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1

Gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor differentiation and liver metastasis of yolk sac tumor component.  

PubMed

Gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation has rarely been reported. We report a case of primary gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor differentiation and liver metastases of the YST component in a 50-years-old patient. This was suspected due to high serum level of alpha fetoprotein in the presence of a gastric fundal tumor. Gastric carcinoma with yolk sac tumor component is a rare entity with a poor prognostic outcome. PMID:24294529

Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Chandan, K N; Yadav, Vikas; Panda, Dipanjan

2013-01-01

2

Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Yolk Sac Tumor Differentiation and Liver Metastasis of Yolk Sac Tumor Component  

PubMed Central

Gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation has rarely been reported. We report a case of primary gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor differentiation and liver metastases of the YST component in a 50-years-old patient. This was suspected due to high serum level of alpha fetoprotein in the presence of a gastric fundal tumor. Gastric carcinoma with yolk sac tumor component is a rare entity with a poor prognostic outcome.

Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Chandan, K. N.; Yadav, Vikas; Panda, Dipanjan

2013-01-01

3

Krukenberg tumor with yolk sac tumor differentiation.  

PubMed

An unusual case of bilateral Krukenberg tumor with foci of yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation occurring in a 50-year-old patient is reported. The primary tumor was in the gastric antrum, and it showed morphology of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with diffuse and solid growth pattern. A component of typical YST was not found in the gastric primary and lymph node metastases, although some cells in these locations were positive for alpha-fetoprotein. In the ovarian metastases, YST element showed microcystic/reticular and solid patterns, whereas the adenocarcinoma component was of diffuse type with signet ring cells and with some undifferentiated areas. The case represents further example of the somatic cell-derived tumor with focal germ cell-type differentiation and the first report of YST differentiation in Krukenberg tumor. PMID:18317220

Zamecnik, Michal; Voltr, Lubomir; Stuk, Jan; Chlumska, Alena

2008-04-01

4

Sacrococcygeal Yolk Sac Tumor: An Uncommon Site  

PubMed Central

A 30-month-old male infant presented with sacrococcygeal and pre-sacral mass. Ultrasound (US) abdomen revealed a huge pre-sacral mass with irregular margins extending into the pelvis, pushing the rectum antero-laterally. CT scan and MRI confirmed the US findings. Serum alpha fetoprotein level was abnormally elevated. Histopathological examination of surgical-specimen suggested sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor (YST).

Koubaa-Mahjoub, Wafa; Jouini, Raja; Bel Haj Salah, Meriem; Kaabar, Nejib; Chadli-Debbiche, Achraf

2012-01-01

5

Sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor: an uncommon site.  

PubMed

A 30-month-old male infant presented with sacrococcygeal and pre-sacral mass. Ultrasound (US) abdomen revealed a huge pre-sacral mass with irregular margins extending into the pelvis, pushing the rectum antero-laterally. CT scan and MRI confirmed the US findings. Serum alpha fetoprotein level was abnormally elevated. Histopathological examination of surgical-specimen suggested sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor (YST). PMID:23061033

Khanchel-Lakhoua, Fatma; Koubâa-Mahjoub, Wafa; Jouini, Raja; Bel Haj Salah, Meriem; Kaabar, Néjib; Chadli-Debbiche, Achraf

2012-09-01

6

Yolk sac tumor in the nasal cavity.  

PubMed

Yolk sac carcinoma (YST) is rare malignant tumor of germ cell origin. It most commonly arises from the gonads but extragonadal sites of origin are reported in 20% of the cases. Head and neck germ cell tumors are uncommon and only a small number are malignant. We present the case of a 48 years old man presenting with a YST of the sinonasal tract and the arterior skull base. The patient underwent an anterior craniofacial resection and postoperative radiotherapy and continues showing no evidence of disease seven years after treatment. We discuss radiological and histological features of this tumor and provide a review of three other cases of YST arising in children. PMID:18598836

Filho, Bernardo Cunha Araujo; McHugh, Jonathan B; Carrau, Ricardo L; Kassam, Amin B

2008-01-01

7

Primary pure gastric yolk sac tumor.  

PubMed

We describe here a case of pure gastric yolk sac tumor (YST). A 62-year-old patient underwent gastrectomy with D2 dissection. The histological report confirmed the diagnosis of YST and that two of the 14 regional lymph nodes removed were metastatic. Three courses of PEB regimen chemotherapy were delivered subsequently. Three months later the patient experienced dysphagia from stenosis of the anastomosis and a computerized tomography scan showed tumor recurrence with peritoneal nodules; the patient died one year after surgery. The origin of gastric YST is unclear but involvement of migrating germ cells during embryonic development or multipotential neoplastic protoepithelial cells of the gastric mucosa have been suggested. Generally the prognosis of gastric YST is poor and the standard therapeutic approach beyond surgery is still uncertain. PMID:21139939

Magni, Elena; Sonzogni, Angelica; Zampino, Maria Giulia

2010-01-01

8

Metastasis of testicular yolk sac tumor to cauda equina.  

PubMed

Primary germ cell tumors may spread to the lung, liver, brain, and bone hematogenously. However, spinal metastasis is extremely rare. A case with yolk sac tumor (YST) and cauda equina metastasis was presented in a 2-year-old boy. Two months prior to admisssion, he underwent left radical orchiectomy for testicular YST. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spinal and cauda equina involvement. This is the first report of metastasis of testicular YST to cauda equina in a child. PMID:21355679

Unal, Ozkan; Beyazal, Mehmet; Avcu, Serhat; Akbayram, Sinan; Akgun, Cihangir

2011-01-01

9

Primary yolk sac tumor of the common bile duct.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a germ cell neoplasm usually arising from the gonads. Extragonadal YST has been reported in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, liver, and pelvis. Primary YST of the common bile duct (CBD) has not been previously reported. We describe an 11-month-old girl with a YST arising from the CBD who presented with obstructive jaundice. Imaging studies revealed an intraluminal CBD mass with intrahepatic biliary dilatation and extraluminal infiltration of the head of the pancreas. A complete resection was carried out, and postoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin was administered. PMID:21683236

Munghate, Gayatri S; Agarwala, Sandeep; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar

2011-06-01

10

Primary yolk sac tumor of bilateral basal ganglia.  

PubMed

A primary intracranial yolk sac tumor (YST) is a type of germ cell tumor (GCT) and usually involves the pineal or suprasellar regions, as do other GCTs. Primary YST in the basal ganglia is not common, and bilateral basal ganglia involvement is even rarer. Early diagnosis is often difficult because of minimal or subtle findings without space-occupying lesions shown on neuroimaging during the early course of the disease. We report a case of primary intracranial YST encountered in the basal ganglia bilaterally and describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic problem, imaging characteristics, histopathologic features, and prognosis of the tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third reported case of primary YST confined to the basal ganglia in the literature. PMID:20728859

Wang, Chung-Hao; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Tzu-Ying; Wong, Tai-Tong; Chang, Feng-Chi; Ho, Donald Ming-Tak; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ping

2010-08-01

11

Cardiac metastasis from yolk sac tumor: case report and review  

PubMed Central

Cardiac metastasis of germ cell tumors is extremely rare, particularly in females. We report a case of a 26-year-old previously healthy woman who presented with a 5-month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, generalized lymphadenopathy, and acanthosis nigricans. Biopsy of cervical lymph nodes revealed a poorly differentiated neoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for alpha-fetoprotein suggesting the diagnosis of a germ cell tumor. During the investigation, the patient developed heart failure and a mass attached to the right ventricle was detected by the echocardiogram. In a few days, she developed multiple organ failure and died. Post-mortem examination revealed a malignant mixed germ cell tumor of the right ovary with extensive hematogenic and lymphatic dissemination, a polypoid mass attached to the right ventricle, emboli in the endocardial and epicardial vessels, and infiltration surrounding the coronary arteries. To the best of our knowledge this is the third report of grossly visible heart metastases from a yolk sac tumor in a female patient. A summary of all published cases of germ cell tumors with cardiac metastasis over the last 20 years is also presented.

2013-01-01

12

Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.

2012-01-01

13

Sinonasal pure yolk sac tumor: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Extragonadal pure yolk sac tumor of sinonasal origin is very rare. We report herein a case with sinonasal yolk sac tumor in a 1 year and 3 months old girl. The initial complaint was persistent nasal bleeding for about 2 months. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass in paranasal sinus that extended to oral cavity, nasopharynx, and oropharynx. The histology showed typical features of yolk sac tumor and the positive immunohistochemical staining of SALL4 and ?-fetoprotein. After tumor excision, adjuvant chemotherapy of JEB regimen was prescribed. After the follow-up for 13-months, ?-fetoprotein was normal and neither tumor progression nor metastasis was found. We review the previous literature and discuss the etiology, histology, treatment, and the prognosis of the rare sinonasal yolk sac tumor. PMID:24547992

Chuang, Huei Chieh; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Li-Yu

2014-06-01

14

Laparoscopic treatment of a Yolk Sac Tumor: case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We report the case of a yolk sac tumor of the ovary in a 26 years old woman. The laparoscopic approach and the BEP chemotherapy were fundamental to have a minimally invasive treatment and to preserve fertility.

Guida, Maurizio; Pignata, Sandro; Palumbo, Anna Rita; Miele, Gianmarco; Marra, Maria Luisa; Visconti, Federica; Zullo, Fulvio

15

A subcutaneous paraspinal yolk sac tumor in a child.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old girl underwent a surgery at an external center on July 2011 for a swelling in the left lumbar paravertebral subcutaneous region. The mass was completely excised and the pathologic diagnosis was a yolk sac tumor (YST). Laboratory tests revealed a serum ?-fetoprotein level of 278 IU/mL. Investigations using bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a scar tissue at the surgical site and lesions indicating metastasis at the lumbar first, second, third, and fifth vertebra. The patient was administered 5 cycles of PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin) treatment. The serum ?-fetoprotein was 3 IU/mL after the treatment. The lumbar magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy results were normal. The patient continues to be in remission since June 2012. YSTs are most commonly seen in the testis, ovary, and sacrococcygeal regions. Atypical locations have been reported with the primary lesion in the stomach, diaphragm, omentum, sino-nasal region, cranial base, lungs, vagina, and penis. Our case is probably a YST with an atypical location derived from preliminary cells left under the skin because of a migration defect. PMID:24556799

Tekgündüz, Sibel A; Bozkurt, Ceyhun; Sahin, Gürses; Apaydin, Sema; Ören, Ay?e C; Balkaya, Eda; Ertem, Ay?e U

2014-03-01

16

Primary yolk sac tumor of the cerebellar vermis: A case report.  

PubMed

Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare and comprise 2-5% of all germ cell tumors. Seminoma/dysgerminoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor (YST) and mixed germ cell tumors are few of the extragonadal germ cell tumors arising within the brain. Of these, primary pure YSTs arising in the brain are extremely rare and arise in the pineal (62%) and suprasellar (31%) regions. Primary YST occurring in the cerebellum is exceedingly rare, associated with a very poor prognosis and has been reported in less than 10 cases in literature. We herein report a case of primary pure yolk sac tumor in the cerebellar vermis in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24943765

Shenoy, Asha S; Desai, Heena M; Tyagi, Devendra K; Savant, Hemant V; Kavishwar, Vikas S; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshi

2014-01-01

17

Primary paratesticular yolk sac tumor: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Paratesticular germ cell tumors are extremely rare. A 12-month-old boy with yolk sac tumor involving only the paratesticular tissue is reported. Pre-operatively raised alpha fetoprotein levels fell to normal levels after high inguinal orchiectomy. This appears to be the youngest and only the 3rd case reported in the English literature.

Lyngdoh, Toijam Soni; Menon, Prema; Jain, Richa; Das, Ashim

2013-01-01

18

[The problems of yolk sac tumor morphogenesis in a light of the tumor stem cell theory].  

PubMed

The analysis of possible morphogenesis of the different structures in human yolk sac tumor has been considered. The author has supposed that features of blood vessel microarchitecture formation and perpetual differentiation of tumor cells or theirs functional modification play a crucial role in the morphogenesis of YST. The immunohistochemical investigation of some stem cells markers has showed the necessity of accounting of their distribution pattern in various cellular structures for the differential diagnosis of morphogenetical steps of YST. The growth of tumor cells differentiation rate correlates with increasing of stem cells markers expression as well c-kit > OCT4 > CD30 > PLAP. PMID:22164428

Karseladze, A I

2011-01-01

19

Primary spinal yolk sac tumor with brain metastasis: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryObject  Central nervous system primary germ cell tumors are typically pineal or suprasellar. Primary germ cell tumors of the spinal axis are very rare, with only a few case reports of germinomas and teratomas described in the literature.Methods  We present the unique case of a 25-year-old woman with an intradural, extramedullary primary yolk sac tumor (YST) at and below the level of

Peter Kan; Oren N. Gottfried; Deborah T. Blumenthal; James K. Liu; Karen L. Salzman; Jeannette Townsend; Randy L. Jensen

2006-01-01

20

Gonadoblastoma and hepatoid and endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: an update.  

PubMed

Dr Robert E. Scully greatly advanced our understanding of germ cell neoplasia to the extent that it is difficult to narrow the discussion of his contributions to this topic so that it can be covered in a brief article. This article accordingly focuses on some of the recent developments concerning 2 of his major contributions in this area-the gonadoblastoma (GB) and variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor. GB was defined by Dr Scully in 1953 and its features elaborated in detail by him in 1970. This neoplasm occurred in young patients who often displayed phenotypic sex ambiguities and frequently presented with primary amenorrhea. It was bilateral in 40%, and consisted of circumscribed nests of small sex cord cells and germinoma-like cells admixed with round deposits of eosinophilic, hyaline, often calcified material. These nests were set in a spindle cell gonadal stroma with Leydig-like or lutein-like cells. Because of his work we now understand that this precursor to invasive germ cell tumors occurs in patients with a specific form of disorder of sex development, namely gonadal dysgenesis, and only in those who have a particular portion of the Y chromosome, the GB locus/TSPY gene, within the gonadal tissue. An essential element to the development of GB appears to be a defect in the genetic pathway that leads to the development of Sertoli cells. Improperly formed Sertoli cells predispose to "delayed maturation" of the gonocytes of the gonad and predispose them to undergo malignant transformation. "Undifferentiated gonadal tissue" has been proposed as the precursor to the development of GB and consists of an unorganized mixture of apparently non-neoplastic germ cells, germ cells with delayed maturation, and neoplastic germ cells with sex cord cells and gonadal stroma. Two variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor were also recognized by Dr Scully. In the hepatoid variant features similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occurred, although primitive glandular foci and lack of liver involvement permitted its distinction in most cases. More recently this variant has been found to occasionally produce bile in canalicular-like structures and to stain strongly for both SALL4 and glypican 3, 2 recently described markers of yolk sac tumor. Recognition of hepatoid yolk sac tumor was followed by the description of a potential mimic, primary ovarian hepatoid carcinoma, which, however, occurred in a significantly older patient population and was occasionally associated with surface epithelial neoplasia. The endometrioid-like variant of yolk sac tumor simulated primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma. It can be suspected on routine stains because of primitive appearing nuclei, frequent subnuclear vacuoles, and in some cases association with more usual yolk sac tumor. Its recognition is now facilitated by a panel of immunohistochemical stains that are often expressed differentially in these 2 neoplasms-endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: positive for SALL4, glypican 3, and ?-fetoprotein; endometrioid adenocarcinoma: positive for cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen. Finally, Dr Scully contributed one of the first cases in the literature of yet another nuance in the complicated world of yolk sac neoplasia, namely the development of some tumors on the background of a surface epithelial neoplasm. This is analogous to the more common development of choriocarcinoma from carcinoma and, in the case of yolk sac tumor, diagnosis is aided clinically by the usual older age of the patient and nature of the associated neoplasia. PMID:24901396

Ulbright, Thomas M

2014-07-01

21

Primary Yolk Sac Tumor Arising in the Pancreas with Hepatic Metastasis: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Extragonadal yolk sac tumor (YST) is a relatively rare entity. We describe here the case of an extragonadal YST that occurred in the pancreas with hepatic metastasis in an adult woman. The contrast enhanced CT images of the abdomen revealed a heterogeneous, solitary mass occupying the pancreatic neck and body with slightly inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. Two low-density lesions in the liver were also displayed on the CT images. The patient underwent surgery and the diagnosis of YST was pathologically verified.

Zhang, Bo; Gao, Shunliang; Chen, Ying

2010-01-01

22

Identification and characterization of cancer stem cells in ovarian yolk sac tumors.  

PubMed

Recent evidence supports the cancer stem cell theory, that is, that malignant tumors arise from cells termed cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells that have the ability to self-renew and are responsible for maintaining the tumor. Cells with marked tumor-initiating capacity have recently been identified in a number of solid tumors. CD133 (PROM1, human prominin-1) has been used as a marker to detect stem cells (progenitor cells) and cancer stem cells (tumor-initiating cells) in various tissues. Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and highly malignant. The present study was designed to evaluate the tumor-forming ability of CD133(+) cells in ovarian YST cell lines and to examine the characteristics of CD133(+) cells, such as cell growth and invasiveness. Our data suggest ovarian YST to be maintained by a rare fraction of cancer stem-like cells that express the cell surface marker CD133. PMID:20804503

Suzuki, Shiro; Terauchi, Mikio; Umezu, Tomokazu; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Nawa, Akihiro; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

2010-10-01

23

Regulatory role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta in the production of plasma proteins in yolk sac tumor.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a malignant germ cell tumor characterized by AFP production, in which histologic foci similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occasionally coexist. We assumed a possible contribution of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-beta, a transcription factor implicated in the regulation of plasma proteins in the liver, to the regulation of AFP production and to the expression of other plasma proteins in yolk sac tumor cells because our immunohistochemical analysis revealed nuclear expression of C/EBP-beta in human yolk sac tumors. Overexpression of C/EBP-beta in a rat yolk sac tumor cell line, AT-2-TC, increased production of AFP and other plasma proteins, including albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, hepatoglobin, and transferrin. Liver-enriched transcription factors, including hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF)-1alpha, -1 beta, and -4, were also induced. The induction of this protein expression was only evident in xenografts, where C/EBP-beta was phosphorylated and the activating isoform of C/EBP-beta was relatively predominant. These results indicate that C/EBP-beta plays a role in the production of plasma proteins of yolk sac tumors. PMID:15924879

Hirashiki, Koichiro; Kishimoto, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yuichiro; Furuya, Mitsuko; Sekiya, Soei; Ishikura, Hiroshi

2005-06-01

24

Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor  

PubMed Central

The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST) is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.

2012-01-01

25

Primary yolk sac tumor arising in the pancreas with hepatic metastasis: a case report.  

PubMed

Extragonadal yolk sac tumor (YST) is a relatively rare entity. We describe here the case of an extragonadal YST that occurred in the pancreas with hepatic metastasis in an adult woman. The contrast enhanced CT images of the abdomen revealed a heterogeneous, solitary mass occupying the pancreatic neck and body with slightly inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. Two low-density lesions in the liver were also displayed on the CT images. The patient underwent surgery and the diagnosis of YST was pathologically verified. PMID:20592932

Zhang, Bo; Gao, Shunliang; Chen, Ying; Wu, Yulian

2010-01-01

26

Long-term outcome and prognostic factors for yolk sac tumor of the ovary.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumors of the ovary (YST) are rare and highly malignant tumors occurring in children and young adults. Because of its rarity, YST prognostic factors remain unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the prognostic factors in YST. We performed a retrospective review of 36 patients with pure YST from 1986 to 2006. The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 66.6% and 68.8%, respectively. Patients with stage I-II disease had a more favorable prognosis than those with stage III-IV (p < 0.05). Those with an ascites volume of less than 100 ml or a residual tumor measuring less than 1 cm had improved to a relatively good prognosis. Neither serum AFP level nor age had any significant correlation with the prognosis in this study. In conclusion, the FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage, ascites volume and residual tumor size tended to affect the prognosis of YST. PMID:18807293

Umezu, Tomokazu; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Terauchi, Mikio; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Ino, Kazuhiko; Nawa, Akihiro; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

2008-03-01

27

A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor component.  

PubMed

Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary coexists very rarely with yolk sac tumor (YST). This unusual mixed tumor is thought to be a rare variant of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma because of its aggressive behavior, lack of response to chemotherapy, and unfavorable prognosis. We report a case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and a combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin and taxol and carboplatin. She has been clinically free of tumor for 20 months. Immunohistochemically, the YST component reacted for alpha-fetoprotein. YST areas were negative for both CA125 and sex-hormone receptors. Cytokeratin7 and epithelial membrane antigen were negative in YST, but positive in endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The occurrence of this unusual case suggests that even somatic carcinomas may acquire an extraembryonal germ cell differentiation. PMID:17466041

Abe, A; Furumoto, H; Yoshida, K; Nishimura, M; Irahara, M; Kudo, E; Sano, T

2008-01-01

28

CDX2 expression in yolk sac component of testicular germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

CDX2 has been detected in the majority of colorectal adenocarcinoma cases and may be useful in determining the sites of origin of tumors. In this study, the authors evaluated CDX2 expression in germ cell tumors (GCTs) by immunohistochemistry. Forty cases of testicular GCTs and 8 cases of metastatic GCTs were retrieved for study. In the 40 cases of testicular GCTs, 13 were pure seminomas and 27 mixed GCTs. Yolk sac tumor (YST) was identified by morphology and glypican 3 staining in 20 testicular mixed GCTs. Of these 20 cases, 8 cases showed 1+ positivity for CDX2. Other primitive components of GCTs were negative. For the 6 cases of metastatic mixed GCT with YST, 4 cases were positive, 2+ in 2 cases and 1+ in 2 cases. The positivity of CDX2 in GCTs warrants including YST in the differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of unknown origin. PMID:19578052

Bing, Zhanyong; Pasha, Theresa; Tomaszewski, John E; Zhang, Paul

2009-10-01

29

Left ovarian gonadoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young woman.  

PubMed

Gonodoblastomas with ovarian germ cell tumors other than dysgerminoma coexists very rarely with yolk sac tumor (YST). Because of this rarity, we report a case of gonadoblastoma with YST. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with an abdomino-pelvic mass. Ultrasonographical examinations revealed a 15X14 cm heterogenous pelvic mass with calcific foci in the left adnexal area. Macroscopically, the resected mass was oval and measured 18X15X15 cm and weighed 3150 gm. Histological examination showed both gonadoblastic and YST areas. There were many gonadoblastic nests in the subcapsular areas of the tumor. The gonadoblastic nests were composed of large and small cells. The YST areas showed enteric differentiation and numerous hyaline globules. Immunohistochemical examination may help in the diagnosis of these gonadoblastoma with YST. PMID:20551554

Gelincik, Ibrahim; Ozen, Suleyman; Bayram, Irfan

2010-01-01

30

Testicular yolk sac tumor of myxomatous, reticular, and polyvesicular vitelline type in a newborn calf.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms of germ cell origin. In humans, the tumors primarily occur in the testes or ovaries, but occasionally develop at other sites. The neoplastic cells of YSTs form many histological patterns resembling embryonal structures, and the World Health Organization classification lists 11 such patterns: reticular, macrocystic, endodermal sinus, papillary, solid, glandular-alveolar, myxomatous, sarcomatoid, polyvesicular vitelline, hepatoid, and parietal. Among domestic animals, only 2 cases of YST, which were of testicular and abdominal cavity origin, have been reported in calves. In both cases, neoplastic cells had epithelial properties and disseminated metastases in the abdomen. In the present study, the enlarged testis of a newborn calf, which was subsequently diagnosed as YST and exhibited myxomatous, reticular, and polyvesicular vitelline histological patterns, is described. There was no metastasis in this case, and histological and immunohistochemical features varied from previous cases of YST. PMID:24153035

Sakaguchi, Kanako; Matsuda, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Nao; Kondo, Yumi; Ando, Takaaki; Koiwa, Masateru; Kagawa, Yumiko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

2013-11-01

31

Primary yolk sac tumor of the retroperitoneum: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Yolk sac tumor (YST), also known as an endodermal sinus tumor, is a rare malignant germ cell tumor. Primary retroperitoneal YST (PRYST) is extremely rare and, to the best of our knowledge, has only been described in case reports. The histogenesis of PRYST and the appropriate treatment strategy remain unclear due to the rarity of this type of tumor. The present study reports a case of YST in the retroperitoneum. A 19-year-old female presented with abdominal distension and edema of the lower limbs. A computed tomography scan revealed a large, solid mass located in the retroperitoneum. The tumor size was 20×25×30 cm and widespread metastasis was identified during the exploratory laparotomy. The postoperative histopathology report showed a malignant retroperitoneal tumor (although a YST was initially considered). The patient underwent three surgical procedures and 17 cycles of five different chemotherapy regimens. The patient succumbed to cachexia, which was due to tumor recurrence, and liver and spleen metastases 21 months after diagnosis. PRYST may relapse following surgical treatment; however, surgical resection is currently the optimal treatment method. In this case, bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin; bleomycin, vincristine and cisplatin; and vincristine and cisplatin chemotherapy regimens were effective for the patient with PRYST, although the tumor was not completely resected. ?-fetoprotein (AFP) is an important tumor marker for monitoring PRYST recurrence and observation of elevated serum AFP levels during chemotherapy indicates a poor prognosis.

GUO, YANG-LONG; ZHANG, YING-LI; ZHU, JIAN-QING

2014-01-01

32

Yolk sac tumor of the vulva: a case report with recurrence after long-term follow-up.  

PubMed

A yolk sac tumor (YST) of the vulva is extremely rare and highly malignant with recurrence frequently occurring within a year. This report presents the 13th known case of vulvar YST, with recurrence occurring after the longest known follow-up period so far reported in the literature. PMID:22868632

Mochizuki, Kyoko; Obatake, Masayuki; Taura, Yasuaki; Inamura, Yukio; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Eguchi, Susumu

2012-09-01

33

Primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare malignant tumor originating from germ cells. YST normally originates from the gonads, rarely occurring in extragonadal sites. We report a 35-year-old man with YST arising in the omentum, which is the first reported case of a primary YST of the omentum in an adult male. The patient presented to the community hospital with abdominal distension. A CT scan showed thickening of the omentum with ascites. The patient underwent open biopsy of the omental mass. The Pathology Department of the hospital could not make a definitive diagnosis at that time, and the tumor was considered a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin with features of primary colorectal cancer based on the immunohistochemistry (IHC) findings of the biopsy specimen (CK7-/CK20+ and CDX-2+). He was then referred to our hospital. We found that serum ?-fetoprotein was abnormally elevated to 7,144 ng/ml (normal <10.0), and reevaluation of the biopsy specimen revealed microcystic or reticular patterns of tumor cells with Schiller-Duval bodies typical of YST. The present case suggests that IHC is a very useful diagnostic tool for subtyping CUP but should be interpreted in the context of clinical and morphological findings. PMID:23341810

Harano, Kenichi; Ando, Masashi; Sasajima, Yuko; Yunokawa, Mayu; Yonemori, Kan; Shimizu, Chikako; Tamura, Kenji; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

2012-09-01

34

Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare malignant tumor originating from germ cells. YST normally originates from the gonads, rarely occurring in extragonadal sites. We report a 35-year-old man with YST arising in the omentum, which is the first reported case of a primary YST of the omentum in an adult male. The patient presented to the community hospital with abdominal distension. A CT scan showed thickening of the omentum with ascites. The patient underwent open biopsy of the omental mass. The Pathology Department of the hospital could not make a definitive diagnosis at that time, and the tumor was considered a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin with features of primary colorectal cancer based on the immunohistochemistry (IHC) findings of the biopsy specimen (CK7–/CK20+ and CDX-2+). He was then referred to our hospital. We found that serum ?-fetoprotein was abnormally elevated to 7,144 ng/ml (normal <10.0), and reevaluation of the biopsy specimen revealed microcystic or reticular patterns of tumor cells with Schiller-Duval bodies typical of YST. The present case suggests that IHC is a very useful diagnostic tool for subtyping CUP but should be interpreted in the context of clinical and morphological findings.

Harano, Kenichi; Ando, Masashi; Sasajima, Yuko; Yunokawa, Mayu; Yonemori, Kan; Shimizu, Chikako; Tamura, Kenji; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

2012-01-01

35

Yolk sac tumor with a prominent polyvesicular vitelline pattern: a report of three cases.  

PubMed

We report 3 cases of the rare polyvesicular vitelline variant of ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST). The patients were 23, 29, and 43 years old, and all presented with large unilateral adnexal masses confined to the ovary. One tumor was predominantly cystic, and the other 2 had prominent cystic components; all 3 also had solid components. Microscopic examination of the cystic regions showed dilated cysts that largely effaced the stroma resulting in a honeycomb-like appearance. The solid foci were characterized predominantly by small tubules in a fibrous stroma; the tubules exhibited variably conspicuous cystic dilatation to merge with the microcystic appearance. The tumor cells varied from large and primitive-appearing to flattened and deceptively innocuous when lining large cysts. They were immunoreactive for ?-fetoprotein and glypican-3. Non-polyvesicular vitelline components of YST were present focally in 2 cases (hepatoid in one, reticular and endometrioid like in the second). Two patients are disease free after 20 and 26 years, respectively; disease-free follow-up is of short duration in the third case (2 years). The good long-term outcome in 2 cases supports prior evidence that suggests that the natural history of this form of YST may be more indolent than conventional forms of the tumor. PMID:23348213

Young, Robert H; Ulbright, Thomas M; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

2013-03-01

36

Oncofetal protein glypican-3 distinguishes yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary is the surface epithelial neoplasm most often confused with primitive germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor (YST) and dysgerminoma. OCT3/4 has proven to be a sensitive and relatively specific marker for the latter entity, but existing markers for YST are limited. Recent studies suggest that glypican-3 (GPC3), an oncofetal protein expressed in fetal liver and malignant tumors of hepatocytic lineage, is also expressed in germ cell tumors, particularly YST. To investigate whether GPC3 is useful in distinguishing YST from ovarian CCC, we studied the expression of GPC3 in a large series of ovarian neoplasms and compared it to the expression profiles of CK7 and alpha-fetoprotein. Tissue microarrays containing over 400 benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, including 34 CCCs were stained with monoclonal GPC3 (clone 1G12, Biomosaics, Burlington, VT). These arrays contained a wide assortment of ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms and sex cord stromal neoplasms, as well as germ cell tumors. Full paraffin tissue sections from 32 YSTs and 10 CCCs were also assessed. All but one YST (97%), including those associated with mixed germ cell tumor were positive for GPC3, whereas all teratomas and embryonal carcinomas were negative. Both cytoplasmic and membrane staining were present in the positive cases, with no background staining. The syncytiotrophoblastic cells in the germ cell tumors and placental villi included in the arrays were also positive for GPC3. Most CCCs (83%) were completely negative for GPC3, as were 99% serous, 94% endometrioid, and 100% mucinous tumors. Five CCCs exhibited focal, moderate to strong GPC3 expression and in 2 the expression was focal and weak. All other tissues, including normal ovary were negative for GPC3. GPC3 seems to be a promising diagnostic marker for differentiating YST from ovarian CCC (P < 0.0001). Because GPC3 may be associated with alpha-fetoprotein expression, further studies are required to determine the utility of GPC3 in differentiating YST from CCC with hepatoid differentiation. PMID:18277882

Esheba, Ghada E; Pate, Lisa L; Longacre, Teri A

2008-04-01

37

Sustainable complete remission in recurrence yolk sac tumor patient treated with tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old lady diagnosed with Stage 3 ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) underwent primary cytoreductive fertility sparing surgery, followed by conventional courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and etoposide. Recurrence at cul-da-sac was noted after a short period of remission and secondary debulking performed followed by four cycles of conventional chemotherapy. The patient's disease progressed despite courses of treatments. A joint team management including a hematologist was commenced following the failure of conventional chemotherapies. Two cycles of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with ifosfamide/cisplatin/etoposide (ICE) regimen, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were given. With this salvage treatment, she remained in complete remission and disease-free for more than 30 months, while maintaining her reproductive function. These approaches appear to be effective as a salvage treatment in selected cases of patients with ovarian germ cell tumor, especially those who failed primary conventional chemotherapy. PMID:23781595

Abdullah, N A; Wang, P N; Huang, K G; Adlan, A S; Casanova, J

2013-01-01

38

Ovarian yolk sac tumors in older women arising from epithelial ovarian tumors or with no detectable epithelial component.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumor (YST) occurs rarely in older women, either in association with a variety of ovarian epithelial tumors or, considerably less often, without an identifiable epithelial precursor. The patients often have elevated serum levels of ?-fetoprotein that roughly correlate with the amount of the YST component. In postmenopausal women with an ovarian mass and elevated serum levels of ?-fetoprotein, a tumor of this type should be suspected. Endometrioid carcinoma is the most common putative precursor, and the tumor is often associated with an endometriotic cyst; however, malignant Müllerian mixed tumor and mucinous neoplasms have also been reported as precursors. We report 4 cases of YST in postmenopausal women. Of the 3 cases with an identified epithelial component, 1 was serous carcinoma, another was clear cell adenocarcinoma, and the third was an admixture of endometrioid and clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from an endometriotic cyst. Although a precursor epithelial ovarian neoplasm, typically a malignancy (somatic carcinoma), is usually identified, no precursor neoplasm was observed in 1 of our cases and in 5 cases from the literature. We believe that YSTs in older women, whether or not an epithelial component is detected histologically, constitute a single entity that is distinct from YSTs in younger patients and should be treated aggressively. Neoplasms with a YST component in older women are less responsive to the chemotherapy currently used for ovarian germ cell tumors; therefore, adjuvant therapy should include platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial ovarian cancer and germ cell tumors. Of the 24 reported cases, including our own, 17 died of neoplasms within 25 months and another was living with disease at 2 months. However, 2 more recent patients treated aggressively with platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial and germ cell tumor components with stage 1 disease are living and have been disease free >1 year after operation. PMID:21804392

Roth, Lawrence M; Talerman, Aleksander; Levy, Tally; Sukmanov, Oleg; Czernobilsky, Bernard

2011-09-01

39

A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor in a 35-year-old woman.  

PubMed

Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a malignant ovarian neoplasm differentiated from primordial germ cells that occur in young age, while endometrioid carcinoma (ECA) is a müllerian epithelial tumor that usually occurs in older patients. The coexistence of an ovarian ECA and YST component is very rare. Only 12 cases have been reported until now according to a Medline search of the English literatures. We present a case of a simultaneous ECA and a YST component in a 35-year-old woman. Exploratory laparotomy was performed. The parts of both ovaries that showed an endometrioid-like glandular pattern were positive for cytokeratin 7 and negative for AFP, but the YST component was negative for cytokeratin 7 and positive for AFP. After completion of four courses of BEP chemotherapy, two courses of taxane and carboplatin chemotherapy were added. The patient failed to respond and succumbed to the disease after 12 months of follow-up. PMID:20882900

Hong, D G; Chong, G O; Seong, W J; Lee, Y S; Cho, Y L; Park, J Y; Chae, J M; Park, I S

2010-01-01

40

Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: a retrospective multicenter study of 33 Japanese women by Tohoku Gynecologic Cancer Unit (TGCU).  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumor (YST) of the ovary is a rare germ cell tumor comprising about 1% of all ovarian malignancies. YST usually occurs as a rapidly growing unilateral tumor in young women. With the introduction of cisplatin, YST has been changed from a fatal tumor to a curable tumor. The standard treatment of YST consists of fertility-preserving surgery and 3 or 4 courses of adjuvant combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). However, the long-term prognosis of BEP-treated YST patients has not been well studied. We therefore conducted a retrospective multicenter study to investigate the prognostic factors of 33 YST patients, including 25 patients treated with BEP. The median age at initial treatment was 20 years (range 10-53). There were 15 patients (at stage I), one (stage II), 16 (stage III), and one (stage IV). Nominal and grouped numerical values were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. All patients had unilateral tumor, with right-side predominance (23 patients; P = 0.02). Eighteen patients had pure YST, 13 had mixed germ cell tumor with YST component, and other 2 patients were not specified. Twenty-eight patients received fertility-preserving surgery. Twenty-seven patients had optimal surgery with less than 1 cm residual tumor diameter. Median number of chemotherapy courses was 5. Median follow-up period was 49 months. The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 87%. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant prognostic factors (P < 0.05): stage, tumor diameter, and residual tumor. Extensive debulking surgery to minimize residual tumor would improve the prognosis. PMID:23912096

Kojimahara, Takanobu; Nakahara, Kenji; Takano, Tadao; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Naoki; Terada, Yukihiro; Tase, Toru; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Mizunuma, Hideki; Shoji, Tadahiro; Sugiyama, Toru; Kurachi, Hirohisa

2013-01-01

41

Endometrial carcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation and elevated serum ?-hCG: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Endometrial carcinoma with a germ cell tumor component is a rare event. Here we report a uterine neoplasm with a unique combination of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and mixed germ cell malignant elements. A 28-year-old woman with abnormal vaginal bleeding, an abdominal mass, and elevated alfa-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) levels had a history of biopsy of an omental mass and chemotherapy in another hospital one month before her referral to our department. Histologic examination of the mass removed from the omentum revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy, and removal of metastatic disease were then undertaken at our hospital. Postoperative chemotherapy was given. Eight months postoperatively, serum alfa-fetoprotein and ?-hCG rose again. Cases with primary yolk sac tumors of the endometrium or endometrial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation in the literature were reviewed.

Ji, Mingliang; Lu, Yan; Guo, Lina; Feng, Fengzhi; Wan, Xirun; Xiang, Yang

2013-01-01

42

A population-based analysis of 788 cases of yolk sac tumors: A comparison of males and females.  

PubMed

Yolk sac tumors (YST) are a rare and aggressive germ cell tumor. The objective of this study is to compare the patient characteristics and survival of YST in males and females. Demographic and clinicopathologic information were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1973 to 2003. Statistical analysis was performed using Independent-sample t-test, chi(2) test, Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression. Seven hundred eighty-eight patients were identified, 451 (57%) were males and 337 (43%) were females. The mean age at diagnosis was similar in males and females. The age at diagnosis showed a bimodal distribution with an increased incidence in the first 4 years of life and during the 2nd to 4th decade of life. The most common site of the primary tumor was gonadal, namely testis 336 (42.6%) and ovary 257 (32.6%). Among the extragonadal sites, tumor site of origin differed in males and females. The 5-year survival of extragonadal YST (66%) was worse than gonadal YST (86%) (p < 0.05). The overall median survival for the cohort was 87 months. This was similar in males (81 months) and females (91 months) (p > 0.05). As the year of diagnosis progressed from 1973 to 2003, survival of both males and females with YST consistently improved. The bimodal age distribution of YST generates the hypothesis that sex steroids may play a role in selected YST. Although the overall survival in all YST patients has improved over the past few decades, the primary sites of origin differ in males and females and impact prognosis. PMID:18767035

Shah, Jay P; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bryant, Christopher S; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Malone, John M; Deppe, Gunter; Morris, Robert T

2008-12-01

43

Testicular seminoma after the complete remission of extragonadal yolk sac tumor : a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Between 2% and 5% of malignant germ-cell tumors in men arise at extragonadal sites. Of extragonadal germ cell tumors, testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) are present in 31–42% of cases, and CIS are reported to have low sensitivity to chemotherapy in spite of the various morphology and to have a high likelihood of developing into testicular tumors. A testicular biopsy may thus be highly advisable when evaluating an extragonadal germ cell tumor. Case presentation A 36-year-old man was diagnosed as having an extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell tumor, that was treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy, leading to a complete remission. In the meantime, testicular tumors were not detected by means of ultrasonography. About 4 years later, a right testicular tumor was found, and orchiectomy was carried out. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of seminoma. Conclusions We herein report a case of metachronous occurrence of an extragonadal and gonadal germ cell tumor. In the evaluation of an extragonadal germ cell tumor, a histological examination should be included since ultrasonography is not sufficient to detect CIS or minute lesions of the testis.

Kuroda, Isao; Ueno, Munehisa; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Ken; Yanaihara, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Takuji; Deguchi, Nobuhiro

2004-01-01

44

SALL4 is a novel sensitive and specific marker of ovarian primitive germ cell tumors and is particularly useful in distinguishing yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Ovarian primitive germ cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon tumors and sometimes pose diagnostic challenges. Among them, yolk sac tumor (YST) poses the greatest diagnostic difficulty and can be mistaken for clear cell carcinoma (CCC). Current immunohistochemical markers such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), glypican-3, cytokeratin (CK) 7, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) used to distinguish YST from CCC lack adequate sensitivity and specificity. Here by immunohistochemistry, we investigated a novel marker SALL4 in 98 GCTs (29 YSTs, 18 dysgerminomas, 6 gonadoblastomas, 6 embryonal carcinomas, 15 immature and 12 mature teratomas, 7 carcinoid tumors, 3 strumal carcinoids, and 2 struma ovarii) with particular interest of exploring SALL4 to distinguish YST from CCC. One hundred sixty-three non-GCTs including 45 CCCs were also stained. We found that SALL4 is strongly positive in more than 90% tumor cells in all YSTs, dysgerminomas, gonadoblastomas, and embryonal carcinomas. Variable SALL4 staining is seen in 11 of 15 immature teratomas. All other GCTs included in this study are negative for SALL4. Except 3 CCCs with focal SALL4 staining (<15% tumor cells), SALL4 is negative in the remaining 160 non-GCTs. We also compared SALL4 with AFP, glypican-3, CK7, and EMA in all YSTs and CCCs. AFP and glypican-3 are positive in 24 (83%) and 20 (69%) YSTs, respectively, whereas 16 (35%) and 13(28%) CCCs show positive AFP and glypican-3 staining, respectively. Three (10%) and 4 (14%) YSTs show focal (<2% tumor cells) CK7 and EMA staining, respectively. CK7 and EMA are positive in all 45 CCCs but 3 (7%) and 1 (2%) cases show staining in less than 30% tumor cells, respectively. Our findings indicate that SALL4 is a novel sensitive and specific marker for ovarian primitive GCTs. SALL4 is particularly useful in distinguishing YST from CCC and better than AFP, glypican-3, CK7, and EMA. PMID:19295406

Cao, Dengfeng; Guo, Shuangping; Allan, Robert W; Molberg, Kyle H; Peng, Yan

2009-06-01

45

Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis after tumor lysis syndrome in a case of advanced yolk sac tumor treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a highly aggressive malignancy arising in young women. Chemotherapy has dramatically improved the prognosis, and bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) combination chemotherapy appears to be the most effective combination regimen. A 23-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with worsening abdominal distention and a lower abdominal mass. She was diagnosed with a stage IIIc pure YST of the right ovary, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed; there were numerous disseminated peritoneal tumors within the abdominal cavity. A few days postoperatively, massive ascites developed, and right hydronephrosis occurred. Chemotherapy with BEP was started, and after 24 h of administration, oliguria and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) developed. Continuous hemodiafiltration was started, and hemodialysis was initiated following full-dose standard cisplatin and etoposide on days 2-5 of the 1st cycle. After the electrolyte abnormalities and the elevation of creatinine became normal, the patient received an additional three cycles of BEP and achieved complete remission. However, she also suffered from severe non-hematological toxicities, including grade 3 left ventricular dysfunction and grade 4 pulmonary fibrosis. In the case of rapidly progressing and high-volume YST treated with BEP chemotherapy, special attention should be paid to bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity following TLS. Further study is required to optimize drug exposure to ensure efficacy and reduce the risk of side effects in this population. PMID:22127348

Doi, Mihoko; Okamoto, Yohei; Yamauchi, Masami; Naitou, Hiroyuki; Shinozaki, Katsunori

2012-10-01

46

Advanced extragonadal yolk sac tumor serially followed up with (18)F-fluorodexyglucose-positoron emission tomography and computerized tomography and serum alpha-fetoprotein.  

PubMed

Although yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are the second most common malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary, those arising from the omentum or pelvic peritoneum are extremely rare and have no established treatment guidelines. We report a case of a primary YST disseminated throughout the abdomen and associated with a high serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) elevation (441 611 ng/ml). Optimal cytoreduction was not achieved in order to preserve the patient's fertility and avoid adjacent organ injury. Residual tumor responded to adjuvant chemotherapy with a sharp decline in AFP levels, and confirmed remission was documented by serial (18)F-fluorodexyglucose-positoron emission tomography and computerized tomography (FDG-PET/CT). In cases of advanced YST with unresectable residual disease, AFP levels combined with FDG-PET/CT scans may be a helpful way to monitor treatment response and assist in treatment planning for a disease that primarily affects young women who may desire to preserve fertility. PMID:22353601

Baba, Tsukasa; Su, Saori; Umeoka, Shigeaki; Abiko, Kaoru; Nakamoto, Yuji; Mandai, Masaki; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

2012-03-01

47

Retinoid signaling regulates primitive (yolk sac) hematopoiesis.  

PubMed

It is known from nutritional studies that vitamin A is an important factor for normal hematopoiesis, though it has been difficult to define its precise role. The vitamin A-deficient (VAD) quail embryo provides an effective ligand "knockout" model for investigating the function of retinoids during development. The VAD embryo develops with a significant reduction in erythroid cells, which has not been noted previously. Activation of the primitive erythroid program and early expression of the erythroid marker GATA-1 occurs, though GATA-1 levels eventually decline, consistent with the erythropoietic and hemoglobin deficits. However, from its early stages, the GATA-2 gene fails to be expressed normally in VAD embryos. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway regulates GATA-2, and BMP4 expression becomes reduced in the caudal embryonic region of VAD embryos. Adding BMP4 to cultured VAD-derived explants rescues the production of erythroid cells, whereas normal embryos cultured in the presence of the BMP antagonist noggin are defective in primitive hematopoiesis. We find that cell clusters of primitive blood islands undergo an inappropriate program of apoptosis in the VAD embryo, which can explain the deficit in differentiated primitive blood cells. We propose that vitamin A-derived retinoids are required for normal yolk sac hematopoiesis and that an embryonic retinoid-BMP-GATA-2 signaling pathway controls progenitor cell survival relevant to primitive hematopoiesis. PMID:11895770

Ghatpande, Satish; Ghatpande, Ashwini; Sher, Justin; Zile, Maija H; Evans, Todd

2002-04-01

48

Effect of Yolk-SAC Fractions on Viral and Rickettsial Infectivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rickettsia of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Rickettsia rickettsii, under certain conditions was more stable in partially purified suspensions than in crude yolk-sac suspensions. To demonstrate the presence in yolk sac of substances detrimental to infe...

R. F. Wachter E. N. Gilman

1968-01-01

49

The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells.  

PubMed

The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

Elinson, Richard P; Stewart, James R

2014-01-01

50

The esterification of cholesterol in the yolk sac membrane of the chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of lipid from the yolk by the yolk sac membrane of the chick embryo is accompanied by the rapid esterification\\u000a of a large proportion of the yolk cholesterol. This could arise from enhanced acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)\\u000a activity and\\/or inhibition of cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) activity. The activity of ACAT was therefore measured in microsomes\\u000a obtained from yolk sac

J. H. Shand; D. W. West; R. J. McCartney; R. C. Noble; B. K. Speake

1993-01-01

51

The fate of heterotopic isografts and allografts of mouse yolk sac epithelium.  

PubMed Central

As a contribution to the problem of the immunological privilege of the fetus it was decided to investigate the fate of yolk sac grafts in mice. Ten-day post-coitum mouse visceral yolk sac was transplanted to a dermal tunnel in the flank of isogeneic animals. In this site the yolk sac was capable of surviving for at least 15 days past the normal duration of pregnancy. Yolk sac was transplanted to a similar site in allogeneic animals and was found to be destroyed by an immunological reaction within 13 days. Orthotopic skin grafts between the same strains of mice used in the yolk sac transplantation were rejected in first-set fashion within 13 days. A limited series of host animals, previously sensitized by visceral yolk sac, rejected orthotopic skin grafts in second-set fashion. These findings indicate that the cells of the visceral yolk sac in the mouse contain transplantation antigens. Possible reasons why such antigens do not lead to fetal rejection during pregnancy are considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Andrew, T A; Coles, J S; Scothorne, R J

1975-01-01

52

An unusual feature of yolk sac placentation in Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae).  

PubMed

We studied the development of the inverted yolk sac in a New World rodent, Necromys lasiurus during early placentation. Ten implantation sites were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The yolk sac was villous near its attachment to the placenta. Elsewhere it was non-villous and closely attached to the uterus. The uterine glands were shallow and wide mouthed. They were associated with vessels and filled with secretion, suggesting the release of histotroph. This feature was absent at later stages. The intimate association of the yolk sac with specialized glandular regions of the uterus may represent a derived character condition of Necromys and/or sigmodont rodents. PMID:22541609

Favaron, P O; Carter, A M; Mess, A M; de Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A

2012-07-01

53

Yolk Sac Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells from New World Mice (Necromys lasiurus) with Multipotent Differential Potential  

PubMed Central

Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13%) and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%). Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73) and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog) as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117). In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine.

Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Mess, Andrea; Will, Sonia Elisabete; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Miglino, Maria Angelica

2014-01-01

54

Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels.  

PubMed

In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP(+) blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP(+) fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

Sperandio, Markus; Quackenbush, Elizabeth J; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David; von Andrian, Ulrich H

2013-05-23

55

Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels  

PubMed Central

In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP+ blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP+ fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life.

Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstatter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David

2013-01-01

56

Fatty acid esterification in the yolk sac membrane of the avian embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of lipid from the yolk to the avian embryo is mediated by the yolk sac membrane (YSM). Some, but not all, of the published morphological evidence supports the view that the lipid undergoes a cycle of hydrolysis and re-esterification during translocation across the YSM. The present study aims to test this view by investigating the capacity of the

K. A. Powell; E. A. Deans; B. K. Speake

2004-01-01

57

In vitro/In vivo Comparison of Yolk-Sac Function and Embryo Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The yolk-sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24hr, starting on day 10.5, were compared with those of embryos grown in utero. The embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk-...

J. E. Andrews M. Ebron-McCoy R. M. Zucker K. H. Elstein J. M. Rogers

1991-01-01

58

IgG is transported across the mouse yolk sac independently of Fc?RIIb  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that FcRn is the major IgG transporter in human syncytiotrophoblast and the mouse yolk sac endoderm, however the finding of a different Fc receptor Fc?RIIb (RIIb) in the human placental endothelium has suggested the existence of an additional IgG transporter. To test this hypothesis in the mouse, we utilized wild-type (RIIb+/+) mice and mice with a null mutation in the gene encoding RIIb (RIIb?/? mice). We found that while RIIb is expressed in the placental yolk sac vasculature of RIIb+/+ mice, the IgG concentrations in fetuses of RIIb+/+ mice and RIIb?/?mice are not different. This result refutes the hypothesis that yolk sac RIIb is required for transport of IgG in utero in the mouse. However, the capillary bed in the mouse yolk sac is structurally more complex than in human placenta, consisting of 3 types of cells: an RIIb-negative endothelium, a unique RIIb-bearing cell that also expresses two out of four macrophage markers but not endothelial cell or pericyte markers, and pericytes. As in the human placenta the b2 isoform of RIIb predominates in the mouse yolk sac. Remarkably only a single capillary channel rather than two channels with a loop is found in each yolk sac villus, which along with intracapillary erythrocytes, suggests that blood flow is peristaltic and mediated by pericytes. It is not clear whether RIIb in the human placental villus might contribute to IgG transport function in light of our finding that the mouse yolk sac equivalent is unnecessary in this role.

Mohanty, Sudhasri; Kim, Jonghan; Ganesan, Latha P.; Phillips, Gary S.; Hua, Keding; Jarjoura, David; Hayton, William L.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.

2011-01-01

59

Coexistence of Glomangioma and Yolk Sac Tumour in a Child: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Glomus tumours (GTs) primarily arise from glomus bodies that are located in the dermis layer of skin. However, they can be encountered ectopically in most parts of the body. As a result of researches done in a 17-month-old male patient who prssented to us with complaint of an increasingly growing swelling, he was diagnosed with a yolk sac tumour. Chemotherapy was started and then, he was operated. GT was found inside the tumoural mass. Our patient, who is the first case according to our knowledge, where the concurrence of yolk sac and glomus tumours was reported, has been discussed in the light of literature.

Toy, Hatice; Gunel, Engin; Caliskan, Umran; Koksal, Yavuz

2014-01-01

60

Primary yolk sac tumour of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We present a case of rare primary yolk sac tumour of the urinary bladder in adulthood. A 31-year-old female patient presented with a history of chronic ketamine abuse, which has not previously been shown to be associated with malignancy development. The final diagnosis was established only after radical cystectomy. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed paraaortic lymph node metastasis. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy. A review of the literature revealed that surgical excision and cisplatin-based chemotherapy remain to be the standard of care for extragonadal yolk sac tumours.

MUI, WING HO; LEE, KA CHAI; CHIU, SIN CHUEN; PANG, CHUN YIN; CHU, SAU KWAN; MAN, CHI WAI; WONG, CHI SING; SZE, WING KIN; TUNG, YUK

2014-01-01

61

Electron Microscopic Studies on Rickettsia Prowazecki in Ultra-Thin Sections of Yolk Sacs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electron microscopic study of Rickettsia prowazecki in ultra-thin sections of chick embryo yolk sacs and also of intact rickettsia in stained preparations prove that the structure of the micro-organisms is quite complex. The preparations clearly show ...

G. P. Handzii B. G. Zatulovskii L. Y. Shkolnik

1966-01-01

62

Visceral Endoderm Expression of Yin-Yang1 (YY1) Is Required for VEGFA Maintenance and Yolk Sac Development  

PubMed Central

Mouse embryos lacking the polycomb group gene member Yin-Yang1 (YY1) die during the peri-implantation stage. To assess the post-gastrulation role of YY1, a conditional knock-out (cKO) strategy was used to delete YY1 from the visceral endoderm of the yolk sac and the definitive endoderm of the embryo. cKO embryos display profound yolk sac defects at 9.5 days post coitum (dpc), including disrupted angiogenesis in mesoderm derivatives and altered epithelial characteristics in the visceral endoderm. Significant changes in both cell death and proliferation were confined to the YY1-expressing yolk sac mesoderm indicating that loss of YY1 in the visceral endoderm causes defects in the adjacent yolk sac mesoderm. Production of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) by the visceral endoderm is essential for normal growth and development of the yolk sac vasculature. Reduced levels of VEGFA are observed in the cKO yolk sac, suggesting a cause for the angiogenesis defects. Ex vivo culture with exogenous VEGF not only rescued angiogenesis and apoptosis in the cKO yolk sac mesoderm, but also restored the epithelial defects observed in the cKO visceral endoderm. Intriguingly, blocking the activity of the mesoderm-localized VEGF receptor, FLK1, recapitulates both the mesoderm and visceral endoderm defects observed in the cKO yolk sac. Taken together, these results demonstrate that YY1 is responsible for maintaining VEGF in the developing visceral endoderm and that a VEGF-responsive paracrine signal, originating in the yolk sac mesoderm, is required to promote normal visceral endoderm development.

Rhee, Siyeon; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Wallingford, Mary C.; Ortiz-Pineda, Pablo; Mager, Jesse; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

2013-01-01

63

Phospholipid composition of Rickettsia prowazeki grown in chicken embryo yolk sacs.  

PubMed Central

The phospholipid composition and phospholipid fatty acid composition of purified Rickettsia prowazeki were determined. The lipid phosphorous content was 6.8 +/- 1.3 microgram/mg of total rickettsial protein. The major phospholipid was phosphatidylethanolamine (60 to 70%); phosphatidylglycerol constituted 20%, and phosphatidylcholine constituted 15%. Small amounts of phosphatidylserine and cardiolipin were detected. The principal fatty acids were 18:1, 16:1, and 16:0. The fatty acid composition of the phosphatidylcholine in the rickettsial extracts was very different than that of the other rickettsial phosphatides and very similar to that of normal yolk sac phosphatidylcholine. The specific of the phosphatidylcholine of rickettsiae grown in the presence of 32P was markedly lower than that of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. It is suggested that the phosphatidylcholine in the rickettsial extract is yolk sac derived and either tightly absorbed or exchanged into the rickettsial membrane.

Winkler, H H; Miller, E T

1978-01-01

64

Primitive erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis in the yolk sac are independent of c-myb  

PubMed Central

Hematopoiesis initiates within the yolk sac of mammalian embryos in overlapping primitive and definitive waves, each containing erythroid and megakaryocyte progenitors. c-myb–null mouse fetuses lack definitive erythrocytes but contain primitive erythroblasts and hepatic megakaryocytes. However, it is unclear if c-myb–null embryos harbor definitive erythroid or any megakaryocyte progenitors. We determined that c-myb was not expressed in primitive erythroid precursors and that c-myb–null embryos had normal primitive erythroid and megakaryocyte progenitor numbers and kinetics between embryonic day (E) 7.0 and E9.0. While primitive hematopoiesis is c-myb–independent, no definitive erythroid potential was detected in c-myb–null embryos, confirming that definitive erythropoiesis, beginning at E8.25 in the yolk sac, is completely c-myb–dependent. In contrast, reduced numbers of megakaryocyte progenitors with restricted proliferative capacity persist in E10.5 yolk sac and E11.5 liver. Despite this impaired megakaryocyte potential, c-myb–null fetuses had normal platelet numbers at E12.5 but became thrombocytopenic by E15.5, suggesting that c-myb is required for sustained thrombopoiesis.

Tober, Joanna; McGrath, Kathleen E.

2008-01-01

65

Chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentation in the dassie rat Petromus typicus and its significance for the evolution of hystricognath rodents.  

PubMed

Placental characters are most important in understanding the evolutionary history of hystricognath rodents of which some act as animal models for human pregnancy. The data available deal mostly with species native to South America, but the current paper presents novel findings on chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentation in an Old World hystricognath and discusses its significance for the evolution of the group. Several hystricognath stem species characters are verified for Petromus, such as the unique trophoblast growth pattern within the chorioallantoic placenta. Subsequently, a novel set of characters belonging to the visceral yolk sac is added to the stem species pattern of the group. The nourishment of the embryo is facilitated by an inverted visceral yolk sac placenta from early pregnancy onward, later complemented by the chorioallantoic placenta. About mid term, the visceral yolk sac becomes partly folded and attached to the parietal yolk sac cover of the chorioallantoic placenta, suggesting a functional shift to the transfer of substances between the two placental types. Thus, the chorioallantoic and yolk sac placenta collaborate in nurturing the embryo. This apparently represents an evolutionary transformation along the stem lineage of hystricognaths. PMID:17586042

Mess, A

2007-01-01

66

[Unusual clinical presentation of hepatic yolk sac tumour in periappendical region. A case report and review of the literature].  

PubMed

Primary hepatic yolk sac tumour (YST) is a very rare neoplasm. The authors present a case of a 20-year-old woman with fever and pain in the epigastrium, clinically resembling acute appendicitis along with high levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein. From laparoscopic appendectomy there was bioptically verified a diagnosis of YST. Consequently, there was discovered a tumor in the liver and the patient underwent right hemihepatectomy, hemicolectomy and ovariectomy, from which the YST was disclosed in the liver and in the coecum with spread into regional lymph nodes. While the gonadal, mediastinal and central nervous system origin of the YST was excluded, the diagnosis of the primary hepatic YST could have been established. The exact etiology of primary hepatic YST is still unclear. It has been suggested that these YSTs might originate from the germ cells that escaped during migration course from the yolk sac to the genital ridge during embryogenesis with subsequent malignant transformation or from persistent pluripotent embryonic cells in the liver, which escaped from the influence of differentiation during embryogenesis. This tumour is aggressive with ability to spread into distant sites, where it can lead to the first clinical presentation. PMID:20301839

Kajo, K; Macháleková, K; Laca, L

2009-10-01

67

Yolk sac tumour of the penile shaft: a rare primary extra-gonadal presentation.  

PubMed

Germ cell tumours (GCTs) commonly involve the ovaries, testes, and other midline structures in children and adolescents and comprised a variety of tumours that have a common histiogenetic origin. The yolk sac tumour (YST) variant is the most common one seen in over 80% of testicular GCTs in children. Other sites of occurrence of these tumours include the mediastinum, prostate, retroperitoneum, and sacrococcygeal region. Penile malignancies account for less than 10% of male malignancies in the elderly, while its occurrence in children is rare. We present the case of a 5-year-old child with YST of the penile shaft and uninvolved testes. PMID:22005377

Samaila, Modupeola Omotara; Maitama, Hussaini Y; Abdullahi, Kabiru; Mbibu, Hyacinth; Waziri, Garba Dahiru

2011-01-01

68

Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

2014-03-18

69

Developmental regulation of yolk sac hematopoiesis by Kr?ppel-like factor 6  

PubMed Central

Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a member of a growing family of transcription factors that share a common 3 C2H2 zinc finger DNA binding domain and have broad activity in regulating proliferation and development. We have previously established that Klf6 is expressed in neuronal tissue, hindgut, heart, lung, kidney, and limb buds during midgestation. To explore the potential role of Klf6 in mouse development, we analyzed Klf6-/- mice and found that the homozygous mutation is embryonic lethal by embryonic day (E) 12.5 and associated with markedly reduced hematopoiesis and poorly organized yolk sac vascularization. Additionally, mRNA levels of Scl and Gata1 were reduced by approximately 80% in Klf6-/- yolk sacs. To further analyze this phenotype, we generated Klf6-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells by homologous recombination, and compared their capacity to differentiate into the hematopoietic lineage with that of either Klf6+/- or Klf6+/+ ES cells. Consistent with the phenotype in the early embryo, Klf6-/- ES cells displayed significant hematopoietic defects following differentiation into EBs. Prolongation of epiblast-like cells and delays in mesoderm induction were also observed in the Klf6-/- EBs, associated with delayed expression of Brachyury, Klf1, and Gata1. Forced expression of KLF6 using a tet-inducible system enhanced the hematopoietic potential of wild-type EBs. Collectively, these findings implicate Klf6 in ES-cell differentiation and hematopoiesis.

Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kubo, Atsushi; Liu, Huixian; Akita, Kuniharu; Laub, Friedrich; Ramirez, Francesco; Keller, Gordon; Friedman, Scott L.

2006-01-01

70

Fluorometric analysis of endocytosis and lysosomal proteolysis in the rat visceral yolk sac during whole embryo culture.  

PubMed

Using spectrofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy, we analyzed the uptake and degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-albumin) by the rat visceral yolk sac (VYS) during whole embryo culture. Rat conceptuses exposed continuously to FITC-albumin had linear increases of both acid-soluble and acid-insoluble FITC fluorescence in the VYS. Smaller amounts of FITC fluorescence that were nearly all acid soluble accumulated in the extraembryonic fluid, while the embryo proper did not accumulate a significant amount of fluorescence. During a chase period following a pulse exposure to FITC albumin, FITC fluorescence in the VYS decreased linearly, while that in the extraembryonic fluid and culture medium increased. Addition of proteinase inhibitors to the culture medium together with FITC-albumin increased acid-insoluble FITC-fluorescence in the VYS tissue but decreased acid-soluble fluorescent degradation products in the yolk sac, extraembryonic fluid, and the culture medium. Fluorescence microscopy of yolk sacs exposed to FITC-albumin revealed that the fluorescence was localized in apical vacuoles of the yolk sac epithelium and decreased substantially during a chase period. In conceptuses exposed to proteinase inhibitors, the yolk sac epithelium had enlarged vacuoles containing FITC-fluorescence whose clearance in pulse-chase experiments was effectively blocked. Overall, these data suggest that FITC-albumin resembles 125l-albumin in its processing by the VYS and that the fluorescent protein is an attractive alternative tracer molecule for studies of the effects of embryotoxicants on yolk sac function during whole embryo culture. PMID:9358607

Ambroso, J L; Larsen, S V; Brabec, R K; Harris, C

1997-09-01

71

Thermal stress and physiological reaction of broiler chickens after injection of linseed oil into the yolk sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of injecting linseed oil into the yolk sac of chicks on the physiological reaction of birds exposed to elevated air temperature. Day-old chicks were assigned to 4 groups: 1 - chickens reared under standard thermal conditions; 2 - on the first day of rearing, 0.25 ml of linseed oil was

E. SOSNÓWKA-CZAJKA; I. SKOMORUCHA; E. HERBUT

72

Hydrolysis of an exogenous 125I-labelled protein by rat yolk sacs. Evidence for intracellular degradation within lysosomes.  

PubMed Central

When added to the serum-free medium in which 17.5-day rat yolk sacs were incubated, formaldehyde-denatured 125I-labelled bovine serum albumin was rapidly degraded. More than 80% of the radiolabelled digestion products appearing in the incubation medium consisted of [125I]iodo-L-tyrosine; larger digestion products were found only in association with the yolk-sac tissue. In the early stages of an incubation, low-molecular-weight digestion products began to appear in the incubation medium only after they could be detected within the tissue, and progressive association of trichloroacetic acid-insoluble radioactivity with the tissue preceded both these events. None of the observed proteolysis could be attributed to proteinases released into the incubation medium. Tissue-associated acid-insoluble radioactivity showed a lysosomal distribution on sub-cellular fractionation, and cell-free homogenates of yolk sacs degraded albumin only at acid pH values. Progressively decreasing the rat of pinosome formation (either by progressively lowering the incubation temperature or by the use of increasing concentrations of the metabolic inhibitor rotenone) caused a corresponding decrease in the rate of degradation of albumin. These findings indicate that, in vitro, formaldehyde-denatured 125I-labelled bovine serum albumin is digested by rat yolk sacs exclusively intracellularly, within lysosomes.

Livesey, G; Williams, K E

1979-01-01

73

Vitamin D and chick embryonic yolk calcium mobilization: identification and regulation of expression of vitamin D-dependent Ca2(+)-binding protein, calbindin-D28K, in the yolk sac.  

PubMed

The developing chick embryo acquires calcium from two sources. Until about Day 10 of incubation, the yolk is the only source; thereafter, calcium is also mobilized from the eggshell. We have previously shown that during normal chick embryonic development, vitamin D is involved in regulating yolk calcium mobilization, whereas vitamin K is required for eggshell calcium translocation by the chorioallantoic membrane. We have studied here the biochemical action of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 in the yolk sac by examining the expression and regulation of the cytosolic vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28K. Two types of embryos are used for this study, normal embryos developing in ovo and embryos maintained in long-term shell-less culture ex ovo, the latter being dependent solely on the yolk as their calcium source. Our findings are (1) calbindin-D28K is expressed in the embryonic yolk sac, detectable at incubation Days 9 and 14; (2) the embryonic yolk sac calbindin-D28K resembles that of the adult duodenum in both molecular weight (Mr 28,000) and isoelectric point, as well as the presence of E-F hand Ca2(+)-binding structural domains; (3) systemic calcium deficiency caused by shell-less culture of chick embryos results in enhanced expression of calbindin-D28K in the yolk sac during late development; (4) yolk sac calbindin-D28K expression is inducible by 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 treatment in vivo and in vitro; and (5) immunohistochemistry revealed that yolk sac calbindin-D28K is localized exclusively to the cytoplasm of the yolk sac endoderm. These findings indicate that the chick embryonic yolk sac is a genuine target tissue of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3. PMID:1995395

Ono, T; Tuan, R S

1991-03-01

74

HoxB4 Confers Definitive Lymphoid-Myeloid Engraftment Potential on Embryonic Stem Cell and Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which primitive embryonic blood progenitors contribute to definitive lymphoid-myeloid hematopoiesis in the adult remains uncertain. In an effort to characterize factors that distinguish the definitive adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and primitive progenitors derived from yolk sac or embryonic stem (ES) cells, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of HoxB4, a homeotic selector gene implicated in

Michael Kyba; Rita C. R. Perlingeiro; George Q. Daley

2002-01-01

75

Separation of Viable Rickettsia typhi from Yolk Sac and L Cell Host Components by Renografin Density Gradient Centrifugation  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia typhi cultivated in the yolk sac of chicken embryos or in L cells irradiated 7 days previously was separated from host cell components by two cycles of Renografin density gradient centrifugation. Preliminary steps involved differential centrifugation and centrifugation over a layer of 10% bovine plasma albumin of infected yolk sac suspensions, or trypsinization and passage through filters of wide porosity of infected L cell suspensions. Rickettsial preparations obtained by these methods appeared to be free from host cell components while retaining high levels of hemolytic activity, egg infectivity, and capacity to catabolize glutamate. Average yields were 3.3 mg of rickettsial protein per yolk sac or 0.44 mg per 16-oz (ca. 475-ml) L cell culture. Extracts from these two preparations displayed malate dehydrogenase activity of electrophoretic mobility identical to each other but quite different in migration patterns from the corresponding host cell enzymes. This method of separation of rickettsiae from host cell constituents appears to be particularly well suited for the study of rickettsial enzymatic activity. Images

Weiss, E.; Coolbaugh, J. C.; Williams, J. C.

1975-01-01

76

Notch1 regulates progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation during mouse yolk sac hematopoiesis.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function studies have demonstrated the essential role of Notch in definitive embryonic mouse hematopoiesis. We report here the consequences of Notch gain-of-function in mouse embryo hematopoiesis, achieved by constitutive expression of Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) in angiopoietin receptor tyrosine kinase receptor-2 (Tie2)-derived enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP(+)) hematovascular progenitors. At E9.5, N1ICD expression led to the absence of the dorsal aorta hematopoietic clusters and of definitive hematopoiesis. The EGFP(+) transient multipotent progenitors, purified from E9.5 to 10.5 Tie2-Cre;N1ICD yolk sac (YS) cells, had strongly reduced hematopoietic potential, whereas they had increased numbers of hemogenic endothelial cells. Late erythroid cell differentiation stages and mature myeloid cells (Gr1(+), MPO(+)) were also strongly decreased. In contrast, EGFP(+) erythro-myeloid progenitors, immature and intermediate differentiation stages of YS erythroid and myeloid cell lineages, were expanded. Tie2-Cre;N1ICD YS had reduced numbers of CD41(++) megakaryocytes, and these produced reduced below-normal numbers of immature colonies in vitro and their terminal differentiation was blocked. Cells from Tie2-Cre;N1ICD YS had a higher proliferation rate and lower apoptosis than wild-type (WT) YS cells. Quantitative gene expression analysis of FACS-purified EGFP(+) YS progenitors revealed upregulation of Notch1-related genes and alterations in genes involved in hematopoietic differentiation. These results represent the first in vivo evidence of a role for Notch signaling in YS transient definitive hematopoiesis. Our results show that constitutive Notch1 activation in Tie2(+) cells hampers YS hematopoiesis of E9.5 embryos and demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates this process by balancing the proliferation and differentiation dynamics of lineage-restricted intermediate progenitors. PMID:24583642

Cortegano, I; Melgar-Rojas, P; Luna-Zurita, L; Siguero-Álvarez, M; Marcos, M Ar; Gaspar, M L; de la Pompa, J L

2014-07-01

77

Yolk Utilization and Growth to Yolk-Sac Absorption in Summer Flounder ('Paralichthys dentatus') Larvae at Constant and Cyclic Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rates of development, growth and yolk conversion efficiency were determined in larvae of the summer flounder Paralichtys dentatus at constant temperatures of 21 degrees, 16 degrees, 12 degrees and 5 degrees C and in temperature cycles of 21 degrees-16 deg...

D. M. Johns W. H. Howell G. Klein-MacPhee

1981-01-01

78

Changes in yolk sac membrane absorptive area and fat digestion during chick embryonic development.  

PubMed

The capacity of yolk sac (YS) utilization by the chick embryo may be affected by structural changes in the YS membrane (YSM) and by the mechanisms within its cells for digestion, absorption, and transfer of nutrients. Two experiments were conducted to examine structural and digestive changes in the YS of the broiler chick embryo; weights of embryo, YS, and YSM, as well as the total area of the YSM and the absorptive area of the YSM, were measured between embryonic day (E) 5 and E21. In addition, fat content, lipase activity, and bile acid concentration in the YSM and YS contents (YSC) were measured between E11 and E21. Results showed that YSM weight increased from 0.19 g on E5 to 6.46 g on E15, and decreased by 3.74 g between E17 and E21. The absorptive YSM area increased from 536 mm² on E5 (51% of total YSM area) to 6,370 mm² (86% of total area) on E17, and decreased to 4,439 mm(2) on E21 (85% of total area). The smaller YSM area between E17 and E21 did not decrease the rate of YS fat utilization, which could suggest that YSM mechanisms for fat absorption, digestion, and secretion increased during that period. Total YSM lipase activity relative to fat content (units per g of YSM fat) increased from approximately 1,000 units on E15 to 1,500 units on E21. The detection of lipase in the YSM lends support to the hypothesis that YS lipids are hydrolyzed in the lipolysosomes of the YSM. The current study also confirmed for the first time that bile acids are present in the YS, with levels that ranged from 0.61 to 1.06 µmol/g in the YSM, and may suggest that bile is synthesized in the YSM of the chick embryo. Results of the current study contribute to our understanding of the developmental changes that affect YS functionality and could give insight into the coordination between the embryo's demands and YSM morphological, absorptive, digestive, and secretive changes. PMID:23687160

Yadgary, L; Kedar, O; Adepeju, O; Uni, Z

2013-06-01

79

Identification of rat yolk sac target protein of teratogenic antibodies, gp280, as intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies in the rat have shown that antibodies to gp280, a protein > 200 kD and closely associated with the early endocytic system can induce fetal malformations. Although gp280 is thought to act as a receptor, its ligand(s) is not known. In the current study, we report that purified gp280 from rat kidney, like the intrinsic factor-Cobalamin receptor (IFCR), binds to the intrinsic factor-cobalamin (IFCbl) complex with an association constant of 0.3 x 10(9) M-1 and mediates its internalization. Furthermore, antibodies raised to purified gp280 and IFCR inhibited the binding of IF-[57Co]Cbl complex to intestinal, renal, and yolk sac apical membranes and revealed a single identically sized protein on immunoblotting of the renal membranes. Both antibodies precipitated a single radiolabeled protein > 200 kD from cellular extract from [35S]methionine-labeled yolk sac epithelial cells, and antibody to gp280 inhibited the uptake and internalization of 125IF-Cbl. Immunoelectron microscopy using the two antibodies revealed that in the kidney, both proteins were colocalized. These observations suggest that IF-Cbl complex is a ligand for gp280 and that gp280 and IFCR are identical proteins.

Seetharam, B; Christensen, E I; Moestrup, S K; Hammond, T G; Verroust, P J

1997-01-01

80

[Study on toxic effects of ammonia on embryonic and yolk-sac stage larvae of rare minnow].  

PubMed

To investigate the toxicity to fish which were exposed to ammonia during early life stages. This study choose rare minnow which is unique to China for experimental subject. Representative toxicological endpoints were observed and recorded during the development of embryo and yolk-sac stage larvae. Meanwhile, selected ammonia transporter protein Rhbg gene as a toxicity parameter to reflect the changes of rare minnow embryos Rhbg gene expression. The result shows that ammonia we have chosen in this research had an influence on many toxic effects including the hatching rate of fry, mortality rate, the slowing of heart rate and arrhythmia, unformed functional swim bladder, the decreasing of body length and weight and the occurrence of pericardium and yolk-sac edema etc. But other toxicological endpoints have relatively weak effect. The ammonia also affect the Rhbg gene expression changes, especially that of Rhbg gene at 72 hours post-fertilization distinctly. Rhbg may have important functions to facilitate ammonia transport during rare minnow embryo stages. PMID:22720585

Wang, Zhi-Jian; Lu, Zeng-Hui; Shi, Ping

2012-04-01

81

Retinoid metabolism (LRAT, REH) in the yolk-sac membrane of Japanese quail eggs and effects of mono-ortho-PCBs.  

PubMed

Retinoids stored in the avian egg are essential for normal development, however, laboratory and field experiments suggest that they are affected by environmental contaminants. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) activity was detected in the microsomal fraction of the yolk-sac membrane of the Japanese quail at day 6 of development. LRAT activity was maximal at pH 7.0 having apparent kinetic parameters of K(m)=1.35 microM and V(max)=0.21 nmol/mg protein/h and was inhibited by the sulfhydryl modifying agent N-ethyl-maleimide. Retinol ester hydrolase (REH) activity in the microsomal fraction of the yolk-sac membrane was stimulated by the bile salt analogue 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propane sulfonate and was maximal at pH 9.0 with apparent K(m)=77 microM and V(max)=34.3 nmol/mg protein/h. Injection of the PCB congener 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl increased both REH and LRAT activities, whereas 2,3,3',4-tetrachlorobiphenyl stimulated LRAT. Yolk retinol concentration and the molar ratio retinol:retinyl palmitate were lower in the exposed eggs. Yolk retinol concentration decreased as LRAT increased (R(2)=0.89) suggesting that certain PCB congeners may affect vitamin A mobilization in ovo by increasing LRAT activity in the yolk-sac membrane. PMID:12524014

Boily, M H; Ndayibagira, A; Spear, P A

2003-01-01

82

Papillary endolymphatic sac tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term "aggressive papillary middle ear tumor" has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition. PMID:22953101

Arava, S; Soumya, R M; Chitragar, S; Safaya, R; Chandrashekhar, S H; Thakar, Alok

2012-01-01

83

Papillary Endolymphatic Sac Tumor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term “aggressive papillary middle ear tumor” has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition.

Arava, S.; Soumya, R. M.; Chitragar, S.; Safaya, R.; Chandrashekhar, S. H.; Thakar, Alok

2012-01-01

84

Immunohistochemical identification of epithelial and mesenchymal cell types in the chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentae of the guinea-pig.  

PubMed

To define the epithelial and mesenchymal cell types of the guinea-pig placenta, immunostaining patterns were determined for the intermediate filament proteins cytokeratin and vimentin. Chorionic and yolk sac placentae were studied at 15, 20, 25, 29-30, 44-45, 55 and 65 days of gestation. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 5-microm thick sections of paraffin embedded tissue using specific antibodies against cytokeratin, a marker for epithelial cells, including trophoblast, and vimentin, a marker for mesenchymal cells and stromal decidua. Immunostaining was identified by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique with diaminobenzidine as the chromogen. Most of the surface of the placenta is covered by the columnar epithelium of the parietal yolk sac, beneath which is found a layer of chorionic giant cells. In the guinea-pig, a sheet of mesenchymal cells interposed between these cell layers immunostained for vimentin, a protein that is expressed only intracellularly, and had nuclei orientated parallel to the surface of the placenta. This cell layer is quite different from Reichert's membrane in the rat or mouse, which is acellular. Within the main placenta, cytokeratin immunostaining demonstrated that the trophoblasts lining the large maternal blood sinuses are different in character from the surrounding syncytiotrophoblast, confirming earlier ultrastructural observations. In the subplacenta, some trophoblast did not immunostain for cytokeratin and there was non-specific staining of cellular debris, so that immunostaining for vimentin provided the clearest indication of the maternal-fetal interface. In later stages of gestation (30-55 days), trophoblasts invading the walls of maternal arteries immunostained for cytokeratin and were vimentin negative. In early gestation, however, trophoblast invasion of the maternal vessels was indicated by cells that were immunoreactive for both cytokeratin and vimentin. PMID:9778122

Carter, A M; Tanswell, B; Thompson, K; Han, V K

1998-09-01

85

Yolk sac carbohydrate levels and gene expression of key gluconeogenic and glycogenic enzymes during chick embryonic development.  

PubMed

Glycogen and glucose concentrations (mg/g of tissue) and amounts (mg) were determined in the yolks of fertile eggs on the day of set and in the yolk sac (YS) and liver of broiler chick embryos between 11 and 21 embryonic days of age (E). On the day of set, the yolk contained 50 mg of glucose (0.31% of yolk) but did not contain glycogen. During incubation, the amount of glucose in the YS increased from 20 mg on E11 to 60 mg on E19. A parallel increase in YS and liver glycogen concentrations (mg/g) during the last week of incubation implied a similar capacity for glycogen synthesis per gram of tissue. However, due to its larger size, the YS capacity for glycogen storage far exceeded that of the liver, which stored less than 12 mg of glycogen up to E19, as compared with more than 200 mg in the YS. Between E19 and 21, liver and YS glycogen amounts decreased by 10 mg and 100 mg, respectively. These results indicated that the YS is a glycogenic and perhaps gluconeogenic organ. We therefore evaluated the gene expression of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase as well as gluconeogenic enzymes (fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose 6-phosphatase) in the YS membrane and liver by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Although the YS membrane and liver displayed different patterns of mRNA abundance, the high abundance of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA in the YS membrane between E11 and 15, and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase, supported the postulated gluconeogenic abilities of the YS membrane and indicated its role in providing glucose to the embryo. Thus, glucose is probably synthesized in the YS, stored in the form of glycogen, and toward hatch, the YS may have the potential to transfer 10 times more glycogen-derived glucose to the embryo as compared with the liver. As such, the YS may play a major role in the synthesis and storage of glucose and its supply to the chick embryo toward hatch. PMID:22252359

Yadgary, L; Uni, Z

2012-02-01

86

Free vitamin B 12 and transcobalamin II-vitamin B 12 complex uptake by the visceral yolk sac of the sprague-dawley rat: Effect of inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exogenous free vitamin B12 or B12 bound to human transcobalamin II (TCII) accumulated in the near-term rat visceral yolk sac. The rates of their uptakes in vitro and in vivo increased rapidly with time then reached a plateau, which supports a saturable transport\\/binding process as the rate-limiting step for the uptake of free and TCII complexed B12. Both uptakes were

Bruno M Polliotti; Maurice Panigel; Richard K Miller

1997-01-01

87

Adult Langerhans cells derive predominantly from embryonic fetal liver monocytes with a minor contribution of yolk sac-derived macrophages.  

PubMed

Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens. In contrast to other DCs, LCs arise from hematopoietic precursors that seed the skin before birth. However, the origin of these embryonic precursors remains unclear. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify a first wave of yolk sac (YS)-derived primitive myeloid progenitors that seed the skin before the onset of fetal liver hematopoiesis. YS progenitors migrate to the embryo proper, including the prospective skin, where they give rise to LC precursors, and the brain rudiment, where they give rise to microglial cells. However, in contrast to microglia, which remain of YS origin throughout life, YS-derived LC precursors are largely replaced by fetal liver monocytes during late embryogenesis. Consequently, adult LCs derive predominantly from fetal liver monocyte-derived cells with a minor contribution of YS-derived cells. Altogether, we establish that adult LCs have a dual origin, bridging early embryonic and late fetal myeloid development. PMID:22565823

Hoeffel, Guillaume; Wang, Yilin; Greter, Melanie; See, Peter; Teo, Pearline; Malleret, Benoit; Leboeuf, Marylène; Low, Donovan; Oller, Guillaume; Almeida, Francisca; Choy, Sharon H Y; Grisotto, Marcos; Renia, Laurent; Conway, Simon J; Stanley, E Richard; Chan, Jerry K Y; Ng, Lai Guan; Samokhvalov, Igor M; Merad, Miriam; Ginhoux, Florent

2012-06-01

88

Adult Langerhans cells derive predominantly from embryonic fetal liver monocytes with a minor contribution of yolk sac-derived macrophages  

PubMed Central

Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens. In contrast to other DCs, LCs arise from hematopoietic precursors that seed the skin before birth. However, the origin of these embryonic precursors remains unclear. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify a first wave of yolk sac (YS)–derived primitive myeloid progenitors that seed the skin before the onset of fetal liver hematopoiesis. YS progenitors migrate to the embryo proper, including the prospective skin, where they give rise to LC precursors, and the brain rudiment, where they give rise to microglial cells. However, in contrast to microglia, which remain of YS origin throughout life, YS-derived LC precursors are largely replaced by fetal liver monocytes during late embryogenesis. Consequently, adult LCs derive predominantly from fetal liver monocyte-derived cells with a minor contribution of YS-derived cells. Altogether, we establish that adult LCs have a dual origin, bridging early embryonic and late fetal myeloid development.

Hoeffel, Guillaume; Wang, Yilin; Greter, Melanie; See, Peter; Teo, Pearline; Malleret, Benoit; Leboeuf, Marylene; Low, Donovan; Oller, Guillaume; Almeida, Francisca; Choy, Sharon H.Y.; Grisotto, Marcos; Renia, Laurent; Conway, Simon J.; Stanley, E. Richard; Chan, Jerry K.Y.; Ng, Lai Guan; Samokhvalov, Igor M.

2012-01-01

89

Quantitative studies of pinocytosis. II. Kinetics of protein uptake and digestion by rat yolk sac cultured in vitro  

PubMed Central

Pinocytic uptake of 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin by 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro has been examined. Uptake was followed by intracellular digestion and, after an initial period, the content of radioactivity in the tissue itself remained constant during the incubation. Radiolabel was returned to the culture medium predominantly as (125I)iodotyrosine; exocytosis of undigested protein did not occur. The rate of uptake of labeled protein, which was constant within an experiment and reproducible between experiments, was much higher than that of a nondigestible macromolecule, 125I-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone. The higher rate of uptake was a consequence of the protein entering the cells chiefly by adsorption to the plasma membrane being internalized; 125I-labeled albumin did not stimualte, nor did 125I-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone inhibit pinocytosis. Different preparations of 125I-labeled albumin had characteristically different rates of uptake, probably reflecting differences in affinity for plasma membrane receptors. The physiological significance of the findings is discussed.

1975-01-01

90

Serum response factor is required for cell contact maintenance but dispensable for proliferation in visceral yolk sac endothelium  

PubMed Central

Background Endothelial-specific knockout of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) results in embryonic lethality by mid-gestation. The associated phenotype exhibits vascular failure in embryos as well as visceral yolk sac (VYS) tissues. Previous data suggest that this vascular failure is caused by alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. In the current study, we sought to more carefully address the role of SRF in endothelial function and cell contact interactions in VYS tissues. Results Tie2-Cre recombinase-mediated knockout of SRF expression resulted in loss of detectable SRF from VYS mesoderm by E12.5. This loss was accompanied by decreased expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin as well as vascular endothelial cadherin and claudin 5, endothelial-specific components of adherens and tight junctions, respectively. Focal adhesion (FA) integrins alpha5 and beta1 were largely unchanged in contrast to loss of the FA-associated molecule vinculin. The integrin binding partner fibronectin-1 was also profoundly decreased in the extracellular matrix, indicating another aspect of impaired adhesive function and integrin signaling. Additionally, cells in SRF-null VYS mesoderm failed to reduce proliferation, suggesting not only that integrin-mediated contact inhibition is impaired but also that SRF protein is not required for proliferation in these cells. Conclusions Our data support a model in which SRF is critical in maintaining functional cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion in endothelial cells. Furthermore, we provide evidence that supports a model in which loss of SRF protein results in a sustained proliferation defect due in part to failed integrin signaling.

2011-01-01

91

Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor - a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge  

PubMed Central

Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare low-grade locally aggressive neoplasm of the inner ear that may occur sporadically or in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. We herein present a case of sporadic ELST in a 39-year-old man, treated using an interdisciplinary approach (surgery + radiotherapy), with a 10-year follow-up. The patient presented with hearing loss of sudden onset. The treatment of choice for ELST is radical tumor resection, which is associated with a good long-term prognosis. Remission may last for years, but there may be local recurrences, probably as a result of incomplete resection. Adjuvant radiotherapy is an option in case of recurrence and could be discussed after incomplete resection. The purpose of this report is to call attention to ELSTs, which are difficult to diagnose due to their rarity and variety of presentations.

Kunzel, Julian; Agaimy, Abbas; Hornung, Joachim; Lell, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver; Semrau, Sabine; Zenk, Johannes

2014-01-01

92

DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

2014-02-17

93

A unique case of a sarcoma arising in a testicular non-seminomatous mixed germ cell tumour with a predominant yolk sac component.  

PubMed

We present a unique case of a sarcoma arising in a testicular non-seminomatous mixed germ cell tumour with a predominant yolk sac tumour (YST) component. This is the first case reported in which a sarcoma is linked to YST of the testis in a patient not having undergone prior chemotherapy. This finding confirms the ability of YST to contain sarcoma; it underlies its importance for urologists, oncologists and pathologists to be aware of this phenomenon and to modify treatment strategies appropriately. PMID:21989175

Lavallée, Luke T; Roustan Delatour, Nicolas Ld; Cagiannos, Ilias; Bélanger, Eric C; Mai, Kien T

2011-10-01

94

Endothelial-specific ablation of Serum Response Factor causes hemorrhaging, yolk sac vascular failure, and embryonic lethality  

PubMed Central

Background Serum response factor (SRF), a member of the MADS box family of nuclear transcription factors, plays an important role in cardiovascular development and function. Numerous studies demonstrate a central role for SRF in regulating smooth and cardiac muscle cell gene expression. Consistent with this, loss of SRF function blocks differentiation of coronary vascular smooth muscle cells from proepicardial precursors, indicating SRF is necessary for coronary vasculogenesis. The role of SRF in endothelial cell contribution during early vascular development, however, has not been addressed. To investigate this, we generated transgenic mice lacking expression of SRF in endothelial cells. Mice expressing Cre recombinase (Tie2Cre+) under Tie2 promoter control were bred to mice homozygous for Srf alleles containing loxP recombination sites within the Srf gene (Srff/f). Tie2 is a tyrosine kinase receptor expressed predominantly on endothelial cells that mediates signalling during different stages of blood vessel remodelling. Resulting embryos were harvested at specific ages for observation of physical condition and analysis of genotype. Results Tie2Cre+/-Srff/f embryos appeared to develop normally compared to wild-type littermates until embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). Beginning at E11.5, Tie2Cre+/-Srff/f embryos exhibited cerebrovascular hemorrhaging and severely disrupted vascular networks within the yolk sac. Hemorrhaging in mutant embryos became more generalized with age, and by E14.5, most Tie2Cre+/-Srff/f embryos observed were nonviable and grossly necrotic. Hearts of mutant embryos were smaller relative to overall body weight compared to wild-type littermates. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of vascular endothelial cells; however, vessels failed to undergo appropriate remodelling. Initial analysis by electron microscopy suggested a lack of appropriate cell-cell contacts between endothelial cells. Consistent with this, disrupted E-cadherin staining patterns were observed in mutant embryos. Conclusion These results provide the first in vivo evidence in support of a role for SRF in endothelial cell function and strongly suggest SRF is required for appropriate vascular remodelling.

Holtz, Mary L; Misra, Ravi P

2008-01-01

95

Endolymphatic sac tumor: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm which can be encountered sporadically or in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Here we report a sporadic case of ELST in 31-year-old man. Neither the symptoms nor a family history of VHL disease were found in the patient. CT imaging demonstrated an expansile lytic lesion of the mastoid process of the left petrous bone. MR scanning revealed a 5.2 cm × 4.7 cm × 4.2 cm mass which showed hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Histologic sections showed a papillary, cystic or glandular architecture. The papillary and glandular structures were lined by a single layer of flattened cuboidal-to-columnar cells. The stroma of the papillary fronds was richly vascularized and chronically inflamed. The tumor showed diffusely positive reactivity with cytokeratin (Pan), cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 5/6, cytokeratin 7, EMA, vimentin, CD56, and NSE and also showed variable reactivity with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and VEGF. The Ki-67 immunostain showed a proliferation index of < 1%. Because the mass was large, it was difficult to extirpate surgically. After surgery, the patient underwent gamma-knife radiosurgery for residual tumor. The findings indicate that ELST is a rare neoplasm with benign histopathological appearance and clinically destructive behavior. Because of the rarity of this tumor, it can easily be confused with other tumors such as paraganglioma, middle ear adenoma, adenocarcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid or choroid plexus papilloma. Owing to its locally aggressive nature, it is difficult to extirpate surgically when it is large. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7973320646763012

2012-01-01

96

Endolymphatic sac tumor with von Hippel-Lindau disease: report of a case with atypical pathology of endolymphatic sac tumor  

PubMed Central

The authors described a case of a patient with co-existing endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and hemangioblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa, which belonged to a subtype of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease confirmed by the test of VHL-gene. The signs in this 42-year-old female included intermittent headache and dizziness. Imaging revealed a giant mass in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) region and another lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The results of biopsy after two operations confirmed the diagnosis respectively. Both of the tumors were resected totally. Nevertheless, we had to confess the misdiagnosis as vascular tumor instead of ELST at the initial diagnosis because of the rarity of ELST associated with atypical histological characteristics. The purposes we reported this case were to describe the atypical pathological feature of ELST and the mutation of germline VHL not mentioned in previously literature, furthermore, to foster understanding of ELSTs with the avoidance of the similar misdiagnosis as far as possible in future.

Yang, Xiang; Liu, Xue-Song; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Yue-Kang

2014-01-01

97

Embryonic day 9 yolk sac and intra-embryonic hemogenic endothelium independently generate a B-1 and marginal zone progenitor lacking B-2 potential  

PubMed Central

The majority of B lymphocytes in the adult mouse are generated in the bone marrow from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that first appear in the aorta-gonado-mesonephros region of the fetus on embryonic day (E) 10.5–11. Comparatively less is known about B-cell development during embryogenesis. For example, which specific embryonic tissues participate in B lymphopoiesis and whether hematopoietic differentiation is skewed toward specific B-cell subsets in the embryo are unanswered questions, because the systemic circulation is initiated early during embryogenesis, resulting in an admixture of cells potentially originating from multiple sites. We demonstrate, using Ncx1?/? mice that lack systemic blood circulation, that the E9 yolk sac (YS) and the intra-embryonic para-aortic splanchnopleura (P-Sp) tissues independently give rise to AA4.1+CD19+B220lo-neg B progenitor cells that preferentially differentiate into innate type B-1 and marginal zone (MZ) B cells but not into B-2 cells upon transplantation. We have further demonstrated that these B-1 progenitor cells arise directly from YS and P-Sp hemogenic endothelium. These results document the initial wave of innate B lymphopoietic progenitor cells available for seeding the fetal liver at E11. The results of these studies expand our knowledge of hemogenic endothelial sites specifying distinct B-1 and MZ cell fates apart from B-2 cells and independent of an HSC origin during development.

Yoshimoto, Momoko; Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Ferkowicz, Michael J.; Porayette, Prashanth; Shelley, W. Christopher; Conway, Simon J.; Dorshkind, Kenneth; Yoder, Mervin C.

2011-01-01

98

Ewing's Sarcoma of the Lesser Sac Masquerading as a Pancreatic Tumor  

PubMed Central

Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is an uncommon, aggressive, and malignant tumor with a poor patient outcome. Its occurrence in the lesser sac is a rare event and to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described. The present case was clinically and radiologically misdiagnosed as a pancreatic tumor/gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Histopathology revealed a tumor with "small round cells" that were positive for CD99, confirming the diagnosis of ES/PNET. This report highlights the importance of considering Ewing's sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of intraabdominal, extraintestinal masses.

Rao, Lakshmi; Rodrigues, Gabriel; Suresh, B P

2012-01-01

99

Urea-based osmoregulation in the developing embryo of oviparous cartilaginous fish (Callorhinchus milii): contribution of the extraembryonic yolk sac during the early developmental period.  

PubMed

Marine cartilaginous fish retain a high concentration of urea to maintain the plasma slightly hyperosmotic to the surrounding seawater. In adult fish, urea is produced by hepatic and extrahepatic ornithine urea cycles (OUCs). However, little is known about the urea retention mechanism in developing cartilaginous fish embryos. In order to address the question as to the mechanism of urea-based osmoregulation in developing embryos, the present study examined the gene expression profiles of OUC enzymes in oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) embryos. We found that the yolk sac membrane (YSM) makes an important contribution to the ureosmotic strategy of the early embryonic period. The expression of OUC enzyme genes was detectable in the embryonic body from at least stage 28, and increased markedly during development to hatching, which is most probably due to growth of the liver. During the early developmental period, however, the expression of OUC enzyme genes was not prominent in the embryonic body. Meanwhile, we found that the mRNA expression of OUC enzymes was detected in the extra-embryonic YSM; the mRNA expression of cmcpsIII in the YSM was much higher than that in the embryonic body during stages 28-31. Significant levels of enzyme activity and the existence of mitochondrial-type cmgs1 transcripts in the YSM supported the mRNA findings. We also found that the cmcpsIII transcript is localized in the vascularized inner layer of the YSM. Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that the YSM is involved in urea-based osmoregulation during the early to mid phase of development in oviparous cartilaginous fish. PMID:24363418

Takagi, Wataru; Kajimura, Makiko; Tanaka, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kumi; Bell, Justin D; Toop, Tes; Donald, John A; Hyodo, Susumu

2014-04-15

100

Comparison of Toxicity of Benzene Metabolite Hydroquinone in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Derived from Murine Embryonic Yolk Sac and Adult Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. However, experimental evidence supporting the association is lacking at the present time. It is believed that benzene and its metabolites target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cause toxicity and cancer in the hematopoietic system. In the current study, we compared the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major metabolite of benzene in humans and animals, on mouse embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells (YS-HSCs) and adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs were isolated and enriched, and were exposed to HQ at increasing concentrations. HQ reduced the proliferation and the differentiation and colony formation, but increased the apoptosis of both YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. However, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HQ were more apparent and reduction of colony formation by HQ was more severe in YS-HSCs than in BM-HSCs. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed in HQ-treated YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs. Cyp4f18 was induced by HQ both in YS-HSCs and BM-HSCs, whereas DNA-PKcs was induced in BM-HSCs only. The results revealed differential effects of benzene metabolites on embryonic and adult HSCs. The study established an experimental system for comparison of the hematopoietic toxicity and leukemogenicity of benzene and metabolites during mouse embryonic development and adulthood.

Zhu, Jie; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Liqiao; Li, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suhan; Huang, Wenting; Wang, Liping; Yang, Tan; Ma, Qiang; Bi, Yongyi

2013-01-01

101

Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

2014-02-28

102

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy disseminated by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and diagnosed from the inguinal sac.  

PubMed

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare congenital neoplasm that originates from the neural crest cells, which give rise to the melanocytes of the skin and leptomeninges. We report a case of MNTI with neurocutaneous melanosis of a 28-month-old girl. She was born with hydrocephalus and several large congenital giant nevi. There were no findings except for hydrocephalus, after a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation performed when she was 6 months old. She was operated on for a growing inguinal mass at 8 months. The specimen from the inguinal sac was positive for HMB45, vimentin, chromogranin, and neuron-specific enolase. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an extensive enhancing extra-axial mass with high signal intensity, along the cerebral spinal fluid space. We report a rare case of MNTI, diagnosed from an inguinal hernia sac, with a disseminated clinical manifestation. PMID:23823108

Yoo, In Hyuk; Yum, Sook Kyung; Oh, Se-Jeong; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Jeong, Dae Chul

2014-01-01

103

Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2014-01-27

104

Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-05-01

105

Flap reconstruction and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the management of temporal bone osteoradionecrosis in an endolymphatic sac tumor: case report.  

PubMed

Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare neuroectodermal neoplasms arising within the posterior petrous bone. We present a case of a 21-year-old man who presented with a 6-month history of intermittent morning headaches, fatigue, diplopia, and gait ataxia. Imaging and surgical pathology identified an adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac compressing the cerebellum and brain stem. The tumor and multiple metastases were treated with surgery, radiation, and radiosurgery. Following insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus, he developed symptomatic tension pneumocephalus secondary to radionecrosis of his petrous bone, requiring flap reconstruction and use of a programmable shunt valve complemented by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. We document here a young patient with a rare adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac. This case is unique for its initial presentation without any vestibuloauditory symptoms. Metastatic spread of ELSTs is also rare. While osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the temporal bone has been reported previously in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, this is the first time it has been presented in the context of an ELST. Tension pneumocephalus is a rare complication of skull base ORN. This is the first reported use of a programmable shunt valve and HBO therapy in the management of tension pneumocephalus. PMID:23984214

Guha, Daipayan; Menard, Cynthia; Evans, Wayne; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh

2011-11-01

106

Flap Reconstruction and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Management of Temporal Bone Osteoradionecrosis in an Endolymphatic Sac Tumor: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare neuroectodermal neoplasms arising within the posterior petrous bone. We present a case of a 21-year-old man who presented with a 6-month history of intermittent morning headaches, fatigue, diplopia, and gait ataxia. Imaging and surgical pathology identified an adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac compressing the cerebellum and brain stem. The tumor and multiple metastases were treated with surgery, radiation, and radiosurgery. Following insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus, he developed symptomatic tension pneumocephalus secondary to radionecrosis of his petrous bone, requiring flap reconstruction and use of a programmable shunt valve complemented by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. We document here a young patient with a rare adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac. This case is unique for its initial presentation without any vestibuloauditory symptoms. Metastatic spread of ELSTs is also rare. While osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the temporal bone has been reported previously in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, this is the first time it has been presented in the context of an ELST. Tension pneumocephalus is a rare complication of skull base ORN. This is the first reported use of a programmable shunt valve and HBO therapy in the management of tension pneumocephalus.

Guha, Daipayan; Menard, Cynthia; Evans, Wayne; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh

2011-01-01

107

Identification of the B1 and B2 subunits of human placental laminin and rat parietal-yolk-sac laminin using antisera specific for murine laminin-beta-galactosidase fusion proteins.  

PubMed Central

Antisera raised against fusion proteins consisting of murine laminin B1 and B2 subunit sequences fused to the C-terminus of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase were tested for their subunit specificity on Western blots of deglycosylated murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) laminin. The antisera raised against B2 subunit sequences (anti-XLB2.1 and anti-XLB2.2) bound only to the EHS laminin B2 subunit. One of the antisera raised against B1 subunit sequences (anti-XLB1.2) was specific for the B1 subunit, whereas two others (anti-XLB1.1 and anti-XLB1.3) cross-reacted with the EHS laminin B2 subunit. Gold-labelled heparin-albumin was shown to bind specifically to the A subunit of deglycosylated EHS laminin on Western blots. These reagents were used to identify the homologous subunits in rat parietal-yolk-sac laminin and human placental laminin. The anti-(fusion protein) antisera identified the B1 and B2 subunits of the rat laminin, and these were similar in size to the murine EHS B subunits. Human placental laminin gave bands of 400, 340, 230, 190 and 180 kDa on reducing SDS/PAGE. The anti-(fusion protein) antisera identified the 230 and 190 kDa bands as the B1 and B2 subunits respectively. Gold-labelled heparin-albumin bound to the 400, 340 and 190 kDa bands of human placental laminin and so did not unambiguously identify a single A subunit. The human placental laminin may contain a mixture of isoforms, with alternative subunits substituting for the A subunit. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

Brown, J C; Spragg, J H; Wheeler, G N; Taylor, P W

1990-01-01

108

Routes of yolk utilisation in the newly-hatched chick.  

PubMed

1. This study was conducted to study the routes by which yolk is utilised in the chick during the initial posthatch phase. 2. Transfer from yolk to blood was examined by injecting, in the form of labelled compounds, oleic acid, triolein, inulin and dextran into the yolk; movement from yolk to blood was observed up to 72 h posthatch. 3. Transport of these molecules from blood to yolk was also observed by injecting them into the circulation and determining label in yolk. The yolk sac membrane was permcable in both directions for all labelled materials tested. 4. In the newly-hatched chick, blue dextran injected into the yolk sac could be seen moving in pulses into the intestine at irregular intervals. Transport of labelled materials from the yolk sac into the intestine was observed up to 72 h after hatching, and marker was found in the proximal small intestine and gizzard. The yolk stalk provided a pathway for transport to the intestine until lymphoid cells began to accumulate, with passage becoming partially occluded at 72 h posthatch. 5. Yolk utilisation was more rapid in fed than in fasted birds suggesting that the transport of yolk through the intestine could be increased by the greater intestinal activity found in fed chicks. PMID:9034588

Noy, Y; Uni, Z; Sklan, D

1996-12-01

109

Primary mixed germ cell tumor of the liver with sarcomatous components  

PubMed Central

Germ cell tumor (GCT) of the liver is extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of hepatic mixed GCT with significant sarcomatous components and elevated serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) in a 34-year-old man. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of two GCTs components: yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma. The predominant components of immature teratoma consisted of several types of tissue that represented different germinal layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm) and showed varying degrees of differentiation with significant sarcomatous components. The yolk sac component showed positivity for AFP and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). The immature teratoma components showed positivity for varying differentiation markers. Interphase cytogenetic analysis revealed that the yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma were positive for i(12p) and 12p over-representation. In particular, the rhabdomyoblastic components also showed typical i(12p) and 12p overrepresentation. This suggested that sarcomatous components may be associated with dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of certain mesenchymal components within teratoma.

Xu, Ai-Min; Gong, Shao-Juan; Song, Wei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Wei; Pan, Chun-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Jun; Wu, Meng-Chao

2010-01-01

110

Strategy of Combined Treatment of Germ Cell Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histopathological entity ‘germ cell tumor’ (GCT) encompasses a number of histological subtypes. Pineal GCTs can be grossly divided into three categories: those with a good, intermediate, and poor prognostic. Germinoma and mature teratoma are curable and classified into the good prognostic group, whereas embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and other highly malignant neoplasms leave patients with a dismal prognosis.

Yutaka Sawamura

2009-01-01

111

Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog.  

PubMed

A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration (7.28 mmol/L; reference interval, 2.70-5.94 mmol/L), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (184 U/L; reference interval, 9-90 U/L), alanine transaminase (122 U/L; reference interval, 5-60 U/L) activity and aspartate aminotransferase (80 U/L; reference interval, 5-55 U/L) activity, severe increased total calcium concentration (16.3 mg/dL; reference interval, 8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL), and decreased total calcium concentration (3.4 mg/dL, reference interval, 2.5-5.6mg/dL). Furthermore, testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration (38.6 pmol/L; reference interval, 3-17 pmol/L). On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, various types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Based on location and histologic features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs. PMID:23570021

Javanbakht, Javad; Tavassoli, Abbas; Sabbagh, Atefeh; Hassan, Mehdy Aghamohammmad; Samakkhah, Shohreh Alian; Shafiee, Radmehr; Lakzian, Ali; Ghalee, Vahideh Rahmani; Gharebagh, Sonia Shoja; Imani, Abbas

2013-01-01

112

Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Young Patients With Solid Tumors That Have Relapsed or Not Responded to Treatment  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-09-27

113

Endodermal Sinus Tumor of Vagina in Infants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Endodermal sinus tumor (or Yolk Sac tumor) of the vagina is a rare malignant germcell tumor which is seen exclusively in children younger than 3 years of age. We report two cases of endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina. In both cases no radiological investigation was done and serum alpha-fetoprotein was elevated. The histopathological examination of both the tumor masses revealed vaginal endodermal sinus tumor. Periodic-acid-Schiff stain with diastase showed diastase resistant hyaline globules. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of endodermal sinus tumor in both cases. Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor is both locally aggressive and capable of metastasis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level is a useful marker for diagnosis and monitoring the recurrence of vaginal endodermal sinus tumor in infants. Early detection and therapy is important because of its aggressive nature and good response to chemotherapy.

Chauhan, Smita; Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Pallavi; Misra, Vatsala; Thakur, Brijesh

2013-01-01

114

Adult nasolacrimal sac mucocele.  

PubMed

Adult nasolacrimal sac mucocele is an uncommon mass arising in the medial canthal region of the orbit. Twenty-one cases with lacrimal sac mucocele were reviewed retrospectively. We gathered information about the clinical characteristics, natural history, mechanism for mucocele formation and optimal management of this disorder. The results show that the medial canthal mass was confirmed to be dacryo-cystocele-associated with distal nasolacrimal duct obstruction and proximal obstruction at the junction of the common canaliculus and sac. The interventional procedure of polyurethane stent placement is a practicable and simplified treatment for lacrimal sac mucocele. PMID:18097176

Xiao, M Y; Tang, L S; Zhu, H; Li, Y J; Li, H L; Wu, X R

2008-01-01

115

Adult Nasolacrimal Sac Mucocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult nasolacrimal sac mucocele is an uncommon mass arising in the medial canthal region of the orbit. Twenty-one cases with lacrimal sac mucocele were reviewed retrospectively. We gathered information about the clinical characteristics, natural history, mechanism for mucocele formation and optimal management of this disorder. The results show that the medial canthal mass was confirmed to be dacryocystocele-associated with distal

M. Y. Xiao; L. S. Tang; H. Zhu; Y. J. Li; H. L. Li; X. R. Wu

2008-01-01

116

Sac phosphatase domain proteins.  

PubMed Central

Advances in our understanding of the roles of phosphatidylinositol phosphates in controlling cellular functions such as endocytosis, exocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton have included new insights into the phosphatases that are responsible for the interconversion of these lipids. One of these is an entirely novel class of phosphatase domain found in a number of well characterized proteins. Proteins containing this Sac phosphatase domain include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Sac1p and Fig4p. The Sac phosphatase domain is also found within the mammalian phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase synaptojanin and the yeast synaptojanin homologues Inp51p, Inp52p and Inp53p. These proteins therefore contain both Sac phosphatase and 5-phosphatase domains. This review describes the Sac phosphatase domain-containing proteins and their actions, with particular reference to the genetic and biochemical insights provided by study of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Hughes, W E; Cooke, F T; Parker, P J

2000-01-01

117

Recent developments in SAC2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Before discussing recent developments in SAC2000, I will summarize what SAC2000 is/does. SAC2000 is the rebirth and evolution of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) developed during the 1980's for a variety of geo...

P. Goldstein D. Dodge M. Firpo

1997-01-01

118

Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

2013-05-01

119

N-cadherin Expression in Testicular Germ Cell and Gonadal Stromal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Neural-cadherin is a member of the cadherin gene family encoding the N-cadherin protein that mediates cell adhesion. N-cadherin is a marker of Sertoli cells and is also expressed in germ cells of varying stages of maturation. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of this protein by immunohistochemistry in 105 germ cell tumors of both single and mixed histological types and 12 gonadal stromal tumors. Twenty-four germ cell tumors consisted of one cell type and the remaining were mixed. Of the 23 seminomas in either pure or mixed tumors, 74% were positive. Two spermatocytic seminomas were positive. Of the 83 cases with yolk sac tumor, 99% were positive for N-cadherin. The teratomas were positive in 73% in neuroectodermal and / or glandular components. In contrast, 87% of embryonal carcinomas did not express N-cadherin. Only 17% of the syncytiotrophoblastic cells were positive for N-cadherin. In conclusion, N-cadherin expression is very helpful in the identification of yolk sac tumors. In addition to glypican-3 and Sal-like protein 4, N-cadherin can be beneficial for the diagnosis and classification of this subtype of testicular germ cell tumor. Nine of the 12 gonadal stromal tumors were positive to a variable extent.

Heidenberg, Daniel J.; Barton, Joel H.; Young, Denise; Grinkemeyer, Michael; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.

2012-01-01

120

Metastases to Hernial Sac Detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT.  

PubMed

The presence of primary or metastatic cancer within a hernial sac is uncommon. Based on the anatomical relation of the tumor to the sac, malignant tumors within hernia sac are classified into 3 groups; intrasaccular, saccular, and extrasaccular. We present F-FDG PET/CT images of 2 cases of hernia sac metastasis, one from non-small cell lung cancer and another from infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma. F-FDG PET/CT was useful in these cases for detection of the metastatic lesion within hernial sac and thus in assessment of total disease burden. PMID:24896767

Jain, Sachin; Karunanithi, Sellam; Sharma, Punit; Singla, Suhas; Kumar, Rakesh

2014-07-01

121

Over-expression of HOX-8, the human homologue of the mouse Hox-8 homeobox gene, in human tumors.  

PubMed

A human ovarian yolk sac tumor cDNA library was screened for homeobox genes with an oligonucleotide probe under low stringent condition. Three homeobox genes were isolated, two of which were identified as HHO.c1 and HB24. The third was highly homologous with the mouse Hox-8 gene and was designated as HOX-8. Studies on RNAs from 25 human tumor tissues and cell lines showed that the profile of HOX-8 expression was different from those of HHO.c1 and HB24. The expression of HOX-8 was not detected in hematopoietic tumor cells, in which HHO.c1 and HB24 were highly expressed. HOX-8 was expressed at higher levels in a variety of tumors of epithelial origin than in their corresponding normal tissues more frequently than HHO.c1 and HB24. All three homeobox genes were highly expressed in a yolk sac tumor, an immature tumor of gonadal origin. These results suggest that HOX-8 plays a more important role in human tumors of epithelial origin than those of hematopoietic origin. PMID:7687426

Suzuki, M; Tanaka, M; Iwase, T; Naito, Y; Sugimura, H; Kino, I

1993-07-15

122

[Carcinoma of the lacrimal sac: a clinicopathologic case study].  

PubMed

A case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the right lacrimal sac is reported in an 85-year-old woman who had already presented three previous carcinomas (uterine cervix, rectum, and breast). After a 1-year history of chronic dacryocystitis, she was admitted in January 2008 because of a painful and inflammatory swelling in the medial right lower eyelid. Imaging techniques showed an infiltrative mass in the lacrimal sac area and surgical biopsy disclosed undifferentiated carcinoma. The patient underwent orbital exenteration and the histopathological study confirmed the diagnosis. During 6 months of follow-up, no local recurrence was detected, but a thoracic CT scan revealed a pulmonary nodule that was probably metastatic. Making an early diagnosis of a lacrimal sac tumor is difficult and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic dacryocystitis. In these cases, more extensive research with lacrimal sac biopsy should be conducted. PMID:19515455

Pereira, D; Meyer, A; Slama, M; Hugol, D; D'Hermies, F

2009-06-01

123

Nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors in children. A review of 89 cases from the Pediatric Oncology Group, 1971-1984.  

PubMed

Clinical and morphologic features of 89 cases of childhood yolk sac tumor (YS) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) (29 associated with teratomas) submitted to the Rare Tumor Registry of the Southwest Oncology Group (1971-1979) or the Pediatric Oncology Group (1980-1984) between 1971 and 1984 were reviewed and submitted to statistical analysis. This review showed an improved survival for each 5-year period regardless of tumor site, no statistically significant difference between "pure" tumors and those mixed with other teratomatous components, no statistically significant difference between YS and EC in children, a better than reported prognosis for sacrococcygeal tumors occurring after the neonatal period, a particularly poor prognosis for neonatal "benign" sacrococcygeal teratomas resected without coccygectomy when they recur as YS, excellent survival for all testicular tumors regardless of age or the presence of EC, and the occurrence of mediastinal tumors in females. PMID:3022907

Hawkins, E P; Finegold, M J; Hawkins, H K; Krischer, J P; Starling, K A; Weinberg, A

1986-12-15

124

Recent developments in SAC2000  

SciTech Connect

Before discussing recent developments in SAC2000, I will summarize what SAC2000 is/does. SAC2000 is the rebirth and evolution of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) developed during the 1980`s for a variety of geophysical applications. Primary funding for the development of SAC2000 has been through the LLNL as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) CTBT R&D program. The primary development goals for SAC2000 have been to meet the seismic signal processing and analysis needs of the DOE CTBT R&D teams and the rest of the CTBT R&D community. SAC2000`s strengths include its ability to process a diverse range of data types, its extensive, well documented signal processing capabilities (both on-line and on the web at http://www-ep.es.llnl.gov/tvp/sac.html), its macro language, and its ability to do both branch and interactive processing. Its extensive usage (over 200 institutions worldwide) had also made it much easier for researchers to develop collaborative research projects. SAC2000`s extensive signal processing capabilities include: data inspection, signal correction, and quality control, unary and binary data operations, travel-time analysis, spectral analysis including high-resolution spectral estimation, spectrograms and binary sonograms, and array and three-component analysis. Recent development in SAC2000 include: enhanced compatibility with the CSS3.0 database schema, complete compatibility with the widely used SEED data format instrument responses, map making capabilities via an interface to GMT, a new three component polarization and phase identification tool, an external interface that allows users to define their own commands, and an interface to MATLAB that allows the user to use MATLAB commands and scripts on SAC data from within SAC2000. We have also implemented a number of commands to enhance user efficiency and numerous improvements and enhancements to many individual SAC commands. Current development in SAC2000 are motivated by the need for easy and efficient access to, and processing and interpretation of large amounts of data. We are also driven by the need to communicate results from SAC2000 to our database and other programs. Based on these needs, we have begun developing a new data structure for SAC 2000. This new structure will completely compatible with the standard SAC format but will also allow us to access, modify, and output all the information in CSS3.0 based oracle databases or CSS3.0 flat files. Given the variety of data types that are currently possible in SAC2000 and other programs, and the likelihood that additional data types or parameters will be needed in the future, we designing SAC2000`s new format to be easily extendible and anticipate incorporation of significant extensions to the CSS3.0 schema.

Goldstein, P.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M

1997-07-01

125

Cyclorraphan yolk proteins and lepidopteran minor yolk proteins originate from two unrelated lipase families.  

PubMed

Vitellogenins, cyclorraphan yolk proteins and lepidopteran minor yolk proteins are three classes of female-specific proteins that serve as an embryonic nutritional store. Similarity to vertebrate lipid-binding proteins was established for vitellogenins and yolk proteins, vitellogenins being related to apolipoprotein B and yolk proteins to lipases. Recently, similarity between yolk proteins and minor yolk proteins was reported and it was suggested that yolk proteins are more related to minor yolk proteins than to vertebrate lipases. In this study, we cloned five additional yolk proteins from the grey fleshfly Neobellieria bullata, formerly known as Sarcophaga bullata. We used this sequence data, combined with sequence data retrieved from the NCBI protein database to evaluate the yolk protein-lipase and the yolk protein-minor yolk protein relationship. We found no similarity between yolk proteins and minor yolk proteins, but we showed that yolk proteins are related to a family of lipases containing vertebrate hepatic and pancreatic lipases while minor yolk proteins are related to a family of lipases containing vertebrate gastric and lingual lipases. The fact that three different classes of yolk storage proteins show similarity to three different classes of vertebrate lipid-binding proteins strongly suggests that this lipid-binding feature is important for insect yolk storage proteins. PMID:15606810

Hens, K; Lemey, P; Macours, N; Francis, C; Huybrechts, R

2004-12-01

126

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos.

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Lena; Bouteau, Francois

2013-01-01

127

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

2013-11-01

128

Cancer Resistance in Transgenic Mice Expressing the SAC Module of Par4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor protein that induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal\\/immortalized cells. The cancer-specific proapop- totic action of Par-4 is encoded in its centrally located SAC domain. We report here the characterization of a novel mouse model with ubiquitous expression of the SAC domain. Although SAC transgenic mice displayed normal develop- ment and

Yanming Zhao; Ravshan Burikhanov; Shirley Qiu; Subodh M. Lele; C. Darrell Jennings; Subbarao Bondada; Vivek M. Rangnekar

2007-01-01

129

[Oogenesis of Mozambique tilapia. IV. Yolk formation].  

PubMed

Yolk globules in developing oocytes of Tilapia mosambique are formed by two processes: 1) biosynthetical activity of oocyte organoides; 2) vitellogenin migration by micropinocytosis and its further transformation. Undoubtedly, yolk globules of endogenic and exogenic origin are fused. The primary yolk globules are spherical, and the secondary ones are lobular. The latter originate by incorporating the former. The fast growth of the late vitellogenic stage oocytes occurs as a result of active migration of primary yolk globules into the central part of the oocyte and as their association with the secondary yolk globules. In vitellogenic oocytes of T. mosambique no yolk vesicles (cortical granules), were found by any existing methods. PMID:12683231

Chmilevski?, D A; Kameneva, T O

2003-01-01

130

Distribution and transfer pathways of antioxidant molecules inside the first trimester human gestational sac.  

PubMed

The first-trimester human placenta has limited antioxidant enzyme capacity. We investigated the distribution and transfer pathways of antioxidant molecules inside the first trimester gestational sac. The coelomic fluid of the exocoelomic cavity, which borders the inside of the first-trimester placenta, contained a very low level of reduced glutathione. Glutathione disulfide was undetectable in most coelomic samples, suggesting that the role of glutathione-related detoxification system is limited in fetal fluid compartments. The coelomic fluid contained similar concentrations of ascorbic and uric acid to maternal plasma. The levels of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were lower in coelomic fluid, compared with maternal plasma. The presence of these molecules inside the early gestational sac suggests that they may play an essential role in the fetal tissues' antioxidant capacity at a time when the fetus is most vulnerable to oxidative stress. We also demonstrated by immunostaining the presence of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein in the cytoplasm of trophoblastic cells, glandular epithelium of the decidua, and mesothelial layer of the secondary yolk sac. This finding indicates that the uterine glands and the secondary yolk sac play key roles in supplying this essential vitamin to the developing fetus before the placental circulations are established. PMID:15001647

Jauniaux, Eric; Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Johns, Jemma; Dunster, Christina; Hempstock, Joanne; Kelly, Frank J; Burton, Graham J

2004-03-01

131

Primary malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac: a case report.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac is very rare and primary malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage after excision or biopsy of a tumor. We treated a patient with tearing and bloody discharge from the left eye. We performed a dacryocystectomy with the suspicion of a chronic dacryocystitis. However, the pathological findings and the immunohistochemical studies showed a malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac. The patient underwent postoperative irradiation therapy. Follow up two months after surgery revealed no evidence of recurrence. Early diagnosis is very important for prognosis in patients with malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac. Because this tumor often presents with symptoms similar to dacryocystitis and may masquerade as a chronic dacryocystitis, it can be difficult to make an early diagnosis. PMID:17249508

Nam, Ji Hyung; Kim, Seung Min; Choi, Jae Hyeuk; Lee, Yong Kuk; Baek, Jin Ho; Jang, Tae Jung; Park, Keon Uk

2006-12-01

132

Primary malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac: A case report  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac is very rare and primary malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage after excision or biopsy of a tumor. We treated a patient with tearing and bloody discharge from the left eye. We performed a dacryocystectomy with the suspicion of a chronic dacryocystitis. However, the pathological findings and the immunohistochemical studies showed a malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac. The patient underwent postoperative irradiation therapy. Follow up two months after surgery revealed no evidence of recurrence. Early diagnosis is very important for prognosis in patients with malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac. Because this tumor often presents with symptoms similar to dacryocystitis and may masquerade as a chronic dacryocystitis, it can be difficult to make an early diagnosis.

Nam, Ji Hyung; Kim, Seung Min; Choi, Jae Hyeuk; Lee, Yong Kuk; Baek, Jin Ho; Jang, Tae Jung

2006-01-01

133

Pituitary carcinoma with endolymphatic sac metastasis.  

PubMed

Pituitary carcinoma is characterized by the presence of a metastatic lesion(s) in a location non-contiguous with the original pituitary tumor. The mechanism(s) of malignant transformation are not known. A 15 year-old male was diagnosed in 1982 with a pituitary macroadenoma and acromegaly (random GH 67 ng/ml and no suppression by oral glucose). His prolactin was normal between 18 and 23 ng/ml. Transcranial resection in July 1983 was followed by radiation therapy. The tumor was immunopositive for GH and prolactin. The proliferation MIB-1 index was 0-1 %. With aqueous Octreotide 100 mcg 4× daily both GH and IGF-1 became normal. The patient was lost to follow-up and was treated by his local physician. In 2001, his IGF-1 level was 1271 ng/ml, and his random GH was 1.8-2.4 ng/ml by ILMA despite progressive increase in the dose of Sandostatin LAR to 140 mg/month in divided doses. Prolactin remained normal or minimally increased between 15 and 25 ng/ml. In 2009 he was diagnosed with the tumor in the location of left endolymphatic sac. Histological examination showed low grade pituitary carcinoma strongly immunopositive for prolactin but negative for GH. MIB-1 antibody labeled 0-5 % cells. In 2012 endoscopic resection of the pituitary tumor remnant was attempted. Immunohistochemical stains were strongly immunopositive for both prolactin and GH, similar to his original pituitary tumor. The MIB-1 proliferation index was low from 0 to 1 %. To our knowledge this is the first case of pituitary carcinoma in the endolymphatic sac region. The dichotomy between the cell population of the pituitary lesion (GH/prolactin producing) and the metastasis (purely prolactin-producing) may suggest that the metastatic pituitary lesion derived from a clone distinct from the original one. PMID:23645293

Balili, Irida; Sullivan, Steven; McKeever, Paul; Barkan, Ariel

2014-06-01

134

Primary intracranial germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: Primary intracranial germ cell tumors are rare (ICGCTs) and usually localized in the pineal and suprasellar regions of the brain. They are divided into histologic types: Germinoma, teratoma choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and malignant mixed germ cell tumors (MMGCTs). Neuroimaging evaluation is useful to distinguish between the types of ICGCTs. Germinoma is highly sensitive to radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy, and is potentially curable without surgery. MMGCTs are treated with the combination of chemotherapy and radiation, with a poorer prognosis. ICGCTs warrant correct pre-operative diagnosis in order to decide on appropriate management. Aim: To report the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings in three cases of primary intracranial germ-cell tumor. Materials and Methods: Three cases of intracranial germ cell tumors inclusive of both genders and all brain regions were retrieved from the archives of the Anatomical Pathology Department at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah between the years, 1995-2011, through a computerized search. Results: Based on histological examination, they were respectively diagnosed as MMGCTs (two cases) and germinoma. Clinical, radiological, pathological characteristics and immunohistochemical profile of the three ICGCTs are presented along with the review of recent literature. Conclusion: ICGCTs are rare tumors affecting males more than females, and at the end of three years follow-up in the present study, treatment morbidity appears to be low with no recurrence observed among surviving patients, indicating that suprasellar and basal ganglia ICGCTs may have a favorable prognosis regardless of histological type. Pineal MMGCTs may have an aggressive course.

Mufti, Shagufta Tahir; Jamal, Awatif

2012-01-01

135

Cancer resistance in transgenic mice expressing the SAC module of Par-4.  

PubMed

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor protein that induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal/immortalized cells. The cancer-specific proapoptotic action of Par-4 is encoded in its centrally located SAC domain. We report here the characterization of a novel mouse model with ubiquitous expression of the SAC domain. Although SAC transgenic mice displayed normal development and life span, they were resistant to the growth of spontaneous, as well as oncogene-induced, autochthonous tumors. Resistance to tumorigenesis was linked to inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activity and induction of apoptosis by the SAC domain. Collectively, our findings provide genetic evidence that the SAC domain of Par-4 confers cancer resistance in transgenic mice without compromising normal viability or aging, and may have therapeutic significance. PMID:17909035

Zhao, Yanming; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Qiu, Shirley; Lele, Subodh M; Jennings, C Darrell; Bondada, Subbarao; Spear, Brett; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2007-10-01

136

Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor with pure hepatoid differentiation.  

PubMed

We describe a germ cell tumor of anterior mediastinal origin, with pure hepatoid differentiation and elevated serum AFP in a 41-year-old man. This is the first report of such a neoplasm analyzed by conventional stains and immunohistochemistry. Hepatocellular differentiation was proved by immunoreactivity with HepPar-1 and alpha-fetoproein (AFP), membranous expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA-poly) in a canalicuar pattern, and focal expression of cytokeratin 19 in abortive ductular structures. Our investigation shows that mediastinal germ cell tumors with hepatoid components typically arise in middle-aged men; they are of pure hepatoid differentiation, as demonstrated here, or exclusively associated with yolk sac structures. PMID:12530574

Theuerkauf, Ingo; Axmann, Cristoph; Wolff, Martin; Tschubel, Klaus; Fischer, Hans-Peter

2002-01-01

137

A Garlic Derivative, S-allylcysteine (SAC), Suppresses Proliferation and Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly malignant and metastatic. Currently, there is no effective chemotherapy for patients with advanced HCC leading to an urgent need to seek for novel therapeutic options. We aimed to investigate the effect of a garlic derivative, S-allylcysteine (SAC), on the proliferation and metastasis of HCC. Methodology/Principal Findings A series of in vitro experiments including MTT, colony-forming, wound-healing, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle assays were performed to examine the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of SAC on a metastatic HCC cell line MHCC97L. The therapeutic values of SAC single and combined with cisplatin treatments were examined in an in vivo orthotopic xenograft liver tumor model. The result showed that the proliferation rate and colony-forming abilities of MHCC97L cells were suppressed by SAC together with significant suppression of the expressions of proliferation markers, Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Moreover, SAC hindered the migration and invasion of MHCC97L cells corresponding with up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of VEGF. Furthermore, SAC significantly induced apoptosis and necrosis of MHCC97L cells through suppressing Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 as well as activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. In addition, SAC could significantly induce the S phase arrest of MHCC97L cells together with down-regulation of cdc25c, cdc2 and cyclin B1. In vivo xenograft liver tumor model demonstrated that SAC single or combined with cisplatin treatment inhibited the progression and metastasis of HCC tumor. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of SAC on HCC cells and suggest that SAC may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC patients.

Cheng, Qiao; Geng, Wei; Ling, Chang Chun; Li, Chang Xian; Liu, Xiao Bing; Ma, Yuen Yuen; Lo, Chung Mau; Poon, Ronnie T. P.; Fan, Sheung Tat; Man, Kwan

2012-01-01

138

Use of powdered egg yolk vs fresh egg yolk for the cryopreservation of ovine semen.  

PubMed

Egg yolk is a common additive to sperm cryopreservation diluents. Because of its animal origin, however, it also represents a potential risk of microbiological contamination in the diluent. This potential contamination can be avoided by using powdered egg yolk, instead of fresh egg yolk, as it is pasteurized. This study was conducted to determine ram sperm cryosurvival was affected by the type of egg yolk used (powdered egg yolk or fresh egg yolk) and by yolk concentration (10, 15 or 20%) in the diluent. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify the microbiological contamination in the diluents containing the two types of egg yolk. Sperm cryosurvival was determined by motility and morphology analyses after thawing. Motility parameters were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system, and the percentage of sperm with a normal apical ridge was evaluated using a differential interference contrast microscope. No significant differences were observed between diluents in the percentage of sperm with normal apical ridge. However, higher percentages of total motile cells were observed for samples containing powdered egg yolk (69%) compared to samples containing fresh egg yolk (60%). However, sperm in diluents containing fresh egg yolk, exhibited higher values for average-path velocity, straight-line velocity and beat cross frequency and lower values for amplitude of lateral head displacement (p <0.05), compared to cells in diluents containing powdered egg yolk. Microbiological contamination was similar (<200 CFU/ml) in both diluents, and no bacterial growth was observed in either, when antibiotics were added. Therefore, powdered egg yolk can be effective used in diluents for the freezing of ram semen. However, the in vivo fertility of sperm frozen in diluents containing powdered egg yolk should be tested, as some motility parameters were different for sperm treated with powdered egg yolk compared to fresh egg yolk. PMID:15598235

Marco-Jiménez, F; Puchades, S; Mocé, E; Viudes-de-Cartro, M P; Vicente, J S; Rodriguez, M

2004-12-01

139

Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the lacrimal sac simulating chronic dacryocystitis.  

PubMed

Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the lacrimal sac is rare. Herein we report a 55-year-old female presented with epiphora in the right eye. Distention of the lacrimal sac secondary to nasolacrimal duct obstruction was observed. She was scheduled for external dacryocystorinostomy for the next month. When she came for surgery, a growing mass was recognised over the lacrimal sac region. On computer tomography scan, a subdermal mass causing nasal bone destruction was detected. Excisional biopsy of the mass was performed. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluations revealed primary diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the lacrimal sac. She was treated with cyclophospamide, vincristine, adriablastine and prednisone for eight courses combined with rituximab for 6 months. During a follow-up period of 25 months, patient is stable with no systemic disease. Although rare, lacrimal sac tumors can mimic dacryocystitis and must be considered in differential diagnosis. In suspicious cases incisional biopsy is recommended. PMID:21353409

Palamar, Melis; Midilli, Rasit; Ozsan, Nazan; Egrilmez, Sait; Sahin, Fahri; Yagci, Ayse

2011-10-01

140

IgG4-Related Lacrimal Sac Diverticulitis.  

PubMed

Abstract IgG4-related disease is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration by IgG4-positive plasma cells. We herein report a case of lacrimal sac diverticulitis with marked IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration. An 89-year-old woman presenting with right lower eyelid mass. Imaging modalities demonstrated a cystic orbital mass located beneath the globe and adjacent to enlarged lacrimal sac. Serological tests showed high IgG4 and normal IgG levels, measuring 242 and 1603?mg/dl, respectively. The orbital mass was surgically excised. Histologically, the excised tissue demonstrated marked inflammation with fibrosis surrounded by mononuclear epithelial cells. A variety of IgG and IgG4-positive plasma cells infiltrated the stroma. This patient was diagnosed as an IgG4-related lacrimal sac diverticulitis, based on current diagnostic criteria of IgG4-related disease. It is likely that IgG4-related inflammation occurs in a lacrimal sac diverticulum, which should be considered a differential diagnosis in inferior orbital tumors. PMID:24568363

Kase, Satoru; Suzuki, Yasuo; Shinohara, Toshiya; Kase, Manabu

2014-06-01

141

Lymphoid progenitor emergence in the murine embryo and yolk sac precedes stem cell detection.  

PubMed

Mammalian embryos produce several waves of hematopoietic cells before the establishment of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) hierarchy. These early waves of embryonic hematopoiesis present a reversed hierarchy in which hematopoietic potential is first displayed by highly specialized cells that are derived from transient uni- and bipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoiesis progresses through multilineage erythro-myeloid progenitor cells that lack self-renewal potential and, subsequently, to make distinct lymphoid progenitor cells before culminating in detectable definitive HSC. This review provides an overview of the stepwise development of embryonic hematopoiesis. We focus on recent progress in demonstrating that lymphoid lineages emerge from hemogenic endothelial cells before the presence of definitive HSC activity and discuss the implications of these findings. PMID:24417306

Lin, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C; Yoshimoto, Momoko

2014-06-01

142

Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-07-01

143

EPCAM-A novel molecular target for the treatment of pediatric and adult germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to develop from totipotent primordial germ cells. Although the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) is expressed on embryonic stem cells as well as different tumor cells, it has not yet been extensively studied in GCTs. We analyzed EPCAM expression by quantitative RT-PCR in 48 fresh-frozen GCT specimens of different histology (10 mature teratoma, MT; 6 immature teratoma, IT; 7 dysgerminoma; 6 mixed malignant GCTs; 19 yolk sac tumor, YST) and in the GCT cell lines NCCIT, TE76.T, JAR and 2102Ep, and correlated its expression with AFP and hCG protein levels, histologic differentiation, and clinical follow-up data. EPCAM protein was visualized by immunohistochemistry of selected corresponding paraffin embedded tumor tissues. EPCAM was expressed in malignant but not in benign GCTs irrespective of age, sex, site and clinical stage of tumor (P = 0.001). In primary teratomas, EPCAM expression increased with their grade of immaturity (mean 2(-?Ct) values: MT 0.23, IT 1.61, P = 0.007) and significantly correlated with serum AFP (P = 0.03) and hCG (P = 0.03) levels in malignant GCTs. Particularly high EPCAM levels were found in nonseminomatous GCTs such as YSTs (8.49) and choriocarcinoma (13.54). Immunohistochemical analysis verified gene expression data showing a distinct EPCAM staining in YST. Similarly in vitro, highest EPCAM expression was measured in GCT cell lines comprising yolk sac (2102Ep: 5.59) or choriocarcinoma (JAR: 10.65) components. This first comprehensive analysis of EPCAM in GCTs revealed high EPCAM expression in YSTs and choriocarcinomas. Thus, these nonseminomatous GCTs may be interesting targets for EPCAM immunotherapy, which has to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:22987628

Schönberger, Stefan; Okpanyi, Vera; Calaminus, Gabriele; Heikaus, Sebastian; Leuschner, Ivo; Nicholson, James C; Stoecklein, Nikolas H; Schneider, Dominik T; Borkhardt, Arndt

2013-01-01

144

Determination of the Thecal Sac Ending Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Clinical Applications in Craniospinal Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose : To determine level of the thecal sac ending in unaffected individuals of young age-group and in patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) seeding tumor using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Material and Method : MRI of the lumbosacral spine of 253 cases (age range 1-40 years) had been reviewed. Of these, 20 cases were known having CSF seeding tumors. Two

Sith Phongkitkarun

145

Primary malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac.  

PubMed

Primary malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac is extremely rare. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage after excision or biopsy of a tumour. We treated a 59-year-old man with tearing and bloody discharge from the right eye. Clinical examination revealed a firm, localised mass at the inner canthus consistent with a lacrimal sac swelling. Sac washout demonstrated obstruction to entry into the lacrimal sac with a reflux of blood-stained fluid. The pathological findings and the immunohistochemical studies showed a malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac. We performed radical surgery and radiation therapy. Follow-up 4 months after surgery revealed no evidence of recurrence. Because this tumour often presents with symptoms similar to dacryocystitis and may masquerade as a chronic dacryocystitis, ophthalmologists should be aware of this disease entity when encountered with patients with epiphora and mass in the medial canthal area. PMID:22891020

Li, Yang-Jun; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Yan, Hong; Han, Jing; Wang, Dan; Xu, Shuang

2012-01-01

146

Endolymphatic sac surgical anatomy and transmastoid decompression of the sac for the management of Ménière's disease.  

PubMed

Background: Decompression of the endolymphatic sac for Ménière's disease gives unpredictable results. This may be because the sac is difficult to identify and decompress accurately without causing surgical trauma. Methods: In order to test this idea, transmastoid decompression was simulated in 5 cadaver half heads and the anatomy of the endolymphatic sac was reviewed in a further 14 specimens. Results: The endolymphatic sac was found and confirmed by histology in all five simulated decompressions. A newly described feature, a trapezoid thickening of dura, was a useful guide. The review showed that the sac was constant proximally, but variable distally. The posterior semicircular canal, posterior fossa dura and sigmoid sinus are at risk during dissection. Conclusion: The endolymphatic sac may be identified on inspection by an overlying patch of dura, thereby reducing exploratory dissection. It is best to decompress the sac as far proximally as possible, whilst protecting the posterior semicircular canal. PMID:24905185

Locke, R R; Shaw-Dunn, J; O'Reilly, B F

2014-06-01

147

70. SAC command post construction, building 500, undated Offutt ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. SAC command post construction, building 500, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

148

Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2014-06-09

149

Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: cellular classification and clinical and imaging features.  

PubMed

Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors (OMGCTs) are heterogeneous tumors that are derived from the primitive germ cells of the embryonic gonad. OMGCTs are rare, accounting for about 2.6% of all ovarian malignancies, and typically manifest in adolescence, usually with abdominal pain, a palpable mass, and elevated serum tumor marker levels, which may serve as an adjunct in the initial diagnosis, monitoring during therapy, and posttreatment surveillance. Dysgerminoma, the most common malignant germ cell tumor, usually manifests as a solid mass. Immature teratomas manifest as a solid mass with scattered foci of fat and calcifications. Yolk sac tumors usually manifest as a mixed solid and cystic mass. Capsular rupture or the bright dot sign, a result of increased vascularity and the formation of small vascular aneurysms, may be present. Embryonal carcinomas and polyembryomas rarely manifest in a pure form and are more commonly part of a mixed germ cell tumor. Some OMGCTs have characteristic features that allow a diagnosis to be confidently made, whereas others have nonspecific features, which make them difficult to diagnose. However, imaging features, the patient's age at presentation, and tumor markers may help establish a reasonable differential diagnosis. Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors spread in the same manner as epithelial ovarian neoplasms but are more likely to involve regional lymph nodes. Preoperative imaging may depict local extension, peritoneal disease, and distant metastases. Suspicious areas may be sampled during surgery. Because OMGCTs are almost always unilateral and are chemosensitive, fertility-sparing surgery is the standard of care. ©RSNA, 2014. PMID:24819795

Shaaban, Akram M; Rezvani, Maryam; Elsayes, Khaled M; Baskin, Henry; Mourad, Amr; Foster, Bryan R; Jarboe, Elke A; Menias, Christine O

2014-01-01

150

Making Cake Doughnut Mixes with Yolk-Containing Egg Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mix contains flour, sugar, shortening, skim milk solids, dried egg yolk, salt and baking powder. The main feature of the method concerns the preparation and the utilization of yolk products exhibiting moderate heatenduced change (that is, having a pro...

T. F. Sugihara L. Kline

1964-01-01

151

Primary lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis with grossly dilated sac and nasolacrimal duct.  

PubMed

Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic infection of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. The authors report a case of primary lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis with a grossly dilated sac and nasolacrimal duct as seen on CT dacryocystography. Despite a chronic infection of 12 years' duration, there was no involvement of conjunctiva, nasal, or nasopharyngeal mucosa. PMID:19454941

Pushker, Neelam; Kashyap, Seema; Bajaj, Mandeep S; Meel, Rachna; Sood, Archana; Sharma, Sanjay; Konkal, Venkatesh L

2009-01-01

152

Novel smart yolk/shell polymer microspheres as a multiply responsive cargo delivery system.  

PubMed

An effective strategy was developed to fabricate the novel dually thermo- and pH-responsive yolk/shell polymer microspheres as a drug delivery system (DDS) for the controlled release of anticancer drugs via two-stage distillation precipitation polymerization and seed precipitation polymerization. Their pH-induced thermally responsive polymer shells act as a smart "valve" to adjust the diffusion of the loaded drugs in/out of the polymer containers according to the body environments, while the movable P(MAA-co-EGDMA) cores enhance the drug loading capacity for the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). The yolk/shell polymer microspheres show a low leakage at high pH values but significantly enhanced release at lower pH values equivalent to the tumor body fluid environments at human body temperature, exhibiting the apparent tumor-environment-responsive controlled "on-off" drug release characteristics. Meanwhile, the yolk/shell microspheres expressed very low in vitro cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells. Consequently, their precise tumor-environment-responsive drug delivery performance and high drug loading capacity offer promise for tumor therapy. PMID:24571375

Du, Pengcheng; Liu, Peng

2014-03-25

153

Characterization of multiple promoters and transcript stability in the sacB-sacC gene cluster in Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

In Zymomonas mobilis, the extracellular levansucrase (SacB) and extracellular sucrase (SacC) are involved in sucrose hydrolysis. Genes coding for these two enzymes (sacB and sacC) are arranged in a cluster in the genome and separated by a short intervening sequence. The level of sacC transcript was 12-fold higher than that of sacB transcript. On the other hand, transcript stability analysis in sucrose grown cultures revealed that the half-life of the sacB transcripts (153 s) was more than twofold higher than that of sacC transcript (66 s). The decay curves of sacB and sacC transcripts analyzed by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR correlated well with the decay curves of the respective enzyme activities. In the sacB promoter disruption mutant, Z. moblis BT2, the extracellular sucrase activity decreased from 2.6 to 2.0 U mg(-1) in sucrose medium due to the loss of SacB expression. The expression of sacC in the absence of the sacB promoter suggested that these two genes could be transcribed as different mRNAs. The promoter-lacZ fusion studies in Escherichia coli proved that the short intervening region acts as a strong promoter for the sacC gene. PMID:19415238

Senthilkumar, V; Rajendhran, J; Busby, S J W; Gunasekaran, P

2009-06-01

154

[Ultrasonic studies of the human embryo sac].  

PubMed

The growth of the embryo sac and of the uterus was determined between the 5th and 12th weeks of amenorrhoea in 91 normal pregnancies. 24 measurements of the ovaries and the uterus were made for each case by means of two-dimensional echograms. The averages, the standard deviations, the deviations of the mean, the correlation coefficients and the regression polynomials are reported for each of the dimensions measured. The results are compared with those obtained by other authors. The dimensions that gave the best indication of the evolution of gestation were the area and perimeter of the ultrasonic scans of the embryo sac and of the uterus as well as the cephalo-caudal diameter of the embryo sac. PMID:17436487

Levi, S; Erbsman, F

1974-01-01

155

Histopathology after Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Meniere's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The putative goal of sac surgery in Meniere’s syndrome is to promote the flow of endolymph from the labyrinth to the endolymphatic sac, and thereby relieving hydrops. There is scant published histopathological data whether sac surgery actually accomplishes this goal. Objective To determine if sac surgery relieves hydrops by examining the histopathologic changes in temporal bones obtained from individuals who had undergone sac surgery during life for Meniere’s syndrome. Methods Temporal bones were examined from 15 patients who had sac surgery. Data was collected on presence and severity of hydrops, histology of the sac, and whether the procedure relieved vertigo. Results The surgery failed to expose the sac in 5 cases; 4 of the 5 had relief from vertigo. The sac was exposed, but the shunt failed to reach the lumen of the sac in 8 cases; 4 of the 8 had relief from vertigo. The shunt was successfully placed within the lumen of the sac in two cases; both cases failed to experience relief from vertigo. Endolymphatic hydrops was present in all 15 cases. Conclusion Endolymphatic sac surgery does not relieve hydrops in patients with Meniere’s syndrome. Yet, sac surgery relieves vertigo in some patients, but the mechanism of such symptomatic relief remains unknown.

Chung, Jong Woo; Fayad, Jose; Linthicum, Fred; Ishiyama, Akira; Merchant, Saumil N.

2011-01-01

156

Two Case Reports of a Malignant Germ Cell Tumor of Ovary and a Granulosa Cell Tumor: Interest of Tumoral Immunochemistry in the Identification and Management  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this article, we present two case reports. The first case was a malignant germ cell tumor of the right ovary in a 23-year old woman and the second case was a bilateral undifferentiated granulosa cell tumor in a 71-year old woman. The aim of these reports is to illustrate the interest of the immunohistochemical analysis to define the correct diagnosis, to better classify these ovarian tumors and improve their management. Methods: In this study, we report two cases. The first case concerns a 23-year old woman (A) with a mixed germ cell tumor of the right ovary [dysgerminoma (75%), yolk sac tumor (20%), and a mature teratoma (5%)], and the second case concerns a 71-year old woman (B) with a bilateral non-differentiated and necrotic granulosa cell tumor of both ovaries. The staging system was used according to both the classifications: International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1987 for ovarian cancer and TNM code 2009. Results: The immunostaining establishes the malignancy and the immunochemistry contributes to confirm effectively the right diagnosis (Tables 2 and 3). Conclusion: An immunohistochemical analysis is mandatory for the choice of chemotherapy to obtain a better response of the disease and improve the survival prognosis. The efficiency of the chemotherapy authorizes a conservative surgery including a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy preserving fertility (A). Concerning the non-dysgerminoma tumor (B), and after a surgical staging and debulking, chemotherapy was recommended. The type of tumor and its histological feature conditioned the choice of treatment. The benefit of the immunohistological analysis in this case allowed the right adjuvant treatment.

Bouquet de Joliniere, J.; Ben Ali, N.; Fadhlaoui, A.; Dubuisson, J. B.; Guillou, L.; Sutter, A.; Betticher, D.; Hoogewoud, H. M.; Feki, A.

2014-01-01

157

Hernia sacs: is histological examination necessary?  

PubMed

The hernia sac is a common surgical pathology specimen which can occasionally yield unexpected diagnoses. The College of American Pathologists recommends microscopic examination of abdominal hernias, but leaves submission of inguinal hernias for histology to the discretion of the pathologist. To validate this approach at a tertiary care centre, we retrospectively reviewed 1426 hernia sacs derived from inguinal, femoral and abdominal wall hernias. The majority of pathologies noted were known to the clinician, including herniated bowel, lipomas and omentum. A malignancy was noted in three of 800 inguinal hernias and seven of 576 abdominal wall hernias; five of these lesions were not seen on gross examination. Other interesting findings in hernia sacs included appendices, endometriosis, a perivascular epithelioid cell tumour, and pseudomyxoma peritoneii. All hernia sacs should be examined grossly as most pathologies are grossly visible. The decision to submit inguinal hernias for histology may be left to the discretion of the pathologist, but abdominal and femoral hernias should be submitted for histology. PMID:23794497

Wang, Tao; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar

2013-12-01

158

Undifferentiated carcinoma of the lacrimal sac: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of right-sided epiphora and was referred to the Oculoplastic services for dacryocystorhinostomy. A 3-month progressive growth of a right medial canthal mass was found. MRI revealed an extraconal, lobulated, homogeneously enhancing mass in the lacrimal sac fossa with globe indentation and displacement supero-temporally. Following a transcanalicular needle biopsy which was suggestive of a carcinoma, he underwent medial orbitectomy and maxillectomy, through a lateral rhinotomy, with removal of puncta and canaliculi after ensuring no regional or systemic spread. The lacrimal sac tumor was encapsulated, extending superiorly above the medial canthal tendon and involving the nasolacrimal duct, and posteriorly along the medial orbital wall. After ensuring surgical margins were cleared of tumor infiltration, orbital reconstruction was performed with titanium plate and nasolabial flap. He has completed adjuvant radiotherapy with no evidence of tumor recurrence at 15 months of follow-up. PMID:21957907

Low, Jin Rong; Bian Ng, Siok; Sundar, Gangadhara

2011-12-01

159

72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

160

79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

161

78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, drawing number AW30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

162

75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

163

77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing number not listed, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

164

80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

165

76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

166

13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

167

71. SAC command post construction, building 500, January 20, 1987 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. SAC command post construction, building 500, January 20, 1987 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

168

Migratory constraints on yolk precursors limit yolk androgen deposition and underlie a brood reduction strategy in rockhopper penguins.  

PubMed

Hormonally mediated maternal effects link maternal phenotype and environmental conditions to offspring phenotype. The production of lipid-rich maternal yolk precursors may provide a mechanism by which lipophilic steroid hormones can be transported to developing yolks, thus predicting a positive correlation between yolk precursors in mothers and androgen levels in eggs. Using rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), which produce a two-egg clutch characterized by extreme egg-size dimorphism, reversed hatching asynchrony and brood-reduction, we examined correlations between circulating concentrations of the primary yolk-precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and levels of yolk androgens. Previous work in Eudyptes penguins has shown that egg-size dimorphism is the product of migratory constraints on yolk precursor production. We predicted that if yolk precursors are constrained, androgen transport to developing yolks would be similarly constrained. We reveal positive linear relationships between maternal VTG and androgens in small A-eggs but not larger B-eggs, which is consistent with a migratory constraint operating on the A-egg. Results suggest that intra-clutch variation in total yolk androgen levels depends on the production and uptake of yolk precursors. The brood reduction strategy common to Eudyptes might thus be best described as the result of a migratory constraint. PMID:22809718

Crossin, Glenn T; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; Williams, Tony D; Eens, Marcel; Quillfeldt, Petra

2012-12-23

169

Treatment of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor to preserve fertility.  

PubMed

Endodermal sinus tumor, also known as yolk sac tumor (YST), is a malignant germ cell tumor that most frequently occurs in the testis, the ovary, and sacrococcygeal areas in children. YSTs are highly aggressive and because of the early metastatic or invasive pattern, their prognosis has been poor. Treatment methods for YSTs are usually intensive, including multiagent chemotherapy, and have shown to improve patient survival significantly; therefore, it is important to consider the reproductive function of these patients with long-term survival. Herein, we present the case of a 31-year-old female, who was diagnosed with unilateral ovarian YST at the age of 13. The patient was treated with fertility-sparing surgery and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. During the subsequent long-term follow-up, she was not only free of disease, but also had a successful, naturally conceived pregnancy at 31 years of age. We, therefore, conclude that YST is a curable disease, and that fertility-preservation surgery and subsequent immediate combination chemotherapy is the treatment of choice. PMID:23351423

Chang, Yi-Wen; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Sung, Pi-Lin; Li, Wai Hou; Wang, Peng-Hui

2013-02-01

170

Ultrastructural study of yolk formation in Porcellio scaber Latr. (Isopoda).  

PubMed

Two types of yolk are formed in the developing oocytes of a terrestrial crustacean, Porcellio scaber. The intra-oocytic yolk, arises through autosynthesis, and the extra-oocytic yolk, is derived from micropinocytosis. the so-called disc shaped bodies, which occur in large numbers within the cisternae of a branched system of endoplasmic reticulum, are precursors of the intra-oocytic uolk. Dictyosomes are not involved in yolk formation in this species. Thus, the vitellogenesis of Porcellio scaber occurs in a manner analogues to that described in the aquatic crustaceans, which indicates that environmental factors have relatively little effect on this process. PMID:550968

Bili?ski, S

1979-01-01

171

Systemic Par-4 inhibits non-autochthonous tumor growth.  

PubMed

The tumor suppressor protein Par-4 (Prostate apoptosis response-4) is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells. Extracellular Par-4 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell cultures by binding, via its effector SAC domain, to cell surface GRP78 receptor. However, the functional significance of extracellular Par-4/SAC has not been validated in animal models. We show that Par-4/SAC-transgenic mice express systemic Par-4/SAC protein and are resistant to the growth of non-autochthonous tumors. Consistently, secretory Par-4/SAC pro-apoptotic activity can be transferred from these cancer-resistant transgenic mice to cancer-susceptible mice by bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, intravenous injection of recombinant Par-4 or SAC protein inhibits metastasis of cancer cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that extracellular Par-4/SAC is systemically functional in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis progression, and may merit investigation as a therapy. PMID:21613819

Zhao, Yanming; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Brandon, Jason; Qiu, Shirley; Shelton, Brent J; Spear, Brett; Bondada, Subbarao; Bryson, Scott; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2011-07-15

172

Removal of vegetal yolk causes dorsal deficencies and impairs dorsal-inducing ability of the yolk cell in zebrafish.  

PubMed

To examine the nature of cytoplasm determinants for dorsal specification in zebrafish, we have developed a method in which we remove the vegetal yolk hemisphere of early fertilized eggs (vegetal removed embryos). When the vegetal yolk mass was removed at the 1-cell stage, the embryos frequently exhibited typical ventralized phenotypes: no axial structures developed. The frequency of dorsal defects decreased when the operation was performed at later stages. Furthermore, the yolk cell obtained from the vegetal-removed embryos lost the ability to induce goosecoid in normal blastomeres while the normal yolk cell frequently did so in normal and vegetal-removed embryos. These results suggested that the vegetal yolk cell mass contains the dorsal determinants, and that the dorsal-inducing ability of the yolk cell is dependent on the determinants. PMID:10330484

Mizuno, T; Yamaha, E; Kuroiwa, A; Takeda, H

1999-03-01

173

Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Actual SAC105, SAC305, and SAC405 Solder Joints by Digital Image Correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the characterization of the mechanical properties of three lead-free solder alloys 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405), 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305), and 98.5Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) at the solder joint scale. Several actual ChipArray ® ball grid array (CABGA) packages were cross-sectioned, polished, and used as test vehicles. Compressive tests were performed using a nanocharacterization system over the temperature range of 25°C to 105°C. Images of the cross-sectioned solder joints were recorded by microscope during the tests. The recorded images were then processed by using a digital image correlation (DIC) program to calculate the displacement and strain fields on the solder joints. Finite-element method (FEM) modeling was used to extract the Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the solder alloys over the temperature range. The methodology developed in this paper enables characterization of the mechanical properties of the actual solder joints at low strain range with high accuracy.

Nguyen, T. T.; Yu, D.; Park, S. B.

2011-06-01

174

[Prepubertal testicular tumors].  

PubMed

Prepubertal testis tumours (T.T) are rare, with different characteristics and clinical course to adults and with a better prognosis. The authors report the experience of Maria Pia Hospital's over a 15 year period. There were 8 cases of T.T.: 3 Yolk sac tumours, 3 teratomas, 1 Leydig cell tumour and 1 epidermoide cyst. All patients are submitted to an inguinal orchiectomy. Follow-up ranged between six months and 14 years. There was no recurrence of the disease in seven patients are without disease recurrence. Mortality was nil. PMID:9859508

Carvalho, F; Leitão, B; Reis, A; Rodrigues, C

1998-07-01

175

Aquarius/SAC-D Educational Wall Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a poster about the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission, with an image depicting the satellite in orbit. The back of the poster describes the mission's scientific goals and benefits, including the scientific value of maps of sea surface salinity. The Hands On Activities & Online Data Tools panel gives an overview of the classroom lessons and tools that are available on the mission website.

176

Aquarius/SAC-D Mission Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission developed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of United States of America (USA) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission objective is to contribute to the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Major themes are: ocean surface salinity, water cycle, climate, natural hazards and cryosphere.

Sen, Amit; Kim, Yunjin; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Colomb, Raul; Yueh, Simon; LeVine, David

2006-01-01

177

A Rare Case of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour: Clinicopathologic Study and Surgical Management  

PubMed Central

Objective. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising from the intrapetrous portion of the endolymphatic sac, either isolated or in association with the von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a sporadic case of ELST with an overview of the literature and a discussion of clinic-radiological, histopathologic, and surgical findings. Case Report. A young woman presented with a progressive hearing loss in the left ear. Otoscopy showed a reddish, bleeding hypotympanic mass. CT demonstrated an expansile lytic mastoid lesion extending to the middle ear, with bone erosion. MRI confirmed a lesion of increased signal on T1-weighted sequences. The patient underwent a canal wall-down tympanoplasty with complete removal of the tumor. Histopathology was consistent with a papillary ELST. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and chromogranin A. Conclusion. This paper highlights the rarity of ELST, the need for an accurate neuroradiological and immunohistochemical study at the early stages, and the timeliness of surgical treatment.

Ferri, Emanuele; Amadori, Maurizio; Armato, Enrico; Pavon, Ida

2014-01-01

178

The yolk-nucleus of Balbiani in teleostean fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaustive study of the oocytes of five species of marine teleosts was made in order to elucidate the real nature and significance of the yolk-nucleus of Balbiani which exists in the ooplasm as a compact spherical body adjacent to the nucleus. This yolk-nucleus of Balbiani appears to be a true homologue of the typical “Dotterkern” of spiders described by

H. S. Chaudhry

1952-01-01

179

In vivo differentiation and genomic evolution in adult male germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common solid malignancy in young adult men, but the genes and genomic regions involved in their etiology are not fully defined. We report here an investigation of DNA copy number changes in GCTs using 1 Mb BAC arrays. As expected, 12p gain was the defining genomic alteration, occurring in 72/74 GCTs. Parallel expression profiling of these tumors identified potential oncogenes from gained regions (LYN and RAB25) and potential tumor suppressor genes in regions of loss (SYNPO2, TTC12, IGSF4, and EPB41L3). Notably, we observed specific genomic alterations associated with histology, including gain of 17p11.2-q21.32 and loss of 2p25.3 in embryonal carcinoma, gain of 8p23.3-12 and loss of 5p15.33-35.3, 11q23.1-25, and 13q12.11-34 in seminoma, and gain of 1q31.3-42.3, 3p, 14q11.2-32.33, and 20q and loss of 8q11.1-23.1 in yolk sac tumors (YST). Many significant genes that mapped to these regions had previously been associated with specific histologies, such as EOMES (chr3) and BMP2 (chr20) in YST and SPRY2 (chr13) and SOX17 (chr8) in seminomas. Additionally, our results suggest a model in which histologic differentiation of GCTs may drive genomic evolution. PMID:17943972

Korkola, J E; Heck, S; Olshen, A B; Reuter, V E; Bosl, G J; Houldsworth, J; Chaganti, R S K

2008-01-01

180

Response to antitumor agents of murine transplantable tumors implanted onto chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo.  

PubMed

The chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo was used to examine the chemosensitivity of the murine tumors, B16-F1 melanoma, B16-F10 melanoma, Meth-A fibrosarcoma, and Ehrlich carcinoma. The tumors were grown on the membrane, and the effects of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, adriamycin, mitomycin C, vincristine, and cisplatin on the growth of the tumors were tested by iv injection into a vein of the chorioallantoic membrane or injection into the yolk sac. The use of chick embryo limits the time for drug exposure to 3 or 4 days, but Ehrlich carcinoma and Meth-A fibrosarcoma needed longer for the test; the use of irradiation from a cobalt source overcame the problem by increasing the growth rate of the grafts of these two tumors. There appeared to be a good correlation between the effects of the drugs on B16 melanomas grown in the eggs and in the original animals. Many compounds, including pro-drugs such as cyclophosphamide and dacarbazine, could be assayed in this way. PMID:3114199

Uchida, H; Sasaki, T; Tanaka, M; Endo, Y; Nitta, K; Nishikawa, K; Chuman, H; Fukuma, H; Matsumoto, K

1987-07-01

181

Yolk sac angiogenic defect and intra-embryonic apoptosis in mice lacking the Ets-related factor TEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TEL gene, which is frequently rearranged in human leukemias of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, encodes a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. The TEL gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development and in the adult. To determine the requirement for the TEL gene product in development we generated TEL knockout mice (TEL?\\/?) by gene targeting in

Li Chun Wang; Frank Kuo; Yuko Fujiwara; D. Gary Gilliland; Todd R. Golub; Stuart H. Orkin

1997-01-01

182

HISTOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSING THE STARVING CONDITION IN EARLY POST YOLK SAC LARVAE OF THE NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULZS MORDAX Girard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of fish larvae that are in starving condition in plankton samples would be a valuable aid in estimating early mortality rates of populations in the sea. Histological criteria are given for determining the degree of starvation-induced emaciation, with an indication of its relevance to mortality, for larvae of the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax Girard. Larvae were reared with

CHARLES P. O'CONNELL

183

A case of primary oncocytic adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac.  

PubMed

Lacrimal sac tumours are rare entities. Patients often present with epiphora, recurrent dacryocystitis, and/or a lacrimal sac mass. Neoplasms of the lacrimal system may conveniently be grouped into epithelial and non-epithelial types: papillomas are the most common benign epithelial tumours, while oncocytic adenocarcinomas are extremely rare. Here we report a case of primary oncocytic adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac in a 56-year-old man. PMID:21747898

Zhang, Jingxue; Jianmin; Wang, Ningli; Shi, Jitong; Ge, Xin

2009-01-01

184

Ribosome display for the selection of Sac7d scaffolds.  

PubMed

Combinatorial libraries of Sac7d have proved to be a valuable source of proteins with favorable biophysical properties and novel ligand specificities, so-called Nanofitins. Thus, Sac7d represents a promising scaffold alternative to antibodies for biotechnological and potentially clinical applications. We describe here the methodology for the construction of a library of Sac7d and its use for selection by ribosome display. PMID:22094814

Mouratou, Barbara; Béhar, Ghislaine; Paillard-Laurance, Lauranne; Colinet, Stéphane; Pecorari, Frédéric

2012-01-01

185

Bloody epiphora secondary to a lacrimal sac varix.  

PubMed

This is a report of a 57-year-old female patient who sought treatment for multiple episodes of bloody epiphora. A CT of her orbits revealed enhancement and enlargement of her left lacrimal sac and duct. A biopsy was then performed, which showed a varix involving the wall of the lacrimal sac. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a lacrimal sac varix causing bloody epiphora. PMID:23446307

Lee, Henry; Herreid, Peter A; Sires, Bryan S

2013-01-01

186

Apoptosis and tumor resistance conferred by Par-4.  

PubMed

Par-4 is a tumor suppressor protein with a pro-apoptotic function. Epigenetic silencing of Par-4 is seen in diverse tumors and Par-4 knockout mice develop spontaneous tumors in various tissues. Endogenous Par-4 is essential for sensitization of cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli, whereas ectopic expression of Par-4 can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The cancer-specific pro-apoptotic action of Par-4 resides in its centrally located SAC domain. This review emphasizes the role of Par-4/SAC in apoptosis and tumor resistance. SAC transgenic mice display normal development and life span, and, most importantly, are resistant to spontaneous, as well as oncogene-induced, autochthonous tumors. The tumor resistant phenotype and undetectable toxicity of SAC in vivo suggests the SAC domain possesses tremendous therapeutic potential. PMID:18836307

Zhao, Yanming; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2008-12-01

187

Overexpression of Karyopherin 2 in Human Ovarian Malignant Germ Cell Tumor Correlates with Poor Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify a biomarker useful in the diagnosis and therapy of ovarian malignant germ cell tumor (OMGCT). Methods The karyopherin 2 (KPNA2) expression in OMGCT and normal ovarian tissue was determined by standard gene microarray assays, and further validated by a quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The correlation between KPNA2 expression in OMGCT and certain clinicopathological features were analyzed. Expression of SALL4, a stem cell marker, was also examined in comparison with KPNA2. Results KPNA2 was found to be over-expressed by approximately eight-fold in yolk sac tumors and immature teratomas compared to normal ovarian tissue by microarray assays. Overexpression was detected in yolk sac tumors, immature teratomas, dysgerminomas, embryonal carcinomas, mature teratomas with malignant transformation and mixed ovarian germ cell tumors at both the transcription and translation levels. A positive correlation between KPNA2 and SALL4 expression at both the transcription level (R?=?0.5120, P?=?0.0125), and the translation level (R?=?0.6636, P<0.0001), was presented. Extensive expression of KPNA2 was positively associated with pathologic type, recurrence and uncontrolled, ascitic fluid presence, suboptimal cytoreductive surgery necessity, resistance/refraction to initial chemotherapy, HCG level and SALL4 level in OMGCT patients. KPNA2 was found to be an independent factor for 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of OMGCT (P?=?0.02). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and DFS rate for KPNA2-low expression patients (88% and 79%, n?=?48) were significantly higher than the OS and DFS rate for KPNA2-high expression patients (69% and 57.1%, n?=?42)(P?=?0.0151, P?=?0.0109, respectively). The 5-year OS and DFS rate for SALL4-low expression patients (84% and 74%, n?=?62) was marginally significantly higher than the high expression patients (78.6% and 71.4%, n?=?28)(P?=?0.0519, P?=?0.0647, respectively). Conclusions KPNA2 is a potential candidate molecular marker and important prognostic marker in OMGCT patients.

Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Yun; Li, Li; Yu, Yan-Hong; Huang, Long; Jia, Wei-Hua; Zeng, Musheng; Yun, Jing-Ping; Luo, Rong-Zhen; Zheng, Min

2012-01-01

188

Egg yolk paste for determining some food poisoning bacteria.  

PubMed

Egg yolk, aseptically prepared from fresh eggs, was partially dehydrated with a 40% high fructose corn syrup solution, and 10% salt was added. This salted yolk paste was added to mannitol salt agar for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus, to NaCl-glycine Kim and Goepfert medium for detection of Bacillus cereus, to Clostridium welchii agar for detection of C. perfringens, and to Gifu anaerobic medium for detection of C. botulinum. These food poisoning bacteria showed the same lecithovitellin (LV) reaction on these media as on the same media prepared with fresh egg yolk. The yolk paste could be stored at -20 C without freezing and did not show any bacterial growth after holding at 25 C for 30 days. The increased salt content resulted from the addition of salted yolk paste to the media did not inhibit the growth of the food poisoning bacteria used in these experiments. For the identification of the food poisoning bacteria used in this work, and which give a LV reaction, salted yolk paste is more convenient to use than yolk separated from fresh shell eggs. PMID:2898139

Imai, C; Nakamaru, E; Mita, M; Uesugi, I; Saito, J

1988-02-01

189

Duck egg yolk in extender improves the freezability of buffalo bull spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the use of duck egg yolk (DEY), Guinea fowl egg yolk (GFEY) and Indian indigenous hen (Desi) egg yolk (IDEY) in extender for improving the post-thaw quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa, and compared it with commercial hen egg yolk (CHEY; control). For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates of semen from each of two Nili–Ravi buffalo bulls

S. M. H. Andrabi; M. S. Ansari; N. Ullah; M. Anwar; A. Mehmood; S. Akhter

2008-01-01

190

A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

Kozlowski, C. P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

2009-01-01

191

Recent advances in understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of pediatric germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare neoplasms arising predominantly in the gonads and sacrococcygeal, mediastinal, and intracranial localizations. In this article, we review current knowledge of pathogenesis of pediatric GCTs, which differs from adult/adolescent GCTs. One distinctive feature is the absence of a progenitor stage, such as carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, which are seen in adult/adolescent GCTs, except spermatocytic seminoma. The primordial germ cell (PGC) is the suggested origin of all GCTs, with variations in histology reflecting differentiation stage. Expression of pluripotency transcription factors OCT-3/4, NANOG, and AP-2? in germinomas/seminomas/dysgerminomas is consistent with retaining a germ cell phenotype. Teratomas, in contrast, develop through a pathway of aberrant somatic differentiation of immature germ cells, and the yolk sac tumors and choriocarcinomas result from abnormal extraembryonic differentiation. In pediatric GCTs, origin is suggested at an earlier developmental stage because of predisposing genetic factors, although responsible genes remain largely unknown. Some extragonadal GCTs have been linked to overexpression of the KIT/KITLG system, allowing for survival of aberrantly migrated ectopic PGCs. Infant gonadal/sacrococcygeal GCTs may be caused by apoptosis-related pathways, consistent with an association with polymorphisms in BAK1. Although recent advances have identified candidate pathways, further effort is needed to answer central questions of pathogenesis of these fascinating tumors. PMID:24577549

Mosbech, Christiane H; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Brok, Jesper S; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

2014-05-01

192

Giant dacryocystomucopyocele in an adult: a review of lacrimal sac enlargements with clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses.  

PubMed

Dacryocystocele is an umbrella term that refers to any diffuse, centrifugal enlargement of the lacrimal sac that results from combined proximal and distal obstructions in the tear drainage system. In adults, the presence of mucus in the cyst's contents leads to the modified term of dacryocystomucocele. If infection supervenes, which almost always occurs in protracted cases and adds the clinical dimension of a dacryocystitis, then a dacryocystomucopyocele is created. Dacryocystocele and its congeners are much rarer in adults than in children. We describe a 95-year-old woman with an acquired, enormous dacryocystomucopyocele, larger than any previously reported, that developed over 25 years and produced globe displacement with an associated conspicuous enlargement of the nasolacrimal duct. The aspirated sac fluid was mucopurulent and harbored low-virulence bacterial organisms of the Prevotella and Petosteptococcus species. In infants, dacryocystoceles are transitory as the result of spontaneously reversible factors. In adults, secondary proximal irreversible fibrotic strictures or bony changes around the nasolacrimal duct typically arise from chronic inflammation or low grade infection. Other possible causations of duct obstruction, in addition to florid mucosal edema, include encroachment on the duct by enlarged contiguous ethmoid air cells; a sinus mucocele or sinusitis; idiopathic, post-traumatic or dysplastic bony remodeling of the wall of the duct; and a neoplasm-all of which require some form of surgical intervention, typically dacryocystorhinostomy. The differential diagnosis of medial canthal swellings centered on the lacrimal sac spans malformations, diverticula, dermoid/epidermoid cysts, sac inflammations/infections causing swelling without generalized sac enlargement, encephaloceles and primary epithelial tumors, as well as extrinsic tumors impinging on the sac. PMID:22784678

Perry, Lynn J P; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Zakka, Fouad R; Rubin, Peter A D

2012-09-01

193

[Purification and clinical application of egg yolk immunoglobulins].  

PubMed

IgY antibodies, also called egg yolk immunoglobulins, are the only immunoglobulins in egg yolk and transferred in the female from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to embryos and neonates. Using hens instead of mammals as the immunization host brings a number of advantages: Eggs are cheap and readily available; antibody levels in yolks are high; IgY isolation is fast and simple; and what is more; IgY neither binds the rheumatoid factor nor reacts to the mammalian complement factor. All these differences make IgY technology more widely applicable, such as in the production of polyclonal antibodies against various antigens, immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy, and many medical areas in both animals and human. IgY also has a good prospect in human immunocontraception. PMID:18390185

Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Chun; Huang, Yu-Feng

2008-02-01

194

85. Command HQ. SAC control center (MOD) new work cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

85. Command HQ. SAC control center (MOD) new work cross section, drawing number AW-30-02-07, dated 7 February, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

195

83. SAC control center administration section and underground structure elevations ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

83. SAC control center administration section and underground structure elevations and sections, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

196

86. SAC control center administration section underground structure and theater ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

86. SAC control center administration section underground structure and theater sections and elevations, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

197

82. SAC control center underground structure sections and unit substation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. SAC control center underground structure sections and unit sub-station details, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

198

DNA binding and bending by Sac7d is stepwise.  

PubMed

Which came first? Using thermodynamic cycles constructed from experimental measures of the binding free energy and free energy simulations, we have shown that binding of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius protein Sac7d to DNA occurs before DNA bending, thus indicating that a conformational selection mechanism is unlikely to be operative in Sac7d binding. PMID:23853062

Spiriti, Justin; van der Vaart, Arjan

2013-08-19

199

EGG SAC STRUCTURE OF ZYGIELLA X -NOTATA (ARACHNIDA, ARANEIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed examination of the egg sac of Zygiella x-notata (Clerck 1757) revealed its structure, composition and different fibers. All egg sacs were composed of a basic layer, an insulation layer and an outer layer. The insulation layer consisted of two layers of cylindrical (or tubuliform) fibers with different diameters and probably with different mechanical properties. Knowing the complete struc-

T. Gheysens; L. Beladjal; K. Gellynck; E. Van Nimmen; L. Van Langenhove; J. Mertens

2005-01-01

200

Utilization of docosahexaenoic acid from intravenous egg yolk phospholipid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22?6n?3) is provided directly to human premature infants during parenteral nutrition from the egg\\u000a yolk fraction of an intravenous fat emulsion. This study aimed to determine whether the high egg yolk phospholipid content\\u000a of Intralipid 10% (IL 10%, Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) relative to the standard emulsion Intralipid 20% (IL 20%, Pharmacia)\\u000a could be a strategy to increase

Scott Morris; Karen Simmer; Robert Gibson

2000-01-01

201

Composition, accumulation and utilization of yolk lipids in teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid reserves in teleost eggs are stored in lipoprotein yolk and, in some species, a discrete oil globule. Lipoprotein yolk lipids are primarily polar lipids, especially phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and are rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Oil consists of neutral lipids and is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Egg lipids are derived

Murray D. Wiegand

1996-01-01

202

Physicochemical Properties of Sn-Zn and SAC + Bi Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying the discharge crucible (DC) method, the viscosity, density, and surface tension were determined for Sn-9Zn and Sn-2.92Ag-0.4Cu-3.07Bi (SAC + Bi) alloys. For comparison, the dilatometric, maximum bubble pressure, and capillary flow methods were used for measurements of these same physicochemical properties for the Sn-2.92Ag-0.4Cu-3.07Bi (SAC + Bi) alloy. The measurements were performed for Sn-9Zn and SAC + Bi alloys in the temperature range from 513 K to 723 K and 530 K to 1180 K, respectively. The experimental data obtained show that addition of Bi to SAC increases the density and decreases the surface tension and viscosity in comparison with SAC solder. Additionally it was found that the properties studied by different methods (maximum bubble pressure, dilatometric, capillary flow, and discharge crucible) were almost identical.

Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstru?, Janusz; G?sior, W?adys?aw; Henein, Hani

2013-02-01

203

Pediatric malignant germ cell tumors show characteristic transcriptome profiles.  

PubMed

Malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) of childhood are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms thought to arise from primordial germ cells. They vary substantially in their natural history and show important clinical differences from their adult counterparts. To address the biological basis for these observations, we have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of global gene expression patterns in pediatric malignant GCTs and compared these findings with published data on adult testicular GCTs (TGCT). Our study included 27 primary tumors and assessed the principal malignant histologic types of pediatric GCT, yolk sac tumor (YST; n = 18), and seminoma (n = 9). Analysis of Affymetrix U133A GeneChip data was performed using the statistical software environment R, including gene set enrichment analysis, with cross-validation at the RNA and protein level. Unsupervised analysis showed complete separation of YSTs and seminomas by global gene expression profiles and identified a robust set of 657 discriminatory transcripts. There was no segregation of tumors of the same histology arising at different sites or at different ages within the pediatric range. In contrast, there was segregation of pediatric malignant GCTs and adult malignant TGCTs, most notably for the YSTs. The pediatric seminomas were significantly enriched for genes associated with the self-renewing pluripotent phenotype, whereas the pediatric YSTs were significantly enriched for genes associated with a differentiation and proliferation phenotype. We conclude that histologic type is the key discriminator in pediatric malignant GCTs and that the observed clinical differences between malignant GCTs of children and adults are mirrored by significant differences in global gene expression. PMID:18519683

Palmer, Roger D; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Gooding, Emma L; Muralidhar, Balaji; Thornton, Claire M; Pett, Mark R; Roberts, Ian; Schneider, Dominik T; Thorne, Natalie; Tavaré, Simon; Nicholson, James C; Coleman, Nicholas

2008-06-01

204

SALL4 is a novel diagnostic marker for testicular germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) sometimes can be challenging without ancillary markers. Here we performed an immunohistochemical study of a novel stem cell marker SALL4 in a large series of 110 primary testicular GCTs (65 pure and 45 mixed) containing the following types of tumors and/or tumor components: 50 intratubular germ cell neoplasias (ITGCNs), 62 classic seminomas, 2 spermatocytic seminomas, 39 embryonal carcinomas (EC), 5 pediatric and 26 postpubertal yolk sac tumors (YST), 7 pediatric and 25 postpubertal teratomas, and 5 choriocarcinomas. We compared SALL4 with OCT4 in all GCTs, and SALL4 to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and glypican-3 in all YSTs. To test SALL4 specificity, 23 testicular non-GCTs (10 Leydig cell tumors, 4 Sertoli cell tumors, 3 adenomatoid tumors, 3 paratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas, 2 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and 1 rete testis papillary cystadenoma) and 275 nontesticular tumors (158 metastatic carcinomas, 12 metastatic melanomas, 11 primary and 2 metastatic mesotheliomas, and 72 primary and 20 metastatic sarcomas) were also stained for SALL4. All ITGCNs, classic seminomas, and ECs demonstrated strong SALL4 and OCT4 staining in more than 90% tumor cells. All 31 YSTs (5 pediatric and 26 postpubertal) showed strong positive SALL4 staining in more than 90% tumor cells but had negative OCT4 staining. Both spermatocytic seminomas showed positive SALL4 staining in 80% to 95% tumor cells in all 3 types of tumor cells with weak-to-moderate staining intensity. Mononucleated trophoblastic cells were variably positive for SALL4 staining in all 5 choriocarcinomas. Focal SALL4 staining was seen in 4 of 7 pediatric and 23 of 27 postpubertal teratomas. OCT4 staining was not seen in any spermatocytic seminoma, choriocarcinoma, or teratoma. No SALL4 staining was seen in all 23 testicular non-GCTs. Of 275 nontesticular tumors, only 10 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma showed focal (<25% tumor cells) weak SALL4 staining. The only non-neoplastic cells within the testis stained with SALL4 were spermatogonia and few primary spermatocytes. AFP staining was seen in 29 of 31 YST but it was often focal and patchy. Although all 31 YSTs showed glypican-3 staining, 14 (45%) show staining in less than 30% tumor cells. Our findings indicate that SALL4 is a novel sensitive and relatively specific marker for testicular GCTs. SALL4 is a more sensitive marker than AFP and glypican-3 for YST. PMID:19390421

Cao, Dengfeng; Li, Jianping; Guo, Charles C; Allan, Robert W; Humphrey, Peter A

2009-07-01

205

Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks  

PubMed Central

Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g?1 lipid (median = 3.03 ng g?1 lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ?PBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ?PBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g?1 lipid (median = 0.053 ng g?1 lipid). The ?-isomer was the dominant contributor to ?HBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ?PBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ?HBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study.

Rawn, D.F.K.; Sadler, A.; Quade, S.C.; Sun, W.-F.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Kosarac, I.; Hayward, S.; Ryan, J.J.

2011-01-01

206

Use of Mucor miehei lipase to improve functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites.  

PubMed

Egg yolk contamination of egg whites continues to be a serious problem in the egg industry. The ability of egg whites to form stable and voluminous foams is greatly inhibited by yolk contamination, even at very low levels, between 0.01% and 0.2% w/w yolk in white. Experiments were conducted to determine if Mucor miehei lipase could regenerate the functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites. Lipase from M. miehei and colipase from porcine pancreas were added to yolk-contaminated (0.2%, w/w) egg white samples to hydrolyze triglycerides originating from egg yolk. Enzymatic hydrolysis of triacylglycerols was confirmed using thin-layer chromatography. Treatment of yolk-contaminated samples with lipase and colipase yielded significant (P < 0.05) improvements in a number of the functional properties, including the final foam volume, foam capacity, and foaming power. These functional properties showed complete restoration to control levels. However, foam stability and foam drainage levels were not statistically different from yolk-contaminated samples that had not been enzymatically treated. Enzyme-treated yolk-contaminated egg whites were also tested in angel food cakes. Enzyme-treated, yolk-contaminated egg whites performed similarly to non-yolk-contaminated control, and much better than yolk-contaminated sample in angel food cakes. The results show that most negative effects of yolk contamination can be reversed by treatment with Mucor miehei lipase and colipase. PMID:22417349

Macherey, Laura N; Conforti, Frank D; Eigel, William; O'Keefe, Sean F

2011-05-01

207

A comparison of the creep behaviour of joint-scale SAC105 and SAC305 solder samples under shear conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the creep behavior of joint-scale Sn1.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder samples under shear loading. The basis of the comparison is experimentally derived Anand viscoplastic constitutive models for the alloys. A series of monotonic constant shear stress and constant shear strain rate tests was conducted at temperatures of 20°C, 50°C, 75°C and 100°C for SAC105 in order

Cillian Burke; Jeff Punch

2012-01-01

208

Establishment of a quantitative mouse dorsal air sac model and its application to evaluate a new angiogenesis inhibitor.  

PubMed

We have developed an improved mouse dorsal air sac model for quantifying in vivo tumor-induced angiogenesis. In our improved model, tumor angiogenesis is determined by measuring the blood volume in an area of skin held in contact with a tumor cell-containing chamber, using 51Cr-labeled red blood cells (RBC). The blood volume induced by murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells increased linearly with the cell number in the range from 2 x 10(5) to 5 x 10(6). Ten of 11 human tumor cell lines examined induced a significant increment in blood volume. For three representative human tumor cell lines (A549, WiDr. and HT1080 cells) that showed different angiogenic potencies, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) produced by the tumor cells cultured under conditions of hypoxia and high cell density were correlated with the degree of in vivo angiogenesis. Using the improved model, it was confirmed that TNP-470, a well-known inhibitor, and borrelidin, an antibiotic from Streptomyces rochei, significantly inhibited the WiDr cell-induced angiogenesis. Borrelidin also inhibited spontaneous lung metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma at the same dose that inhibited angiogenesis. Our results suggest that the improved mouse dorsal air sac model can be used for simple and quantitative measurement of tumor-induced angiogenesis and its inhibition. PMID:10757446

Funahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, T; Semba, T; Sonoda, J; Kitoh, K; Yoshimatsu, K

1999-01-01

209

Mobilization of ectopic yolk in Gallus gallus domesticus: a novel reverse lipid transport process.  

PubMed

In many oviparous animals, bursting type atresia of ovarian follicles occurs during the reproductive cycle, resulting in the escape of yolk into the extracellular compartment. In birds, this ectopic yolk is rapidly cleared by an unknown process that involves the appearance of yolk-engorged macrophage-like cells. To study this unique type of lipid transport, we injected young male chickens intra-abdominally with egg yolk. Absorption of egg yolk from the body cavity markedly increased the triacylglyceride-rich fraction (TRL) of plasma lipoproteins and was coincident with increased levels of plasma triacylglycerides (TAGs) but not non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Thus, the transport of yolk lipids from the abdominal cavity appears to occur in lipoproteins and be more similar to the transport of hepatic TAGs to the periphery via lipoproteins than to transport of adipose TAGs to the periphery via NEFAs released by the action of lipases. When macrophages were exposed to yolk in vitro, they quickly phagocytized yolk; however, it is unclear whether this level of phagocytosis contributes significantly to total yolk clearance. Instead, the chicken macrophage may function more as a facilitator of yolk clearance through the modification of yolk lipoproteins and the regulation of the local and systemic immune response to ectopic yolk. Yolk appears to be anti-inflammatory in nature. Yolk did not increase levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and IFN? either in vivo or in vitro; in fact, yolk dampened many inflammatory changes caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Conversely, LPS-induced inflammation retarded yolk clearance from the abdominal cavity and plasma TAG levels. PMID:23348941

Cornax, Ingrid; Walzem, Rosemary L; Larner, Craig; Macfarlane, Ronald D; Klasing, Kirk C

2013-05-15

210

Lipid, fatty acid and carotenoid content of edible egg yolks from avian species: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study has been conducted of the major lipid classes composition, as well as the fatty acid and carotenoid content in the yolk of conventional eggs from five avian species (ostrich, turkey, quail, duck and goose); the nutritional indices were calculated. The neutral lipids were the major yolk fractions but their proportions varied among species. All yolks and especially

Vassilia J. Sinanoglou; Irini F. Strati; Sofia Miniadis-Meimaroglou

2011-01-01

211

DNA methylation analysis reveals distinct methylation signatures in pediatric germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Aberrant DNA methylation is a prominent feature of many cancers, and may be especially relevant in germ cell tumors (GCTs) due to the extensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs in the germ line during normal development. Methods We used the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer Methylation Panel to compare DNA methylation in the three main histologic subtypes of pediatric GCTs (germinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST); N?=?51) and used recursively partitioned mixture models (RPMM) to test associations between methylation pattern and tumor and demographic characteristics. We identified genes and pathways that were differentially methylated using generalized linear models and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We also measured global DNA methylation at LINE1 elements and evaluated methylation at selected imprinted loci using pyrosequencing. Results Methylation patterns differed by tumor histology, with 18/19 YSTs forming a distinct methylation class. Four pathways showed significant enrichment for YSTs, including a human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway. We identified 190 CpG loci with significant methylation differences in mature and immature teratomas (q?tumor histology and location. Conclusion Understanding methylation patterns may identify the developmental stage at which the GCT arose and the at-risk period when environmental exposures could be most harmful. Further, identification of relevant genetic pathways could lead to the development of new targets for therapy.

2013-01-01

212

The mechanism and pattern of yolk consumption provide insight into embryonic nutrition in Xenopus  

PubMed Central

Summary Little is known about how metabolism changes during development. For most animal embryos, yolk protein is a principal source of nutrition, particularly of essential amino acids. Within eggs, yolk is stored inside large organelles called yolk platelets (YPs). We have gained insight into embryonic nutrition in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis by studying YPs. Amphibians follow the ancestral pattern in which all embryonic cells inherit YPs from the egg cytoplasm. These YPs are consumed intracellularly at some point during embryogenesis, but it was not known when, where or how yolk consumption occurs. We have identified the novel yolk protein Seryp by biochemical and mass spectrometric analyses of purified YPs. Within individual YPs, Seryp is degraded to completion earlier than the major yolk proteins, thereby providing a molecular marker for YPs engaged in yolk proteolysis. We demonstrate that yolk proteolysis is a quantal process in which a subset of dormant YPs within embryonic cells are reincorporated into the endocytic system and become terminal degradative compartments. Yolk consumption is amongst the earliest aspects of differentiation. The rate of yolk consumption is also highly tissue specific, suggesting that nutrition in early amphibian embryos is tissue autonomous. But yolk consumption does not appear to be triggered by embryonic cells declining to a critically small size. Frog embryos offer a promising platform for the in vivo analysis of metabolism.

Jorgensen, Paul; Steen, Judith A. J.; Steen, Hanno; Kirschner, Marc W.

2009-01-01

213

Comparing ethylene glycol with glycerol for cryopreservation of buffalo bull semen in egg-yolk containing extenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol for ethylene glycol when cryopreserving buffalo semen. Semen of eight buffalo bulls was mixed, pooled, and frozen in one of these four diluents: centrifuged Tris egg yolk glycerol; centrifuged Tris egg yolk ethylene glycol; centrifuged Milk egg yolk glycerol; or centrifuged Milk egg yolk ethylene glycol. Semen

A. A. Swelum; H. A. Mansour; A. A. Elsayed; H. A. Amer

2011-01-01

214

[Spanish adaptation of Hobfoll's Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS)].  

PubMed

The present research adapted the Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS), developed by Hobfoll and colleagues, to the Spanish population. SACS is an instrument derived from Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources Theory, which emphasises the contribution of social factors to coping processes. This instrument assesses coping strategies in 9-subscales, organised in three dimensions: orientation to the problem (active/passive), use of social resources (prosocial/antisocial), and orientation to others involved (direct/indirect). The Spanish version, administered to a non-clinical sample (N= 767), found 7-subscales structured in prosocial/antisocial, active/passive and reflexive/intuitive dimensions, with adequate reliability and construct validity. To conclude, the Spanish SACS is a potentially useful and reliable instrument for research and clinical purposes, mainly in areas in which social components need to be explicitly considered. PMID:22748740

Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Santed Germán, Miguel A; Pérez García, Ana M

2012-01-01

215

Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

2010-01-01

216

Chromosome X-encoded Cancer/Testis antigens are less frequently expressed in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors than in seminomas  

PubMed Central

Cancer/Testis (CT) antigens are normally only expressed in germ cells and yet are aberrantly activated in a wide variety of human cancers. Most chromosome X-encoded CT antigens (CT-X) show restricted expression in pre-meiotic germ cells in adult testis, except for the expression of SPANX in post-meiotic germ cells. In the present study, the expression of eight CT-X antigens (MAGE-A, NY-ESO-1, GAGE, MAGE-C1/CT7, MAGE-C2/CT10, CT45, SAGE1, and SPANX) in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors was evaluated immunohistochemically, including 24 embryonal carcinomas, 20 yolk sac tumors, 9 teratomas, and 3 choriocarcinomas, and the results were compared to our previous study of 77 classic seminomas and 2 spermatocytic seminomas. SPANX was not detected in any germ cell tumors tested. Spermatocytic seminoma showed strong expression of all CT-X antigens tested (except SPANX), reflecting their origin from adult CT-Xpositive pre-meiotic germ cells. Classic seminomas, originating from prenatal gonocytes, showed widely variable frequency of CT-X antigen expression, ranging from > 80% (CT7, CT10, CT45, and GAGE), 63% (MAGE-A), 18% (NY-ESO-1) to only 4% (SAGE1). In comparison, non-seminomatous germ cell tumors expressed CT-X antigens much less frequently and usually only in small subsets of tumor cells. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) were mostly CT-X-negative, even in CT-X positive classic seminomas. These findings indicate that CT-X antigens are not expressed in the fetal precursor cells for germ cell tumors, and their expression likely reflects germ cell differentiation of the neoplastic cells (in seminomas) or aberrant gene activation as cancer antigens (in non-seminomatous tumors).

Chen, Yao-Tseng; Cao, Dengfeng; Chiu, Rita; Lee, Peishan

2013-01-01

217

Free-floating pyogenic granuloma of the lacrimal sac.  

PubMed

The authors report a 13-month-old girl with chronic dacryocystitis, and history of three times probing and once inferior turbinate infracture. She underwent dacryocystorhinostomy due to failure of previous procedures. During surgery a free floating reddish mass was extracted from the lacrimal sac. Histopathologic examination revealed the mass to be a pyogenic granuloma. PMID:24215136

Bagheri, Abbas; Rafati, Nasrin; Salim, Reza Erfanian; Yazdani, Shahin

2014-04-01

218

Endolymphatic sac obliteration for large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of endolymphatic sac obliteration for stabilization of progressive hearing loss in patients with the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. This was a retrospective case review conducted at a private neurootologic office in a metropolitan area. Seven ears in six patients were subjected to surgery for obliteration of the endolymphatic sac in an effort to stabilize progressive hearing loss associated with the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. The study population was composed of four boys and two girls 4-17 years of age. The large vestibular aqueduct was unilateral in two patients and bilateral in four patients. All seven ears demonstrated progressive sensorineural hearing loss preoperatively. Surgical tissue obliteration was performed via a transmastoid approach in seven ears. The main outcome measure was comparison of pre- and postoperative hearing levels and stability. Magnetic resonance imaging also was performed in all cases at least 6 months postoperatively to determine patency of the endolymphatic sac and vestibular aqueduct. Six of seven ears maintained stable hearing during the follow-up period, which ranged from 6 months to 6 years (mean 3.2 years). One patient showed continued progression of hearing loss postoperatively. All seven ears demonstrated continued obliteration on postoperative imaging studies. Surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic sac may stabilize hearing in patients with the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome and progressive hearing loss. These results support the theory of pressure or fluid reflux into the labyrinth as a cause of progressive hearing loss in these patients. PMID:8989959

Wilson, D F; Hodgson, R S; Talbot, J M

1997-01-01

219

Planar feature fitting based on Multi-BaySAC algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To tackle the problem that classic RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus) is limited by the assumption that a single model accounts for all of the data inliers, an algorithm of multi-planar-feature fitting from 3D point cloud based on BaySAC algorithm (Bayes Sample Consensus) is proposed (called multiBaySAC). First, as the mathematical models of most of primitives to be fitted are determinate, a statistical algorithm of hypothesis model parameters histogram is proposed to detect potential planar features. Instead of assuming constant prior probabilities of data points and choosing initial data sets by random as RANSAC, we then implement a conditional sampling method -- BaySAC for robust parameters estimation of potential planar features, by computing the prior probability of each data point and updating the inlier probabilities using simplified Bayes' rule. For the purpose of multiple feature fitting, the sequential application of the above procedure is implemented following the removal of the detected set of inliers. The proposed approach is tested with point cloud data of buildings acquired by RIEGL VZ-400 laser scanner. The results show that the proposed Multi-BaySAC can achieve high computation efficiency and fitting accuracy of multiple planar feature fitting.

Li, Zhen; Kang, Zhizhong

2013-10-01

220

Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: creation of a large marsupialized lacrimal sac.  

PubMed

This retrospective study describes and evaluates the effectiveness of a modified technique of conventional endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) that minimizes the obstruction of a neo-ostium by creating an enlarged marsupialized lacrimal sac using mucosal flaps. Forty-two patients who had undergone 46 endoscopic DCR at a tertiary medical center, from 2002 to 2004, for correction of lacrimal system obstruction were investigated. The surgical technique involves elevation of a nasal mucosal flap, full sac exposure using a power drill, and shaping of the mucosal flap to cover denuded bone and juxtapose exposed sac mucosa. Postoperative symptoms and endoscopic findings of the neo-ostium were evaluated. Mean duration of follow-up was 5.9 months. An eighty-three percent primary success rate was observed, without any serious complications. Obstruction of the neo-ostium with granulation tissue was observed in eight cases, among which six underwent revision with success in all cases. Overall, 44 (96%) of 46 cases experienced surgical successes. Endoscopic DCR, a procedure in which a large marsupialized lacrimal sac is created from mucosal flaps, yields a very satisfactory success rate with straightforward and highly successful revision available for those in whom the primary procedure yields a substandard result. PMID:16891819

Jin, Hong-Ryul; Yeon, Je-Yeob; Choi, Mi-Young

2006-08-01

221

New correlation algorithm between FAC and OATS\\/SAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the new correlation algorithm between the fully anechoic chamber (FAC) and the test facilities with ground plane such as open area test site (OATS), semi-anechoic chamber (SAC), etc. in order to use the FAC as an alternative test facility. The approach is to model the EUT as an equivalent set of multipoles. Assuming the EUT is electrically

Jong Hwa Kwon; Hyun H. Park; Hyung Do Choi

2003-01-01

222

Air Sacs of Respiratory Origin in Some Procellariiform Birds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present details of the air-sac system in three species of the order Procellariiformes--the Laysan Albatross, Diomedea immutabilis; the Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus pacificus; and the Christmas Island Shearwater, Puffin...

M. P. Hamlet H. I. Fisher

1966-01-01

223

Torsion of an indirect hernia sac causing acute scrotum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year-old boy presented with an acute scrotum and was found at surgical exploration to have torsion and infarction of an indirect hernia sac. This represents the sixth reported case of this entity in the literature. The pediatric surgical specialist and those in the acute care setting should be aware of this consideration in the differential diagnosis of the acute

Jeremy B Myers; Mark A Lovell; Robert S Lee; Peter D Furness; Martin Koyle

2004-01-01

224

Sclerotic changes around the endolymphatic sac in human temporal bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used light microscopy to study 87 human temporal bones (from 47 cases) with no known otological disorders, and found that certain cases had sclerotic changes around the endolymphatic duct and sac. Changes included fibrosis, hyalinization, psammoma formation, and thickened vascular walls. The findings were subjected to statistical analysis, which indicated that most of the changes could be positively correlated

Noboru Sakai; Makoto Igarashi; Kazuhiro Ohashi; Masanori Ishii

1985-01-01

225

Tetrasporic Embryo-Sac Formation in Trisomic Sectors of Maize.  

PubMed

Nondisjunction in mitotic divisions occurs spontaneously at a low frequency in somatic and germinal tissue in maize and results in sectors of trisomic cells. When this happens with chromosome 3 and in germinal tissue the embryo sac development is changed from the normal monosporic type to a tetrasporic type which is common in some species but not in maize. PMID:17733621

Neuffer, M G

1964-05-15

226

Aquarius\\/SAC-D Ocean Salinity Mission Science Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduled for launch in 2009, the international Aquarius\\/SAC-D satellite will begin a mission to map the global sea surface salinity (SSS) field and its variability from space. The overarching scientific goal is to provide the essential data to study the interactions between the ocean circulation, global water cycle and climate. Key scientific issues to address are (1) mapping large expanses

G. S. E. Lagerloef; Y. Chao; F. Raul Colomb

2006-01-01

227

Does Dietary vitamin E or C Decrease Egg Yolk Cholesterol?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E and C on serum metabolites, yolk cholesterol, egg\\u000a quality, and performance of layer hens. One hundred sixty-eight commercial Hy-Line W-36 layer hens were randomly divided into\\u000a seven groups and six replicates with four hens in each. Dietary treatments were introduced after the pre-experimental period\\u000a (10 days) to adjust egg

Maziar Mohiti-Asli; Mojtaba Zaghari

2010-01-01

228

81. SAC control center aboveground addition elevations, drawing number AW300209, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. SAC control center aboveground addition elevations, drawing number AW-30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

229

45. SAC conference room 2A8, second floor, Dwing, building 500, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. SAC conference room 2A8, second floor, D-wing, building 500, looking southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

230

Separation of Phosvitin from Egg Yolk without Using Organic Solvents  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a new method to separate phosvitin from egg yolk without using organic solvents. Phosvitin was extracted from yolk granules using 10% NaCl or 10% (NH4)2SO4 (final concentration) and then treated with heat to precipitate the lipoproteins from the extracted solution. The optimal pH for the phosvitin extraction from yolk granules was determined, and the iron-binding ability of the extracted phosvitin (final product) was tested. Adding 10% (NH4)2SO4 disrupted the granules, and the subsequent thermal treatment at 90°C for 1 h precipitated low density and high density lipoproteins, which enabled separation of phosvitin by centrifugation. The phosvitin concentration in the extract was significantly higher when the pH of the solution was adjusted to pH ?9. The purity and recovery rate of phosvitin at the end of the separation process were approximately 78% and 56%, respectively. The separated phosvitin was confirmed to have ferrous and ferric iron binding ability. The advantages of this new method compared with the traditional methods include no organic solvents and high-priced equipment are needed for the separation. Also, this method is more environment and consumer friendly than that of the traditional methods.

Jung, Samooel; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

2013-01-01

231

CYP1A induction and blue sac disease in early life stages of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to oil sands.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of natural oil sands on the early developmental stages of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and to determine whether biochemical responses in this species were similar to native fish caught in the Athabasca Oil Sands area. Early life stage (ELS) sediment toxicity tests were conducted using controls, reference sediments, natural oil sands, and industrially contaminated (wastewater pond) sediments collected from sites along the Athabasca River, Alberta (Canada). Eggs and larvae were observed for mortality, hatching, deformities, growth, and cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) activity using immunohistochemistry. E-Nat-, S-Nat-, and wastewater pond sediment-exposed groups showed significant premature hatching, reduced growth, and exposure-dependent increases in ELS mortality and larval malformations relative to controls. The most common larval deformities included edemas (pericardial, yolk sac, and subepidermal), hemorrhages, and spinal defects. Juveniles exposed to oil sands and wastewater pond sediments (96 h) demonstrated significantly increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (30- to 50-fold) as compared to controls. Reference sediment-exposed groups and water controls demonstrated reliable embryo and larval survival, minimal malformations, and negligible CYP1A staining. These observed signs of blue sac disease (ELS mortality, malformations, growth reductions, CYP1A activity induction) may produce deleterious reproductive effects in natural fish populations exposed to oil sands mixtures. PMID:16728374

Colavecchia, Maria V; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

2006-05-01

232

Direct endothelial junction restoration results in significant tumor vascular normalization and metastasis inhibition in mice  

PubMed Central

Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells with considerable diminution in expression of related transcription factors. Moreover, cancer stem cell population dropped substantially in Sac-1004 treated tumor tissues. Taken together, our results showed that direct restoration of vascular junction could be a significant strategy to induce normalization of tumor blood vessels and reduce metastasis.

Agrawal, Vijayendra; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Son, Jimin; Lee, Keunho; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Rho, Seung-Sik; Ahn, Sunjoo; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

2014-01-01

233

Localized rbp4 expression in the yolk syncytial layer plays a role in yolk cell extension and early liver development  

PubMed Central

Background The number of genes characterized in liver development is steadily increasing, but the origin of liver precursor cells and the molecular control of liver formation remain poorly understood. Existing theories about formation of zebrafish visceral organs emphasize either their budding from the endodermal rod or formation of independent anlage followed by their later fusion, but none of these is completely satisfactory in explaining liver organogenesis in zebrafish. Results Expression of a gene encoding the retinol binding protein 4 (Rbp4) was analyzed in zebrafish. rbp4, which is expressed mainly in the liver in adults, was shown to be expressed in the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) during early embryogenesis. At 12–16 hpf rbp4 expression was restricted to the ventro-lateral YSL and later expanded to cover the posterior YSL. We demonstrated that rbp4 expression was negatively regulated by Nodal and Hedgehog (Hh) signalling and positively controlled by retinoic acid (RA). Knockdown of Rbp4 in the YSL resulted in shortened yolk extension as well as the formation of two liver buds, which could be due to impaired migration of liver progenitor cells. rbp4 appears also to regulate the extracellular matrix protein Fibronectin1 (Fn1) specifically in the ventro-lateral yolk, indicating a role of Fn1 in liver progenitor migration. Since exocrine pancreas, endocrine pancreas, intestine and heart developed normally in Rbp4 morphants, we suggest that rbp4 expression in the YSL is required only for liver development. Conclusion The characteristic expression pattern of rbp4 suggests that the YSL is patterned despite its syncytial nature. YSL-expressed Rbp4 plays a role in formation of both yolk extension and liver bud, the latter may also require migration of liver progenitor cells.

Li, Zhen; Korzh, Vladimir; Gong, Zhiyuan

2007-01-01

234

Molecular characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and comparison with testicular counterparts: implications for pathogenesis.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/?-catenin and TGF-?/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I; Abeler, Vera M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Lothe, Ragnhild A

2013-06-01

235

Teratogenic effects of amniotic sac puncture: a mouse model.  

PubMed Central

The possibility of an association between chorionic villus sampling (cvs) and limb abnormalities has prompted a review of the relevant experimental data. Although a vascular aetiology is favoured by many at present, the possibility exists that a proportion of cases may be caused by oligohydramnios secondary to inadvertent amniotic sac puncture. A mouse model of amniotic puncture syndrome has been developed to study the craniofacial and limb abnormalities produced by this procedure. Pregnant mice were anaesthetised and a laparotomy performed. One uterine horn was exteriorised, and the amniotic sacs punctured through the wall of the uterus with either a 21 gauge or a 25 gauge needle. The conceptuses in the contralateral uterine horn acted as controls. The mice were all killed on d 19 of pregnancy (day of finding a vaginal plug = d 1 of pregnancy) by cervical dislocation, and the morphological features of the embryos examined in detail. In a preliminary study, amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 of pregnancy, with either a 21 or a 25 gauge needle. Since the highest rates of palatal defects and limb deformities were observed following amniotic sac puncture using a 21 gauge needle, when this procedure was carried out on either d 13 or 14 of pregnancy, the main study was undertaken using a 21 gauge needle on these two days of pregnancy. Of 102 embryos in which amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 13, 53% survived to d 19. Of the latter, 35% had a cleft palate, 61% had one or more morphologically abnormal limbs, and 43% had an abnormal tail. When amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 14 of pregnancy, of 83 embryos subjected to this procedure, 81% survived to d 19. Of the latter, 27% had a cleft palate, 39% had one or more morphologically abnormal limbs, and 19% had an abnormal tail. In the controls, of 86 and 61 embryos isolated respectively from the d 13 and 14 mice, the survival rates were 97 and 90%, respectively. Palatal, limb and tail abnormalities were not observed in the control series. Tentative relationships are drawn between cvs and amniocentesis-associated abnormalities, the Robin sequence and their rodent phenocopies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

MacIntyre, D J; Chang, H H; Kaufman, M H

1995-01-01

236

Circular dichroism spectra of uridine derivatives: ChiraSac study.  

PubMed

The experimental circular dichroism (CD) spectra of uridine and NH2-uridine that were different in the intensity and shape were studied in the light of the ChiraSac method. The theoretical CD spectra at several different conformations using the symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction (SAC-CI) theory largely depended on the conformational angle, but those of the anti-conformers and the Boltzmann average reproduced the experimentally obtained CD spectra of both uridine and NH2-uridine. The differences in the CD spectra between the two uridine derivatives were analyzed by using the angle ? between the electric transition dipole moment (ETDM) and the magnetic transition dipole moment (MTDM). PMID:24679161

Miyahara, Tomoo; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Wada, Takehiko

2014-04-24

237

Mission mode attitude control for SAC-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the Mission mode attitude control of the scientific Argentine satellite SAC-B. Based on the mathematical model of the system, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller with integral action has been designed. Robustness against parametric and dynamic uncertainty is evaluated. Performance is defined in terms of pointing accuracy under sets of perturbations and measurement noise, and evaluated by means of the singular value plots. Several pointing maneuvers and failure conditions are simulated and plotted.

Anigstein, Pablo A.; Pena, Ricardo S. Sanchez; Yasielski, Roberto; Jauregui, Marcela; Alonso, Roberto

238

Torsion of an indirect hernia sac causing acute scrotum.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old boy presented with an acute scrotum and was found at surgical exploration to have torsion and infarction of an indirect hernia sac. This represents the sixth reported case of this entity in the literature. The pediatric surgical specialist and those in the acute care setting should be aware of this consideration in the differential diagnosis of the acute scrotum. PMID:14694389

Myers, Jeremy B; Lovell, Mark A; Lee, Robert S; Furness, Peter D; Koyle, Martin

2004-01-01

239

Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.  

PubMed

Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies. We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions. Patients ranged in age from 12 to 65 years old (mean 36). The most common presenting symptom was the sole finding of either a testicular mass or swelling seen in 15/24 cases with available information. The next most common mode of presentation was as an incidental finding seen in 6 cases. Two patients had carcinoid syndrome including diarrhea, hot flashes, and palpitations. Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst. The mean size was 2.5 cm. All 29 primary carcinoids lacked associated intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type. Mitotic figures were rare in primary carcinoid tumors with only 3 cases showing more than 2 per 10 HPF; necrosis was found in only 1 case. Random scattered mild to moderate nuclear atypia was seen in 12/29 cases. Of the 28 cases found premortem, treatment included focal excision in 3 patients and radical orchiectomy in 25 patients. Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases. Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma. After resection, serum AFP levels remained elevated and the patient is scheduled for salvage chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant. The other 2 patients with atypical carcinoid and follow-up had no evidence of disease at 68 and 114 months. Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma. However, lesions with the morphology of atypical carcinoid can occasionally exhibit metastatic spread. PMID:20351489

Wang, Wenle P; Guo, Charles; Berney, Daniel M; Ulbright, Thomas M; Ubright, Thomas M; Hansel, Donna E; Shen, Rulong; Ali, Tehmina; Epstein, Jonathan I

2010-04-01

240

Mutation of SAC1, an Arabidopsis SAC Domain Phosphoinositide Phosphatase, Causes Alterations in Cell Morphogenesis, Cell Wall Synthesis, and Actin Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAC (for suppressor of actin) domain proteins in yeast and animals have been shown to modulate the levels of phosphoinositides, thereby regulating several cellular activities such as signal transduction, actin cytoskeleton organiza- tion, and vesicle trafficking. Nine genes encoding SAC domain-containing proteins are present in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, but their roles in plant cellular functions and plant growth and

Ruiqin Zhong; David H. Burk; C. Joseph Nairn; Alicia Wood-Jones; W. Herbert Morrison III; Zheng-Hua Yea

2005-01-01

241

Anti-gluten egg yolk antibodies for the treatment of celiac disease  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to compositions for ameliorating the symptoms of celiac disease or gluten sensitive enteropathy comprising egg yolk antibodies against gluten, including gliadin, high molecular glutenin, low molecular glutenin and mixtures of the three peptides. The antibodies may be produced by immunizing laying hens with immunogenic preparations of gluten and harvesting the eggs and egg yolks.

2012-10-09

242

Maternal Plasma and Egg Yolk Testosterone Concentrations during Embryonic Development in Green Anoles ( Anolis carolinensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex steroids of presumably maternal origin have been found in avian, crocodilian, and chelonian egg yolks, and they can affect offspring morphology and behavior. The present study reports testosterone (T) levels to which embryos are potentially exposed in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination. We documented plasma and yolk T concentrations in adult females, in

Matthew B. Lovern; Juli Wade

2001-01-01

243

Effect of Irradiating Shell Eggs on Quality Attributes and Functional Properties of Yolk and White  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell eggs were irradiated and the physico- chemical, and functional properties of egg yolk and white were determined. The color of egg yolk was not affected, but the viscosity of egg white was dramatically lowered and became watery by irradiation. The foam capacity and foam stability of egg white were significantly decreased due to protein oxidation by irradiation. However, the

B. R. Min; K. C. Nam; E. J. Lee; G. Y. Ko; D. W. Trampel; D. U. Ahn

244

Egg yolk protein improves loperamide-induced constipation and cecal fermentation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constipation is a risk factor of colorectal cancer. Phosvitin in egg yolk proteins is resistant to proteolytic action and has a high content of serine that may be associated with its high water-retaining capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of egg yolk protein on constipation and cecal fermentation in a rat constipation model. Male Wistar

Shin-ichi Ishikawa; Yuki Yano; Keizo Arihara; Makoto Itoh

2007-01-01

245

Facile synthesis of yolk-shell structured inorganic-organic hybrid spheres with ordered radial mesochannels.  

PubMed

Monodisperse yolk-shell mesoporous hybrid spheres with ordered radial mesochannels are demonstrated to be readily prepared by incubating mesostructured hybrid spheres with water. The obtained yolk-shell mesoporous spheres have inorganic-organic hybrid framework, tunable diameter, high surface area, radially oriented ordered mesochannels, large pore volume, and excellent hemocompatibilitys, showing great promise for various applications. PMID:24638273

Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Shouju; Su, Xiaodan; Chen, Guotao; Liu, Ying; Luo, Zhimin; Luo, Wei; Tang, Yuxia; Ju, Huangxian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Lu, Guangming

2014-06-01

246

Maternal corticosterone is transferred into the egg yolk.  

PubMed

Hormones deposited in the avian egg are considered in many studies to influence or to adjust offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions in an adaptive way. Several studies demonstrated an effect of corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, injected into the egg on the developing chick, but the injection of steroids in the egg is far from mimicking the natural distribution of the hormone in the egg. Other studies applied a stressor or corticosterone to the mother. However it is still debated whether an increase of circulating corticosterone in the mother translates into higher concentrations of corticosterone in the egg. Therefore, we investigated in captive barn owls Tyto alba whether circulating corticosterone in egg-laying females elevated within a physiological range, resulted in the deposition of corticosterone in eggs. We found that an increase in circulating corticosterone in the mother within the naturally occurring range translated into elevated concentrations of corticosterone in the yolk of subsequently laid eggs, indicating a specific time frame and yolk layer of corticosterone deposition. We conclude that increasing maternal plasma corticosterone within a naturally occurring range is an efficient tool to increase corticosterone concentration in the egg and to manipulate conditions for the developing embryo. PMID:22580154

Almasi, Bettina; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Müller, Claudia; Brill, Sandra; Wagner, Hermann; Jenni, Lukas

2012-08-01

247

The presence of transcription factors in chicken albumin, yolk and blastoderm.  

PubMed

Embryonic development is determined by preset intrinsic programs and extrinsic signals. To explore the possibility that transcription factors are present at the onset of development, preparations of yolk, albumin, and blastoderm from unfertilized and fertilized white Leghorn chicken eggs were screened by a panel of 16 transcription factor antibodies with Western blot techniques. Yolk was positive for 13 transcription factors, whereas blastoderm was positive for 10, and albumin was positive for 5. In yolk, several transcription factors, GATA-2, E2F-1, MyoD, and TFIID, were developmentally regulated. These results indicate that intracellular yolk and extracellular albumin contain transcription factors which presumably influence early chick embryonic development from prefertilization to the late blastoderm stage. Thus, the utility of preset maternal transcription factors within yolk and albumin complement maternally derived mRNA to determine the early development of the zygote. PMID:10476924

Knepper, P A; Mayanil, C S; Hayes, E; Goossens, W; Byrne, R W; McLone, D G

1999-06-01

248

Selective transport and packaging of the major yolk protein in the sea urchin.  

PubMed

The major yolk protein of sea urchins is an iron-binding, transferrin-like molecule that is made in the adult gut. Its final destination though is the developing oocytes that are embedded in somatic accessory cells and encompassed by two epithelial layers of the ovary. In this study, we address the dynamics of yolk transport, endocytosis, and packaging during the vitellogenic phase of oogenesis in the sea urchin by use of fluorescently labeled major yolk protein (MYP). Incorporation of MYP into the accessory cells of the ovary and its packaging into yolk platelets of developing oocytes is visualized in isolated oocytes, ovary explants, and in whole animals. When MYP is introduced into the coelom of adult females, it is first accumulated by the somatic cells of the ovarian capsule and is then transported to the oocytes and packaged into yolk platelets. This phenomenon is specific for MYP and accurately reflects the endogenous MYP packaging. We find that oocytes cultured in isolation are endocytically active and capable of selectively packaging MYP into yolk platelets. Furthermore, oocytes that packaged exogenous MYP are capable of in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early development, enabling an in vivo documentation of MYP utilization and yolk platelet dynamics. These results demonstrate that the endocytic uptake of yolk proteins in sea urchins does not require a signal from their surrounding epithelial cells and can occur autonomous of the ovary. In addition, these results demonstrate that the entire population of yolk platelets is competent to receive new yolk protein input, suggesting that they are all made simultaneously during oogenesis. PMID:14499646

Brooks, Jacqueline M; Wessel, Gary M

2003-09-15

249

Toxic Effects of Crude Oil Combined with Oil Cleaner Simple Green on Yolk-sac Larvae and Adult Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (4 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Goal and Scope. Cleaner CRYSTAL Simple Green (SG) was used for the cleanup of the oil spill in the Baltic Sea near Lithuania in 2001. No scientific data are available on the effects and consequences of its application for local aquatic life. The aim of this study was to determine and compare sublethal effects of a) solution SG; b)

Milda Zita Vosyliene; Nijole Kazlauskiene

2005-01-01

250

Bull semen in vitro fertility after cryopreservation using egg yolk LDL: a comparison with Optidyl, a commercial egg yolk extender.  

PubMed

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have been previously isolated and identified as the cryoprotective fraction of yolk. The effect of LDL on sperm motility after freezing-thawing has been reported, but no study has been made to assess the effect of LDL on bull semen fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility of bull semen cryopreserved in the presence of LDL. Motility of semen cryopreserved in LDL was analyzed and compared to semen cryopreserved with Optidyl, a commercial extender containing egg yolk. To evaluate the fertilizing ability of semen, we used in vitro fertilization test, whereas acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were also evaluated. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was two fold higher after freezing in LDL than in Optidyl 54.4% versus 30.2% (P < 0.05). The cleavage rate was significantly higher after fertilization with semen frozen in LDL than with Optidyl 63.0% versus 54.8% (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed on the blastocyst rate after in vitro culture. Integrity of the acrosome and the plasma membrane were maintained in both extenders. In conclusion, LDL preserve bull semen quality and fertilizing ability, allowing also better semen motility, after the freeze-thaw process. PMID:14757475

Amirat, Lamia; Tainturier, Daniel; Jeanneau, Laëtitia; Thorin, Chantal; Gérard, Olivier; Courtens, Jean Luc; Anton, Marc

2004-04-01

251

SacPox from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a proficient lactonase  

PubMed Central

Background SacPox, an enzyme from the extremophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sac), was isolated by virtue of its phosphotriesterase (or paraoxonase; Pox) activity, i.e. its ability to hydrolyze the neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides. Later on, SacPox was shown to belong to the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase family that comprises natural lactonases, possibly involved in quorum sensing, and endowed with promiscuous, phosphotriesterase activity. Results Here, we present a comprehensive and broad enzymatic characterization of the natural lactonase and promiscuous organophosphorus hydrolase activities of SacPox, as well as a structural analysis using a model. Conclusion Kinetic experiments show that SacPox is a proficient lactonase, including at room temperature. Moreover, we discuss the observed differences in substrate specificity between SacPox and its closest homologues SsoPox and SisLac together with the possible structural causes for these observations.

2014-01-01

252

Bacterial and mycoplasmal flora of the healthy camelid conjunctival sac.  

PubMed

Healthy conjunctival sacs of 88 animals of 3 species of captive camelids (Lama glama, Lama guanicoe, Lama pacos) and llama-guanaco hybrids were sampled for bacterial and mycoplasmal flora. Mycoplasmas were not isolated from any animal. Eleven genera of bacteria were isolated. The most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas spp. Nine varieties of Pseudomonas were found, which represented at least 3 Pseudomonas species. Many of the bacterial isolates (especially the pseudomonads) are potential pathogens in the eyes of these camelids. PMID:1892259

Gionfriddo, J R; Rosenbusch, R; Kinyon, J M; Betts, D M; Smith, T M

1991-07-01

253

Fungal flora of the healthy camelid conjunctival sac.  

PubMed

Swab specimens for fungal isolation were collected from the healthy conjunctival sacs of 3 species of captive camelids (Lama glama, L guanicoe, L pacos) and llama-guanaco hybrids. Fungi were collected from over half the animals in winter (53%) and summer (56%). Fungal species of 10 genera were isolated. In both seasons, Aspergillus was the most commonly isolated genus; at least 9 species of Aspergillus were found. The fungal organisms isolated were similar to those found in healthy eyes of other domestic animals and may represent a random seeding from the environment where they are ubiquitous. PMID:1524286

Gionfriddo, J R; Gabal, M A; Betts, D M

1992-05-01

254

THE ORIGIN OF PROTEIN AND FATTY YOLK IN RANA PIPIENS  

PubMed Central

Electron microscope studies of young oocytes have demonstrated that the plate-like, hexagonally shaped yolk bodies previously observed in living cells are wholly within the substance of oocyte mitochondria and that they remain within these mitochondria while increasing in size. These bodies possess a crystalline structure consisting of what appear to be lines, with a spacing of 70 to 85 A, and appear very dense in the electron microscope. After formalin fixation such bodies give an intense positive test for protein, and when viewed in the electron microscope are only slightly less dense than after OsO4 fixation. Evidence is presented for the origin of these crystals within a single crista. The clusters of yolk globules previously studied in living cells are seen to consist of several types of bodies, but an irregular dense droplet predominates. This dense material is apparently secreted by small spherical bodies which, the evidence suggests, originate from the breaking up of filamentous mitochondria and which possess an outer double membrane and sometimes internal cristalike membranes. When thin sections of young oocytes are immersed in xylol the dense globules of the clusters are dissolved, but the hexagonal bodies are unaffected, indicating that the globules are of a predominantly fatty nature, while the hexagonal bodies are of a predominantly protein nature. Examination of mature or almost mature oocytes has revealed that the main body of the yolk platelets is crystalline in nature and is surrounded by a thick matrix which, in light microscope study, masks the fact that the face view of the main body of the platelets is often hexagonal. The spacing within the main body is found to be 70 to 85 A. The crystal laminae of this material can be resolved quite clearly into rows of particles. Dense globules of varying sizes are found in the cytoplasm between the platelets. When thin sections of these OsO4-fixed oocytes are immersed in xylol, the material of the globules is extracted and the crystalline material of the platelets remains unaffected, indicating the fatty nature of the globules and the protein nature of the platelets. The platelets of the mature egg resemble the hexagon bodies, previously described in young oocytes, in their protein nature, their crystalline spacing, and their hexagonal outline. This is given as strong evidence for the origin of the mature platelets by the growth of the intramitochondrial hexagon bodies. The biochemical implications of this study are discussed.

Ward, Robert T.

1962-01-01

255

Hypostase, embryonic sac and endosperm in Anethum graveolens L., and in various families.  

PubMed

The presence of pyriform hypostase tissue was investigated before double fertilization till the fusion of free endosperm nuclei in the embryonic sac of A. graveolens. Hypostase a glandular tissue, can secrete its cell contents into the embryonic sac during the development of free endosperm nuclei. Of 78 randomly selected families, 19 display different numbers of species with hypostase. In 15 of these families the hypostase is present together with the Polygonum type of embryonic sac and nuclear type of endosperm. PMID:757097

Szujkó-Lacza, J

1978-01-01

256

Numerical Simulations of Unsteady Shock Wave Interactions Using SaC and Fortran90  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly introduces SaC: a data-parallel language with an imperative feel but side-effect free and declarative. The experiences of porting a simulation\\u000a of unsteady shock waves in the Euler system from Fortran to SaC are reported. Both the SaC and Fortran code was run on a 16-core AMD machine. We demonstrate scalability and performance of our approach by comparison

Daniel Rolls; Carl Joslin; Alexei Kudryavtsev; Sven-bodo Scholz; Alexander V. Shafarenko

2009-01-01

257

[Pseudomyxoma peritonei spread into the right inguinal hernia sac--a case report].  

PubMed

Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare, progressive disease of unknown origin. The incidence is estimated at about 1-2/100,000,000 per year. The primary tumor site is usually discovered in the appendix or- in case of women--in ovaries, appearing as tumors of low malignancy. Making an accurate diagnosis causes difficulties--symptoms tend to be misleading, suggesting more frequent pathologies of the abdominal cavity. It is also not rare that the patient is for a long time asymptomatic. We present a case of a 68-year-old patient of the Surgical Oncology Department treated for pseudomyxoma peritonei, diagnosed incidentally at the time of clinical examination for the reasons of chronic hypertension. The symptoms reported by the patient did not suggest any neoplastic process of the peritoneal cavity. Systemic chemotherapy of two paths (a total number of 10 cycles) did not result and at the time of post-treatment control, due to no response to standard chemotherapy, it was decided to administer chemotherapy intraperitoneally in hyperthermia (HIPEC). During the operation, peritoneal cytoreduction prior to the scheduled HIPEC was performed; the right-sided inguinal hernia was repaired. Within the hernia sac the implanted myxoid cells were found, their presence inside was probably the main reason of clinical manifestation of the disease. PMID:24340893

Cichon, Paulina; Drucis, Kamil; Kakol, Michal; Jastrzebski, Tomasz; Polec, Tomasz

2013-10-01

258

Vertical Transmission of a Drosophila Endosymbiont Via Cooption of the Yolk Transport and Internalization Machinery  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Spiroplasma is a diverse bacterial clade that includes many vertically transmitted insect endosymbionts, including Spiroplasma poulsonii, a natural endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. These bacteria persist in the hemolymph of their adult host and exhibit efficient vertical transmission from mother to offspring. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism that underlies their vertical transmission, and here we provide strong evidence that these bacteria use the yolk uptake machinery to colonize the germ line. We show that Spiroplasma reaches the oocyte by passing through the intercellular space surrounding the ovarian follicle cells and is then endocytosed into oocytes within yolk granules during the vitellogenic stages of oogenesis. Mutations that disrupt yolk uptake by oocytes inhibit vertical Spiroplasma transmission and lead to an accumulation of these bacteria outside the oocyte. Impairment of yolk secretion by the fat body results in Spiroplasma not reaching the oocyte and a severe reduction of vertical transmission. We propose a model in which Spiroplasma first interacts with yolk in the hemolymph to gain access to the oocyte and then uses the yolk receptor, Yolkless, to be endocytosed into the oocyte. Cooption of the yolk uptake machinery is a powerful strategy for endosymbionts to target the germ line and achieve vertical transmission. This mechanism may apply to other endosymbionts and provides a possible explanation for endosymbiont host specificity.

Herren, Jeremy K.; Paredes, Juan C.; Schupfer, Fanny; Lemaitre, Bruno

2013-01-01

259

Caspase-3 mediated release of SAC domain containing fragment from Par-4 is necessary for the sphingosine-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor protein that selectively activates and induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. The cancer specific pro-apoptotic function of Par-4 is encoded in its centrally located SAC (Selective for Apoptosis induction in Cancer cells) domain (amino acids 137–195). The SAC domain itself is capable of nuclear entry, caspase activation, inhibition of NF-?B activity, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the precise mechanism(s) of how the SAC domain is released from Par-4, in response to apoptotic stimulation, is not well explored. Results In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that sphingosine (SPH), a member of the sphingolipid family, induces caspase-dependant cleavage of Par-4, leading to the release of SAC domain containing fragment from it. Par-4 is cleaved at the EEPD131G site on incubation with caspase-3 in vitro, and by treating cells with several anti-cancer agents. The caspase-3 mediated cleavage of Par-4 is blocked by addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, caspase-3 specific inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO, and by introduction of alanine substitution for D131 residue. Moreover, suppression of SPH-induced Akt dephosphorylation also abrogated the caspase dependant cleavage of Par-4. Conclusion Evidence provided here shows that Par-4 is cleaved by caspase-3 during SPH-induced apoptosis. Cleavage of Par-4 leads to the generation of SAC domain containing fragment which may possibly be essential and sufficient to induce or augment apoptosis in cancer cells.

2013-01-01

260

The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis.

Ikonomov, Ognian C., E-mail: oikonomo@med.wayne.edu; Filios, Catherine, E-mail: cfilios@med.wayne.edu; Sbrissa, Diego, E-mail: dsbrissa@med.wayne.edu; Chen, Xuequn, E-mail: xchen@med.wayne.edu; Shisheva, Assia, E-mail: ashishev@med.wayne.edu

2013-10-18

261

Cytologically atypical anal sac adenocarcinoma in a dog.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old intact female Shetland Sheepdog with tenesmus had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus. On cytologic examination, 2 types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Eosinophilic PAS- and Alcian blue-positive secretory material was found in the center of some glandular structures. Both neoplastic cell types had positive staining with paradoxical concanavalin A and expressed cytokeratin, but not vimentin, S-100, ?-smooth muscle actin, or desmin. Based on location and histologic and immunohistochemical features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs. PMID:22551298

Sakai, Hiroki; Murakami, Mami; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Hoshino, Yuki; Mori, Takashi; Maruo, Kohji; Yanai, Tokuma

2012-06-01

262

Distribution of yolk polypeptides in the follicle cells during the differentiation of the follicular epithelium in Sarcophaga bullata egg follicles.  

PubMed

In S. bullata, the ovaries contribute to the synthesis of yolk polypeptides. A specific antiserum for yolk polypeptides was used to visualize the presence of yolk polypeptides in the follicle cells during their differentiation. After vitellogenesis has started, all follicle cells contain yolk polypeptides. The squamous follicle cells covering the nurse cells and the border cells lose yolk polypeptides before mid-vitellogenesis, whereas the follicle cells over the oocyte contain yolk polypeptides until after late vitellogenesis. All follicle cells are immunonegative afterwards. In vitro translation of poly(A)+ RNA demonstrated that the presence of yolk polypeptide mRNA correlates well with follicle cell immunopositivity for yolk polypeptides. This suggests that the follicle cells synthesize the ovarian yolk polypeptides. Differences in cellular and nuclear morphology, total and poly(A)+ RNA synthesis and the rate of yolk polypeptide synthesis were shown to be correlated with the presence or absence of yolk polypeptides in the differentiating follicular epithelium. The possible relationship between these different aspects of follicle cell differentiation, follicle cell polyploidy and the extracellular current pattern around follicles are discussed. PMID:3449367

Geysen, J; Cardoen, J; De Loof, A

1987-09-01

263

Ultrastructural evaluation of adenocarcinomas derived from apocrine glands of the anal sac associated with hypercalcemia in dogs.  

PubMed Central

Adenocarcinomas derived from apocrine glands of the anal sac and associated with persistent hypercalcemia in dogs were composed of tumor cells with numerous profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum, clusters of free ribosomes, and a prominent Golgi apparatus. Neoplastic cells contained microtubules, microfilaments, tonofibrils, and had two types of electron-dense granules. Large lysosomelike dense bodies ranged from 0.6 to 2.2 microns in diameter and had a poorly delineated limiting membrane. Small granules (150-400 nm in diameter) had a sharply delineated limiting membrane with a narrow submembranous space and a homogeneous dense core. These smaller granules usually were located near the apexes of neoplastic cells, whereas the larger granules were situated near the base of cells. Apocrine cells in glands of the anal sac from control dogs that were in the secretory phase were columnar and had large dilated profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum fused with the plasmalemma and appeared to secrete their product directly into the lumens of acini, characteristic of merocrine secretion. Apical blebs of electron-lucent cytoplasm pinched off from nonneoplastic aprocine cells and were released into glandular lumens. Similar electron-lucent cytoplasmic blebs were present at the apexes of tumor cells. Myoepithelial cells were present between the epithelial cells and basement membrane in normal apocrine glands and were absent in neoplasms derived from these glands. Identification of the contents of the secretory-like granules in tumor cells and characterization of the hypercalcemic factor in the plasma or tumor tissue from dogs with this syndrome will help explain the pathogenesis of hypercalcemia associated with malignancy in animals and man. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11

Meuten, D. J.; Capen, C. C.; Kociba, G. J.; Chew, D. J.; Cooper, B. J.

1982-01-01

264

Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation of ovarian tumors.  

PubMed

Aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC), which are useful in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors (mostly neoplasms but also a few tumor-like lesions), are discussed. The topic is first approached by considering the different growth patterns and cell types that may be encountered. Then a few other specific situations in which IHC may assist are reviewed. Selected findings largely, or only, of academic interest are also mentioned. One of the most common situations in which IHC may aid is in the evaluation of tumors with follicles or other patterns which bring a sex cord-stromal tumor into the differential. The distinction between a sex cord tumor and an endometrioid carcinoma with sex-cord-like patterns may be greatly aided by the triad of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), inhibin, and calretinin, the latter two being typically positive and EMA negative in sex cord tumors, the converse being typical of endometrioid carcinoma. It should be emphasized that granulosa cell tumors may be inhibin negative and, albeit less specific, calretinin is more reliable in evaluating this particular issue. Lack of staining for inhibin and calretinin may also be supportive in leading to consideration of diverse other neoplasms that may form follicles, including metastatic tumors as varied as carcinoid and melanoma. The well-known staining of the latter neoplasm for S-100 protein and HMB-45 may be very helpful in evaluating melanomas with follicular or other unusual patterns, a challenging aspect of ovarian tumor interpretation. The most common monodermal teratoma, struma ovarii, usually has an overt follicular pattern and is easily recognized, but recognition of unusual appearances ranging from oxyphilic to clear cell to various patterns of malignant struma may be greatly aided by a thyroglobulin or TTF 1 stain. IHC for neuroendocrine markers may assist in the diagnosis of primary and metastatic carcinoid tumor. The broad differential diagnosis of glandular neoplasms with an endometrioid-pseudoendometrioid morphology, or mucinous cell type, has been the subject of much exploration in recent years, particularly the distinction between primary and metastatic neoplasms. The well-known CK7 positive, CK20 negative phenotype of primary endometrioid carcinoma, and the converse profile in most metastatic large intestinal adenocarcinomas with a pseudoendometrioid morphology, has been much publicized but albeit an appropriate supportive adjunct in many cases, exceptions from the typical staining pattern may be encountered. It is even less helpful in the case of primary versus metastatic mucinous neoplasia. Evaluation of the expression of mucin gene products has shown mixed, essentially unreliable, results. Experience with other new markers, such as CDX-2, villin, beta catenin, and P504S (racemase), is limited but is in aggregate promising with regard to providing some aid in this area. The rare differential of metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma versus primary ovarian mucinous or endometrioid carcinoma may be aided by strong p16 staining of the former. Staining for alpha-fetoprotein may aid in confirming the diagnosis of endometrioid-like (and hepatoid) variants of yolk sac tumor. Ependymoma of the ovary may also have an endometrioid-like glandular pattern, but positive stains for glial fibrillary acidic protein contrast with the negative results in others neoplasms with a similar pattern. Immunostains may be very helpful in the evaluation of oxyphilic tumors and tumor-like lesions and in some unusual forms of clear cell neoplasia, such as clear cell struma, both subjects being reviewed herein. Immunostains may highlight both the presence and extent of epithelial cells in a variety of circumstances, including microinvasive foci in cases of serous borderline tumors and mucinous carcinomas, and in determining the extent of carcinoma cells and reactive cells within mural nodules of mucinous neoplasms. As in tumor pathology in general, various markers may be crucial in the diagnosis of small round cell tumors of the ovary, and familiar markers of epithelial, l

McCluggage, W Glenn; Young, Robert H

2005-02-01

265

THE DEPENDENCE OF CECROPIA YOLK FORMATION IN VITRO ON SPECIFIC BLOOD PROTEINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of cecropia vitellogenic follicles to form yolk during short-term in vitro in- cubation in female blood was analyzed by labeling with fluorescein-conjugated serum globulin, tritiated cecropia blood proteins, or tritiated amino acid

STEVEN J. HAUSMAN; LUCY M. ANDERSON; WILLIAM H. TELFER

1971-01-01

266

Allergy Reactions in Persons Inoculated Cutaneously with Live Egg-Yolk Tularemia Vaccine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Live egg-yolk tularemia vaccine used cutaneously causes in the human organism the same special intradermal allergy reaction to tularemia as does transferred tularemia itself. The intradermal allergy reaction as a response to live tularemia vaccine is a sp...

S. S. Dyachenko O. P. Khyzhynska S. H. Buyalo

1968-01-01

267

Effect of retinyl palmitate supplementation on egg yolk retinol and cholesterol concentrations in quail.  

PubMed

1. The purpose of this study was to assess the incorporation of retinol into quail egg yolk and cholesterol concentration in response to supplementation with different quantities of retinyl palmitate (600, 1200, 2400 and 4800 microg). 2. Supplementations were performed weekly for 4 weeks and the yolk retinol was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. 3. The results showed a progressive increase in the incorporation of retinol into the egg yolk in response to supplementation, reaching values 384% higher than control values. 4. At the end of supplementation we observed a significant decrease in egg yolk retinol concentrations with supplementations of 2400 and 4800 microg, the most enduring showing high retinol contents even after 3 weeks. 5. Supplementation increased egg weight but neither egg production nor cholesterol levels were significantly altered. PMID:18704794

Ramalho, H M M; Dias da Silva, K H; Alves dos Santos, V V; dos Santos Cavalcanti, J; Dimenstein, R

2008-07-01

268

Proposed Education Guidelines and Procedures: Sac and Fox Nation of Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These educational guidelines and procedures were developed after extensive review of current education programs for the Sac and Fox Nations of Oklahoma. The guidelines, prepared by a committee of local educators appointed by a tribal business committee, examined the anticipated needs for future generations of the Sac and Fox people. The document…

Sac and Fox Nation, OK. Education Committee.

269

The black lacrimal sac: a clinicopathological correlation of a malignant melanoma with anterior lacrimal crest infiltration.  

PubMed

Primary lacrimal sac melanoma is an extremely rare clinical entity with fewer than 25 cases reported in the literature. We present a well-documented case of lacrimal sac melanoma with anterior lacrimal crest infiltration and discuss the clinical, radiological and histopathological features along with surgical challenges and treatment. PMID:23456510

Pujari, Aditi; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Mulay, Kaustubh; Naik, Milind N; Honavar, Santosh G

2014-02-01

270

Sac1, a putative regulator that is critical for survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during sulfur deprivation.  

PubMed Central

The sac1 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is aberrant in most of the normal responses to sulfur limitation; it cannot synthesize arylsulfatase, does not take up sulfate as rapidly as wild-type cells, and does not synthesize periplasmic proteins that normally accumulate during sulfur-limited growth. Here, we show that the sac1 mutant dies much more rapidly than wild-type cells during sulfur deprivation; this emphasizes the vital role of the acclimation process. The loss of viability of the sac1 mutant during sulfur deprivation is only observed in the light and is mostly inhibited by DCMU. During sulfur-stress, wild-type cells, but not the sac1 mutant, downregulate photosynthesis. Thus, death of the sac1 mutant during sulfur deprivation is probably a consequence of its inability to downregulate photosynthesis. Furthermore, since SAC1 is necessary for the downregulation of photosynthesis, the process must be highly controlled and not simply the result of a general decrease in protein synthesis due to sulfur limitation. Genomic and cDNA copies of the SAC1 gene have been cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of Sac1 is similar to an Escherichia coli gene that may involved in the response of E.coli to nutrient deprivation. Images

Davies, J P; Yildiz, F H; Grossman, A

1996-01-01

271

74. SAC control center addition sect 9top three floors, first ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

74. SAC control center addition sect 9-top three floors, first floor plan, drawing number AS-BLT.AW30-02-03, dated May, 1958 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

272

84. SAC control center addition sect. 9top three floors elevations, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

84. SAC control center addition sect. 9-top three floors elevations, drawing number AS-BLT.AW30-02-03, dated 10 May, 1958 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

273

Finite Element Analysis of Stresses Developed in the Blood Sac of a Left Ventricular Assist Device  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research is to develop a 3D finite element (FE) model of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to predict stresses in the blood sac. The hyperelastic stress-strain curves for the segmented poly(ether polyurethane urea) blood sac were determined in both tension and compression using a servo-hydraulic testing system at various strain rates. Over the range of strain rates studied, the sac was not strain rate sensitive, however the material response was different for tension versus compression. The experimental tension and compression properties were used in a FE model that consisted of the pusher plate, blood sac and pump case. A quasi-static analysis was used to allow for nonlinearities due to contact and material deformation. The 3D FE model showed that blood sac stresses are not adversely affected by the location of the inlet and outlet ports of the device and that over the systolic ejection phase of the simulation the prediction of blood sac stresses from the full 3D model and an axisymmetric model are the same. Minimizing stresses in the blood sac will increase the longevity of the blood sac in vivo.

Haut Donahue, T. L.; Dehlin, W.; Gillespie, J.; Weiss, W.J.; Rosenberg, G.

2009-01-01

274

Mammalian laryngseal air sacs add variability to the vocal tract impedance: Physical and computational modeling  

PubMed Central

Cavities branching off the main vocal tract are ubiquitous in nonhumans. Mammalian air sacs exist in human relatives, including all four great apes, but only a substantially reduced version exists in humans. The present paper focuses on acoustical functions of the air sacs. The hypotheses are investigated on whether the air sacs affect amplitude of utterances and?or position of formants. A multilayer synthetic model of the vocal folds coupled with a vocal tract model was utilized. As an air sac model, four configurations were considered: open and closed uniform tube-like side branches, a rigid cavity, and an inflatable cavity. Results suggest that some air sac configurations can enhance the sound level. Furthermore, an air sac model introduces one or more additional resonance frequencies, shifting formants of the main vocal tract to some extent but not as strongly as previously suggested. In addition, dynamic range of vocalization can be extended by the air sacs. A new finding is also an increased variability of the vocal tract impedance, leading to strong nonlinear source-filter interaction effects. The experiments demonstrated that air-sac-like structures can destabilize the sound source. The results were validated by a transmission line computational model.

Riede, Tobias; Tokuda, Isao T.; Munger, Jacob B.; Thomson, Scott L.

2008-01-01

275

Infestation of the lacrimal sac by Rhinosporidium seeberi: A clinicopathological case report  

PubMed Central

Rhinosporidium seeberi, till recently known as a fungus, has been reclassified as a protistan parasite. It infects humans and many animal species. The authors describe a rare case of oculosporidiosis with involvement of the lacrimal sac exhibiting features of idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease in a young male patient. Clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis have been discussed.

Mukherjee, Bipasha; Mohan, Ashwin; Sumathi, V; Biswas, Jyotirmay

2013-01-01

276

Infestation of the lacrimal sac by Rhinosporidium seeberi: a clinicopathological case report.  

PubMed

Rhinosporidium seeberi , till recently known as a fungus, has been reclassified as a protistan parasite. It infects humans and many animal species. The authors describe a rare case of oculosporidiosis with involvement of the lacrimal sac exhibiting features of idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease in a young male patient. Clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis have been discussed. PMID:24212311

Mukherjee, Bipasha; Mohan, Ashwin; Sumathi, V; Biswas, Jyotirmay

2013-10-01

277

An Isolated Venous Sac as a Novel Site for Cell Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Transplanting pancreatic islets is of significant interest for type 1 diabetes mellitus. After intraportal injection of islets, inferior engraftment and eventual loss of transplanted islets constitute major limitations. Therefore, alternative approaches will be helpful. Here, we evaluated in animals whether an isolated venous sac would support survival of transplanted islets, along with correction of hyperglycemia. Methods Pancreatic islets isolated from adult Lewis rats were transplanted either into an isolated venous sac made from lumbar vein or into the portal vein of syngeneic rats. The integrity and vascular organization of the venous sac was determined by studies of the local microcirculation. The engraftment, survival, and function of transplanted islets were analyzed by histology, including endocrine function in situ and by glycemic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Results Transplanted islets showed normal morphology with insulin expression in isolated venous sac during the long term. Transplanted islets received blood supply from vasa vasorum and had access to drainage through venous tributaries in the venous sac. This resulted in restoration of euglycemia in diabetic rats. Removal of islet graft-bearing venous sac in diabetic rats led to recurrence of hyperglycemia. By contrast, euglycemia was not restored in rats treated by intraportal transplantation of islets. Conclusions We demonstrated that pancreatic islets successfully engrafted and functioned in the isolated venous sac with ability to restore euglycemia in diabetic rats. Therefore, the isolated venous sac offers a new site for transplantation of pancreatic islets. This would be clinically beneficial as an alternative to intrahepatic islet transplantation.

Kakabadze, Zurab; Shanava, Koba; Ricordi, Camillo; Shapiro, A.M. James; Gupta, Sanjeev; Berishvili, Ekaterine

2013-01-01

278

Endometriosis within a left-sided inguinal hernia sac  

PubMed Central

Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder wherein ectopic endometrial glands and stroma are found at extrauterine sites. Extrapelvic endometriosis is a well-documented, yet rare, disease entity that can affect almost any organ system. Inguinal endometriosis is an extremely rare disease entity characterized by tender inguinal swelling. Here we report a case of a sudden-onset and acutely painful left inguinal hernia with concordant endometriosis. A review of the literature is presented. The presence of isolated endometriosis contained within a left-sided inguinal hernia sac has, to our knowledge, never been reported. Often diagnosed incidentally or on histologic examination, general surgeons should consider inguinal endometriosis in the differential diagnosis of inguinal masses, even in the absence of catamenial symptoms. Surgical excision, with gynecologic follow-up, is locally curative and the treatment of choice for inguinal endometriosis.

Albutt, Katherine; Glass, Charity; Odom, Stephen; Gupta, Alok

2014-01-01

279

Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac  

SciTech Connect

The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection.

Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

1987-07-01

280

The use of dried hop waste as a yolk colouring agent in poultry diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Dehydrated waste hop leaf material was compared with sun?dried lucerne as a yolk colouring additive in the diet of laying hens in cages and on deep litter.2. Hop waste caused no change in food intake or egg production.3. At an equal inclusion rate dried hop leaves resulted in darker coloured yolks than lucerne in both production systems.4. There was

M. Statham

1984-01-01

281

Conservation and divergence in the control of yolk protein genes in dipteran insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the conservation of regulatory elements for sex- and tissue-specific gene expression in three dipteran\\u000a species, Drosophila melanogaster, Musca domestica and Calliphora erythrocephala, using the yolk protein (yp) genes. Yolk proteins of the fruitfly, medfly, housefly and blowfly are very well conserved both in their sequence and their\\u000a expression in ovarian follicle cells and in fat bodies of

C. Tortiglione; M. Bownes

1997-01-01

282

Production of Egg Yolk Coloring Material by a Fermentation Process1  

PubMed Central

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was cultivated in a yeast propagator, for the production of biomass and carotenoids. A spray-dried preparation of the yeast was incorporated into the diets of laying chickens for the promotion of egg yolk color. Several aspects of the effect of media on growth and carotenogenesis of pigmented yeast were examined. Addition of 1 to 2% of Rhodotorula yeast to the feeding mixture considerably improved egg yolk color. The possibility of using carotenogenic yeasts as a feed supplement is suggested.

Schwarz, Y.; Margalith, P.

1965-01-01

283

Passive protection effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins on enterovirus 71 infected mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the passive protective efficiency of immunoglobulin in yolk (IgY) specific against human enterovirus type 71 (EV71). The antibody was raised by intramuscular immunization to 10 White Leghorn hens, with inactivated human EV71 serving as the antigen. The titer and specificity of the antibody were analyzed from purified IgY in the egg yolks

Jenn-Fa Liou; Chih-Wei Chang; Jui-jane Tailiu; Chun-Keung Yu; Huan-Yao Lei; Lih-Ren Chen; Chein Tai

2010-01-01

284

GnRH - a Missing Link between Testosterone Concentrations in Yolk and Plasma and Its Intergenerational Effects  

PubMed Central

Despite the strong interest in hormone-mediated maternal effects two key questions concerning their mechanisms are as yet unanswered: First, whether the deposition of hormones in the egg yolk is coupled with the levels of these hormones in the maternal circulation, and second, whether epigenetic changes as induced by embryonic exposure to maternal yolk hormones impinge on yolk hormone deposition at adulthood. We investigated the responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in female canaries whose embryonic exposure to yolk testosterone had been manipulated. This enabled us to study to what extent GnRH interlinks testosterone concentrations in female circulation and egg yolk as well as the intergenerational potential of hormone-mediated maternal effects. As expected, canary females responded to GnRH with a rise in plasma testosterone. The GnRH-responsiveness was positively correlated with the yolk testosterone content. Factors stimulating the release of GnRH will, therefore, lead to an increase of testosterone in both plasma and egg, posing a potential constraint on the yolk hormone deposition due to testosterone related trade-offs within the laying female. Exposure to elevated yolk testosterone levels as embryo reduced the GnRH-responsiveness in adulthood, potentially limiting environmental influences on yolk testosterone deposition, but the concentrations of yolk testosterone itself were not affected.

Muller, Wendt; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Eens, Marcel

2011-01-01

285

Malignant germ cell tumors display common microRNA profiles resulting in global changes in expression of messenger RNA targets.  

PubMed

Despite their extensive clinical and pathologic heterogeneity, all malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) are thought to originate from primordial germ cells. However, no common biological abnormalities have been identified to date. We profiled 615 microRNAs (miRNA) in pediatric malignant GCTs, controls, and GCT cell lines (48 samples in total) and re-analyzed available miRNA expression data in adult gonadal malignant GCTs. We applied the bioinformatic algorithm Sylamer to identify miRNAs that are of biological importance by inducing global shifts in mRNA levels. The most significant differentially expressed miRNAs in malignant GCTs were all from the miR-371-373 and miR-302 clusters (adjusted P < 0.00005), which were overexpressed regardless of histologic subtype [yolk sac tumor (YST)/seminoma/embryonal carcinoma (EC)], site (gonadal/extragonadal), or patient age (pediatric/adult). Sylamer revealed that the hexamer GCACTT, complementary to the 2- to 7-nucleotide miRNA seed AAGUGC shared by six members of the miR-371-373 and miR-302 clusters, was the only sequence significantly enriched in the 3'-untranslated region of mRNAs downregulated in pediatric malignant GCTs (as a group), YSTs and ECs, and in adult YSTs (all versus nonmalignant tissue controls; P < 0.05). For the pediatric samples, downregulated genes containing the 3'-untranslated region GCACTT showed significant overrepresentation of Gene Ontology terms related to cancer-associated processes, whereas for downregulated genes lacking GCACTT, Gene Ontology terms generally represented metabolic processes only, with few genes per term (adjusted P < 0.05). We conclude that the miR-371-373 and miR-302 clusters are universally overexpressed in malignant GCTs and coordinately downregulate mRNAs involved in biologically significant pathways. PMID:20332240

Palmer, Roger D; Murray, Matthew J; Saini, Harpreet K; van Dongen, Stijn; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Muralidhar, Balaji; Pett, Mark R; Thornton, Claire M; Nicholson, James C; Enright, Anton J; Coleman, Nicholas

2010-04-01

286

Ground water in the Cul-de-Sac Plain, Haiti  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cul-de-Sac Plain is perhaps the most important agricultural area in Haiti because of its nearness and accessibility to Port-au-Prince, the nation's capital, metropolis, and principal seaport. Most of the agricultural produce consumed in Port-au-Prince as well as a considerable part of that exported from Haiti is grown in the plain. Because of variable and poorly distributed rainfall, high temperature, and high evaporation, semiarid climatic conditions prevail in the plain. Irrigation is, therefore, necessary for successful farming. There are no regulatory or storage facilities on the streams that enter the plain, but the mean and low-water stream flow and the discharge of springs are almost entirely appropriated for irrigation. Ground water has been utilized for irrigation to an increasing extent by the Haitian American Sugar Company, which has put down about 100 wells in the plain since 1919. Outside the existing irrigated areas of the plain are large tracts of potentially irrigable land that are uncultivated and agriculturally unproductive for lack of water. The object of the present study was to determine the possibilities of bringing these lands into cultivation by irrigation from wells. This study was part of a larger program of the Food Supply Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, to increase the production of food in Haiti. From September through November 1948 the senior author, a member of the U. S. Geological Survey, spent three months in the field in an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. He was ably assisted by Mr. Rémy C. Lemoine, Haitian engineer-geologist, employed by the Food Supply Division. The field work included principally the geologic mapping of' the plain and the adjacent mountain borders, a ground-water inventory of existing wells and springs, and a general evaluation of significant geologic and hydrologic features.

Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

1949-01-01

287

pH sensing via bicarbonate-regulated "soluble" adenylyl cyclase (sAC)  

PubMed Central

Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a source of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3?, 5? monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is directly regulated by bicarbonate (HCO?3) ions. In living cells, HCO?3 ions are in nearly instantaneous equilibrium with carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH due to the ubiquitous presence of carbonic anhydrases. Numerous biological processes are regulated by CO2, HCO?3, and/or pH, and in a number of these, sAC has been shown to function as a physiological CO2/HCO3/pH sensor. In this review, we detail the known pH sensing functions of sAC, and we discuss two highly-studied, pH-dependent pathways in which sAC might play a role.

Rahman, Nawreen; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

2013-01-01

288

Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

1992-01-01

289

Occurence of a sialylglycopeptide and free sialylglycans in hen's egg yolk.  

PubMed

Free sialylglycans (FSGs) and a sialylglycopeptide (SGP) as components of hen's egg yolk were found and their chemical structures were determined. SGP and FSGs were isolated from fresh egg yolk by treatment with phenol, gel filtration and successive chromatographies on columns of anion- and cation-exchangers. They were localized in the yolk plasma. The glycan moiety of SGP, which was liberated by PNGase digestion, was studied for the chemical structure by HPLC mapping with p-aminobenzoic ethylester-derivatization, sugar composition analysis, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and the glycomoiety was found to be an N-linked disialyl-biantennary glycan. The amino acid sequence of the peptide moiety of SGP was determined to consist of Lys-Val-Ala-Asn-Lys-Thr, the Asn of which is modified with the disialylglycan moiety. FSGs were determined to be two free disialyl-biantennary glycans whose reducing end was either Man beta1-4GlcNAc (FSG-I) or Man beta1-4GlcNAc beta1-4GlcNAc (FSG-II). Since the molar value of SGP present in one egg yolk (2.8 micromol) is comparable to those of well-known major yolk proteins, low density lipoprotein, lipovitellins and phosvitin, it can be considered that SGP is one of the major components in hen's egg yolk. PMID:9133639

Seko, A; Koketsu, M; Nishizono, M; Enoki, Y; Ibrahim, H R; Juneja, L R; Kim, M; Yamamoto, T

1997-04-17

290

Ipilimumab After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Persistent or Progressive Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Immature Teratoma; Ovarian Mature Teratoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Teratoma With Seminoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor With Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor and Teratoma With Seminoma

2013-03-26

291

Evolution of yolk protein genes in the Echinodermata.  

PubMed

Vitellogenin genes (vtg) encode large lipid transfer proteins (LLTPs) that are typically female-specific, functioning as precursors to major yolk proteins (MYPs). Within the phylum Echinodermata, however, the MYP of the Echinozoa (Echinoidea + Holothuroidea) is expressed by an unrelated transferrin-like gene that has a reproductive function in both sexes. We investigated egg proteins in the Asterozoa (Asteroidea + Ophiuroidea), a sister clade to the Echinozoa, showing that eggs of the asteroid Parvulastra exigua contain a vitellogenin protein (Vtg). vtg is expressed by P. exigua, a species with large eggs and nonfeeding larvae, and by the related asterinid Patiriella regularis which has small eggs and feeding larvae. In the Asteroidea, therefore, the reproductive function of vtg is conserved despite significant life history evolution. Like the echinozoan MYP gene, asteroid vtg is expressed in both sexes and may play a role in the development of both ovaries and testes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that a putative Vtg from the sea urchin genome, a likely pseudogene, does not clade with asteroid Vtg. We propose the following sequence as a potential pathway for the evolution of YP genes in the Echinodermata: (1) the ancestral echinoderm produced YPs derived from Vtg, (2) bisexual vtg expression subsequently evolved in the echinoderm lineage, (3) the reproductive function of vtg was assumed by a transferrin-like gene in the ancestral echinozoan, and (4) redundant echinozoan vtg was released from stabilizing selection. PMID:23017023

Prowse, Thomas A A; Byrne, Maria

2012-01-01

292

Cytotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of phosvitin from egg yolk.  

PubMed

Egg yolk phosvitin is one of the most phosphorylated proteins in nature, and thus has a strong metal-binding ability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of phosvitin in vitro. Using the 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, the cytotoxicity of phosvitin was evaluated in human cancer cell lines of various tissue origins, including the cervix (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), stomach (AGS), lung (A549 and SK-MES-1), liver (HepG2), and larynx (Hep-2). The growth of all cancer cell lines was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by phosvitin. Among the cancer cell lines tested, MCF-7 and SK-MES-1 were the least sensitive and HeLa, AGS, and HepG2 were the most sensitive to phosvitin. The 50% inhibition of cell viability values of phosvitin were 5.38, 11.57, 4.78, 6.98, 11.82, 3.93, and 9.97 mg/mL for HeLa, MCF-7, AGS, A549, SK-MES-1, HepG2, and Hep-2, respectively. The protective effects of phosvitin against DNA damage in human leukocytes indicated that phosvitin showed protective effects against the oxidative stress-induced DNA damages in human leukocytes. These results suggested that phosvitin has a high potential to be used as an anticancer agent for humans. PMID:24902700

Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Minhee; Park, Eunju; Ahn, Dong Uk; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-08-01

293

Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.  

PubMed

We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones. PMID:23086395

Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

2012-12-01

294

Guidance in vitro of the pollen tube to the naked embryo sac of torenia fournieri  

PubMed Central

The precise guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac is critical to the successful sexual reproduction of flowering plants. We demonstrate here the guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac in vitro by using the naked embryo sac of Torenia fournieri, which protrudes from the micropyle of the ovule. We developed a medium for culture of both the ovule and the pollen tube of T. fournieri and cocultivated them in a thin layer of solid medium. Although pollen tubes that had germinated in vitro passed naked embryo sacs, some pollen tubes that grew semi-in vitro through a cut style arrived precisely at the site of entry into the embryo sac, namely, the filiform apparatus of the synergids. When pollen tubes were unable to enter the embryo sac, they continuously grew toward the same filiform apparatus, forming narrow coils. Pollen tubes selectively arrived at complete, unfertilized embryo sacs but did not arrive at those of heat-treated ovules or those with disrupted synergids. These results convincingly demonstrate that pollen tubes are specifically attracted to the region of the filiform apparatus of living synergids in vitro.

Higashiyama, T; Kuroiwa, H; Kawano, S; Kuroiwa, T

1998-01-01

295

Effect of vitamin E and A supplementation on egg yolk alpha-tocopherol concentration.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to asses the effect of dietary dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-TAC) and vitamin A supplementation on egg yolk alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) concentration. A total of 96 ISA brown hens (a brown-egg laying hen), 32 wk of age, was used. Eight concentrations of alpha-TAC (0, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, and 1,280 IU/kg diet) were included in a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 4,000 IU of vitamin A/kg diet. Production parameters were not affected by dietary treatment. Interhen variation in yolk alpha-T concentration increased at higher dietary intakes. Logarithmic transformation stabilized variance and showed the existence of a linear relationship between dietary alpha-TAC supplementation level and alpha-T egg yolk concentration (P < 0.001). As the dietary concentration of alpha-TAC rose, efficiency of uptake of alpha-T from feed to yolk decreased linearly (P < 0.001). A parallel experiment was carried out in which four additional groups of hens were fed diets containing four levels of dietary alpha-TAC (0, 40, 160, and 640 IU/kg) and 40,000 IU vitamin A/kg diet. A significantly lower egg yolk alpha-T concentration was found in hens fed diets including the highest level of vitamin A supplementation (P < 0.001). No interaction of dietary alpha-TAC and vitamin A concentrations was observed on egg yolk alpha-T concentration. No effect of dietary treatment was observed on yolk oxidation and other egg quality characteristics. PMID:11902415

Grobas, S; Méndez, J; Lopez, Bote C; De, Blas C; Mateos, G G

2002-03-01

296

Effects of carotenoids from lucerne, marigold and tomato on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition.  

PubMed

1. The effects of various sources of natural carotenoids (Px alfalfa concentrate, tomato powder and marigold extract) as feed additives in quail diets on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition were investigated. 2. Adult Japanese quail were fed one of 5 different diets for 23 d: three diets each contained Px alfalfa concentrate (PX) or tomato powder (TP) or marigold extract (MG), one diet contained marigold extract and tomato powder (MG + TP) and a control diet (wheat/barley based) was low in carotenoid. All products were added at a rate of 2%, apart from marigold extract which was added at a rate of 0.2%. 3. Visual assessment of yolk colour (Roche colour fan) showed a stabilised yolk colour of 1.6, 7.7, 8.5, 8.8 and 10.6 for the control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP treatments, respectively. 4. The total carotenoid concentration of the egg yolks were 2.2, 22.4, 4.1, 39.0 and 37.7 microg/g for the experimental groups fed the following diets: control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP, respectively. Deposition of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in the egg yolk was unaffected by treatments. 5. Lutein was shown to be the major carotenoid in the egg yolk, comprising 1.65, 17.97, 2.03, 31.14 and 28.57 microg/g in control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP, respectively. Inclusion of TP in the quail diet resulted in lycopene transfer to the egg. 6. It was concluded that, in comparison with the control group, there was an increase in the yolk concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and beta-carotene in eggs produced by female quail fed diets supplemented with natural carotenoids. PMID:17050099

Karadas, F; Grammenidis, E; Surai, P F; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C

2006-10-01

297

Analysis for stress environment in the alveolar sac model  

PubMed Central

Better understanding of alveolar mechanics is very important in order to avoid lung injuries for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for treatment of respiratory problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the alveolar mechanics for two different alveolar sac models, one based on actual geometry and the other an idealized spherical geometry using coupled fluid-solid computational analysis. Both the models were analyzed through coupled fluid-solid analysis to estimate the parameters such as pressures/velocities and displacements/stresses under mechanical ventilation conditions. The results obtained from the fluid analysis indicate that both the alveolar geometries give similar results for pressures and velocities. However, the results obtained from coupled fluid-solid analysis indicate that the actual alveolar geometry results in smaller displacements in comparison to a spherical alveolar model. This trend is also true for stress/strain between the two models. The results presented indicate that alveolar geometry greatly affects the pressure/velocities as well as displacements and stresses/strains.

Pidaparti, Ramana M.; Burnette, Matthew; Heise, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Angela

2014-01-01

298

Development of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies against Streptococcus mitis - Purification and Neutralizing Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Chicken Egg Yolk antibodies (IgY) were raised in 24 week old white leg horn chickens against Streptococcus mitis (MTCC 2696). The chickens received Booster injections of increasing concentrations of antigen to raise the antibody level in egg yolk. The antibodies were purified from immunized chicken egg yolk by Poly ethylene Glycol (PEG) and Ammonium sulphate precipitation method and further purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange column chromatography. High titre of more than 1:10000 antibodies were detected by Indirect antigen capture ELISA at 150th day of observation. IgY concentration varied in the range of 0.85 – 7.6mg/ml of yolk throughout the immunization period. Growth inhibition assay showed the absence of growth when the specific egg yolk antibodies was added to the Streptococcus mitis culture. Inhibition ELISA shows decrease in absorbance with increasing concentration of IgY. The results indicate that antibodies generated in chicken could be used for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes in case of Streptococcus mitis

Meenatchisundaram, S; Shanmugam, V; Anjali, V M

2011-01-01

299

Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis.  

PubMed

A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000(th) high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g(-1) at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g(-1) at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg(-1). The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles. PMID:23846530

Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

2013-09-01

300

Tomato powder in laying hen diets: effects on concentrations of yolk carotenoids and lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed

1. The effects of tomato powder supplementation on performance, egg quality, serum and egg yolk carotenoids, vitamins and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in were investigated in laying hens in mid-lay. 2. A total of 90 laying hens, 49 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate cages, 5 birds per cage. Birds were randomly fed on one of three diets: basal diet and basal diet added with 5 or 10 g tomato powder per kg diet. 3. As tomato powder concentration increased, there were linear increases in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk colour and a linear decrease in feed conversion. Shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh unit remained unchanged in response to dietary treatments. 4. Concentrations of serum and egg yolk lycopene, ?-carotene, lutein and vitamin A increased for both diets including tomato powder, whereas MDA decreased linearly with increasing supplemental tomato powder concentration. 5. Tomato powder supplementation increased egg production persistency and increased carotenoids and vitamin A contents in egg yolk, accompanied by reduced yolk lipid peroxidation. PMID:23281763

Akdemir, F; Orhan, C; Sahin, N; Sahin, K; Hayirli, A

2012-01-01

301

The maternal environment affects offspring viability via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions that reproductive females experience can influence patterns of offspring provisioning and fitness. In particular, prey availability can influence maternal reproduction and, in turn, affect the viability of their offspring. Although such maternal effects are widespread, the mechanisms by which these effects operate are poorly understood. We manipulated the amount of prey available to female brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to evaluate how this factor affects patterns of reproductive investment (total egg output, egg size, yolk steroids) and offspring viability (morphology, growth, survival). Experimental reduction of yolk in a subset of eggs enabled us to evaluate a potential causal mechanism (yolk investment) that mediates the effect of maternal prey availability on offspring viability. We show that limited prey availability significantly reduced egg size, which negatively influenced offspring size, growth, and survival. Experimental yolk removal from eggs directly reduced offspring size, which, in turn, negatively affected offspring growth and survival. These findings show that maternal environments (i.e., low prey) can affect offspring fitness via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size and highlight the complex set of indirect effects by which maternal effects can operate. PMID:24642545

Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B

2014-01-01

302

Recombinant proteins produced into yolk of genetically manipulated chickens are partly sialylated in N-glycan.  

PubMed

The transgenic chicken is a candidate for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins with several economic superiorities. In general, the addition of sialic acid at the terminal of N-glycan is important for the bioactivity of biopharmaceuticals including plasma half-life; however, sialic acid has not been detected in the N-glycan of proteins produced in the egg white of genetically manipulated chickens. In this study, the extracellular domain of the TNF receptor and single chain Fv fused to Fc (referred to as TNFR/Fc and scFv/Fc, respectively) were purified from the egg yolk of genetically manipulated chickens and their sialylation in N-glycan was examined. In contrast to the glycan in egg white, yolk-derived proteins were partly sialylated. Lectin blot showed the existence of ?2,6-sialic acid on TNFR/Fc, which disappeared with the removal of N-glycan by PNGase. In scFv/Fc, up to 7 % of N-glycan contained sialic acid. Disialyl glycans, which were detected in serum-derived scFv/Fc in a previous study, were not found in the yolk sample. Ovarian follicular tissue, which surrounds growing yolk, expressed several neuraminidases, suggesting the partial truncation of glycan during the yolk transfer process from the blood. PMID:23868388

Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Okuzaki, Yuya; Nishijima, Ken-Ichi; Kyogoku, Kenji; Yamashita, Takashi; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Motono, Makoto; Kamihira, Masamichi; Iijima, Shinji

2013-12-01

303

Improved Fatty Acid analysis of conjugated linoleic Acid rich egg yolk triacylglycerols and phospholipid species.  

PubMed

Reports from chicken conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding trials are limited to yolk total fatty acid composition, which consistently described increased saturated fatty acids and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids. However, information on CLA triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) species is limited. This study determined the fatty acid composition of total lipids in CLA-rich egg yolk produced with CLA-rich soy oil, relative to control yolks using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), determined TAG and PL fatty acid compositions by thin-layer chromatography-GC-FID (TLC-GC-FID), identified intact PL and TAG species by TLC-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-MS), and determined the composition of TAG and PL species in CLA and control yolks by direct flow infusion electrospray ionization MS (DFI ESI-MS). In total, 2 lyso-phosphatidyl choline (LPC) species, 1 sphingomyelin species, 17 phosphatidyl choline species, 19 TAG species, and 9 phosphatidyl ethanolamine species were identified. Fifty percent of CLA was found in TAG, occurring predominantly in C52:5 and C52:4 TAG species. CLA-rich yolks contained significantly more LPC than did control eggs. Comprehensive lipid profiling may provide insight on relationships between lipid composition and the functional properties of CLA-rich eggs. PMID:24882168

Shinn, Sara; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jack; Proctor, Andrew

2014-07-16

304

Mutations in the SAC1 gene suppress defects in yeast Golgi and yeast actin function  

PubMed Central

The budding mode of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell growth demands that a high degree of secretory polarity be established and directed toward the emerging bud. We report here our demonstration that mutations in SAC1, a gene identified by virtue of its allele-specific genetic interactions with yeast actin defects, were also capable of suppressing sec14 lethalities associated with yeast Golgi defects. Moreover, these sac1 suppressor properties also extended to sec6 and sec9 secretory vesicle defects. The genetic data are consistent with the notion that SAC1p modulates both secretory pathway and actin cytoskeleton function. On this basis, we suggest that SAC1p may represent one aspect of the mechanism whereby secretory and cytoskeletal activities are coordinated, so that proper spatial regulation of secretion might be achieved.

1989-01-01

305

Structural changes in the lacrimal sac epithelium and associated lymphoid tissue during experimental dacryocystitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine structural changes in the lacrimal sac epithelium and associated lymphoid tissue of rabbits with experimentally induced dacryocystitis. Methods Experimental dacryocystitis was induced by an inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus into the lacrimal sac. The histological changes of the inflamed lacrimal sac epithelium and associated lymphoid tissue were studied by light and electron microscopy. Results After 1 month, numerous inflammatory cells (CD20-positive B lymphocytes, CD3-positive T lymphocytes, IgA-positive plasma cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes) infiltrated the lamina propria and the epithelium overlying the diffuse lymphoid tissue. Three months later, the density of the infiltrated leukocytes was markedly decreased. The epithelial lining overlying the diffuse lymphoid tissue became thicker with numerous secretory granules in the supranuclear regions. Conclusion The lacrimal sac epithelium and associated lymphoid tissue play a major role in the defense mechanism during inflammation. Overproduction of secretory granules after bacterial inoculation could enhance the antimicrobial defense.

Ishikawa, Makoto; Kubo, Masabumi; Maeda, Seiji; Sawada, Yu; Uchio, Eiichi; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

2011-01-01

306

Analysis of Crystal Shield 86 - The First SAC (Strategic Air Command) Innovation Task Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bestsellers 'In Search of Excellence' and 'A Passion for Excellence' spawned an interest about innovation in large organizations. The Strategic Air Command (SAC) formed an innovation task force called Crystal Shield 86. This innovation project appeare...

J. K. Turnipseed

1987-01-01

307

38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SF-SAC and instructions for its completion may be obtained from the following Web page: http://harvester.census.gov/fac/collect/sfsac_01.pdf . It is also available from the address provided in §...

2013-07-01

308

Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1)?Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2)?Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3)?Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4)?Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic. In addition, we conclude: (5)?The advent of avian unidirectional lung ventilation is not possible to pinpoint, as osteological correlates have yet to be identified for uni- or bidirectional lung ventilation. (6)?The origin and evolution of avian air sacs may have been driven by one or more of the following three factors: flow-through lung ventilation, locomotory balance, and/or thermal regulation.

Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

2008-01-01

309

An investigation of colonization of the conjunctival sac of sheep by bacteria and mycoplasmas.  

PubMed Central

The conjunctival sacs of 100 healthy adult ewes and 20 lambs and 76 adult ewes affected by ovine keratoconjunctivitis (OKC) were examined microbiologically. Branhamella ovis was the only organism regularly isolated from healthy ewes and lambs, Mycoplasma conjunctivae was isolated from the conjunctival sac of nine ewes but its occurrence was not associated with clinical signs of ovine keratoconjunctivitis. Mycoplasma conjunctivae and Branhamella ovis were isolated significantly more often from eyes affected by OKC than from unaffected eyes. Images Fig. 1

Dagnall, G. J.

1994-01-01

310

Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

1985-01-01

311

Rhinosporidiosis of lacrimal sac: a rare case report from North East India.  

PubMed

Rhinosporidiosis usually affects the mucous membrane of nose and conjunctiva, less frequently lacrimal sac, urethra, and skin. This is a case presentation of rare lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis for the first time reported from the state of Tripura in North East India. Diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis is usually made by routine histological examination and treatment is surgical excision. It needs follow up as recurrence is common. PMID:23134946

Saha Ray, Manasi; Datta, Abhijit; Sarkar, Phani Kumar

2011-01-01

312

Female Gametophyte Development in Maize: Microtubular Organization and Embryo Sac Polarity.  

PubMed Central

The developmental stages of the maize embryo sac were correlated with the corresponding silk lengths of ear florets in the female inflorescence. The development of embryo sacs in the ovules of spikes occurs in a gradient pattern with the initiation of the embryo sac beginning at the base of the ear and progressing to the top. At the beginning of meiosis, the presence of conspicuous cortical microtubules coincides with the extensive elongation of the megasporocyte. The spindles at metaphase I and II align along the long axis of the megasporocyte leading to the linear alignment of the dyad and tetrad of megaspores. During megagametogenesis, micropylar and chalazal nuclei of the embryo sac undergo synchronized divisions and migration at the second and third mitosis. Radiate perinuclear microtubules are present during the interphase of the second and third mitosis, and inter-sister nuclear microtubules occur at the late four-nucleate embryo sac. The configuration and orientation of the spindles, phragmoplasts, and pairs of nuclei result in precise positioning of the nuclei. The fusion of the polar nuclei and the formation of a microtubule organizing center-like structure in the filiform apparatus occur right after the first division of the antipodal cells. The different patterns of organization of microtubules in the cells of the mature embryo sac reflect their structural adaptations for their future function.

Huang, B. Q.; Sheridan, W. F.

1994-01-01

313

Allergic fungal sinusitis involving the lacrimal sac: a case report and review.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: We report a case of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) involving the lacrimal sac and review the current English literature. A literature search for AFS involving the lacrimal sac revealed two reports with only one of the two cases demonstrating histological evidence of fungal elements. This is just the third such case and only the second reported case with histopathologic confirmation of fungal elements by Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stain. Materials and Methods: A PubMed database search was performed using combinations of the following key words: allergic fungal sinusitis, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, ophthalmology, epiphora, orbit. A 70-year-old white man with a history of chronic conjunctivitis and nasal polyps presenting with chronic epiphora was found to have dacryostenosis on the left side. A CT scan of the orbits revealed mucoperiosteal thickening completely obliterating the frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. Results: A left external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) was performed and the lacrimal sac contents were studied histopathologically. Microscopic examination of the lacrimal sac contents disclosed allergic mucin with laminated aggregates of eosinophils in various stages of degeneration, Charcot-Leyden crystals and rare noninvasive fungal hyphae confirming the diagnosis of AFS. Fungal elements stained positively with Gomori methenamine silver stain. Conclusion: Although rarely reported, AFS can affect the lacrimal sac. AFS should be suspected in patients with a history of recurrent refractory sinusitis, recurrent dacryocystitis and nasal polyposis. Early diagnosis is important for adequate treatment and prevention of recurrence. PMID:24832182

Pao, Kristina Y; Yakopson, Vladimir; Flanagan, Joseph C; Eagle, Ralph C

2014-08-01

314

The Ashbya gossypii fimbrin SAC6 is required for fast polarized hyphal tip growth and endocytosis.  

PubMed

Ashbya gossypii has been an ideal system to study filamentous hyphal growth. Previously, we identified a link between polarized hyphal growth, the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis with our analysis of the A. gossypii Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP)-homolog encoded by the AgWAL1 gene. Here, we studied the role of AgSAC6, encoding a fimbrin in polarized hyphal growth and endocytosis, and based on our functional analysis identified genetic interactions between AgSAC6 and AgWAL1. SAC6 mutants show severely reduced polarized growth. This growth phenotype is temperature dependent and sac6 spores do not germinate at elevated temperatures. Spores germinated at 30°C generate slow growing mycelia without displaying polarity establishment defects at the hyphal tip. Several phenotypic characteristics of sac6 hyphae resemble those found in wal1 mutants. First, tips of sac6 hyphae shifted to 37°C swell and produce subapical bulges. Second, actin patches are mislocalized subapically. And third, the rate of endocytotic uptake of the vital dye FM4-64 was reduced. This indicates that actin filament bundling, a conserved function of fimbrins, is required for fast polarized hyphal growth, polarity maintenance, and endocytosis in filamentous fungi. PMID:21237627

Jorde, Sigyn; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen

2011-03-20

315

Efficient analysis of egg yolk proteins and their thermal sensitivity using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions.  

PubMed

The multiple functional properties of egg yolk are mostly influenced by its complex protein composition. The high lipid content of egg yolk as well as the low solubility of delipidated egg yolk lipoproteins make analysis by conventional chromatographic or electrophoretic techniques a difficult task. This work describes a method to profile egg yolk proteins after delipidation with acetone using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on precast 8-18% T polyacrylamide gradient gels. Twenty bands were obtained for the whole egg yolk profile with molecular weights ranging between 5 and 221 kDa. The bands were identified based on their molecular weight and by comparison with isolated egg yolk subfractions. The dissociation behavior under reducing and nonreducing conditions provided additionally helpful information for identification and characterization of the yolk proteins. The method presented is very well suited for assaying the thermal sensitivity of whole yolk and its components and thus for the characterization of heat treatment processes. PMID:16302743

Guilmineau, Fabien; Krause, Ingolf; Kulozik, Ulrich

2005-11-30

316

?-Cryptoxanthin biofortified maize (Zea mays) increases ?-cryptoxanthin concentration and enhances the color of chicken egg yolk.  

PubMed

The laying hen has a natural ability to deposit carotenoids into its egg yolks, especially the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein that is used commercially as an egg colorant. Can this ability to deposit carotenoids be used to enrich egg yolk provitamin A value? After a 10-d carotenoid depletion period in hens (n = 24), the effects of a 20-d intervention with high-?-cryptoxanthin, high-?-carotene, or typical yellow maize on color and carotenoid profile were compared with the effects of a white maize diet (n = 6/treatment). Eggs were collected every other day and yolks were analyzed by using a portable colorimeter to define the color space and by using an HPLC to determine the carotenoid profile. The high-?-cryptoxanthin and yellow maize increased ?-cryptoxanthin in the yolk (0.55 ± 0.08 to 4.20 ± 0.56 nmol/g and 0.55 ± 0.08 to 1.06 ± 0.12 nmol/g, respectively; P < 0.001). Provitamin A equivalents increased in eggs from hens fed high-?-cryptoxanthin maize (P < 0.001) but not the high-?-carotene maize. The color (L*, a*, and b*) assessment of the yolks showed an increase in the high-?-cryptoxanthin treatment for the red-green a* scale (P < 0.001) and a decrease for the light-dark L* scale (P < 0.001). No appreciable change was noted in the yellow-blue b* scale for the high-?-cryptoxanthin treatment; but significant changes were noted for the yellow (P = 0.002) and high-?-carotene maize (P = 0.005) treatments, which were most evident at the end of the washout period with white maize. ?-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified maize is a potential vehicle to elevate provitamin A equivalents and to enhance the color of yolks. This could lead to a human health benefit if widely adopted. PMID:22252357

Liu, Y-Q; Davis, C R; Schmaelzle, S T; Rocheford, T; Cook, M E; Tanumihardjo, S A

2012-02-01

317

The protective effect of egg yolk from different avian species during the cryopreservation of Karayaka ram semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg yolk is one of the most widely used cryoprotective components for sperm preservation and a wide range of factors affect its action on sperm motility, viability and fertilizing ability. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of different species egg yolk, namely the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), the goose (Anatidae anser), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), duck

Recai Kulaks?z; Çi?dem Çebi; Ergun Akçay; Ali Da?k?n

2010-01-01

318

Sex steroids in green anoles ( Anolis carolinensis): uncoupled maternal plasma and yolking follicle concentrations, potential embryonic steroidogenesis, and evolutionary implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex steroids testosterone (T) and estradiol-17? (E2) play important roles in vertebrate reproduction and development. However, little is known about the relationship between plasma steroid levels (which can influence reproductive function) and yolk steroid levels (which can influence embryonic development) in oviparous species. Therefore, we examined the extent to which T and E2 are coupled in plasma and yolking

Matthew B. Lovern; Juli Wade

2003-01-01

319

Ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in CEP-2 extender with and without egg yolk.  

PubMed

Sperm can change physiology and structure during storage in refrigerator temperature or frozen temperature that caused by cold shock or free radical. The aim of this study to evaluate ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in cauda epididymal plasma-based (CEP-2) extender with or without 20% egg yolk concentration at refrigerator temperature. Semen sample collected from three Limousin bull were diluted with CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk and CEP-2 without egg yolk, cooled and stored at 4-5 degrees C during eight days. Sperm ultrastructure were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were assessed on cleavage rate of embryo using in vitro fertilization method. The percentage data were transformed into arcsine before being analysis with ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison test. The result of study showed morphologically normal sperm after storage in CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk, whereas in CEP-2 without egg yolk morphologically abnormal sperm especially neck was fractured and head was destroyed. Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were significantly higher in CEP-2 extender with egg yolk 20% (74.29 +/- 4.95%; p < 0.05) than without egg yolk (30.00 +/- 12.02%; p < 0.05). Egg yolk 20% in CEP-2 extender protected ultrastructure and fertilizing ability after storage during eight days. PMID:24199476

Ducha, Nur; Susilawati, T; Aulanni'am; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Pangestu, Mulyoto

2012-10-15

320

The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

2013-01-01

321

Natural, but not lyophilized, low density lypoproteins were an acceptable alternative to egg yolk for cryopreservation of ram semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to evaluate the suitability of using natural or lyophilized low density lipoproteins (LDL), in lieu of whole egg yolk, in extenders for cryopreserving ram semen. Once extragonadal sperm reserves were depleted in 10 fertile Santa Inês cross rams, two ejaculates per ram were collected for cryopreservation. Nine extenders were used: Tris-16% egg yolk extender with 5% glycerol

V. S. Moustacas; F. G. Zaffalon; M. A. Lagares; A. M. Loaiza-Eccheverri; F. C. Varago; M. M. Neves; L. G. D. Heneine; R. P. Arruda; M. Henry

2011-01-01

322

Response surface studies on cholesterol reduction in egg yolk using #ps01?-cyclodextrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ?-cyclodextrin (BCD) and reaction time on the recovery of cholesterol from egg yolk were studied at 25°C based\\u000a on response surface methodology. The developed response model is of the form: Y = 5.585 + 429.77 X\\u000a \\u000a c + 0.534 X\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a t\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2, where Y is the predicted cholesterol recovery (%), X\\u000a \\u000a c is the BCD\\/egg yolk ratio

B. Manohar; C. Basappa; D. N. Rao; S. Divakar

1998-01-01

323

Yolk coelomitis in a white-throated monitor lizard (Varanus albigularis).  

PubMed

Yolk coelomitis as a result of pre-ovulatory follicular stasis is a common disorder in captive reptiles, especially in captive lizards of various genera. The clinical signs are generally fairly non-specific and diagnosis is based on clinical signs together with most of the common diagnostic modalities. The condition is most likely a husbandry and environment-related reproductive disorder. It has not been reported in wild free-living specimens. This report describes the clinical presentation and post mortem lesions in a white-throated monitor lizard that died during treatment for non-specific clinical signs related to a severe yolk coelomitis. PMID:21247021

Gardner, B R; Barrows, M G

2010-06-01

324

Formation of Yolk/SiO(2) shell structures using surfactant mixtures as template.  

PubMed

In this paper, we develop a simple and general method for the fabrication of yolk/shell structures through a one-step encapsulation of particles by SiO(2) shells in aqueous mixtures of lauryl sulfonate betaine (LSB) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS). Various yolk/shell structures with different particle cores, such as SiO(2)@SiO(2), Au@SiO(2), and Fe(2)O(3)@SiO(2), have been successfully prepared. PMID:19199444

Wu, Xue-Jun; Xu, Dongsheng

2009-03-01

325

Multiscale Modeling of the Effect of Micro-alloying Mn and Sb on the Viscoplastic Response of SAC105 Solder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the time-dependent viscoplastic response of two relatively new SAC105-X solders—SAC105-05Mn (Sn1.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC105) doped with 0.05 wt.% Mn), and SAC105-55Sb (SAC105 doped with 0.55 wt.% Sb). The results showed that the addition of Mn or Sb increases the creep resistance of SAC105 solder by one to two orders of magnitude at the tested stress levels of 2-20 MPa. The addition of Mn as a fourth alloying element promotes homogeneous distribution of micron-scale Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compounds (IMCs), thereby reducing their interparticle spacing as compared to that of SAC105. On the other hand, addition of Sb does not change the spacing of the Cu6Sn5 particle, but promotes the formation of uniformly sized Sn dendritic lobes, homogeneously distributed in the whole solder joint. Moreover, Sb also forms a solid solution with Sn and strengthens the Sn matrix in SAC105-55Sb itself. The effects of these microstructural changes (obtained using image processing) on the secondary creep constitutive response of SAC105 solder interconnects were then modeled using a mechanistic multiscale creep model. The mechanistic model was able to accurately capture the trends in the secondary creep constitutive response of the alloys and to explain the improvement in creep resistance of SAC105 due to the addition of Mn and Sb.

Mukherjee, Subhasis; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Zhou, Bite; Bieler, Thomas R.

2014-04-01

326

General applicability of chicken egg yolk antibodies: the performance of IgY immunoglobulins raised against the hypoxia-inducible factor 1a  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian embryos and neonates acquire passive immunity by transferring maternal immuno- globulins from serum to egg yolk. Despite being a convenient source of antibodies, egg yolk immuno- globulins (IgY) from immunized hens have so far re- ceived scant attention in research. Here we report the generation and rapid isolation of IgY from the egg yolk of hens immunized against thea

GIERI CAMENISCH; MAURO TINI; DMITRI CHILOV; IVICA KVIETIKOVA; VICKRAM SRINIVAS; JAIME CARO; PATRICK SPIELMANN; ROLAND H. WENGER; MAX GASSMANN

327

Multiplication of Salmonella enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures.  

PubMed

Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is important for reducing eggborne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The nutrient-rich yolk interior is a relatively infrequent location for initial SE deposition in eggs, but migration across the vitelline membrane can result in rapid bacterial multiplication during storage at warm temperatures. The objective of the present study was to measure the multiplication of SE in yolks after introduction at three different locations and subsequent storage at a range of temperatures. Using an in vitro egg contamination model, approximately 100 CFU of SE was inoculated either inside yolks, onto the exterior surface of vitelline membranes, or into the adjacent albumen. After storage of samples from each inoculation group at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C for 24 h, SE was enumerated in yolks. For all three inoculation locations, the final SE levels in yolks increased significantly with increasing storage temperatures. At all storage temperatures, significant differences in SE multiplication were observed between inoculation sites (yolk inoculation>vitelline membrane inoculation>albumen inoculation). At 25°C, final log concentrations of 7.759 CFU of SE per ml (yolk inoculation), 2.014 CFU/ml (vitelline membrane inoculation), and 0.757 CFU/ml (albumen inoculation) were attained in yolks after storage. These results demonstrate that, even when the initial site of SE deposition is outside the egg yolk, substantial multiplication supported by yolk nutrients can occur during the first day of storage and the risk of bacterial growth increases at higher ambient storage temperatures. PMID:21067679

Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Guard, Jean; Holt, Peter S

2010-10-01

328

Specificity determinants and structural features in the RNA target of the bacterial antiterminator proteins of the BglG/SacY family.  

PubMed Central

Induction of the Bacillus subtilis sacB gene and sacPA operon and Escherichia coli bgl operon is mediated by structurally homologous antiterminators encoded by the sacY, sacT, and bglG genes, respectively. When activated, these proteins prevent early transcription termination at terminators located in the leader regions of the three operons. BglG was previously shown to bind in vitro to an imperfectly palindromic 29-nucleotide RNA sequence located upstream of the terminator and partially overlapping with it [Houman, F., Diaz-Torres, M.R. & Wright, A. (1990) Cell 62, 1153-1163]. Similar motifs, here termed ribonucleic antiterminators (RATs), strongly conserved in sequence and in position, are found in the leader of both sacB and sacPA. Mutations were created in sacB RAT and tested in B. subtilis; this showed that sacB RAT is the target for SacY-mediated induction of sacB and that a stem-loop structure in the mRNA is required for regulatory function. Mutations increasing the similarity of the sacB RAT with those of sacPA or bgl rendered sacB inducible by SacT or BglG, respectively; most of these changes did not strongly affect induction by SacY, suggesting that the nucleotides at these variable positions act as negative specificity determinants. Images

Aymerich, S; Steinmetz, M

1992-01-01

329

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Dispense the yolk material in a tube. Aspirate and dispense 0.5 ml...phosphate-buffered saline) into the same tube, and place in a rack. (5) After...eggs are sampled, place the rack of tubes on a vortex shaker for 30 seconds. (6)...

2010-01-01

330

Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that

Piotr Bebas; Joanna Kotwica; Ewa Joachimiak; Jadwiga M Giebultowicz

2008-01-01

331

Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

Poisbleau, Maud; Muller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

2012-01-01

332

Deposition of genetically engineered human antibodies into the egg yolk of hens.  

PubMed

To determine if human immunoglobulins (hIg) are capable of being transported into the hen's egg, 10 microg each of purified hIgG and hIgA were intravenously injected into SC Hyline(TM) hens and their presence in egg yolk and egg white was determined by ELISA. In both cases deposition into the egg yolk was observed and in the case of hIgA, deposition was also observed in the egg white. Two stably transfected DT40 cell lines secreting recombinant human IgG3 and IgA (rhIgG3 and rhIgA) were injected into laying hens. The DT40 cells colonized the host and rhIgG3 and rhIgA were deposited in egg yolk. Deposition of rhIgA was also observed in the egg white. These data demonstrate that human immunoglobulins and other foreign proteins may be targeted to the chicken's egg. In view of the high rate of reproduction, the short generation interval, the high rates of egg production and the extensive infrastructure to fractionate egg yolk proteins, it should be possible to produce large amounts of foreign protein in the eggs of transgenic chickens. PMID:9853953

Mohammed, S M; Morrison, S; Wims, L; Trinh, K R; Wildeman, A G; Bonselaar, J; Etches, R J

1998-10-01

333

Habituation to humans affects yolk steroid levels and offspring phenotype in quail.  

PubMed

In the field as well as in the laboratory, human-generated stress responses are reduced in adult animals previously habituated to humans in comparison to non-habituated individuals. In birds, yolk steroid levels vary with maternal environment and condition. We tested the hypothesis that the experience of female birds with humans could affect yolk steroids levels and offspring phenotype. Two groups of Japanese quail, one habituated to humans (H) and a second non-habituated (NH), were exposed daily to brief human disturbances. We analysed egg quality, offspring growth, and offspring emotional reactivity. NH females produced eggs with less androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) and more immunoreactive progesterone compared to birds habituated to humans. NH females produced eggs with less yolk, heavier shell and chicks hatching later and being smaller as compared to habituated individuals. A lower emotional reactivity was found in young of NH females compared to young of H females. Thus, human disturbance of the mother triggered different effects on chick phenotype depending on previous experience of mother birds with humans. In addition, we describe for the first time the influence of environmental stimuli on yolk immunoreactive progesterone levels. Our results show that a relatively minor difference in behavioral habituation may have substantial effects on eggs and offspring. This has obvious implications for keeping and handling laboratory animals, for conservation biology and for animal welfare. PMID:18572170

Bertin, Aline; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Möstl, Erich; Kuchar, Alexandra; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Kotrschal, Kurt

2008-08-01

334

Effect of designer diets on egg yolk composition of 'White Leghorn' hens.  

PubMed

A study was made on 96 'White Leghorn' hens on the influence of designer diets enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants from natural sources on egg yolk composition. The birds were divided into four equal groups viz. Control (without enrichment); FSE - (150 g flaxseeds + 200 mg vitamin E + 3 g spirulina/kg diet); FOSe (20 g fish oil + 0.2 mg organic Se (Sel-Plex) + 3 g spirulina/kg diet) and FSE + FOSe (75 g flaxseed + 10 g fish oil + 100 mg vitamin E + 0.1 mg organic Se + 3 g spirulina/kg diet). All three designer diets increased (p?yolk carotenoid pigments and omega-3 fatty acid levels with proportionate reduction in saturated fatty acid levels and no significant change in the oleic acid levels in the yolk lipids. The three diets also reduced (p?yolk cholesterol levels. Boiled eggs from all four groups had comparable sensory acceptability. Dietary Se and vitamin E supplementation acted synergistically in increasing omega-3 fatty acid levels in the egg. PMID:23572777

Sujatha, T; Narahari, D

2011-08-01

335

Sex-specific developmental plasticity in response to yolk corticosterone in an oviparous lizard.  

PubMed

Corticosterone exposure during prenatal development as a result of maternal upregulation of circulating hormone levels has been shown to have effects on offspring development in mammals. Corticosterone has also been documented in egg yolk in oviparous vertebrates, but the extent to which this influences phenotypic development is less studied. We show that maternal corticosterone is transferred to egg yolk in an oviparous lizard (the mallee dragon, Ctenophorus fordi Storr), with significant variation among clutches in hormone levels. Experimental elevation of yolk corticosterone did not affect hatching success, incubation period or offspring sex ratio. However, corticosterone did have a sex-specific effect on skeletal growth during embryonic development. Male embryos exposed to relatively high levels of corticosterone were smaller on average than control males at hatching whereas females from hormone-treated eggs were larger on average than control females. The data thus suggest that males are not just more sensitive to the detrimental effects of corticosterone but rather that the sexes may have opposite responses to corticosterone during development. Positive selection on body size at hatching for both sexes in this species further suggests that increased corticosterone in egg yolk may have sex-specific fitness consequences, with potential implications for sex allocation and the evolution of hormone-mediated maternal effects. PMID:19329741

Uller, Tobias; Hollander, Johan; Astheimer, Lee; Olsson, Mats

2009-04-01

336

Modeling of fresh egg pasta characteristics for egg content and albumen to yolk ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high compositional variability of commercial fresh egg pasta radically affects its mechanical and cooking properties. The aim of the work was to model the effects of total egg content (E) and albumen to yolk ratio (A\\/Y) on fresh egg pasta compositional and structural characteristics, by the application of a central composite design using response surface methodology. The analysis of

Cristina Alamprese; Ernestina Casiraghi; Margherita Rossi

2009-01-01

337

Water-soluble lipoproteins from yolk granules in sea urchin eggs. I. Isolation and general properties.  

PubMed

Most of the water-soluble lipoproteins in sea urchin eggs (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) were localized within yolk granules. Under hypotonic conditions, yolk granules released lipoproteins and a 24S protein species as high molecular weight components; the lipoproteins constituted about 40% of the total materials released. Three yolk lipoproteins(YLP-1, 2, and 3, in order of quantity) were isolated by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. The hydrated densities of YLP-1, 2, and 3 were 1.027, 1.062, and 1.009 g/cm(3), respectively. YLP-1, 2, and 3 contained glyceride as a major lipid in quantities of 3.1, 1.8, and 4.3 times the amount of each protein, respectively. These lipoproteins contained large amounts of carbohydrate. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed four major periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive polypeptide bands common to the three lipoproteins. All the constituent polypeptides of the 24S protein were also PAS positive. Electron microscopy of negatively stained YLP-1, 2, and 3 revealed the average diameters to be 36, 29, and 48nm, respectively. The 24S protein appeared to be cylindrical in shape with average exterior dimensions of 10--20 nm. Thin-section micrographs showed that yolk granules are packed with particles around 30 nm in diameter, suggesting that these particles are not the 24S proteins but the lipoprotein particles. PMID:711697

Ichio, I; Deguchi, K; Kawashima, S; Endo, S; Ueta, N

1978-10-01

338

Concentrations of Steroid Hormones in Layers and Biopsies of Chelonian Egg Yolks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actions of circulating hormones, although relatively well understood for adults, are largely unknown for their developing embryos. Transfer of maternal hormones to the egg is known to occur in oviparous species, and recently the presence of hormonally heterogeneous yolk layers has been described in two avian species. To investigate the possibility of a similar phenomenon occurring in chelonian species,

Rachel M. Bowden; Michael A. Ewert; Joseph L. Lipar; Craig E. Nelson

2001-01-01

339

Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g-1 at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g-1 at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg-1. The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles.A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g-1 at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g-1 at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg-1. The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01675g

Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

2013-08-01

340

Case of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of lacrimal sac in a Japanese patient  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the lacrimal sac. A 77-year-old man had epiphora of the right eye for three years. After visiting five clinics and hospitals, he was referred to our hospital, and the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a lacrimal sac mass. Dacryocysteography showed an obstruction of the right nasolacrimal duct, so we performed dacryocystectomy. After a histopathologic examination of the specimen, the patient was diagnosed with a DLBCL. Positron emission tomography scanning excluded metastases, and the final diagnosis was made of a primary DLBCL of the right lacrimal sac. He underwent radiotherapy with 30.6 Gray in total to the right lacrimal sac. After radiotherapy, no recurrence has been observed anywhere in his body for one year. Although a malignant lymphoma of the lacrimal sac is rare, clinicians should consider a primary malignant lymphoma in the differential diagnosis in patients with chronic dacryocystitis.

Kajita, Fusae; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Yotsukura, Jiro; Asanagi, Kaoru; Baba, Takayuki; Kishimoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

2010-01-01

341

Case of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of lacrimal sac in a Japanese patient.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the lacrimal sac. A 77-year-old man had epiphora of the right eye for three years. After visiting five clinics and hospitals, he was referred to our hospital, and the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a lacrimal sac mass. Dacryocysteography showed an obstruction of the right nasolacrimal duct, so we performed dacryocystectomy. After a histopathologic examination of the specimen, the patient was diagnosed with a DLBCL. Positron emission tomography scanning excluded metastases, and the final diagnosis was made of a primary DLBCL of the right lacrimal sac. He underwent radiotherapy with 30.6 Gray in total to the right lacrimal sac. After radiotherapy, no recurrence has been observed anywhere in his body for one year. Although a malignant lymphoma of the lacrimal sac is rare, clinicians should consider a primary malignant lymphoma in the differential diagnosis in patients with chronic dacryocystitis. PMID:21179217

Kajita, Fusae; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Yotsukura, Jiro; Asanagi, Kaoru; Baba, Takayuki; Kishimoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

2010-01-01

342

A status report on the development of SAC2000: A new seismic analysis code  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a new Seismic Analysis Code (SAC2000) that will meet the research needs of the seismic research and treaty monitoring communities. Our first step in this development was to rewrite the original Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) -- a Fortran code that was approximately 140,000 lines long -- in the C programming language. This rewrite has resulted in a much more robust code that is faster, more efficient, and more portable than the original. We have implemented important processing capabilities such as convolution and binary monograms, and we have significantly enhanced several previously existing capabilities. For example, the spectrogram command now produces a correctly registered plot of the input time series and a color image of the output spectrogram. We have also added an image plotting capability with access to 17 predefined color tables or custom color tables. A rewritten version of the readcss command can now be used to access any of the documented css.3.0 database data formats, a capability that is particularly important to the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) and the monitoring community. A much less visible, but extremely important contribution is the correction of numerous inconsistencies and errors that have evolved because of piecemeal development and limited maintenance since SAC was first written. We have also incorporated on-line documentation and have made SAC documentation available on the Internet via the world-wide-web at http://www-ep/tvp/sac.html.

Goldstein, P.; Minner, L.

1995-08-01

343

The Sac domain-containing phosphoinositide phosphatases: structure, function, and disease  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositides (PIs) have long been known to have an essential role in cell physiology. Their intracellular localization and concentration must be tightly regulated for their proper function. This spatial and temporal regulation is achieved by a large number of PI kinases and phosphatases that are present throughout eukaryotic species. One family of these enzymes contains a conserved PI phosphatase domain termed Sac. Although the Sac domain is homologous among different Sac domain-containing proteins, all appear to exhibit varied substrate specificity and subcellular localization. Dysfunctions in several members of this family are implicated in a range of human diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy, bipolar disorder, Down’s syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In plant, several Sac domain-containing proteins have been implicated in the stress response, chloroplast function and polarized secretion. In this review, we focus on recent findings in the family of Sac domain-containing PI phosphatases in yeast, mammal and plant, including the structural analysis into the mechanism of enzymatic activity, cellular functions, and their roles in disease pathophysiology.

HSU, FoSheng; MAO, Yuxin

2014-01-01

344

[Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].  

PubMed

Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515886

Carrillo Díaz, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibáñez Sandín, M D; Ureña Vilardell, V

1986-01-01

345

Selective excretion of yolk-derived tocotrienols into the bile of the chick embryo.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of biodiscrimination between different forms of vitamin E during the development of the chick embryo. The vitamin E present in the initial yolk consisted of alpha-tocopherol (90%), (beta + gamma)-tocopherol (8%), alpha-tocotrienol (0.3%) and (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol (1.3%). In marked contrast, the vitamin E recovered from the bile of the day-16 embryo contained much higher proportions of alpha-tocotrienol (10%) and especially of (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol (42%). By the time of hatching, 56% of the vitamin E present in the bile was in the form of (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol. The residual yolk of the newly-hatched chick contained far greater proportions of alpha-tocotrienol (2.6%) and (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol (10%) than were present in the initial yolk. The results suggest that the liver of the embryo may selectively excrete tocotrienols as components of bile, whilst retaining the tocopherols within the hepatocytes. The increased proportions of tocotrienols in the residual yolk may result from the recycling of bile from the gall bladder to the yolk. The liver of the day-old chick contained alpha-tocopherol as the main form of vitamin E (90%) with only a small proportion (0.2%) of (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol. The alpha-tocopherol form was also the main vitamin E component in the brain (85%), heart (79%), lung (82%) and adipose tissue (91%) of the day-old chick. The present study suggests the occurrence of a high degree of biodiscrimination between tocopherols and tocotrienols during the development of the chick embryo. PMID:9972310

Surai, P F; Speake, B K

1998-12-01

346

Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens: Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn) were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo.

Henriksen, Rie

2011-01-01

347

Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

Oppel, S.; Federer, R. N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A. N.; Hollmen, T. E.

2010-01-01

348

Chronic dacryocystitis with spontaneous resolution of sac mucocele: fact or fiction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to highlight the rare possibility of spontaneous resolution of a lacrimal sac mucocele by means of a retrospective case note analysis. The authors identified 3 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and clinical and radiological evidence of mucocele. In all 3 cases, resolution of symptoms was reported prior to dacryocystorhinostomy. In each case, the mucocele was no longer palpable, and the patency of the nasolacrimal duct was confirmed by sac washout. A lacrimal sac mucocele may rarely rupture in the nose and resolve spontaneously. Although this is a rare outcome, lacrimal surgeons should be aware of this prospect to avoid unnecessary surgery and investigations. The authors recommend that lacrimal surgeons present spontaneous resolution as one of the possible outcomes in their patient information literature. PMID:20940660

Klodnicka, Katarzyna E; Ahluwalia, Harpreet

2011-01-01

349

Characterization and Comparison of Five SAC-based Solder Pastes for Pb-free Reflow Soldering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on literature review and industry survey, five types lead-free solder pastes, namely, SAC305 (96.5%Sn-3.0%Ag-0.5%Cu), SAC387 (95.5%Sn-3.8%Ag-0.7%Cu), SACS (96.2%Sn-2.5%Ag-0.8%Cu-0.5%Sb), SCN (99.3%Sn-0.7%Cu-0.05%Ni), and SACC (96.4%Sn-3.0%Ag-0.6%Cu-0.01%Ce) are studied in this paper. The basic properties of selected Pb-free solder pastes are tested based on IPC standards. These tests include solder paste particle size analysis, measurement of melting point, solder balling test, tack test

C. H. Chen; W. Wong; J. C. C. Lo; Fubin Song; S. W. R. Lee

2007-01-01

350

[The ultrastructural patterns of germinal and yolk granules in oocytes and embryonic cells of the holothurian Apostichopus japonicus].  

PubMed

The yolk germinal granules in oocytes and embryonic cells of Apostichopus japonicus were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the features of synthesis and utilization of yolk granules made it possible to reveal ultrastructural criteria to distinguish between granules of the forming and utilized yolk, and germinal granules. Based on these findings, the authors suppose that identification of germ plasm elements in oocytes and embryonic cells of A. japonicus is quite possible with ultrastructural analysis only, and does not require utilizing molecular markers. PMID:16841492

Reunov, A A; Aleksandrova, Ia N

2006-01-01

351

[The ultrastructural patterns of germinal and yolk granules in oocytes and embryonic cells of the holothurian Apostichopus japonicus].  

PubMed

The yolk germinal granules in oocytes and embryonic cells of Apostichopus japonicus were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the features of synthesis and utilization of yolk granules made it possible to reveal ultrastructural criteria to distinguish between granules of the forming and utilized yolk, and germinal granules. Based on these findings, the authors suppose that identification of germ plasm elements in oocytes and embryonic cells of A. japonicus is quite possible with ultrastructural analysis only, and does not require utilizing molecular markers. PMID:16568835

Reunov, A A; Aleksandrova, Ia N

2006-01-01

352

[Typical tumors of the petrous bone].  

PubMed

In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. PMID:24692010

Ahlhelm, F; Müller, U; Ulmer, S

2014-04-01

353

Large scale production of yolk-shell ?-tricalcium phosphate powders, and their bioactivities as novel bone substitutes.  

PubMed

This paper proposes the production of yolk-shell structured ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) powders using a spray-drying method, suitable for commercial scale production. Spray-dried precursor powders, consisting of calcium-phosphate salts and each of the various carbon source materials, are combusted in an oxygen atmosphere to obtain a yolk-shell structure. Only dextrin among the carbon source materials investigated shows promise in the production of ?-TCP yolk-shell powders. By evaluating their apatite-forming capacity in simulated body fluid, the outstanding bioactivity of ?-TCP yolk-shell powders is confirmed: numerous acicular and newly formed hydroxyl carbonate apatite crystals cover the entire ?-TCP surface after a single day of soaking. These crystals are observed on both the outer and inner surfaces of the shells, and on the outer surface of the core, which is encouraging for its potential use as a bone grafting material. PMID:25005151

Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

2014-07-23

354

The fine structure of the maxillary gland of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina : The end-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gross morphology of the maxillary gland of the adult brine shrimp, Artemia salina, was studied by light microscopy, and some features of Warren's (1938) original description of the gland were confirmed. Each gland consists of two parts: an end-sac and an efferent excretory duct. The end-sac is centrally located, and around it the efferent duct coils, making three loops

Greta E. Tyson

1968-01-01

355

Newly deposited maternal hormones can be detected in the yolks of oviductal eggs in the green anole lizard.  

PubMed

Studies often examine egg yolks after oviposition with the goal of drawing conclusions about maternal allocation of gonadal steroid hormones and how it may affect offspring development. However, these hormones might originate from a few sources, including the ovary, blood plasma, or the embryo itself. The goal of this study was to investigate whether maternal steroids can enter oviductal eggs. In Experiment 1, gravid female green anole lizards were injected with 1 microCi 3H-T. Plasma, ovarian follicles (separated into yolking and non-yolking samples), and shelled oviductal eggs were collected at times ranging from 15 min to 24 hr after treatment. Main effects of tissue, time, and an interaction between them all existed on recovered 3H-hormone corrected for tissue mass. Of particular interest, there was a decrease in plasma with coincident increase in eggs. In Experiment 2, females were injected with doses ranging from 0.01 to 0.45 microCi of 3H-T per gram body weight. Across tissues, 3H-hormone levels corrected for mass were greater with increasing doses. Values also differed among tissues and an interaction was detected. Within each dose, plasma and non-yolking follicles generally had higher concentrations of 3H-hormone than did yolking follicles and oviductal eggs. However, at and after 6 hr, eggs had higher total radioactivity levels than both yolking and non-yolking follicles had (not corrected for mass). The results indicate that steroids can cross through relatively well-formed shells before oviposition, suggesting a way in which maternal hormones might influence developmental factors after yolk deposition. PMID:20336789

Cohen, Rachel E; Wade, Juli

2010-07-01

356

Newly Deposited Maternal Hormones can be Detected in the Yolks of Oviductal Eggs in the Green Anole Lizard  

PubMed Central

Studies often examine egg yolks after oviposition with the goal of drawing conclusions about maternal allocation of gonadal steroid hormones and how it may affect offspring development. However, these hormones might originate from a few sources, including the ovary, blood plasma, or the embryo itself. The goal of this study was to investigate whether maternal steroids can enter oviductal eggs. In Experiment 1, gravid female green anole lizards were injected with 1 ?Ci 3H-T. Plasma, ovarian follicles (separated into yolking and non-yolking samples), and shelled oviductal eggs were collected at times ranging from 15 min to 24 hr after treatment. Main effects of tissue, time, and an interaction between them all existed on recovered 3H-hormone corrected for tissue mass. Of particular interest, there was a decrease in plasma with coincident increase in eggs. In Experiment 2, females were injected with doses ranging from 0.01 to 0.45 ?Ci of 3H-T per gram body weight. Across tissues, 3H-hormone levels corrected for mass were greater with increasing doses. Values also differed among tissues and an interaction was detected. Within each dose, plasma and non-yolking follicles generally had higher concentrations of 3H-hormone than did yolking follicles and oviductal eggs. However, at and after 6 hr, eggs had higher total radioactivity levels than both yolking and non-yolking follicles had (not corrected for mass). The results indicate that steroids can cross through relatively well-formed shells before oviposition, suggesting a way in which maternal hormones might influence developmental factors after yolk deposition.

COHEN, RACHEL E.; WADE, JULI

2011-01-01

357

Genistein supplementation to the quail: effects on egg production and egg yolk genistein, daidzein, and lipid peroxidation levels.  

PubMed

Genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, is a powerful antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary genistein supplementation on Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) laying performance and egg yolk contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A, and vitamin E. Malondialdehyde is an indicator of lipid peroxidation, whereas vitamins A and E have antioxidant properties. Birds (n=150; 5 wk old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups consisting of 50 birds (5 replicates of 10) and were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 400 or 800 mg of genistein/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted 90 d with a 17L:7D photo schedule. As antioxidant indices, yolk MDA and vitamin (A and E) concentrations were measured by HPLC. Dietary genistein supplementation (800 mg/kg) increased feed intake, egg production, egg weight, Haugh unit, shell thickness, and shell weight and improved feed efficiency at a greater extent than the other levels (0 and 400 mg/kg). Egg yolk genistein concentration was increased (P<0.0001), whereas egg yolk MDA concentration was decreased (P<0.0001) at the highest level of genistein supplementation. However, genistein supplementation did not affect egg yolk daidzein, vitamin A, and vitamin E levels. There was an inverse relationship between egg yolk genistein and MDA concentration (y=0.02xe(genistein), R2=0.74, P<0.0001). Results of the present study indicate that supplementing with dietary genistein (800 mg/kg) improved performance, egg quality, and egg yolk genistein content and decreased egg yolk MDA concentration in quail. PMID:19762866

Akdemir, F; Sahin, K

2009-10-01

358

Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in layer diet on fatty acid compositions of egg yolk and layer performances.  

PubMed

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds. Conjugated linoleic acids have been reported to have a wide range of health-beneficial effects, including anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic, and immune stimulatory effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of CLA into eggs. Three hundred 27-wk-old layers were allocated to 5 dietary treatments (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% CLA) with 5 replicates. The results of the study showed that average daily feed intakes were similar in all treatment groups, although hens fed with 4% CLA tended to consume less feed than other hens. Body weight gain and mortality rate were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Hens fed 4% dietary CLA had reduced egg, yolk, and albumen weights (P < 0.05). Yolk color significantly decreased as dietary CLA increased (P < 0.01). Shell thickness and Haugh units were not influenced by the dietary CLA. Concentrations of CLA and saturated fatty acids in egg yolk lipids increased as dietary CLA increased (P < 0.01), whereas concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased as dietary CLA increased (P < 0.01). It can be concluded from the present experiments that increasing the amount of CLA fed to hens will increase the amount of CLA in egg yolk and that this increase is accompanied by a reduction in the amount of yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids but an increase in yolk saturated fatty acids. Egg size, yolk weight, and Roche-fan determined yolk color significantly decreased at the highest level of CLA supplementation. PMID:16977846

Suksombat, W; Samitayotin, S; Lounglawan, P

2006-09-01

359

Hen egg yolk and white contain high amounts of lysophosphatidic acids, growth factor-like lipids: Distinct Molecular species compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hen egg yolk and white were found to contain high amounts of lysophosphatidic acid (acyl LPA) in addition to small amounts\\u000a of lysoplasmanic acid (alkyl LPA). The levels of acyl LPA in hen egg yolk (44.23 nmol\\/g tissue) and while (8.81 nmol\\/g tissue)\\u000a were on the same order as or higher than the levels of acyl LPA known to be

Shinji Nakane; Akira Tokumura; Keizo Waku; Takayuki Sugiura

2001-01-01

360

Effects of egg yolk powder addition to the flour dough on the lipid oxidation development during frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of egg yolk powder added to the dough on the oxidation of frying oil and lipid of fried products were studied. Flour dough containing egg yolk at 0, 3.53, 6.73, and 9.66\\/100g was fried in 180°C sunflower oil for 1.5min, and 55 fryings were performed. Lipid damage was determined by free fatty acids (FFA), conjugated dienoic acids (CDA), and

Haeyoung Kim; Eunok Choe

2008-01-01

361

Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

Welty, J. L.; Belthoff, J. R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

2012-01-01

362

Purification of phospholipase A 2 homologue from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom using an affinity ligand from immunoglobulin yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new efficient affinity ligand of immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) was made and used in the purification of phospholipase A2 (Gln49–PLA2) homologue from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom. Polyclonal antibodies specific against PLA2 homologue were prepared by immunize hens with PLA2 homologue as antigen and isolated from egg yolk by an immunoaffinity column coupled with PLA2 homologue immobilized on Sepharose 4

Xiang-Yu Wang; Yong-Ming Bao; Li-Jia An

2005-01-01

363

Yolk contributes steroid to the multidimensional endocrine environment of embryos of Niveoscincus metallicus, a viviparous skink with a moderately complex placenta.  

PubMed

Maternally-derived testosterone (T) and 17-?-oestradiol (E2) provide epigenetic mechanisms by which mothers can actively influence offspring phenotype. In amniotes, maternal steroids may be derived from yolk or transferred across the placenta according to parity mode. Viviparous reptiles utilise both a yolk and a placenta to support their developing embryos, but it has not yet been confirmed whether yolk is a source of maternal T and E2 in such species. We investigated this question using the viviparous lizard Niveoscincus metallicus as our model species. We measured T and E2 in the yolks during vitellogenesis, immediately post-ovulation and at progressive stages of gestation. Our results confirm that yolk is a substantial source of T and E2 in N. metallicus. Contrary to the pattern seen in many oviparous species, we did not observe a marked decline in yolk concentrations of either T or E2 after the initiation of sexual differentiation in the embryos. Rather, we found no statistically significant decline in yolk concentrations of both T and E2 post-ovulation. In viviparous reptiles that utilise both yolk and placenta to nourish their embryos, yolk likely plays an important role in these dynamics but that role is not yet clear. Further research is warranted to understand the importance of yolk steroids in the endocrine environment of the developing viviparous reptile. PMID:24561224

Parsley, Laura M; Wapstra, Erik; Jones, Susan M

2014-05-01

364

Exploring cytoplasmic dynamics in zebrafish yolk cells by single particle tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) have recently developed into an exciting new tool for bioimaging applications. The material possesses several unique features including high biocompatibility, easy bioconjugation, and perfect photostability, making it a promising optical nanoprobe in vitro as well as in vivo. This work explores the potential application of this novel nanomaterial as a photostable, nontoxic tracer in vivo using zebrafish as a model organism. We introduced FNDs into the yolk of a zebrafish embryo by microinjection at the 1-cell stage. Movements of the injected particles were investigated by using single particle tracking techniques. We observed unidirectional and stop-and-go traffic as part of the intricate cytoplasmic movements in the yolk cell. We determined a velocity in the range of 0.19 - 0.40 ?m/s for 40 particles moving along with the axial streaming in the early developmental stage (1 to 2 hours post fertilization) of the zebrafish embryos.

Chang, Cheng-Chun; Zhang, Bailin; Li, Che-Yu; Hsieh, Chih-Chien; Duclos, Guillaume; Treussart, François; Chang, Huan-Cheng

2012-02-01

365

Effect of fructooligosaccharides and antibiotics on laying performance of chickens and cholesterol content of egg yolk.  

PubMed

1. Nine hundred and sixty 25-week-old Lohmann Brown layers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 216 layers in each group. Layers in group one were fed a control diet, group 2 received the control diet plus 20 mg/kg zinc bacitracin and 4 mg/kg colistinsulfate, and the remaining three groups received control diet plus 2000, or 4000, or 6000 mg/kg fructooligosaccharide (FOS). 2. The results showed improvements in egg production, feed consumption and feed conversion of layers when 2000 mg/kg FOS was added to the diets. 3. The results also showed some additional improvements in the group supplemented with 2000 mg/kg FOS, including increases in egg shell thickness, yolk colour and Haugh unit, and decreases in yolk cholesterol concentration. 4. However, larger (excessive) doses of FOS did not improve the performance of layers. PMID:17453810

Li, X; Liu, L; Li, K; Hao, K; Xu, C

2007-04-01

366

Influence of process parameters on SAC305 lead-free solder powder produced by centrifugal atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, a centrifugal atomizer was constructed in order to study the effects of operating parameters: rotating speed, melt feed rate, shape and size of atomizer, and oxygen content in the atomizer chamber, on the characters of SAC305 powder. It was evidenced from the experimental results that the median size of the atomized powders became smaller with increasing

Thawatchai Plookphol; Sirikul Wisutmethangoon; Sarawut Gonsrang

2011-01-01

367

Cloning and sequencing of the sacA gene: characterization of a sucrase from Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed Central

The Zymomonas mobilis gene (sacA) encoding a protein with sucrase activity has been cloned in Escherichia coli and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. Potential ribosome-binding site and promoter sequences were identified in the region upstream of the gene which were homologous to E. coli and Z. mobilis consensus sequences. Extracts from E. coli cells, containing the sacA gene, displayed a sucrose-hydrolyzing activity. However, no transfructosylation activity (exchange reaction or levan formation) could be detected. This sucrase activity was different from that observed with the purified extracellular protein B46 from Z. mobilis. These two proteins showed different electrophoretic mobilities and molecular masses and shared no immunological similarity. Thus, the product of sacA (a polypeptide of 58.4-kDa molecular mass) is a new sucrase from Z. mobilis. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of sacA, showed strong homologies with the sucrases from Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Vibrio alginolyticus.

Gunasekaran, P; Karunakaran, T; Cami, B; Mukundan, A G; Preziosi, L; Baratti, J

1990-01-01

368

Appendiceal pus in a hernia sac simulating strangulated femoral hernia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Acute appendicitis involving the hernia sac is infrequent but well-documented in medical literature. In most instances, it occurs within the right inguinal (Amyand’s hernia) or right femoral hernia (de Garengeot hernia). The diagnosis is always mistaken for incarcerated groin hernia. During surgery, the appendix itself, either perforated or strangulated, is most commonly encountered within the hernia sac. In very rare occasions, only appendiceal pus is found in the hernia sac. In this paper, we report the case of a 90-year-old woman with acute appendicitis and a tender mass in the right groin. Typical findings of acute appendicitis by computed tomography (CT) and incarcerated femoral hernia with groin cellulitis misled us into preoperative diagnosis of strangulated femoral hernia. Acute phlegmonous inflammation of the incarcerated femoral hernia sac containing pus only and acute suppurative appendicitis were found intraoperatively. This case presents a rare complication of acute appendicitis and the first report of CT-documented appendiceal pus-contained femoral hernia. Knowledge of this rare condition is helpful in establishing preoperative diagnosis and patient management decisions.

Hsiao, Tien-Fa; Chou, Yenn-Hwei

2011-01-01

369

Laparoscopy through the open ipsilateral sac to evaluate presence of contralateral hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Laparoscopic evaluation of the contralateral side (LECS) in children with unilateral inguinal hernia (UIH) has been criticized because of the abdominal trocar risk and costs. LECS was modified to avoid abdominal trocar insertion by using the open hernia sac for instrumentation (OHLECS). This study was performed to determine the utility, safety, and effectiveness of this technique. Methods: During a

Mark L. Wulkan; Eugene S. Wiener; Nancy VanBalen; Peter Vescio

1996-01-01

370

[Complementary nuclear DNA in embryo sac cells of Haemanthus albiflos and Ornithogalum caudatum].  

PubMed

Cytophotometric measurements of Feulgen-DNA were carried out in the nuclei of embryo sac cells of Haemanthus albiflos and Ornithogalum caudatum. It was found that the nuclei of the egg system, haploid in the number of chromosomes, became polyploid in DNA amount at the final stages of gametophyte development. PMID:11963552

Morozova, E M

2002-01-01

371

Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

2002-01-01

372

Comparison of marine algae (Spirulina platensis) and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary marine algae (Spirulina platensis) on egg yolk colour, and compare the effectiveness of Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens fed on a wheat-based diet. In total, 160 Hy-line W36 laying hens of 63 weeks of age were studied by dividing them into 5 groups, 32 birds in each. Except for the control group (based on wheat and soyabean meal), the feed for three other groups contained 1·5, 2·0 and 2·5% of Spirulina; while one group contained synthetic pigments (BASF Lucantin® yellow: 30?mg/kg, and BASF Lucantin® red: 35?mg/kg). Egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight and egg yolk colour were determined. A significant increase in egg yolk colour was observed in the treatments that received the Spirulina and synthetic pigment, compared with the control diet. There were no significant differences between the treatments with 2·5% Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour. Finally, the results indicated that the diet containing 2·5% Spirulina could be as effective as the diet with synthetic pigment in producing an agreeable egg yolk colour. PMID:22029786

Zahroojian, N; Moravej, H; Shivazad, M

2011-10-01

373

Comparing ethylene glycol with glycerol for cryopreservation of buffalo bull semen in egg-yolk containing extenders.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol for ethylene glycol when cryopreserving buffalo semen. Semen of eight buffalo bulls was mixed, pooled, and frozen in one of these four diluents: centrifuged Tris egg yolk glycerol; centrifuged Tris egg yolk ethylene glycol; centrifuged Milk egg yolk glycerol; or centrifuged Milk egg yolk ethylene glycol. Semen quality parameters assessed after thawing were motility, survivability, livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Conception rate and pregnancy rate were calculated after insemination of 104 buffaloes by straws of different groups (26 female/extender). Improvement in livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity, conception rate, and pregnancy rate were seen when using ethylene glycol to replace glycerol when freezing buffalo bull semen in centrifuged TRIS egg yolk 61.15 ± 0.73, 24.85 ± 0.41, 69.10 ± 0.81, 71.75 ± 0.72, 46.2%, and 46.2%, respectively, followed by centrifuged milk egg yolk extenders. PMID:21664674

Swelum, A A; Mansour, H A; Elsayed, A A; Amer, H A

2011-09-15

374

Stable isotopes link diet to avian yolk carotenoid allocation: a comparative study of five auk species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).  

PubMed

The allocation of important but environmentally limited nutrients, such as carotenoids, often represents a trade-off between homeostasis and reproduction. However, key questions remain about how diet and species traits influence carotenoid allocation. We studied yolk carotenoid profiles and yolk color in relation to trophic level (based on delta(15)N values) in five species of seabirds belonging to the family Alcidae: common murre (Uria aalge), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata). In three species, which ranged from low (tufted puffin) to high (pigeon guillemot) trophic level, yolks had pink to red hues and contained exclusively astaxanthin, while yolks of species from a high trophic level (common murre) and from a generalist forager (rhinoceros auklet) had yellow to orange hues and contained astaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The absence of a systematic relationship between trophic level and carotenoid types suggests that these species possess adaptations for the uptake and use of specific carotenoids. In contrast, total yolk carotenoid concentrations were best explained by the combination of species and trophic level: lower-trophic-level feeding was linked to production of carotenoid-rich yolks, both across species and within the one generalist species. We conclude that both behavioral and physiological traits can play strong roles in the acquisition and allocation of critical nutrients from mothers to their offspring. PMID:20210648

Hipfner, J Mark; Hobson, Keith A; Dale, James; McGraw, Kevin J

2010-01-01

375

For uptake of yolk precursors, epithelial cell-oocyte gap junctional communication is required by insects representing six different orders.  

PubMed

For uptake of vitellogenin protein into nascent yolk spheres, communication through open gap junction channels between the follicle epithelium and oocyte is required by six different insects representing six different orders. It was recently shown in the hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus, that endocytic uptake of yolk protein resulting in the formation of nascent yolk spheres depended upon an intact epithelium communicating with the oocyte through patent gap junctions. Following treatment with octanol, which down-regulated gap junctions below the level of dye coupling, vitellogenin uptake was terminated. Yet, for another hemipteran, Dysdercus intermedius, it has been shown that yolk spheres can form even when all epithelial cells have been stripped from the oocyte. To determine if the mechanism seen in Oncopeltus is present in other insects, we utilized the same techniques to study nascent yolk sphere production in a dipteran, Drosophila melanogaster, a lepidopteran, Actias luna, a hymenopteran, Xylocopa virginica, a coleopteran, Tenebrio molitor and an orthopteran, Acheta domesticus. In each of these, when gap junctions were down-regulated yolk uptake quickly stopped. That six different insects from six different orders all required a gap junctionally transmitted chemical signal of epithelial cell origin suggests that this mechanism is widespread throughout the insects. PMID:12770077

Waksmonski, Stacy L.; Woodruff, Richard I.

2002-06-01

376

Yolk and copper utilisation during embryogenesis of the freshwater prawn Caridina nilotica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yolk and copper utilisation during embryogenesis of the fresh-water prawnCaridina nilotica var.bengalensis (De Man) have been described. The egg number\\/brood increased with increase in length as well as volume (L\\u000a 8) of the mother animal. The water content increased from 61·3% (I stage) to 76·4% (III stage) as development proceeded. Fat\\u000a appeared to be the major source of energy for

R Ponnuchamy; S Ayyappan; S Ravichandra Reddy; Katre Shakuntala

1979-01-01

377

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COMMON YOLK PROTEIN, VITELLIN, FROM THE ESTUARINE AMPHIPOD LEPTOCHEIRUS PLUMULOSUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellin is a major yolk protein that plays a significant role in the embryonic development of crustacean embryos. This protein was rapidly purified from embryos of the estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, by subjecting the crude protein homogenate to high affinity column chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed a single band with an approximate molecular weight of 200,000 daltons. Vitellin was characterized by SDS-PAGE

David C. Volz; Tomohiro Kawaguchi; G. Thomas Chandler

2002-01-01

378

Validation of egg yolk antibody based C-ELISA for avian influenza surveillance in breeder duck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) has expanded from chicken to various poultry species including duck. To further effective antibody screening in laying breeder ducks, we validated the egg yolk antibody as alternative source to serum for AIV antibody. Sera and eggs were collected at weekly intervals after two types of AIV vaccination, H5N3 and H9N2. The antibody levels

Ok-Mi Jeong; Min-Chul Kim; Hyun-Mi Kang; Gun-Woo Ha; Jin-Sik Oh; Jung-Eun Yoo; Chan-Hee Park; Ji-Sun Kwon; Mi-Ra Pack; Hye-Ryoung Kim; Yong-Joo Kim; Jun-Hun Kwon; Youn-Jeong Lee

2010-01-01

379

Environmental sex determination in a reptile varies seasonally and with yolk hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hypotheses that have been put forward in order to explain the persistence of environmental sex determination (ESD) in reptiles assume a relatively ¢xed association of sex with temperature-induced phenotype and no maternal in£uence on o¡spring sex. Here we demonstrate the association of maternally derived yolk hormone levels with the o¡spring sex ratio and describe two new aspects of temperature-

R. M. Bowden; M. A. Ewert; C. E. Nelson

2000-01-01

380

Dietary Marine Algae Maintains Egg Consumer Acceptability While Enhancing Yolk Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drum-dried docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) enriched marine microalgal product (MA) was investigated as a n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) source in laying hen diets. Hen diets were supplemented with 2.4 or 4.8% MA. Eggs were analyzed for yolk color following 4 wk of feeding as well as weekly for 4 wk. Egg flavor was evaluated by consumer panelists. Feeding

S. M. HERBER-MCNEILL; M. E. VAN

381

Effects of dietary red pepper on egg yolk colour and histological intestinal morphology in laying hens.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effect of three kinds of red pepper supplementation 'Kagawa Hontaka' produced at Shiwaku Islands (KHS), Miki (KHM) and Takanotsume (TKT) on production performance, egg quality and intestinal histology in laying hens. A total of 32 laying hens (39?weeks of age) were randomly allotted to four groups, each comprising eight hens. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with red pepper at 0% (control), 0.5% KHS, 0.5% KHM and 0.5% TKT, respectively. Compared with the control group, no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in feed consumption, final body weight, hen-day production, egg mass, feed efficiency, shell-breaking strength, shell thickness, shell ratio, albumen ratio, yolk ratio and Haugh units was observed among the experimental groups. Roche yolk colour fan (RYCF) value increased significantly in all experimental groups (p?yolk colour, redness (a*) and yellow index (YI) values were higher in the KHS and KHM groups (p?yolk colour. PMID:23033816

Lokaewmanee, K; Yamauchi, K; Okuda, N

2012-10-01

382

Effect of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on egg-yolk cholesterol and laying hen performance.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on the laying hen. A total of forty 23-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (10 laying hens/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04% R. capsulatus during the 60-d feeding period. Dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus (0.04%) reduced (P < 0.05) cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum (15 and 11%), as well as in egg-yolk (13 and 16%) over a 60-d feeding period. Cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum as well as egg-yolk were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary R. capsulatus. Supplementation of R. capsulatus in diets increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index in serum. Yolk color was improved (P < 0.05) in the group fed the 0.04% R. capsulatus supplemented diet compared with the control group. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.04% R. capsulatus. Moreover, the supplementation of R. capsulatus in layer diets did not appear to cause any adverse effects on egg production, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh unit, yolk index, and feed conversion efficiency compared with the same parameters for the control laying hens. It is postulated that known and unknown factors are present in R. capsulatus presumably responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect on laying hens. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:17369543

Salma, U; Miah, A G; Tareq, K M A; Maki, T; Tsujii, H

2007-04-01

383

Changes in the colour and the acidity number of egg yolk upon irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs from laying hens were irradiated using radioactive Co-60 at a dose of 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, and 5 kGy, with a dose input of 3.21 kGy h?1. Parameters describing the colour of egg yolk such as L*, a*, and b*, were determined spectrophotometrically using the CIELAB system with the help of the portable spectrophotometer Superchroma S-Spex without gloss. The levels of all three parameters

Petr Dvo?ák; Jana Kunová; Eva Straková; Pavel Suchý; Veronika Kunová

2005-01-01

384

Relationship between vitellogenin and its related egg yolk proteins in Sakhalin taimen ( Hucho perryi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellogenin (Vg) and its three egg yolk protein products, lipovitellin (Lv), phosvitin (Pv) and ??-component, were isolated from mature female Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi). Vg had an apparent molecular weight of 540 kDa and appeared as a major 240 kDa band in SDS-PAGE, which resolved into two major bands (165 and 125 kDa) after reduction. The estimated molecular weights of

Naoshi Hiramatsu; Akihiko Hara

1996-01-01

385

Dietary selenium increases vitamin E contents of egg yolk and chicken meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The influence of different forms of dietary selenium (Se) on vitamin E (?-tocopherol) and Se contents of egg yolk and chicken meat was investigated.2.?Eggs were collected from laying hens subjected to 4 different dietary treatments after 24 weeks of age. Treatments compared the effects of inorganic Se supplementation (selenite) to those of organic (Se-enriched yeast, Se-enriched alga Chlorella) supplements. In

M. Sk?ivan; M. Marounek; G. Dlouhá; S. Šev?Íková

2008-01-01

386

Selective excretion of yolk-derived tocotrienols into the bile of the chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of biodiscrimination between different forms of vitamin E during the development of the chick embryo. The vitamin E present in the initial yolk consisted of ?-tocopherol (90%), (?+?)-tocopherol (8%), ?-tocotrienol (0.3%) and (?+?)-tocotrienol (1.3%). In marked contrast, the vitamin E recovered from the bile of the day-16 embryo contained much

Peter F Surai; Brian K Speake

1998-01-01

387

Dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during development in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many oviparous reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); i.e., the temperature at which the egg is incubated determines the sex of the offspring. In TSD reptiles, yolk steroids not only may influence sex determination, but also may mediate hormonal effects on subsequent growth and behavior, as in some avian species. We investigated changes in the levels of estradiol (E2) and

P. K Elf; J. W Lang; A. J Fivizzani

2002-01-01

388

Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism  

PubMed Central

Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies.

Miyares, Rosa L.; de Rezende, Vitor B.; Farber, Steven A.

2014-01-01

389

Platinum-centered yolk-shell nanostructure formation by sacrificial nickel spacers.  

PubMed

We have synthesized Pt@silica/nickel phyllosilicate and Pt@silica yolk-shell nanostructures from NiPt@silica core-shell particles by simple chemical treatments. Silica coating of the NiPt alloy nanoparticles via the microemulsion method yielded spherical NiPt@silica core-shell nanoparticles with an average core diameter of 6.5 nm. Under a reflux condition in water, the core-shell structure transformed into Pt@silica yolk-shell nanoparticles with branched nickel phyllosilicate, which exhibited high surface area and large pore volume. The addition of hydrochloric acid selectively etched the nickel component from the NiPt cores and yielded Pt@silica yolk-shell nanoparticles with single-crystalline platinum cores. The average diameter of the metal cores was reduced to 4.5 nm. In both cases, the nickel components behaved as sacrificial spacers and successfully formed a vacancy between the metal cores and the silica hollow shells. PMID:20481526

Park, Ji Chan; Kim, Jae Young; Heo, Eunjung; Park, Kang Hyun; Song, Hyunjoon

2010-11-01

390

Residual yolk energetics and postnatal shell growth in Smooth Softshell Turtles, Apalone mutica.  

PubMed

We examined functions of residual yolk (RY) in hatchling Smooth Softshell Turtles (Apalone mutica). Removal of RY did not affect survival, shell growth, or resting metabolic rates of turtles for 40 d after hatching. Our estimates of metabolic rate suggest that RY can fuel maintenance and activity metabolism for approximately 25 days. A. mutica absorb more than 1g of water in the first 2 weeks of life, which appears to be the basis of post-hatch shell expansion rather than yolk-provisioned growth. Post-hatch growth may be limited by the magnitude of RY remaining at hatching, but RY protein and lipid proportions do not differ from those of freshly-laid eggs. In addition, A. mutica did not use RY to fuel nest emergence. Our results suggest that RY does not fulfill several hypothetical functions in A. mutica, including postnatal growth, catabolic fuel for nest emergence, and long-term nutritional sustenance for maintenance, activity, or hibernation. Instead, A. mutica appear to absorb most yolk prior to hatching, and are left with a minimum of RY. Variation in RY mass with incubation regime in other species suggests that mothers may overprovision their eggs to ensure successful development across a diversity of possible incubation conditions. PMID:20826221

Van Dyke, James U; Plummer, Michael V; Beaupre, Steven J

2011-01-01

391

Endocrine Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... tumor (includes information on adenomas and adrenocortical carcinoma) Carcinoid tumors (includes information on both lung and gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors) Islet cell tumor (includes information on gastrinoma, ...

392

In VitroCulture of TrichogrammaSpp. on Artificial Diets Containing Yeast Extract and Ultracentrifuged Chicken Egg Yolk but Devoid of Insect Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichogramma minutumRiley andTrichogramma brassicaeBezdenko (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were culturedin vitrofrom eggs to adults on artificial diets, which contained no insect components. The diets contained ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk, milk, Grace's insect medium, and yeast extract. The most important components were the yeast extract and ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk. Addition of the sediment of ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk to a diet containing

Zhong-Neng Xie; Zhi-Xin Wu; William C. Nettles; Guadalupe Saldaña; Donald A. Nordlund

1997-01-01

393

Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at twelve weeks of age on egg yolk composition in commercial egg laying hens.  

PubMed

In two trials, the effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) on the contents of egg yolks from commercial Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were investigated over a production cycle. Ten hens were assigned to each of 8 (trial 1) or 16 (trial 2) negative pressure fiberglass biological isolation units. Birds in half of the total units served as sham-inoculated controls, and those in the other half were inoculated with FMG at 12 wk of age. Eggs were collected and yolks were harvested at various times during the prepeak, peak, and postpeak periods of both trials for constituent analysis. Yolk constituents analyzed in these trials included moisture, total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and fatty acids. In both trials, total yolk lipid at 22 wk of age was significantly decreased in birds inoculated with FMG. In trial 1, yolk cholesterol at 28 wk was significantly decreased in FMG-inoculated birds. Yolk linoleic acid in trial 1 and yolk stearic and arachidonic acids in trial 2 were significantly increased in FMG-inoculated birds compared to FMG-free birds. In trial 2, yolk myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid percentages were significantly decreased in FMG-inoculated birds compared to FMG-free birds. These data suggest that alterations in egg production in commercial layers in response to an FMG infection at 12 wk of age are associated with changes in yolk composition. PMID:12710476

Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Maurice, D V; Gerard, P D

2003-04-01

394

Localization of Bacillus subtilis sacU(Hy) mutations to two linked genes with similarities to the conserved procaryotic family of two-component signalling systems.  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the sacU region have a pleiotropic phenotype. Certain mutations designated sacU(Hy), for example, express degradative enzymes at high levels, are able to sporulate in the presence of glucose, have severely reduced transformation efficiencies, and are nonmotile. We isolated and sequenced the sacU gene region of Bacillus subtilis. Two open reading frames were found in the sacU region, and sacU(Hy) mutations were localized to both of these open reading frames. The two open reading frames have similarities to two widespread families of proteins that mediate responses to environmental stimuli.

Henner, D J; Yang, M; Ferrari, E

1988-01-01

395

Yolk protein immunoassays (YP-ELISA) to assess diet and reproductive quality of mass-reared Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae).  

PubMed

A yolk protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (YP-ELISA) was developed for the predator Orius insidiosus (Say). The YP-ELISA is intended to assess reproductive response to dietary and other rearing conditions, and to assist in quality control and diet development for mass rearing. Hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies were produced against homogenates of eggs dissected from females. Hybridomas were selected for secretion of IgG that reacted with extracts of both females and their eggs, and that did not react with male extracts. Each cloned hybridoma produced a monoclonal antibody that specifically reacted on western blots against one of the two major yolk polypeptides, apoVn-I (180,000 molecular weight) or apoVn-II (40,000). Yolk protein ELISAs were developed with these antibodies to assess yolk protein content of female O. insidiosus as a measure of reproductive fitness and as a potential predictor of fecundity. Protocols for an indirect antigen ELISA and double antibody sandwich ELISA were developed to assess yolk protein contents of eggs and total contents in whole body homogenates. ELISA standards consisted of homogenates of eggs collected 0-24 h following oviposition. As determined with the sandwich ELISA, yolk protein contents of eggs declined with age before hatch, with a half-life of 32-34 h. Results were similar whether the detecting antibody-enzyme conjugate was anti-apoVn-I or anti-apoVn-II. Optimal conditions and sampling parameters were developed for the sandwich ELISA, which demonstrated minimal nonspecific interference in whole-insect extracts. In an initial application of the YP-ELISA, oviposition rates over a 10-d period were compared with yolk protein contents at the end of that period, dependent on diets of differing nutritional composition and quality. High and low yolk protein contents correlated with oviposition rates on respective diets, though oviposition showed more graded response to diets than did yolk protein. Improvements in sampling methods are discussed. PMID:12403418

Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Ferkovich, Stephen M

2002-10-01

396

Anastomosis of nasal mucosal and lacrimal sac flaps in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy.  

PubMed

Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a well-established alternative to external approaches in the treatment of nasolacrimal canal obstruction. From July 2004 to December 2008, 92 endoscopic DCRs were performed on 88 patients at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan. All patients were affected by chronic dacryocystitis with epiphora. Preoperative work-up included Jones tests, lacrimal pathways irrigation, nasal endoscopy, and imaging evaluation by computed tomography. The technique involved anastomosis of nasal mucosal, lacrimal sac flaps and a large bony ostium. A silicone tube was inserted in all patients that remained for a period of 3 months. The first endoscopic intervention was successful in 91.30% of patients. After a second revision endoscopic DCR, the overall success rate raised to 95.65%. Anastomosis of nasal mucosal between lacrimal sac flaps plays a key role in endoscopic DCR with a high success rate both in primary nasolacrimal obstructions and in revision cases. PMID:19499237

Trimarchi, Matteo; Giordano Resti, A; Bellini, C; Forti, M; Bussi, M

2009-11-01

397

A unique case of diffuse histiocytic proliferations mimicking metastatic clear cell carcinoma in the hydrocele sac.  

PubMed

Reactive histiocytic proliferations are extremely rare in paratesticular structures. Nodular histiocytic proliferations have been described in mesothelial-lined locations and only at few nonmesothelial sites. Diffuse histiocytic proliferations are described only in the pelvic peritoneum. We report the first case of diffuse histiocytic proliferation in the hydrocele sac of a 45-year-old man. Predominant histiocytes showed clear cytoplasm and signet ring-like change. Mucicarmin stain did not demonstrate mucin in the cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining showed nonspecific staining of these cells with carcinoembryonic antigen and negative staining with epithelial membrane antigen, pan-Cytokeratin, calretinin, cytokeratin 7, 20 and prostate-specific antigen. Strong diffuse cytoplasmic positivity for CD68 defined the mononuclear phagocyte nature of these cells. Diffuse histiocytic proliferations can occur in the hydrocele sac. Histochemical and IHC stainings are critical for accurate diagnosis and to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:24696560

Chandanwale, Shirish S; Vimal, Shruti S; Rajpal, Mohit; Mishra, Neha

2014-01-01

398

Surgical Experience of Persistent Type 2 Endoleaks with Aneurysmal Sac Enlargement after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair  

PubMed Central

Herein, we present a case of a successful treatment of persistent type 2 endoleaks associated with aneurysmal sac enlargement after endovascular aneurysm repair in an elderly patient. We confirmed the diagnosis by abdominal computed tomography and selective angiography revealing an 11.0-cm aneurysm sac with type 2 endoleaks. An attempt for the endovascular embolization of collateral arteries was unsuccessful due to anatomic variations and their multiple complex communications. Instead, transperitoneal sacotomy and direct suturing on the feeding target vessels was successfully performed without any endograft damage. In conclusion, sacotomy appears to be a feasible therapeutic substitute where endovascular or other techniques have a high risk of failure and lead to unsuccessful results.

Bang, Seung Ho; Park, Jae Bum; Kim, Jun Seok; Jang, Il Soo

2014-01-01

399

[Our experience with the complex treatment of phlegmon of the lacrimal sac].  

PubMed

Eighty-nine patients with lacrimal sac phlegmons, 76 women and 13 men, aged 16 to 78, were administered multiple-modality treatment, consisting in Group 1 (43 patients) of traditional methods, such as UHF therapy, antibiotics, sulfonamides, symptomatic therapy, dacryocystorhinostomy after complete cessation of inflammation, and in group 2 (46 patients) including sessions of intermittent magnetic field (IMF) exposure, antibiotics, and early dacryocystorhinostomy. Sparing technique was used in all operations, carried out under local anesthesia with 2% procaine or trimecaine. IMF exposure was found to be an effective therapeutic means characterized by antiinflammatory, resolving, and analgesic effects. IMF sessions and early dacryocystorhinostomy enhance cessation of inflammation and improve the treatment efficacy: remote results of surgery were excellent in 80% of Group 1 patients and in 90.9% of Group 2 patients; As a results of IMF exposure, the terms of medical and social rehabilitation of patients with the lacrimal sac phlegmons were reduced twofold. PMID:1481321

Sultanov, M Iu; Iskenderov, G F; Tagi-zade, N S; Seidbekov, O S

1992-01-01

400

Sac3, an Snf1-like serine/threonine kinase that positively and negatively regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation.  

PubMed Central

The Sac3 gene product of Chlamydomonas positively and negatively regulates the responses of the cell to sulfur limitation. In wild-type cells, arylsulfatase activity is detected only during sulfur limitation. The sac3 mutant expresses arylsulfatase activity even when grown in nutrient-replete medium, which suggests that the Sac3 protein has a negative effect on the induction of arylsulfatase activity. In contrast to its effect on arylsulfatase activity, Sac3 positively regulates the high-affinity sulfate transport system-the sac3 mutant is unable to fully induce high-affinity sulfate transport during sulfur limitation. We have complemented the sac3 mutant and cloned a cDNA copy of the Sac3 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Sac3 gene product is similar to the catalytic domain of the yeast Snf1 family of serine/threonine kinases and is therefore classified as a Snf1-related kinase (SnRK). Specifically, Sac3 falls within the SnRK2 subfamily of kinases from vascular plants. In addition to the 11 subdomains common to Snf1-like serine/threonine kinases, Sac3 and the plant kinases have two additional subdomains and a highly acidic C-terminal region. The role of Sac3 in the signal transduction system that regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation is discussed.

Davies, J P; Yildiz, F H; Grossman, A R

1999-01-01

401

Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of yolk-shell microspheres with magnetic iron oxide cores and hierarchical copper silicate shells.  

PubMed

Yolk-shell microspheres with magnetic Fe3O4 cores and hierarchical copper silicate shells have been successfully synthesized by combining the versatile sol-gel process and hydrothermal reaction. Various yolk-shell microspheres with different core size and shell thickness can be readily synthesized by varying the experimental conditions. Compared to pure Fe3O4, the as-synthesized yolk-shell microspheres exhibit significantly enhanced microwave absorption properties in terms of both the maximum reflection loss value and the absorption bandwidth. The maximum reflection loss value of these yolk-shell microspheres can reach -23.5 dB at 7 GHz with a thickness of 2 mm, and the absorption bandwidths with reflection loss lower than -10 dB are up to 10.4 GHz. Owing to the large specific surface area, high porosity, and synergistic effect of both the magnetic Fe3O4 cores and hierarchical copper silicate shells, these unique yolk-shell microspheres may have the potential as high-efficient absorbers for microwave absorption applications. PMID:23474005

Liu, Jiwei; Cheng, Jin; Che, Renchao; Xu, Junjie; Liu, Mengmei; Liu, Zhengwang

2013-04-10

402

Hierarchical Fe3O4@TiO2 yolk-shell microspheres with enhanced microwave-absorption properties.  

PubMed

A facile and efficient strategy for the synthesis of hierarchical yolk-shell microspheres with magnetic Fe3O4 cores and dielectric TiO2 shells has been developed. Various Fe3O4@TiO2 yolk-shell microspheres with different core sizes, interstitial void volumes, and shell thicknesses have been successfully synthesized by controlling the synthetic parameters. Moreover, the microwave absorption properties of these yolk-shell microspheres, such as the complex permittivity and permeability, were investigated. The electromagnetic data demonstrate that the as-synthesized Fe3O4@TiO2 yolk-shell microspheres exhibit significantly enhanced microwave absorption properties compared with pure Fe3O4 and our previously reported Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shell microspheres, which may result from the unique yolk-shell structure with a large surface area and high porosity, as well as synergistic effects between the functional Fe3O4 cores and TiO2 shells. PMID:23519995

Liu, Jiwei; Xu, Junjie; Che, Renchao; Chen, Huajun; Liu, Mengmei; Liu, Zhengwang

2013-05-17

403

Liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can efficiently replace chicken egg yolk in human semen cryopreservation medium.  

PubMed

Abstract Cryopreservation of spermatozoa plays a significant role in reproductive medicine and fertility preservation. Chicken egg yolk is used as an extender in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa using glycerol egg yolk citrate (GEYC) buffered medium. Even though 50% survival of spermatozoa is generally achieved with this method, the risk of high levels of endotoxins and transmission pathogens from chicken egg yolk is a matter of concern. In the present study we attempted to establish a chemically defined cryopreservation medium which can replace the chicken egg yolk without affecting sperm survival. Ejaculates from 28 men were cryopreserved with GEYC based freezing medium or liposome encapsulated soy lecithin-cholesterol based freezing medium (LFM). The semen samples were subjected to rapid thawing after 14 days of storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analysis indicated significantly higher post-thaw motility and sperm survival in spermatozoa cryopreserved with LFM compared to conventional GEYC freezing medium. The soy lecithin and cholesterol at the ratio of 80:20 with sucrose showed the highest percentage of post-thaw motility and survival compared to the other compositions. In conclusion, chemically defined cryopreservation medium with liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can effectively replace the chicken egg yolk from human semen cryopreservation medium without compromising post-thaw outcome. PMID:24654557

Mutalik, Srinivas; Salian, Sujith Raj; Avadhani, Kiran; Menon, Jyothsna; Joshi, Haritima; Hegde, Aswathi Raju; Kumar, Pratap; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

2014-06-01

404

Influence of pasteurization, spray- and freeze-drying, and storage on the carotenoid content in egg yolk.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry [LC-(APCI)MS] method was developed to identify and quantify the carotenoids present in fresh, pasteurized, and freeze- and spray-dried egg yolk in two independent batches. The egg yolk powders in each batch were stored in the dark for 6 months at -18 or 20 degrees C. Carotenoids were isolated by solvent extraction without saponification and analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column coupled to a photodiode array and mass detector. The most abundant carotenoids were all-E-canthaxanthin, all-E-lutein, all-E-zeaxanthin, 9-Z-canthaxanthin, and beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester. Pasteurization of the egg yolk caused no critical changes in the carotenoid content. On the contrary, drying to a dry matter of 98-99% led to higher carotenoid contents, induced by a denaturation of binding proteins, and a destabilization of the cell matrix. After the 6 months of storage, the contents of all main carotenoids in the egg yolk powder were significantly lower. The synthetic carotenoids canthaxanthin and beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester showed a higher retention rate, and the greatest losses occurred within the first 8 weeks. Statistical tests (ANOVA, P < 0.05) also proved that after 26 weeks, the egg yolk powders stored at -18 degrees C showed only a slightly higher retention of carotenoids when compared to the powders stored at 20 degrees C. PMID:20070090

Wenzel, Michael; Seuss-Baum, Ingrid; Schlich, Elmar

2010-02-10

405

Macrofauna community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds SAC, NE Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, growing concerns have been raised regarding the effects of towed fishing gears, such as trawls and dredges, on deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Trawling disturbs the benthic communities both physically and biologically, and can eliminate the most vulnerable organisms and modify habitat structure; chronically disturbed communities are often dominated by opportunistic species. The European Union is under obligation to designate a network of offshore Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by the end of 2012 based on the perceived expectation that these networks will help protect marine biodiversity and that within these areas, faunal abundance and diversity will be higher than the surrounding fished areas. The Darwin Mounds, only discovered in 1998, are located in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1000 m. Deep-water trawling regularly took place in the region of the Darwin Mounds; however in 2004 the mounds were designated as the first offshore SAC in UK and the area is now closed to bottom trawling. As part of the HERMIONE programme the influence of human impact on the Oceans was one of the key themes and in June 2011, an investigation of the macrofaunal community structure at comparable sites both inside and outside of the Darwin Mound SAC was undertaken. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. This could indicate that a few years of preservation are not enough time to determine a recovery by the macrofaunal community of cold-water ecosystems and that a continued monitoring over a longer term is necessary to fully understand the impact of fishery closures.

Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

2012-11-01

406

KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity Database for retrieving the relationships between metabolites and biological activities.  

PubMed

Databases (DBs) are required by various omics fields because the volume of molecular biology data is increasing rapidly. In this study, we provide instructions for users and describe the current status of our metabolite activity DB. To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between the metabolites of organisms and the chemical-level contribution of metabolites to human health, we constructed a metabolite activity DB known as the KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB. It comprises 9,584 triplet relationships (metabolite-biological activity-target species), including 2,356 metabolites, 140 activity categories, 2,963 specific descriptions of biological activities and 778 target species. Approximately 46% of the activities described in the DB are related to chemical ecology, most of which are attributed to antimicrobial agents and plant growth regulators. The majority of the metabolites with antimicrobial activities are flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. The metabolites with plant growth regulatory effects include plant hormones. Over half of the DB contents are related to human health care and medicine. The five largest groups are toxins, anticancer agents, nervous system agents, cardiovascular agents and non-therapeutic agents, such as flavors and fragrances. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB is integrated within the KNApSAcK Family DBs to facilitate further systematized research in various omics fields, especially metabolomics, nutrigenomics and foodomics. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB could also be utilized for developing novel drugs and materials, as well as for identifying viable drug resources and other useful compounds. PMID:24285751

Nakamura, Yukiko; Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Parvin, Aziza Kawsar; Ono, Naoaki; Tanaka, Ken; Hirai Morita, Aki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

2014-01-01

407

First trimester three-dimensional ultrasound volumetry of the gestational sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  First trimester amniotic fluid is an ultrafiltrate of maternal plasma and constitutes the major component of gestational sac\\u000a volume (GSV). We hypothesized that GSV, assessed by 3-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound volumetry, would reflect function of the\\u000a early uteroplacental unit and therefore provide a basis for predicting pregnancy outcome. We tested this hypothesis in 38\\u000a pregnancies which had first trimester GSV measurements

H. Steinen; A. R. Gregg; G. Bogner; A. H. Graf; C. P. Weiner; A. Staudach

1994-01-01

408

Effect of cyclic fatigue damage accumulation on the elastic-plastic properties of SAC305 solders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of cyclic damage on the constitutive response of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder material. Cyclic damage is induced through isothermal, mechanical cycling tests at high strain rate and room temperature, using a modified lap-shear microscale specimen (180 mum wide solder joint). The elastic, plastic, and yield response of the cycled solder joints are measured as a function

Gayatri Cuddalorepatta; Abhijit Dasgupta

2009-01-01

409

Recurrent lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis involving the periocular subcutaneous tissues, nasolacrimal duct and nasopharynx.  

PubMed

Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic infection caused by the organism Rhinosporidium seeberi. It is endemic in parts of southern India and Sri Lanka, but rarely seen outside these areas. The infection predominantly affects the nasal mucosa; however, it can also affect the ocular surface and adnexa. We present a case of rhinosporidiosis initially involving the lacrimal sac, with recurrence in the periocular subcutaneous tissues, nasolacrimal duct and nasopharynx. PMID:23030407

Rogers, Simon; Waring, Dale; Martin, Peter

2012-10-01

410

Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles From Champ and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CHAMP and SAC-C missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation 'Blackjack' GPS receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS/MET 1995 experiment. Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by JPL from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) shout forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We will show statistics of the differences as well as Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the differences. Depending upon availability of AIRS data, we plan to show individual profile comparisons between GPS radio occultation and AIRS retrievals.

Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond M.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

411

Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

2002-01-01

412

Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CHAMP and SAC-C missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation 'Blackjack' GPS receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS/MET 1995 experiment. Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by JPL from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We will show statistics of the differences as well as Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the differences. Depending upon availability of AIRS data, we plan to show individual profile comparisons between GPS radio occultation and AIRS retrievals.

Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond M.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

413

Pathological, immunohistochemical and microbiologicalal analysis of lacrimal sac biopsies in patients with chronic dacrocystitis  

PubMed Central

AIM To analyze cases of obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct which creates a fertile environment for secondary bacterial infection and can result in dacryocystitis, which is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue and a potential source of endophthalmitis following intraocular surgery. The majority of obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system are acquired ones occurring in adulthood and involving the distal parts of the system. Acquired obstruction may be primary/idiopathic or secondary to a wide variety of infectious, inflammatory, traumatic, mechanical, toxic or neoplastic causes mimicking idiopathic inflammation. These cases are treated by dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS The