vitro uptake was investigated and found to be consistent with in situ concentrations and the composition of yolk in mature eggs. Two precursors, vitellogenin and lipophorin, competed for uptake indicating that they share a common binding site while the third, microvitellin, did not compete with the others. Though vitellogenin and lipophorin competed for uptake, only vitellogenin displayed the unique ability to increase the uptake rate of microvitellin and fluid in vitro.

Kulakosky, P.C.



Development and fine structure of the yolk nucleus of previtellogenic oocytes in the medaka Oryzias latipes.  


The development and fine structure of yolk nuclei in the cytoplasm of previtellogenic oocytes were examined by electron microscopy during several stages of oogenesis in the medaka, Oryzias latipes. Shortly after oogenesis starts, oocytes 20-30 microm in diameter have much electron-dense (basophilic) cytoplasm, within which a continuous or discontinuous, irregular ring-shaped lower electron-dense area of flocculent appearance (LF) begins to emerge around the nucleus. The yolk nucleus is first recognized within an LF area as a few fragments of dense granular thread measuring 20-25 nm in width. The threads consist of two rows of very dense granules resembling ribosomes or ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-like particles in size and electron density. These thread-like fragments gradually increase in number and length until they assemble into a compact, spherical mass of complicated networks. Analysis of serial sections suggests that the yolk nucleus is a complicated mass of numerous, small deformed vacuoles composed of a single lamella with double layers of ribosomes or RNP-like granules, rather than a mass of granular threads. When oocytes develop to greater than 100 microm in diameter, the yolk nucleus begins to fragment before dispersing throughout the surrounding cytoplasm, concomitantly with the disappearance of LF areas. At this stage of oogenesis, a restricted region of the granulosa cell layer adjacent to the yolk nucleus becomes somewhat columnar in morphology, fixing the vegetal pole region of the oocyte. PMID:11142684

Kobayashi, H; Iwamatsu, T



Development of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies against Streptococcus mitis – Purification and Neutralizing Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Chicken Egg Yolk antibodies (IgY) were raised in 24 week old white leg horn chickens against Streptococcus mitis (MTCC 2696). The chickens received Booster injections of increasing concentrations of antigen to raise the antibody level in egg yolk. The antibodies were purified from immunized chicken egg yolk by Poly ethylene Glycol (PEG) and Ammonium sulphate precipitation method and further purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange column chromatography. High titre of more than 1:10000 antibodies were detected by Indirect antigen capture ELISA at 150th day of observation. IgY concentration varied in the range of 0.85 – 7.6mg/ml of yolk throughout the immunization period. Growth inhibition assay showed the absence of growth when the specific egg yolk antibodies was added to the Streptococcus mitis culture. Inhibition ELISA shows decrease in absorbance with increasing concentration of IgY. The results indicate that antibodies generated in chicken could be used for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes in case of Streptococcus mitis PMID:24826009

Meenatchisundaram, S; Shanmugam, V; Anjali, V M



Plasma corticosterone in nestling american kestrels: effects of age, handling stress, yolk androgens, and body condition.  


The effects of age, handling-induced stress, yolk androgens, and body condition on plasma corticosterone levels were investigated in free-living nestling American kestrels, Falco sparverius, a semialtricial falcon species. In an observational study, corticosterone levels varied with age and handling time. Specifically, corticosterone was low until age 15 days and then rose from age 20 through 25 days. Nestlings as young as age 10 days showed a handling-induced rise in corticosterone. Neither sex nor hatching order of the nestling affected corticosterone levels. Concentrations of maternally derived yolk androgens have previously been shown to be lower in first-laid than in later-laid eggs in the clutch. In an experimental study, androgens were injected into the yolk of the first-laid egg to elevate its levels to those of later-laid eggs, a treatment that substantially reduces nestling body condition compared with that of controls. Yolk androgen treatment elevated posthatching corticosterone levels compared with those of controls, and corticosterone levels were negatively correlated with body condition. These findings indicate that even very young, developing birds can show stress-induced increases in corticosterone and that age-related changes in corticosterone secretion may be modified by body condition and maternal effects such as yolk androgen deposition. The short- and long-term consequences of high glucocorticosteroid levels in young, developing vertebrates are largely unknown. PMID:11316426

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H



Improved fatty acid analysis of conjugated linoleic acid rich egg yolk triacylglycerols and phospholipid species.  


Reports from chicken conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding trials are limited to yolk total fatty acid composition, which consistently described increased saturated fatty acids and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids. However, information on CLA triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) species is limited. This study determined the fatty acid composition of total lipids in CLA-rich egg yolk produced with CLA-rich soy oil, relative to control yolks using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), determined TAG and PL fatty acid compositions by thin-layer chromatography-GC-FID (TLC-GC-FID), identified intact PL and TAG species by TLC-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-MS), and determined the composition of TAG and PL species in CLA and control yolks by direct flow infusion electrospray ionization MS (DFI ESI-MS). In total, 2 lyso-phosphatidyl choline (LPC) species, 1 sphingomyelin species, 17 phosphatidyl choline species, 19 TAG species, and 9 phosphatidyl ethanolamine species were identified. Fifty percent of CLA was found in TAG, occurring predominantly in C52:5 and C52:4 TAG species. CLA-rich yolks contained significantly more LPC than did control eggs. Comprehensive lipid profiling may provide insight on relationships between lipid composition and the functional properties of CLA-rich eggs. PMID:24882168

Shinn, Sara; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jack; Proctor, Andrew




E-print Network

"91-25" EFFICACITE D"UN ARRET-BARRAGE DECLENCHE VIS-A-VIS DES EXPLOSIONS EN CUL-DE-SAC par C particulier, les galeries en creusement ("cul-de-sac") posent des problemes de securite car ä proximite du evoques ci-dessus sont insuffisants pour proteger les culs-de-sac car, en premier lieu, la neutrali

Boyer, Edmond


Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver ( Castor canadensis ): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both sexes of beavers possess a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands located in paired subcutaneous cavities between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The castor sacs are not glandular in the histological sense, hence references to these structures as preputial glands or castor glands are misnomers. The wall of the castor sacs is

Jon M. Walro; Gerald E. Svendsen



Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)  

PubMed Central

Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 2–3 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (3000–4000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as an additional acoustic filter. Individual acoustic recognition may have been the primary function in the evolution of a size-variable air sac, and this function is retained in mother–young communication. In males sexual selection seems to have favoured a considerable size increase of the air sac and a switch to call series instead of single calls. Vocalization became restricted to the rutting period serving the attraction of females. We propose two possibilities for the acoustic function of the air sac in vocalization that do not exclude each other. The first assumes a coupling between air sac and the environment, resulting in an acoustic output that is a combination of the vocal tract resonance frequencies emitted via mouth and nostrils and the resonance frequencies of the air sac transmitted via the neck skin. The second assumes a weak coupling so that resonance frequencies of the air sac are lost to surrounding tissues by dissipation. In this case the resonance frequencies of the air sac solely influence the signal that is further filtered by the remaining vocal tract. According to our results one acoustic effect of the air sac in adult reindeer might be to mask formants of the vocal tract proper. In other cervid species, however, formants of rutting calls convey essential information on the quality of the sender, related to its potential reproductive success, to conspecifics. Further studies are required to solve this inconsistency. PMID:17310544

Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrén, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E



Cu?O template synthesis of high-performance PtCu alloy yolk-shell cube catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.  


Novel PtCu alloy yolk-shell cubes were fabricated via the disproportionation and displacement reactions in Cu2O yolk-shell cubes, and they exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation. PMID:25182273

Ye, Sheng-Hua; He, Xu-Jun; Ding, Liang-Xin; Pan, Zheng-Wei; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Wu, Mingmei; Li, Gao-Ren



Bone tumor  


Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... include: Genetic defects passed down through families Radiation Injury In ... or metastatic bone tumors. They behave very differently ...


Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk  

PubMed Central

Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption. PMID:22876878



Implications of genetic selection on yolk proportion on the dry matter content of eggs in a White Leghorn population.  


1. The responses to genetic selection on yolk proportion as a technique for increasing egg dry matter content, an important criterion for the egg-product industry, was investigated in a pedigree flock of White Leghorn hens. 2. Parents were preselected on high and low yolk proportion from a base population. The absolute estimated breeding value for yolk proportion of both groups differed by 3%. The realised selection difference in dry matter content of eggs between groups was more than 1% in the analysed offspring population. 3. Heritability estimates were moderate and dry matter had a lower heritability (h(2) = 0.39) than yolk proportion (h(2) = 0.44). 4. The genetic correlation between yolk proportion and dry matter content was highly positive (rg = 0.91). Genetic correlations with egg weight were negative and would have to be compensated for in a breeding programme (rg = -0.76 with yolk proportion and rg = -0.64 with dry matter content). The genetic correlation between the laying performance and yolk proportion was rg = 0.28 and close to zero (rg = -0.05) for dry matter content. 5. Easy recording and lower undesirable correlations make yolk proportion more suitable for commercial selection compared with egg dry matter content in layer breeding. PMID:24811475

Icken, W; Looft, C; Schellander, K; Cavero, D; Blanco, A; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R



A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Matthew T. McDowell,  

E-print Network

A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes Nian Liu,, Hui Wu nanoparticle, Li-ion battery, anode, yolk-shell, solid-electrolyte interphase, in situ TEM Electrochemical anode that is currently used in Li-ion batteries.2 Among all the alloy anodes, silicon has the highest

Cui, Yi


The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung



Repair of the inguinal hernia using the hernia sac to correct the abdominal wall defect  

PubMed Central

Summary Surgery of the inguinal hernia is a challenge for the great incidence of recurrences. The aim of this study is demonstrate the usefulness of hernia sac in the repair of inguinal hernia. In 200 patients the hernia sac was used to reinforce the abdominal wall. The patients have been observed two years along and still now few recurrences (20%) have been observed. The hernia sac can be used to repair the inguinal hernia because it’s a patient’s tissue with no inflammation and rejection. PMID:24091173




Production of Egg Yolk Coloring Material by a Fermentation Process1  

PubMed Central

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was cultivated in a yeast propagator, for the production of biomass and carotenoids. A spray-dried preparation of the yeast was incorporated into the diets of laying chickens for the promotion of egg yolk color. Several aspects of the effect of media on growth and carotenogenesis of pigmented yeast were examined. Addition of 1 to 2% of Rhodotorula yeast to the feeding mixture considerably improved egg yolk color. The possibility of using carotenogenic yeasts as a feed supplement is suggested. PMID:5893694

Schwarz, Y.; Margalith, P.



The heritability of egg yolk cholesterol level and its relationship to reproductive performance  

E-print Network

population. Trait Mean STD. Error STD. Deviation C. V. * Hen-day production Egg weight 8-week body weight Egg yolk cholesterol 66. 24X . 76 9. 22 . 14 55. 95 gms. . 30 3. 32 . 06 569. 86 gms. 6. 58 69. 93 . 12 1392. 97 mg. T 8. 46 95. 53 . 07... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Poultry Science THE HERITABILITY OF EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Danie L. Cunningham Approved as to style and content by: hairman of C ittee...

Cunningham, Danis Lane



Analysis for stress environment in the alveolar sac model  

PubMed Central

Better understanding of alveolar mechanics is very important in order to avoid lung injuries for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for treatment of respiratory problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the alveolar mechanics for two different alveolar sac models, one based on actual geometry and the other an idealized spherical geometry using coupled fluid-solid computational analysis. Both the models were analyzed through coupled fluid-solid analysis to estimate the parameters such as pressures/velocities and displacements/stresses under mechanical ventilation conditions. The results obtained from the fluid analysis indicate that both the alveolar geometries give similar results for pressures and velocities. However, the results obtained from coupled fluid-solid analysis indicate that the actual alveolar geometry results in smaller displacements in comparison to a spherical alveolar model. This trend is also true for stress/strain between the two models. The results presented indicate that alveolar geometry greatly affects the pressure/velocities as well as displacements and stresses/strains. PMID:24932320

Pidaparti, Ramana M.; Burnette, Matthew; Heise, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Angela



Observational Opportunities with the CUBIC Experiment on SAC-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CUBIC experiment on the SAC-B satellite is now collecting data on the Diffuse X-Ray Background and bright point sources over an energy range of 0.2 - 10 keV with energy resolution ranging from 40 - 160 eV over this bandpass. CUBIC observations, several of which are discussed in other posters at this session, provide 2 - 4 high quality spectra per week. CUBIC was built as a PI-class instrument, and at present data rights are divided between Penn State (90%) and Leicester University (10%). We present the observing plan for the first six months of CUBIC operations. We are currently collaborating with several astronomers who are not on the CUBIC team but have expressed interest in one or more of these targets. We invite additional collaborations on targets which are not currently assigned to a specific observer. In order to make these data more accessible to the astronomical community, we are proposing to institute a modest Guest Investigator program. If supported by ADP funding, this would permit observing requests from outside astronomers and would place a large fraction of the CUBIC data in a public archive at the HEASARC.

Nousek, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Moskalenko, E. I.



SAC-B GaAs solar array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the electrical and mechanical design of the GaAs solar array of SAC-B, an Argentinian scientific satellite, planned for launch in 1995 into a 550-km circular orbit by Pegasus vehicle. The solar array is made up of four deployable wings, embodying approximately 1000 LPE GaAs solar cells, (30 x 41 sq mm), capable of providing about 215 W at 28 V at EOL. The mechanical structure of each panel comprises an aluminum honeycomb structure with carbon fiber skins; the active facesheet is covered with an insulating layer of kapton/fiberglass. Each panel is attached via a pair of hinges to the spacecraft body while a restraint/release mechanism holds the other panel edge to the spacecraft. Different considerations have been taken into account for the electrical and mechanical design of the solar array: geometrical constraints of the Pegasus static envelope and the satellite for the panel dimensioning, mission degradation factors, minimization of the magnetic moment, and realiability requirements. Several environmental tests (including thermal vacuum and vibration) are foreseen at panel and/or satellite level to verify performances during the mission.

Brambilla, L.; Caon, A.; Contini, R.; D'Accolti, G.; Rossi, E.; Verzeni, G.; Flores, C.; Paletta, F.; Pedrazzoli, G.; Grattarola, M.



Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai



Laparoscopic Mobilization of the Rectosigmoid and Excision of the Obliterated Cul-de-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study ObjectiveTo evaluate the feasibility and surgical and clinical outcomes of laparoscopic excision of anterior recto- sigmoid wall endometriosis and en bloc dissection of the obliterated cul-de-sac.

Jackie Hollett-Caines; George A. Vilos; Deborah Anne Penava



Histological evaluation of pearl-sac development in the Concho Pearly Mussel (Cyrtonaias tampicoens)  

E-print Network

The purpose of this project was to assess the wound repair properties and epithelial cell proliferation in the processes necessary to develop a pearl-sac in the mantle of the Concho Pearly Mussel (Uniodidea: Cyrtonaias tampicoens). Samples...

Tower, Stephan N.



Coagulopathy associated with sac reperfusion for reversing paraplegia after endovascular repair of type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm.  


Sac perfusion may be helpful in preventing or reversing spinal cord injury after endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms and it has been used as an adjunct to the standard physiologic measures of sustained hypertension and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Coagulopathy as a result of endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair has been reported, and very rare cases of treatment after repair of these endoleaks have been described. We report a 73-year-old man who had endovascular repair of a type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm with a branched stent graft. Sac reperfusion was initiated to manage postoperative paraplegia. The paraplegia partially resolved but severe hemorrhagic complications developed that were attributed to sac perfusion-related hyperfibrinolysis. Discontinuation of sac perfusion resolved the coagulopathy but resulted in paraplegia. PMID:23988546

Lioupis, Christos; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Clough, Rachel; Matharu, Nick; Modarai, Bijan; Carrell, Tom; Taylor, Peter



Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (?C ? 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.



38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SF-SAC and instructions for its completion may be obtained from the following Web page: . It is also available from the address provided in §...



Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1)?Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2)?Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3)?Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4)?Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic. In addition, we conclude: (5)?The advent of avian unidirectional lung ventilation is not possible to pinpoint, as osteological correlates have yet to be identified for uni- or bidirectional lung ventilation. (6)?The origin and evolution of avian air sacs may have been driven by one or more of the following three factors: flow-through lung ventilation, locomotory balance, and/or thermal regulation. PMID:18825273

Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.



Social Cohesiveness, Territoriality, and Holiday DecorationsThe Influence of Cul-de-Sacs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altman's territoriality theory was used as a framework for examining neighborhood attachment. We hypothesized that attachment would be manifested in interrelated patterns of neighboring behaviors, attitudes indicating that the block was a secondary territory, and individual and communal displays of holiday decorations. Design features of cul-de-sacs were hypothesized to contribute to greater degrees of block attachment on cul-de-sacs than on

Barbara B. Brown; Carol M. Werner



Tonicity of human tear fluid sampled from the cul-de-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 'freezing point' depression technique was used to determine the osmolality of 384 samples of tear fluid originating from the middle of the lower tear prism and the lower cul-de-sac of one eye of each of 12 young adults. Tear fluid from the cul-de-sac (mean 341.0 mosm\\/kg) was found overall to be significantly hypertonic (p less than 0.0001) relatively to

W J Benjamin; R M Hill



Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.  


Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

Wilson, F E



An irreducible left scrotal hernia containing a sigmoid colon tumor (adenocarcinoma) – Case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION In relation to all inguinal hernias, large irreducible scrotal hernias are quite rare, while such hernias containing colon tumors in the sac have so far been described in fewer than 30 cases. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 61-year-old patient was admitted for a planned surgery because of a large irreducible left-sided scrotal hernia. Intraoperatively, a large tumor of the sigmoid colon was found in the hernial sac. In a histopathological examination it was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. A palliative operation was performed and he was referred to further systemic and palliative treatment (because of numerous coexisting liver metastases). DISCUSSION Until now, only about 30 cases of colon tumor in inguinal hernia sac have been reported. CONCLUSION It should be remembered that even the most obvious preoperative diagnosis may be verified intraoperatively. PMID:24988210

Gna?, Jaros?aw; Bulsa, Marek; Czaja-Bulsa, Gra?yna



Yolk androgens in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica): a test of some adaptive hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal effects such as androgen in avian eggs can mediate evolutionary responses to selection, allowing manipulation of offspring phenotype and promoting trans-generational adaptive effects. We tested the predictions of two adaptive hypotheses that have been proposed to explain female variation in yolk androgen allocation in birds, using the barn swallow Hirundo rustica as a model. We found no support for

D. Gil; P. Ninni; A. Lacroix; F. De Lope; C. Tirard; A. Marzal; A. Pape



Sexually attractive phrases increase yolk androgens deposition in Canaries ( Serinus canaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The androgen concentration in birds’ eggs varies with laying order, breeding conditions, and mate attractiveness. In passerine birds, mate attractiveness depends upon song quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of one criterion used by females to assess male song quality that is to say the presence of sexually attractive phrases on yolk androgen deposition. Twenty-five

Aurélie Tanvez; Nathalie Béguin; Olivier Chastel; André Lacroix; Gérard Lebouchera



Sex-specific patterns of yolk androgen allocation depend on maternal diet in the zebra finch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females are predicted to adjust their reproductive investment in relation to resource quality. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), diet quality has been found to influence egg mass both between and within clutches. We tested the prediction that diet quality also affects the quantity of maternally allocated yolk testosterone and 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) between and within clutches. We also investigated whether this

Alison N. Rutstein; Lucy Gilbert; Peter J. B. Slater; Jeff A. Graves



Vitellogenin, the extraovarian precursor of the protein yolk in Crustacea : A review  

E-print Network

Vitellogenin, the extraovarian precursor of the protein yolk in Crustacea : A review J. J. MEUSY vitellogenin and its role in vitellogenesis. Besides the biochemical and immunological aspects, particular and birds it was shown that a lipoprotein complex or « vitellogenin » was prerequisite to the constitution

Boyer, Edmond


Rapid assimilation of yolk enhances growth and development of lizard embryos from a cold environment.  


Selection for rapid growth and development in cold environments results in a geographic pattern known as countergradient variation. The eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, exhibits countergradient variation in embryonic growth and development along latitudinal clines. To identify the proximate causes of countergradient variation, we compared the energy budgets of embryos from a cold environment (Virginia) and a warm environment (South Carolina) during development at a realistic thermal cycle. The difference in mean egg size between populations was controlled by removing yolk from large eggs and performing a sham manipulation on other eggs. Respiration was measured every 4 days throughout 48 days of incubation. After this period, eggs were dissected and the energy contents of embryos and yolk were determined by calorimetry. As expected from previous experiments, embryos from Virginia reached a more advanced stage of development and deposited more energy within tissues than embryos from South Carolina. The greater absorption of yolk by embryos from Virginia was associated with a higher rate of respiration. Assimilation of yolk by rapidly growing embryos could reduce growth or survival after hatching. Such costs might explain the maintenance of countergradient variation in S. undulatus. PMID:17872995

Storm, Melissa A; Angilletta, Michael J



Multifunctional yolk-in-shell nanoparticles for pH-triggered drug release and imaging.  


Multifunctional nanoparticles are synthesized for both pH-triggered drug release and imaging with radioluminescence, upconversion luminescent, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The particles have a yolk-in-shell morphology, with a radioluminescent core, an upconverting shell, and a hollow region between the core and shell for loading drugs. They are synthesized by controlled encapsulation of a radioluminescent nanophosphor yolk in a silica shell, partial etching of the yolk in acid, and encapsulation of the silica with an upconverting luminescent shell. Metroxantrone, a chemotherapy drug, was loaded into the hollow space between X-ray phosphor yolk and up-conversion phosphor shell through pores in the shell. To encapsulate the drug and control the release rate, the nanoparticles are coated with pH-responsive biocompatible polyelectrolyte layers of charged hyaluronic acid sodium salt and chitosan. The nanophosphors display bright luminescence under X-ray, blue light (480 nm), and near infrared light (980 nm). They also served as T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with relaxivities of 3.5 mM(-1) s(-1) (r1 ) and 64 mM(-1) s(-1) (r2 ). These multifunctional nanocapsules have applications in controlled drug delivery and multimodal imaging. PMID:24753264

Chen, Hongyu; Qi, Bin; Moore, Thomas; Wang, Fenglin; Colvin, Daniel C; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; Gore, John C; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Mefford, O Thompson; Alexis, Frank; Anker, Jeffrey N



Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10?g?kg?1, or 20?g?kg?1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20?g?kg?1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20?g?kg?1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10?g?kg?1 or 20?g?kg?1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

Altunta?, A.; Aydin, R.



Yolk-shell structure of polyaniline-coated sulfur for lithium-sulfur batteries.  


Lithium–sulfur batteries have attracted much attention in recent years due to their high theoretical capacity of 1672 mAh g(–1) and low cost. However, a rapid capacity fade is normally observed, attributed mainly to polysulfide dissolution and volume expansion. Although many strategies have been reported to prolong the cyclability, the high cost and complex preparation processes still hinder their practical application. Here, we report the synthesis of a polyaniline–sulfur yolk–shell nanocomposite through a heating vulcanization of a polyaniline–sulfur core–shell structure. We observed that this heating treatment was much more effective than chemical leaching to prepare uniform yolk–shell structures. Compared with its sulfur–polyaniline core–shell counterparts, the yolk–shell nanostructures delivered much improved cyclability owing to the presence of internal void space inside the polymer shell to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur during lithiation. The yolk–shell material exhibited a stable capacity of 765 mAh g(–1) at 0.2 C after 200 cycles, representing a promising future for industrial scale Li–S batteries. PMID:24112042

Zhou, Weidong; Yu, Yingchao; Chen, Hao; DiSalvo, Francis J; Abruña, Héctor D



Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel



Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee



ORIGINAL PAPER Sex-specific effects of yolk-androgens on growth  

E-print Network

kestrel (Falco sparverius), experimental elevation of yolk androgens in the first-laid egg of a clutch (a kestrels (Falco sparverius; Sockman Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2008) 62:617­625 DOI 10.1007/s00265-007-0486-z

Sockman, Keith W.


Euploid chicken embryos from eggs containing one, two or several yolks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. A high incidence of haploid\\/diploid chimerism in chick embryos from strains of chickens selected for large size was postulated to be caused by the propensity of such hens to ovulate erratically. To test the hypothesis karyological analysis was made of embryos in eggs containing 1 or > 1 yolk. The eggs were from a line selected for multiple ovulation

K.-H. Lee; N. S. Fechheimer; H. Abplanalp



Maternal androgens in egg yolks: relation with sex, incubation time and embryonic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormones of maternal origin are known to be transferred to the egg yolks of oviparous species. Several studies have shown that within and between clutch variation of maternal androgens may be adaptively tuned. Moreover, it has recently been hypothesized that sex steroids of maternal origin may play a role in adaptive sex ratio manipulation. For sex determination the eggs have

Corine M. Eising; Wendt Müller; Cor Dijkstra; Ton G. G. Groothuis



Yolk Antioxidants Vary with Male Attractiveness and Female Condition in the House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)  

E-print Network

1098 Yolk Antioxidants Vary with Male Attractiveness and Female Condition in the House Finch alter offspring quality before hatch. Lipid-soluble vitamins and carotenoids are potent antioxidants. Female birds deposit these antioxidants into eggs in variable amounts according to environmental

Badyaev, Alex


Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs ( Megascops asio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the

D. Caldwell Hahn



Egg Yolk Layers Vary in the Concentration of Steroid Hormones in Two Avian Species  

E-print Network

of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). We found that in the dark-eyed junco the concentration of progesterone is significantly greater at the periphery of the yolk found in both the dark-eyed junco and the red-winged blackbird that the concentration of testosterone

Casto, Joseph M.


Omega-3 fatty acid application reduces yolk and plasma cholesterol levels in Japanese quails.  


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fish oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, on the cholesterol levels in egg yolk and plasma in Japanese quail. Additionally, the effects of these fatty acids on selected biochemical parameters, and yolk and quail weights were investigated. Thirty healthy laying Japanese quails were divided into two groups including control and omega-3 fatty acid treated group. Fish oil capsules were administrated orally to the quails in the omega-3 treated group every other day for 3 weeks. Yolk cholesterol level was found to be significantly lower in the omega-3 treated group compared to the control. Plasma cholesterol levels were lower; plasma calcium levels were higher at 3rd week in omega-3 fatty acid treated group than those in control. On the other hand, plasma phosphorus and glucose levels in omega-3 fatty acid group were significantly lower at 3rd week than those at the beginning of experiment. In conclusion, it was found that orally supplemented omega-3 fatty acid reduced the levels of cholesterol in egg yolk and plasma in quails. PMID:19632290

Atakisi, E; Atakisi, O; Yaman, H; Arslan, I



Effect of dietary saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of egg yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of dietary inclusion of red stigmas of Greek saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of shell eggs and liquid yolks were investigated and compared with those of dietary ?-tocopherol.2. Ninety-six Lohmann laying hens, 38 weeks old, distributed into 4 groups with 4 replicates each, were given either a control diet, diets enriched with 10 (SAF10)

N. A. Botsoglou; P. Florou-Paneri; I. Nikolakakis; I. Giannenas; V. Dotas; E. N. Botsoglou; S. Aggelopoulos



20-hydroxyecdysone Stimulates the Accumulation of Translatable Yolk Polypeptide Gene Transcript in Adult Male Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yolk polypeptide (YP) synthesis is hormonally stimulated during maturation of adult female Drosophila melanogaster. Synthesis of the three YPs is sex specific and occurs in fat body cells and follicle cells of adult females. However, males have been shown to produce YPs when treated with the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). By using a cell-free translation system as an assay for

Paul D. Shirk; Parviz Minoo; John H. Postlethwait



9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and for retaining the classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and...yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test the resultant supernatant...



9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

...and for retaining the classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and...yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test the resultant supernatant...



9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and for retaining the classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and...yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test the resultant supernatant...



9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and for retaining the classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and...yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test the resultant supernatant...



Manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod anodes for high capacity lithium batteries.  


Transition metal oxides have attracted much interest for their high energy density in lithium batteries. However, the fast capacity fading and the low power density still limit their practical implementation. In order to overcome these challenges, one-dimensional yolk-shell nanorods have been successfully constructed using manganese oxide as an example through a facile two-step sol-gel coating method. Dopamine and tetraethoxysilane are used as precursors to obtain uniform polymer coating and silica layer followed by converting into carbon shell and hollow space, respectively. As anode material for lithium batteries, the manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod electrode has a reversible capacity of 660 mAh/g for initial cycle at 100 mA/g and exhibits excellent cyclability with a capacity of 634 mAh/g after 900 cycles at a current density of 500 mA/g. An enhanced capacity is observed during the long-term cycling process, which may be attributed to the structural integrity, the stability of solid electrolyte interphase layer, and the electrochemical actuation of the yolk-shell nanorod structure. The results demonstrate that the manganese oxide is well utilized with the one-dimensional yolk-shell structure, which represents an efficient way to realize excellent performance for practical applications. PMID:25490409

Cai, Zhengyang; Xu, Lin; Yan, Mengyu; Han, Chunhua; He, Liang; Hercule, Kalele Mulonda; Niu, Chaojiang; Yuan, Zefan; Xu, Wangwang; Qu, Longbing; Zhao, Kangning; Mai, Liqiang



Experimental Manipulation of Steroid Concentrations in Circulation and in Egg Yolks of Turtles  

E-print Network

Experimental Manipulation of Steroid Concentrations in Circulation and in Egg Yolks of Turtles Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie,Wyoming 82071 ABSTRACT Steroid hormones in egg.Turtles exhibited similar amounts (o1ng/ml) of circulat- ing steroids (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol-17b

Janzen, Fredric


Endogenous yolk steroid hormones in turtles with different sex-determining mechanisms.  


Maternal transfer of nutrients, including steroid hormones, to embryos during gestation in viviparous amniotes is well known, but the concordant process in oviparous amniotes is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that steroid hormones are present in freshly laid eggs of archosaurs and that their concentrations may influence offspring phenotypes. This process might be especially important in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), because embryonic sex determination as well as other traits is thought to be influenced by temperature-dependent steroid metabolism. To evaluate the potential importance of endogenous steroid hormones to developing reptilian embryos, we (1) measured testosterone and estradiol-17beta levels in fresh eggs from natural populations of three species of turtles with TSD and two with genotypic sex determination (GSD), (2) evaluated testosterone concentrations within and among clutches of two turtle species with TSD, and (3) correlated clutch testosterone concentrations with incubation length, body mass, and sex ratio of offspring of two turtle species with TSD from eggs incubated at pivotal sex-determining temperatures. Turtles with TSD had higher levels of yolk testosterone (up to approximately 300 ng/g) than turtles with GSD (up to approximately 15 ng/g), suggesting a potential functional dichotomy between these two classes of sex-determining mechanisms; concentrations of yolk estradiol-17beta were low and fairly uniform among all five species (approximately 1 ng/g). Yolk testosterone varied substantially among, and relatively little within, clutches, indicating considerable potential as a mechanism behind clutch effects on offspring phenotypes. Steroid concentrations were unrelated to order of oviposition, unlike in birds, but yolk testosterone levels were correlated with incubation length and possibly with offspring sex ratio. Embryos of Chelydra serpentina serpentina from clutches with higher yolk testosterone hatched soonest at 21.8 degreesC; the opposite was true for Trachemys scripta elegans embryos incubated at 28.2 degreesC. At 27.6 degreesC, C. s. serpentina clutches with higher yolk testosterone produced more male-biased offspring sex ratios. Taken together, these results are strikingly consistent with published data on other oviparous amniotes and with the known physiology of follicular development and embryonic sexual differentiation in these disparate taxa. The findings of these experiments suggest that yolk testosterone in turtle eggs may be biologically significant. PMID:9707477

Janzen, F J; Wilson, M E; Tucker, J K; Ford, S P



Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g-1 at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g-1 at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg-1. The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles.A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g-1 at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g-1 at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg-1. The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01675g

Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan



Novel regulation of yolk utilization by thyroid hormone in embryos of the direct developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui.  


Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for metamorphosis of the long, coiled tadpole gut into the short frog gut. Eleutherodactylus coqui, a direct developing frog, lacks a tadpole. Its embryonic gut is a miniature adult form with a mass of yolky cells, called nutritional endoderm, attached to the small intestine. We tested the TH requirement for gut development in E. coqui. Inhibition of TH synthesis with methimazole arrested gut development in its embryonic form. Embryos treated with methimazole failed to utilize the yolk in their nutritional endoderm, and survived for weeks without further development. Conversely, methimazole and 3,3',5-tri-iodo-l-thyronine, the active form of TH, stimulated gut development and utilization and disappearance of the nutritional endoderm. In Xenopus laevis, the receptor for TH, TR?, is upregulated in response to TH. Similarly, EcTR?, the E. coqui ortholog, was upregulated by TH in the gut. EcTR? expression was high in the nutritional endoderm, suggesting a direct role for TH in yolk utilization by these cells. An initial step in the breakdown of yolk in X. laevis is acidification of the yolk platelet. E. coqui embryos in methimazole failed to acidify their yolk platelets, but acidification was stimulated by TH indicating its role in an early step of yolk utilization. In addition to a conserved TH role in gut development, a novel regulatory role for TH in yolk utilization has evolved in these direct developers. PMID:20883213

Singamsetty, Srikanth; Elinson, Richard P



Identification and characterization of proteases involved in specific proteolysis of vitellogenin and yolk proteins in salmonids.  


A pepstatin A-sensitive enzyme involved in yolk formation was purified from the masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) ovary using in vitro generation of yolk proteins from purified vitellogenin to assay enzymatic activity. Purification of the enzyme involved precipitation of ovarian extracts by water and ammonium sulfate followed by five steps of column chromatography. After SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, the purified enzyme appeared as a single approximately 42 kDa band that was immunoreactive to anti-human cathepsin D. The course of proteolytic cleavage of the three major yolk proteins (lipovitellin, beta'-component, and phosvitin) in fertilized masu salmon and Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi) eggs and embryos was visualized by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting using specific antisera. Major yolk protein bands appeared in positions corresponding to 92 kDa, 68 kDa, and 22 kDa (lipovitellin-derived peptides), as well as 17 kDa (beta'-component). During embryo development, the 92 kDa and 22 kDa bands gradually decreased in intensity, becoming undetectable in alevins. The 68 kDa band and a minor 24 kDa band became more intense after the eyed stage. Two additional peptides, corresponding to 40 and 28 kDa, newly appeared in alevins. During embryonic growth, the beta'-component band (17 kDa) persisted and phosvitin appeared to be progressively dephosphorylated. In vitro analysis of lipovitellin proteolysis indicated that the enzyme involved is a Pefabloc SC-sensitive serine protease. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that a cathepsin D-like protease and serine proteases play key roles in yolk formation and degradation, respectively, in salmonid fishes. PMID:11754018

Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Ichikawa, Norimasa; Fukada, Haruhisa; Fujita, Toshiaki; Sullivan, Craig V; Hara, Akihiko



Multiscale Modeling of the Effect of Micro-alloying Mn and Sb on the Viscoplastic Response of SAC105 Solder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the time-dependent viscoplastic response of two relatively new SAC105-X solders—SAC105-05Mn (Sn1.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC105) doped with 0.05 wt.% Mn), and SAC105-55Sb (SAC105 doped with 0.55 wt.% Sb). The results showed that the addition of Mn or Sb increases the creep resistance of SAC105 solder by one to two orders of magnitude at the tested stress levels of 2-20 MPa. The addition of Mn as a fourth alloying element promotes homogeneous distribution of micron-scale Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compounds (IMCs), thereby reducing their interparticle spacing as compared to that of SAC105. On the other hand, addition of Sb does not change the spacing of the Cu6Sn5 particle, but promotes the formation of uniformly sized Sn dendritic lobes, homogeneously distributed in the whole solder joint. Moreover, Sb also forms a solid solution with Sn and strengthens the Sn matrix in SAC105-55Sb itself. The effects of these microstructural changes (obtained using image processing) on the secondary creep constitutive response of SAC105 solder interconnects were then modeled using a mechanistic multiscale creep model. The mechanistic model was able to accurately capture the trends in the secondary creep constitutive response of the alloys and to explain the improvement in creep resistance of SAC105 due to the addition of Mn and Sb.

Mukherjee, Subhasis; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Zhou, Bite; Bieler, Thomas R.



Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.  


Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N



Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

Oppel, S.; Federer, R.N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A.N.; Hollmen, T.E.



Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is

Wenyuan Gao; Michael Wiederhold; Robert Hejl



Yolk hormone levels in the eggs of snapping turtles and painted turtles.  


Although yolk steroids appear to play important roles in the development, growth, and behavior of some birds, their effects in oviparous reptiles are largely unknown. These investigations were initiated to determine initial levels of steroid hormones in the yolks of eggs from two turtle species. Clutches of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) eggs were collected and individual egg yolks were analyzed for estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and testosterone (T) using specific RIAs. E(2) and T levels differed significantly between species, the mean E(2) value in snapping turtles was 2.78+/-0.095 (ng/g) compared to 0.89+/-0.064 (ng/g) for painted turtles, and the mean value for T in snapping turtle yolks was 2.56+/-0.098 (ng/g) compared to 0.68+/-0.045 (ng/g) for painted turtles. In addition, E(2) levels were greater than T levels in both species. Within each species, there were significant differences among clutches from different females. E(2) levels in the snapping turtle yolks varied from a clutch mean of 1.38 to 4.55 ng/g and in painted turtles, the clutch means for E(2) varied from 0.34 to 1.34 ng/g. T levels demonstrated similar phenomena within species, with levels in snapping turtles varying from a clutch mean of 0.68 to 4.71 ng/g. Painted turtle levels of T varied from a clutch mean of 0.22 to 0.72 ng/g. There were also significant differences in the E(2)/T ratio, however, E(2)/T ratios did not differ between species. Painted turtle follicles of different sizes showed significant differences in levels of both E(2) and T, and these differences may reflect differing deposition patterns of these steroids in the egg yolk of this turtle during vitellogenesis. The differences in E(2) and T concentration reported here could have important implications for development, growth, and behavior in oviparous reptilian species. PMID:12161198

Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J



A status report on the development of SAC2000: A new seismic analysis code  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a new Seismic Analysis Code (SAC2000) that will meet the research needs of the seismic research and treaty monitoring communities. Our first step in this development was to rewrite the original Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) -- a Fortran code that was approximately 140,000 lines long -- in the C programming language. This rewrite has resulted in a much more robust code that is faster, more efficient, and more portable than the original. We have implemented important processing capabilities such as convolution and binary monograms, and we have significantly enhanced several previously existing capabilities. For example, the spectrogram command now produces a correctly registered plot of the input time series and a color image of the output spectrogram. We have also added an image plotting capability with access to 17 predefined color tables or custom color tables. A rewritten version of the readcss command can now be used to access any of the documented css.3.0 database data formats, a capability that is particularly important to the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) and the monitoring community. A much less visible, but extremely important contribution is the correction of numerous inconsistencies and errors that have evolved because of piecemeal development and limited maintenance since SAC was first written. We have also incorporated on-line documentation and have made SAC documentation available on the Internet via the world-wide-web at http://www-ep/tvp/sac.html.

Goldstein, P.; Minner, L.



Sacs knockout mice present pathophysiological defects underlying autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay.  


Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS [MIM 270550]) is an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the SACS gene. Over 170 SACS mutations have been reported worldwide and are thought to cause loss of function of sacsin, a poorly characterized and massive 520 kDa protein. To establish an animal model and to examine the pathophysiological basis of ARSACS, we generated Sacs knockout (Sacs(-/-)) mice. Null animals displayed an abnormal gait with progressive motor, cerebellar and peripheral nerve dysfunctions highly reminiscent of ARSACS. These clinical features were accompanied by an early onset, progressive loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells followed by spinal motor neuron loss and peripheral neuropathy. Importantly, loss of sacsin function resulted in abnormal accumulation of non-phosphorylated neurofilament (NF) bundles in the somatodendritic regions of vulnerable neuronal populations, a phenotype also observed in an ARSACS brain. Moreover, motor neurons cultured from Sacs(-/-) embryos exhibited a similar NF rearrangement with significant reduction in mitochondrial motility and elongated mitochondria. The data points to alterations in the NF cytoskeleton and defects in mitochondrial dynamics as the underlying pathophysiological basis of ARSACS. PMID:25260547

Larivière, Roxanne; Gaudet, Rébecca; Gentil, Benoit J; Girard, Martine; Conte, Talita Cristiane; Minotti, Sandra; Leclerc-Desaulniers, Kim; Gehring, Kalle; McKinney, R Anne; Shoubridge, Eric A; McPherson, Peter S; Durham, Heather D; Brais, Bernard



Prox1 expression in the endolymphatic sac revealed by whole-mount fluorescent imaging of Prox1-GFP transgenic mice.  


This study describes a technical breakthrough in endolymphatic sac research, made possible by the use of the recently generated Prox1-GFP transgenic mouse model. Whole-mount imaging techniques through the decalcified temporal bone and three-dimensional observations of Prox1-GFP mouse tissue revealed the positive labeling of the endolymphatic sac in adult stage, and allowed, for the first time, the GFP-based identification of endolymphatic sac epithelial cells. Prox1 expression was observed in all parts of the endolymphatic sac epithelia. In intermediate portion of the endolymphatic sac, mitochondria-rich cells did not express Prox1, although ribosome-rich cells showed strong GFP labeling. The anatomical relationship between the endolymphatic sac and the surrounding vasculature was directly observed. In the endolymphatic sac, expression of Prox1 may suggest progenitor cell-like pluripotency or developmental similarity to systemic lymphatic vessels in other organs. This whole-mount imaging technique of the endolymphatic sac can be combined with other conventional histological, sectioning, and labeling techniques and will be very useful for future endolymphatic sac research. PMID:25529452

Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos



Plasma Yolk Precursor Dynamics during Egg Production by Female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila): Characterization and Indices of  

E-print Network

372 Plasma Yolk Precursor Dynamics during Egg Production by Female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila: Anseriformes, Aythya marila). We also evaluated VTG and total VLDL-TG as physiological indices of reproductive


Clinicopathologic analysis of choriocarcinoma as a pure or predominant component of germ cell tumor of the testis.  


Although well recognized in the literature, the contemporary clinicopathologic data regarding choriocarcinoma (CC) as a pure or the predominant component of a testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) are limited. Herein, we present a series of pure CC and predominant CC in mixed GCT of the testis obtained from a single oncology institution. A comprehensive histologic review of 1010 orchiectomies from 1999 to 2011 yielded 6 (0.6%) pure CC and 9 (0.9%) mixed GCT cases with a predominant CC component. Patients' ages ranged from 20 to 39 years (median 29 y). All patients had markedly elevated serum ?-hCG levels (median 199,000 IU/mL) at presentation. All tumors were unilateral and involved the right (9/15) and left (6/15) testis. The mean tumor size was 6.5 cm (range, 1.5 to 8 cm). Histology was similar for pure CCs and the CC component of mixed GCTs. CC commonly showed expansile hemorrhagic nodular cysts surrounded by variable layers of neoplastic trophoblastic cells (mononucleated trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts). The syncytiotrophoblasts usually covered columns of mononucleated trophoblasts and occasionally formed plexiform aggregates and pseudovillous protrusions. Immunohistochemical stains suggested a mixture of cytotrophoblasts (p63+, HPL_) and intermediate trophoblasts (p63-, HPL weak +/-) in the columns of mononucleated cells. In the 9 mixed GCTs, CC comprised 50% to 95% (7/9 were ?80% CC) of the tumor; 7 were combined with 1, and 2 were combined with 2 other GCT components. The non-CC components included teratoma (5/9), seminoma (2/9), yolk sac tumor (2/9), and embryonal carcinoma (2/9). Lymphovascular invasion, spermatic cord invasion, and tunica vaginalis invasion were present in 15/15, 5/15, and 1/12 cases, respectively. In mixed GCTs, these locally aggressive features were attributed to the CC component, except in 1 tumor in which it was also exhibited by the embryonal carcinoma component. Lymphovascular invasion was multifocal to widespread in 73% of tumors. The stages of the 15 tumors were: pT2 (10), pT3 (5); NX (1), N1 (4), N2 (5), N3 (5); and M1a (2) and M1b (13). Distant organ metastasis mostly involved the lungs (11) and liver (10). Follow-up information was available in 14 patients, all of whom received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. All 6 pure CC patients were dead of disease (range, 6 to 14 mo, median 9.5 mo). Follow-up of 8 patients with predominant CC (range, 10 to 72 mo, median 27 mo) showed that 5 died of the disease, and 1 was alive with disease and 2 were alive with no evidence of disease at 60 and 72 months of follow-up, respectively; these latter 2 patients were the only ones with M1a disease on presentation. This series confirms the proclivity for high-stage presentation including presence of distant metastasis, hematogenous spread, and poor outcome of testicular CC. Mixed GCT with a predominant CC component has similar tendency for high-stage presentation, marked elevation of serum ?-hCG levels, and aggressive behavior compared with pure CC. This study also showed that distant metastasis by CC when only involving the lungs (M1a) may not be uniformly fatal with chemotherapy. The mononucleated trophoblastic columns in testicular CC appear to be a mixture of cytotrophoblasts and intermediate trophoblasts, similar to that described in gestational CC. PMID:24145647

Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Hernández-Toriz, Narciso; Paner, Gladell P



Isolation and purification of egg yolk phospholipids using liquid extraction and pilot-scale supercritical fluid techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg yolk is an excellent source of phospholipids. Egg yolk powder (EYP) contains about 60% lipids, which consist of, on average,\\u000a neutral lipids (65%), phospholipids (31%) and cholesterol (4%). The utilization of supercritical fluid techniques is a new\\u000a way to selectively extract and fractionate non-polar and slightly polar components from foods and food products. In this study,\\u000a we developed pilot-scale

Heikki Aro; Eila P. Järvenpää; Karoliina Könkö; Mikko Sihvonen; Veli Hietaniemi; Rainer Huopalahti



Yolk testosterone and estradiol variation relative to clutch size, laying order and hatching asynchrony in Common Grackles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal effects are typically thought to enhance rather than reduce offspring performance, but asynchronous hatching (ASH)\\u000a in birds typically produces a size hierarchy within a clutch that frequently reduces the growth and survival of nestlings\\u000a from eggs that hatch later. Given that yolk steroids can significantly affect offspring phenotype and that in many species\\u000a the levels of yolk steroids have

J. Dylan Maddox; Rachel M. Bowden; Patrick J. Weatherhead



Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L?1 of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L?1 of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50°C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P < 0.05), and the supplementation of L-cysteine in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group IV) improved both progressive motility (P < 0.05) and acrosome integrity (P < 0.01). The use of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk alone (group II) did not enhance any of the post-thawed semen qualities (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity. PMID:19633681

Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet



Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.



Changes in physicochemical properties of egg white and yolk proteins from duck shell eggs due to hydrostatic pressure treatment.  


The shell of the duck egg did not crack after pressure treatments (300 to 500 MPa; 25 degrees C; 10 min) in this study; therefore, the changes of physicochemical properties of egg white and yolk proteins from the intact shell egg by pressure treatment were first investigated and compared with those of pressurized hen liquid eggs. Although the proximate compositions of duck eggs and hen eggs were similar, the moisture and protein contents of hen whole eggs were higher than those of duck whole eggs. The protein contents of duck egg white and yolk were slightly lower than those of hen eggs, and the moisture content of duck egg white was equal to that of hen egg white, whereas that of duck egg yolk was lower than that of hen egg yolk. After pressure treatment at 500 MPa, the results of solubility, sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobicity, and residual denaturation enthalpy showed that egg white proteins underwent slight but significant unfolding and aggregation, whereas pressure treatments below 500 MPa induced insignificant changes in the physicochemical properties. On the other hand, pressure treatments at 400 and 500 MPa significantly reduced the solubility and residual denaturation enthalpy of egg yolk proteins. However, the native PAGE result showed that pressure treatment up to 500 MPa did not affect the protein components of egg white and yolk. The results showed that the application of pressure treatment on duck shell egg may induce reversible denaturation of both egg white and yolk proteins. The egg white and yolk proteins may be prevented from denaturation after pressure treatment in the presence of the eggshell compared with the absence of the eggshell. As reported in the literature, pressure treatments at 300 to 500 MPa and 25 degrees C would be efficient for decontamination of duck shell eggs. Therefore, based on the consideration for food safety and functional properties, pressure processing can be a good preservation technique for duck shell eggs. PMID:20308405

Lai, K M; Chuang, Y S; Chou, Y C; Hsu, Y C; Cheng, Y C; Shi, C Y; Chi, H Y; Hsu, K C



Regulation of yolk-androgen concentrations by plasma prolactin in the American kestrel  

E-print Network

The concentrations of maternally derived androgens in the yolks of avian eggs vary within and among clutches, but a mechanistic basis for this variation has not been elucidated. We investigated in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, whether changes in plasma-prolactin concentrations induced by changes in photoperiod and food supply affect yolk-androgen concentrations. Over the course of a photoinduced breeding period in the laboratory, we measured concentrations of plasma immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in female kestrels with ad libitum food availability (control) or food availability that was reduced during the early breeding period. In a second laboratory study, we administered via osmotic mini-pumps ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) to females beginning on the day they laid their first egg of a

Keith W. Sockman; Hubert Schwabl; Peter J. Sharp



Exploring cytoplasmic dynamics in zebrafish yolk cells by single particle tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) have recently developed into an exciting new tool for bioimaging applications. The material possesses several unique features including high biocompatibility, easy bioconjugation, and perfect photostability, making it a promising optical nanoprobe in vitro as well as in vivo. This work explores the potential application of this novel nanomaterial as a photostable, nontoxic tracer in vivo using zebrafish as a model organism. We introduced FNDs into the yolk of a zebrafish embryo by microinjection at the 1-cell stage. Movements of the injected particles were investigated by using single particle tracking techniques. We observed unidirectional and stop-and-go traffic as part of the intricate cytoplasmic movements in the yolk cell. We determined a velocity in the range of 0.19 - 0.40 ?m/s for 40 particles moving along with the axial streaming in the early developmental stage (1 to 2 hours post fertilization) of the zebrafish embryos.

Chang, Cheng-Chun; Zhang, Bailin; Li, Che-Yu; Hsieh, Chih-Chien; Duclos, Guillaume; Treussart, François; Chang, Huan-Cheng



Histological structures of native and cooked yolks from duck egg observed by SEM and cryo-SEM.  


A method was used to fix duck egg yolk while retaining its original sol structure to elucidate the fine structure of native yolk by using fixation with liquid nitrogen and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Native yolk spheres showed a polyhedron shape with a diameter at approximately 50 to 100 ?m and packed closely together. Furthermore, the interior microstructure of the native yolk spheres showed that a great amount of round globules ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 ?m were embedded in a continuous phase with a lot of voids. After cooking, the sizes of the spheres were almost unchanged, and the continuous phase became a fibrous network structure observed by SEM with chemical fixation probably constituted of low density lipoprotein (LDL). The fine structure of the native yolk can be observed by cryo-SEM; however, the microstructure of yolk granules and plasma from cooked shell eggs can be observed by SEM with chemical fixation. PMID:19358603

Hsu, Kuo-Chiang; Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming



A New Technique for Reduction the Phase Induced Intensity Noise in SAC-OCDMA Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new code for reduction the phase induced intensity noise has been presented. The new code is proposed for Spectral Amplitude-Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Accesses (SAC-OCDMA). This new code family we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code reduced the effect of Multi Access Interference (MAI) due to it is the property of variable cross correlation. We find that the performance of the DCS code is a batter than other SAC-OCDMA codes such as; Random Diagonal (RD) code, Modified Quadratic Congruence (MQC) code and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) code. Through the mathematical calculation and simulation analysis, for the bit-error rate of DCS code is significantly better than other SAC-OCDMA codes, the effect of Phase Induced Intensity Noise is reduced. In addition, proofof-principle simulations of 10 Gb/s for 20 km have been successfully demonstrated and achieved low BER compared to the other codes.

Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan



Successful treatment of hydatid cyst of lesser sac with PAIR therapy.  


Hydatid disease has varied presentations and may involve any part of the body with hydatid disease of the liver being the most common site. Hydatid disease of lesser sac is a rare entity. Different treatment options of hydatid liver disease are available which include surgical, medical and radiological management. Surgical management has its limitations in terms of cost, morbidity, mortality, rate of recurrence and patient fitness to undergo surgery. Medical management alone carries a low chance of cure. Radiological management with PAIR therapy (percutaneous aspiration, injection and re-aspiration) of hydatid liver disease has been well described in literature. However, hydatid disease of lesser sac in itself is a rare entity and its treatment with PAIR procedure has not been described before. We describe a case of hydatid disease of lesser sac treated with the PAIR procedure. PMID:24304995

Fayyaz, Afshan; Ghani, Umar Fayyaz



Sequential separation of immunoglobulin Y and phosvitin from chicken egg yolk without using organic solvents.  


A study was conducted to develop a simple sequential separation protocol to separate phosvitin and IgY from egg yolk without using organic solvents. Egg yolk was diluted with 2 volumes of distilled water (DW), homogenized, and centrifuged. The precipitant was collected and homogenized with 4 volumes of 10% NaCl (wt/vol) in 0.05 N NaOH solution to extract phosvitin. The pH of the homogenate was adjusted to 4.0 and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The supernatant was collected and then heat-treated at 70°C for 30 min and centrifuged to remove impurities. The supernatant containing phosvitin was collected, had salts removed, and was concentrated and then freeze-dried. The supernatant from the centrifugation of diluted egg yolk was diluted again with 3 volumes of DW, and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The resulting supernatant was concentrated using ultrafiltration and then IgY was precipitated using 20% saturated (NH4)2SO4 + 15% NaCl (wt/vol). The precipitant was collected after centrifugation at 3,400 × g for 30 min at 4°C and dissolved with DW, had salts removed, and then was freeze-dried. The purity of separated phosvitin and IgY was checked using SDS-PAGE and the proteins were verified using Western blotting. The purity of phosvitin and IgY was 97.2 and 98.7%, and the yield was 98.7 and 80.9%, respectively. The ELISA results indicated that the activities of separated IgY and phosvitin were 96.3 and 98.3%, respectively. This study proved that both phosvitin and IgY can be separated in sequence from egg yolk without using an organic solvent. Also, the method is very simple and has a high potential for scale-up processing. PMID:25085938

Lee, Hyun Yong; Abeyrathne, E D N S; Choi, Inwook; Suh, Joo Won; Ahn, Dong Uk



Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for analysis of egg yolk carotenoids.  


Carotenoids accumulated in the egg yolk are of importance for two reasons. Firstly they are important pigments influencing customer acceptance and secondly they are essential components with positive health effects either as antioxidants or as precursor of vitamin A. Different analytical methods are available to quantitatively identify carotenoids from egg yolk such as spectrophotometric methods described by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Both methods have in common that they are time consuming, need a laboratory environment and well trained technical operators. Recently, a rapid lab-independent spectrophotometric method (iCheck, BioAnalyt GmbH, Germany) has been introduced that claims to be less time consuming and easy to operate. The aim of the current study was therefore to compare the novel method with the two standard methods. Yolks of 80 eggs were analysed as aliquots by the three methods in parallel. While both spectrometric methods are only able measure total carotenoids as total ß-carotene, HPLC enables the determination of individual carotenoids such lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, ß-carotene and ?-apocarotenoic ester. In general, total carotenoids levels as obtained by AOAC were in average 27% higher than those obtained by HPLC. Carotenoid values obtained by the reference methods AOAC and HPLC are highly correlated with the iCheck method with r(2) of 0.99 and 0.94 for iCheck vs. AOAC and iCheck vs. HPLC, respectively (both p<0.001). Bland Altman analysis showed that the novel iCheck method is comparable to the reference methods. In conclusion, the novel rapid and portable iCheck method is a valid and effective tool to determine total carotenoid of egg yolk under laboratory-independent conditions with little trained personal. PMID:25442548

Islam, K M S; Schweigert, F J



The origin of yolk in the oocytes of Nereis virens (Annelida, Polychaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different types of evidence are reported concerning the origin of yolk protein in the oocyte of the annelid Nereis virens. The fine structure of the oocyte and its different types of storage organelles are described; only few pinocytotic vesicles are found. Electron-microscopic autoradiography of oocytes incubated with 3H-leucine showed that the oocytes synthesize protein which, in part, becomes localized

Albrecht Fischer; André Dhainaut



Effect of dietary saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of egg yolk.  


1. The effects of dietary inclusion of red stigmas of Greek saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of shell eggs and liquid yolks were investigated and compared with those of dietary a-tocopherol. 2. Ninety-six Lohmann laying hens, 38 weeks old, distributed into 4 groups with 4 replicates each, were given either a control diet, diets enriched with 10 (SAF10) or 20 (SAF20) mg/kg saffron, or a diet enriched with 200 mg/kg a-tocopheryl acetate (VE200). 3. Following 6 weeks of feeding, eggs were collected and the rate of lipid oxidation was determined in refrigerated stored shell eggs, as well as in yolks adjusted to a pH of 6.2 or 4.2 and stored in the presence of light. 4. The results showed that the extent of lipid oxidation in shell eggs, as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, differed between dietary treatments, but did not change with storage time. In stored shell eggs, MDA levels differed between dietary treatments at all time points. 5. Yolks from the control group adjusted to pH 6.2 gave MDA values higher than those of the SAF10 group, which in turn were higher than those of the SAF20 group, a finding suggesting that saffron exerted a dose-dependent antioxidative activity. The VE200 group gave lower MDA values than the other groups at all time points. The oxidation profile of yolks at pH 4.2 showed a similar pattern but the rate of oxidation was greater. PMID:16428113

Botsoglou, N A; Florou-Paneri, P; Nikolakakis, I; Giannenas, I; Dotas, V; Botsoglou, E N; Aggelopoulos, S



Structural heterogeneity of yolk spheres in hierarchical follicles from hen ovary: a histochemical study.  


1. Four types of yolk spheres with variable structure, chemical composition and frequency of occurrence in yolk plasma of hierarchical follicles (F(4), F(3), F(2) and F(1) with diameters of 10.0, 15.5, 20.0 and 35.0 mm, respectively) of the hen ovary were identified using histochemical methods for localising lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. 2. Yolk spheres of the first type (YS(1)) had a phospholipoprotein membrane surrounding fluid matrix which stained lightly for phospholipids, proteins and acidic mucopolysaccharides. Two types of droplets were observed in the matrix of YS(1). Spheres of the second type (YS(2)) had a lipoprotein- and acidic mucopolysaccharide-rich peripheral region and a single large droplet in its fluid matrix. Droplets of YS(2), unlike YS(1), showed three regions and metachromatic staining with ninhydrin-Schiff reagent. The third type of sphere (YS(3)) had a homogeneous matrix staining for proteins, neutral lipids and florescent yellow with alcian blue and differentially with ninhydrin-Schiff reagent; it was bounded by a phospholipids- and acidic mucopolysaccharide-containing thick peripheral region. Its fluid matrix also showed toluidine-blue-positive, densely packed granules and small droplets. The fourth type (YS(4)) was seen only in bromophenol blue and Nile blue preparations, revealing the presence of proteins and neural lipids in their matrix and peripheral regions. 3. Quantitative data on the relative abundance of yolk spheres in F(4) to F(1) follicles revealed more YS(3) (51.1 to 64.7%) than YS(1) (16.2 to 28.3%) and YS(2) (19.1 to 23.2%). The percentage of YS(1) increased and that of YS(3) decreased as follicle size increased. PMID:18568750

Parshad, R K; Kaur, R; Natt, J K



sAC as a model for understanding the impact of endosymbiosis on cell signaling.  


As signaling pathways evolve, selection for new functions guides the co-option of existing material. Major transitions in the history of life, including the evolution of eukaryotes and multicellularity, exemplify this process. These transitions provided both strong selection and a plenitude of available material for the evolution of signaling pathways. Mechanisms that evolved to mediate conflict during the evolution of eukaryotes may subsequently have been co-opted during the many independent derivations of multicellularity. The soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) signaling pathway illustrates this hypothesis. Class III adenylyl cyclases, which include sAC, are found in bacteria, including the ?-proteobacteria. These adenylyl cyclases are the only ones present in eukaryotes but appear to be absent in archaeans. This pattern suggests that the mitochondrial endosymbiosis brought sAC signaling to eukaryotes as part of an intact module. After transfer to the proto-nuclear genome, this module was then co-opted into numerous new functions. In the evolution of eukaryotes, sAC signaling may have mediated conflicts by maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In the evolution of multicellularity, in different lineages sAC may have been co-opted into parallel tasks originally related to conflict mediation. Elucidating the history of the sAC pathway may be relatively straightforward because it is ubiquitous and linked to near universal metabolic by-products (CO2/HCO3(-)). Other signaling pathways (e.g., those involving STAT and VEGF) present a greater challenge but may suggest a complementary pattern. The impact of the mitochondrial endosymbiosis on cell signaling may thus have been profound. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The role of soluble adenylyl cyclase in health and disease. PMID:24907565

Blackstone, Neil W



Yolk androgens in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica): a test of some adaptive hypotheses.  


Maternal effects such as androgen in avian eggs can mediate evolutionary responses to selection, allowing manipulation of offspring phenotype and promoting trans-generational adaptive effects. We tested the predictions of two adaptive hypotheses that have been proposed to explain female variation in yolk androgen allocation in birds, using the barn swallow Hirundo rustica as a model. We found no support for the first hypothesis proposing that yolk androgen varies as a function of breeding density in order to prepare offspring for different breeding densities. However, we found experimental support for the hypothesis that female yolk androgen allocation depends on mate attractiveness and that it constitutes an example of differential allocation. Females increased the concentration of androgens in their eggs when mated to males with experimentally elongated tails. Female phenotypic quality as measured by arrival date and clutch size was positively related to egg androgen concentration, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a costly investment, constrained by female condition. We found correlative evidence of a direct relationship between egg androgen concentration and performance of offspring as measured by mass increase. PMID:16405584

Gil, D; Ninni, P; Lacroix, A; De Lope, F; Tirard, C; Marzal, A; Pape Møller, A



Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl  

PubMed Central

Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17?-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds. PMID:17148167

Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion



Experimental demonstration of variable weight SAC-OCDMA system for QoS differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the experimental and simulation results of variable-weight spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (VW-SAC-OCDMA) system is demonstrated. In the proposed system, three users with weights of 6, 4 and 2 each operating at data rate of 1.25 Gb/s represent video, data and voice services, respectively. Results show that for back-to-back system minimum average power of -20 dBm per chip is required to maintain the acceptable performance. Transmission up to 60 km of fiber is demonstrated. Using mathematical approximation the capacity of VW-SAC-OCDMA system is demonstrated.

Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad



Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas  

PubMed Central

Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya



Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs  

PubMed Central

Patterns of postcranial skeletal pneumatization (PSP) indicate that pterosaurs possessed components of a bird-like respiratory system, including a series of ventilatory air-sacs. However, the presence of PSP in the oldest known pterosaurs has not been unambiguously demonstrated by previous studies. Here we provide the first unequivocal documentation of PSP in Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic pterosaurs. This demonstrates that PSP and, by inference, air-sacs were probably present in the common ancestor of almost all known pterosaurs, and has broader implications for the evolution of respiratory systems in bird-line archosaurs, including dinosaurs. PMID:19411265

Butler, Richard J.; Barrett, Paul M.; Gower, David J.



A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate.  


Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin. However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk was diluted with 6-fold delipidation solutions made of different types (pectin, ?-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and dextran sulfate) and concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) of polysaccharides, respectively. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5.0, and then kept overnight at 4°C before being centrifuged at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was added to 35% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and then centrifuged. The precipitant, which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were utilized to conduct qualitative analysis of IgY; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative analysis. The immunoreactivity of IgY was measured by ELISA. The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The optimal isolation of IgY for pectin, ?-carrageenan, dextran sulfate, and carboxymethylcellulose was at the concentration of 0.1%; for methylcellulose, optimal isolation was at 0.15%. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0.1% pectin. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8.36 mg/mL egg yolk and 83.3%, respectively, and the negative effect of IgY on immunoreactivity can be minimized. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods. Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale. PMID:25542196

Tong, Chenyao; Geng, Fang; He, Zhenjiao; Cai, Zhaoxia; Ma, Meihu



Lack of response of bone mineralization of chicks fed egg yolks from hens on dietary 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol.  


White Leghorn hens, age 34 wk, fed 0 to 3 micrograms/kg of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) as the only source of dietary vitamin D3 with 2.5 or 3.5% calcium failed to achieve normal embryonic survival and hatchability of their fertile eggs. Improved egg production was observed over a 24-wk period as the level of 1,25(OH)2D3 was increased. Eggs of hens fed the vitamin D-deficient diet showed significantly lower (P less than .01) egg weight and shell strength with a higher percent of soft shell eggs than those of hens fed 1,25(OH)2D3 or vitamin D3. To study the possibility that 1,25(OH)2D3 cannot be transferred into the egg yolk, yolks from the hens receiving varying levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D3 were fed to day-old chicks. A standard vitamin D3 assay was developed and bone ash was determined on fat-free tibial bone. Significantly lower (P less than .01) vitamin D activity per gram of yolk was observed in yolks from hens fed 0 to 3 micrograms of 1,25(OH)2D3 than in yolks of hens fed vitamin D3. These results demonstrate that insufficient 1,25(OH)2D3 is incorporated in the egg yolk to support normal embryonic survival and hatchability. This may be due to a decrease in available receptor sites in the egg yolk or to the inability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to cross the vitelline membrane. PMID:2833736

Ameenuddin, S; Sunde, M L; DeLuca, H F



Using life-histories to predict and interpret variability in yolk hormones O.P. Love a,b,*, H.G. Gilchrist c  

E-print Network

Keywords: Corticosterone Yolk hormones Maternal effects Laying order European starling (Sturnus vulgaris (Sturnus vulgaris): fully altricial; black guillemot (Cepphus grylle): semi-precocial; common eider


Imaging and clinical findings in large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveLarge endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome (LEDS) is known as the most common kind of inner ear malformations, which is radiologically detectable. Nevertheless, nowadays many questions are not fully cleared and LEDS is relatively unknown among general radiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of LEDS in the own patient population and to present our experiences

Sabrina Koesling; Christine Rasinski; Beatrice Amaya



A Cross-Ethnic Validity Study of the Shortform Assessment for Children (SAC)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the cross-ethnic measurement equivalence of the Shortform Assessment for Children (SAC) using a sample of 562 African American and 692 White children. Method: A prospective, two-panel survey design was used in this study. Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were used to conduct analyses of the reliability and…

Tyson, Edgar H.; Glisson, Charles



Faraday Discuss. Chem. Sac., 1983, 76,65-75 Electrical Double-layer Interactions in  

E-print Network

Faraday Discuss. Chem. Sac., 1983, 76,65-75 Electrical Double-layer Interactions in Concentrated In this paper we compare three methods for deducing the effective pair potential that describes the double-layer that the electrostatic or electrical double-layer interactions between colloidal particles are responsible for giving

Chan, Derek Y C


Defective histone supply causes condensin-dependent chromatin alterations, SAC activation and chromosome decatenation impairment  

PubMed Central

The structural organization of chromosomes is essential for their correct function and dynamics during the cell cycle. The assembly of DNA into chromatin provides the substrate for topoisomerases and condensins, which introduce the different levels of superhelical torsion required for DNA metabolism. In particular, Top2 and condensin are directly involved in both the resolution of precatenanes that form during replication and the formation of the intramolecular loop that detects tension at the centromeric chromatin during chromosome biorientation. Here we show that histone depletion activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and impairs sister chromatid decatenation, leading to chromosome mis-segregation and lethality in the absence of the SAC. We demonstrate that histone depletion impairs chromosome biorientation and activates the Aurora-dependent pathway, which detects tension problems at the kinetochore. Interestingly, SAC activation is suppressed by the absence of Top2 and Smc2, an essential component of condensin. Indeed, smc2-8 suppresses catenanes accumulation, mitotic arrest and growth defects induced by histone depletion at semi-permissive temperature. Remarkably, SAC activation by histone depletion is associated with condensin-mediated alterations of the centromeric chromatin. Therefore, our results reveal the importance of a precise interplay between histone supply and condensin/Top2 for pericentric chromatin structure, precatenanes resolution and centromere biorientation. PMID:25300489

Murillo-Pineda, Marina; Cabello-Lobato, María J.; Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando; Prado, Félix



First Description of Egg Sacs and Early Larval Development in Hynobiid Salamanders (Urodela, Hynobiidae, Batrachuperus)  

E-print Network

First Description of Egg Sacs and Early Larval Development in Hynobiid Salamanders (Urodela embryonic development of an Iranian hynobiid salamander (the Eastern nominal taxon, Batrachuperus gor Corridor (= Hyrcania) of Northern Iran. The corridor is a "unique relict biogeo- graphic area," which

Alvarez, Nadir


Primacy and Recency as Factors in Cul-de-Sac Elimination in a Stylus Maze  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this experiment a form of maze was used which was sufficiently difficult for the human subject and involved only a single type of cul-de-sac. Two patterns of the maze were constructed, the only difference in the two being that one was a lateral reversal of the other. Sixty subjects took part in the experiment. The results support the view,

C. J. Warden



From Performance Management to Capacity-Building: An Escape from the "Cul De Sac"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the many critiques of educational policies concerning the National Curriculum and the standards and testing regimes for pupils and teachers associated with it. It goes on to suggest that there is a danger of educational researchers and policy-makers arguing themselves into a "cul de sac" where an unproductive stand-off may…

Storey, Anne



The South China Sea, a cul-de-sac of North Pacific Intermediate Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses branching of the Kuroshio Current including North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) into the South China Sea (SCS). The spreading path of the subtropical salinity minimum of NPIW is southwestward pointing to the Luzon Strait between Taiwan and Luzon islands. Using a large collection of updated hydrography, results show that the SCS is a cul-de-sac for the subtropical

Yuzhu You; Ching-Sheng Chern; Yih Yang; Cho-Teng Liu; Kon-Kee Liu; Su-Cheng Pai



Conformational dependence of the circular dichroism spectrum of ?-hydroxyphenylacetic acid: a ChiraSac study.  


The conformational dependence of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of a chiral molecule, ?-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA) containing phenyl, COOH, OH and H groups around a chiral carbon atom, has been studied theoretically by using the SAC-CI (symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction) theory. The results showed that the CD spectrum of HPAA depends largely on the rotations (conformations) of the phenyl and COOH groups around the single bonds. The first band is due to the excitation of electrons belonging to the phenyl region and therefore sensitive to the phenyl rotation. The second band is due to the excitation of electrons belonging to the COOH region and therefore sensitive to the COOH rotation. From the comparison of the SAC-CI CD spectra calculated at various conformations of phenyl, COOH, and OH groups with the experimental spectrum, we could predict the stable geometry of this molecule, which agreed well with the most stable conformation deduced from the energy criterion. We also calculated the Boltzmann averaged spectrum and obtained better agreement with the experiment. Further, we performed preliminary investigations of the temperature dependence of the CD spectrum of HPAA. In general, the CD spectra of chiral molecules are very sensitive to low-energy processes like the rotations around the single bonds. Therefore, one should be able to study the natures of the weak interactions by comparing the SAC-CI spectra calculated at different geometries and conditions with the experimental spectrum using a new methodology we have termed ChiraSac. PMID:24256101

Miyahara, Tomoo; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi



Self-Assembly of Large and Small Molecules into Hierarchically Ordered Sacs and Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the self-assembly of macroscopic sacs and membranes at the interface between two aqueous solutions, one containing a megadalton polymer and the other, small self-assembling molecules bearing opposite charge. The resulting structures have a highly ordered architecture in which nanofiber bundles align and reorient by nearly 90° as the membrane grows. The formation of a diffusion barrier upon

Ramille M. Capito; Helena S. Azevedo; Yuri S. Velichko; Alvaro Mata; Samuel I. Stupp



13th SAC ISTC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics"  

E-print Network

13th SAC ISTC Seminar "New Perspectives of High Energy Physics" Novosibirsk 1-5 September 2010 V. Myalkovskiy, JINR, Dubna, Russia on behalf of the ATLAS TRT Collaboration DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE ATLAS TRANSITION RADIATION TRACKER #12;V.Myalkovskiy 13th


An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) for the aquarius/SAC-D soil moisture product  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Aquarius/SAC-D mission has been developed for assessing the accuracy of soil moisture retrievals from passive L-band remote sensing. The implementation of the OSSE is based on: a 1-km land surface model over the Red-Arkansas River Basin, a forward mi...


A revision of the endemic South African sac spider genus Lessertina Lawrence, 1942 (Araneae: Eutichuridae).  


The endemic South African sac spider genus Lessertina Lawrence, 1942, previously known only from the type species (L. mutica Lawrence, 1942), is revised. Both sexes of L. mutica are redescribed and the species is recorded from the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo Provinces. A new species, L. capensis sp. nov., is described from the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces. PMID:25544208

Haddad, Charles R



Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.



SAC 2005 -Santa Fe Sanitizing using Metadata in MetaXQuery  

E-print Network

SAC 2005 - Santa Fe Sanitizing using Metadata in MetaXQuery Hao Jin and Curtis Dyreson School of E.E. and Computer Science Washington State University USA Sanitizing using Metadata in MetaXQuery - Jin and Dyreson Outline · XQuery · Metadata · Sanitize · Experiments · Summary Sanitizing using Metadata in Meta

Dyreson, Curtis


Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors.  


Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system. PMID:23788706

Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz



Probabilistic Basis for 2000 SAC Federal Emergency Management Agency Steel Moment Frame Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a formal probabilistic framework for seismic design and assessment of structures and its application to steel moment-resisting frame buildings. This is the probabilistic basis for the 2000 SAC Federal Emergency Management Agency ~FEMA! steel moment frame guidelines. The framework is based on realizing a performance objective expressed as the probability of exceeding a specified performance level. Performance

C. Allin Cornell; Fatemeh Jalayer; Ronald O. Hamburger; Douglas A. Foutch



Bat serenades—complex courtship songs of the sac-winged bat ( Saccopteryx bilineata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocalisations of many songbirds, anurans, and insects are shaped by sexual selection. Males acoustically compete for territories, and females choose their mates by means of male courtship songs. In courtship, richness and complexity of elements are often favoured characters. Only a few examples of complex songs are known in mammals. Males of the harem-polygynous sac-winged bat ( Saccopteryx bilineata, Emballonuridae)

Oliver Behr; Otto von Helversen



2 CFR Appendix X to Part 200 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)  

...2014-01-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) X Appendix X to Part 200 Grants and Agreements Office of Management...AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. X Appendix X to Part 200—Data Collection Form (Form...



[Omental hernia through esophageal hiatus simulates mediastinal lipomatous tumor].  


Omental hernia through the esophageal hiatus is extemely infrequent. Paraesophageal hiatal hernia with omentum in the herniary sac mimics a mediastinal lipomatous tumor and differential diagnosis should be made. This diagnosis requires experience and knowledge of the differences between these two pathologies. In the following study we describe the case of an omental hernia and the characteristics that make it different from other pathologies. PMID:24847629

Saleg, Patricia; Maldonado, Pablo; Alcaraz, Alvaro; Moser, Federico; Peralta, Laura; Obeide, Lucio



The Probabilistic Basis for the 2000 SAC/FEMA Steel Moment Frame C. Allin Cornell 1 , Member, ASCE, Fatemeh Jalayer 2 , Ronald O. Hamburger 3 , Member,  

E-print Network

The Probabilistic Basis for the 2000 SAC/FEMA Steel Moment Frame Guidelines C. Allin Cornell 1 for the 2000 SAC/FEMA steel moment frame guidelines. The framework is based on realizing a performance of the performance objective being met. This format has been adopted in the SAC/FEMA guidelines. Keywords

Sweetman, Bert


Sex-biased investment in yolk androgens depends on female quality and laying order in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts sex biases in parental investment according to parental condition. In addition, parents may need to sex bias their investment if there is an asymmetry between the sexes in offspring fitness under different conditions. For studying maternal differential investment, egg resources are ideal subjects because they are self contained and allocated unequivocally by the female. Recent studies show that yolk androgens can be beneficial to offspring, so here we test for sex-biased investment with maternal investment of yolk testosterone (T) in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) eggs. From the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, we predicted females to invest more in male eggs in optimum circumstances (e.g. good-condition mother, early-laid egg), and more in female eggs under suboptimal conditions (e.g. poor-condition mother, late-laid egg). This latter prediction is also because in this species there is a female nestling disadvantage in poor conditions and we expected mothers to help compensate for this in female eggs. Indeed, we found more yolk T in female than male eggs. Moreover, in accordance with our predictions, yolk T in male eggs increased with maternal quality relative to female eggs, and decreased with laying order relative to female eggs. This supports our predictions for the different needs and value of male and female offspring in zebra finches. Our results support the idea that females may use yolk androgens as a tool to adaptively manipulate the inequalities between different nestlings.

Gilbert, Lucy; Rutstein, Alison N.; Hazon, Neil; Graves, Jefferson A.



Selected-control fabrication of multifunctional fluorescent-magnetic core-shell and yolk-shell hybrid nanostructures.  


The selected-control preparation of uniform core-shell and yolk-shell architectures, which combine the multiple functions of a superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) core and europium-doped yttrium oxide (Y(2)O(3):Eu) shell in a single material with tunable fluorescence and magnetic properties, has been successfully achieved by controlling the heat-treatment conditions. Furthermore, the shell thickness and interior cavity of SPIO@Y(2)O(3):Eu core-shell and yolk-shell nanostructures can be precisely tuned. Importantly, as-prepared SPIO@Y(2)O(3):Eu yolk-shell nanocapsules (NCs) modified with amino groups as cancer-cell fluorescence imaging agents are also demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the selected-control fabrication of uniform SPIO@Y(2)O(3):Eu core-shell nanoparticles and yolk-shell NCs. The combined magnetic manipulation and optical monitoring of magnetic-fluorescent SPIO@Y(2)O(3):Eu yolk-shell NCs will open up many exciting opportunities in dual imaging for targeted delivery and thermal therapy. PMID:22328547

Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Tingting; Zhang, Lingyu; Li, Lu; Wang, Y Andrew; Wang, Chungang; Su, Zhongmin



Perfluoroalkyl acids in the egg yolk of birds from Lake Shihwa, Korea.  


Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) were measured in egg yolks of three species of birds, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius), and parrot bill (Paradoxornis webbiana), collected in and around Lake Shihwa, Korea, which receives wastewaters from an adjacent industrial complex. Mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) ranged from 185 to 314 ng/g ww and were similar to those reported for bird eggs from other urban areas. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were also found in egg yolks often at great concentrations. Mean concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) ranged from 95 to 201 ng/g ww. Perfluorooctanoic acid was detected in 32 of 44 egg samples, but concentrations were 100-fold less than those of PFOS. Relative concentrations of PFAs in all three species were similar with the predominance of PFOS (45-50%). There was a statistically significant correlation between PFUnA and perfluorodecanoic acid in egg yolks (p < 0.05), suggesting a common source of PFCAs. Using measured egg concentrations and diet concentrations, the ecological risk of the PFOS and PFA mixture to birds in Lake Shihwa was evaluated using two different approaches. Estimated hazard quotients were similar between the two approaches. The concentration of PFOS associated with 90th centile in bird eggs was 100-fold less than the lowest observable adverse effect level determined for birds, and those concentrations were 4-fold less than the suggested toxicity reference values. On the basis of limited toxicological data, current concentrations of PFOS are less than what would be expected to have an adverse effect on birds in the Lake Shihwa region. PMID:18754515

Yoo, Hoon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Kyu Tae; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P



Combining anti-cancer drugs with artificial sweeteners: synthesis and anti-cancer activity of saccharinate (sac) and thiosaccharinate (tsac) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2].  


The new platinum(II) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] (sac=saccharinate) and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2] (tsac=thiosaccharinate) have been prepared, the X-ray crystal structure of cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] x H2O reveals that both saccharinate anions are N-bound in a cis-arrangement being inequivalent in both the solid-state and in solution at room temperature. Preliminary anti-cancer activity has been assessed against A549 human alveolar type-II like cell lines with the thiosaccharinate complex showing good activity. PMID:25216367

Al-Jibori, Subhi A; Al-Jibori, Ghassan H; Al-Hayaly, Lamaan J; Wagner, Christoph; Schmidt, Harry; Timur, Suna; Baris Barlas, F; Subasi, Elif; Ghosh, Shishir; Hogarth, Graeme



Sac-1004, a novel vascular leakage blocker, enhances endothelial barrier through the cAMP/Rac/cortactin pathway.  


The maintenance of endothelial barrier is critical for the vascular homeostasis and is maintained by the interaction of adherens junction (AJ) and tight junction (TJ) proteins between adjacent cells. This interaction is stabilized by actin cytoskeleton forming cortical actin ring. Here, we developed a novel vascular leakage blocker, Sac-1004 and investigated its mechanism of action in endothelial cells (ECs). Sac-1004 inhibited endothelial hyperpermeability induced by vascular endothelial growth factor, histamine and thrombin via stabilization of cortical actin ring and AJ proteins at the cell-cell junction. Treatment of Sac-1004 in ECs increased cAMP levels and activated Rac, both of which are known to strengthen endothelial barrier. Furthermore, Sac-1004 induced phosphorylation of cortactin and its localization at cell membrane that is essential for the stabilization of cortical actin ring. These effects of Sac-1004 on ECs were significantly abrogated by dideoxyadenosine (adenylyl cyclase inhibitor) and NSC23766 (Rac inhibitor). Taken together, our findings indicate that Sac-1004 blocks vascular leakage by enhancing endothelial integrity via the cAMP/Rac/cortactin pathway and imply the potential usefulness of Sac-1004 in the development of therapeutic means for vascular leakage-related diseases. PMID:23665326

Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Agrawal, Vijayendra; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Nam-Jung; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen



Artificial reproduction in a hymenopteran insect, Athalia rosae, using eggs matured with heterospecific yolk proteins and fertilized with cryopreserved sperm.  


Previtellogenic ovaries of Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera, Symphyta, Tenthredinidae) were transplanted into the adult female abdominal hemocoel of Athalia infumata (Symphyta, Tenthredinidae), Arge nigrinodosa (Symphyta, Argidae), and Pimpla nipponica (Apocrita, Ichneumonidae). The donor oocytes accumulated heterospecific yolk proteins and matured in the A. infumata host. On average, six mature oocytes were obtained per transplanted ovary. In contrast, the donor oocytes accumulated a limited amount of yolk but did not mature in the Ar. nigrinodosa host and did not even accumulate yolk in the P. nipponica host. The eggs that matured in the A. infumata host were injected with cryopreserved A. rosae sperm that had been taken from adult male seminal vesicles and stored at -80 degrees C. Fertilization, as confirmed by the use of visible marker mutations, was achieved and a fraction of the injected eggs developed into fertile female adults. PMID:10685101

Hatakeyama, M; Lee, J M; Sawa, M; Oishi, K



Localization of Bacillus subtilis sacU(Hy) mutations to two linked genes with similarities to the conserved procaryotic family of two-component signalling systems.  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the sacU region have a pleiotropic phenotype. Certain mutations designated sacU(Hy), for example, express degradative enzymes at high levels, are able to sporulate in the presence of glucose, have severely reduced transformation efficiencies, and are nonmotile. We isolated and sequenced the sacU gene region of Bacillus subtilis. Two open reading frames were found in the sacU region, and sacU(Hy) mutations were localized to both of these open reading frames. The two open reading frames have similarities to two widespread families of proteins that mediate responses to environmental stimuli. PMID:3141378

Henner, D J; Yang, M; Ferrari, E



Endocrine Tumor  


... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Endocrine Tumor Endocrine Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Endocrine Tumor. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Endocrine Tumor Overview Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...


Effect of egg yolk, cryoprotectant, and various sugars on semen cryopreservation in endangered Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri).  


Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from endangered species is a valuable tool for genetic management. Previous studies showed the feasibility of cryopreservation of spermatozoa from various endangered gazelles but have also revealed difficulties with available protocols for semen freezing in Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri). Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of (a) 5% or 20% egg yolk or 4% or 6% glycerol, and (b) addition of sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose and raffinose) on cryopreservation using a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST). A diluent containing 13.5% raffinose, 5% or 20% egg yolk, and 6% glycerol (REYG) was also evaluated. Semen was obtained by electroejaculation from 22 G. cuvieri males. Diluted samples were loaded into 0.25 ml straws, cooled to 5 degrees C over 1.5h (-0.16 degrees C/min), equilibrated at that temperature for 2h, frozen in nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Subsamples were assessed for motility and acrosome integrity upon collection, after refrigeration-equilibration, after freezing and thawing, and 2h after thawing. Use of TEST with 20% egg yolk or with 4% glycerol led to worse motility preservation, whereas TEST with 5% egg yolk and 6% glycerol led to better results. Addition of fructose, lactose or raffinose to TEST resulted in similar or worse preservation of motility than inclusion of glucose. On the other hand, use of a raffinose-based medium with 20% egg yolk and 6% glycerol (REYG) afforded better preservation of motility than use of TEST. With REYG, 20% egg yolk was better than 5% egg yolk for motility preservation. Differences were noted between males in their responses to cryopreservation when using different egg yolk or glycerol concentrations. Moreover, spermatozoa from most males exhibited better cryopreservation with REYG although some were better cryopreserved in TEST. The raffinose-based diluent thus represents an improvement over previous results but more work is needed to better characterize cryopreservation conditions for future routine banking of Cuvier's gazelle spermatozoa. PMID:18024015

Garde, J J; del Olmo, A; Soler, A J; Espeso, G; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S



Multifunctional peptides derived from an egg yolk protein hydrolysate: isolation and characterization.  


An egg yolk protein by-product following ethanol extraction of phospholipids (YP) was hydrolyzed with pepsin to produce and identify novel peptides that revealed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory and antidiabetic (?-glucosidase and DPP-IV inhibitory) activities. The peptic hydrolysate of YP was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Isolated peptides were identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF) and the Mascot Search Results database. Four peptides of MW ranging from 1,210.62 to 1,677.88 Da corresponded to the fragments of Apolipoprotein B (YINQMPQKSRE; YINQMPQKSREA), Vitellogenin-2 (VTGRFAGHPAAQ) and Apovitellenin-1 (YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF). These peptides were chemically synthesized and showed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory or/and antidiabetic activities. Peptide YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF exerted the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 9.4 µg/mL. The peptide YINQMPQKSRE showed the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging and DPP-IV inhibitory activities and its ACE inhibitory activity (IC50) reached 10.1 µg/mL. The peptide VTGRFAGHPAAQ revealed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 365.4 µg/mL). A novel nutraceutical effect for peptides from an egg yolk hydrolysate was shown. PMID:25408464

Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; D?browska, Anna; Szo?tysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Lubec, Gert; Chrzanowska, Józefa



Relationship between vitellogenin and its related egg yolk proteins in Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi).  


Vitellogenin (Vg) and its three egg yolk protein products, lipovitellin (Lv), phosvitin (Pv) and beta'-component, were isolated from mature female Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi). Vg had an apparent molecular weight of 540 kDa and appeared as a major 240 kDa band in SDS-PAGE, which resolved into two major bands (165 and 125 kDa) after reduction. The estimated molecular weights of purified Lv, Pv, and beta'-component were 330, 23, and 30 kDa, respectively. Lv appeared as a main band of 150 kDa in SDS-PAGE which resolved into two smaller bands (92 and 29 kDa) after reduction. beta'-component appeared as a 34 kDa band before and as a 17kDa band after reduction. Except for Pv, the purified proteins all reacted with an antiserum to Vg. In SDS-PAGE, Pv appeared as a 23 kDa band and a second < 6.5 kDa diffuse band. An antiserum to Pv dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase (Ap) was prepared. In Western blots, the antiserum reacted with dephosphorylated Pv and Vg, but not with Lv and beta'-component. This is the first immunological proof that three egg yolk proteins (Lv, Pv, and beta'-component) are derived from Vg in fish. PMID:8896344

Hiramatsu, N; Hara, A



Effects of conjugated linoleic acid. 1. Fatty acid modification of yolks and neonatal fatty acid metabolism.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on neonatal fatty acid metabolism. In this study, layer hens (n = 40) were divided into four equal groups and subjected to the following treatments. Group A served as the control group, Group B received 1 g CLA every other day, Group C received 1 g CLA every 4th d, and Group D was sham-supplemented with 1 g safflower oil every other day. After 4 mo of feeding, Group B hens exhibited an increase in BW and egg size; however, there were no differences noted in feed consumption among the various treatment groups. At the same time, hens were inseminated with a constant dose of pooled rooster semen to evaluate changes in chick liver and yolk fatty acid metabolism during neonatal growth. At hatch and through 6 d of age, there were no significant differences in breakout data (fertility and numbers of early-, mid-, or late-dead chicks) or chick BW, respectively. However, Group B chicks exhibited an increase in liver 18:3n3 and 22:1n9 and a decrease in 20:3n6 and 22:5n3 fatty acids when compared with chicks from Groups A and D. Also noted for Group B chicks, yolk 18:0 fatty acid was higher than that for Group A and D chicks. These results suggest that CLA alters lipid metabolism in growing chicks. PMID:10875761

Latour, M A; Devitt, A A; Meunier, R A; Stewart, J J; Watkins, B A



Regulation of hhex expression in the yolk syncytial layer, the potential Nieuwkoop center homolog in zebrafish.  


The Nieuwkoop center is the earliest signaling center during dorsal-ventral pattern formation in amphibian embryos and has been implied to function in induction of the Spemann-Mangold organizer. In zebrafish, Nieuwkoop-center-like activity resides in the dorsal yolk syncytial layer (YSL) at the interface of the vegetal yolk cell and the blastoderm. hex homologs are expressed in the anterior endomesoderm in frogs (Xhex), the anterior visceral endoderm in mice, and the dorsal YSL in zebrafish (hhex). Here, we investigate the control of hhex expression in the YSL. We demonstrate that bozozok (boz) is absolutely required for early hhex expression, while overexpression of boz causes ectopic hhex expression. Activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by LiCl induces hhex expression in wild-type YSL but not in boz mutant embryos, revealing that boz activity is required downstream of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling for hhex expression. Further, we show that the boz-mediated induction of hhex is independent of the Boz-mediated repression of bmp2b. Our data reveal that repressive effects of both Vega1 and Vega2 may be responsible for the exclusion of hhex expression from the ventral and lateral parts of the YSL. In summary, zebrafish hhex appears to be activated by Wnt/beta-catenin in the dorsal YSL, where Boz acts in a permissive way to limit repression of hhex by Vega1 and Vega2. PMID:15581885

Bischof, Johannes; Driever, Wolfgang



Torsion of the hernia sac within a hydrocele of the scrotum in a child.  


Torsion of the hernia sac is a rare disease that presents as acute scrotum in children. Including the present case, only six cases have been reported in the English literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with pain and swelling of his right scrotum. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic region adjacent to the normal right testis. The inflammatory changes of the right scrotum deteriorated. The patient underwent surgery and a necrotic cyst was recognized within a hydrocele of the scrotum. The cyst was not connected with the testis or epididymis and was twisted at an angle of 270 degrees. The cause of the necrotic cyst observed was anatomical and pathological torsion of the hernia sac. PMID:15379947

Matsumoto, Akihiko; Nagatomi, Yutaka; Sakai, Masato; Oshi, Masaya



Lacrimal sac compression by an anterior ethmoidal mucocele presenting as a late complication of dacryocystorhinostomy  

PubMed Central

This was an unusual case of lacrimal sac compression by an anterior ethmoidal mucocele presenting as a late complication of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) that was jointly managed by ophthalmic and ENT surgeons via an endoscopic approach. A 22-year-old lady presented with a 12-month history of a painless lump in her left medial canthus area and a 6-month history of left intermittent epiphora. She had a DCR when she was 15 years old with initial symptom control until recent recurrence. There were no nasal or other eye symptoms. The rest of the eye and nasendoscopic examinations were unremarkable. An MRI scan suggested a dacryocystocele; however, a further CT scan revealed a 1.6 cm cystic lesion consistent with an anterior ethmoidal mucocele compressing the lacrimal sac. An endoscopic left anterior ethmoidectomy with marsupialisation of the mucocele was performed in combination with an endoscopic DCR. She made good post-operative recovery. PMID:24964413

Olaleye, Oladejo; Salleh, Shizalia; David, Don; Bickerton, Richard



Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.  


Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y




Microsoft Academic Search

Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of evcrted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C 14- or H~-labcled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorp- tivc cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to conccntrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles




The internal vertebral venous plexus prevents compression of the dural sac during atlanto-axial rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformation of the extradural space and the possibility of impression upon the dural sac during atlanto-axial rotation are\\u000a investigated. Atlanto-axial rotation leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the bony spinal canal of approximately\\u000a 40 %. Atlanto-axial rotation was recorded by endocanalar views from a video camera fixed inside the skull of six unembalmed\\u000a cadavers. Axial thin-section T1-weighted

E. M. Reesink; J. T. Wilmink; H. Kingma; L. M. A. Lataster; H. van Mameren



Isolated fluid in the cul-de-sac: How well does it predict ectopic pregnancy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the risk of ectopic pregnancy among patients with isolated abnormal cul-de-sac fluid at transvaginal ultrasound. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all ED patients presenting January 1995 to August 1999 with abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding and a positive [beta ]-hCG test. The risk of ectopic pregnancy in patients with a moderate volume of anechoic fluid was

Robert Dart; Samuel A. McLean; Linda Dart



Volatile constituents of dog ( Canis familiaris ) and coyote ( Canis latrans ) anal sacs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile organic compounds from the anal sac secretions of male and female dogs and coyotes were examined using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Short chain (C2–C6) acids and trimethylamine were major constituents. Changes in the type and abundance of the volatiles were examined across state of estrus, species, and gender. No consistent difference in the pattern of volatiles

George Preti; Earl L. Muetterties; Joseph M. Furman; James J. Kennelly; Bradford E. Johns



La tumeur testiculaire du sac vitellin: une entité rare chez l'adulte  

PubMed Central

La tumeur testiculaire du sac vitellin pure est rare chez l'adulte. Son diagnostic est histologique, elle reproduit une structure extra-embryonnaire (le tissue du sinus endodermique). Son traitement est codifié. Le pronostic est moins bon chez l'adulte. Nous en rapportons un cas et nous discutons l'histogénèse, les attitudes thérapeutiques, le suivi et le pronostic chez l'adulte. PMID:25400847

Alami, Mohammed; Janane, Abdellatif; Abbar, Mohamed; Ameur, Ahmed; Ghadouane, Mohamed



Figure 3: Stress vs. Strain curve for Bulk SAC305 0 0.2 0.4 0.6  

E-print Network

SAC 305 solders (Canfield Technologies) were machined into dog bone shaped samples according to ASTM-E: Sn-Ag-Cu system phase diagram focused on Sn dominated portion SEM Analysis: 50 MPa Fatigue 70 MPa

Bernstein, Joseph B.


Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond



Pathological, immunohistochemical and microbiologicalal analysis of lacrimal sac biopsies in patients with chronic dacrocystitis  

PubMed Central

AIM To analyze cases of obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct which creates a fertile environment for secondary bacterial infection and can result in dacryocystitis, which is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue and a potential source of endophthalmitis following intraocular surgery. The majority of obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system are acquired ones occurring in adulthood and involving the distal parts of the system. Acquired obstruction may be primary/idiopathic or secondary to a wide variety of infectious, inflammatory, traumatic, mechanical, toxic or neoplastic causes mimicking idiopathic inflammation. These cases are treated by dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS The present study was conducted to determine the histopathologic, immunohistochemical and current microbiologic characteristics of lacrimal sac specimens in patients undergoing external dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS Non-specific lacrimal sac pathology was present in all 33 cases and 81.8% of the cases showed moderate chronic inflammation with a chronic inflammatory score (CIS) ranging between 4 and 6, whereas 12.12% showed severe inflammatory changes with a CIS of 7. Mild degree of inflammation was seen in 6.06% with a CIS of 3. The total prevalence of gram-positive, gram-negative, and culture-negative samples were 59.4%, 37.5%, and 3% respectively. CONCLUSION Non-specific chronic inflammation with fibrosis is indeed the most commonly reported histopathological finding in lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens. PMID:24392331

Amin, Rowayda Mahmoud; Hussein, Faten Aly; Idriss, Hisham Farouk; Hanafy, Nesrine Fathy; Abdallah, Dina Mohamed



Sites of positive and negative regulation in the Bacillus subtilis antiterminators LicT and SacY.  


The Bacillus subtilis homologous transcriptional antiterminators LicT and SacY control the inducible expression of genes involved in aryl beta-glucoside and sucrose utilization respectively. Their RNA-binding activity is carried by the N-terminal domain (CAT), and is regulated by two similar C-terminal domains (PRD1 and PRD2), which are the targets of phosphorylation reactions catalysed by the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). In the absence of the corresponding inducer, LicT is inactivated by BglP, the PTS permease (EII) specific for aryl beta-glucosides, and SacY by SacX, a negative regulator homologous to the EII specific for sucrose. LicT, but not SacY, is also subject to a positive control by the general PTS components EI and HPr, which are thought to phosphorylate LicT in the absence of carbon catabolite repression. Construction of SacY/LicT hybrids and mutational analysis enabled the location of the sites of this positive regulation at the two phosphorylatable His207 and His269 within LicT-PRD2, and suggested that the presence of negative charges at these sites is sufficient for LicT activation in vivo. The BglP-mediated inhibition process was found to essentially involve His100 of LicT-PRD1, with His159 of the same domain playing a minor role in this regulation. In vitro experiments indicated that His100 could be phosphorylated directly by the general PTS proteins, this phosphorylation being stimulated by phosphorylated BglP. We confirmed that, similarly, the corresponding conserved His99 residue in SacY is the major site of the negative control exerted by SacX on SacY activity. Thus, for both antiterminators, the EII-mediated inhibition process seems to rely primarily on the presence of a negative charge at the first conserved histidine of the PRD1. PMID:11580842

Tortosa, P; Declerck, N; Dutartre, H; Lindner, C; Deutscher, J; Le Coq, D



Influencing Factors for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Sac Shrinkage and Enlargement after EVAR: Clinical Reviews before Introduction of Preoperative Coil Embolization  

PubMed Central

Background: We previously reported effectiveness of coil embolization (CE) to aortic branched vessels before endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) because of significant shrinkage of aneurysmal sac. In this study, we investigated EVAR cases to clarify influential factors of aneurysmal shrinkage and enlargement. Methods: 148 consecutive cases before the introduction of CE were retrospectively reviewed based on the presence of PT2EL (persistent type 2 endoleak) and change in sac diameter after EVAR by multivariate analysis. Results: (A) PT2EL risk factors were patent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and thinner mural thrombus inside aneurysmal sac. (B) Sac enlargement risk factors were antiplatelet intake, PT2EL, and female gender. (C) Sac shrinkage predictive factors were the absences of thoracic aortic aneurysm, antiplatelet intake, PT2EL, and coronary artery disease. Conclusion: CE to IMA was considered to be effective because patent IMA and antiplatelet intake were significant risk factors for sac enlargement. So, more meticulous therapeutic strategy, including treatment priority (AAA first or CAD first) and choice of treatment (EVAR vs. AAA) based on anatomical features of AAA was required to improve late outcomes. PMID:25298830

Hiraoka, Arudo; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Tamura, Kentaro; Ishida, Atsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Yoshitaka, Hidenori



Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver (Castor canadensis): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication.  


Both sexes of beavers possess a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands located in paired subcutaneous cavities between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The castor sacs are not glandular in the histological sense, hence references to these structures as preputial glands or castor glands are misnomers. The wall of the castor sacs is plicate and comprised of three distinct zones: an outer layer of vascular connective tissue, a two-to five-cell-thick layer of mitotic epithelial cells, and several densely packed layers of cornified epithelium which grade into more widely separated sheets toward the lumen. Monocultures of a gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium were present in the lumen of all castor sac preparations. Differences in the frequency of castoreum deposition were not attributable to differences in the structure of the castor sacs. The anal glands of beavers are holocrine sebaceous glands. These glands develop more rapidly than the castor sacs. Anal gland tissue from embryos exhibited cellular characteristics associated with the production of sebum. Secretory activity was evident in all preparations. The relationship of castoreum and anal gland secretion to scent communication among beavers is discussed. PMID:24415179

Walro, J M; Svendsen, G E



Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is composed of a layer of cubical epithelial cells with loose, interposed intercellular spaces. The sac contains a large luminal cavity, in which endolymph and numerous otoconia are present. The epithelial cells of different portions of the sac have a similar structure. These cells contain an abundance of cytoplasmic organelles, including ribosomes, Golgi complexes, and numerous vesicles. Two types of vesicles are found in the epithelial cells: the "floccular" vesicle and the "granular" vesicle. The floccular vesicles are located in the supra- and lateral-nuclear cytoplasm and contain floccular material. The granular vesicles have a fine granular substance and are usually situated apposed to the apical cell membrane. The granular vesicles are suggested to be secreted into the lumen, while the floccular vesicles are thought to be absorbed from the lumen and conveyed to the intercellular spaces by the epithelial cells. The apical surfaces of the epithelial cells bear numerous microvilli. Apparently floating cells, which bear long microvilli on the free surfaces, are observed in the lumen of the ES. Based on the fine structure, the function of the endolymphatic sac of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster is discussed.

Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M.; Hejl, R.



Dopamine as a Carbon Source: The Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Carbon Spheres and Yolk-Structured Carbon Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

A facile and versatile synthesis using dopamine as a carbon source gives hollow carbon spheres and yolk-shell Au{at}Carbon nanocomposites. The uniform nature of dopamine coatings and their high carbon yield endow the products with high structural integrity. The Au{at}C nanocomposites are catalytically active.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Liu, Rui [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Li, Chen [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Gao, Hongjun [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL



Egg and yolk production traits in relation to ovum development, liver and liver moisture weight in dwarf and normal  

E-print Network

Egg and yolk production traits in relation to ovum development, liver and liver moisture weight and on ovum development were obtained from White Leghorn Dw and dw hens belonging to 4 sire families between 52 and 56 weeks of age. Ovum development was followed by the fat-soluble dye incorporation technique

Boyer, Edmond


Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...


The decline in yolk progesterone concentrations during incubation is dependent on embryonic development in the European starling  

E-print Network

of incubation. In both the chicken (Gallus gallus) [21] and the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) [18], there are more polar than apolar metabolites present in the egg after at least 5 days of incubation. In EuropeanThe decline in yolk progesterone concentrations during incubation is dependent on embryonic

Casto, Joseph M.


Fatty acid profiles of yolk lipids of five species of wild ducks (Anatidae) differing in dietary preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid compositions of yolk lipids of eggs collected in the wild from five species of ducks (Anatidae) showing a range of dietary preferences, the king eider Somateria spectabilis, the lesser scaup Aythya affinis, the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, the green-winged teal Anas crecca and the gadwall Anas streperi, are reported. For all five species, the fatty acid profiles conformed

Brian K. Speake; Peter F. Surai; Gary R. Bortolotti



The Drosophila melanogaster sex determination gene sisA is required in yolk nuclei for midgut formation.  

PubMed Central

During sex determination, the sisterlessA (sisA) gene functions as one of four X:A numerator elements that set the alternative male or female regulatory states of the switch gene Sex-lethal. In somatic cells, sisA functions specifically in sex determination, but its expression pattern also hints at a role in the yolk cell, a syncytial structure believed to provide energy and nutrients to the developing embryo. Previous studies of sisA have been limited by the lack of a null allele, leaving open the possibility that sisA has additional functions. Here we report the isolation and molecular characterization of four new sisA alleles including two null mutations. Our findings highlight key aspects of sisA structure-function and reveal important qualitative differences between the effects of sisA and the other strong X:A numerator element, sisterlessB, on Sex-lethal expression. We use genetic, expression, clonal, and phenotypic analyses to demonstrate that sisA has an essential function in the yolk nuclei of both sexes. In the absence of sisA, endoderm migration and midgut formation are blocked, suggesting that the yolk cell may have a direct role in larval gut development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a requirement for the yolk nuclei in Drosophila development. PMID:10790394

Walker, J J; Lee, K K; Desai, R N; Erickson, J W



Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is important for reducing egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The nutrient-rich yolk interior is a relatively infrequent location for initial SE deposition in eggs, but migration across the vitelline membrane can ...


Supplementation of laying-hen feed with palm tocos and algae astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enrichment.  


Adding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols are potent antioxidants that provide health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed would result in an increased nutrient content in egg yolk with minimum changes in functional properties. Laying hens (Hy-Line W-36 breed) were fed four diets with different supplementation levels of palm toco concentrate and algae biomass containing astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Egg yolks were analyzed for physical, chemical, and functional properties. The feed with the highest nutrient concentration was also studied for stability of these antioxidants using the Arrhenius approach. No significant differences were observed in functional properties except for emulsification capacity and sensory characteristics among eggs from different diet treatments. Changes in egg yolk color reached the maximum values at day 8. Incorporation of tocopherols and tocotrienols increased until day 8, astaxanthin incorporation increased until day 10, and all decreased thereafter. Feed nutrients resulted in a dose-response relationship of these compounds in the egg yolk. The transfer efficiency ranged from 0 to 9.9% for tocotrienols and tocopherols and from 7.6 to 14.9% for astaxanthin at their peak values. Results of the Arrhenius accelerated stability study showed significant differences in the shelf life of various nutrients, and these results can be used to properly formulate and store the feed materials. PMID:22276647

Walker, Laurie A; Wang, Tong; Xin, Hongwei; Dolde, David



In Situ Carbon-Coated Yolk-Shell V2O3 Microspheres for Lithium-Ion Batteries.  


Metal oxide-based materials with yolk-shell morphology have been intensively investigated as important anodes for Li-ion batteries due to their large ion storage ability, high safety, and excellent cycling stability. In this work, in situ carbon-coated yolk-shell V2O3 microspheres were synthesized via a template-free polyol solvothermal method. The growth of yolk-shell microspheres underwent coordination and polymerization, followed by an inside-out Ostwald-ripening process and further calcination in N2 atmosphere. The thin amorphous carbon layers coating on the microspheres' surface came from polyol frameworks which could protect V2O3 during the charge-discharge process and led to a better stability in Li-ion batteries. The in situ carbon-coated yolk-shell V2O3 microspheres showed a capacity of 437.5 mAh·g(-1) after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A·g(-1), which was 92.6% of its initial capability (472.5 mAh·g(-1)). They were regarded as excellent electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibit good electrochemistry performance and stability. PMID:25569599

Jiang, Le; Qu, Yang; Ren, Zhiyu; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Dongdong; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Lei; Fu, Honggang



Dietary Levels of Chia: Influence on Yolk Cholesterol, Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition for Two Strains of Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the

R. Ayerza; W. Coates


Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.  


Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

Ayerza, R; Coates, W



Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.  


Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance. PMID:25010164

Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K



Wilms' Tumor  


Wilms' tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects children, but can happen in adults. Having certain genetic conditions or birth defects can increase ...


Urogenital tumors  

SciTech Connect

An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

Weller, R.E.



Evaluation of yolk protein levels as estrogenic biomarker in bivalves; comparison of the alkali-labile phosphate method (ALP) and a species-specific immunoassay (ELISA).  


Altered concentration of the vertebrate yolk protein precursor vitellogenin is a recognized biomarker for endocrine disruption in fish, and within recent years yolk protein alteration has also been associated with endocrine disruption in bivalves. Species-specific, direct and sensitive methods for quantification of vitellogenin in fish have been available for years whereas bivalve yolk protein levels have been estimated indirectly by alkali-labile phosphate (ALP) liberated from high molecular weight proteins because the sequence and biochemical structure of most bivalve yolk proteins are unknown. By applying a species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for accurate determination of yolk protein level the impact of 17?-estradiol (57, 164 and 512 ng/L) on the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus was investigated and compared with ALP estimations. Seven weeks of exposure during the pre-spawning and spawning period had no consistent effect on yolk protein concentration in hemolymph, and ALP levels in hemolymph also remained unchanged in both males and females. Further, basal male and female ALP levels were indistinguishable whereas the ELISA demonstrated that yolk protein levels of females exceeded male levels at the time of sampling, although male basal levels were high compared to fish. Altogether it is shown that individual ALP levels do not reflect yolk protein levels and hence hemolymph ALP levels cannot serve as biomarker for estrogenic exposure during the pre-spawning and spawning period in U. tumidus. The necessity of sensitive and validated biomarkers for reliable interpretation of data and the utility of ALP and yolk protein levels as biomarkers in bivalves are discussed. PMID:25066673

Morthorst, Jane E; Holbech, Henrik; Jeppesen, Morten; Kinnberg, Karin L; Pedersen, Knud L; Bjerregaard, Poul



The sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster gene for yolk protein 1.  

PubMed Central

We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the hormonally regulated yolk protein 1 (YP1) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. We have also determined the sequence location of the 5' and 3' ends of both the mature mRNA and the gene's only intron. The YP1 gene contains sequences similar to those found in many other eukaryotic genes. Among these sequences are the Hogness-Goldberg box, the capping site, the ribosome binding site and the polyadenylation signal sequence, all perhaps involved in transcriptional or translational control. Also among these sequences are the consensus splice sequences. They occur at each end of the 76 nucleotide intron. One distinctive secondary structure likely to occur in either the DNA or RNA and which might be involved in the regulation of transcription or translation was also found in the YP1 gene sequence. We show the protein sequence predicted by the DNA sequence and the RNA mapping results. Images PMID:6275360

Hung, M C; Wensink, P C



The oxidation of cholesterol in the yolk of selective traditional Chinese egg products.  


The yolks of traditional chicken egg products (Tiedan, Ludan, and Chayedan) and duck egg products (raw and cooked Xiandan, immersed and coated Pidan) were subjected to moisture, lipid, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) determinations as well as cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products (COP) analysis. The main COP detected for these egg products included 20-hydroxycholesterol and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, other types of COP were not detected. The contents of COP formed in traditional egg products varied, depending upon the types of egg products. The cholesterol oxidation ratio for traditional Chinese chicken egg products ranged from 1.14 to 1.75%, whereas that for traditional Chinese duck egg products ranged from 1.18 to 1.90%. Those traditional egg products that required pickling in salt or alkaline, cooking, hot air drying, and exposure to oxygen and heat all produced COP. PMID:11261569

Yang, S C; Chen, K H



Egg colour reflects the amount of yolk maternal antibodies and fledging success in a songbird  

PubMed Central

Blue–green colours in avian eggs have been proposed as post-mating signals of female phenotypic quality to their mates. Egg colour may not only indicate female value, but also the quality of the eggs themselves and of resulting offspring. To date, there has been no demonstration of an association between egg colour and egg or offspring immune quality. We here show that the intensity of blue–green colour of pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca eggs reflects the amount of maternal antibodies in the yolk, a form of passive immunity crucial for offspring performance. Moreover, egg colour predicts fledging success. Also, incubating females in better condition lay more colourful eggs. The immunoglobulin level in incubating females is positively associated with that in the eggs. These results support the signalling hypothesis of eggshell coloration, underlining its role as an indicator of trans-generational transmission of immune defences in birds. PMID:17148396

Morales, Judith; Sanz, Juan J; Moreno, Juan



Egg yolk antibodies for detection and neutralization of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin.  


The objective of this research project was to determine the usefulness of an egg antibody platform for producing materials for the detection and neutralization of botulinum type A neurotoxin. Yield estimates for detection and neutralizing antibodies produced using methods described were calculated. Antibody specific to botulinum toxoid A (aToxoid) and toxin A (aBoNT/A) was produced by immunizing hens with botulinum toxoid A (toxoid) followed by increasing amounts of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) in Freund incomplete adjuvant. Egg yolks were extracted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for antibody detection and neutralization experiments. A model aToxoid/toxoid immunoassay using only egg yolk antibody was developed and had a detection limit of 1 pg/ml of toxoid. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of BoNT/A-specific antibody, the aBoNT/A contained more BoNT/A-specific antibody than did the aToxoid, and aBoNT/A was as effective as commercial rabbit antibody. The aToxoid provided no protection against BoNT/A in a standard mouse neutralization assay; however, 1 mg of PEG-extracted aBoNT/A neutralized 4,000 lethal doses of BoNT/A injected intraperitoneally. Based on these results, we calculated that in 1 month one hen could produce more than 100 liters of antibody detection reagents or enough antibody to neutralize approximately 11.6 million mouse lethal doses of botulinum toxin. Utilization of an egg antibody platform is potentially rapid (28 to 70 days) and scalable to kilogram quantities using current egg production facilities with as few as 1,000 hens. PMID:19517727

Trott, D L; Yang, M; Gonzalez, J; Larson, A E; Tepp, W H; Johnson, E A; Cook, M E



Cholesterol and iron availability in yolk of laying hens feed with annatto ( Bixa orellana).  


Pigmented egg yolks are more attractive. Popular culture treats annatto as a powerful anticholesterolemic agent, besides being widely used in the form of industry pigment. This work evaluated the effects of the addition of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in the feed of hens, verifying a possible alteration of cholesterol in the yolks, content of carotenes, and iron and available iron, over time. One hundred and twenty-five hens divided in control (0% - T1) and four annatto-added treatments (0.5% - T2; 1.0% - T3; 1.5% - T4, and 2.0% - T5) were used. Eggs were collected at 23, 25, 27, 29 and 30 weeks. The animals were randomly separated into five groups of five animals each. The cholesterol was measured by the colorimetric method, vitamin A (? and ? carotene) by spectrophotometry, total iron by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and dialysable iron by dialysis. Tukey's test was used at the 5% level for comparison of the averages. Regarding cholesterol, treatments T2 and T3 did not differ significantly. However, other treatments differed ( P ? 0.05) from the control, decreasing the cholesterol level as the percentage of annatto in the feed increased. In time, there was a significant increase ( P ? 0.05). For ? and ? carotene, T5 presented statistically higher values than the others ( P ? 0.05). With regard to total iron, T5 had higher values than the others. Dialysable iron was also higher, probably due to the increase in carotenes. Thus, we can conclude that the use of annatto in the feed of layer hens is useful, as it provokes the reduction of cholesterol and promotes an increase in the content of iron and carotenes in eggs. PMID:22444346

Harder, M N C; Canniatti-Brazaca, S G; Coelho, A A D; Savino, V J M; Franco, C F O



Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

Ostrow, Lyle W., E-mail: [Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)



How does LCDFT compare to SAC-CI for the treatment of valence and Rydberg excited states of organic compounds?  


The computation of excitation energies for electronically excited states poses a challenge in quantum chemistry. In the present work, the performance of two related methodologies in this context, symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) and time-dependent long-range corrected density functional theory (TDLCDFT), is compared in detail for the calculation of valence and Rydberg excitation energies against an experimental benchmark set comprising some organic compounds from different categories. Practically, the single- and double-linked excitation operators are considered in the SAC-CI wave functions. The considered LC density functionals include the combination forms of exchange and correlation functionals (BLYP, PBE, TPSS), pure functionals (tHCTH and B97-D), exchange-only functionals (HFS, HFB, and XAlpha), hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP, LC-?PBE, ?B97, ?B97X), and dispersion-corrected hybrid functional ?B97X-D. Our results reveal that the SAC-CI gives the best performance for Rydberg excited states. However, the values of mean absolute deviation show that the applicability of some LC functionals is comparable to SAC-CI. For valence excited states, the functionals ?B97X-D, ?B97X, and LC-?PBE outperform the other tested methods. Overall, the ?B97X-D functional is found to offer the best performance, and its validity compared with SAC-CI has also been verified by computing low-lying excited states of a few molecules as representative examples. Lastly, it is shown that not only is there a reasonable agreement between TDLCDFT and SAC-CI methods for the calculation of excitation energies but also the LC density functionals have quantitatively better overall performance for some excited states than the SAC-CI approach. PMID:24559047

Alipour, Mojtaba



Anal sac secretion of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes ; volatile fatty acids and diamines: Implications for a fermentation hypothesis of chemical recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) and cadaverine (1,5-di-aminopentane) were identified in the anal sac secretions of the red fox,Vulpes vulpes, and of the lion, Panthera leo. Anal sac secretion samples obtained over a period of 10 weeks by sampling from within each sac of each of 6 captive foxes were analyzed and putrescine, cadaverine, and volatile fatty acid compositions and secretion pH values

E. S. Albone; G. C. Perry



Early sac shrinkage predicts a low risk of late complications after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair  

PubMed Central

Background Aneurysm shrinkage has been proposed as a marker of successful endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Patients with early postoperative shrinkage may experience fewer subsequent complications, and consequently require less intensive surveillance. Methods Patients undergoing EVAR from 2000 to 2011 at three vascular centres (in 2 countries), who had two imaging examinations (postoperative and after 6–18 months), were included. Maximum diameter, complications and secondary interventions during follow-up were registered. Patients were categorized according to early sac dynamics. The primary endpoint was freedom from late complications. Secondary endpoints were freedom from secondary intervention, postimplant rupture and direct (type I/III) endoleaks. Results Some 597 EVARs (71·1 per cent of all EVARs) were included. No shrinkage was observed in 284 patients (47·6 per cent), moderate shrinkage (5–9 mm) in 142 (23·8 per cent) and major shrinkage (at least 10 mm) in 171 patients (28·6 per cent). Four years after the index imaging, the rate of freedom from complications was 84·3 (95 per cent confidence interval 78·7 to 89·8), 88·1 (80·6 to 95·5) and 94·4 (90·1 to 98·7) per cent respectively. No shrinkage was an independent risk factor for late complications compared with major shrinkage (hazard ratio (HR) 3·11; P < 0·001). Moderate compared with major shrinkage (HR 2·10; P = 0·022), early postoperative complications (HR 3·34; P < 0·001) and increasing abdominal aortic aneurysm baseline diameter (HR 1·02; P = 0·001) were also risk factors for late complications. Freedom from secondary interventions and direct endoleaks was greater for patients with major sac shrinkage. Conclusion Early change in aneurysm sac diameter is a strong predictor of late complications after EVAR. Patients with major sac shrinkage have a very low risk of complications for up to 5 years. This parameter may be used to tailor postoperative surveillance. PMID:24752772

Bastos Gonçalves, F; Baderkhan, H; Verhagen, H J M; Wanhainen, A; Björck, M; Stolker, R J; Hoeks, S E; Mani, K



Digital PCR technology detects brain-tumor-associated mutation in cerebrospinal fluid

Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) and their colleagues have used digital versions of a standard molecular biology tool to detect a common tumor-associated mutation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with brain tumors. In their report being published in the open-access journal Molecular Therapy – Nucleic Acids, the investigators describe using advanced forms of the gene-amplification technology polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze bits of RNA carried in membrane-covered sacs called extracellular vesicles for the presence of a tumor-associated mutation in a gene called IDH1.


Crystal structure of a new RNA-binding domain from the antiterminator protein SacY of Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed Central

SacY belongs to a family of, at present, seven bacterial transcriptional antiterminators. The RNA-binding and antitermination capacity of SacY resides in the 55 amino acids at the N-terminal [SacY(1-55)]. The crystal structure at 2 A resolution shows that SacY(1-55) forms a dimer in the crystal, in accordance with the NMR solution structure. The structure of the monomer is a four-stranded beta-sheet with a simple beta1beta2beta3beta4 topology. One side of the sheet is covered by a long surface loop and the other side forms the dimer interface. The dimer is stabilized by the orthogonal stacking of the two beta-sheets. The crystal structure is in excellent agreement with the NMR solution structure (r.m.s. distance for C alpha coordinates is 1.3 A). The structure of SacY(1-55) reveals a new RNA-binding motif. PMID:9305644

van Tilbeurgh, H; Manival, X; Aymerich, S; Lhoste, J M; Dumas, C; Kochoyan, M



RNA recognition by transcriptional antiterminators of the BglG/SacY family: functional and structural comparison of the CAT domain from SacY and LicT.  


Transcriptional antiterminators of the BglG/SacY family are regulatory proteins that mediate the induction of sugar metabolizing operons in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Upon activation, these proteins bind to specific targets in nascent mRNAs, thereby preventing abortive dissociation of the RNA polymerase from the DNA template. We have previously characterized the RNA-binding domain of SacY from Bacillus subtilis and determined its three-dimensional structure by both NMR and crystallography. In the present study, we have characterized the paralogous domain from LicT and we present the first structural comparison between two BglG/SacY family members. Similar to SacY, the RNA-binding activity of LicT is contained within the 56 N-terminal amino acid residue fragment corresponding to the so-called co-antiterminator (CAT) domain. Surface plasmon resonance affinity measurements show that, compared to SacY-CAT, LicT-CAT binds more tightly and more specifically to its cognate RNA target, with a KD value of about 10(-8) M. The crystal structure of LicT-CAT has been determined at 1.8 A resolution and compared to that of SacY-CAT. Both molecules fold as symmetrical dimers, each monomer comprising a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet that stacks against the beta-sheet of the other monomer in a very conserved manner. Comparison of the proposed RNA-binding surfaces shows that many of the conserved atoms concentrate in a central region across one face of the CAT dimer, whereas variable elements are mostly found at the edges. Interestingly, the electrostatic potential maps calculated for the two molecules are quite different, except for the core of the RNA-binding site, which appears essentially neutral in both structures. PMID:10610766

Declerck, N; Vincent, F; Hoh, F; Aymerich, S; van Tilbeurgh, H



The role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with whole egg yolk for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) extracted from hen egg yolk has recently been considered to be superior to whole egg yolk in sperm cryopreservation of various animal species. Meanwhile, there was a notion that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in egg yolk may have a negative effect on post-thaw survival. The role of LDL and HDL in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys has not been explored. The present study evaluates their effect in comparison with egg yolk with or without the addition of permeable cryoprotectant (glycerol) on sperm cryopreservation of rhesus macaques. In addition, various additives intended to change the lipid composition of LDL–sperm membrane complex have also been tested for their effectiveness in preserving post-thaw viability. Our findings indicated that LDL is the main component in egg yolk that is responsible for its protective role for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys. Regardless of the presence or absence of glycerol, the protective role of LDL is similar to that of egg yolk and we did not observe any superiority in post-thaw survival with LDL when compared to egg yolk. Modifying the lipid composition of LDL–sperm membrane complex with the addition of cholesterol, cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin and phosphatidylcholine also did not yield any improvements in post-thaw survival; while addition of methyl-?-cyclodextrin reduced post-thaw motility. HDL plays a neutral role in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys. The present study suggests that egg yolk may still hold advantages when compared with LDL as effective components in extenders for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys. PMID:21423197

Dong, Qiao-Xiang; Rodenburg, Sarah E; Hill, Dana; VandeVoort, Catherine A



Studies on pharmacological effects of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper venom and its neutralization by chicken egg yolk antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antivenom antibodies were raised in 24-week-old white leghorn chickens against hemotoxic venoms of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper snakes. Booster injections of increasing concentrations of venom were given at 14days of time interval to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. Antibodies were extracted from immunized chicken egg yolk by Polson et al. (Polson A., Von Wechmar M.B., Van Regenmortel

S. Meenatchisundaram; G. Parameswari; A. Michael; S. Ramalingam




Microsoft Academic Search

Two effective competitive and double antibody sandwich ELISA based on monoclonal (MAb) and chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies were developed to determine lactoferrin (LF) content in infant and milk formulas. Leghorn laying hens were immunized with purified bovine and human LFs to produce anti-bovine LF and anti-human LF IgY antibody in the egg yolk. After 5–8 weeks of the immunization,

Hoon Sunwoo; Naiyana Gujral; Mavanur Suresh



Effect of chicken egg yolk antibody against adipose tissue plasma membranes on carcass composition and lipogenic hormones and enzymes in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken egg yolk antibody against pig adipose tissue plasma membranes (AIgY) was raised and used in the present experiment to evaluate the effect of dietary AIgY supplementation on pig growth and carcass composition. 160 crossbred (Duroc–Jersey×Landrace·Meishan) pigs, with initial live body weight of 27.5±2.4 kg, were treated with AIgY or non-immunized control egg yolk powder (NIgY) at the inclusion level of

J. P. Jiang; J. Zhou; J. Chen; X. H. Wei; T. S. Lu; H. Chi; R. Q. Zhao



Giant pandas are not an evolutionary cul-de-sac: evidence from multidisciplinary research.  


The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most endangered mammals and remains threatened by environmental and anthropogenic pressure. It is commonly argued that giant pandas are an evolutionary cul-de-sac because of their specialized bamboo diet, phylogenetic changes in body size, small population, low genetic diversity, and low reproductive rate. This notion is incorrect, arose from a poor understanding or appreciation of giant panda biology, and is in need of correction. In this review, we summarize research across morphology, ecology, and genetics to dispel the idea, once and for all, that giant pandas are evolutionary dead-end. The latest and most advanced research shows that giant pandas are successful animals highly adapted to a specialized bamboo diet via morphological, ecological, and genetic adaptations and coadaptation of gut microbiota. We also debunk misconceptions around population size, population growth rate, and genetic variation. During their evolutionary history spanning 8 My, giant pandas have survived diet specialization, massive bamboo flowering and die off, and rapid climate oscillations. Now, they are suffering from enormous human interference. Fortunately, continued conservation effort is greatly reducing impacts from anthropogenic interference and allowing giant panda populations and habitat to recover. Previous ideas of a giant panda evolutionary cul-de-sac resulted from an unsystematic and unsophisticated understanding of their biology and it is time to shed this baggage and focus on the survival and maintenance of this high-profile species. PMID:25274274

Wei, Fuwen; Hu, Yibo; Yan, Li; Nie, Yonggang; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Zejun



Embryo sac formation and early embryo development in Agave tequilana (Asparagaceae).  


Agave tequilana is an angiosperm species that belongs to the family Asparagaceae (formerly Agavaceae). Even though there is information regarding to some aspects related to the megagametogenesis of A. tequilana, this is the first report describing the complete process of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, the early embryo and endosperm development process in detail. The objective of this work was to study and characterize all the above processes and the distinctive morphological changes of the micropylar and chalazal extremes after fertilization in this species. The agave plant material for the present study was collected from commercial plantations in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Ovules and immature seeds, previously fixed in FAA and kept in ethanol 70%, were stained based on a tissue clarification technique by using a Mayer's-Hematoxylin solution. The tissue clarification technique was successfully used for the characterization of the megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, mature embryo sac formation, the early embryo and endosperm development processes by studying intact cells. The embryo sac of A. tequilana was confirmed to be of the monosporic Polygonum-type and an helobial endosperm formation. Also, the time-lapse of the developmental processes studied was recorded. PMID:25332875

González-Gutiérrez, Alejandra G; Gutiérrez-Mora, Antonia; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín



Enlarging cells initiating apomixis in Hieracium praealtum transition to an embryo sac program prior to entering mitosis.  


Hieracium praealtum forms seeds asexually by apomixis. During ovule development, sexual reproduction initiates with megaspore mother cell entry into meiosis and formation of a tetrad of haploid megaspores. The sexual pathway ceases when a diploid aposporous initial (AI) cell differentiates, enlarges, and undergoes mitosis, forming an aposporous embryo sac that displaces sexual structures. Embryo and endosperm development in aposporous embryo sacs is fertilization independent. Transcriptional data relating to apomixis initiation in Hieracium spp. ovules is scarce and the functional identity of the AI cell relative to other ovule cell types is unclear. Enlarging AI cells with undivided nuclei, early aposporous embryo sacs containing two to four nuclei, and random groups of sporophytic ovule cells not undergoing these events were collected by laser capture microdissection. Isolated amplified messenger RNA samples were sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform and comparatively analyzed to establish indicative roles of the captured cell types. Transcriptome and protein motif analyses showed that approximately one-half of the assembled contigs identified homologous sequences in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), of which the vast majority were expressed during early Arabidopsis ovule development. The sporophytic ovule cells were enriched in signaling functions. Gene expression indicative of meiosis was notably absent in enlarging AI cells, consistent with subsequent aposporous embryo sac formation without meiosis. The AI cell transcriptome was most similar to the early aposporous embryo sac transcriptome when comparing known functional annotations and both shared expressed genes involved in gametophyte development, suggesting that the enlarging AI cell is already transitioning to an embryo sac program prior to mitotic division. PMID:23864557

Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tucker, Matthew R; Taylor, Jennifer M; Johnson, Susan D; Spriggs, Andrew; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Oelkers, Karsten; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Koltunow, Anna M G



In vitro inhibition of adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 to piglet intestinal mucus by egg-yolk antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine if the adhesion of E. coli K88 to piglet intestinal mucus could be inhibited in vitro by spray-dried egg-yolk anti-K88 antibodies. Binding of E. coli was monitored using a radioactive assay. Four 14±2-day-old healthy piglets were used for the preparation of mucus from the small intestine. Competition and displacement phenomena were investigated

L. Z Jin; Samuel K Baidoo; Ronald R Marquardt; Andrew A Frohlich



Yolk formation in a stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): insight into the evolution of vitellogenesis in nonbilaterian animals.  


Vitellogenin (Vg) is a major yolk protein precursor in numerous oviparous animals. Numerous studies in bilateral oviparous animals have shown that Vg sequences are conserved across taxa and that Vgs are synthesized by somatic-cell lineages, transported to and accumulated in oocytes, and eventually used for supporting embryogenesis. In nonbilateral animals (Polifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora), which are regarded as evolutionarily primitive, although Vg cDNA has been identified in 2 coral species from Cnidaria, relatively little is known about the characteristics of yolk formation in their bodies. To address this issue, we identified and characterized 2 cDNA encoding yolk proteins, Vg and egg protein (Ep), in the stony coral Euphyllia ancora. RT-PCR analysis revealed that expression levels of both Vg and Ep increased in the female colonies as coral approached the spawning season. In addition, high levels of both Vg and Ep transcripts were detected in the putative ovarian tissue, as determined by tissue distribution analysis. Further analyses using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry determined that, within the putative ovarian tissue, these yolk proteins are synthesized in the mesenterial somatic cells but not in oocytes themselves. Furthermore, Vg proteins that accumulated in eggs were most likely consumed during the coral embryonic development, as assessed by immunoblotting. The characteristics of Vg that we identified in corals were somewhat similar to those of Vg in bilaterian oviparous animals, raising the hypothesis that such characteristics were likely present in the oogenesis of some common ancestor prior to divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages. PMID:23766130

Shikina, Shinya; Chen, Chieh-Jhen; Chung, Yi-Jou; Shao, Zi-Fan; Liou, Jhe-Yu; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong



Hormone levels in yolk decline throughout development in the red-eared slider turtle ( Trachemys scripta elegans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the potential effects of maternally derived hormones present in the yolk of reptile eggs. Specifically, we ask when are these hormones utilized by developing red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Eggs were incubated at 27°C, a male-producing temperature, and at 31°C, a female-producing temperature. Concentrations of progesterone, testosterone, and 17?-estradiol

Rachel M. Bowden; Michael A. Ewert; Craig E. Nelsona



Egg yolk soluble protein stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.  


We determined the effects of yolk water-soluble protein (YSP) on bone formation in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. YSP (50-5,000 microg/ml) increased cell proliferation and collagen content. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was also increased by YSP treatment. After enhancement of ALP activity, significant augmentation of calcification was observed. These results suggest that YSP is a promising agent for the prevention and treatment of bone loss. PMID:17485841

Ji, MinYoung; Leem, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Mujo; Kim, Hye Kyung



Detection, accumulation and distribution of nitrofuran residues in egg yolk, albumen and shell.  


Nitrofuran antibiotics have been banned for use in food-producing animals in many countries, including the European Union, owing to the threat they pose to human health. Research continues into the accumulation of these drugs in animal tissues and into the appropriate methods for their detection. In this study, an LC-MS/MS method is presented for the detection of the parent compounds, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, furaltadone and nitrofurazone, in eggs. The parent compounds are first extracted into ethyl acetate, fats are removed by partition between acetonitrile and hexane, and the concentrated sample is analysed by LC-MS/MS. Decision limits (CCalpha) for the parents were < or =1 microg kg-1 for all four compounds. Within-day and between-day CVs are well within the limits stated in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method provides an alternative to the testing of side-chain metabolites in eggs, which is particularly important in the case of nitrofurazone, where semicarbazide contamination of food has been attributed to sources other than nitrofurazone use. This method was used together with a method for the detection of the side-chain metabolite compounds, 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one (AMOZ), 1-amino-hydantoin (AHD) and semicarbazide (SEM), to study the accumulation and distribution of nitrofurans in eggs. Eggs were collected from four groups of hens that had been treated with one of the nitrofurans at a feed concentration of 300 mg kg-1 for 1 week. Parent compounds and metabolites were found in the yolk, albumen and shell. Albumen/yolk ratios for the parent compounds were 0.7, 0.82, 0.83 and 0.31 for furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazone, respectively. Ratios for the side-chain metabolites were 1.02, 1.06, 0.83 and 0.55 for AOZ, AMOZ, AHD and SEM, respectively. However, 50% of the total SEM residues were found in eggshell. This may be significant if eggshell products reach the consumer. PMID:17164214

McCracken, R J; Kennedy, D G



Torsion of an indirect hernia sac within a hydrocele causing acute scrotum: case report and review of the literature.  


We report a case of acute scrotum in a 2-year-old child caused by torsion of an indirect hernia sac within a hydrocele. This is an extremely rare cause of acute scrotal swelling and pain in the pediatric population, with this case representing only the eighth instance reported in the literature. Despite the scarcity with which this diagnosis has been encountered, clinicians should include torsion of an indirect hernia sac on the differential diagnosis for acute scrotum in a child. PMID:17013626

Tillett, John W; Elmore, James; Smith, Edwin A



Wilms Tumor  


... cells that are destined to form into the kidneys malfunctioning and forming a tumor. Signs and Symptoms Before being diagnosed with Wilms ... IV. Stage V: Cancer is found in both kidneys at diagnosis (also called bilateral tumors). About 5% are stage V. Surgery is most ...


Hypothalamic tumor  


... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...


Carcinoid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors arising from the enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary systems. Though they have been traditionally classified based upon the embryologic site of origin, morphologic pattern, and silver affinity, newer classification systems have been developed to emphasize the considerable clinical and histopathologic variability of carcinoid tumors found within each embryologic site of origin. These neoplasms pose a diagnostic challenge because they are often innocuous at the time of presentation, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach utilizing biochemical analysis, standard cross-sectional imaging, and newer advances in nuclear medicine. Similarly, treatment of both primary and disseminated carcinoid disease reflects the need for a multidisciplinary approach, with surgery remaining the only curative modality. The prognosis for patients with these tumors is generally favorable, however can be quite variable and is related to the location of the primary tumor, extent of metastatic disease at initial presentation, and the time of diagnosis. PMID:19091780

Pinchot, Scott N.; Holen, Kyle; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert



Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor.  

PubMed Central

The divergently transcribed yolk protein genes (Yp1 and Yp2) of Drosophila melanogaster are expressed only in adult females, in fat body tissue and in ovarian follicle cells. Using an in vitro transcription assay, we have identified a single 12-bp DNA element that activates transcription from the promoters of both Yp genes. In vivo, this regulatory element is tissue specific: it activates transcription of Yp1 and Yp2 reporter genes in follicle cells but has no detectable effect in fat body or other tissues. The sequence of the element consists of two recognition sites for the GATA family of transcription factors. We show that among the Drosophila genes known to encode GATA factors, only dGATAb is expressed in ovaries. The single transcript that we detect in ovaries is alternatively spliced or initiated to produce an ovary-specific isoform of the protein. Bacterially expressed dGATAb binds to the 12-bp element; a similar binding activity is also present in the Kc0 nuclear extracts used for in vitro transcription assays. These in vitro and in vivo results lead us to propose that dGATAb makes several developmentally regulated products, one of which is a follicle cell-specific protein activating transcription of Yp1 and Yp2 from a known regulatory element. PMID:8524261

Lossky, M; Wensink, P C



Interactions of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine with cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing N-acetyl- D-glucosamine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series of neoglycolipids containing cholesteryl and N-acetyl- D-glucosaminyl groups were synthesized with various ethoxy linkers. Their self aggregations and intermolecular interactions, without and with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), were characterized in dry and hydrated states, by using infrared spectroscopy. The neoglycolipids in the dry state formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the C?O and N-H or O-H groups of N-acetyl- D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). In the presence of EYPC, these intermolecular interactions were broken and new hydrogen bonds, involving the phosphate group of EYPC and N-H or O-H groups of GlcNAc of neoglycolipid, were formed. The presence of water molecules altered these intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The C?O groups of EYPC were not affected by the presence of neoglycolipids, either in hydrated or in dry states, indicating that the GlcNAc polar groups interacted mostly with EYPC phosphate residues. The phase transition-temperature of mixtures of EYPC containing either cholesterol or neoglycolipid were similar, indicating that the cholesteryl group of the neoglycolipid interacted in the same manner as cholesterol with hydrocarbon chains of EYPC. Some structural models of molecular interactions of neoglycolipids were discussed in relation with the molecular recognition of wheat germ agglutinin.

Kemoun, Rachida; Gelhausen, Micaèle; Besson, Françoise; Lafont, Dominique; Buchet, René; Boullanger, Paul; Roux, Bernard



Hormonal control of the yolk precursor vitellogenin regulates immune function and longevity in honeybees.  


A striking example of plasticity in life span is seen in social insects such as ants and bees, where different castes may display distinct ageing patterns. In particular, the honeybee offers an intriguing illustration of environmental control on ageing rate. Honeybee workers display a temporal division of labour where young bees (or 'hive bees') perform tasks within the brood nest, and older bees forage for nectar, pollen propolis and water. When bees switch from the hive bee to the forager stage, their cellular defence machinery is down-regulated by a dramatic reduction in the number of functioning haemocytes (immunocytes). This study documents that the yolk precursor vitellogenin is likely to be involved in a regulatory pathway that controls the observed decline in somatic maintenance function of honeybee foragers. An association between the glyco-lipoprotein vitellogenin and immune function has not previously been reported for any organism. Honeybee workers are functionally sterile, and via the expression of juvenile hormone, a key gonotrophic hormone in adult insects, their vitellogenin levels are influenced by social interactions with other bees. Our results therefore suggest that in terms of maintenance of the cellular immune system, senescence of the honeybee worker is under social control. PMID:15130671

Amdam, Gro V; Simões, Zilá L P; Hagen, Arne; Norberg, Kari; Schrøder, Knut; Mikkelsen, Øvind; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Omholt, Stig W



20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates the accumulation of translatable yolk polypeptide gene transcript in adult male Drosophila melanogaster.  


Yolk polypeptide (YP) synthesis is hormonally stimulated during maturation of adult female Drosophila melanogaster. Synthesis of the three YPs is sex specific and occurs in fat body cells and follicle cells of adult females. However, males have been shown to produce YPs when treated with the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). By using a cell-free translation system as an assay for YP mRNA, we found that 20-HE also causes the accumulation of translatable YP message in males. In addition, hybridization of cloned copies of genes for both YP1 and YP3 to total RNA from males showed that 20-HE caused the appearance of YP gene transcripts in males. Eight hours after treatment of males with 20-HE, YP gene transcript levels had increased at least 25-fold to approximately 2.7 x 10(6) copies of YP1 gene transcript per adult male fly. In normal adult females, there were 42 x 10(6) copies per fly by 24 hr. There was neither detectable YP synthesis nor translatable YP gene transcript in either normal 1- to 3-day-old males or 24-hr-old males treated with a juvenile hormone analogue. This evidence shows that 20-HE acts to regulate the levels of translatable YP mRNA in male Drosophila. PMID:6401862

Shirk, P D; Minoo, P; Postlethwait, J H



The functional property of egg yolk phosvitin as a melanogenesis inhibitor.  


Phosvitin is a phosphoglycoprotein present in egg yolk. More than half of the amino acids in phosvitin molecule are serine, of which >90% are phosphorylated. Therefore, phosvitin has a strong metal binding capability. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phosvitin on the inhibition of melanogenesis in melanoma cells. The results showed that phosvitin inhibited the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Addition of phosvitin at a concentration of 50?g/ml, to B16F10 melanoma cells inhibited tyrosinase activity by approximately 42% and melanin synthesis by 17% compared to those in a control without phosvitin. Phosvitin inhibited the expression of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16F10 melanoma cells. In addition, phosvitin reduced the cellular cAMP concentration in B16F10 melanoma cells. These results indicate that phosvitin has the potential to be used as a melanogenesis inhibitor in the food and cosmetics industry. PMID:22953815

Jung, Samooel; Kim, Dong Hee; Son, Jun Ho; Nam, Kichang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Jo, Cheorun



Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element  

PubMed Central

Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL?1 concentration range with (3.2 ± 0.3) mV/µg.mL?1 of sensitivity and 0.09?µg.mL?1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue. PMID:25597820

Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.



Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL-1 concentration range with (3.2 +/- 0.3) mV/µg.mL-1 of sensitivity and 0.09 µg.mL-1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue.

Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; Dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some producers stock channel catfish sac fry in nursery ponds as early as two days after hatching to reduce hatchery operating costs associated with the traditional practice of feeding swim-up fry for 7-10 days prior to stocking. This study was conducted to determine if stocking catfish sac fry two...


Architecture engineering toward highly active palladium integrated titanium dioxide yolk-double-shell nanoreactor for catalytic applications.  


Rational design of the hierarchical architecture of a material with well controlled functionality is crucially important for improving its properties. In this paper, we present the general strategies for rationally designing and constructing three types of hierarchical Pd integrated TiO2 double-shell architectures, i.e. yolk-double-shell TiO2 architecture (Pd@TiO2/Pd@TiO2) with yolk-type Pd nanoparticles residing inside the central cavity of the hollow TiO2 structure; ultrafine Pd nanoparticles homogenously dispersed on both the external and internal surfaces of the inner TiO2 shell; and double-shell TiO2 architecture (@TiO2/Pd@TiO2) with Pd nanoparticles solely loaded on the external surface of the inner TiO2 shell, and double-shell TiO2 architecture (@TiO2@Pd@TiO2) with Pd nanoparticles dispersed in the interlayer space of double TiO2 shells, via newly developed Pd(2+) ion-diffusion and Pd sol impregnation methodologies. These architectures are well controlled in structure, size, morphology, and configuration with Pd nanoparticles existing in various locations. Owing to the variable synergistic effects arising from the location discrepancies of Pd nanoparticle in the architectures, they exhibit remarkable variations in catalytic activity. In particular, different from previously reported yolk-shell structures, the obtained yolk-double-shell Pd@TiO2/Pd@TiO2 architecture, which is revealed for the first time, possesses a uniform hierarchical structure, narrow size distribution, and good monodispersibility, and it creates two Pd-TiO2 interfaces on the external and internal surfaces of the inner TiO2 shell, leading to the strongest synergistic effect of Pd nanoparticles with TiO2 shell. Furthermore, the interlayer chamber between the double TiO2 shells connecting with the central cavity of the hollow TiO2 structure through the mesoporous TiO2 wall forms a nanoreactor for enriching the reactants and preventing the deletion of Pd nanoparticles during the reaction, thus greatly accelerating the reaction speed. Owing to its structural features, yolk-double-shell Pd@TiO2/Pd@TiO2 architecture exhibits extremely high catalytic performance on the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. The synthetic methodologies are robust for fabricating double-shell architectures with various configurations for applications such as in catalysis, drug delivery, and medicine release. The obtained double-shell architectures may be used as novel catalyst systems with highly efficient catalytic performance for other catalytic reactions. PMID:25174813

Liu, Baocang; Wang, Qin; Yu, Shengli; Jing, Peng; Liu, Lixia; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Jun



Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly



[Conjunctival tumors].  


Conjunctival tumors are one of the most frequent of the eye and adnexa. They comprise a large variety of conditions, from benign lesions such as nevus or papilloma, to malignant lesions such as epidermoid carcinoma or melanoma which may threaten visual function and the life of the patient. They can arise from any cellular component, but the most frequent are of epithelial and melanocytic origin. Early diagnosis is essential for preventing ocular and systemic spread and to preserve visual function. In this paper we review the clinical characteristics of the most frequent conjunctival tumors, and we discuss tumor management. PMID:19173134

Saornil, M A; Becerra, E; Méndez, M C; Blanco, G



[Adipocytic tumors].  


Adipocytic tumors are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms, liposarcoma accounting for approximately 20% of soft tissue sarcomas. The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumors is often problematic and represents a significant proportion of consultation cases. The goal of this article is to review liposarcoma subtypes, the main benign adipocytic neoplasms: lipoblastoma, hibernoma, spindle/pleomorphic cell lipoma, chondroid lipoma, as well as non adipocytic neoplasms with a lipomatous component such as lipomatous solitary fibrous tumor, emphasizing on practical differential diagnosis issues, and immunohistochemical and molecular tools allowing their resolution. PMID:25533918

Stock, Nathalie



[The case of the nematode Setaria equina found in the vaginal sac of the stallion's scrotum].  


The nematode Setaria equina usually reside in body cavities and do not cause clinical symptoms. From time to time, however, these parasites can be located in the scrotum and spermatic cord inflicting pain and edema in these body parts. The aim of the study was to describe the case of the nematode Setaria equina found in the vaginal sac of the stallion's scrotum. During the study, thorough examination of 50 isolated testicles of 25 stallions was conducted. The horses were obtained post-slaughter from the local slaughterhouse near Krakow. In one of examined stallions, two females of Setaria equina of 80 and 110 mm in length were found attached to the surface of the testicle. A part of one of the nematode was found in the space between the surface of the testicle and the epididymis. During the examination of the testicle sections, chronic inflammation (orchitis chronica) and focal necrosis perivascularis were found. PMID:21452525

Korna?, S?awomir; Pozor, Ma?gorzata; Okólski, Adam; Nowosad, Bogus?aw



Comparative Study of Endolymphatic Sac Decompression and Vestibular Neurectomy in Intractable Meniere's Disease.  


To comparative study the clinical effect of endolymphatic sac decompression (ELSD) and vestibular neurectomy (VN) in intractable Meniere's disease (MD). The study included 30 MD intractable patients, 21 of which underwent ELSD and nine of which were treated by VN via retrosigmoid approach. Follow-up period ranged from 3 to 6 years. In 21 patients by ELSD, excellent vertigo control and good control were noted in 11 patients (52.4 %) and 4 patients (19.0 %), partial control in 4 and no control in 2 patients. All the 9 patients by VN, vertigo was excellent control. ELSD can improve hearing and tinnitus, but VN not. VN can achieve much better effect in improving vertigo in intractable MD patients. But relative to ELSD, it has much more disadvantages. PMID:25621233

Liu, Yiqing; Han, Jie; Zhou, Xuanchen; Luan, Deheng; Xie, Fengyang; Gao, Kun



Self-Assembly of Large and Small Molecules into Hierarchically Ordered Sacs and Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the self-assembly of macroscopic sacs and membranes at the interface between two aqueous solutions, one containing a megadalton polymer and the other, small self-assembling molecules bearing opposite charge. The resulting structures have a highly ordered architecture in which nanofiber bundles align and reorient by nearly 90° as the membrane grows. The formation of a diffusion barrier upon contact between the two liquids prevents their chaotic mixing. We hypothesize that growth of the membrane is then driven by a dynamic synergy between osmotic pressure of ions and static self-assembly. These robust, self-sealing macroscopic structures offer opportunities in many areas, including the formation of privileged environments for cells, immune barriers, new biological assays, and self-assembly of ordered thick membranes for diverse applications.

Capito, Ramille M.; Azevedo, Helena S.; Velichko, Yuri S.; Mata, Alvaro; Stupp, Samuel I.



Activity in the Shuttle Action Center (SAC) of the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This photo was taken in the Shuttle Action Center (SAC) of the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at MSFC during the mission.



Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.  


A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600?°C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000?mA?g(-1) were 645 and 570?mA?h?g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88?%. PMID:24665070

Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan



Sac-D Aquarius a Satellite for Ocean, Climate and Environment. One Year of Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAC-D/Aquarius satellite was launched in June 10, 2011. It's a joint mission between Argentina (through CONAE) and US (NASA). This satellite is a true Observatory with a suite of sensors for Earth Observation, its weight is 1400 kg, sun-synchronous orbit at 657 km (6 pm ascendant node), revisit of seven days. Other space agencies have contributed with instruments and support (facilities and ground segment), as CNES, CSI, ASI and AEB/INPE. The primary objective is to monitor global variations in ocean surface salinity (SSS) in order to improve the knowledge about ocean circulation, water cycle and climate. The SSS is performed with Aquarius instrument (NASA). Other oceanic and atmospheric parameters are measured with a MWR, from CONAE, in K and Ka band, as wind speed, rain rate, sea ice, water vapour and liquid water in clouds. The thermal camera (NIRST) estimates sea surface temperature and detect high temperature events (fires and volcanic eruptions). The High Sensitivity Camera (HSC) generates night images (very useful for fishery activity monitoring in the sea, studying of electrical storms, polar auroras and urban application). The DCS (Data Collection System, from CONAE) can receive meteorological and environmental data from ground platforms and distribute among users. The TDP (Technological Demonstration Package, from CONAE) measures different parameters of satellite position and velocity. Other two important instruments are ROSA (from Italy) and CARMEN 1 (from France). The first is an atmospheric sounder, it allows elaborating atmospheric profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity, and the second has detectors for studies of space debris and the effects of radiation on electronic devices. This work provides a review of the first year of data, including the status of calibration and validation, other finding and at the same time we want to present the progress in the active educational and outreach program including the information of SAC-D Aquarius Mission.

Torrusio, S.; Lagerloef, G.; Rabolli, M.; LeVine, D.



Limb and other postcranial skeletal defects induced by amniotic sac puncture in the mouse.  

PubMed Central

A mouse model for studying the teratogenic effects of amniotic sac puncture has recently been established (MacIntyre et al. 1995), and the anomalies encountered included cleft palate, limb and tail abnormalities, and postural deformities. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) involved, mouse embryos subjected to amniotic sac puncture on day 13 of gestation were examined externally on day 19, then 'cleared' and bulk stained with alizarin red S and Alcian blue to reveal, respectively, their bony and cartilaginous elements. This procedure allowed a comparison to be made between the incidence of soft tissue anomalies of the distal parts of the limbs and the appearance of the underlying skeletal elements. Despite a high incidence of soft tissue (principally digital) anomalies, relatively few skeletal anomalies were encountered. Measurements of intact long bones, and regions of ossification, were made in the major long bones of 'nonexperimental' and 'internal' controls and 'experimental' fetuses that displayed external morphological malformations to establish whether the experimental procedure had a greater effect on the proximal or distal components of the limb skeleton. No significant difference was observed when the ratios of proximal: distal length were compared with those obtained from the control series. The degree of severity of 'clubhand' and 'clubfoot' deformity was determined, and a comparison made between the severity observed on the right and left sides. This analysis revealed that for 'clubhand', the left forelimb was more severely affected than the right forelimb. The incidence of 'clubfoot' deformity was similar between the 2 sides. A possible explanation for this asymmetric effect is provided. An unexpected finding was the abnormal pattern of ossification seen in the sternum of two thirds of the 'experimental' fetuses that displayed external morphological malformations. This abnormal pattern was seen in none of the controls nor in fetuses in the 'experimental' series that displayed no external morphological malformations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8771394

Chang, H H; Schwartz, Z; Kaufman, M H



SAC-D/Aquarius MWR sea ice concentration: first results and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Agency of Argentina (CONAE) developed the SAC-D/Aquarius science mission (launched in June 2011), together with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). One of the sensors on board the SAC-D is a MWR (Micro Wave Radiometer). This instrument is a three channel push broom microwave radiometer with 8 antenna beams per channel and two different incident angles (52° and 58°), that provides a measurement swath of approximately 380 Km. These channels provide 36.5 GHz dual horizontal and vertical polarized and 23.8 GHz horizontal polarized radiance measurements in an overlapping swath with the L-band Aquarius radiometer/scatterometer. Geophysical variables over marine surface, such as, columnar water vapor, wind speed, sea ice concentration, and rain rate are generated with the data comming from MWR. It is well recognized that sea ice is the most significant characteristic of the polar ocean environment and influences the Earth's global climate. Some approaches such as the Bootstrap and the NASA Team algorithms have been designed to estimate sea ice concentration and type using microwave emissions. These algorithms rely primarily on the factor that polarization and spectrum are different for sea ice and open ocean. CONAE developed an algorithm with the collaboration of CFRSL (Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory) and SHN (Argentine Naval Hydrographic Service), for the sea ice concentration using data coming from MWR radiometer. This algorithm is based on differences between brightness temperatures corresponding to vertical and horizontal polarization of 36.5 GHz band and the gradient corresponding to values of 36.5 and 23.8 GHZ in horizontal polarization. A validation process was implemented with the collaboration of SHN researchers, using the sea ice concentration obtained from National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) for comparisons. In this work we present the first results of Sea Ice Concentration obtained using the CONAE algorithm for both, north and south poles. In addition, we show the preliminary validation analysis of those estimations.

Barreira, S.; Tauro, C. B.; Masuelli, S.; Salgado, H.; Jones, L.



sAC from aquatic organisms as a model to study the evolution of acid/base sensing.  


Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is poised to play multiple physiological roles as an acid/base (A/B) sensor in aquatic organisms. Many of these roles are probably similar to those in mammals; a striking example is the evolutionary conservation of a mechanism involving sAC, carbonic anhydrase and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase that acts as a sensor system and regulator of extracellular A/B in shark gills and mammalian epididymis and kidney. Additionally, the aquatic environment presents unique A/B and physiological challenges; therefore, sACs from aquatic organisms have likely evolved distinct kinetic properties as well as distinct physiological roles. sACs from aquatic organisms offer an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution of A/B sensing at both the molecular and whole organism levels. Moreover, this information could help understand and predict organismal responses to environmental stress based on mechanistic models.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Role of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease," guest edited by J. Buck and L. R. Levin. PMID:24971688

Tresguerres, Martin



Quantification of Cardiac Sac Network Effects on a Movement-Related Parameter of Pyloric Network Output in the Lobster  

E-print Network

Output in the Lobster JEFF B. THUMA AND SCOTT L. HOOPER Neuroscience Program, Department of Biological on a movement-related parameter of pyloric network output in the lobster. J Neurophysiol 89: 745­753, 2003; 10 of cardiac sac activity on the OSF of all pyloric neurons in the lobster, Panulirus interruptus

Hooper, Scott


Effect of bile and lipids on the stereoselective metabolism of halofantrine by rat everted-intestinal sacs.  


The everted rat intestinal-sac model was utilized to assess the effect of post-prandial conditions on the stereoselective intestinal metabolism of halofantrine to its active metabolite desbutylhalofantrine. Everted intestinal sacs were incubated with (+/-)-halofantrine HCl in the presence of simulated bile solution (containing lecithin, lipase and cholesterol) and lipids to mimic post-prandial conditions in the small intestine. The halofantrine enantiomer concentrations in intestinal sacs were relatively constant in the presence of bile, but decreased significantly on addition of lipids to the incubation media. Formation of desbutylhalofantrine enantiomers was inversely proportional to bile concentration whereas addition of lipids in the presence of bile caused a significant decrease in desbutylhalofantrine:halofantrine ratio of (-) enantiomers. Pre-treatment of rats with peanut oil had no significant effect on desbutylhalofantrine formation in the incubated sacs or microsomal preparations, nor did it affect the expression of intestinal cytochrome P450. Addition of extra cholesterol to the bile incubations caused a significant increase in tissue halofantrine and desbutylhalofantrine concentrations, which as for lower cholesterol, were diminished on addition of other lipids. The results were consistent with previous in vivo evaluations showing that the desbutylhalofantrine to halofantrine ratio was decreased by the ingestion of a high fat meal. PMID:19496124

Patel, Jigar P; Korashy, Hesham M; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Brocks, Dion R



Fate of the excluded abdominal aortic aneurysm sac: Long-term follow-up of 831 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Nonresective treatment of the infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm by proximal and distal ligation of the aneurysm sac (exclusion) combined with aortic bypass has been previously reported. A 10-year experience with 831 patients undergoing this procedure was reviewed.Methods: From 1984 to 1994, 831 (761 elective, 70 urgent) of 1103 patients being treated for abdominal aortic aneurysm underwent repair with the

Michael Resnikoff; R. Clement Darling; Benjamin B. Chang; William E. Lloyd; Philip S. K. Paty; Robert P. Leather; Dhiraj M. Shah



Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta menardi  

E-print Network

Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical

Buehler, Markus J.


Ultrafast Forwarding Architecture Using a Single Optical Processor for Multiple SAC-Label Recognition Based on FWM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and demonstrate a novel ultrafast label processor that can recognize multiple spectral amplitude coded (SAC) labels using four wave mixing (FWM) sideband allocation and selective optical filtering. Our proposed solution favors hardware simplicity over bandwidth efficiency in order to achieve ultra- fast label recognition at reasonable cost. Our implementation, unlike all other optical label processing techniques, does not

JosÉ Bernardo Rosas-FernÁndez; Simon Ayotte; Leslie A. Rusch; Sophie LaRochelle



Loss of BubR1 acetylation causes defects in spindle assembly checkpoint signaling and promotes tumor formation.  


BubR1 acetylation is essential in mitosis. Mice heterozygous for the acetylation-deficient BubR1 allele (K243R/+) spontaneously developed tumors with massive chromosome missegregations. K243R/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibited a weakened spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) with shortened mitotic timing. The generation of the SAC signal was intact, as Mad2 localization to the unattached kinetochore (KT) was unaltered; however, because of the premature degradation of K243R-BubR1, the mitotic checkpoint complex disassociated prematurely in the nocodazole-treated condition, suggesting that maintenance of the SAC is compromised. BubR1 acetylation was also required to counteract excessive Aurora B activity at the KT for stable chromosome-spindle attachments. The association of acetylation-deficient BubR1 with PP2A-B56? phosphatase was reduced, and the phosphorylated Ndc80 at the KT was elevated in K243R/+ MEFs. In relation, there was a marked increase of micronuclei and p53 mutation was frequently detected in primary tumors of K243R/+ mice. Collectively, the combined effects of failure in chromosome-spindle attachment and weakened SAC cause genetic instability and cancer in K243R/+ mice. PMID:23878276

Park, Inai; Lee, Hae-ock; Choi, Eunhee; Lee, Yoo-Kyung; Kwon, Mi-Sun; Min, Jaewon; Park, Pil-Gu; Lee, Seonju; Kong, Young-Yun; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hyunsook



A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project  

SciTech Connect

The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a number of example applications for Hanford problems. References to theory documents and user guides are provided as well as links to a number of published data sets that support running analyses of interest to Hanford cleanup efforts.

Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.



Carcinoid Tumor  


... a roadmap to this full guide. About the endocrine system and endocrine tumors The endocrine system consists of cells that produce hormones. Hormones ... or cells in the body. Part of the endocrine system is the neuroendocrine system, which is made ...


Fibroid Tumors  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... develop from genetic changes in a smooth muscle cell within the myometrium. The cell multiplies to form a tumor. The exact cause ... temperature and break down and destroy the abnormal cells. Other tissues around the fibroid are not affected. ...


Pituitary tumor  


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Pituitary Tumors  


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Pregnancy Tumor  


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Understanding Brain Tumors  


... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...


The Plant Cell, Vol. 11, 11791190, June 1999, 1999 American Society of Plant Physiologists Sac3, an Snf1-like Serine/Threonine Kinase That Positively and  

E-print Network

Physiologists Sac3, an Snf1-like Serine/Threonine Kinase That Positively and Negatively Regulates the Responses acid sequence of the Sac3 gene product is similar to the catalytic domain of the yeast Snf1 family of serine/threonine kinases and is therefore classified as a Snf1-related kinase (SnRK). Specifically, Sac3


From genetic to structural characterization of a new class of RNA-binding domain within the SacY/BglG family of antiterminator proteins.  

PubMed Central

SacY is the prototype of a family of regulatory proteins able to prevent transcription termination. It interacts with a 29 nucleotide RNA sequence able to fold into a stem-loop structure and partially overlapping with a terminator sequence located in the 5' leader mRNA region of the gene it controls. We show here that the N-terminal fragment of SacY, SacY(1-55), and the corresponding fragments of other members of the family have antiterminator activities with efficiency and specificity identical to those of the full-length proteins. In vitro, this activity correlates with the specific affinity of SacY(1-55) for its RNA target. UV melting experiments demonstrate that SacY(1-55) binding stabilizes the RNA target structure. The NMR solution structure of SacY(1-55) is very similar to that obtained in the crystal (van Tilbeurgh et al., 1997): the peptide is folded as a symmetrical dimer without any structural homology with other RNA-binding domains yet characterized. According to a preliminary NMR analysis of the SacY(1-55)-RNA complex, the protein dimer is not disrupted upon RNA binding and several residues implicated in RNA recognition are located at the edge of the dimer interface. This suggests a new mode of protein-RNA interaction. PMID:9305643

Manival, X; Yang, Y; Strub, M P; Kochoyan, M; Steinmetz, M; Aymerich, S



Maternal condition, yolk androgens and offspring performance: a supplemental feeding experiment in the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus).  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that the maternal androgens in avian egg yolk enhance offspring fitness by accelerating growth and improving competitive ability. Because egg quality is strongly influenced by maternal condition, we predicted that females in good condition would produce high-quality eggs with relatively high androgen content. We experimentally enhanced maternal condition by supplementary feeding lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) during egg formation and compared the concentrations of androstenedione (A4), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T) in their eggs with those in eggs laid by control females. We also measured circulating levels of T in females immediately after laying. Egg androgens could affect offspring performance directly through chick development and/or indirectly through changes in the competitive ability of a chick relative to its siblings. To avoid confounding these two routes, and to separate effects operating through the egg itself with those operating through experimental changes in parental chick rearing capacity, we fostered eggs from both maternal treatment groups singly into the nests of unmanipulated parents. Contrary to expectation, mothers with experimentally enhanced body condition laid eggs with lower levels of androgens, while exhibiting higher circulating T concentrations post-laying. Despite these lower levels of egg androgen, offspring hatched from eggs laid by mothers in good condition did not show reduced growth or survival when reared in the absence of sibling competition. Our results demonstrate that yolk androgen concentrations vary with the body condition of the female at the time of egg formation and that females in good condition reduced the yolk andro